Science.gov

Sample records for mare nel tardo

  1. NASA Electronic Library System (NELS) optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pribyl, William L.

    1993-01-01

    This is a compilation of NELS (NASA Electronic Library System) Optimization progress/problem, interim, and final reports for all phases. The NELS database was examined, particularly in the memory, disk contention, and CPU, to discover bottlenecks. Methods to increase the speed of NELS code were investigated. The tasks included restructuring the existing code to interact with others more effectively. An error reporting code to help detect and remove bugs in the NELS was added. Report writing tools were recommended to integrate with the ASV3 system. The Oracle database management system and tools were to be installed on a Sun workstation, intended for demonstration purposes.

  2. MC-22 Mare Tyrrhenum Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-22 quadrangle, Mare Tyrrhenum region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle. The central part is marked by a large shield volcano, Tyrrhena Patera, and associated ridged plains of Hesperia Planum that probably are made up of basaltic lava flows. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -135 to -90 degrees.

  3. Dear Nel: Opening the Circles of Care (Letters to Nel Noddings)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This collection is a moving tribute to Nel Noddings, a fascinating and influential scholar who has contributed greatly to numerous fields, including education, feminism, ethics, and the study of social justice and equity. "Dear Nel: Opening the Circles of Care" presents contributions from renowned teachers, educators, and activists, such as David…

  4. Mare Chromium Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This crater, located in Mare Chromium, shows evidence of exterior modification, with little interior modification. While the rim is still visible, the ejecta blanket has been removed or covered. There is some material at the bottom of the crater, but the interior retains the bowl shape from the initial formation of the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.4, Longitude 174.4 East (185.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. MARE: Mars Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Lellis, A. M.; Capria, M. T.; Espinasse, S.; Magni, G.; Orosei, R.; Piccioni, G.; Federico, C.; Minelli, G.; Pauselli, C.; Scarpa, G.

    1999-09-01

    MARE is an experiment for the measurement of the beta and gamma radioactivity in space and in the Martian soil, both at the surface and in the subsurface. This will be accomplished by means of a dosimeter and a spectrometer. The radiation dose rate to which crews will be exposed is one of the hazards that has to be quantified before the human exploration of Mars may begin. Data for evaluating radioactivity levels at Martian surface are of great interest for environmental studies related to life in general. The dosimeter will be able to measure the beta and gamma radiation dose received, with a responsivity which is very close to that of a living organism. The dosimeter is based on thermo-luminescence pills which emit an optical signal proportional to the absorbed dose when heated. Radioactive elements ((40) K, (235) U, (238) U and (232) Th) can be used as a mean of tracing the evolution of a terrestrial planet. These radioactive elements are the source of the internal heat, which drives convection in the mantle. They have been redistributed in this process and they are now concentrated in the crust where they are accessible for study. Their different behavior during the fractionation process can be used as a mean to investigate the geochemical characteristic of Mars. The spectrometer, a scintillation radiation absorber system for single event counting, is capable of detecting gamma photons with energies between 200 KeV and 10 MeV. The detected events will be processed in such a way to allow the recognition of the spectral signature of different decay processes, and thus the identification and the measurement of the concentrations of different radionuclides in the Martian soil.

  6. Mummified fetus in a mare.

    PubMed

    Barber, J A; Troedsson, M H

    1996-05-01

    A 12-year-old Arabian mare with a history of repeated early embryonic losses gave birth to a mummified fetus. The fetus was not the result of a pregnancy with twins. The mare had been given a progestogen throughout gestation and expelled the mummified fetus at about 325 days of gestation, 2 weeks after progestogen treatment was discontinued. We estimate that the size of the fetus was consistent with a fetal age of 5 months. The mare and mummified fetus illustrated that progestogen administration after 100 days of gestation can promote retention of a nonviable fetus. When the fetoplacental unit is incapable of producing progestogens in adequate amounts for pregnancy maintenance at that stage of gestation, then it is also unlikely to provide sufficient oxygen and nutrients to meet the needs of the growing fetus. Monitoring fetal viability would enable practitioners to prevent prolonged retention of a nonviable fetus.

  7. MC-1 Mare Boreum Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-1 quadrangle, Mare Boreum region of Mars. The central part is covered by a residual ice cap that is cut by spiral-patterned troughs exposing layered terrain. The cap is surrounded by broad flat plains and large dune fields. Latitude range 65 to 90, longitude range -180 to 180.

  8. An Apollo 15 Mare Basalt Fragment and Lunar Mare Provinces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Burling, Trina Cox

    1996-01-01

    Lunar sample 15474,4 is a tiny fragment of olivine-augite vitrophyre that is a mare basalt. Although petroraphically distinct from all other Apollo 15 samples, it has been ignored since its first brief description. Our new petrographic and mineral chemical data show that the olivines and pyroxenes are distinct from those in other basalts. The basalt cooled and solidified extremely rapidly; some of the olivine might be cumulate or crystallized prior to extrusion. Bulk-chemical data show that the sample is probably similar to an evolved Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalt in major elements but is distinct in its rare earth element pattern. Its chemical composition and petrography both show that 15474,4 cannot be derived from other Apollo 15 mare basalts by shallow-level crystal fractionation. It represents a distinct extrusion of magma. Nonetheless, the chemical features that 15474,4 has in common with other Apollo 15 mare basalts, including the high FeO/Sc, the general similarity of the rare earth element pattern, and the common (and chondritic) TiO2/Sm ratio, emphasize the concept of a geochemical province at the Apollo 15 site that is distinct from basalts and provinces elsewhere. In making a consistent picture for the derivation of all of the Apollo 15 basalts, both the commonalities and the differences among the basalts must be explained. The Apollo 15 commonalities and differences suggest that the sources must have consisted of major silicate phases with the same composition but with varied amounts of a magma trapped from a contemporary magma ocean. They probably had a high olivine/pyroxene ratio and underwent small and reasonably consistent degrees of partial melting to produce the basalts. These inferences may be inconsistent with models that suggest greatly different depths of melting among basalts, primitive sources for the green glasses, or extensive olivine fractionation during ascent. An integrated approach to lunar mare provinces, of which the Apollo 15

  9. Apollo 15 mare units and their petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Samples from 12 different mare sites were identified and classified among the Apollo 15 samples. The genesis of the Apollo 15 mare units is summarized given the general model of mare basalt source regions and of more basalt genesis derived from a synthesis of the major oxide/major mineral, compatible siderophile, and incompatible trace element data and isotopic ratios of the Rb/Sr and Sm/Nd systems.

  10. Ovarian teratoma and endometritis in a mare

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract An 8-year-old Arabian mare was admitted for a large ovarian anovulatory follicle. A clinical diagnosis of ovarian tumor and endometritis was established. Histological examinations revealed an ovarian teratoma and a grade II endometritis. Three months after unilateral ovariectomy, the mare was confirmed pregnant and eventually gave birth uneventfully. PMID:16363331

  11. Mare basalt magma source region and mare basalt magma genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, A.B.

    1982-11-15

    Given the available data, we find that the wide range of mare basaltic material characteristics can be explained by a model in which: (1) The mare basalt magma source region lies between the crust-mantle boundary and a maximum depth of 200 km and consists of a relatively uniform peridotite containing 73--80% olivine, 11--14% pyroxene, 4--8% plagioclase, 0.2--9% ilmenite and 1--1.5% chromite. (2) The source region consists of two or more density-graded rhythmic bands, whose compositions grade from that of the very low TiO/sub 2/ magma source regions (0.2% ilmenite) to that of the very high TiO/sub 2/ magma source regions (9% ilmenite). These density-graded bands are proposed to have formed as co-crystallizing olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, ilmenite, and chromite settled out of a convecting magma (which was also parental to the crust) in which these crystals were suspended. Since the settling rates of the different minerals were governed by Stoke's law, the heavier minerals settled out more rapidly and therefore earlier than the lighter minerals. Thus the crystal assemblages deposited nearest the descending side of each convection cell were enriched in heavy ilmenite and chromite with respect to lighter olivine and pyroxene and very much lighter plagioclase. The reverse being the case for those units deposited near the ascending sides of the convection cells.

  12. MC-30 Mare Australe Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-30 quadrangle, Mare Australe region of Mars. The central part is dominated by a permanent residual ice cap that is enclosed by layered and troughed terrain. This cap is much smaller than the northern ice cap due to differing amounts of solar heating. The layered and troughed terrain is encircled by heavily and moderately cratered terrains that include unique depositional and erosional landforms, including large pits, troughs, and complex ridge systems. Latitude range -90 to -60 degrees, longitude range -180 to 180 degrees.

  13. MC-4 Mare Acidalium Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-4 quadrangle, Mare Acidalium region of Mars. The central part is characterized by dark depression--the northern Chryse basin, which contains relatively smooth plains where several large outflow channels terminate. The depression is partly bounded to the southwest by the highly faulted and heavily cratered Tempe Terra province, to the southeast by the heavily cratered Arabia Terra province, and to the north by relatively smooth plains of Vastitas Borealis. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 0 to 60 degrees.

  14. Reduction of mare basalts by sulfur loss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.

    1976-01-01

    Metallic Fe content and S abundance are inversely correlated in mare basalts. Either S volatilization from the melt results in reduction of Fe2+ to Fe0 or else high S content decreases Fe0 activity in the melt, thus explaining the correlation. All considerations favor the model that metallic iron in mare basalts is due to sulfur loss. The Apollo 11 and 17 mare basalt melts were probably saturated with S at the time of eruption; the Apollo 12 and 15 basalts were probably not saturated. Non-mare rocks show a positive correlation of S abundance with metallic Fe content; it is proposed that this is due to the addition of meteoritic material having a fairly constant Fe0/S ratio. If true, metallic Fe content or S abundance in non-mare rocks provides a measure of degree of meteoritic contamination. ?? 1976.

  15. New Crater Counts for Mare Basalts in Mare Frigoris and Other Nearside Maria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2003-04-01

    Lunar mare basalts cover about 17% of the lunar surface, occur preferentially on the lunar nearside, and often fill the low-lying inner depressions of large impact basins and craters. Basalts in Mare Frigoris are special in that they occur in an area that is not clearly related to any unambiguously accepted impact structure. Mare Frigoris may be part of the large and very old Procellarum basin, but the existence of this basin is still debated. Mare basalts in Mare Frigoris are relatively homogeneous, low in titanium, have a bright albedo, and strong 1 µm- and prominent 2 µm-absorption bands. The thickness of these basalts has been estimated to be less than 500 m. Wilhelms found the basalts of eastern Mare Frigoris to be of Imbrian age and the basalts of central and western Frigoris (west of ~10deg E) to be Eratosthenian in age. Whitford-Stark proposed that the basalts in Mare Frigoris were emplaced by flood-style eruptions 3.2-3.6 b.y. ago. We report on crater counts for Mare Frigoris, Mare Nectaris, Mare Smythii, Mare Marginis, Mare Vaporum, Sinus Medii, and Palus Putredinis. We also determined ages for basalts exposed in the craters Schickard, Grimaldi, Crüger, Hubble, Joliot, Goddard, and two lava ponds south of the crater Endymion. Our crater counts let us conclude that (1) Mare Frigoris is mostly filled with Imbrian basalts but there are a few areas that are covered with Eratosthenian basalts, (2) these Eratosthenian basalts occur in few small-sized areas north of the crater Plato but are not connected with each other as shown by Wilhelms, (3) basalts in Mare Nectaris, Mare Vaporum, Sinus Medii and Palus Putredinis are Imbrian in age, (4) basalts in Mare Smythii are younger than in Mare Marginis, contrary to the geologic map of Wilhelms and El-Baz, (5) basaltic fills of the craters Goddard, Hubble, and Joliot are of Imbrian age, (6) there are no Eratosthenian basalts in the crater Schickard but basalts in the crater Grimaldi are Eratosthenian in age as

  16. Thickness of western mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An isopach map of the basalt thickness in the western mare basins is constructed from measurements of the exposed external rim height of partially buried craters. The data, although numerically sparse, is sufficiently distributed to yield gross thickness variations. The average basalt thickness in Oceanus Procellarum and adjacent regions is 400 m with local lenses in excess of 1500 m in the circular maria. The total volume of basalt in the western maria is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power cu km. The chief distinction between the eastern and western maria appears to be one of basalt volumes erupted to the surface. Maximum volumes of basalt are deposited west of the central highlands and flood subjacent terrain to a greater extent than on the east. The surface structures of the western maria reflect the probability of a greater degree of isostatic response to a larger surface loading by the greater accumulation of mare basalt.

  17. Modelisation of tidal flows between Titan's seas Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, David; Karatekin, Özgür; Dehant, Véronique; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Numerous lakes and seas filled with liquid hydrocarbons have been detected on Titan's surface by Cassini spacecraft [1]. Most of these liquid bodies are located in the northern high latitudes [2]. In this study, we focus on two of them: Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare and in particular on the tidal currents between them. Recent observations of the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) from February 12, 2015 suggested the presence of waves in a strait called Trevize fretum linking the two seas [3]. These waves could be generated by either wind or strong currents between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare. We simulate the tidal response of Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare and the currents in the straits linking those seas with SLIM (Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model, www.climate.be/slim). SLIM resolves 2D shallow water equations on an unstructured mesh, which allows higher accuracy in the straits without drastically increasing the computational costs. It has been recently used to simulate the tidal response in Ontario Lacus [4]. The tide generating force modelled in this work is the gradient of tidal potential due to Titan's obliquity and Titan's orbital eccentricity around Saturn (other contribution such as sun tide generating force are unheeded). Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare composition might be different. Consequently, fluid exchanges could also occur due to a density gradient between those seas. In this study, we focus on the flow in the strait between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare and consider the effect of parameters such as the composition, solid deformations and the depth of the strait. [1] Stofan et al. (2007) Nature, 445, 61-64.[2] Aharonson et al. (2009), Nature geoscience, 2(12), 851-854. [3] Sotin et al. (2015) AGU, P12B-04. [4] Vincent et al. (2016) Ocean Dynamics.

  18. Preliminary Results of the MARE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Bagliani, D.; Biassotti, M.; Ceruti, G.; Corsini, D.; Faverzani, M.; Gatti, F.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Kilbourne, C.; Kling, A.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Maino, M.; Manfrinetti, P.; Nucciotti, A.; Pessina, G.; Pizzigoni, G.; Ribeiro Gomes, M.; Schaeffer, D.; Sisti, M.

    2014-09-01

    The microcalorimeter array for a rhenium experiment (MARE) project aims at the direct and calorimetric measurement of the electron neutrino mass with sub-eV sensitivity. The design is based on large arrays of thermal detectors to study the beta decay of Re and the electron capture of Ho. One of the activities of the project, MARE 1 in Milan, has started in Milan using one array of 6 6 silicon implanted thermistors equipped with AgReO absorbers. The purposes of MARE 1 in Milan are to achieve a sensitivity on the neutrino mass of a few eV and to investigate the systematics of Re neutrino mass measurements, focusing on those caused by the beta environmental fine structure and the beta spectrum theoretical shape. In parallel, the MARE collaboration is performing an R&D work for producing absorbers embedded with radioactive metal Ho. We report here the status of MARE using Re as beta source and the preliminary results obtained with Ho.

  19. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of sawmill after earthquake of 1898. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of waterfront during World War II; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of Franklin D. Roosevelt walking past old Marine Corps Barracks; 1913. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of building 133 being moved; 1933. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Building 253; 1920. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Coal sheds with coals; 1906. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Coal Sheds, Waterfront Avenue, northwest corner of Waterfront Avenue & Fourth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. QUARTERS A IN THE SNOW; 1913. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Commandant's Quarters, Walnut Avenue, west side near Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Detector Development for the MARE Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Galeazzi, M.; Bogorin, D.; Molina, R.; Saab, T.; Ribeiro Gomes, M.

    2009-12-16

    The MARE experiment is designed to measure the mass of the neutrino with sub-eV sensitivity by measuring the beta decay of {sup 187}Re with cryogenic microcalorimeters. A preliminary analysis shows that, to achieve the necessary statistics, between 10,000 and 50,000 detectors are likely necessary. We have fabricated and characterized Iridium transition edge sensors with high reproducibility and uniformity for such a large scale experiment. We have also started a full scale simulation of the experimental setup for MARE, including thermalization in the absorber, detector response, and optimum filter analysis, to understand the issues related to reaching a sub-eV sensitivity and to optimize the design of the MARE experiment. We present our characterization of the Ir devices, including reproducibility, uniformity, and sensitivity, and we discuss the implementation and capabilities of our full scale simulation.

  7. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Lithograph of Mare Island, "showing the works already completed in the Navy Yard and the US. Frigate "Independence"; 1855. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Plasma cell numbers in uteri of mares with persistent endometritis and in ovariectomised mares treated with ovarian steroids.

    PubMed

    Watson, E D; Stokes, C R

    1988-11-01

    Immunoglobulins A, G and M were localised by immunoperoxidase staining of endometrial sections from ovariectomised mares. Treatment with progesterone or oestradiol-17 beta did not significantly affect numbers of cells secreting any of the isotypes. Mares with persistent endometritis did not have significantly greater numbers of endometrial plasma cells than genitally-normal mares.

  9. DCS Color near Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 28, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image covering an area near Mare Cimmerium. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    This area contains a mixture of basaltic materials (magenta/purple) and dust (green/blue). Faint blue areas may be due to some thin water ice clouds. The different compositional units are sometimes correlated with crater floors and other surface features, but they are often not tied to valleys, lava flows, etc... indicating that the surface materials could be mobile (dust and sand).

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 139.3 East (220.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter

  10. Ages of Lunar Mare Basalts in Mare Frigoris and Other Nearside Maria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2003-03-01

    We performed new crater counts for basalts in Mare Frigoris, Nectaris, Smythii, Marginis, Vaporum, Sinus Medii, Palus Putredinis and the craters Schickard, Grimaldi, Crüger, Hubble, Joliot, Goddard, and two lava ponds south of the crater Endymion.

  11. How thick are lunar mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that De Hon's estimates of the thickness of lunar mare basalts, made by analyzing 'ghost' craters on mare surfaces, were inflated as the result of the crater morphometric data of Pike (1977) to reconstruct rim heights of degraded craters. Crater rim heights of 82 randomly selected highland craters of various states of degradation were determined, and median rim height was compared to that of corresponding fresh impact structures. Results indicate that the thickness estimates of De Hon may be reduced by a factor of 2, and that the total volume of mare basalt produced throughout lunar history could be as little as 1-2 million cubic kilometers. A survey of geochemical and petrographic evidence indicates that lateral transport of regolith components over distances of much greater than 10 km is relatively inefficient; it is suggested that vertical mixing of a highland substrate underlying the basaltic fill may have had a primordial role in generating the observed mare width distributions and high concentrations of exotic components in intrabasin regoliths.

  12. The history of mare volcanism in the Orientale Basin: Mare deposit ages, compositions and morphologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadel, S. D.; Greeley, R.; Neukum, G.; Wagner, R.

    1993-01-01

    The eruptive history of mare basalts in the Orientale Basin has been studied, using Lunar Orbiter 4 high-resolution photographs, Zond 8 photographs, and recently acquired Galileo EM-1 multispectral images. This work represents a refined set of compositional data incorporating the use of a linear mixing model for mare compositions, crater count data, and a comprehensive morphologic analysis of Orientale Basin mare deposits. Evidence for multiple eruptive episodes has been found, with compositions ranging from medium- to high-Ti basalt (less than 4 to greater than 6 wt. percent TiO2). Eruptive styles included flood, rille-forming, and shield-forming eruptions. Impact crater densities of mare units in the Orientale Basin enable determination of the ages of these deposits, using the method of Neukum et al. Earliest eruptions of mare basalt in the basin occurred at greater than or equal to 3.80 Ga and the latest eruptions occurred at about 2.3-2.5 Ga. Hence, mare volcanism occurred over a period of nearly 1.5 Ga.

  13. What Can NELS Tell Us about Adolescent Behavior Problems? (And Vice Versa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giancola, Susan P.

    This research uses the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS) to examine student misbehavior in the context of individual, familial, and institutional influences. The NELS is the third longitudinal study of students and schools conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, and the NELS surveys encompass not only students…

  14. Mare Orientale Prime Meridian lunar coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walden, B.; York, C.; McGown, R.; Billings, T.

    The Moon was the first extraterrestrial body to be mapped. From 1514 to 1840, navigators sailing the open seas needed accurate lunar maps to determine longitude by the "lunar-distance" method. For the convenience of early navigators, astronomers and selenographers, the lunar prime meridian was made to bisect the lunar disk as seen from Earth, formalized as the present Mean Earth / Polar Axis system. In 1961, the International Astronomical Union reversed lunar east and west to avoid confusion by astronauts and their controllers, so that now Mare Orientale -- the Eastern Sea -- lies on the Moon's western limb. By international agreement in 1974, lunar longitude was defined to increase eastward from zero to 360 degrees and prime meridians are generally defined by an observable feature. Examination of popular lunar maps indicates these newer standards are not widely accepted. Modern navigation no longer relies on the Moon. Lunar maps are now made by satellite imagery from lunar orbit. Today, humankind anticipates navigating the Moon itself. A relatively simple change to the lunar coordinate system could benefit upcoming lunar activities and promote acceptance of a 360 degree standard: move the lunar prime meridian. We propose the lunar prime meridian intersect some natural monument that most nearly represents the center longitude of Mare Orientale (perhaps crater Hohmann), and longitude increase eastward from zero to 360 degrees. Mare Orientale is a dramatic large "target," easily identifiable from space. Nearside traffic will use low longitude numbers from zero to r ughly 180 degrees,o and will not frequently cross this prime meridian. Earth's angle above the eastern horizon equals approximate longitude. Low and high longitude numbers will reflect the distinctive nearside and farside geological domains. The face of the Moon as seen from Earth will no longer be split in two. Calculations are simplified and sources of error eliminated. This system is more convenient and

  15. Sulfur isotope homogeneity of lunar mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Boswell A.; Farquhar, James

    2015-12-01

    We present a new set of high precision measurements of relative 33S/32S, 34S/32S, and 36S/32S values in lunar mare basalts. The measurements are referenced to the Vienna-Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT) scale, on which the international reference material, IAEA-S-1, is characterized by δ33S = -0.061‰, δ34S ≡ -0.3‰ and δ36S = -1.27‰. The present dataset confirms that lunar mare basalts are characterized by a remarkable degree of sulfur isotopic homogeneity, with most new and published SF6-based sulfur isotope measurements consistent with a single mass-dependent mean isotopic composition of δ34S = 0.58 ± 0.05‰, Δ33S = 0.008 ± 0.006‰, and Δ36S = 0.2 ± 0.2‰, relative to V-CDT, where the uncertainties are quoted as 99% confidence intervals on the mean. This homogeneity allows identification of a single sample (12022, 281) with an apparent 33S enrichment, possibly reflecting cosmic-ray-induced spallation reactions. It also reveals that some mare basalts have slightly lower δ34S values than the population mean, which is consistent with sulfur loss from a reduced basaltic melt prior to eruption at the lunar surface. Both the sulfur isotope homogeneity of the lunar mare basalts and the predicted sensitivity of sulfur isotopes to vaporization-driven fractionation suggest that less than ≈1-10% of lunar sulfur was lost after a potential moon-forming impact event.

  16. Retained fetal membranes in the mare: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, Real; Threlfall, Walter R.; Murdick, Phillip W.; Wearly, W. Keith

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study of 3456 deliveries was conducted from the records of four Standardbred broodmare farms where mares were bred by artificial insemination and maintained under close veterinary supervision. Retained fetal membranes (RFM) were observed in 10.6% of the deliveries. Retained fetal membranes occurred more frequently (p < 0.05) after dystocia and in mares which had RFM the previous year. Retained fetal membranes after normal foaling had no significant effect on the reproductive performance (pregnancy rate, pregnancy loss rate, or foaling rate), nor on the general health of the mares, regardless of the duration of RFM (3 to 144 hours). Postfoaling laminitis was not observed. Oxytocin therapy of mares with RFM starting at two hours postpartum significantly reduced the incidence of RFM ≥ 8 hours. Mares with RFM which had received intrauterine antimicrobials between foaling and first breeding had a foaling rate similar to mares with RFM which had not received intrauterine therapy. PMID:17423164

  17. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  18. Mare basalt genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Various types of mare basalt data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare basalt source region and mare basalt genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare basalt units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.

  19. The Apollo 16 Mare Component: Petrography, Geochemistry, and Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Gillis, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The A16 (Apollo16) site in the lunar nearside highlands is 220 km from the nearest mare. Thus it is no surprise that mare basalt samples are uncommon at the site. Here, we present the petrography and geochemistry of 5 new mare basalt samples found at the A16 site. We also discuss possible provenances of all A16 mare basalt samples using high-resolution global data for the distribution of Fe and Ti on the lunar surface derived from Clementine UV-VIS data [1-2].

  20. Contextual view of building 733; camera facing southeast. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 733; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Embryo transfer in competition horses: Managing mares and expectations

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M L H

    2014-01-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) is an accepted and successful technique for obtaining foals from mares without interrupting their competition careers. Recent research, however, suggests that the potential of factors including heat, exercise, repeated embryo flushing and repeated manipulation of the reproductive cycle using exogenous hormones to have a negative impact on fertility may have been underestimated. This paper reviews the evidence base for involvement of these factors in repeated failures to recover embryos from nongeriatric competition mares without obvious clinical or pathological indications of reproductive abnormalities. It concludes that, for some mares at least, a cessation of exercise for the periovulatory period and the period between ovulation and embryo flushing, combined with careful management of flushing-induced endometritis, and minimal hormonal manipulation of the reproductive cycle, may be necessary to optimise embryo recovery rates. Mare owners may have been encouraged to request ET for their mares following high-profile examples in the media of elite mares that have produced foals by ET whilst competing. The veterinarian should educate mare owners about the multiple factors that may affect the chances of recovering an embryo from their mares, and should manage the expectations of mare owners so that they do not approach ET programmes in the expectation that there will be no disruption to their training and competition plans. PMID:25977596

  2. Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Oblique view of southeast corner; camera facing northwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southeast corner; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. NIF-0096141-OA Prop Simulations of NEL PBRS Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Widmayer, C; Manes, K

    2003-02-21

    Portable Back Reflection Sensor, PBRS, (NEL only) and Quad Back Reflection Sensor, QBRS, time delay reflectometer traces are among the most useful diagnostics of NIF laser status available. NEL PBRS measurements show several signals reaching the detector for each shot. The time delay between signals suggests that the largest of these is due to energy at the spatial filter pinhole planes leaking into adjacent pinholes and traveling back upstream to the PBRS. Prop simulations agree with current PBRS measurements to within 50%. This suggests that pinhole leakage is the dominant source of energy at the PBRS. However, the simulations predict that the energy leakage is proportional to beam output energy, while the PBRS measurements increase more slowly (''saturate''). Further refinement of the model or the measurement may be necessary to resolve this discrepancy.

  5. REVIEW paper: mare reproductive loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, M M; Bernard, W V; Riddle, T W; Latimer, C R; Fitzgerald, T D; Harrison, L R

    2008-09-01

    An epidemic of early fetal loss (EFL), late fetal loss (LFL), fibrinous pericarditis, and unilateral uveitis which occurred during the spring of 2001, are together now known as the mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS). A similar epidemic with less intensity was reported during the same period of time from southern Ohio, West Virginia, and Tennessee. The same syndrome with lesser intensity recurred in 2002. The estimated economic loss from the syndrome in 2001 and 2002 together was approximately $500 million. Both EFL and LFL were characterized by the absence of specific clinical signs in aborting mares. Nonhemolytic Streptococcus spp. and Actinobacillus spp. accounted for 65% of the organisms isolated from fetuses submitted for a postmortem during the MRLS period in 2001 and 2002. The pathologic findings in fetoplacental units of LFL included bronchopneumonia and funisitis, and there were no findings in EFL. Epidemiologic studies conducted in 2001 suggested an association between the presences of eastern tent caterpillars (ETC) in pastures with MRLS. Experimental studies in pregnant mares by exposure to ETC, or administration by stomach tube or with feed material, reproduced EFL and LFL. Similar experimental studies in mouse, rats, and goats with ETC were unsuccessful. Currently, 2 hypotheses are proposed for MRLS. One hypothesis proposes that an ETC-related toxin with secondary opportunistic bacterial invasion of the fetus leads to MRLS. The second hypothesis suggests that a breach of gastrointestinal mucosal integrity by hairs of ETC leads to a bacteremia and results in MRLS. In 2004, a similar equine abortion storm was reported from Australia and caterpillar exposure was identified as a risk factor for the abortion. In 2006, the syndrome was observed in Florida and New Jersey.

  6. Cecal vascular hamartoma causing recurrent colic in an Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Nolf, Marie; Maninchedda, Ugo; Belluco, Sara; Lepage, Olivier; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2014-06-01

    A 5-year-old mare was treated for recurrent colic and weight loss by surgical removal of an intraluminal cecal mass. Microscopic examination revealed vascular hamartoma. A 6-month follow-up showed an improvement in the general condition of the mare. Vascular hamartoma should be one of the differential diagnoses for weight loss and colic.

  7. Cecal vascular hamartoma causing recurrent colic in an Arabian mare

    PubMed Central

    Nolf, Marie; Maninchedda, Ugo; Belluco, Sara; Lepage, Olivier; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    A 5-year-old mare was treated for recurrent colic and weight loss by surgical removal of an intraluminal cecal mass. Microscopic examination revealed vascular hamartoma. A 6-month follow-up showed an improvement in the general condition of the mare. Vascular hamartoma should be one of the differential diagnoses for weight loss and colic. PMID:24891636

  8. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Dry dock 2 with three submarines and one sailing ship; 1914. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 2, California Avenue, east side near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Genetic study of gestation length in Andalusian and Arabian mares.

    PubMed

    Valera, M; Blesa, F; Dos Santos, R; Molina, A

    2006-09-01

    The length of gestation in Andalusian, or Spanish Purebred (SPB) and Arabian (AB) mares reared in Spain was analysed, based on 766 spontaneous full-term deliveries appertaining to 141 mares of SPB breed and 72 mares of AB breed in 31 breeding seasons. The data were obtained from the Yeguada Militar de Jerez de la Frontera stud farm in Cádiz, Spain. The mean length of gestation was of 336.8+/-0.48 days in the SPB mares and 340.3+/-0.63 days in AB mares. To assess the accurate prediction of time of birth the potential effect of a number of factors was investigated. The influences of the breed, mare, month and year of mating, age of the mother, number of births and sex of the foal were statistically significant. The factor have the greatest influence over the gestation length was the mare itself, with a correlation among consecutive births of around 0.4. The effect of inbreeding, both of the mare and foal, was negligible. Gestation length shortened as the breeding season progressed: in both breeds, a delay of 1 month in mating corresponded to a decrease of 3 days in the gestation length. According to our results, gestation length decrease as the mare gets older, with the shortest gestation periods when the mare is 10-12 years old, and from this point on, it slowly increases. The gestation period shortens as the 4th or 5th birth approaches, and then gets progressively longer. The range of variation in gestation length due to the number of births to the mare is of 2.9 days for the AB mares, and 2.2 days for SPB mares. The heritability for the gestation length for AB and the SPB breeds was 0.2, with a repeatability of 0.36 and 0.37, for SPB and AB breeds, respectively. With the data from both breeds, and using a classical approach, the response to selection was estimated if mares with extreme gestation lengths were culled, i.e. lengths which are under 310 days, or over 360 days. According to our results, in the case of SPB, a decrease of 14-45% would occur in the number

  10. Mare volcanism: Reinterpretation based on Kaguya Lunar Radar Sounder data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshigami, Shoko; Watanabe, Shiho; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Yamaji, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takao; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Ishiyama, Ken; Ono, Takayuki

    2014-05-01

    The Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) onboard Kaguya (SELENE) detected widespread horizontal reflectors under some nearside maria. Previous studies estimated that the depths of the subsurface reflectors were up to several hundreds of meters and suggested that the reflectors were interfaces between mare basalt units. The comparison between the reflectors detected in the LRS data and surface age maps indicating the formation age of each basalt unit allows us to discuss the lower limit volume of each basalt unit and its space and time variation. We estimated volumes of basalt units in the ages of 2.7 Ga to 3.8 Ga in the nearside maria including Mare Crisium, Mare Humorum, Mare Imbrium, Mare Nectaris, Mare Serenitatis, Mare Smythii, and Oceanus Procellarum. The lower limit volumes of the geologic units estimated in this study were on the order of 103 to 104 km3. This volume range is consistent with the total amount of erupted lava flows derived from numerical simulations of thermal erosion models of lunar sinuous rille formation and is also comparable to the average flow volumes of continental flood basalt units formed after the Paleozoic and calculated flow volumes of Archean komatiite flows on the Earth. The lower limits of average eruption rates estimated from the unit volumes were on the order of 10-5 to 10-3 km3/yr. The estimated volumes of the geologic mare units and average eruption rate showed clear positive correlations with their ages within the same mare basin, while they vary among different maria compared within the same age range.

  11. Arne - Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thangavelautham, J.; Wagner, R.; Hernandez, V. A.; Finch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar mare "pits" are key science and exploration targets. The first three pits were discovered within Selene observations [1,2] and were proposed to represent collapses into lava tubes. Subsequent LROC images revealed 5 new mare pits and showed that the Mare Tranquillitatis pit (MTP; 8.335°N, 33.222°E) opens into a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent [3,4]. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a small lander (<130 kg) named Arne, that carries three flying microbots (or pit-bots) [5,6,7]. Key measurement objectives include decimeter scale characterization of the pit walls, 5-cm scale imaging of the eastern floor, determination of the extent of sublunarean void(s), and measurement of the magnetic and thermal environment. After landing and initial surface systems check Arne will transmit full resolution descent and surface images. Within two hours the first pit-bot will launch and fly into the eastern void. Depending on results from the first pit-bot the second and third will launch and perform follow-up observations. The primary mission is expected to last 48-hours; before the Sun sets on the lander there should be enough time to execute ten flights with each pit-bot. The pit-bots are 30-cm diameter spherical flying robots [5,6,7] equipped with stereo cameras, temperature sensors, sensors for obstacle avoidance and a laser rangefinder. Lithium hydride [5,6] and water/hydrogen peroxide power three micro-thrusters and achieve a specific impulse of 350-400 s. Each pit-bot can fly for 2 min at 2 m/s for more than 100 cycles; recharge time is 20 min. Arne will carry a magnetometer, thermometer, 2 high resolution cameras, and 6 wide angle cameras and obstacle avoidance infrared sensors enabling detailed characterization of extant sublunarean voids. [1] Haruyama et al. (2010) 41st LPSC, #1285. [2

  12. Variations in chemical composition of Apollo 15 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Chemical analyses of 30 different Apollo 15 mare basalts were examined to evaluate the effects of closure on the pearson moment correlation coefficient. It is shown possible to describe the Apollo 15 mare basalts in terms of an opaque, an olivine/pyroxene, an anorthite, and a KREEP component, if significant correlations are identified using the expected correlations as null values. Using Q-mode cluster analysis and nonlinear mapping, it is possible to recognize three groups of the mare basalts, groups 1 and 2 belonging to the olivine normative basalt cluster and group 3 to the quartz normative cluster.

  13. NASA Electronic Library System (NELS): The system impact of security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgregor, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses security issues as they relate to the NASA Electronic Library System which is currently in use as the repository system for AdaNET System Version 3 (ASV3) being operated by MountainNET, Inc. NELS was originally designed to provide for public, development, and secure collections and objects. The secure feature for collections and objects was deferred in the initial system for implementation at a later date. The NELS system is now 9 months old and many lessons have been learned about the use and maintenance of library systems. MountainNET has 9 months of experience in operating the system and gathering feedback from the ASV3 user community. The user community has expressed an interest in seeing security features implemented in the current system. The time has come to take another look at the whole issue of security for the NELS system. Two requirements involving security have been put forth by MountainNET for the ASV3 system. The first is to incorporate at the collection level a security scheme to allow restricted access to collections. This should be invisible to end users and be controlled by librarians. The second is to allow inclusion of applications which can be executed only by a controlled group of users; for example, an application which can be executed by librarians only. The requirements provide a broad framework in which to work. These requirements raise more questions than answers. To explore the impact of these requirements a top down approach will be used.

  14. Coat color and gestation length in thoroughbred mares.

    PubMed

    Dring, L A; Hintz, H F; Van Vleck, L D

    1981-01-01

    Average gestation periods for bay, chestnut, dark bay, gray, and black Thoroughbred mares were compared. A total of 1359 gestation periods were used. A linear model including factors for age of mare, sex of foal, month and year of breeding, and sire effects was used in the analysis. Dam and sire coat-color combinations were also investigated in a similar manner. No significant differences in gestation length could be attributed to coat color of the mare of to dam and sire coat-color combinations. Heritability of gestation length was estimated to be 0.38. The results of this study strongly suggest that coat color is not associated with gestation length in Thoroughbred mares.

  15. Risk behaviors for varying categories of disability in NELS:88.

    PubMed

    Hollar, David

    2005-11-01

    A large body of research shows that youth with disabilities, who comprise about 13% of the country's school-aged population, report comparable to higher incidence rates of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use than their peers. Furthermore, youth with disabilities who reported ATOD use or who engaged in binge drinking had significantly more negative educational outcomes and engaged in sexual activity at a younger age than nonusers. This study describes risk factors for substance use, personal characteristics, aspects of the attitudinal environment, and educational, employment, and social outcomes among youth across 6 categories of disability. Data came from the National Center for Education Statistics' National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988-2000 (NELS:88). The findings indicate that (a) youth with varying types of disabilities are relatively homogenous with respect to risk behaviors, personal characteristics, and outcomes; (b) youth with emotional, learning, or multiple disabilities may be at heightened risk for binge drinking and marijuana use; and (c) youth with emotional and multiple disabilities may be less likely to graduate from high school or its equivalent 8 years beyond the 12th grade. Based on these results and limitations of the NELS sampling strategy, appropriate interventions are discussed as well as the need for more definitive operational definitions for disabilities, specifically the biopsychosocial approach used by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

  16. Mare volcanism in the Taurus-Littrow region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    The products of mare volcanism at Taurus-Littrow occur in the form of crystalline basalts and volcanic glass beads. Both categories of samples define a compositionally diverse, but petrogenetically unrelated, suite of magmas derived by partial melting of a heterogenous, differentiated mantle beneath the region of the Apollo 17 landing site. This is a brief review of what is known and what is not known about mare volcanism at this location on the Moon.

  17. Confirmation of sublunarean voids and thin layering in mare deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Ashley, J. W.; Boyd, A. K.; Wagner, R. V.; Speyerer, E. J.; Ray Hawke, B.; Hiesinger, H.; van der Bogert, C. H.

    2012-08-01

    Typical flow thicknesses of lunar mare basalts were not well constrained in the past, because as craters and rilles age, downslope movement of loose material tends to mix and bury stratigraphy, obscuring the three dimensional nature of the maria. New Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera high resolution images unambiguously reveal thicknesses of mare basalt layers exposed in impact craters, rilles, and steep-walled pits. Pits up to one hundred meters deep present relatively unmodified, near-vertical sections of mare in three cases, and many young impact craters also expose well preserved sections of mare. Oblique views of each pit and many of these craters reveal multiple layers, 3 to 14 m thick, indicating that eruptions typically produced a series of ˜10 m thick flows (or flow lobes) rather than flows many tens to hundreds of meters thick. Additionally, these images unambiguously show that the floors of two pits extend beneath the mare surfaces, thus revealing sublunarean voids of unknown lateral extent. We also document the occurrence of pits that may be expressions of collapse into subsurface voids in non-mare impact melt deposits. These voids are compelling targets for future human and robotic exploration, with potential as temporary shelters, habitations, or geologic museums.

  18. Melengestrol acetate as a tool for inducing early ovulation in transitional mares.

    PubMed

    López-Bayghen, Consuelo; Zozaya, Heidy; Ocampo, Luis; Brumbaugh, Gordon W; Sumano, Héctor

    2008-03-01

    The efficacy of melengestrol acetate (MGA) to shorten the vernal transition of mares by synchronising and accelerating the first ovulation of the year after 60 days of phototherapy was determined by ultrasonographic monitoring. Sixteen mares in late transition were fed two doses of MGA (150 mg/mare/day and 100 mg/mare/day, respectively) for 10 days. A luteolytic dose of prostaglandin was administered to each mare one day after the end of MGA treatment. The presence and duration of oestrus, follicular growth, uterine oedema and presence of ovulation were monitored by ultrasonography and the cervical tone was evaluated by rectal palpation. Ovulation was detected in 87.5% of the mares treated with 150 mg MGA/mare/day for 10 days, and in 62.5% of the mares receiving 100 mg MGA/mare/day for 10 days. This was statistically different (P = 0.03) from the untreated control mares having an ovulation rate of 20%. Mares that received 150 mg MGA/day for 10 days had a mean treatment to ovulation interval of 13.1 +/- 5.97 days after the end of treatment, while mares that received 100 mg MGA/day for 10 days had a mean of 25.6 +/- 10.50 days (P = 0.01) to ovulation. These results suggest that MGA can be used for synchronising and hastening the first ovulation of the year in mares.

  19. NASA Electronic Library System (NELS) database schema, version 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melebeck, Clovis J.

    1991-01-01

    The database tables used by NELS version 1.2 are discussed. To provide the current functional capability offered by NELS, nineteen tables were created with ORACLE. Each table lists the ORACLE table name and provides a brief description of the tables intended use or function. The following sections cover four basic categories of tables: NELS object classes, NELS collections, NELS objects, and NELS supplemental tables. Also included in each section is a definition and/or relationship of each field to other fields or tables. The primary key(s) for each table is indicated with a single asterisk (*), while foreign keys are indicated with double asterisks (**). The primary key(s) indicate the key(s) which uniquely identifies a record for that table. The foreign key(s) is used to identify additional information in other table(s) for that record. The two appendices are the command which is used to construct the ORACLE tables for NELS. Appendix A contains the commands which create the tables which are defined in the following sections. Appendix B contains the commands which build the indices for these tables.

  20. Ages, Thicknesses and Mineralogy of Lunar Mare Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W.; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2002-01-01

    About 17% of the lunar surface are covered with lunar mare basalts. Mare basalts occur preferentially on the lunar nearside and their presence on planetary surfaces is indicative of the thermal activity and volcanic evolution of the body. In order to place constraints on the thermal/volcanic evolution and petrogenetic models for the formation of lunar mare basalts, we dated basalts exposed on the lunar nearside. Over the last 6 years we performed crater counts for Oceanus Procellarum, Mare Nubium, Cognitum, Insularum, Humorum, Imbrium, Serenitatis, Tranquillitatis, Humboldtianum, and Australe. Currently we are extending our crater counts to basalt areas in Mare Frigoris, Nectaris, Vaporum, Smythii, and Marginis. We are also in the progress of dating some lava-filled impact craters such as Schickard, Cr?ger, and Grimaldi. Crater counts not only allow one to determine the age of a basalt unit but also provide important information about the thickness, the volume, and the temporal separation of individual basalt flow units. In addition, age data in combination with Clementine and Lunar Prospector data allow one to investigate changes in mineralogy with time.

  1. A chemical model for lunar non-mare rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, N. J.; Rhodes, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Nearly all rocks returned from the moon are readily divided into three broad categories on the basis of their chemical compositions: (1) mare basalts, (2) non-mare rocks of basaltic composition (KREEP, VHA), and (3) anorthositic rocks. Only mare basalts may unambiguously be considered to have original igneous textures and are widely understood to have an igneous origin. Nearly all other lunar rocks have lost their original textures during metamorphic and impact processes. It is shown that for these rocks one must work primarily with chemical data in order to recognize and define rock groups and their possible modes of origin. Non-mare rocks of basaltic composition have chemical compositions consistent with an origin by partial melting of the lunar interior. The simplest origin for rocks of anorthositic chemical composition is the crystallization and removal of ferromagnesian minerals. It is proposed that the rock groups of anorthositic and non-mare basaltic chemical composition could have been generated from a single series of original but not necessarily primitive lunar materials.

  2. A chemical model for lunar non-mare rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, N. J.; Rhodes, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Nearly all rocks returned from the moon are readily divided into three broad categories on the basis of their chemical compositions: (1) mare basalts, (2) non-mare rocks of basaltic composition (KREEP, VHA), and (3) anorthositic rocks. Only mare basalts may unambiguously be considered to have original igneous textures and are widely understood to have an igneous origin. Nearly all other lunar rocks have lost their original textures during metamorphic and impact processes. For these rocks one must work primarily with chemical data in order to recognize and define rock groups and their possible modes of origin. Non-mare rocks of basaltic composition have chemical compositions consistent with an origin by partial melting of the lunar interior. The simplest origin for rocks of anorthositic chemical composition is the crystallization and removal of ferromagnesian minerals. It is proposed that the rock groups of anorthositic and non-mare basaltic chemical composition could have been generated from a single series of original, but not necessarily primitive, lunar materials.

  3. MARE-l in Milan: Status and Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, E.; Arnaboldi, C.; Ceruti, G.; Faverzani, M.; Gatti, C.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Kilbourne, C.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Nucciotti, A.; Pessini, G.; Schaeffer, D.; Sisti, M.

    2012-01-01

    The international project MARE (Microcalorimeter Array for a Rhenium Experiment) aims at the direct and calorimetric measurement of the electron neutrino mass with sub-eV sensitivity. Although the baseline of the MARE project consists in a large array of rhenium based thermal detectors, a different option for the isotope is also being considered. The different option is Ho-163. The potential of using Re-187 for a calorimetric neutrino mass experiment has been already demonstrated. On the contrary, no calorimetric spectrum of Ho-163 has been so far measured with the precision required to set a useful limit on the neutrino mass. The first phase of the project (MARE-1) is a collection of activities with the aim of sorting out both the best isotope and the most suited detector technology to be used for the final experiment. One of the MARE-1 activities is carried out in Milan by the group of Milano-Bicocca in collaboration with NASA/GSFC and Wisconsin groups. The Milan MARE-l arrays are based on semiconductor thermistors, provided by the NASA/GSFC group, with dielectric silver perrhenate absorbers, AgReO4. The experiment, which is presently being assembled, is designed to host up to 8 arrays.

  4. Mineralogical variation of the late stage mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xunyu; Wu, Yunzhao; Ouyang, Ziyuan; Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Chen, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Cai, Wei; Xu, Aoao; Tang, Zesheng

    2016-10-01

    The last major phases of lunar volcanism occurred mainly in Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Imbrium and produced spectrally unique medium- and high-titanium basalts. The composition and distribution of these basalts provide a record of the late stage thermal evolution of the Moon. To study the spectral and mineralogical variations of the late stage mare basalts, 31 distinct units were mapped employing a range of remote sensing data. Their inferred mineralogical characteristics were studied by analyzing the spectral features of small, fresh craters derived from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data. The strongest olivine spectral signatures were found around Lichtenberg crater, while the units with the lowest olivine/pyroxene ratio occurred mainly in the southern Kepler crater and some local areas. In Oceanus Procellarum, the olivine/pyroxene ratio decreases progressively from the Lichtenberg crater to the southern units. The northern and southern units within Mare Imbrium have higher olivine/pyroxene ratios than the central ones. The inferred abundance of olivine appears to vary stratigraphically, with the younger flows being more olivine rich. However, the stratigraphically younger units around Euler crater in Mare Imbrium, which present as dark red hues in the integrated band depth image of M3, were found to have lower olivine/pyroxene ratios than the units around Lichtenberg crater (shown as light red hues) in Oceanus Procellarum. It could be interpreted that the late stage mare basalts around Lichtenberg crater originated from a more olivine-rich source than those around Euler crater.

  5. Hematological and biochemical features of postpartum fever in the heavy draft mare

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Takahiro; KIMURA, Yuki; OYA, Anna; CHIBA, Akiko; ISHII, Mitsuo; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heavy draft mares potentially have a higher risk of suffering from postpartum fever (PF) than light breed mares. The purpose of this study was to compare hematological and biochemical features between clinically healthy mares (n=40) and PF-affected mares (n=16). Mares were classified as having PF when their rectal temperature rose to >38.5°C within 96 hr of foaling. The numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils and the serum magnesium level were significantly lower in PF-affected mares. The serum SAA and NEFA levels were significantly higher in PF-affected mares. Strong inflammation responses, fat mobilization associated with negative energy balance and possibly endotoxin participate in hematological and biochemical features of PF in heavy draft mares. PMID:27073331

  6. Effects of deslorelin or hCG administration on reproductive performance in first postpartum estrus mares.

    PubMed

    Blanchar, Terry L; Brinsko, Stevem P; Rigby, Sherri L

    2002-07-01

    A tendency for deslorelin implants to suppress subsequent follicular growth and delay return to estrus following induced ovulation has been documented in nonlactating mares. To investigate this phenomenon in lactating mares, 22 broodmares in southeast Texas were administered either deslorelin or hCG to induce ovulation in the first postpartum estrus during February and March 2001. Mares were teased daily and examined twice weekly (Tuesdays and Thursdays) by transrectal ultrasonography. When a follicle >35 mm diameter was detected on Tuesday, mares were treated with either 2,500 U hCG administered intravenously or with one implant (2.1 mg) deslorelin administered subcutaneously. Mares were bred every other day until ovulation was detected or until they ceased behavioral estrus, and were examined 16 days after treatment to detect pregnancy. Follicular measurements were recorded for all mares during each examination, and interestrous intervals were recorded for mares not becoming pregnant. Treatment of mares with either hCG or deslorelin resulted in similar ovulatory responses and pregnancy rates. Deslorelin-treated mares had fewer ovarian follicles >20 mm in diameter 16 days after treatment than hCG-treated mares (P < 0.01). Interestrous intervals for mares failing to become pregnant on foal heat breeding were prolonged in deslorelin-treated compared to hCG-treated mares (P < 0.01). Date of treatment was negatively correlated with length of the interestrous interval in deslorelin-treated mares (P < 0.01), but was not correlated with length of interestrous interval in hCG-treated mares (P > 0.10). All mares failing to become pregnant from foal heat breedings became pregnant from later breedings, but the parturition to conception interval was prolonged in deslorelin-treated compared to hCG-treated mares that did not become pregnant on foal heat (P < 0.01).

  7. Lunar ferroan anorthosites and mare basalt sources - The mixed connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1991-11-01

    Global overturn of a hot, gravitationally unstable lunar mantle immediately following the solidification of a magma ocean explains several characteristics of lunar petrology. Lunar mare basalt sources are inferred to be depleted in europium and alumina. These depletions are consensually attributed to complementary plagioclase floating from a magma ocean. However, in contrast to the mare basalt source parent magma, the ferroan anorthosite parent magma was more evolved by virtue of its lower Mg/Fe ratio and Ni abundances, although less evolved in its poverty of clinopyroxene constituents, flat rare earth pattern, and lower incompatible element abundances. The europium anomaly in mare sources is inferred to be present at 400 km depth, too deep to have been directly influenced by plagioclase crystallization. Massive overturning of the post-magma ocean mantle would have carried down clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and phases containing fractionated rare earths, europium anomalies, and some heat-producing radionuclides.

  8. Lunar ferroan anorthosites and mare basalt sources - The mixed connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1991-01-01

    Global overturn of a hot, gravitationally unstable lunar mantle immediately following the solidification of a magma ocean explains several characteristics of lunar petrology. Lunar mare basalt sources are inferred to be depleted in europium and alumina. These depletions are consensually attributed to complementary plagioclase floating from a magma ocean. However, in contrast to the mare basalt source parent magma, the ferroan anorthosite parent magma was more evolved by virtue of its lower Mg/Fe ratio and Ni abundances, although less evolved in its poverty of clinopyroxene constituents, flat rare earth pattern, and lower incompatible element abundances. The europium anomaly in mare sources is inferred to be present at 400 km depth, too deep to have been directly influenced by plagioclase crystallization. Massive overturning of the post-magma ocean mantle would have carried down clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and phases containing fractionated rare earths, europium anomalies, and some heat-producing radionuclides.

  9. The Apollo 17 mare basalts: Serenely sampling Taurus-Littrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    As we are all aware, the Apollo 17 mission marked the final manned lunar landing of the Apollo program. The lunar module (LM) landed approximately 0.7 km due east of Camelot Crater in the Taurus-Littrow region on the southwestern edge of Mare Serenitatis. Three extravehicular activities (EVA's) were performed, the first concentrating around the LM and including station 1 approximately 1.1 km south-southeast of the LM at the northwestern edge of Steno Crater. The second traversed approximately 8 km west of the LM to include stations 2, 3, 4, and 5, and the third EVA traversed approximately 4.5 km to the northwest of the LM to include stations 6, 7, 8, and 9. This final manned mission returned the largest quantity of lunar rock samples, 110.5 kg/243.7 lb, and included soils, breccias, highland samples, and mare basalts. This abstract concentrates upon the Apollo 17 mare basalt samples.

  10. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  11. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  12. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  13. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  14. Bilateral occurrence of granulosa-theca cell tumors in an Arabian mare

    PubMed Central

    Frederico, Lisa M.; Gerard, Mathew P.; Pinto, Carlos R.F.; Gradil, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    An Arabian mare was referred for right granulosa-theca cell tumor (GTCT) evaluation. The mare was presented 4.5 years later for a left GTCT, after successfully conceiving and delivering a normal foal in the interim. The concurrent or nonconcurrent occurrence of bilateral GTCT in mares appears to be rare. PMID:17542368

  15. Time of foaling in Arabian mares raised in Tiaret, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Meliani, Samia; Benallou, Bouabdellah; Halbouche, Miloud; Haddouche, Zohra

    2013-01-01

    Objective To enhance effectiveness of reproduction management in Arabian mares, factors influencing the time of foaling were investigated in this study. Methods Data were collected at the National Haras of Tiaret in Algeria from 2003 to 2010. The foaling time of 255 Arabian pure bred mares, aged from 3 to 20 years were used for this study. Results A total of 78.07% of foaling happens between 7 pm and 6 am. Conclusions The influence of the month of foaling and the sex of the foal, on the time of foaling was statically significant. PMID:23835758

  16. Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) Mission Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.; Carson, John M., III

    2017-01-01

    On December 11, 1972, Apollo 17 marked the last controlled U.S. lunar landing and was followed by an absence of methodical in-situ investigation of the lunar surface. The Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) proposal provides scientific measurement of the age and composition of a relatively young portion of the lunar surface near Aristarchus Plateau and the first post-Apollo U.S. soft lunar landing. It includes the first demonstration of a crew survivability-enhancing autonomous hazard detection and avoidance system. This report focuses on the mission design and performance associated with the MARE robotic lunar landing subject to mission and trajectory constraints.

  17. Hepatoencephalopathy and hypocalcemia in a miniature horse mare.

    PubMed

    Scarratt, W K; Furr, M O; Robertson, J L

    1991-12-15

    A pregnant, miniature horse mare had clinical signs of hepatoencephalopathy and concurrent hypocalcemia. The signs included dullness, inappetence, blindness, head pressing, weakness, muscle fasiculations, uveitis, and urinary incontinence. Hepatic dysfunction and hypocalcemia were confirmed by serum biochemical analysis. The mare was treated successfully with a continuous infusion of Ringer solution, calcium gluconate, dextrose, B-complex vitamins, sodium ampicillin, and flunixin meglumine; topical administration of ophthalmic ointments; and decompression of the urinary bladder. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy specimen revealed acute hepatic necrosis, which likely was associated with administration of a vaccine of equine origin 2 months earlier.

  18. NELS 2.0 - A general system for enterprise wide information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephanie L.

    1993-01-01

    NELS, the NASA Electronic Library System, is an information management tool for creating distributed repositories of documents, drawings, and code for use and reuse by the aerospace community. The NELS retrieval engine can load metadata and source files of full text objects, perform natural language queries to retrieve ranked objects, and create links to connect user interfaces. For flexibility, the NELS architecture has layered interfaces between the application program and the stored library information. The session manager provides the interface functions for development of NELS applications. The data manager is an interface between session manager and the structured data system. The center of the structured data system is the Wide Area Information Server. This system architecture provides access to information across heterogeneous platforms in a distributed environment. There are presently three user interfaces that connect to the NELS engine; an X-Windows interface, and ASCII interface and the Spatial Data Management System. This paper describes the design and operation of NELS as an information management tool and repository.

  19. Remote sensing and photogrammetric studies: Part A: remote sensing of Mare Serenitatis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, T.W.; Howard, K.A.; Shorthill, R.W.; Tyler, G.L.; Zisk, S.H.; Whitaker, E.A.; Schaber, G.G.; Moore, H.J.

    1973-01-01

    Mare Serenitatis is a circular mare approximately 600 km in diameter in the northeast quadrant of the lunar near side. It occupies an old multi-ringed basin (refs. 33-1 and 33-2) and is the site of a prominent mascon (ref. 33-3). A conspicuous dark annulus in this mare prompted subdivision of the mare materials into different stratigraphic units (refs. 33-2 and 33-4). A revised stratigraphic sequence for the southern part of Mare Serenitatis, based on photogeologic interpretation of Apollo 15 and 17 photographs, is summarized as follows after Howard et al.

  20. Composition, mineralogy, and petrology of 28 mare basalts from Apollo 15 rake samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, E.; Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

    1973-01-01

    Twenty-eight mare basalts from three Apollo 15 rake sample sections are divided into five rock groups which are considered to represent at least five rock units. Three of these groups (pyroxene-phyric basalt, olivine-phyric basalt, and olivine microgabbro) are from the mare area and are probably near-surface local mare rock units. The remaining groups (feldspathic peridotite and feldspathic microgabbro) are found outside the mare, in Spur Crater at the foot of the Apennines; they may come from deeper levels of the local mare or from a more distant source.

  1. Headshaking in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented with a 2.5-week history of headshaking. Based on a thorough physical examination, blood analysis, and a fine needle aspirate of an enlarged thyroid gland, a tentative diagnosis of seasonal idiopathic headshaking was made. Treatment with cyproheptadine was attempted. PMID:15025153

  2. Kraken Mare bathymetry and composition from Cassini RADAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrogiuseppe, M., Sr.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Le Gall, A. A.; Casarano, D.; Hofgartner, J. D.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Notarnicola, C.; Poggiali, V.; Karatekin, O.; Seu, R.

    2014-12-01

    On August 21st, 2014, the Cassini spacecraft will perform its T104 fly-by of Titan. The T104 fly-by will present unique opportunity to sound depths of the Titan biggest sea - Kraken Mare. During closest approach, the RADAR will be pointed at nadir and collect data along a 200 km shore-to-shore track of Kraken Mare. Based on the recent May 2013 (T91) nadir observations of Ligeia Mare, which were used to construct a bathymetric profile and determined the sea's loss tangent, we expect to detect echoes from both surface and seafloor of Kraken with the opportunity to derive the depth and composition of Titan's largest sea. The possibility to sound the deepest points of Kraken will depend mainly on the liquids absorption, seafloor morphology and surface flatness. Regardless, however, the near-shore returns are expected to provide sea-floor echo's above the Cassini RADAR's noise floor. We will present the results of the T104 flyby and contrast them against the results of similar analysis for both Ligeia Mare and Ontario Lacus. When analysed together, the results from all three will help discern the role of lakes/seas in Titan' overall hydrocarbon-based hydrologic cycle.

  3. Improved Digitization of Lunar Mare Ridges with LROC Derived Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, J. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Watters, T. R.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Enns, A. C.; Lawrence, S.

    2011-12-01

    Lunar wrinkle ridges (mare ridges) are positive-relief structures formed from compressional stress in basin-filling flood basalt deposits [1]. Previous workers have measured wrinkle ridge orientations and lengths to investigate their spatial distribution and infer basin-localized stress fields [2,3]. Although these plots include the most prominent mare ridges and their general trends, they may not have fully captured all of the ridges, particularly the smaller-scale ridges. Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC) global mosaics and derived topography (100m pixel scale) [4], we systematically remapped wrinkle ridges in Mare Serenitatis. By comparing two WAC mosaics with different lighting geometry, and shaded relief maps made from a WAC digital elevation model (DEM) [5], we observed that some ridge segments and some smaller ridges are not visible in previous structure maps [2,3]. In the past, mapping efforts were limited by a fixed Sun direction [6,7]. For systematic mapping we created three shaded relief maps from the WAC DEM with solar azimuth angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, and a fourth map was created by combining the three shaded reliefs into one, using a simple averaging scheme. Along with the original WAC mosaic and the WAC DEM, these four datasets were imported into ArcGIS, and the mare ridges of Imbrium, Serenitatis, and Tranquillitatis were digitized from each of the six maps. Since the mare ridges are often divided into many ridge segments [8], each major component was digitized separately, as opposed to the ridge as a whole. This strategy enhanced our ability to analyze the lengths, orientations, and abundances of these ridges. After the initial mapping was completed, the six products were viewed together to identify and resolve discrepancies in order to produce a final wrinkle ridge map. Comparing this new mare ridge map with past lunar tectonic maps, we found that many mare ridges were not recorded in the previous works. It was noted

  4. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Endometrium of Mares Infused with Gentamicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bagdadi, F. K.; Eilts, B. E.; Richardson, G. F.

    2004-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the endometrium of nine 1-year-old thoroughbred mares after twice intrauterine infusions of gentamicin, on 2 consecutive days. Five mares were infused on 2 consecutive days with 40 ml gentamicin (50 mg/ml) mixed with 80 ml of normal saline. Four mares served as controls and were infused with 120 ml of saline on 2 consecutive days. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from all mares 3 days after the second intrauterine infusion. Each biopsy was processed for SEM by standard methods. The endometrial epithelium of the gentamicin-infused mares had more cellular perforations than the saline-infused mares. The gentamicin-infused mares had less and shorter microvilli. The ciliated cells were fewer and some ciliated cells had disrupted and some had drooping cilia. The endometrial epithelium of the gentamicin-infused mares had a considerable number of endometrial cells that lost their luminal surfaces and some that lost their microvilli, compared to the saline-infused mares. We suggest that the information gathered in this pilot study should be used as basis for further investigation, on a larger scale basis, of the effects of repeated intrauterine infusion of gentamicin on the endometrial mucosa of mares.

  5. Understanding the composition of the lunar mare through reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, Brett Wilcox

    2007-08-01

    In order to quantify the spectral behavior of maturity variations in the mare, spectral trends of nearly 10,000 craters in six mare regions are examined. Radiative transfer theory is used to model these trends in order to better understand their causes. The maturity trends are confirmed to be more parallel than radial as previously suggested, and this fact is exploited to develop a new algorithm for determination of iron content in mare regions. This new mare iron algorithm better compensates for maturity than previous methods, and uncertainties due to maturity variations are less than 0.5 wt% FeO. Measured optical constants of synthetic glasses of lunar-like compositions are used to predict the optical constants of any glass of an arbitrary combination of FeO and TiO 2 content. These optical constants are employed along with radiative transfer theory to determine composition from telescopic spectra of three regional lunar pyroclastic deposits which are likely to contain large amounts of glass: the Aristarchus Plateau, Mare Humorum, and Sulpicius Gallus. The imaginary coefficient of the complex index of refraction ( k ) is derived from reflectance spectra of 30 pyroxenes. Modified Gaussian modeling is applied to these k spectra to obtain two continuum parameters and nine Gaussian parameters that describe the 1, 2, and 1.2 mm crystal field absorptions. Multiple regression results indicate that the continuum and Gaussian parameters are well predicted by pyroxene FeO and CaO contents; thus, a method to predict a complete pyroxene k spectrum from its FeO and CaO concentrations is developed. The ability of radiative transfer modeling to reproduce reflectance spectra of known composition, and extract compositional information from reflectance spectra, is examined. This model is tested using spectra of mineral mixtures, nine lunar mare soil samples studied by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium, and the Apollo 11 landing site. The model is able to accurately

  6. Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) Mission Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The moon’s surface last saw a controlled landing from a U.S. spacecraft on December 11, 1972 with Apollo 17. Since that time, there has been an absence of methodical in-situ investigation of the lunar surface. In addition to the scientific value of measuring the age and composition of a relatively young portion of the lunar surface near Aristarchus Plateau, the Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) proposal provides the first U.S. soft lunar landing since the Apollo Program and the first ever robotic soft lunar landing employing an autonomous hazard detection and avoidance system, a system that promises to enhance crew safety and survivability during a manned lunar (or other) landing. This report focuses on the mission design and performance associated with the MARE robotic lunar landing subject to mission and trajectory constraints.

  7. Lunar mare domes - Classification and modes of origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Gifford, A.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, lunar mare domes (LMDs) are classified according to morphologic and morphometric (primarily diameter) characteristics, and consideration is given to their origin and role in lunar surface processes. In general, they occur either as low, flat, circular structures with convex shapes, slopes less than about 5 deg, and display summit craters, or as irregular structures often adjacent to highland regions and rarely containing summit craters. It is found that LMDs originate through extrusion of lavas through vents to produce low lava shields, or through flooding and draping of preexisting topography to produce kipukas and irregular domes. Smooth, vent-related mare domes range from about 3-17 km in diameter and up to several hundred meters in elevation; they are similar in morphology to small terrestrial lava shields.

  8. Improving Information Management at Mare Island Naval Shipyard.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    in accomplishing a complex over- haul of a modern vessel. Present system problems resulting in ineffi- ciencies and information degradation are...Shipyard MIS installed by the Bureau of Ships (BUSHIPS) in the early sixties to aid shipyard managers in accomplishing a complex overhaul of a modern vessel... complex organizations, such as the Mare Island Naval Shipyard, managers must work together to provide one another with the accurate and timely

  9. On the natural remanent magnetism of certain mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, M.; Meshkov, E.; Cisowski, S. M.; Hale, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and magnetic properties of five fine-grain mare basalts were investigated. The NRM of two vitrophyres has a large soft component, and the directional stability during AF demagnetization is poor. The remaining samples have NRM which is too soft to be of thermal origin and yet too hard to be simply isothermal contamination. It is suggested that the NRM of the samples could be shock remanent magnetization.

  10. A case of Candida guilliermondii abortion in an Arab mare

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species. PMID:24707460

  11. Vermiculation patterns in Coiba Mare cave, Bihor Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Guja, Ovidiu; Stefanescu, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Vermiculation patterns developing on cave surfaces are certainly a spectacular feature. Sometimes vermiculation cover hundreds of square meters, like for example in Coiba Mare cave, which is situated in the Bihor Mountains, Romania. The Coiba Mare Cave is located at 1020 m altitude, on the Gardisoara Valley, not far from the Casa de Piatra Hamlet, in the Apuseni Natural Park (Bihor Mountains) situated in the western part of Romania. The first written document concerning the cave dates back to 1929, when R. Jeannel and E. Racovitza presented a brief description. Speleological investigations, which were started by I. Viehmann, D. Coman and M. Bleahu in 1953, were continued by several speleological clubs during 1975-1976. In this study, we are investigating the mineralogy, stable isotope distribution and patterns of vermiculations in the Coiba Mare cave. Material from the vermiculations developed on cave wall was analysed using Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive analyses (EDS). The material consists mainly of calcite with traces of quartz, muscovite, chlinochlore, kaolinite, potassium feldspar and organic material. In Coiba Mare, the general look of the vermiculation pattern is that of a "pelli de leopardo" (Leopard's spots), a term used by Bini et al. (1978) for large vermiculations composed of clay. In the light of previous literature and according, to the own field and laboratory data a mechanism responsible for the formation of vermiculations is proposed. Evaporation and water film rupture cause the concentration of the loose particles. Evaporation is also associated with the formation of calcite microcrystals at the water-air interface. Concentration of the particle in vermiculations patterns and crystallisation is the result of evaporation and shrinking water spots.

  12. Consortium reports on lunar meteorites Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757, a new type of mare basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanai, Keizo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Lindstrom, M. M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Torigoe, N.; Misawa, K.; Warren, P. H.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Koeberl, C.; Kojima, H.

    1993-01-01

    Consortium studies on lunar meteorites Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757 (formerly Asuka-31) were performed to characterize these new samples from unknown locations in the lunar mare. Both meteorites are coarse-grained mare rocks having low Mg/Fe ratios (bulk mg'=30-35) and low TiO2 (1.5-2.5 percent in homogenized bulk samples). They are intermediate between VLT and low-Ti mare basalts. Although these meteorites are not identical to each other, their mineral and bulk compositions, isotopic systematics, and crystallization ages are remarkably similar and distinct from those of all other mare basalts. They appear to represent a new type of low-Ti mare basalt that crystallized at about 3.9Ga. These meteorites are inconsistent with the canonical correlation between the TiO2 contents and ages of mare basalts and suggest that our knowledge of lunar volcanism is far from complete.

  13. Factors affecting gestation length in the Thoroughbred mare.

    PubMed

    Davies Morel, M C G; Newcombe, J R; Holland, S J

    2002-12-16

    In order to assist in the accurate prediction of the timing of parturition in the mare true gestation length, along with the potential effect of a number of factors, was investigated. Data from 433 Thoroughbred foal pregnancies were used. Sequential ultrasonic scanning allowed the true gestation length (fertilisation-parturition) to be ascertained, as apposed to previous work, which used the mating-parturition interval. An average gestation length of 344.1 +/- 0.49 days was evident. Colt foal pregnancies were significantly (P < 0.001) longer (346.2 +/- 0.72) than fillies (342.4 +/- 0.65). Month of birth had a significant effect on gestation length in all foals (P < 0.001). With foals born in January having the shortest gestation lengths and those born in April the longest. Mare age, year of birth, stallion age, stud farm and the interval between ovulation and mating had no significant effect. It is concluded that (i) the gestation length range (315-388 days), all resulting in viable foals is noteworthy and of clinical importance when considering the classification of dysmaturity in foals, (ii) mares carrying colt foals due to be born in the middle of the breeding season (April) are likely to have the longer gestation lengths.

  14. School, Individual and Item Nonresponse in the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) Base Year Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; And Others

    Nonresponse issues are investigated for the base year (1988) survey of the United States Department of Education's National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), a national probability sample of middle schools and eighth-grade students in the spring of 1988. The total eighth-grade enrollment for the NELS:88 sample of schools was 203,002;…

  15. Remote Sensing and Geologic Studies of Mare Australe: The North Australe Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, S. J.; Stopar, J. D.; Ostrach, L. R.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; Giguere, T. A.; Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    A key goal of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is to investigate volcanic processes at different temporal and physical scales, with one emphasis being the characterization of ancient (meaning, greater than 3.9 Ga) volcanic units. One such ancient volcanic terrain is Mare Australe, a loosely-circular collection of mare basalts centered at approximately 38.9 deg S, 93 deg E (Fig. 1). Mare Australe is a complex, extensive, and poorly understood volcanic region.

  16. Ages and stratigraphy of lunar mare basalts in Mare Frigoris and other nearside maria based on crater size-frequency distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W.; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2010-03-01

    We report on ages derived from impact crater counts for exposed mare basalt units in the northern part of the lunar nearside hemisphere (Mare Frigoris), the eastern and northeastern part of the nearside hemisphere (Lacus Temporis, Joliot, Hubble, Goddard, Mare Marginis, and Mare Smythii), the central part of the nearside hemisphere (Palus Putredinis, Mare Vaporum, and Sinus Medii), and the southwestern part of the nearside hemisphere (Grimaldi, Crüger, Rocca A, Lacus Aestatis, and Schickard). In Mare Frigoris, we dated 37 basalt units, showing ages from 2.61 to 3.77 Gyr, with most units being formed in the late Imbrian period between 3.4 and 3.8 Gyr ago. In Mare Vaporum we dated six spectrally homogeneous units that show model ages of 3.10 to 3.61 Gyr. Our model ages of basalts in Mare Marginis range from 3.38 to 3.88 Gyr and are mostly older than basalts in Mare Smythii (3.14-3.48 Gyr). The model ages of four units in Sinus Medii indicate that the basalts in this region formed 3.63 to 3.79 Gyr ago. We find an excellent agreement of our crater size-frequency model ages of the Palus Putredinis area, which contains the Apollo 15 landing site, with the radiometric ages of Apollo 15 samples. According to our crater counts, basalts in Palus Putredinis are 3.34 Gyr old and this compares favorably with the radiometric ages of 3.30-3.35 Gyr of the olivine-normative and quartz-normative basalts of the Apollo 15 landing site. Lacus Aestatis is a small irregular-shaped mare patch in the southwestern nearside and shows an Imbrian age of 3.50 Gyr; basalts in Lacus Temporis in the northeastern nearside formed between 3.62 and 3.74 Gyr ago and are, therefore, older than the basalts in Lacus Aestatis. We found that basalts in craters of the southwestern nearside (Schickard, Grimaldi, Crüger, and Rocca A) are also mostly younger than basalts in craters of the northeastern nearside (Hubble, Joliot, and Goddard). While basalt ages vary between 3.16 and 3.75 Gyr in the southwest

  17. Trace-element modelling of mare basalt parental melts: Implications for a heterogeneous lunar mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallis, L. J.; Anand, M.; Strekopytov, S.

    2014-06-01

    The heterogeneous-source model of mare basalt formation indicates that Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) overturn produced an uneven mixture of early-formed olivine and pyroxene, and late-formed, ilmenite-rich cumulates, which subsequently partially melted to give rise to mare magmas. These heterogeneous cumulate source regions would not only have been characterised by different mineral modal abundances, but also by different trace element compositions. The aim of this work was to investigate the petrology and geochemistry of a diverse suite of Apollo mare basalts, and utilise trace-element modelling in order to understand their petrogenetic history. Chemical modelling confirms that the mare basalts were produced by relatively small degrees of partial melting (<10%) of the LMO cumulates, and that the dominant melting type (batch vs. fractional) varies among different basalt groups. Similarly, single-source mineralogy cannot be applied to all mare basalt types, confirming that the lunar mantle was heterogeneous at the time of generation of mare magmas. Plagioclase is not required in the source of most mare basalts, with the notable exception of the Apollo 14 high-Al basalts. Addition of more than 1% plagioclase to the source of other basalts produces weaker negative Eu anomalies than those observed in the samples. AFC calculations demonstrate the compositional differences between materials assimilated into the Apollo 14 high-Al and Apollo 11 high-K mare basalt partial melts, highlighting the complexities of mare basalt petrogenesis.

  18. Real-time characterization of the uterine blood flow in mares before and after artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J C; Ignácio, F S; Rocha, N S; Thompson, D L; Pinto, C R; Meira, C

    2015-09-01

    The present experiment was divided into two studies to investigate the effect of age and endometrial degeneration on uterine blood flow of mares throughout the immediate post-breeding period. In study 1, uterine blood flow was characterized in mares (n = 7 mares/group) with minimal, moderate or severe endometrial degenerative changes (GI, GII and GIII, respectively). In study 2, the effect of age was investigated using young (≤ 6 years) and old (≥ 15 years) mares (n = 7 mares/group). Uterine vascular perfusion and mesometrial pulsatility index (PI) were evaluated every hour from H0 (moment immediately before AI) to H12. In study 1, a pronounced and transitory increase on uterine vascular perfusion was detected (P < 0.001) between H1 and H3 in the three endometrial groups. In addition, GIII mares had greater (P < 0.05) mesometrial PI than GI mares during the post-breeding period, denoting reduced uterine blood flow. In study 2, a transitory increase on uterine vascular perfusion was also observed in both age groups during the first hour after mating. However, mesometrial PI of young and old mares was similar (P > 0.05) and constant (P > 0.7) through the first 12h after AI. Results demonstrated, for the first time, the immediate changes on uterine vascular perfusion and mesometrial PI in response to semen infusion. Moreover, reduced blood flow of the uterus during the post-breeding period was strongly associated with endometrial degenerative changes in mares, regardless of age.

  19. Study of Mare Moscoviense based on orbital NIR hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Megha; Wöhler, Christian; Bhardwaj, Anil; Mall, Urs; Grumpe, Arne; Rommel, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The Moscoviense basin is an important lunar farside impact basin. Previous studies of this region suggest compositional variations across the mare basalts, and significant positive gravity anomaly within the basin [1, 2]. In the highlands immediately west of the mare regions inside the Moscoviense basin, unusual spectral signatures indicating small deposits of orthopyroxene, olivine and spinel have been detected [3]. A detailed study of the Moscoviense basin thus allows for an examination of lunar farside highland materials and mare basalts of varying composition and age, providing insights into the lunar mantle composition and magmatic history. We present a geological study of Mare Moscoviense based on near-infrared high-resolution hyperspectral data obtained by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) [4] and the near-infrared spectrometer, SIR-2 [5]. An M3 reflectance mosaic of the region has been prepared after applying corrections for thermal emission and topography. Two SIR-2 orbits recorded from 100 km spacecraft altitude have also been used for mineralogical study of the region. Elemental abundance maps of Ti, Ca and Mg as well as a petrologic map have been prepared based on the method described in [6]. Furthermore, we utilized the three different algorithms described in [6, 7, 8] for estimating Fe abundances using the 1-µm and/or 2-µm absorption band parameters. This comparative study aims to identify and map the major morphological and compositional units within the Mare Moscoviense region. References: [1] Gillis et al. (1998) Ph.D. thesis, 248 pp., Rice Univ., Houston, Texas; [2] Kramer et al. (2008) JGR 113, E01002, doi:10.1029/2006JE002860; [3] Pieters et al. (2011) JGR 116, E00G08, doi:10.1029/2010JE003727; [4] Pieters C. M. et al. (2009) Current Science 96, 500-505; [5] Mall, U. et al. (2009) Current Science 96, 506-511; [6] Wöhler C. et al. (2014) Icarus 235, 86-122; [7] Lucey P. G. et al. (2000) JGR 105, 20297-20306; [8] Bhatt M. et al. (2015) Icarus 248

  20. Hepatic encephalopathy in a pregnant mare: identification of histopathological changes in the brain of a mare and fetus.

    PubMed

    Johns, I C; Del Piero, F; Wilkins, P A

    2007-08-01

    An 11-year-old Thoroughbred broodmare was evaluated for suspected hepatic dysfunction. Clinical signs of hepatic encephalopathy were evident at admission. Hepatic ultrasonographic evaluation revealed an increase in hepatic size, rounded borders and normal echogenicity. There was no evidence of cholelithiasis or bile duct distention. Increased activity of hepatic enzymes, increased bile acid and bilirubin concentration and an increased ammonia concentration were supportive of a diagnosis of hepatic disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Histopathological evaluation of a liver biopsy specimen was consistent with chronic active hepatitis. The mare was treated with intravenous fluids and antimicrobials, pentoxyfilline, branched-chain amino acids and dietary manipulation. Clinical improvement was observed initially; however, 3 weeks later, deterioration in the mare's condition necessitated euthanasia. Pathological lesions at necropsy were restricted to the liver and brain. The liver was diffusely firm with a prominent reticular pattern on the cut surface. A large choledocholith was present in the main bile duct of the left liver lobe. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed severe fibrosis, with hyperplastic bile ducts and mononuclear and neutrophilic inflammation. Pathological changes consistent with hepatic encephalopathy, (Alzheimer type II cells), were evident in the cerebrum of both the mare and the fetus.

  1. Markers of the uterine innate immune response of the mare.

    PubMed

    Nash, D M; Sheldon, I M; Herath, S; Lane, E A

    2010-05-01

    Reproductive efficiency in mares is low and persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) is an important cause of subfertility. Mating-induced endometritis (MIE) an obligate precursor to PMIE, is a ubiquitous, transient inflammatory response to the presence of sperm, seminal components and pathogens. However, the specific inflammatory pathways that derive from MIE and that may also be precursors to PMIE are not clear. The ability to identify and measure robust, repeatable markers of inflammation integral to MIE may be key to understanding the progression to PMIE. The aim of the study was to (i) refine a protocol for inducing MIE and in doing so test a range of cellular and molecular parameters as valid markers of MIE to facilitate future studies of mares susceptible to PMIE (ii) concurrently identify those parameters with potential as inflammatory indicators during MIE to inform and enhance early treatment regimens in practice. Mating-induced endometritis was induced in pony mares using a stringent protocol; mares were treated intrauterine with frozen/thawed semen (n = 5; FTS) or frozen/thawed extender (n = 6: FTEx). The parameters tested were measured before treatment were compared to samples collected at strategic time points after treatment: uterine cytology using cytological (at 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment) or histological analysis (at 24 and 72 h); uterine bacteriology (at 24 and 72 h); secretion of prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha); at 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h); peripheral concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA; at 24h); endometrial mRNA gene expression, focussing upon IL8 and TLR4, as examples of genes pertinent to inflammation (at 24 h). Uterine neutrophil cell numbers in both treatment groups increased at 8 (P < 0.001), 16 (P < 0.01) and 24 (P < 0.01) h after insemination, indicative of MIE and distinguished between different treatments because neutrophil numbers were greater from FTS mares than FTEx mares 8h after challenge. Uterine

  2. The Concentrations of Circulating Plasma Oxytocin and the Pattern of Oxytocin Release in Mare during Oestrus and after Ovulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sung Eun

    Mares susceptible to persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) accumulate intrauterine fluid after mating. One of the factors causing delayed uterine clearance is thought to be impaired uterine contractility. Oxytocin is central in controlling myometrial contractility. The objective of the present study was to describe peripheral oxytocin release during estrus and in the early postovulatory period in reproductively-normal mares and to compare the baseline circulating oxytocin concentrations in reproductively-normal mares and mares with PMIE. Blood samples were collected from reproductively-normal mares (n=5) from day -5 of estrus to day 2 postovulation and every 5 min for 30 min from reproductively-normal mares (n=5) and mares with PMIE (n=5) on day 3 of estrus. Pulsatile secretion of oxytocin was observed in all mares. Mean plasma oxytocin concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) in estrus (day -5 to day -2) than on the day of ovulation (day 0). After ovulation, plasma oxytocin concentrations tended to increase. On day 3 of estrus, plasma oxytocin concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01) in reproductively-normal mares than in mares with PMIE. The results showed there is a significant difference in plasma oxytocin concentrations between mares to PMIE. The low plasma oxytocin concentrations in mares with PMIE may contribute to predisposing factors in their poor uterine clearance in these mares.

  3. Identifying Students at Risk of Low Achievement in NAEP and NELS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark; And Others

    Data from the 1990 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS) are analyzed for eighth graders to distinguish the characteristics of low-achieving groups and the independent predictors of low test scores. Results provide a basis for evaluating the adequacy of the NAEP for these…

  4. The pattern of embryonic fixation and its relationship to pregnancy loss in thoroughbred mares.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Davies Morel, M C G; Dhaliwal, G S; Dadarwal, D

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasonographic pregnancy records of 195 mares from six Thoroughbred stud farms, over a period of 7 years were retrospectively analysed to assess the effect of various factors on embryonic vesicle (EV) fixation pattern and pregnancy outcome. Of the total of 746 pregnancies analysed, significantly (p < 0.01) more EV fixations were evident in the right uterine horn than in the left (53.35% vs 46.65% respectively). There was no significant effect of either, the side of ovulation, or age of the mare, on the side of EV fixation. However, EV fixation, was significantly (p < 0.001) more likely to occur in the right uterine horn in maiden and barren mares (65.75% vs 57.45% respectively). The age and reproductive status of the mare as well as foal heat breeding failed to demonstrate a consistent effect on pregnancy loss relative to the side of EV fixation. In lactating and foal heat bred mares, EVs were significantly (p < 0.0001) more frequently established in the contralateral horn to the one from which the mare delivered her most recent foal. In lactating mares, significantly (p < 0.05) higher embryonic and pregnancy losses were observed in the ipsilateral horn. In conclusion, (a) side of EV fixation was (i) independent of the side of ovulation and mare age (ii) significantly (p < 0.001) affected by reproductive status, (b) neither age of mare nor reproductive status had any effect on pregnancy loss rates relative to the side of EV fixation and (c) in lactating mares the EV had a greater chance of fixation and survival in the horn contralateral to the one from which the mare delivered her most recent foal.

  5. Efficacy of domperidone gel in an induced model of fescue toxicosis in periparturient mares.

    PubMed

    Cross, D L; Reinemeyer, C R; Prado, J C; Donnell, R L; Bond, K G; Farr, H; Longhofer, S L

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of domperidone in the prevention of reproductive complications of fescue toxicosis in periparturient mares. Pregnant mares at ≤310 days of gestation were fed ≥200 μg ergovaline per kg diet daily in endophyte-infected fescue hay and seed, starting ≥30 days before their expected foaling date (EFD: 340 days after breeding). Thirty-five mares were randomized to a treatment group to receive either domperidone gel (n = 20, 1.1 mg/kg, PO, once daily) or placebo (n = 15). Treatment was initiated 10 to 15 days before the EFD and continued for 5 days after foaling. "Treatment success" was defined as foaling within 14 days of the EFD, adequate mammary development on the day of foaling, and adequate lactation for 5 days postpartum. Twenty-seven mares were included in the effectiveness analysis. More mares in the domperidone group (12/13, P < 0.0001) were treatment successes than in the control group (1/14). Gestation length was shorter (P = 0.0011), and lactation at foaling (P = 0.0011) was better for the domperidone-group mares. Foals from two control mares were born dead and four others died or were euthanized within a few days after birth, compared with one foal death (an autolyzed twin) from a domperidone-treated mare. Plasma IgG concentrations were evaluated in 24 foals. Failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins (IgG <800 mg/dL) occurred in 13/16 (81%) foals of domperidone-group mares and 7/8 (88%) foals of control mares. In conclusion, the reproductive complications of fescue toxicosis in periparturient mares induced by a fescue seed/hay model were prevented by treatment with domperidone.

  6. Nel positively regulates the genesis of retinal ganglion cells by promoting their differentiation and survival during development.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Chizu; Kuan, Soh-Leh; Findlay, Amy S; Durward, Elaine; Ouyang, Zhufeng; Zakrzewska, Ewa D; Endo, Takuma; Nakamoto, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    For correct functioning of the nervous system, the appropriate number and complement of neuronal cell types must be produced during development. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the production of individual classes of neurons are poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the function of the thrombospondin-1-like glycoprotein, Nel (neural epidermal growth factor [EGF]-like), in the generation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in chicks. During eye development, Nel is strongly expressed in the presumptive retinal pigment epithelium and RGCs. Nel overexpression in the developing retina by in ovo electroporation increases the number of RGCs, whereas the number of displaced amacrine cells decreases. Conversely, knockdown of Nel expression by transposon-mediated introduction of RNA interference constructs results in decrease in RGC number and increase in the number of displaced amacrine cells. Modifications of Nel expression levels do not appear to affect proliferation of retinal progenitor cells, but they significantly alter the progression rate of RGC differentiation from the central retina to the periphery. Furthermore, Nel protects RGCs from apoptosis during retinal development. These results indicate that Nel positively regulates RGC production by promoting their differentiation and survival during development.

  7. Baia Mare accident--brief ecotoxicological report of Czech experts.

    PubMed

    Soldán, P; Pavonic, M; Boucek, J; Kokes, J

    2001-07-01

    On 30 January 2000, following the breach in the tailing dam of the Aurul SA Baia Mare Co., a major spill of about 100,000 m(3) of cyanide and metal-rich liquid waste was released into the river system near Baia Mare in northwest Romania. The pollutants flowed via different tributaries into the Tizsa (Tisa) river and finally through the Danube river into the Black Sea. Along the way pollutants (especially cyanides) caused rapid death of aquatic organisms and animals living close to the poisoned rivers. Following request from the governments of Romania, Hungary, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, United Nations sent international mission experts to the area of accident. The Czech team of four experts took very active part in this mission. Samples of surface water collected by this team 3 weeks after the accident showed high toxicity in the rivers on the Romanian territory. Due to this impact, water from the Szamos river and a large area of the Tisza river in Hungarian territory was still medially toxic. Improvement of this situation was detected only in downstream areas of the Tisza/Tisa river. The high toxicity of surface water from the locality of the Lapos river upstream of the accident indicated the possibility of toxic pollution from other sources in the area. Aquatic sediments were highly toxic only in the Aurul reservoir and its surrounding area. Rapid decline of their toxicity indicated more limited adverse impact of the "Aurul pollution" in comparison with surface water. From ecotoxicological results it is evident that there is an urgent need to start abatement activities in the Baia Mare area because the possibility of future accidents still exists (this hypothesis was proved by further accidents on 10.3.2000 and the beginning of May 2000).

  8. Compositional Gradients Across Mare and Highlands Contacts: The Importance and Geological Implication of Lateral Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    1997-07-01

    Variation in mare abundance across mare-highland contact depends on the relative importance of vertical and lateral mass transport. Nonlinear spectral mixing analysis of Clementine VIS-NIR data of the Grimaldi basin indicates that the abundance of mare and highland are approximately equal to 50% at the geologic contact and the amount of mare materials transported to the highlands is approximately equal to the amount of highland materials to the mare. Thus, vertical mixing is relatively unimportant except near the contact. There are apparently two mixing zones, a steep mixing gradient near the mare and highland contact and a more diffuse zone that extends some distance from the contact. The net transfer of mare across the geologic contact can be approximated by a diffusion process since the transport is a random process driven by impact cratering. We have developed a diffusion model and the results indicate that a typical profile of mare abundance requires two superimposed diffusion curves to match this compositional gradients. A third curve is found to be statistically invalid. The two diffusion parameters can be related to the geologic processes of regolith reworking and development that created the variations. This suggests that there are at least two superimposed processes at work, the one is the reworking of the surface ejecta debris having a larger diffusion coefficient, the other is the development of new regolith from subsurface layers having smaller diffusion coefficient.

  9. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. 117.169 Section 117.169 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a radius of 4,700 yards, centered at a point bearing 316° true, 3,605 yards, from Mare Island Strait Light...

  11. Lunar mare versus terrestrial mid-ocean ridge basalts - Planetary constraints on basaltic volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Bence, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Major differences which exist between terrestrial midocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and lunar mare basalts reflect the different planetary characteristics of earth and moon. MORBs are enriched in aluminum and have higher Mg/(Mg + Fe(2+)). These features reflect a more aluminum- and magnesium-rich mantle source for MORBs. Mare basalts are depleted in sodium and potassium relative to MORBs and, consequently, mare feldspars are depleted in the albite component relative to MORB feldspars; these features are a reflection of the alkali-depleted nature of the moon relative to earth. The oxygen fugacities that obtained during MORB petrogenesis follow the quartz-magnetite-fayalite buffer curve very closely, while those of mare basalts are several orders of magnitude lower. This results in reduced valence states for Fe, Cr, and Ti in mare basalts, which, in turn, has a significant effect on mineral-melt partitioning.

  12. Dark and baryonic matter in the MareNostrum Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlöber, S.; Yepes, G.; Khalatyan, A.; Sevilla, R.; Turchaninov, V.

    2006-11-01

    We report some results from one of the largest hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of large scale structures that has been done up to date. The MareNostrum Universe SPH simulation consists of 2 billion particles (2 × 10243) in a cubic box of 500 h-1 Mpc on a side. This simulation has been done in the MareNostrum parallel supercomputer at the Barcelona SuperComputer Center. Due to the large simulated volume and good mass resolution, our simulated catalog of dark matter halos comprises more than half a million objects with masses larger than a typical Milky Way galaxy halo. From this dataset we have studied several statistical properties such as the halo mass function, the distribution of shapes of dark and gas components within halos, the baryon fraction, cumulative void volume etc. This simulation is particularly useful to study the large scale distribution of baryons in the universe as a function of temperature and density. In this paper we also show the time evolution of the gas fractions at large scales.

  13. Petrologic models of 15388, a unique Apollo 15 mare basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, S. S.; Dasch, E. J.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    Mare basalt 15388, a feldspathic microgabbro from the Apennine Front, is chemically and petrographically distinct from Apollo 15 picritic, olivine-normative (ON), and quartz-normative basalts. The evolved chemistry, coarse texture, lack of olivine, and occurrence of cristobalite in 15388 argue for derivation by a late-stage magmatic process that is significantly removed from parental magma. It either crystallized from a magma evolved from the more mafic Apollo 15 basalts, or it crystallized from a currently unrepresented magma. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics yield isochron ages of 3.391 plus or minus 0.036 and 3.42 plus or minus 0.07 Ga, respectively, and epsilon(sub Nd) = 8.6 plus or minus 2.4, which is relatively high for Apollo 15 mare basalts. In contrast to chemical patterns of average Apollo 15 ON basalts and Apollo 15 picritic basalt, 15388 has a strongly positive LREE slope, high Ti, shallower HREE slope and a slightly positive Eu anomaly. These features argue against 15388 evolution by simple olivine fractionation of a parental ON or picritic basalt magma, although olivine is a dominant liquidus phase in both potential parents.

  14. Ultrasound confirmation of ovulation in mares: a normal corpus luteum or a haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle?

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Newcombe, J R

    2013-02-01

    The most common pathological anovulatory condition that occurs spontaneously during the breeding season in the mare is the haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle (HAF). A relatively high proportion of mares, soon after ovulation, develop a corpus haemorrhagicum (CH) with a central lacuna. This type of corpora lutea may resemble an HAF, which may complicate the accurate diagnosis of ovulation. The main objective of this study was to compare the ultrasound data of mares examined frequently with HAFs and CHs to elucidate whether it is possible to distinguish them from each other. A total of 135 ovulating mares were classified according to the morphology of the corpus luteum (CL) in mares with: a solid CL, a CH with small or with large central cavities. Ultrasound characteristics of the development of 11 HAF and 13 CHs with a large central cavity were compared. The pre-ovulatory follicular diameter of ovulatory mares was significantly correlated with the diameter of CH with large central cavities. The percentage of mares with post-ovulatory areas eligible to be mistaken with a CH was <25%. Although a predictive diagnosis of an HAF/CH can be made on the basis of several ultrasonographic endpoints, the only parameter that allows a definitive diagnosis is the thickness of the luteal border. This is <3 mm in HAFs in contrast to >5 mm in CHs. However, this only applies when the unidentified structure has non-organized contents.

  15. Morphometric Changes in Polish Konik Mares After Nearly a Hundred Years of the Breed's Existence.

    PubMed

    Pasicka, E; Tarnawski, K; Chrószcz, A; Geringer de Oedenberg, H

    2017-01-20

    The study was carried out on 126 mares of the Polish Konik horse breed. Mares were bred under a stable system housing and they came from five leading conservation breeding centres. The mares were divided into three age groups: 3-5 years old, 6-9 years old and over 10 years old. Each animal was characterized using 40 morphometric measurements. Discriminant analysis proved the exterior differences of mares in terms of the analysed metric values. It was concluded that the morphotype of modern Polish Konik mares is statistically significantly influenced by the following traits: neck ventral length, forearm circumference, distance between the vascular notch (incisura vasorum facialium) and the oral angle (angulus oris), distance between the margo coronalis ungulae and the margo solearis ungulae of the thoracic limb, thorax circumference and pelvis width. Conformation traits of the studied Polish Konik mares show multidirectional changes, prevailingly an upward trend in the mean values. However, shoulder height turned out to be definitely the least modified trait. Results obtained in the research presented herein may be a confirmation of progressing exterior transformations, which have been identified in the new generation, namely in the youngest group of mares of this breed.

  16. Pregnancy disruption in artificially inseminated domestic horse mares as a counterstrategy against potential infanticide.

    PubMed

    Bartoš, L; Bartošová, J; Pluháček, J

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study, we suggested that the common practice of transporting a mare for mating and then bringing her back to an environment that also contains males that did not sire the fetus may be a major cause of high percentages of pregnancy disruption in domestic horses. In this study, we tested whether disruption of pregnancies induced by AI occurs as frequently as after mating with a strange stallion away from home and is affected by the same factors in the home social environment. Based on 77 records, the probability of pregnancy disruption after AI depended on the social environment in which the mare was maintained after mating and the number of foals the mare had delivered in the past. Also after AI, as with natural matings away from home, the probability of pregnancy disruption was higher when the mare had no male company in her enclosure but stallions or geldings were present in an adjacent enclosure than when the mare was sharing the enclosure with geldings (generalized linear mixed model = 8.68, = 0.007, odds ratio = 8.17). These data support the prediction that the mare perceives conception after AI equally to natural mating with a strange stallion. The results suggested pregnancy disruption may be stimulated by the social circumstances of the home environment in mares artificially inseminated as in mares mated naturally away from home. The practical implications of this result is that after AI, to reduce risk of pregnancy disruption and improve welfare, horse breeders should place the pregnant mare into an environment with no stallion or stallions/gelding or geldings or to an enclosure together with the male or males.

  17. Histomorphometry of the placental vasculature and microcotyledons in Thoroughbred mares with chronic laminitis.

    PubMed

    Pazinato, Fernanda M; Curcio, Bruna da Rosa; Fernandes, Cristina G; Santos, Carlos A; Feijó, Lorena S; Varela, Antonio Sérgio; Nogueira, Carlos E W

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the placental vasculature and microcotyledons in pregnant mares with chronic laminitis. Twenty-six pregnant mares were enrolled in the study, 13 had chronic laminitis (Laminitis Group) and 13 were healthy mares (Healthy Group). Arterial systolic pressure and heart rate were measured in the last 30 days of gestation. After foaling, the fetal membranes were grossly evaluated and samples were harvested for histopathologic examination. All mares had digitalized images taken from chorioallantois for histomorphometry analyses (software-NIH ImageJ). Images were assessed for: (i) arterioles from the allantoic region: total and lumen vascular diameter and vascular wall thickness; (ii) microcotiledonary and capillary area/field. Mares in the Laminitis Group showed hypertension, shorter gestational length, lower placental weight and lower birthweight (p < 0.05) foal in comparison with mares in the Healthy Group. Laminitis mares had a reduction of vascular lumen diameters in the uterine body and pregnant horn (p < 0.05), vascular wall thickening in the pregnant horn (p < 0.05) and smaller capillary area/field in the microcotyledons of uterine body and pregnant horn (p < 0.05). In conclusion, pregnant mares with chronic laminitis presented signs of hypertension syndrome, and vascular abnormalitities in placental vessels such as reduction in the vascular lumen and capillary area in the microcotyledones, and thickening of the vascular wall. Foals born from mares with chronic laminitis showed lower birth weight and shorter gestation lengths.

  18. Reproductive efficiency of Thoroughbred mares under Indian subtropical conditions: A retrospective survey over 7 years.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sumeet; Dhaliwal, G S; Dadarwal, Dinesh

    2010-02-01

    Service records of 253 mares (1181 mare-years) spanning over 7 consecutive years, from nine organized Thoroughbred stud farms, situated in the subtropical northwestern India were retrospectively analyzed to assess their reproductive performance. The overall per cycle pregnancy rate at Day 16 and overall foaling rates were 50.30% and 68.95%, respectively, and were significantly higher in mares aged 3-7 years than > or =18 years old mares. The late embryonic losses (9.86%) that occurred between Days 16 and 39 post-ovulation contributed more than 50% of the overall detected pregnancy losses (19.11%). The overall percent detected pregnancy losses were lower in mares at ages 3-7 years compared to those at ages > or =18 years (14.78% vs. 46.43%, respectively; P<0.0001). Chronic barren and habitual aborter mares tended to affect reproductive efficiency of mares. Fifty percent of the mares that experienced > or =2 consecutive abortions or barren years, again stayed aborted or barren in the next seasons, respectively. No effect of numbers of matings per oestrus was observed on overall fertility. Neither the induction of oestrus nor ovulation by exogenous hormonal treatment had any effect on most of the analyzed reproductive parameters. Regarding breeding month or years, the reproductive efficiency did not differ significantly. The incidence of multiple pregnancies was 5.40% and percent late embryonic loses were higher (P=0.0016) in twin (21.98%) than singleton (8.64%) pregnancies. In conclusion, comparatively lower fertility rates were recorded in Thoroughbred mares bred under Indian subtropical climatic conditions than those reported from temperate regions that might be due to difference in breeding management rather than prevailing environment.

  19. Biodegradable estradiol microspheres do not affect uterine involution or characteristics of postpartum estrus in mares.

    PubMed

    Arrott, C; Macpherson, M; Blanchard, T; Varner, D; Thompson, J; Simpson, B; Bruemmer, J; Vogelsang, S; Fernandez, M; Fleet, T; Burns, P

    1994-08-01

    Quarterhorse mares were used to investigate effects of estradiol-17beta on uterine involution, duration of estrus, interval to ovulation, and fertility achieved by breeding on the first postpartum estrus. On the day of foaling, mares were injected with biodegradable poly (DL-lactide) microspheres containing either 100 mg estradiol-17beta (25 mares) or no drug (27 mares). The treatment period was considered to last for 12 to 15 d. Estrus was determined by teasing mares (n=16) with a stallion. Ovulation was detected by transrectal ultrasonographic examination of ovaries (n=48). On Days 6, 11 and 16 post partum, transrectal ultrasonography was used to measure cross-sectional diameters of the uterine body, uterine horns, and fluid within the uterine lumen (n=28). Uteri were swabbed for bacteriologic culture, and uterine biopsies were obtained from the previously gravid uterine horn on Days 11 and 16 post partum, for assessment of endometritis and morphometric analysis of endometrial histioarchitecture (n=19). Twenty-two mares were bred on foal-heat, and pregnancy was determined by transrectal ultrasonography on 14 to 16 and 30 to 35 d after breeding. With only one exception (diameter of previously gravid uterine horn on Day 11), mean values for all measures of uterine involution did not differ between treatment groups (P > 0.05). No differences were detected between treatment group means for length of estrus or interval to ovulation (P > 0.05). No differences were detected between treatment group liklihoods for recovery of potential bacterial pathogens, presence of endometritis, or presence of intrauterine fluid at 11 or 16 d post partum (P > 0.05). Pregnancy rate of mares treated with estradiol (5 11 ; 45%) was not different from that of control mares (9 11 ; 82%; P > 0.05). Estradiol treatment did not hasten uterine involution, increase duration of estrus, delay ovulation, or increase fertility in these postpartum mares.

  20. Effects of estradiol on uterine perfusion in anesthetized cyclic mares affected with uterine vascular elastosis.

    PubMed

    Esteller-Vico, A; Liu, I K M; Vaughan, B; Steffey, E P; Brosnan, R J

    2016-01-01

    Uterine vascular elastosis in mares is characterized by degeneration of uterine vasculature through thickening of the elastin layers. Factors commonly associated with this degeneration include age, parity, and chronic uterine endometritis. Affected mares have also been shown to exhibit decreases in uterine blood flow and perfusion of the uterus. Due to the increased thickness of the elastin layers, we hypothesize that vasodilatation of the uterine vasculature is also impaired. To test the functionality of these vessels, we evaluated the vasodilatory effects of estradiol on the uterine vascular bed in mares with normal vasculature and mares with severe elastosis. Both groups were tested in estrus and diestrus. Fluorescent microspheres were used to determine basal blood perfusion, followed by the intravenous administration of 1.0 μg/kg of 17β-estradiol. After 90 min, perfusion was measured once again to determine the vascular response to estradiol. Control mares in estrus displayed a significant increase in total uterine blood flow after the administration of estradiol when compared to baseline levels. No other group had a significant increase in total blood flow and perfusion after estradiol administration. The administration of estradiol in control mares induced regional increases in perfusion in the uterine horns and uterine body during estrus and only in the uterine horns during diestrus. Mares affected by elastosis exhibited no regional differences in perfusion levels post-estradiol administration. The difference in the vasodilatory response induced by estradiol between reproductively healthy mares and mares affected with elastosis indicates that the functionality of the affected vessels is compromised.

  1. Management Strategies Aiming to Improve Horse Welfare Reduce Embryonic Death Rates in Mares.

    PubMed

    Malschitzky, E; Pimentel, A M; Garbade, P; Jobim, Mim; Gregory, R M; Mattos, R C

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of management strategies aiming to improve animal well-being on pregnancy and embryonic death (ED) rates. Breeding records of a cohort of 1206 Thoroughbred mares brought to a stallion station facility, to be bred with the stallions housed there, were evaluated during ten breeding seasons. Mares were blocked according to management strategies in two groups: Stress and Relax. Strategies used to improve animal well-being (Relax group) were as follows: stopping the teasing routine, reducing or eliminating stall confinement, reducing the number of mares per group and maintaining herd stability during the breeding season. In barren mares, the pregnancy rate was higher in the Relax group (91.8%) when compared to the observed in Stress group (84.7%). However, no difference in pregnancy rates were observed (Stress = 85.2% vs. Relax = 86.2) in foaling mares. ED rate was higher in barren and foaling mares of the Stress group mares (25.5% and 26.8%, respectively) compared with the Relax group (16.1% and 14.7%, respectively). No significant differences were observed on foal heat pregnancy rate between groups; yet, the embryo loss on foal heat was significant reduced in Relax mares (Relax = 8.7% vs Stress = 24.5%). In conclusion, management strategies aimed to reduce social stress can reduce early pregnancy losses and the average cycles per pregnancy, improving reproductive performance in mares.

  2. Investigating the stratigraphy of Mare Imbrium flow emplacement with Earth-based radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, G. A.; Campbell, B. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Hawke, B. R.

    2016-08-01

    The lunar maria are the product of extensive basaltic volcanism that flooded widespread portions of the Moon's surface. Constraining mare volcanic history therefore provides a window into the endogenic processes responsible for shaping the Moon. Due to the low magma viscosity and the associated thin nature of lava units, the majority of mare surface structures are masked and subdued by impact regolith. Subtle individual mare flow morphologies, coupled with spatial limitations in the use of crater size distributions to distinguish surface units close in age, restrict our understanding of mare stratigraphy. Earth-based 70 cm wavelength (P band) radar can reveal features beneath the regolith and highlight very subtle changes in the ilmenite content of the flows, providing a unique means to map mare units. Here we map volcanic units in Mare Imbrium using high-resolution (200 m/pixel), Earth-based P band data. Situated within the heat-producing potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus terrane, Mare Imbrium experienced some of the most long-lived (and recent) lunar volcanism, and its surface exhibits a significant diversity of basaltic chemistry. Our investigation identifies at least four distinct stages of volcanic activity, originating from multiple sources within Imbrium. The most recent of these stages comprises extensive, yet relatively thin volcanic flow units that left remnant kipukas of older mare material distributed across much of the basin. From a future mission perspective, it may be possible to collect samples expressing a wide range in age from small areas of Mare Imbrium. Our map also places important constraints on the interpretation of the Chang'e-3 Lunar Penetrating Radar measurements.

  3. Mars at Ls 25o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurs in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  4. Mars at Ls 53o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    9 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  5. Mars at Ls 107o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurs in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  6. Mars at Ls 107o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurred in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  7. Mars at Ls 12o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    28 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurred in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  8. Mars at Ls 39o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurred in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  9. Mars at Ls 288o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurred in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  10. Mars at Ls 306o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurs in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  11. Mars at Ls 341o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 December 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 341o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 341o occurred in mid-December 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  12. Mars at Ls 79o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurred in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  13. Mars at Ls 324o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    22 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurred in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  14. Mars at Ls 306o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurred in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  15. Mars at Ls 66o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurs in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  16. Mars at Ls 79o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  17. Mars at Ls 357o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurred in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  18. Mars at Ls 324o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurs in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  19. Mars at Ls 269o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurred in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  20. Mars at Ls 357o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurs in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  1. Mars at Ls 66o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurred in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  2. Mars at Ls 53o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    23 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  3. Mars at Ls 288o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    13 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurs in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  4. Mars at Ls 39o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  5. Mars at Ls 25o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    28 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurred in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  6. Mars at Ls 93o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    8 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurs in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  7. Mars at Ls 12o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurs in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  8. Very high potassium (VHK) basalt - Complications in mare basalt petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The first comprehensive report on the petrology and geochemistry of Apollo 14 VHK (Very High Potassium) basalts and their implications for lunar evolution is presented. The reported data are most consistent with the hypothesis that VHK basalts formed through the partial assimilation of granite by a normal low-Ti, high-Al mare basalt magma. Assimilation was preceded by the diffusion-controlled exchange of alkalis and Ba between basalt magma and the low-temperature melt fraction of the granite. Hypotheses involving volatile/nonvolatile fractionations or long-term enrichment of the source regions in K are inconsistent with the suprachondritic Ba/La ratios and low initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of VHK basalt. An important implication of this conclusion is that granite should be a significant component of the lunar crust at the Apollo 14 site.

  9. Mars at Ls 269o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    9 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurs in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  10. Mars at Ls 249o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurs in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  11. Mars at Ls 249o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurred in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  12. Pre-mare cratering and early solar system history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the application of the high extra-lunar flux in pre-mare times to more general problems of early solar system history is attempted by combining the results of dynamic studies with lunar chronological data. Dynamical studies permit separate evaluation of the possible sources for both the normal flux during the first 600 m.y. years of lunar history as well as the peak which apparently occurred 4.0 b.y. ago. Dynamical studies have been carried out in order to determine the extent to which a heliocentric flux could be confined to the Moon (and Earth). A Monte Carlo method has been used to calculate the relative impact rates of planet-crossing bodies with the moon and the terrestrial planets. It is concluded that the time-variation of the flux on these planets is closely related to that on the moon.

  13. Mares Prefer the Voices of Highly Fertile Stallions

    PubMed Central

    Lemasson, Alban; Remeuf, Kévin; Trabalon, Marie; Cuir, Frédérique; Hausberger, Martine

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that stallion whinnies, known to encode caller size, also encoded information about caller arousal and fertility, and the reactions of mares in relation to type of voice. Voice acoustic features are correlated with arousal and reproduction success, the lower-pitched the stallion’s voice, the slower his heart beat and the higher his fertility. Females from three study groups preferred playbacks of low-pitched voices. Hence, females are attracted by frequencies encoding for large male size, calmness and high fertility. More work is needed to explore the relative importance of morpho-physiological features. Assortative mating may be involved as large females preferred voices of larger stallions. Our study contributes to basic and applied ongoing research on mammal reproduction, and questions the mechanisms used by females to detect males’ fertility. PMID:25714814

  14. A preliminary analysis of lunar extra-mare basalts - Distribution, compositions, ages, volumes, and eruption styles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitford-Stark, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Extra-mare basalts occupy 8.5% of the lunar basalt area and comprise 1% of the total mare basalt volume. They are preferentially located where the crust is thin and topographically low. In terms of age, eruption style, and composition they are as variable as the mare basalts. In some instances extrusion in extra-mare craters was preceded by floor-fracturing whereas in other cases it apparently was not. The volume of lava erupted may have been controlled more by the volume of magma produced than by hydrostatic effects. A minimum of nearly 1300 separate basalt eruptions is indicated; the true value could be nearer 30,000 separate eruptions.

  15. 12. PWD Drawing 10,0005(463AE1)(1936), 'Electrical Lighting and Power' Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. PWD Drawing 10,000-5(463A-E-1)(1936), 'Electrical Lighting and Power' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Battery Test Office & Storage Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. Is plagioclase removal responsible for the negative Eu anomaly in the source regions of mare basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J. )

    1989-12-01

    The nearly ubiquitous presence of a negative Eu anomaly in the mare basalts has been suggested to indicate prior separation and flotation of plagioclase from the basalt source region during its crystallization from a lunar magma ocean (LMO). Are there any mare basalts derived from a mantle source which did not experience prior plagioclase separation Crystal chemical rationale for REE substitution in pyroxene suggests that the combination of REE size and charge, M2 site characteristics of pyroxene, fO{sub 2}, magma chemistry, and temperature may account for the negative Eu anomaly in the source region of some types of primitive, low TiO{sub 2} mare basalts. This origin for the negative Eu anomaly does not preclude the possibility of the LMO as many mare basalts still require prior plagioclase crystallization and separation and/or hybridization involving a KREEP component.

  17. Is plagioclase removal responsible for the negative Eu anomaly in the source regions of mare basalts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The nearly ubiquitous presence of a negative Eu anomaly in the mare basalts has been suggested to indicate prior separation and flotation of plagioclase from the basalt source region during its crystallization from a lunar magma ocean (LMO). Are there any mare basalts derived from a mantle source which did not experience prior plagioclase separation? Crystal chemical rationale for REE substitution in pyroxene suggests that the combination of REE size and charge, M2 site characteristics of pyroxene, fO2, magma chemistry, and temperature may account for the negative Eu anomaly in the source region of some types of primitive, low TiO2 mare basalts. This origin for the negative Eu anomaly does not preclude the possibility of the LMO as many mare basalts still require prior plagioclase crystallization and separation and/or hybridization involving a KREEP component.

  18. Effect of exogenous ovarian steroids on the uterine luminal prostaglandins in ovariectomised mares with experimental endometritis.

    PubMed

    Watson, E D; Stokes, C R; Bourne, F J

    1988-05-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) F and E2 were measured in lavage fluid from the uterus of ovariectomised mares after experimental induction of uterine inflammation. Treatment with progesterone alone, or progesterone followed by oestradiol, significantly increased the concentrations of these PGs in the lavage compared with mares treated with oestradiol or control mares. Ovarian steroids, therefore, influenced uterine PG synthesis in response to an inflammatory stimulus. To determine whether the uterine lavage procedure might contribute to the concentrations of prostaglandins in the lavage, the procedure was also performed on six intact mares. With the exception of washings obtained at luteolysis, uterine concentrations of PGF (measured as the plasma metabolite 15-keto-13,14-dihydro PGF2 alpha) had returned to prewashing levels within 30 minutes of the start of uterine lavage. Lavage was therefore unlikely to have influenced the concentrations of prostaglandins in the lavage fluid.

  19. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. IV - Deconvolution of the Mare Imbrium, Aristarchus, and adjacent regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Metzger, A. E.; Haines, E. L.; Hawke, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    Several fields of orbital gamma ray spectroscopy data have been deconvolved in order to model the distribution of Th over the Mare Imbrium and northern Oceanus Procellarum portions of the Apollo 15 lunar ground track, which in combination with a prior study of the Apenninus region covers a continuous swath from 10 deg E to 60 deg W in the northwest quadrant. The crater of the Aristarchus region dominates the Th distribution, with a concentration of 20 ppm, and substantial enhancements are also found in the mare regions around Brayley and at the ejecta blankets of Timocharis and Lambert. The existence of enhanced Th concentrations in mare basalt regions suggests that reservoirs of some late stage mare basalts incorporated KREEP-rich material during formation or transit.

  20. Endocrine alterations around the time of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen.

    PubMed

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and compare the concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), progesterone and estrone sulphate during normal and failed pregnancies of mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen, relating their individual endocrine profiles to the time of pregnancy loss, and to the histopathologic findings in the aborted fetuses and placenta. Mares (n=54) were used, 32 of them impregnated with donkey semen and 22 impregnated with horse semen. Blood samples were taken twice a week from Day 35 to 120 of pregnancy. Ultrasonographic observations of the fetus were carried out twice a week. The incidence of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey semen (30%) was greater (P<0.05) than the 5% observed in mares impregnated with horse semen. From Week 8 to the end of the sampling period, the mean progesterone concentrations of mares with normal mule pregnancies were less (P<0.05) than those of mares with normal pregnancies with equine fetuses. The concentrations of eCG were less (P<0.05) in mule pregnancies from Week 6. Estrone sulphate concentrations were only different (P<0.05) between types of pregnancy on Weeks 13 and 14, being in this case greater with the mule pregnancies. Most of the abortions of mule fetuses were associated with lesser progesterone concentrations than the average for mares with successful mule pregnancies. Four of the abortions of mule fetuses and the only abortion of horse fetus occurred in mares with lesser progesterone and very low eCG concentrations, and were classified as caused by luteal impairment secondary to eCG deficiency; estrone sulphate concentrations were less than normal or absent before these abortions. Two mares aborted after several weeks of low progesterone concentrations in the presence of eCG concentrations that were normal for mule pregnancies, suggesting primary luteal deficiency. In three mares carrying a mule fetus, the concentrations of progesterone and estrone sulphate decreased

  1. Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES): Pilot Project - Marine Mammal Tagging and Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES): Pilot Project...U.S. - Canada Transboundary Fish and Lower Trophic Communities and CASES studies and to interpret the MARES findings in reference to the significant...location as well as dive profiles, CTD and fluorometer data. The transmitters are expected to report for six months or longer. Field work during the entire

  2. Analysis of crater distribution in mare units on the lunar far side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, A. S.; El-Baz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Mare material is asymmetrically distributed on the moon. The earth-facing hemisphere, where the crust is believed to be 26 km thinner than on the farside, contains substantially more basaltic mare material. Using Lunar Topographic Orthophoto Maps, the thickness of the mare material in three farside craters, Aitken (0.59 km), Isaev (1.0 km), and Tsiolkovskiy (1.75 km) was calculated. Crater frequency distribution in five farside mare units (Aitken, Isaev, Lacus Solitudinis, Langemak, and Tsiolkovskiy) and one light plains unit (in Mendeleev) were also studied. Nearly 10,000 farside craters were counted. Analysis of the crater frequency on the light plains unit gives an age of 4.3 billion yr. Crater frequency distributions on the mare units indicate ages of 3.7 and 3.8 billion yr. suggesting that the units are distributed over a narrow time period of approximately 100 million yr. Returned lunar samples from nearside maria give dates as young as 3.1 billion yr. The results of this study suggest that mare basalt emplacement on the far side ceased before it did on the near side.

  3. Effect of ovarian hormones on promotion of bactericidal activity by uterine secretions of ovariectomized mares.

    PubMed

    Watson, E D; Stokes, C R; David, J S; Bourne, F J

    1987-03-01

    The bactericidal and phagocytic activities of blood neutrophils suspended in uterine washings and the mobilization of neutrophils into the uterine lumen were studied in ovariectomized mares receiving oestradiol benzoate (N = 4), progesterone (N = 4) or oily vehicle (N = 4). Uterine lavage was performed sequentially up to 144 h after induction of endometritis by intrauterine infusion of glycogen (1%). There was no significant difference between the 3 groups in speed of mobilization of neutrophils into the uterus in the first 6 h after infusion but there were significantly more uterine luminal neutrophils in progesterone-treated than in oestradiol-treated mares by 24 h after infusion (P less than 0.01). Uterine washings collected from progesterone-treated mares at 0, 24 and 144 h were significantly worse at promoting bactericidal activity by neutrophils than washings from oestradiol-treated and control mares (P less than 0.001). In oestrogen-treated and control mares bactericidal activity had increased by 144 h but in progesterone-treated mares bactericidal activity remained low. Neither treatment nor time affected the ability of washings to opsonize yeast blastospores. Elevated concentrations of progesterone in plasma were therefore associated with decreased bactericidal activity of neutrophils suspended in uterine washings but the generation of C3b in washings did not appear to be affected by hormone treatment.

  4. Fertility, ovulation and maturation of eggs in mares injected with HCG.

    PubMed

    Webel, S K; Franklin, V; Harland, B; Dziuk, P J

    1977-11-01

    Pony mares were observed from January to August for incidence of oestrus, duration of oestrus, length of the oestrous cycle and for ovulation and fertility after injection of HCG. From January to 15 May most mares showed oestrus but the duration of oestrus was quite variable and few mares ovulated in response to HCG. From 15 May to 17 August oestrous cycles were more regular and ovulation was induced within 40-50 h by an intramuscular injection of 1500-5000 i.u. HCG. Pregnancy was established by one mating at a fixed time after HCG in 20 of 69 mares. Degenerate eggs were recovered from the oviducts of anoestrous recently ovulated, mated, unmated and pregnant mares. The first polar body was formed before ovulation in 2 eggs and had not formed in 2 recently ovulated eggs flushed from the oviduct. The second polar body formed after sperm penetration 10-12 h after ovulation. After formation of pronuclei, the first cleavage division occurred at 20 h and the second at 32 h after ovulation. Oestrus was inhibited by progesterone administered by vaginal devices but occurred within 1-3 days in 12 of the 20 mares after withdrawal of the devices.

  5. Deep-Seated Reverse Faults in Mare Crisium, the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczak, C.; Byrne, P. K.; McGovern, P. J., Jr.; Mazarico, E.; James, P. B.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Mare Crisium partially fills a Nectarian basin 556×455 km in diameter on the lunar nearside, one of several such basins associated with a mass concentration or "mascon." The basin's interior topography is dominated by an elevated, circumferential bench that extends inward from the perimeter by ~20% of the basin's radius. A set of wrinkle ridges, landforms that are interpreted as folds over reverse faults that may be blind or surface breaking, lies along the inner edge of this bench. With the elastic dislocation program COULOMB we matched model solutions for surface displacements to topographic profiles across five of these wrinkle ridges. We find that the faults underlying the ridges each accumulated substantial along-slip displacement (c. 0.5-1.5 km) and, despite differences in geometry (some faults are planar whereas others are listric), they all penetrate the lunar lithosphere to depths of 18-20 km. Notably, the wrinkle ridges that follow the inner edge of the elevated bench are spatially coincident with the outer boundary of the highest free-air gravity anomaly values for the Crisium mascon returned by the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. Further, a GRAIL-derived crustal thickness model of the basin indicates that the subsurface geometry of the deep-seated faults bears a strong resemblance to the shape of the crust-mantle boundary beneath Crisium. The basin's mascon, therefore, appears to be structurally bound by a set of individual features that together define a shallowly and outward-dipping reverse ring-fault system. TEKTON finite-element models of lithospheric loading within the basin suggest that the combined action of a subsiding superisostatic mantle plug and a rising subisostatic collar of thickened crust produce a stress state consistent with the orientation of, and sense of displacement along, these ring faults. Importantly, Crisium is not the only lunar mare-filled basin that hosts both a mascon and a topographic bench

  6. Sex ratio of equine offspring is affected by the ages of the mare and stallion.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marianna Machado; Maia, Leonardo Lara; Nobre, Daniel Magalhães; Oliveira Neto, José Ferraz; Garcia, Tiago Rezende; Lage, Maria Coeli Gomes Reis; de Melo, Maria Isabel Vaz; Viana, Walmir Santos; Palhares, Maristela Silveira; da Silva Filho, José Monteiro; Santos, Renato Lima; Valle, Guilherme Ribeiro

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of parental age on the sex ratio of offspring in horses. Two trials were performed. In the first trial, the data from a randomly obtained population with a 1:1 sex ratio of 59,950 Mangalarga Marchador horses born in Brazil from 1990 to 2011 were analyzed. The sex ratios of the offspring were compared among groups according to the mare and the stallion ages (from 3 to 25 years). In the first step of the analysis, the mares and stallions were grouped according to age in 5-year intervals. In the second step, the groups were based on the parental age gap at conception. In the third step, the group of the mares and stallions with similar ages from the second step was subdivided, and the different parental age subgroups that were divided into 5-year intervals were compared. In the fourth step, the sex ratio of the offspring was determined according to the ages of the mares and the stallions at conception. The second trial was based on the data from 253 horses of several breeds that were born after natural gestation into a herd from 1989 to 2010, and the offspring of groups that were younger or older than 15 years were compared. The data from both trials were analyzed using a chi-square test (P ≤ 0.01 for the first trial; and P ≤ 0.05 for the second trial) for the comparisons of the sex ratios. In the first trial, the Spearman test (P ≤ 0.01) was used to verify the correlations between the parental age and the offspring sex ratio. In the first trial, the offspring sex ratio decreased as the mare or stallion age increased, and the decrease was more marked for the mares than for the stallions. In the second trial, the mares older than 15 years had more fillies than the younger mares, but the stallion age had no effect on the sex of the offspring. The first trial, with a large number of horses, revealed the pattern of the distribution of the sex ratios of offspring according to the parental age in horses, whereas the

  7. Some volcanic and structural features of Mare Serenitatis. [as determined by low angle lighting in Apollo 17 photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, W. B.; Adams, M.

    1973-01-01

    Relationships between volcanic and structural features along the southern edge of Mare Serenitatis as determined from low angle lighting in Apollo 17 photographs are discussed. Observational summaries are given of: (1) contact relations between the dark border material and the central mare fill, (2) a late stage lava flow with associated cinder cones, and (3) certain structural features related to the development of the mare basin and its associated volcanic landforms. A chronologic summary is given of volcanic and structural events believed to be critical to understanding the development of Mare Serenitatis.

  8. Mars at Ls 93o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    22 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurred in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Location near: 86.1oN, 208.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  9. The Front-End System For MARE In Milano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, Claudio; Pessina, Gianluigi

    2009-12-01

    The first phase of MARE consists of 72 μ-bolometers composed each of a crystal of AgReO4 readout by Si thermistors. The spread in the thermistor characteristics and bolometer thermal coupling leads to different energy conversion gains and optimum operating points of the detectors. Detector biasing levels and voltage gains are completely remote-adjustable by the front end system developed, the subject of this paper, achieving the same signal range at the input of the DAQ system. The front end consists of a cold buffer stage, a second pseudo differential stage followed by a gain stage, an antialiasing filter, and a battery powered detector biasing set up. The DAQ system can be used to set all necessary parameters of the electronics remotely, by writing to a μ-controller located on each board. Fiber optics are used for the serial communication between the DAQ and the front end. To suppress interference noise during normal operation, the clocked devices of the front end are maintained in sleep-mode, except during the set-up phase of the experiment. An automatic DC detector characterization procedure is used to establish the optimum operating point of every detector of the array. A very low noise level has been achieved: about 3nV/□Hz at 1 Hz and 1 nV/□Hz for the white component, high frequencies.

  10. The consanguinity of the oldest Apollo 11 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. P.; Coish, R. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    The textural, mineralogical, and chemical relationships between three of the oldest dates lunar mare basalt samples returned by Apollo 11 (10003, 10029 and 10062) were investigated. Very strong resemblances were noted between the modal minerologies of 10003 and 10029. Significantly more modal olivine and cristobalite was observed in 10062 than in the other basalt samples. A detailed examination of mineral-chemical relationships among the samples revealed similarities between 10003 and 10062 and differences between these two rocks and 10029, the most significant of which is the presence of akaganeite in 10029, implying that lawrencite was present in the pristine sample of 10029 but not in 10003 and 10062. Results of a Wright-Doherty mixing program used to test various fractional crystallization schemes show that 10062 can be derived from a liquid with the composition of either 10003 or 10029 by removing 2-5% ilmenite and 5% olivine. By removing about 6% plagioclase, 10003 can be derived from a liquid with the bulk composition of 10062. It is concluded that 10003 and 10029 may have come from different basaltic flows, whereas it is possible that 10003 and 10062 were derived from the same parental magma by near-surface fractionation of olivine plus ilmenite or of plagioclase plus or minus olivine.

  11. Outbreak of Abortions and Infertility in Thoroughbred Mares Associated with Waterborne Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Singh, B R; Gulati, B R; Virmani, Nitin; Chauhan, Mamta

    2011-06-01

    At a thoroughbred equine breeding farm near Hissar (Haryana), three mares aborted in their seventh month of pregnancy. The vaginal swabs of all aborted mares, and stomach contents, heart blood, liver, spleen and placenta of aborted fetuses yielded pure culture of Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, A. hydrophila was also isolated from the vaginal swabs of three repeat breeding mares and faecal sample of a diarrheic foal. The source of infection was possibly water supply as all the water samples collected from taps, mother tank and storage tank were found to be positive for A. hydrophila. The antibiogram of all the isolates was similar showing resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin and amikacin but sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cotrimoxazole, cotrimazine, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin and tetracycline. All the 20 sera samples collected from three aborted and three repeat breeding, and eight in-contact mares, a diarrheic foal, three cows and two male buffaloes maintained at the same farm contained antibodies against A. hydrophila with titres ranging from 80 to 640. The water supply was instantly chlorinated using 0.05% sodium hypochlorite for three consecutive days and all the culturally positive mares were treated with intravaginal administration of 1 g ciprofloxacin, while the foal was given nitrofurantoin for three days. After one month, A. hydrophila could not be isolated either from mares or from their environment and antibody titre in all the seropositive animals showed a declining trend. Later, all the aborted and repeat breeding mares were confirmed to be pregnant. Thus, the present study indicated that water-borne A. hydrophila might be associated with equine abortions and infertility, and diarrhea in newborn foals.

  12. Effects of ovarian input on GnRH and LH secretion immediately postovulation in pony mares.

    PubMed

    Greaves, H E; Kalariotes, V; Cleaver, B D; Porter, M B; Sharp, D C

    2001-03-15

    The potential involvement of ovarian factors in regulating GnRH and LH postovulation was studied in ovarian intact (Group 1; n=3) and ovariectomized (OVX; Group 2; n=3) mares (OVX within 12 hr of ovulation). Blood samples were collected every 10 min for 6 hr from jugular vein (JV) and intercavernous sinus (ICS) during estrus and on Day 8 postovulation for LH and GnRH analysis. Additionally, JV samples were collected twice daily (12-hr intervals) for 30 days for LH and progesterone (P4) analysis. A significant treatment x day effect (P<0.0001) describes declining plasma LH concentrations in intact mares, and regression analysis indicated that response curves were not parallel (P<0.001). Plasma LH concentrations remained elevated in OVX mares. LH increased further in OVX mares by Day 8 post-OVX (P<0.06), reflecting the increased (P<0.07) LH episode amplitude. GnRH decreased from estrus to Day 8 in both groups reflecting an effect of sampling period (P<0.03). GnRH episode amplitude declined (P<0.08) from estrus (62.8+/-3.1 pg/mL) to Day 8 (46.3+/-3.1 pg/mL) in OVX mares, but not in control mares (intact estrus, 36.5+/-6.4; intact Day 8, 37.5+/-7.3; OVX estrus, 62.8+/-3.1; OVX Day 8, 46.3+/-3.1 pg/mL). In conclusion, we propose that postovulatory LH decline requires ovarian feedback in mares, and that OVX alters GnRH secretory dynamics such that LH concentrations does not decline postovulation and, in fact, is further elevated with time after OVX.

  13. Relationship between the latest activity of mare volcanism and topographic features of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shinsuke; Morota, Tomokatsu; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Otake, Hisashi; Ohtake, Makiko

    2016-04-01

    Lunar mare basalts provide insights into compositions and thermal history of lunar mantle. According to crater counting analysis with remote sensing data, the model ages of mare basalt units indicate a second peak of magma activity at the end of mare volcanism (~2 Ga), and the latest eruptions were limited in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), which has high abundances of heat-producing elements. In order to understand the mechanism for causing the second peak and its magma source, we examined the correlation between the titanium contents and eruption ages of mare basalt units using compositional and chronological data updated by SELENE/Kaguya. Although no systematic relationship is observed globally, a rapid increase in mean titanium (Ti) content occurred at 2.3 Ga in the PKT, suggesting that the magma source of mare basalts changed at that time. The high-Ti basaltic eruption, which occurred at the late stage of mare volcanism, can be correlated with the second peak of volcanic activity at ~2 Ga. The latest volcanic activity can be explained by a high-Ti hot plume originated from the core-mantle boundary. If the hot plume was occurred, the topographic features formed by the hot plume may be remained. We calculated the difference between topography and selenoid and found the circular feature like a plateau in the center of the PKT, which scale is ~1000 km horizontal and ~500 m vertical. We investigated the timing of ridge formation in the PKT by using stratigraphic relationship between mare basalts and ridges. The ridges were formed before and after the high-Ti basaltic eruptions and seem to be along with the plateau. These results suggest that the plateau formation is connected with the high-Ti basaltic eruptions.

  14. Calibrazioni a terra e prestazioni in volo di spettrometri ad immagine nel visibile e nel vicino infrarosso per l'esplorazione planetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filacchione, Gianrico

    2006-10-01

    Nel corso dell’ultimo decennio l’esplorazione planetaria ha potuto beneficiare dei dati prodotti dagli spettrometri ad immagine: grazie a questa nuova classe di strumenti, realizzati per l’osservazione in remoto di superfici ed atmosfere planetarie, è possibile acquisire dati iperspettrali con elevati poteri risolutivi spaziali e spettrali. Il principale vantaggio offerto dagli spettrometri ad immagine, rispetto alle camere ed agli spettrometri puntuali, è rappresentato dalla capacità di misurare, identificare e mappare le unità composizionali delle superfici planetarie; queste informazioni permettono di investigare sia l’evoluzione geochimica delle superfici sia la dinamica e la composizione delle atmosfere. Sebbene i primi spettrometri ad immagine siano stati francesi (Phobos/ISM, Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) e statunitensi (Galileo/NIMS, Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer), il nostro paese nel corso degli ultimi anni è stato in grado di proporre alla com unità spaziale internazionale degli strumenti dalle elevate prestazioni che sono stati infatti accettati come payload scientifici su diverse missioni interplanetarie: dai canali visibili di VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) su Cassini (Nasa, JPL, ESA, ASI) e di OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l’Eau, les Glacies et l’Activitè de Mars) su MarsExpress (ESA) ai due VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) su Rosetta (ESA) e VenusExpress (ESA) fino a VIR-MS (Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) su Dawn (Nasa). In questo momento inoltre altri due spettrometri sono in avanzata fase di studio: JIRAM (Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper) su Juno (missione New Discovery Nasa) e VIHI (Visible and Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) integrato nel payload italiano di remote sensing SIMBIO-SYS di BepiColombo (missione cornerstone ESA). La realizzazione di uno spettrometro ad immagini da utilizzare su una missione interplanetaria richiede un’accurata analisi in fase

  15. Investigations on the endometrial response to intrauterine administration of N-acetylcysteine in oestrous mares.

    PubMed

    Melkus, E; Witte, T; Walter, I; Heuwieser, W; Aurich, C

    2013-08-01

    In mares, mating-induced persistent endometritis contributes to low fertility. The condition is in part related to delayed clearance of mucus accumulated within the uterine lumen. The objective of this study was to investigate the endometrial response of healthy mares to intrauterine (i.u.) treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Oestrous mares (n = 12) were randomly assigned to a treatment (TM) or control (C) group and received an i.u. infusion of 5% NAC and saline (total volume 140 ml), respectively. Endometrial biopsies were collected in five of the mares 24 h after treatment, in the remaining seven mares 72 h after treatment. Endometrial biopsies were evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). The integrity of endometrial epithelial cells was not affected by treatment (no statistical differences between groups or times). At 24 h after treatment, the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies from NAC- and C-mares did not differ, but at 72 h after treatment, number of PMN was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in C (3.9 ± 0.6 PMN/field) compared with NAC-treated mares (2.3 ± 0.2 PMN/field). At 72 h after treatment, the intensity of staining for COX2 was significantly higher after saline than after NAC treatment (p < 0.05). In the epithelium, no differences in staining for the proliferation marker Ki-67 were seen with respect to time and treatment. Score for the lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was slightly higher in NAC-treated mares than in C-mares 72 h after treatment (p < 0.05). Score for PAS staining of mucus in deep uterine glands differed significantly between groups at 24 h after treatment (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that NAC does not adversely affect the endometrial function. Moreover, an anti-inflammatory effect on the equine endometrium was

  16. Chloroxylenol and zinc oxide containing cream (Nels cream) vs. 5% benzoyl peroxide cream in the treatment of acne vulgaris. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, P P; Chu, A C

    2000-01-01

    Forty-one subjects completed a double-blind controlled randomized study comparing the following: (i) Nels cream (containing chloroxylenol and zinc oxide); (ii) 5% benzoyl peroxide cream; and (iii) the vehicle of the Nels cream. Patients applied the medications twice daily for 8 weeks. At the end of the test period there was no significant difference in the reduction of inflammatory and noninflammatory lesion counts achieved by Nels cream and benzoyl peroxide. Both creams proved superior to the vehicle. Efficacy grading by subjects and investigators showed no significant difference between Nels cream and benzoyl peroxide. However, side-effects such as peeling and dryness caused by the treatment were significantly less in the Nels cream group.

  17. Immunoreactivity of lactic acid-treated mare's milk after simulated digestion.

    PubMed

    Fotschki, Joanna; Szyc, Anna; Wróblewska, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    The similarity of mare's milk to breast milk makes it an interesting substrate for the creation of dairy beverages. The aim of this study was to determine the immunoreactivity of the digested mare's milk products carried out by lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei LCY, Streptococcus thermophilus MK10 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bi30. Simulation of digestion with saliva, pepsin and pancreatin/bile salts was carried out. The immunoreactivity of the milk proteins was assessed by competitive ELISA. The separation of proteins was studied using a tricine SDS-PAGE method. It has been demonstrated that lactic acid fermentation significantly decreases the immunoreactivity of β-lactoglobulin, β-casein, κ-casein and bovine serum albumin. The level of reduction was connected to the type of bacterial strain. The simulated digestion processes caused the decline of immunoreactivity, and the decreases obtained in the experiment were as follows: lactoferrin: 95%, β-lactoglobulin: 94%, β-casein: 93%, α-lactalbumin: 82%, α-casein: 82%, bovine serum albumin: 76% and κ-casein: 37%. The results of the study indicated that microbial fermentation with tested strains is a valuable method for reducing the immunoreactivity of mare's milk proteins. However, further studies with other bacterial strains are needed to gain a higher level of elimination or total reduction of mare's milk immunoreactivity to possibly introduce fermented mare's milk into the diet of patients with immune-mediated digestive problems.

  18. A novel strategy of mesenchymal stem cells delivery in the uterus of mares with endometrosis.

    PubMed

    Mambelli, L I; Winter, G H Z; Kerkis, A; Malschitzky, E; Mattos, R C; Kerkis, I

    2013-03-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), because of their immunomodulation and trophic activities, in addition to their capacity to regenerate damaged tissues, have potential for treatment of many diseases. The success of stem cell therapies depends, in part, on the method of cell delivery, which should provide wide cell distribution and homing in to injured sites. The objective of the present study was to developing a novel strategy for delivery of MSCs into the uterus of mares with endometrosis (degenerative alteration of uterine glands and surrounding stroma). Endometrosis was confirmed in all mares (N = 6) used in this study. To trace multipotent equine adipose tissue-derived MSCs (eAT-MSCs) in endometrial tissue, before transplantation, cells were stained with a fluorescent dye. During a synchronized estrus, the eAT-MSCs (2 × 10(7) diluted in 20 mL of sodium chloride 0.9%) were inoculated into uterus using a simple technique, similar to artificial insemination (AI) in mares. At 7 and 21 days after transplantation, homing of fluorescently labeled eAT-MSCs was observed by confocal microscopy of uterine biopsies collected from the uterine body and in both uterine horns, including glandular and periglandular spaces, in three of four treated mares. Herein, we propose a new method of MSCs delivery in uterus of mares with endometrosis, which was minimally invasive and technically simple.

  19. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface: IV. Deconvolution of the mare imbrium, aristarchus, and adjacent regions

    SciTech Connect

    Etchegaray-Ramirez, M.I.; Metzger, A.E.; Haines, E.L.; Hawke, B.R.

    1983-02-15

    The distribution of Th over the Mare Imbrium and northern Oceanus Procellarum portions of the Apollo 15 lunar ground track has been modeled by deconvolving several fields of orbital gamma ray spectroscopy data. Including a prior study of the Apenninus region, a continuous swath from 10/sup 0/E to 60/sup 0/W in the northwest quadrant has now been analyzed. In the Aristarchus region, the crater dominates the Th distribution with a concentration of 20 ppm. Other enhancements are seen on the Aristarchus Plateau and south of the plateau. The concentration across the Aristarchus Plateau is not uniform. The average Th concentration in Oceanus Procellarum is less to the west than to the east of the Aristarchus Plateau. Substantial enhancements are found in mare regions around Brayley, and at the ejecta blankets of Timocharis and Lambert. Th in the Eratosthenian mare regions is generally low with one notable exception lying rouhgly between the craters Euler and Carlini. The existence of enhanced Th concentrations in mare basalt regions suggests that reservoirs of some late stage mare basalts incorporated KREEP-rich material during formation or transit.

  20. [Funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali nel disturbo dello spettro dell'autismo e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività: risultati preliminari].

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Catania, Valentina; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Di Giorgio, Rosa; Zingale, Marinella; Trubia, Grazia; Torrisi, Anna; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. I deficit delle funzioni esecutive (FE) sono frequentemente osservati nei disturbi dello spettro dell'autismo (ASD) e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività (ADHD). Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare e confrontare le funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali di bambini con ASD e ADHD, sia fra di loro che con un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Il campione è costituito da un totale di 58 soggetti, di cui 17 con ASD senza disabilità intellettiva, 18 con ADHD-manifestazione combinata e 23 con sviluppo tipico, abbinati per genere, età cronologica e livello intellettivo. Le valutazioni hanno riguardato alcune aree del funzionamento esecutivo, nello specifico pianificazione, flessibilità mentale, generatività e inibizione della risposta, che rappresentano sia le funzioni esecutive metacognitive sia quelle emozionali/motivazionali. Risultati. I risultati hanno rilevato un'ampia sovrapposizione delle disfunzioni esecutive nei due gruppi clinici con ASD e ADHD, e non sono stati indicativi della presenza di due profili realmente distinti del funzionamento esecutivo. Tuttavia, nell'ADHD è stato trovato un deficit più severo nell'inibizione della risposta prepotente (funzione emozionale/motivazionale). Conclusioni. I risultati del nostro studio sono parzialmente in accordo con quelli della letteratura. Ulteriori ricerche con gruppi più numerosi potranno chiarire più approfonditamente quali punti di forza e debolezza, nell'ampio spettro delle funzioni esecutive, differenzino fra loro le prestazioni di persone con ASD e ADHD.

  1. Detailed study of the Mare Crisium northern magnetic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seul-Min; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Jin, Ho; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Jung-Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Low-altitude Lunar Prospector (LP) magnetometer data for Mare Crisium show two magnetic anomalies near its inner northern and southern edges. Because these features are located inside a basin, they were likely formed by slow cooling of the basin's melt, or the partially melted mantle, instead of by any impact-related shock magnetization process. Therefore, they are important for assessing the nature of the ancient dynamo field that produced them. In this study we confine our attention to the simpler northern anomaly (CNA) and use low-altitude (˜22 km) LP data to model its source body as a dipole and magnetized disks of different radii. We infer that the source is likely located ˜20-30 km from the surface and horizontally localized within a small region (<1° or <˜30 km radius). The surface field intensity calculated from the best fit dipole is in good agreement with that obtained from LP Electron Reflectometer data. Our magnetization directions are substantially different from two previous studies, largely due to using lower altitude data to perform our inversions. We also find a surprising sensitivity to small changes in source body latitude (˜1°). The magnetic paleopoles implied by our best fit models are distant from previous estimates by up to ˜50° of great circle arc and are substantially distant from the Moon's present rotation axis. Our results demonstrate how multiple altitude data sets must be used when estimating paleopoles and other properties of even the simplest of the Moon's magnetic anomalies.

  2. Titan Submarine: Exploring The Depths of Kraken Mare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I for 2014. The effort investigated what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon approximately 93 Kelvin (-180 degrees Centigrade) seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (approximately100 kilograms) it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive and exciting science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare The submerged science includes mapping using side looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the sea at all depths, as well as sampling of the sea's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 kilometers inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (approximately 2047) to allow for continuous lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth (DTE) communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid/sediment/chemical interactions. An estimated 25 megabits of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system. This paper discusses the results of Phase I as well as the plans for Phase II.

  3. Evaluation of dexamethasone on fetal maturation and delivery in mares when administered on days 305 to 307 of gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many species corticosteroids are administered to the dam to induce precocious fetal maturation when the pregnancy is at risk; however in the mare this has met with mixed results. Previously we showed that 24 mg betamethasone administered to pregnant mares on d305 to 307 of pregnancy tended to...

  4. Basalt stratigraphy of southern Mare Serenitatis. [based on Apollo 17 photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, K. A.; Carr, M. H.; Muehlberger, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The major features of the stratigraphic and structural sequence are summarized for Mare Serenitatis. The dark oldest basalts include flows coextensive with Mare Tranquillitatis and also flows and pyroclastic deposits (dark mantles) that erupted from the edge of the Serenitatis basin. The basin sagged, possibly isostatically, as basalts of intermediate age were emplaced. Sagging had nearly ceased by the time the youngest flows were deposited. Compressive movements including thrusting followed, and small extensional fissures formed in late Copernican time. The revised stratigraphic sequence that was elaborated has implications for lunar stratigraphy that transcend the boundaries of Mare Serenitatis. Dark mantle deposits and the darkest maria have commonly been assumed in geologic mapping to be relatively youthful. These assumptions must now be reevaluated and perhaps discarded.

  5. Evaluation of growth models for follicle development and ovulation in Lusitano mares.

    PubMed

    Mata, F

    2012-12-01

    Several growth models are commonly used in the biological sciences, to model the follicle growth occurring in the estrous cycle. The aim of this project was to find the model that best fit the follicular size growth data for Lusitano mares. Retrospective data collected from reproduction book records of n=84 mares and n=124 cycles was used to find the series to be fitted to the models. The exponential, Gompertz, logistic, von Bertalanffy, Richards and Weibull models were used, and the most parsimonious and best fit was achieved with the logistic model (r(2)=0.999). The logistic model fits the Lusitano mare's follicle size growth data very well and its parameters were also shown to have a credible biological interpretation.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Horizon MareNostrum cosmological run (Gay+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, C.; Pichon, C.; Le Borgne, D.; Teyssier, R.; Sousbie, T.; Devriendt, J.

    2010-11-01

    The correlation between the large-scale distribution of galaxies and their spectroscopic properties at z=1.5 is investigated using the Horizon MareNostrum cosmological run. We have extracted a large sample of 105 galaxies from this large hydrodynamical simulation featuring standard galaxy formation physics. Spectral synthesis is applied to these single stellar populations to generate spectra and colours for all galaxies. We use the skeleton as a tracer of the cosmic web and study how our galaxy catalogue depends on the distance to the skeleton. We show that galaxies closer to the skeleton tend to be redder but that the effect is mostly due to the proximity of large haloes at the nodes of the skeleton, rather than the filaments themselves. The virtual catalogues (spectroscopical properties of the MareNostrum galaxies at various redshifts) are available online at http://www.iap.fr/users/pichon/MareNostrum/catalogues. (7 data files).

  7. Selected aspects of lunar mare geology from Apollo orbital photography. [of lunar craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. A.; Brennan, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Crater size-frequency distributions were studied (100-500 m) and are shown to provide significant integrated information concerning mare surface ages, subsurface stratigraphy, and surficial geology. Equilibrium cratering is discussed gradually reducing the relative numbers of craters smaller than 300-400 m in diameter as surfaces age and regolith thickens. Results for surface ages are in good agreement with other published crater ages. The existing correlations of large ring structures among various circular mare basins are shown to be based on criteria that are inconsistent and nonstandardized. A means of comparing equivalent ring structures in the different maria is proposed which takes into account the important characteristics of young unflooded basins (Orientale) as well as the progressive development of tectonic and volcanic features within the older flooded maria. Specific geologic aspects of several of the lunar maria are discussed and especially Mare Smythii, because of its great age and significantly different surface morphology. Lunar photographs and maps are shown.

  8. Very low Ti /VLT/ basalts - A new mare rock type from the Apollo 17 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Phaneritic fragments, vitrophyres, and glass beads of a new very low Ti (VLT) mare basalt are found in the Apollo 17 drill core. VLT lithic fragments are characterized by TiO2 content of approximately 0.5%, Mg/(Mg + Fe) of approximately 0.52, CaO/Al2O3 of approximately 0.9, and low alkali content. Although mineral systematics and modal composition of VLT basalt are similar to Apollo 12 and 15 low Ti basalts, VLT basalts cannot be related to these mare basalts by crystal fractionation. Since VLT basalt is isochemical with some of the less mafic green glasses, fractionation of VLT magma from a liquid of green-glass composition is a possibility. Spectral reflectance studies suggest that VLT-type basalts may be relatively common in mare basins.

  9. An "Ideal" Home for Care: Nel Noddings, Thomas Hill Green, and an Ontological Support for a Phenomenology of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decoste, Jordan; Boyd, Dwight

    2009-01-01

    This paper is grounded in a deep appreciation of Nel Noddings' "ethics of care" as an important contribution to moral philosophy and moral education. We seek to offer some philosophical reflections that have the potential to strengthen this important alternative to mainstream ethics and to how moral education might be conceived and practiced…

  10. Lunar mare volcanism: Mixing of distinct, mantle source regions with KREEP-like component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    Mare basalts comprise less than 1% of the lunar crust, but they constitute our primary source of information on the moon's upper mantle. Compositional variations between mare basalt suites reflect variations in the mineralogical and geochemical composition of the lunar mantle which formed during early lunar differentiation (4.5-4.4 AE). Three broad suites of mare basalt are recognized: very low-Ti (VLT) basalts with TiO2 less than 1 wt%, low-Ti basalts with TiO2 = 2-4 wt%, and high-Ti basalts with TiO2 = 10-14 wt%. Important subgroups include the Apollo 12 ilmenite basalts (TiO2 = 5-6 wt%), aluminous low-Ti mare basalts (TiO2 = 2-4 wt%, Al2O3 = 10-14 wt%), and the newly discovered Very High potassium (VHK) aluminous low-Ti basalts, with K2O = 0.4-1.5 wt%. The mare basalt source region has geochemical characteristics complementary to the highlands crust and is generally thought to consist of mafic cumulates from the magma ocean which formed the felsic crust by feldspar flotation. The progressive enrichment of mare basalts in Fe/Mg, alkalis, and incompatible trace elements in the sequence VLT basalt yields low-Ti basalt yields high-Ti basalt is explained by the remelting of mafic cumulates formed at progressively shallower depths in the evolving magma ocean. This model is also consistent with the observed decrease in compatible element concentrations and the progressive increase in negative Eu anomalies.

  11. Surfactant proteins A and D in the genital tract of mares.

    PubMed

    Kankavi, Orhan; Ata, Ayhan; Gungor, Orsan

    2007-04-01

    The presence of surface-active material in the lung alveolus has been known for several decades as being essential for normal lung function. Surfactant is essential for reducing the surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface. Pulmonary surfactant is composed of 90% lipids and 10% proteins. There are four non-serum proteins surfactant protein-A (SP-A), surfactant protein-B (SP-B), surfactant protein-C (SP-C) and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) named in chronologic order of discovery. Lung SP-A and SP-D belong to a family of collagen-containing C-type lectin family called collectins. The host defence and controlling inflammatory processes of the lung are the major functions of SP-A and SP-D. SP-A and SP-D were originally demonstrated in alveolar type II cells, but recent studies have shown extrapulmonary expression of SP-A and SP-D indicating systemic roles of these proteins. Present study describes the presence of SP-A and SP-D in the mare genital tract, vulva, vagina, ovarium, uterus and tuba uterina using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The aim of this study was to characterize surfactant proteins in terms of: (i) whether surfactant proteins were present in the various structures of the mare genital system, (ii) if so, identifying and locating the surfactant proteins and finally (iii) determining the differences from those previously characterized for the lung. Although beyond the scope of this report, it is recognized that there are also some potential implications for better defining the reproductive defence mechanisms in mare. Therefore, genital system organs and tissues from mares were examined. We were able to show that proteins reactive with surfactant-specific antibodies were present in the mare genital tract. Thus, surfactant proteins are present not in just lamellar bodies associated with lung, but also genital system of mare.

  12. Effect of oxytocin and flunixin meglumine on uterine response to insemination in mares.

    PubMed

    Risco, A M; Reilas, T; Muilu, L; Kareskoski, M; Katila, T

    2009-12-01

    The most probable reason for persistent postbreeding endometritis in mares is weak myometrial contractility. The influence of oxytocin (OT; an ecbolic agent) and flunixin meglumine (FLU; a prostaglandin inhibitor serving as a model for mares with decreased uterine contractility) on uterine response to artificial insemination (AI) was studied in mares with no history of reproductive failure. The mares were treated intravenously with 10 mL saline (Group C, n=10) or 0.01 IU/kg OT (Group OT, n=10) 2, 4, 8, and 25 h after AI. Group FLU (n=11) was treated with 1.1mg/kg FLU 2h after AI and with saline thereafter. The mares received the same treatments in the first and third cycles but were sampled either at 8 or 25 h. The amount of intrauterine fluid (IUF) and edema and the number of uterine contractions were recorded before AI and 10 min after the treatments using transrectal ultrasonography. At 8h after AI, the mares were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin, and, after 8-h or 25-h scans, a 500-mL uterine lavage and a biopsy were performed. Ovulation was confirmed at 48 h and pregnancy 14 to 17 d after AI. No manipulations were done during the second estrus. At 8h after AI, Group FLU had more polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the uterine lavage fluid than did Group OT (P<0.05), but uterine contractions did not differ significantly. At 25 h, the PMN concentrations were low in all groups. Group OT rarely showed IUF. The uterine biopsy specimens of Group FLU showed less inflammation of the stroma but more PMNs in the uterine lumen 8h after AI than that of the control group (P<0.05). The pregnancy rates did not differ between the groups (63% C, 53% OT, and 50% FLU). Oxytocin rapidly and effectively removed IUF and PMNs after AI and thereby shortened the duration of postbreeding inflammation.

  13. Magma source transition of lunar mare volcanism at 2.3 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Morota, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Otake, H.; Ohtake, M.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar mare basalts, the most common volcanic feature on the Moon, provide insights into compositions and thermal history of lunar mantle. According to the model ages of mare basalt units determined by crater counting with remote sensing data indicate that magma activity has a second peak at the end of mare volcanism (~2 Ga), and the latest eruptions were limited in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), which is characterized by high abundances of heat-producing elements. In order to understand the magma source of the latest volcanism and mechanism for causing the second peak, we examined the correlation between the titanium contents and eruption ages of mare basalt units using compositional and chronological data updated by SELENE/Kaguya. Although the systematic relationship is not observed globally, a rapid increase in mean titanium (Ti) content occurred at 2.3 Ga in the PKT, suggesting that the magma source of mare basalts changed at that time. The high-Ti basaltic eruptions can be correlated with the second peak of volcanic activity at ~2 Ga. The latest volcanic activity can be induced by a high-Ti hot plume originated from the core-mantle boundary. If the hot plume was occurred, the topographic features formed by the hot plume may be remained. Then, we calculated the difference between topography and selenoid and found the circular feature like a plateau in the center of the PKT, which scale is ~1000 km horizontal and ~500 m vertical. Moreover, mare ridges in this region seem to connect with the plateau. Using detailed models of the flexural response of the lunar elastic lithosphere, we estimated the elastic thickness at the time of occurrence of the hot plume. From our results, the effective elastic thickness at the period of latest volcanism is estimated 20-30 km, which is thinner than that of the period before ~2 Ga. These results may suggest that the up lift of lithosphere caused by the hot plume.

  14. Effects of neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser irradiation on endometrium and on endometrial cysts in six mares.

    PubMed

    Blikslager, A T; Tate, L P; Weinstock, D

    1993-01-01

    Effects of neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation on equine endometrium were evaluated in vitro and in six mares with endometrial cysts. The Nd:YAG laser was applied to six endometrial sites, in each of five uterine specimens, with power densities of 5659 to 33,954 J/cm2. Depth of tissue ablation was measured and graded on histologic sections of the tissue lesions. Power density had a significant effect on the depth of tissue ablation (p < .001). Grade 3 lesions (full-thickness ablation of the endometrium) were created with energy densities of 16,977 to 33,954 J/cm2. Six mares had endometrial cysts treated by photoablation. Two of the four mares that were reproductively sound but barren, despite appropriate breeding, produced foals after treatment. One mare remained reproductively unsound after treatment, and another mare that was treated postpartum was bred successfully.

  15. Superovulation in the cow with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin: effects of dose and antipregnant mare serum gonadotrophin serum.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, A; Wang, H; Carruthers, T D; Murphy, B D; Mapletoft, R J

    1994-01-01

    The effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) dose and PMSG antiserum on superovulation in crossbred beef cows were studied. In experiment I, three groups were treated with 1200, 2400 or 3600 IU of PMSG and 48 h later with prostaglandin (PGF). The mean numbers of corpora lutea (CL), unovulated follicles, and total ova/embryos collected increased as the PMSG dose increased. The percent of fertilized ova and transferable embryos was lowest in the highest dose group (p < 0.05). In experiment II, all cows received 2500 IU of PMSG; groups 1 and 2 were treated with sheep anti-PMSG serum at 48 h or 60 h after PGF; group 3 cows were PMSG-only controls. The number of CL was lowest and the number of unovulated follicles highest in the PMSG-only group (p < 0.05). The number of CL was higher in group 2 (anti-PMSG at 60 h) than in the control group, with the anti-PMSG at 48 h not different from the other groups. Numbers of total ova/embryos, fertilized ova, and transferable embryos were higher (p < 0.05) in both antiserum-treated groups relative to the PMSG-only group. We conclude that superovulation of beef cows with PMSG and treatment with PMSG antiserum will induce a higher superovulatory response and will result in higher CL numbers and fewer unovulated follicles. Further, the variability in the superovulatory response to PMSG treatment was still evident when PMSG antiserum was administered. PMID:8055430

  16. Where was the 1898 Mare Island Earthquake? Insights from the 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake provides an opportunity to reconsider the Mare Island earthquake of 31 March 1898, which caused severe damage to buildings at a Navy yard on the island. Revising archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, I estimate a lower intensity magnitude, 5.8, than the value in the current Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) catalog (6.4). However, I note that intensity magnitude can differ from Mw by upwards of half a unit depending on stress drop, which for a historical earthquake is unknowable. In the aftermath of the 2014 earthquake, there has been speculation that apparently severe effects on Mare Island in 1898 were due to the vulnerability of local structures. No surface rupture has ever been identified from the 1898 event, which is commonly associated with the Hayward-Rodgers Creek fault system, some 10 km west of Mare Island (e.g., Parsons et al., 2003). Reconsideration of detailed archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, together with a comparison of the intensity distributions for the two earthquakes, points to genuinely severe, likely near-field ground motions on Mare Island. The 2014 earthquake did cause significant damage to older brick buildings on Mare Island, but the level of damage does not match the severity of documented damage in 1898. The high intensity files for the two earthquakes are more over spatially shifted, with the centroid of the 2014 distribution near the town of Napa and that of the 1898 distribution near Mare Island, east of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek system. I conclude that the 1898 Mare Island earthquake was centered on or near Mare Island, possibly involving rupture of one or both strands of the Franklin fault, a low-slip-rate fault sub-parallel to the Rodgers Creek fault to the west and the West Napa fault to the east. I estimate Mw5.8 assuming an average stress drop; data are also consistent with Mw6.4 if stress drop was a factor of ≈3 lower than average for California earthquakes. I

  17. Maternal Lineage of Warmblood Mares Contributes to Variation of Gestation Length and Bias of Foal Sex Ratio.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, J; Stock, K F; Wulf, M; Aurich, C

    2015-01-01

    Maternal lineage influences performance traits in horses. This is probably caused by differences in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transferred to the offspring via the oocyte. In the present study, we investigated if reproductive traits with high variability-gestation length and fetal sex ratio-are influenced by maternal lineage. Data from 142 Warmblood mares from the Brandenburg State Stud at Neustadt (Dosse), Germany, were available for the study. Mares were grouped according to their maternal lineage. Influences on the reproduction parameters gestation length and sex ratio of offspring were analyzed by simple and multiple analyses of variance. A total of 786 cases were included. From the 142 mares, 119 were assigned to six maternal lineages with n≥10 mares per lineage, and 23 mares belonged to smaller maternal lineages. The mean number of live foals produced per mare was 4.6±3.6 (±SD). Live foal rate was 83.5%. Mean gestation length was 338.5±8.9 days (±SD) with a range of 313 to 370 days. Gestation length was affected by maternal lineage (p<0.001). Gestation length was also significantly influenced by the individual mare, age of the mare, year of breeding, month of breeding and sex of the foal (p<0.05). Of the 640 foals born alive at term, 48% were male and 52% female. Mare age group and maternal lineage significantly influenced the sex ratio of the foals (p<0.05). It is concluded that maternal lineage influences reproductive parameters with high variation such as gestation length and foal sex ratio in horses. In young primiparous and aged mares, the percentage of female offspring is higher than the expected 1:1 ratio.

  18. Maternal Lineage of Warmblood Mares Contributes to Variation of Gestation Length and Bias of Foal Sex Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, J.; Stock, K. F.; Wulf, M.; Aurich, C.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal lineage influences performance traits in horses. This is probably caused by differences in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transferred to the offspring via the oocyte. In the present study, we investigated if reproductive traits with high variability—gestation length and fetal sex ratio—are influenced by maternal lineage. Data from 142 Warmblood mares from the Brandenburg State Stud at Neustadt (Dosse), Germany, were available for the study. Mares were grouped according to their maternal lineage. Influences on the reproduction parameters gestation length and sex ratio of offspring were analyzed by simple and multiple analyses of variance. A total of 786 cases were included. From the 142 mares, 119 were assigned to six maternal lineages with n≥10 mares per lineage, and 23 mares belonged to smaller maternal lineages. The mean number of live foals produced per mare was 4.6±3.6 (±SD). Live foal rate was 83.5%. Mean gestation length was 338.5±8.9 days (±SD) with a range of 313 to 370 days. Gestation length was affected by maternal lineage (p<0.001). Gestation length was also significantly influenced by the individual mare, age of the mare, year of breeding, month of breeding and sex of the foal (p<0.05). Of the 640 foals born alive at term, 48% were male and 52% female. Mare age group and maternal lineage significantly influenced the sex ratio of the foals (p<0.05). It is concluded that maternal lineage influences reproductive parameters with high variation such as gestation length and foal sex ratio in horses. In young primiparous and aged mares, the percentage of female offspring is higher than the expected 1:1 ratio. PMID:26436555

  19. Invited review: the role of caterpillars in mare reproductive loss syndrome: a model for environmental causes of abortion.

    PubMed

    McDowell, K J; Webb, B A; Williams, N M; Donahue, J M; Newman, K E; Lindemann, M D; Horohov, D W

    2010-04-01

    A new abortigenic disease, now known as mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), significantly affected the horse industry in the Ohio River Valley of the United States in late April and early May of 2001 and 2002. In 2001, approximately 25% of all pregnant mares aborted within several weeks (over 3,000 mares lost pregnancies), and abortion rates exceeded 60% on some farms. Mare reproductive loss syndrome struck hard and without warning, it was caused by something in the environment, it was not transmitted between animals, and it was not associated with any known abortigenic agent or disease. These experiments demonstrated that horses will inadvertently consume Eastern tent caterpillars (ETC) when the insects are present in the pasture or other feedstuffs, and MRLS-type abortions were induced in experimental animals (mares and pigs) by mixing ETC with the feed of the animals. Eastern tent caterpillars are hirsute (hairy) caterpillars, and the only part of the caterpillar that caused MRLS abortions was the cuticle. The experiments revealed that the setae (hairs) embed into the submucosa of the alimentary tract creating microgranulomatous lesions. It is hypothesized that the alimentary tract lesions allow bacteria from the alimentary tract of the mare, principally streptococci, actinobacilli, and to a lesser extent enterococci, to invade the circulatory system of the mare. The bacteria then establish infections in tissues where the immune surveillance of the mare is reduced, such as the fetus and placenta. Fetal and placental fluid bacterial infections lead to fetal death and abortion characteristic of MRLS. Inadvertent ingestion of ETC by pregnant mares causes MRLS. Currently the only known means to prevent MRLS is to avoid exposure of horses, particularly pregnant mares, to ETC and probably most hirsute caterpillars.

  20. Systemic treatment with high dose of flunixin-meglumine is able to block ovulation in mares by inducing hemorrhage and luteinisation of follicles.

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Domingo-Ortiz, R

    2011-03-01

    Prostaglandins play an obligatory role during the process of ovulation in mammals. Ovulation can be blocked by intrafollicular administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in several domestic species including the mare as well as by systemic administration of these drugs in women. In the mare, the effect of systemic NSAIDs treatment on ovulation has not been critically studied. The objectives of this study were: a) to determine whether high dose of flunixin-meglumine (FM) administered systemically to mares during the periovulatory period was able to block ovulation; and b) to study the follicular ultrasound characteristics of FM treated mares. Six mares were used in the study during two consecutive estrous cycles. Each mare received 2 mg FM/kg i.v. twice a day starting at the time of treatment with hCG when the follicle reached a diameter of ≥ 32 mm and continuing until ovulation. During the consecutive control cycle (CON) the mares received the same dose of hCG but were not administered FM. During the FM cycles five of six mares failed to ovulate and collapse the preovulatory follicle; but echoic specks were observed within the follicles, which continued to grow until a mean diameter of 55 mm. Eventually, the follicular contents were organised and luteinised. All CON mares ovulated normally. In conclusion, when mares were treated with FM, they had a higher incidence of ovulatory failure and development of luteinised unruptured follicles (83%, P = 0.015) compared with untreated mares.

  1. Unmanned Evaluation of Mares Abyss 22 Navy Open Circuit Scuba Regulator for Cold Water Diving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-05

    scuba regulator was conducted, and the results were compared to the U.S. Navy performance limits and goals for use in cold water diving applications...resistive effort; work of breathing; unmanned evaluation; open circuit scuba regulator; cold water diving ; Mares Abyss 22 Navy; UBA; underwater

  2. Compositional gradients across mare-highland contacts - The importance of lateral mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Mustard, J. F.; He, G.

    1997-03-01

    The relative importance of vertical vs lateral mass transport on the moon has been the object of much debate. With the new multispectral observations provided by the Clementine spacecraft, we can now quantitatively analyze the magnitude of transport and assess the processes contributing to the observed distributions. We are currently analyzing a number of mare-highland boundaries but most analyzed thus far exhibit similar systematics to that observed in the Grimaldi Basin. On the basis of these results of observation, we seek to interpret and model the observed variation of mare/highland abundance through the use of a mathematical model that can quantitatively reproduce spatial distributions and the absolute concentrations of 'exotic' components on the mare or highland side. In this analysis, we use a nonlinear model, which is more accurate for the intimate mixing expected in lunar surface. On the basis of nonlinear spectral mixing analysis, two critical issues are clarified: (1) there are apparently two distinct mixing zones, one near the contact that is very steep (5-15 percent/km) the other far from the contact that is very gentle (below 2 percent/km); (2) the distribution of mare and highland across the contact is remarkably symmetric.

  3. Assessment of Pregnancy in the Late Gestation Mare Using Digital Infrared Thermography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate use of digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) to determine whether surface temperature gradient differences exist between pregnant and nonpregnant mares as a noncontact method to determine pregnancy status. On the day measurements were collected, each ...

  4. Green glass vitrophyre 78526 - An impact of very low-Ti mare basalt composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Kiel, K.; Planner, H. H.; Nehru, C. E.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Rake sample 78526 is an 8.77 g rock consisting primarily of vitrophyric pale green glass with subordinate mineral and lithic relics. Petrographic and compositional evidence leads to the following conclusions: (1) the bulk composition represents that of a mixture formed by impact melting of at least two different textural and compositional varieties of VLT mare basalt that are now present in the rock as lithic relics and a poorly defined low-Ti mare basalt component observed in thin section only in the form of isolated mineral relics; (2) the admixed VLT mare basalts had REE abundances lower than those found in other mare basalts (but probably higher than emerald green glass) and REE patterns showing significant enrichment of the heavy relative to light REE's, suggesting that they were derived by comparatively high degrees of partial melting of a clinopyroxene-rich source region; and (3) the impact melt supercooled to produce the vitrophyre, with rather sharply contrasting textural domains present in the vitrophyre resulting from differences in nucleation kinetics and degrees of supercooling in various portions of the sample.

  5. Hormonal composition of follicular fluid from abnormal follicular structures in mares.

    PubMed

    Beltman, M E; Walsh, S W; Canty, M J; Duffy, P; Crowe, M A

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to characterise the hormonal composition of follicular fluid from mares with distinct anovulatory-cystic follicles. Follicular fluid was aspirated from six mares that presented with cystic follicles and from pre-ovulatory follicles of five normal mares (controls). Differences in progesterone, oestradiol, testosterone, IGF-I and IGF binding were analysed using Fisher's exact test. There were greater (P < 0.03) follicular fluid oestradiol concentrations in normal follicles and the testosterone concentration of the cystic fluid was greater (P < 0.05) than that of the normal fluid. There also was a greater (P < 0.03) percentage of IGF-I binding and lower (P < 0.02) IGF-I concentrations in the fluid collected from the cystic structures compared with the fluid from normal follicles. Despite the limited number of animals, the fact that fluid aspirated from cystic follicles had higher testosterone and lower oestradiol concentrations could be of diagnostic value when a practitioner wants to distinguish between a cystic and non-cystic persistent follicle. The research reported here also indicates a likely role for the IGF system in the pathogenesis of the development and maintenance of anovulatory follicular structures in mare ovaries.

  6. Interovulatory intervals in mares receiving deslorelin implants in Ireland (2009 to 2010).

    PubMed

    Henderson, I S F; Brama, P; Osborne, M; Beltman, M E

    2012-05-26

    Deslorelin acetate implants, recently licensed in Ireland and the UK for ovulation induction in mares, have been associated with prolonged interovulatory intervals in USA studies, leading to the practice of removing implants postovulation. Trial data in Australia indicate a less pronounced effect on interovulatory intervals, suggesting possible geographical variation. Objectives of the current study were to assess the effect of deslorelin implants, with and without removal on oestrous cycle length in Irish- and UK-based Thoroughbred broodmares. Data were collected retrospectively from 88 oestrous cycles. A statistically significant difference (P=0.02) was found between interovulatory intervals in mares in which the deslorelin implant was not removed, compared with administration and removal of the implant or the use of human chorionic gonadotrophin. The results suggest that implant removal when possible is advisable. The delay in subsequent ovulations was less marked than that reported in some studies from the USA. This information is useful in deciding when to schedule subsequent breeding for mares which received a deslorelin implant during the previous oestrous period and provides evidence to counter-concerns that mares treated with deslorelin implants may experience a long delay in return to oestrus if the implant is not removed.

  7. Unilateral white line disease and laminitis in a quarter horse mare.

    PubMed

    Oke, Ray A

    2003-02-01

    A 5-year-old quarter horse mare presented with unilateral, severe, chronic forelimb lameness. Radiographs revealed extensive hoof wall separation and capsular rotation of the distal phalanx. Treatment included dorsal hoof wall resection, phenylbutazone, a bar shoe, and stall rest. Whether white line disease or laminitis was the primary lesion remains unclear.

  8. Histopathological characteristics of endometrosis in thoroughbred mares in Japan: results from 50 necropsy cases.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Michiko; Maeda, Yousuke; Oikawa, Masa-Aki

    2014-01-01

    Uteri from 50 necropsied nonpregnant Japanese Thoroughbred brood mares (1-30 years of age) were investigated to clarify the histopathological characteristics of endometrosis in Japanese Thoroughbred mares and the distribution pattern of endometrosis lesions in the uterus as a whole. Endometrosis was observed in all animals over 6 years of age and in all of the 21 mares aged over 12 years of age. The affected mares showed elastofibrosis of arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels in the uterine wall, atrophy of the uterine smooth muscle layers and hyperplasia of collagen fibers among the smooth muscle fascicles of the myometrium, in addition to pathomorphologic features of endometrosis such as stromal endometrial fibrosis accompanied by endometrial atrophy, periglandular fibrosis and reduction of uterine glands. The severity of the histopathological changes increased with advancing age. Lymphatic vessels with elastofibrosis showed marked lymph congestion, leading to lymphatic edema. With increasing age, the extent of the distribution of these lesions tended to expand from focal to diffuse involvement of the entire uterus. Based on these findings, we speculate that aging plays a role in the pathogenesis of endometrosis; circulatory disturbances due to intrauterine angiosis or angiopathy, particularly reduction of the arterial blood supply and disturbance of venous drainage, resulting in a reduction of lymphatic drainage (lymphatic edema), are closely related to the onset and progression of endometrial fibrosis and myometrial atrophy with fibroplasia may result in myometrial hypofunction during the peri-implantation or puerperal period.

  9. A Reflective Conversation with Kobus Maree, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy Lynne; Maree, Kobus

    2013-01-01

    Always regarded as somewhat of an "outsider" (the child of an English-speaking (Catholic) mother and an Afrikaans (Protestant) father in an exclusively Afrikaans milieu) and growing up extremely poor, seeing the hardship of others and realising how much talent was going to waste, Kobus Maree took a particular interest in gifted…

  10. Experimentally Induced Placentitis with Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus in Late Gestation Mares: Prevention of Preterm Birth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Placental infection due to opportunistic pathogens is the most common cause of abortion and premature delivery in horses. However, current therapies used to treat mares with placentitis are based on clinical experience, anecdotal information or on case reports. Thus, the objective of this study was ...

  11. Apollo 14 mare basalts - Petrology and geochemistry of clasts from consortium breccia 14321

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that polymict lunar breccia 14321 has long been renowned for the relative abundance of mare basalt clasts which it contains. However, few detailed studies of these clasts exist. The most comprehensive studies to date are those of the first 14321 consortium. Although the studies produced important results, a number of questions remain still unanswered. Thus, it is not certain if the clasts studied are representative of the entire clast population. In addition, there is a lack of correlation of petrography and mineral chemistry information with specific, analyzed clasts, and the major elements Mg and Ca were not analyzed. A second 14321 consortium effort has been organized with the objective to address the remaining questions. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a combined petrographic, mineral /chemical, and geochemical study of 11 mare basalt clasts chipped from five separate subsamples of breccia 14321. It is found that the mare basalt suite at the Apollo 14 site comprises a diverse assemblage of petrographic and compositional types which confirm the importance of ancient mare volcanism.

  12. Lava flows in mare imbrium: An evaluation of anomalously low earth-based radar reflectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Thompson, T.W.; Zisk, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The lunar maria reflect two to five times less Earth-based radar power than the highlands, the spectrally blue maria surfaces returning the lowest power levels. This effect of weakening signal return has been attributed to increased signal absorption related to the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3). The surface of Mare Imbrium contains some of the most distinct red-blue colorimetric boundaries and depolarized 70 cm wavelength reflectivity variations on the near side of the Moon. The weakest levels of both 3.8 cm and 70 cm reflectivity within Imbrium are confined to regional mare surfaces of the blue spectral type that can be recognized as stratigraphically unique flow surfaces. Frequency distributions of the 70 cm polarized and depolarized radar return power for five mare surfaces within the basin indicate that signal absorption, and probably the ilmenite content, increases generally from the beginning of the Imbrian Period to the end of the Eratosthenian Period with slight reversal between the end of the Imbrian and beginning of the Eratosthenian. TiO2 calibrated radar reflectivity curves can be utilized for lunar maria geochemical mapping in the same manner as the TiO2 calibrated spectral reflectivity curves of Charette et al. (1974). The long wavelength radar data may be a sensitive indicator of mare chemical variations as it is unaffected by the normal surface rock clutter that includes ray materials from large impact craters. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  13. Androgen insensitivity syndrome in a Thoroughbred mare (64, XY — testicular feminization)

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A Thoroughbred mare was presented for stallion-like behavior. Reproductive and ultrasonographic evaluation, testosterone assays, and karyotyping confirmed a diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome (64, XY — testicular feminization). Surgery to remove abdominal testicles was successful in alleviating the behavioral abnormality. This condition is discussed with reference to the current literature. PMID:15283519

  14. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    PubMed

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares.

  15. The outcome of the first stages of pregnancy on mares' bloodstream thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Fazio, E; Medica, P; Trifiletti, C; Ferlazzo, A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare in detail the total and free iodothyronines' pattern of mares from the first ovulation of the year over an extended period of 12 weeks. A total of 20 mares were used in the study. The mares were classified into two groups: mares mated at the ovulation (n = 10) used as observational group and mares unmated at the ovulation (n = 10) used as control group. Serum total and free triiodothyronine (T3, fT3) and thyroxine (T4, fT4) levels were measured in baseline conditions at the first ovulation of year and once a week until 12 weeks later. For the experimental group, the first week of postovulation mating was considered as the first week of gestation. One-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of time over 12 weeks for T3 (F = 2.44; P = 0.007) in pregnant mares, with the higher levels at the seventh and 12th weeks (P < 0.05) than baseline values, and for fT3 (F = 2.36; P = 0.009), with the higher levels at the 11th week (P < 0.05) than baseline values. Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant pregnancy effect compared with nonpregnancy stage for T3 (F = 15.82; P = 0.009), with the higher levels at the seventh and 12th weeks (P < 0.05) of pregnancy than that in nonpregnant values. Thus, it appears that, under similar environment, management and nutritional regime, the first trimester of pregnancy plays a dynamic role on the thyroid patterns by their anabolic activity; therefore, significant effects of time points on the T3 and fT3 concentrations probably may contribute to the control of early embryonic growth and development, before the onset of fetal thyroid activity. Considerable additional research, outwith the aim of this study, will be required to elucidate the mechanisms by which gestational age affects the physiological thyroid function in mares and/or fetus ratio in the first pregnancy stage.

  16. Tectonic Mapping of Mare Frigoris Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. R.; Bell, J. F.; Watters, T. R.; Banks, M. E.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional wisdom has been that extensional tectonism on the Moon largely ended ~3.6 billion years ago and that contractional deformation ended ~1.2 billion years ago. New NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) high resolution images are forcing a re-assessment of this view. Mapping in Mare Frigoris and the surrounding area has revealed many tectonic landforms enabling new investigations of the region's structural evolution. Sinuous wrinkle ridges with hundreds of meters of relief are interpreted as folded basalt layers overlying thrust faults. They have often been associated with lunar mascons identified by positive free-air gravity anomalies where thick basaltic lava causes flexure and subsidence to form ridges. No mascon-like gravity anomaly is associated with Mare Frigoris, yet large ridges deform the mare basalts. Lobate scarps are also found near Frigoris. These asymmetric linear hills inferred to be surface expressions of thrust faults are distributed globally and thought to originate from cooling and radial contraction of the lunar interior. Clusters of meter-scale extensional troughs or graben bounded by normal faults also occur in Frigoris. Tectonic landforms are being mapped in and around Mare Frigoris using LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images. Preliminary results show that wrinkle ridges in Frigoris occur both near and distal to the basin perimeter, trend E/W in western and central Frigoris, and form a polygonal pattern in the eastern section. Several complex wrinkle ridges are observed to transition into morphologically simpler lobate scarps at mare/highland boundaries, with the contrast in tectonic morphology likely due to the change from layered (mare) to un-layered (highlands) substrate. Lobate scarps in Frigoris occur primarily in the highlands, tend to strike E/W, and often but not always follow the boundary between mare and highlands. Small graben mapped in Frigoris occur in several clusters adjacent to or atop ridges and scarps, and

  17. Lunar Prospector Neutron Measurements and TiO2 in Mare Basalt Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; Maurice, S.; Feldman, W. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Gasnault, O. M.; Lucey, P. G.; Blewett, D. T.; Binder, A. B.

    2001-05-01

    The TiO2 content in mare basalt soils primarily reflects the abundance of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3), and has been used to classify the mare basalts sampled at the landing sites. Titanium is an important elemental indicator in mare basalt petrogenesis, reflecting the composition and state of the partial melt at depth. Consequently it is important to establish the global abundance of titanium in mare basalt soils. Neutron spectrometer data can be used to do this: iron and titanium have large cross sections for thermal neutron absorption compared to other major elements in lunar minerals. The thermal neutron leakage flux of Fe- and Ti-rich mare soils is nearly a factor of three smaller than that of highlands soils. For this reason, Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer measurements can provide constraints on TiO2 abundance on the lunar surface. Sophisticated Monte Carlo simulations of neutron transport and capture reveal that there is a linear relationship between the epithermal-to-thermal neutron flux ratio and the macroscopic absorption cross section, Σ a. Σ a is a measure of a material's ability to absorb thermal neutrons, in effect a weighted sum of the absorption contributions due to all elements. Using FeO and thorium abundance estimates from Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer we can estimate the contributions of all major elements except titanium to Σ a, as well as the additional absorbing effects of the rare earth elements gadolinium and samarium. Any additional absorption must be due to the presence of titanium. We can thus derive abundance estimates of TiO2 and compare to other estimates derived spectroscopically. Our results show a significantly lower abundance of TiO2 than has been estimated using spectral reflectance techniques with Clementine data. In particular, we find much lower abundances in M. Crisium, M. Fecunditatis, and within M. Serenitatis and northern M. Nubium.

  18. Cassini RADAR Observes Titan's Kraken Mare, The Largest Extraterrestrial Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging by Cassini's RADAR instrument beginning in 2006 revealed the presence of hundreds of hydrocarbon lakes and three large seas in Titan's north polar region [1,2]. Kraken Mare appeared to be the largest sea in IR images [3] but only the northern end was imaged by RADAR prior to 2012. High altitude SAR (HiSAR) observations on recent Titan flybys T84, T91, and T92 now provide complete coverage of Kraken and environs to ~50°N, at resolutions of 2-10 km. Backscatter statistics of the sea are 0.002 × 0.04, i.e., any return is substantially less than the noise and much less than typical dry land cross sections of 0.1-1.5. We conclude that Kraken is liquid filled to substantial depth over its entire extent. A surprising result is that the major seas all lie within a 1800 x 900 km 'box' (Fig.1). A third of the area inside this box (0.6 M km2) is sea, whereas the largest lake outside the box is only 0.005 M km2. Kraken's overall shape is complex (lobateness 4.4 vs 2.1 for Ligeia) but its 0.44 M km2 is divided by 20 to 160 km wide straits into 5 sub-basins that are elongated E-W across the box. Numerous straight shoreline segments parallel the edges of the box. Others parallel the 10°, 80°, and 170°W meridians, as do the rectangular drainage patterns mapped by [4]. These alignments suggest a key role for tectonics in creating the depressions occupied by the northern seas. Fensal and Aztlan (the 'lazy H' of dune-filled lows straddling the equator at longitudes 0°-70°W) form a similar pattern of elongated depressions connected by a narrow strait within a rectangular box. In contrast, Titan's small lakes are widely distributed. Multiple depressions with radar-dark floors have been identified near the south pole and hypothesized as former seabeds [5], but though similar in size to the northern seas, they are not aligned with one another or tightly clustered. Thus, the geography of the north and south poles will remain distinct even if

  19. A chemical model for generating the sources of mare basalts - Combined equilibrium and fractional crystallization of the lunar magmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Neal, Clive R.

    1992-01-01

    A chemical model for simulating the sources of the lunar mare basalts was developed by considering a modified mafic cumulate source formed during the combined equilibrium and fractional crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO). The parameters which influence the initial LMO and its subsequent crystallization are examined, and both trace and major elements are modeled. It is shown that major elements tightly constrain the composition of mare basalt sources and the pathways to their creation. The ability of this LMO model to generate viable mare basalt source regions was tested through a case study involving the high-Ti basalts.

  20. Formation and reactivation ages of a lunar mare ridge in northern Imbrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daket, Yuko; Yamaji, Atsushi; Sato, Katsushi; Morota, Tomokatsu; Haruyama, Junichi; Ohtake, Makiko; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    2013-04-01

    Mare ridges and lobate scarps are the manifestations of ancient or recent horizontal compression in the shallow part of the Moon. Regional and global stress fields have been controlled possibly by mascon loading (e.g., Solomon and Head, 1980) and/or global cooling, the latter of which is affected by the origin of the Moon (e.g., Prichard and Stevenson, 2000). On the other hand, mascon loading results in tectonic deformations immediately after the deposition of mare fills (Mohit and Phillips, 2006). Therefore, the timing of deformations is a clue to distinguish the mechanisms. We constrained the formation age of a mare ridge in northern Mare Imbrium as follows. Mare basalts were so inviscid that their lava fields have level surfaces. And, lava flows would have been dammed by pre-existing mare ridges. Therefore, the depositional ages of the mare units-the one involved in the ridge and the other dammed by the ridge, indicate the range of the formation age of the ridge. Using images taken by SELENE (Kaguya), we found such an ENE-WSW trending ridge in northern Imbrium with the height, width and length of 300-400 m, 30 km and ~150 km, respectively. We defined spectrally distinctive two basaltic units in this area: Ti-poor basalt makes up the ridge, and relatively Ti-rich one lies on the plain at the foot of the ridge. Their boundary runs along the southern foot of the ridge. There are no fissures along the boundary that could have fed the Ti-rich basalt. Their model ages were estimated by crater-size frequency distribution measurements using craters of 250 m to 1 km in diameter. As a result, the Ti-poor and Ti-rich units gave the ages at 2.97 +0.16/-0.23 and 2.07 +0.17/-0.17 Ga, respectively, indicating the ridge was formed between ~3.0 and ~2.0 Ga. The majority of mare basalts in mare Imbrium were deposited before ~3.0 Ga (Solomon and Head, 1980), indicating that the ridge formation is explained as a latest event of the mascon loading. However, the unit boundary does

  1. The uniform K distribution of the mare deposits in the Orientale Basin: Insights from Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meng-Hua; Chang, Jin; Xie, Minggang; Fritz, Jörg; Fernandes, Vera A.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Ma, Tao; Xu, Aoao

    2015-05-01

    The composition of mare basalt units in the Orientale Basin are investigated by using the potassium (K) map derived from Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer (CE-2 GRS) and FeO map derived from Clementine UV-Vis data set. Together with crater retention ages of the mare basalts from literature data, we aim to investigate possible magma sources underneath the Orientale Basin and their chemical evolution over time. Analyses of the chemical composition of the resurfaced mare basalts together with the reported eruption ages suggest a unique magma generating process for the resurfaced mare deposits. The early mare basalts in the central Mare Orientale and the later resurfaced mare deposits probably derived from magma generated by heat release due to high radioactive element concentrations. Based on forward modeling, the similar K abundances observed in the small mare deposits of the SW polygon area, Lacus Veris, and Lacus Autumni and those in the central Mare Orientale imply the same heat source for these lava eruptions. The chemical similarities (e.g., K, FeO, and TiO2) of these regions suggest that mare basalts within the Orientale Basin are a result of multiple eruptions from a relatively homogeneous source underneath the Basin.

  2. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a radius... Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED...

  3. Moon Diver: A Mission Concept for Exploring the History of Lunar Mare Deposits with the Axel Extreme Terrain Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L.; Nesnas, I.; Ashley, J. W.; Malaska, M. J.; Parcheta, C.; Mitchell, K. L.; Anderson, R. C.

    2016-11-01

    Moon Diver is a lunar exploration concept that would access a mare pit, allowing thorough exploration of a cross sectional exposure of both regolith and bedrock on the Moon, including stratigraphy, textures, chemistry, and mineralogy.

  4. Effects of rice bran oil on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition, and glucose dynamics in mares.

    PubMed

    Frank, N; Andrews, F M; Elliott, S B; Lew, J; Boston, R C

    2005-11-01

    Plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition, and glucose dynamics were measured and compared between mares fed diets containing added water, corn oil (CO), refined rice bran oil (RR), or crude rice bran oil (CR) to test the hypothesis that rice bran oil lowers plasma lipid concentrations, alters lipoprotein composition, and improves insulin sensitivity in mares. Eight healthy adult mares received a basal diet fed at 1.5 times the DE requirement for maintenance and each of the four treatments according to a repeated 4 x 4 Latin square design consisting of four 5-wk feeding periods. Blood samples were collected for lipid analysis after mares were deprived of feed overnight at 0 and 5 wk. Glucose dynamics were assessed at 0 and 4 wk in fed mares by combined intravenous glucose-insulin tolerance tests. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured, and estimated values of insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose effectiveness, and net insulin response were obtained using the minimal model. Mean BW increased (P = 0.014) by 29 kg (range = 10 to 50 kg) over 5 wk. Mean plasma concentrations of NEFA, triglyceride (TG), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) decreased (P < 0.001) by 55, 30, and 39%, respectively, and plasma high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations increased (P < 0.001) by 15 and 12%, respectively, over 5 wk. Changes in plasma NEFA (r = 0.58; P < 0.001) and TC (r = 0.44; P = 0.013) concentrations were positively correlated with weight gain over 5 wk. Lipid components of VLDL decreased (P < 0.001) in abundance over 5 wk, whereas the relative protein content of VLDL increased by 39% (P < 0.001). Addition of oil to the basal diet instead of water lowered plasma NEFA and TG concentrations further (P = 0.002 and 0.020, respectively) and increased plasma TC concentrations by a greater magnitude (P = 0.072). However, only plasma TG concentrations and VLDL free cholesterol content were affected (P = 0.024 and 0.009, respectively

  5. eCG concentrations, luteal structures, return to cyclicity, and postabortion fertility in embryo transfer recipient mares.

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Aguilar, J J; Vettorazzi, M L; Martínez-Boví, R

    2015-10-01

    The present study characterizes the relationship between the levels of eCG, ovarian morphology, resumption of cyclicity, and fertility in postaborted embryo transfer recipient mares. A total of 32 pregnant recipient mares carrying a male fetus were aborted at approximately 65 days of gestation by single transcervical administration of cloprostenol. In addition, 25 gestation age-matched mares were used as nonaborted controls. The concentration of progesterone, but not of eCG, differed significantly between controls and aborted mares 48 hours after abortion. Of treated mares, 84.4% (27 of 32) expelled the fetus within 48 hours of treatment. The eCG concentration and the number of supplementary luteal structures were lower in mares aborted in November (equivalent to May in Northern Hemisphere) than in January. A total of 6.2%, 37.5%, and 56.2% of the mares entered anestrus, ovulated normally, and had 1 to 2 consecutive anovulatory cycles, respectively. The mean interval from abortion to the first ovulation was 28.5 ± 3.3 days (range, 5-65 days). The correlation between the levels of eCG at abortion and the interval to the first ovulation was poor (r = 0.38; P = 0.03). Of aborted mares, 90% (18 of 20) were reused and became pregnant after embryo transfer at a mean of 57.6 ± 4.4 days after abortion (range, 19-103 days) and eCG concentration of 0.9 ± 0.3 IU/mL (range, 0.1-3.6 IU/mL). In conclusion, the levels of eCG at the time of abortion were extremely variable and did not correlate well with the number of luteal structures or the interval from abortion to the first ovulation.

  6. The effect of the interval from PGF treatment to ovulation on embryo recovery and pregnancy rate in the mare.

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Mateu-Sánchez, S; Aguilar, J J; Nielsen, J M; Etcharren, V; Vettorazzi, M L; Newcombe, J R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the interval from induced luteolysis to ovulation on fertility of mares from two different farms. At farm 1, 215 mares were inseminated with frozen/thawed semen during 513 estrous cycles over seven consecutive breeding seasons. Estrus was induced with analogues of PGF2α in 179 cycles. At farm 2, 375 embryo flushings were performed in 65 donor mares inseminated with fresh semen; of which, 327 were performed following artificial insemination after PGF-induced luteolysis. In both farms, the intervals from PGF treatment to ovulation (ITO) data were divided into three interval groups: less than 6 days, 6 to 8 days, and greater than 8 days. A mixed regression model was created to determine the effect of different factors on the pregnancy rate (PR) and embryo recovery rate (ERR). Of all factors analyzed, the ITO was the only one that significantly influenced the PR and ERR (P < 0.05). In farm 1, the PR of mares with an ITO of less than 6 days, 6 to 8 days, and greater than 8 days was 26.6%, 39.4%, and 55.9%, respectively (P = 0.01). The PR for mares inseminated after spontaneous luteolysis (without PGF) was 42.5%. In farm 2, the ERR of donor mares for the same ITO groups was 55.0%, 62.6%, and 73.7%, respectively (P = 0.02). The ERR for mares flushed after a previous spontaneous estrus was 75.0%. In conclusion, the ITO had a significant effect on the PR and ERR in the mare. Fertility was reduced as the ITO became shorter.

  7. Comparative study between pony mares and ewes evaluating gonadotrophic response to administration of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Porter, M B; Cleaver, B D; Peltier, M; Robinson, G; Thatcher, W W; Sharp, D C

    1997-07-01

    This study compared equine and ovine LH secretory responses to GnRH treatment. Dioestrous mares and ewes were challenged with continuous GnRH for 15 h. Mares that received constant GnRH (110 micrograms h-1) had sustained LH secretion (P < 0.01), whereas LH concentrations in ewes treated with continuous GnRH (25 micrograms h-1) initially increased, then declined and remained low, suggesting GnRH receptor desensitization or downregulation. In addition, progesterone-primed, ovariectomized mares and ewes were challenged with pulsatile or continuous GnRH for 5 days. Plasma LH concentrations were increased by day 5 in mares treated with pulsatile (25 micrograms pulse-1 h-1) and continuous (110 micrograms h-1) GnRH (P < 0.01). Furthermore, mean LH concentrations and time-response curves were not different. In contrast, ewes treated with continuous GnRH (2.5 micrograms h-1) demonstrated LH secretory patterns indicative of GnRH receptor downregulation on day 1 of treatment. LH concentrations in ewes treated with pulsatile GnRH (250 ng pulse-1 h-1) did not differ from controls. In conclusion, pony mares responded continuously to GnRH treatment (pulsatile and continuous), whereas ewes treated with continuous GnRH experienced reduced LH secretion. These findings suggest a unique hypothalamic-pituitary axis in pony mares.

  8. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  9. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Hanneke J M; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G B; Van Den Hoek Ostende, Lars W; Hume, Julian P; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ∼4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo (Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  10. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G. B.; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hume, Julian P.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ˜4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  11. The probable continuum between emplacement of plutons and mare volcanism in lunar crustal evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    A scenario for the formation of the Moon is advanced and is argued to be consistent with both known data and the leading hypothesis regarding the formation of the Moon. It is concluded that, although the volume of mare basalts is estimated to be only 0.1 percent of the lunar total, this value should not be taken to represent the amount of partial melt produced within the lunar interior, nor should the mare basalts be viewed as representing the only products of internal heating. The actual amount of magnetic activity is certain to be substantially larger, but cannot be estimated without a global assessment of lunar highland heterogeneity and the character, scale, and abundance of lunar plutons.

  12. The probable continuum between emplacement of plutons and mare volcanism in lunar crustal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-06-01

    A scenario for the formation of the Moon is advanced and is argued to be consistent with both known data and the leading hypothesis regarding the formation of the Moon. It is concluded that, although the volume of mare basalts is estimated to be only 0.1 percent of the lunar total, this value should not be taken to represent the amount of partial melt produced within the lunar interior, nor should the mare basalts be viewed as representing the only products of internal heating. The actual amount of magnetic activity is certain to be substantially larger, but cannot be estimated without a global assessment of lunar highland heterogeneity and the character, scale, and abundance of lunar plutons.

  13. Titan's lakes and Mare observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. H.; Soderblom, L. A.; Sotin, C.; Barnes, J. W.; Hayes, A. G.; Lawrence, K. J.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Soderblom, J. M.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Jaumann, R.; Nicholson, P. D.; Stephan, K.

    2012-04-01

    Titan is the only place, besides Earth, that holds stable liquid bodies at its surface. The large Kraken Mare, first seen by ISS [1], was then observed by the radar instrument that discovered a large number of small lakes as well as two other Mare [2]. The liquid nature of these radar-dark features was later confirmed by the specular reflection observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) over Kraken Mare [3] and by the very low albedo at 5-micron over Ontario Lacus [4]. The three largest lakes are called Mare and are all located in the North Pole area. It is remarkable that most of these lakes have been observed on the North Pole with only one large lake, Ontario lacus, located in the South Pole area. This observation suggests the influence of orbital parameters on the meteorology and the occurrence of rainfalls to refill the depressions [5]. Ethane was detected by the VIMS instrument as one component of Ontario lacus [4]. These lakes and Mare play a key role in Titan's meteorology as demonstrated by recent global circulation models [6]. Determining the composition and the evolution of those lakes has become a primary science objective of the Cassini extended mission. Since Titan entered northern spring in August 2009, the North Pole has been illuminated allowing observations at optical wavelengths. On June 5, 2010 the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft observed the northern pole area with a pixel size from 3 to 7 km. These observations demonstrate that little of the solar flux at 5-micron is scattered by the atmosphere, which allowed us to build a mosaic covering an area of more than 500,000 km2 that overlaps and complements observations made by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in 2007. We find that there is an excellent correlation between the shape of the radar dark area, known as Ligeia Mare and the VIMS 5-micron dark unit. Matching most of the radar shoreline, the 2010 VIMS observations suggest

  14. Modes of emplacement of basalt terrains and an analysis of mare volcanism in the Orientale Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1976-01-01

    Three distinctive types of basalt terrains can be recognized on earth on the basis of surface morphology: flood basalts, shield basalts, and plains basalts, each of which reflects unique styles of eruption and modes of emplacement. Two of these, flood basalts and plains basalts, appear to be important in the emplacement of mare basalts on the moon. Using surface features as identifying criteria, mare units in the Orientale Basin were examined and the following emplacement sequence was derived: (1) initial emplacement of impact melt in the basin center, (2) eruption of flood-type basalts in the basin center and approximately concurrent emplacement of plains type basalts in Lacus Veris, and (3) emplacement of plains type basalts in Lacus Autumni

  15. Some clinical observations on the effect of an implant of oestradiol benzoate in brood mares.

    PubMed

    Azzie, M A

    1975-10-01

    The clinical effects and therapeutic value of a 500 mg implant of oestradiol benzoate was observed in thirty-nine Thoroughbred brood mares showing various abnormalities of the ovary and/or the reproductive tract. Sixteen similarly affected, untreated mares acted as controls. The implant was inserted during the early part of the normal anoestrous period and was removed 6 to 10 weeks later. The conception rate among the treated group (59%) during the onset of the ensuing breeding season was significantly higher (P less than 0-02) than that in the control group. The value of this form of treatment in septic endometritis and as an anabolic aid in cases of immaturity is also discussed.

  16. Experimental partitioning of rare earth elements and scandium among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and mare basalt liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irving, A. J.; Merrill, R. B.; Singleton, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to measure partition coefficients for two rare-earth elements (Sm and Tm) and Sc among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and liquid coexisting in a system modeled on high-Ti mare basalt 74275. This 'primitive' sample was chosen for study because its major and trace element chemistry as well as its equilibrium phase relations at atmospheric pressure are known from previous studies. Beta-track analytical techniques were used so that partition coefficients could be measured in an environment whose bulk trace element composition is similar to that of the natural basalt. Partition coefficients for Cr and Mn were determined in the same experiments by microprobe analysis. The only equilibrium partial melting model appears to be one in which ilmenite is initially present in the source region but is consumed by melting before segregation of the high-Ti mare basalt liquid from the residue.

  17. Modeling approaches to describe H2O and CO2 exchange in mare ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olchev, A.; Novenko, E.; Volkova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The modern climatic conditions is strongly influenced by both internal variability of climatic system, and various external natural and anthropogenic factors (IPCC 2007). Significant increase of concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and especially the growth of atmospheric CO2 due to human activity are considered as the main factors that are responsible for global warming and climate changes. A significant part of anthropogenic CO2 is absorbed from the atmosphere by land biota and especially by vegetation cover. However, it is still not completely clear what is the role of different land ecosystems and especially forests and mares in global cycles of H2O and CO2 and what is a sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate changes. Within the frameworks of this study the spatial and temporal variability of H2O and CO2 fluxes in different types of mare ecosystems of the forest-steppe zone in European part of Russia was described using modeling approaches and results of field measurements. For this modeling and experimental study the mare ecosystems of Tula region were selected. The Tula region is located mostly in the forest-steppe zone and it is unique area for such studies because almost all existed types of mare ecosystems of Northern Eurasia distinguished by a geomorphological position, water and mineral supply can be found there. Most mares in Tula region have a relatively small size and surrounded by very heterogeneous forests that make not possible an application of the classical measuring and modeling approaches e.g. an eddy covariance technique or one-dimensional H2O and CO2 exchange models for flux estimation in such sites. In our study to describe the radiation, sensible heat, H2O and CO2 exchange between such heterogeneous mare ecosystems and the atmosphere a three-dimensional model Forbog-3D and one-dimensional Mixfor-SVAT were applied. The main concept used in the Forbog-3D and Mixfor-SVAT models is an aggregated description of physical and

  18. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma associated with a retained molar in an Oldenburg mare.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Susan; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Butler, Abigail M; Gomez-Ibañez, Sara E; Lowder, Michael Q; Fayrer-Hosken, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    An 11-year-old Oldenburg mare presented with a 3-month history of weight loss and swelling of the posterior right mandible. Physical examination and radiographs showed a soft-tissue mass in the right mandible with foci of mineralization, periosteal proliferation, and a retained molar. The tumor increased in size over several weeks, and the mare was euthanized. On necropsy, a 24 cm × 15 cm × 15 cm firm, white mass had obliterated the posterior right mandible. The mass was multinodular with discrete clusters of blood-filled cystic spaces. Histologically, the mass was composed of neoplastic odontogenic epithelium and pulpal mesenchyme with an accumulation of eosinophilic material resembling dentin or enamel. Microscopic and immunohistochemical staining features of the neoplasm were most consistent with an ameloblastic fibro-odontoma.

  19. Apollo 17 KREEPy basalt - A rock type intermediate between mare and KREEP basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Stoeser, D. B.; Wood, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The Apollo 17 KREEPy basalt is a unique lunar volcanic rock, observed only as clasts in the light friable breccia matrix (72275) of Boulder 1, Station 2 at Taurus-Littrow. Its status as a volcanic rock is confirmed by the absence of any meteoritic contamination, a lack of cognate inclusions or xenocrystal material, and low Ni contents in metal grains. The basalt was extruded 4.01 + or - 0.04 b.y. ago, approximately contemporaneously with the high-alumina mare basalts at Fra Mauro; shortly afterwards it was disrupted, probably by the Serenitatis impact, and its fragments emplaced in the South Massif. The basalt, which is quartz-normative and aluminous, is chemically and mineralogically intermediate between the Apollo 15 KREEP basalts and the high-alumina mare basalts in most respects. It consists mainly of plagioclase and pigeonitic pyroxene in approximately equal amounts, and 10-30% of mesostatis.

  20. The solubility of sulfur in high-TiO2 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danckwerth, P. A.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of the solubility of sulfur of the high-TiO2 mare basalt 74275 at 1 atm, 1250 C. The data indicate that at saturation, 74275 is capable of dissolving 3400 ppm sulfur at 10 to 15 degrees below its liquidus. The analyzed samples of 74275 show sulfur contents of 1650 ppm S, which indicates that 74275 was 50% undersaturated at the time of eruption.

  1. Lunar Meteorites: What They Tell us About the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.

    2010-01-01

    Here we analyze the chronology and statistical distribution of lunar meteorites with emphasis on the spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts. The data are mostly from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium (http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ antmet/ lmc/contents.cfm cited hereafter as Compendium) compiled by Kevin Righter, NASA Johnson Space Center, and from the associated literature. The Compendium was last modified on May 12, 2008.

  2. X-ray digital imaging petrography of lunar mare soils: modal analyses of minerals and glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Patchen, A.; Taylor, D. H.; Chambers, J. G.; McKay, D. S.

    1996-01-01

    It is essential that accurate modal (i.e., volume) percentages of the various mineral and glass phases in lunar soils be used for addressing and resolving the effects of space weathering upon reflectance spectra, as well as for their calibration such data are also required for evaluating the resource potential of lunar minerals for use at a lunar base. However, these data are largely lacking. Particle-counting information for lunar soils, originally obtained to study formational processes, does not provide these necessary data, including the percentages of minerals locked in multi-phase lithic fragments and fused-soil particles, such as agglutinates. We have developed a technique for modal analyses, sensu stricto, of lunar soils, using digital imaging of X-ray maps obtained with an energy-dispersive spectrometer mounted on an electron microprobe. A suite of nine soils (90 to 150 micrometers size fraction) from the Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 mare sites was used for this study. This is the first collection of such modal data on soils from all Apollo mare sites. The abundances of free-mineral fragments in the mare soils are greater for immature and submature soils than for mature soils, largely because of the formation of agglutinitic glass as maturity progresses. In considerations of resource utilization at a lunar base, the best lunar soils to use for mineral beneficiation (i.e., most free-mineral fragments) have maturities near the immature/submature boundary (Is/FeO approximately or = 30), not the mature soils with their complications due to extensive agglutination. The particle data obtained from the nine mare soils confirm the generalizations for lunar soils predicted by L.A. Taylor and D.S. McKay (1992, Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. 23rd, pp. 1411-1412 [Abstract]).

  3. Diapirism and the origin of high TiO2 mare glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    High TiO2 mare picritic glasses are derived from cumulate source regions that are only modestly endowed with ilmenite-enriched crystallization products. These sources are mobilized by the heat derived from the primitive interior and evolve into diapirs which rise adiabatically from depths in excess of 700 km. As these diapirs undergo pressure-release melting, they also stir in significant portions of the surrounding mantle.

  4. An Epidemiological Study of Leptospira-Induced Abortion in Mares in Central Kentucky (1990-2004)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-02

    Leptospirosis can cause fetal abortion in pregnant mares. The number of abortions attributed to leptospiral infection in central Kentucky can differ greatly from...year to year. This study makes comparisons of years having a higher than average prevalence of leptospiral abortions to those years having an average...attributed to leptospiral infection in central Kentucky can differ greatly from year to year. This study makes comparisons of years having a higher than

  5. Whole-Genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a quarter Horse mare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The catalog of genetic variants in the horse genome originates from a few select animals, the majority originating from the Thoroughbred mare used for the equine genome sequencing project. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs), and copy number variants (CNVs) in the genome of an individual Quarter Horse mare sequenced by next-generation sequencing. Results Using massively parallel paired-end sequencing, we generated 59.6 Gb of DNA sequence from a Quarter Horse mare resulting in an average of 24.7X sequence coverage. Reads were mapped to approximately 97% of the reference Thoroughbred genome. Unmapped reads were de novo assembled resulting in 19.1 Mb of new genomic sequence in the horse. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified 3.1 million SNPs, 193 thousand INDELs, and 282 CNVs. Genetic variants were annotated to determine their impact on gene structure and function. Additionally, we genotyped this Quarter Horse for mutations of known diseases and for variants associated with particular traits. Functional clustering analysis of genetic variants revealed that most of the genetic variation in the horse's genome was enriched in sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. Conclusions This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation sequencing and the first genomic sequence of an individual Quarter Horse mare. We have increased the catalog of genetic variants for use in equine genomics by the addition of novel SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs. The genetic variants described here will be a useful resource for future studies of genetic variation regulating performance traits and diseases in equids. PMID:22340285

  6. The seahorse, the almond, and the night-mare: elaborative encoding during sleep-paralysis hallucinations?

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's proposal that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming reflects elaborative encoding mediated by the hippocampus ("seahorse") offers an interesting perspective for understanding hallucinations accompanying sleep paralysis (SP; "night-mare"). SP arises from anomalous intrusion of REM processes into waking consciousness, including threat-detection systems mediated by the amygdala ("almond"). Unique aspects of SP hallucinations offer additional prospects for investigation of Llewellyn's theory of elaborative encoding.

  7. X-ray digital imaging petrography of lunar mare soils: modal analyses of minerals and glasses.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L A; Patchen, A; Taylor, D H; Chambers, J G; McKay, D S

    1996-12-01

    It is essential that accurate modal (i.e., volume) percentages of the various mineral and glass phases in lunar soils be used for addressing and resolving the effects of space weathering upon reflectance spectra, as well as for their calibration such data are also required for evaluating the resource potential of lunar minerals for use at a lunar base. However, these data are largely lacking. Particle-counting information for lunar soils, originally obtained to study formational processes, does not provide these necessary data, including the percentages of minerals locked in multi-phase lithic fragments and fused-soil particles, such as agglutinates. We have developed a technique for modal analyses, sensu stricto, of lunar soils, using digital imaging of X-ray maps obtained with an energy-dispersive spectrometer mounted on an electron microprobe. A suite of nine soils (90 to 150 micrometers size fraction) from the Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 mare sites was used for this study. This is the first collection of such modal data on soils from all Apollo mare sites. The abundances of free-mineral fragments in the mare soils are greater for immature and submature soils than for mature soils, largely because of the formation of agglutinitic glass as maturity progresses. In considerations of resource utilization at a lunar base, the best lunar soils to use for mineral beneficiation (i.e., most free-mineral fragments) have maturities near the immature/submature boundary (Is/FeO approximately or = 30), not the mature soils with their complications due to extensive agglutination. The particle data obtained from the nine mare soils confirm the generalizations for lunar soils predicted by L.A. Taylor and D.S. McKay (1992, Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. 23rd, pp. 1411-1412 [Abstract]).

  8. The Status of the MARE Experiment with 187Re and 163Ho Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Bagliani, D.; Biasotti, M.; Ceruti, G.; Corsini, D.; Faverzani, M.; Gatti, F.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Kilbourne, C.; Kling, A.; Maino, M.; Manfrinetti, P.; Nucciotti, A.; Pessina, G.; Pizzigoni, G.; Gomes, M. Ribeiro; Sisti, M.

    Neutrino oscillation experiments have proved that neutrinos are massive particles but the assessment of their absolute mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in today particle physics and cosmology. The laboratory experiments dedicated to effective electron-neutrino mass determination are the ones based on the study of single beta decay or electron capture (EC) decay. Exploiting only on energy-momentum conservation, this kinematic measurement is the only one which permits to estimate neutrino masses without theoretical assumptions on neutrino nature and it is truly model-independent. To date the most competitive isotopes for a calorimetric measurement of the neutrino mass are 187Re and 163Ho. While the first decays beta, the latter decays via electron capture, and both have a Q-value around 2.5 keV. The measurement of 163Ho EC is an appealing alternative to the 187Re beta decay measurement because few nuclei are needed and it is a self-calibrating measurement. In this context the MARE project, based on rhenium thermal detectors has been born. We report here the status of MARE in Milan with Rhenium and the activity concerning the production of radioactive 163Ho isotope in the framework of MARE.

  9. Relation between leptin and estradiol levels in Egyptian lactating Arab mares during foaling heat.

    PubMed

    El-Maaty, Amal M Abo; Gabr, Faten I

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen Arab lactating mares belonging to Al-Zahraa Arab Horse Stud underwent two ultrasound examinations at 3 weeks interval starting from the day of demonstration of foaling heat. In addition, daily blood samples were collected from parturition until after exhibiting first postpartum estrus (day 11) with daily observation of estrous signs. Both leptin and estradiol hormones were assayed. Mean day of foaling heat was 8.9+/-0.9 day. Most mares came in foaling heat during days 9 and 10 had high conception rate compared to those who came in estrus earlier or later. Estradiol levels were high after day of foaling then decrease after expression of foaling heat. But leptin levels increase from day 8 to day 10 compared to other days before and after the first ovulation. A significant positive correlation was found between estradiol and leptin (r=0.58, p<0.025). The positive correlation between leptin and estradiol led us to suggest that leptin hormone plays an important role in ovulation of the first postpartum estrus in mares.

  10. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd evolution in lunar mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, D. M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Stille, P.; Patchett, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Existing cumulate remelting models for mare basalt genesis are evaluated in light of Lu-Hf, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd data and overall REE characteristics in order to determine the simplest model that can account for these data. A data base for comparing Lu-Hf evolution in the lunar mantle as inferred from Lu-Hf analyses of oceanic basalts is presented along with a preliminary comparison of Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd evolution betwee mare basalts and terrestrial oceanic basalts. It is found that Lu/Hf characteristics of mare basalts cannot be explained in terms of modal melting of cumulate sources formed from a magma ocean with chondritic Lu/Hf. The data are consistent with a model in which the cumulate sources formed from a light REE + HF-enriched magma ocean. Nonmodal melting of ilmenite in the sources is also required. The Lu-Hf data suggest that even the high-Ti basalt sources contained no more than about 3 percent ilmenite.

  11. Geological and geophysical field investigations from a lunar base at Mare Smythii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Hood, Lon L.

    1992-01-01

    Mare Smythii, located on the equator and east limb of the Moon, has a great variety of scientific and economic uses as the site for a permanent lunar base. Here a complex could be established that would combine the advantages of a nearside base (for ease of communications with Earth and normal operations) with those of a farside base (for shielding a radio astronomical observatory from the electromagnetic noise of Earth). The Mare Smythii region displays virtually the entire known range of geological processes and materials found on the Moon; from this site, a series of field traverses and investigations could be conducted that would provide data on and answers to fundamental questions in lunar geoscience. This endowment of geological materials also makes the Smythii region attractive for the mining of resources for use both on the Moon and in Earth-Moon space. We suggest that the main base complex be located at 0, 90 deg E, within the mare basalts of the Smythii basin; two additional outposts would be required, one at 0, 81 deg E to maintain constant communications with Earth, and and the other, at 0, 101 deg E on the lunar farside, to serve as a radio astronomical observatory. The bulk of lunar surface activities could be conducted by robotic teleoperations under the direct control of the human inhabitants of the base.

  12. Elastic lithosphere thickness on the moon from mare tectonic features - A formal inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comer, R. P.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The thickness (T) of the lunar elastic lithosphere at the time (3.6 to 3.8 billion years ago) of the earliest preserved basalt flows in circular mare basins can be estimated by inverting the observed locations of extensional tectonic features in and surrounding the maria. In performing the inversion, the lithosphere is modeled as an elastic shell with a liquid interior, and the basalt load for each mare is approximated by a set of concentric cylinders. To permit solving the forward problem of placing radial limits on the positions of the rilles around a given mare, an additional parameter F, the ratio of the radial stress at the radial limits to the maximum radial stress, is introduced. T and F are chosen to give the best weighted-squares fit of the radial limits to the observations, and are used as the initial values in a linearized matrix inversion to check the resolution and estimate errors. The application of the procedure to three maria with prominent extensional features, Humorum, Orientale, and Serenitatis, gives values of T from about 40 + or - 10 to 50 + or - 10 km, and in each case the linearized matrix equation has an exact inverse.

  13. Milking tests on Murgese mares and the design of adapted stalls.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, F; Bianchi, B; D'Emilio, F P

    2005-01-01

    The results of research into the milking of mares of the Murgese breed are described. A comparison was made between hand and mechanical milking with two pulsation rates (120 and 140 cycles/min) with the objective of defining mechanical and operational solutions for the design or standardisation of machine milking of mares with special reference to the Murgese breed. The study was performed on four multiparous mares, after a suitable adaptation period. The trial lasted 45 days, during which the animals were milked twice a day. Research showed considerable advantages, both from productive and technical manipulation viewpoints, of milking this species by mechanical means, rather than by hand. Moreover, mechanical milking at 140 cycles/min provided better results than other techniques examined, as it is possible to obtain the best milk production, the smallest specific power consumption and, in addition, the highest working capacity and labour productivity. The adaptation of the animals to mechanical milking and the resultant production can be considered adequate. Mechanical and operating solutions are proposed for new plants, together with adaptations to ensure security in existing plants.

  14. Inspiring our future citizens and scientists: follow the Blue Paths (Percorsi nel Blu)!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioni, Erika; Stroobant, Mascha; Merlino, Silvia; Traverso, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Very often we hear about scientific communication and education as separate and disconnected domains: in fact while the first one is seen more as a moment of disclosure for disseminating results and latest achievements and consequences (a look to our direct future), the second is, instead, identified as a formative moment in the long term, that often is based on obsolete and dated programs that refer to the past. What would happen if these two domains were, instead, considered as inseparable? As stated by Andrea Schleicher (OECD): "Schools have to prepare students for jobs that have not yet been created, technologies that have not yet been invented and problems that we don't know will arise." How to manage this challenge? The European Commission has proposed seven recommendations to follow for improving Science education and to bring more and more young people closer to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) disciplines. Especially three of them (Reccomendation n. 1, 4 and 7) pin out the to-do list for improving communication an education in Science, indicating that "a primary goal of science education across the EU should be to educate students both about the major explanations of the material world that science offers and about the way science works. Moreover teachers of science of the highest quality should be provided for students in primary and lower secondary school; moreover the emphasis in science education before 14 should be on engaging students with science and scientific phenomena (extended investigative work and 'hands-on' experimentation and not through a stress on the acquisition of canonical concepts). Last but not least: good quality teachers, with up to date knowledge and skills, are the foundation of any system of formal science education. Systems to ensure the recruitment, retention and continuous professional training of such individuals must be a policy priority in Europe". Blue Paths (Percorsi nel Blu) is a transversal

  15. Differential luteolytic function between the physiological breeding season, autumn transition and persistent winter cyclicity in the mare.

    PubMed

    King, S S; Douglas, B L; Roser, J F; Silvia, W J; Jones, K L

    2010-02-01

    There is a well-documented increase in luteolytic failure, resulting in spontaneously prolonged corpus luteum (SPCL) function, during estrous cycles of horses in autumn. The cause of this phenomenon may be due to seasonal alterations in PGF(2alpha) and/or in prolactin (PRL) secretion around luteolysis. To investigate this, progesterone (P4), 13, 14-dihydro, 15-keto PGF(2alpha) (PGFM) and PRL concentrations were compared between summer and autumn estrous cycles during natural luteolysis and luteolysis induced by benign uterine stimulation. A single estrous cycle from mares in June-July (n=12) was compared to multiple estrous cycles from these 12 mares plus 8 additional mares in September through December. Reproductive behavior was monitored by bringing a stallion in close proximity to the mare and ovarian events by ultrasonography. Blood was collected via jugular cannula every 6h from d 13 to 17 post-ovulation in untreated control mares (n=8 summer, n=9 autumn). In treated mares, blood collection occurred at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240min followed by 6h intervals for a total of 5d following intrauterine saline infusion on d 7 (n=4 summer, n=11 autumn). Mares failing to return to estrus for 30d received intrauterine saline and the described intensive blood sampling protocol on d 30. Progesterone and PRL were determined on daily samples and PGFM on frequent plasma collections by RIA. Duration of ovarian luteal and follicular phases, P4 and PRL concentrations and PGFM secretion around luteolysis were compared between treatments and seasons by ANOVA. Mean P4 declined from June to December in all groups. Pulses of PGFM were detected on d 13-17 in controls and d 7-11 in saline-infused mares. Pulse patterns were not different between groups. The incidence of SPCL increased during autumn in the control group. PGFM pulses were absent on d 13-17 in mares with SPCL, but PGFM pulses could be induced in these mares by saline infusion at d 30. Autumn PGFM profiles

  16. Effects of oral treatment with N-acetylcysteine on the viscosity of intrauterine mucus and endometrial function in estrous mares.

    PubMed

    Witte, T S; Melkus, E; Walter, I; Senge, B; Schwab, S; Aurich, C; Heuwieser, W

    2012-10-01

    Persistent breeding-induced endometritis is ranked as the third most common medical problem in the adult mare and leads to enormous economic loss in horse breeding. In mares suffering from persistent breeding-induced endometritis, increased amounts of intrauterine (i.u.) fluid or viscous mucus in estrus or after breeding may act as a barrier for sperm and can contribute to low fertility. Current therapies of these mares aim to eliminate i.u. fluid and mucus by uterine lavage and/or administration of ecbolic drugs. Recently, i.u. administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to support therapy in mares with endometritis. It was the objective of the present study to investigate effects of an oral administration of NAC on the viscosity of i.u. fluid in estrous mares. It was hypothesized that oral treatment with NAC reduces the viscosity of i.u. fluid and has a positive effect on the inflammatory response of the endometrium. Mares (n = 12) were included in the study as soon as estrus was detected (ovarian follicle >3.0 cm and endometrial edema), which was defined as Day 1. They were randomly assigned to a treatment (10 mg/kg NAC on Days 1-4) or a control group (no treatment). On days 1 and 5 i.u. mucus was collected and its rheologic properties were accessed. On Day 5, endometrial biopsies were obtained and evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the treatment group, viscosity of i.u. mucus increased significantly between Days 1 and 5 (P < 0.05), while no differences were found in control mares (n.s.). At no time were significant differences between treated and control mares seen. Integrity of epithelium was not affected. After NAC treatment the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies was significantly lower compared to mares of the control group (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 4.8 ± 0.4; P < 0

  17. How does the suppression of energy supplementation affect herbage intake, performance and parasitism in lactating saddle mares?

    PubMed

    Collas, C; Fleurance, G; Cabaret, J; Martin-Rosset, W; Wimel, L; Cortet, J; Dumont, B

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology opens up new perspectives for the design of sustainable farming systems by using the stimulation of natural processes to reduce the inputs needed for production. In horse farming systems, the challenge is to maximize the proportion of forages in the diet, and to develop alternatives to synthetic chemical drugs for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes. Lactating saddle mares, with high nutritional requirements, are commonly supplemented with concentrates at pasture, although the influence of energy supplementation on voluntary intake, performance and immune response against parasites has not yet been quantified. In a 4-month study, 16 lactating mares experimentally infected with cyathostome larvae either received a daily supplement of barley (60% of energy requirements for lactation) or were non-supplemented. The mares were rotationally grazed on permanent pastures over three vegetation cycles. All the mares met their energy requirements and maintained their body condition score higher than 3. In both treatments, they produced foals with a satisfying growth rate (cycle 1: 1293 g/day; cycle 2: 1029 g/day; cycle 3: 559 g/day) and conformation (according to measurements of height at withers and cannon bone width at 11 months). Parasite egg excretion by mares increased in both groups during the grazing season (from 150 to 2011 epg), independently of whether they were supplemented or not. This suggests that energy supplementation did not improve mare ability to regulate parasite burden. Under unlimited herbage conditions, grass dry matter intake by supplemented mares remained stable around 22.6 g DM/kg LW per day (i.e. 13.5 kg DM/al per day), whereas non-supplemented mares increased voluntary intake from 22.6 to 28.0 g DM/kg LW per day (13.5 to 17.2 kg DM/al per day) between mid-June and the end of August. Hence total digestible dry matter intake and net energy intake did not significantly differ between supplemented and non-supplemented mares during the

  18. Lunar Mare Dome Identification and Morphologic Properties Analysis Using Chang'E-2 Lunar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xingguo; Mu, Lingli; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2016-04-01

    Identify the lunar mare dome and study the morphologic properties to know more knowledge about the structure will enhance the study of lunar volcanism. Traditionally, most lunar domes are identified by the scientists from exploring the images or topographic maps of the lunar surface with manual method, which already found out a bunch of lunar domes in specific local areas. For the purpose of getting more knowledge about global lunar dome, it is necessary to identify the lunar dome from the global lunar mare. However, it is hard to find new lunar domes from the global lunar mare only with manual method, since in that case, the large volume lunar data is needed and such work is too time consumed, so that, there are few researchers who have indentified and study the properties of the lunar dome from the perspective of lunar global scale. To solve the problem mentioned above, in this approach , CE-2 DEM, DOM data in 7m resolution were used in the detection and morphologic analysis of the lunar domes and a dome detection method based on topographic characteristics were developed.We firstly designed a method considering the morphologic characteristics to identify the lunar dome with Chang'E2(CE-2) lunar global data, after that, the initial identified result with properties is analyzed, and finally, by integrating the result with lunar domes already found by former researchers, we made some maps about the spatial distribution of the global lunar mare dome. With the CE-2 data covering the former lunar domes and the new found lunar domes, we surveyed and calculated some morphologic properties, and found that, lunar domes are circular or eclipse shaped, obviously different from background in topography,which has a average diameter between 3-25km, circular degree less than 1.54, with a average slope less than 10°, average height less than 650m and diameter/height less than 0.065. Almost all of the lunar domes are located in the extent of 58°N~54°S,167°W~180°E,and nearly

  19. Mini-RF and LROC observations of mare crater layering relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickle, A. M.; Patterson, G. W.; Cahill, J. T. S.; Bussey, D. B. J.

    2016-07-01

    The lunar maria cover approximately 17% of the Moon's surface. Discerning discrete subsurface layers in the mare provides some constraints on thickness and volume estimates of mare volcanism. Multiple types of data and measurement techniques allow probing the subsurface and provide insights into these layers, including detailed examination of impact craters, mare pits and sinuous rilles, and radar sounders. Unfortunately, radar sounding includes many uncertainties about the material properties of the lunar surface that may influence estimates of layer depth and thickness. Because they distribute material from depth onto the surface, detailed examination of impact ejecta blankets provides a reliable way to examine deeper material using orbital instruments such as cameras, spectrometers, or imaging radars. Here, we utilize Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) data to investigate the scattering characteristics of ejecta blankets of young lunar craters. We use Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR) information from twenty-two young, fresh lunar craters to examine how the scattering behavior changes as a function of radius from the crater rim. Observations across a range of crater size and relative ages exhibit significant diversity within mare regions. Five of the examined craters exhibit profiles with no shelf of constant CPR near the crater rim. Comparing these CPR profiles with LROC imagery shows that the magnitude of the CPR may be an indication of crater degradation state; this may manifest differently at radar compared to optical wavelengths. Comparisons of radar and optical data also suggest relationships between subsurface stratigraphy and structure in the mare and the block size of the material found within the ejecta blanket. Of the examined craters, twelve have shelves of approximately constant CPR as well as discrete layers outcropping in the subsurface, and nine fall along a trend line when comparing shelf-width with thickness of subsurface layers. These

  20. Mixing Across a Simple Mare-Highland Contact in the Grimaldi Basin: New Insights from Clementine UV/VIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Mustard, J. F.; He, G.

    1996-03-01

    The investigation of the composition of mare-highland boundaries carried out by Mustard et al. using multispectral images from the Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) instrument reveals the existence of three distinct mixing systematics across the mare-highland contacts in the region of southwestern Procellarum. The three basic types are narrow, moderate, and complex mixing gradients, and each implies a different set of fundamental processes that have contributed to the observed gradients. However, the 4 km resolution of the Galileo SSI data is too low to critically evaluate the exact properties of these boundaries, particularly in areas with rapidly changing abundances. The higher spatial resolution of Clementine UV/VIS data ( ~200 m/pixel, 5 filters between 0.415- 1.0 am-micrometers) allows the contact of mare-highland to be addressed in more detail. We have begun a series of studies to characterize and model mixing across mare-highland boundaries using these data, beginning with simple boundaries (sharp geologic contact, simple superposition of mare on highland). In this study, the contact between the Grimaldi mare and the highland on the southern edge is investigated through the spectral mixture analysis of Clementine UV/VIS data. Our preliminary analyses reveals the boundary consists of three mixing zones: moderate, steep, and moderate. The moderate zones on the mare and highland sides of the contact are approximately 30km wide, while the steep zone is ~6-8 km wide. We are currently examining other such simple boundaries to determine if the physical dimensions and properties are consistent across the moon, and thus a chracteristic properties of simple boundaries.

  1. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Isotopic Studies of Meteorite Kalahari 009: An Old VLT Mare Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Bischoff, A.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Kalahari 009 is a fragmental basaltic breccia contain ing various very-low-Ti (VLT) mare basalt clasts embedded in a fine-g rained matrix of similar composition. This meteorite and lunar meteorite Kalahari 008, an anorthositic breccia, were suggested to be paired mainly due to the presence of similar fayalitic olivines in fragment s found in both meteorites. Thus, Kalahari 009 probably represents a VLT basalt that came from a locality near a mare-highland boundary r egion of the Moon, as compared to the typical VLT mare basalt samples collected at Mare Crisium during the Luna-24 mission. The concordant Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar ages of such a VLT basalt (24170) suggest that the extrusion of VLT basalts at Mare Crisium occurred 3.30 +/- 0.05 Ga ag o. Previous age results for Kalahari 009 range from approximately 4.2 Ga by its Lu-Hf isochron age to 1.70?0.04 Ga of its Ar-Ar plateau ag e. However, recent in-situ U-Pb dating of phosphates in Kalahari 009 defined an old crystallization age of 4.35+/- 0.15 Ga. The authors su ggested that Kalahari 009 represents a cryptomaria basalt. In this r eport, we present Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic results for Kalahari 009, discuss the relationship of its age and isotopic characteristics to t hose of other L-24 VLT mare basalts and other probable cryptomaria ba salts represented by Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalts, and discuss it s petrogenesis.

  2. Gestational length in Carthusian broodmares: effects of breeding season, foal gender, age of mare, year of parturition, parity and sire.

    PubMed

    Satué, K; Felipe, M; Mota, J; Muñoz, A

    2011-01-01

    The length of gestation in Carthusian broodmares was calculated on the basis of 339 spontaneous full-term deliveries taking place in the 8-year period 1998-2005 from 158 broodmares and 29 stallions in a major farm of Spanish horses of Carthusian strain in southern Spain. Ultrasonography was used to determine follicular dehiscence, 1st day of pregnancy and to confirm conception in mares. Mean GL was 332.4 +/- 12.1 days, and a normal interval of 297-358 days was established for this breed. GL records were grouped on the basis of foal sex (colts or fillies), mating month (between November and January; February and April; May and July), age of the mare (4 to 7 years; 8 to 12 years; 13 to 17 years), breeding year, stallion and parity (primiparous vs. multiparous). GLs were 12.9 days shorter in mares mated between May and July than those mated between November and January and 15.3 days in mares mated between February and April (p < 0.001). Mares aged between 8-12 years had 5.3 days shorter GLs than those aged between 13-17 years (p < 0.05). Pregnancy was significantly 5.7 days longer when the mare gave birth to colts than fillies (p < 0.05). GL was 14.5 days longer in primiparous than in multiparous mares ( p < 0.001). No statistical differences in GL were found between the studied years. This study shows the influence of certain stallion on GL.

  3. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P < 0.05. Data were first evaluated using the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality. Differences between groups in days to luteolysis (DTL) were examined using analysis of variance and Bonferroni, and the effect of day and treatment on P4 levels were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's all pairwise test. There was a significant

  4. Factors affecting the incidence of postpartum oestrus, ovarian activity and reproductive performance in Thoroughbred mares bred at foal heat under Indian subtropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sumeet; Davies Morel, M C G; Dhaliwal, G S

    2010-07-01

    Decreased reproductive performance due to summer stress is a well known phenomenon in farm livestock. Whether this occurs in the mare and specifically how this might affect postpartum reproductive activity and performance, especially at Foal Heat (FH), is unknown. This study, therefore, aims to investigate this and the factors that might affect postpartum reproductive activity. Reproductive records of 228 Thoroughbred mares (694 mare years) bred in subtropical north-western India were retrospectively analysed. Overt oestrous activity occurred within 21 d postpartum in 92.94% (645/694) of mares. Significantly (p<0.001) more April foaling mares (97.37%, 185/190) expressed postpartum oestrous activity than those foaling in January (83.61%; 51/61) and February (88.49; 123/139). Similarly significantly (p<0.01) fewer multiparous mares failed to demonstrate oestrous activity than primiparous mares (6.12% vs.15.07%; 38/621 vs. 11/73, respectively). 190 of these 694 mares were additionally monitored to confirm ovulation; in these mares onset of FH (oestrus plus confirmed ovulation) occurred 8.42+/-0.17 d and first ovulation 13.64+/-0.20 d postpartum. Month, stud farm, year, and parity did not affect interval from parturition to FH onset or to first ovulation; or FH onset to ovulation. In FH bred mares Day 16 pregnancy rate and overall foaling rate were 53.76% (100/186) and 46.24% (86/186) respectively and were similar to those of mares bred later postpartum. FH pregnancy rates were not affected by stud, season, month, year, number of matings, or day of ovulation but were significantly (p<0.008) lowered by increasing mare age. Significantly (p<0.01) lower Day 16 pregnancy rates were observed in uterine treated mares compared to untreated mares (31.09% vs. 57.96%; 9/29 vs. 91/157, respectively), this difference was not evident during the rest of pregnancy. In conclusion, postpartum reproductive and ovarian activity appears to be affected by environment, i.e., delayed in

  5. Human Perivascular Stem Cells Show Enhanced Osteogenesis and Vasculogenesis with Nel-Like Molecule I Protein

    PubMed Central

    Askarinam, Asal; James, Aaron W.; Zara, Janette N.; Goyal, Raghav; Corselli, Mirko; Pan, Angel; Liang, Pei; Chang, Le; Rackohn, Todd; Stoker, David; Zhang, Xinli; Ting, Kang; Péault, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    An ideal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) source for bone tissue engineering has yet to be identified. Such an MSC population would be easily harvested in abundance, with minimal morbidity and with high purity. Our laboratories have identified perivascular stem cells (PSCs) as a candidate cell source. PSCs are readily isolatable through fluorescent-activated cell sorting from adipose tissue and have been previously shown to be indistinguishable from MSCs in the phenotype and differentiation potential. PSCs consist of two distinct cell populations: (1) pericytes (CD146+, CD34−, and CD45−), which surround capillaries and microvessels, and (2) adventitial cells (CD146−, CD34+, and CD45−), found within the tunica adventitia of large arteries and veins. We previously demonstrated the osteogenic potential of pericytes by examining pericytes derived from the human fetal pancreas, and illustrated their in vivo trophic and angiogenic effects. In the present study, we used an intramuscular ectopic bone model to develop the translational potential of our original findings using PSCs (as a combination of pericytes and adventitial cells) from human white adipose tissue. We evaluated human PSC (hPSC)-mediated bone formation and vascularization in vivo. We also examined the effects of hPSCs when combined with the novel craniosynostosis-associated protein, Nel-like molecule I (NELL-1). Implants consisting of the demineralized bone matrix putty combined with NELL-1 (3 μg/μL), hPSC (2.5×105 cells), or hPSC+NELL-1, were inserted in the bicep femoris of SCID mice. Bone growth was evaluated using microcomputed tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry over 4 weeks. Results demonstrated the osteogenic potential of hPSCs and the additive effect of hPSC+NELL-1 on bone formation and vasculogenesis. Comparable osteogenesis was observed with NELL-1 as compared to the more commonly used bone morphogenetic protein-2. Next, hPSCs induced greater implant vascularization than the

  6. Effect of a povidone-iodine intrauterine infusion on progesterone levels and endometrial steroid receptor expression in mares

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intrauterine infusions have been widely used for the treatment of endometritis in the mare. Nevertheless, their consequences on endocrine and endometrial molecular aspects are unknown. We studied the effect of a 1% povidone-iodine solution intrauterine infusion on progesterone levels, endometrial histology and estrogen (ERα) and progesterone (PR) receptor distribution by immunohistochemistry. Methods Fourteen healthy mares were used in this study. Estruses were synchronized and seven mares were treated with intrauterine infusions at days 0 and 2 post ovulation of two consecutive estrous cycles. Uterine biopsy samples were taken on days 6 and 15 post ovulation. Results The treatment did not induce an inflammatory response indicating endometritis, neither affected the ERα. However, it reduced the percentage of PR positive cells (PPC) on day 6 (deep glandular epithelium, control: 95.7 vs. infused: 61.5, P < 0.05). Treated mares tended to have lower progesterone levels on day 2 (3.9 ng/ml vs. 6.6 ng/ml, P = 0.07), and higher levels on day 15 compared with controls (4.4 ng/ml vs. 1.3 ng/ml, P = 0.07). Conclusion a 1% povidone-iodine infusion during days 0 and 2 post ovulation in healthy mares did not induce histological changes indicating endometritis, but altered progesterone concentrations and reduced the expression of endometrial PR at day 6 without affecting the ERα. These changes could reduce embryo survival. PMID:21162724

  7. A potpourri of pristine moon rocks, including a VHK mare basalt and a unique, augite-rich Apollo 17 anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, P. H.; Shirley, D. N.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    The anorthosite fragment, 76504,18, the first of the Apollo 17's pristine anorthosites, was found to have: (1) a higher ratio of high-Ca pyroxine to low-Ca pyroxene, (2) higher Na in its plagioclase, (3) higher contents of incompatible elements, and (4) a higher Eu/Al ratio in comparison to ferroan anorthosites. With a parent melt having a negative Eu anomaly, 76504,18 closely resembles a typical mare basalt. This anorthosite was among the latest to be formed by plagioclase flotation above a primordial magmasphere; typical mare basalt regions accumulated at about the same time or even earlier. Another fragment 14181c, a very high potassium basalt, was studied and found to be similar to typical Apollo 14 mare basalt though it has a K/La ratio of 1050. It is suggested that this lithology formed after a normal Apollo 14 mare basaltic melt partially assimilated granite. New data for siderphile elements in Apollo 12 mare basalts indicate that only the lowest of earlier data are trustworthy as being free of laboratory contamination.

  8. Composition, seasonal change, and bathymetry of Ligeia Mare, Titan, derived from its microwave thermal emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A.; Malaska, M. J.; Lorenz, R. D.; Janssen, M. A.; Tokano, T.; Hayes, A. G.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Lunine, J. I.; Veyssière, G.; Encrenaz, P.; Karatekin, O.

    2016-02-01

    For the last decade, the passive radiometer incorporated in the Cassini RADAR has recorded the 2.2 cm wavelength thermal emission from Titan's seas. In this paper, we analyze the radiometry observations collected from February 2007 to January 2015 over one of these seas, Ligeia Mare, with the goal of providing constraints on its composition, bathymetry, and dynamics. In light of the depth profile obtained by Mastrogiuseppe et al. (2014) and of a two-layer model, we find that the dielectric constant of the sea liquid is <1.8, and its loss tangent is <3.6-2.1+4.3×10-5. Both results point to a composition dominated by liquid methane rather than ethane. A high methane concentration suggests that Ligeia Mare is primarily fed by methane-rich precipitation and/or ethane has been removed from it (e.g., by crustal interaction). Our result on the dielectric constant of the seafloor is less constraining (<2.9-0.9+0.9), but we favor a scenario where the floor of Ligeia Mare is covered by a sludge of compacted and possibly nitrile-rich organic material formed by the deposition of photochemical haze or by rain washing of the nearby shores. We use these results to produce a low-resolution bathymetry map of the sea. We also estimate the temperature variation of the bulk sea between February 2007 and July 2013 to be <2 K, which provides a constraint on its net evaporative cooling currently being explored in ocean circulation models. Lastly, we suggest a lag in the summer warming of the northern polar terrains.

  9. Geochronology and petrogenesis of Apollo 14 very high potassium mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and Sm-Nd isotopic studies were undertaken for two Apollo 14 very high potassium (VHK) highly radiogenic mare basaltic clasts from breccias 14305 and 14168. Rb-Sr data indicate ages of 3.83 + or - 0.08 b.y., and 3.82 + or - 0.12 b.y. for samples 14305 and 14168 respectively, for lambda(Rb-87) = 0.0 139/b.y. Their corresponding initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios are nearly identical, as well as their Ar-39 to Ar-40 age spectra, and it is proposed that they were derived from the same flow. The Sm-Nd isotopic data of whole rock and mineral separates for the two VHK basalts define an internal isochrone age of 3.94 + or - 0.16 b.y. for lambda (Sm-147) = 0.00654/b.y. and an initial Nd-143/Nd-144 of 0.50673 + or - 21. The similarity in isotopic ages suggests that VHK basalts crystallized from a melt about 3.85 b.y. ago. VHK basalts show very large Rb/Sr fractionation but no significant Sm/Nd fractionation at the time of crystallization. The source material had a Rb/Sr ratio similar to those of Apollo 14 high-Al mare basalts and a nearly chrondritic Sm/Nd ratio. Basalt/granite interaction was found to be responsible for the extreme enrichments of Rb/Sr and K/La during the formation of VHK basalts. It is concluded that K, Rb-rich components of granitic wall rocks in the highland crust were selectively introduced into ascending hot high-Al mare basaltic magma upon contact.

  10. Changes in the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis of mares in relation to the winter solstice.

    PubMed

    Silvia, P J; Johnson, L; Fitzgerald, B P

    1992-09-01

    In mares, the amount of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is low in the hypothalamus during seasonal anoestrus, but by early spring, concentrations of GnRH are high. The timing of this response was characterized more precisely by determining concentrations of GnRH in hypothalamic tissue collected immediately before and at various times after the winter solstice (22 December 1986). Ovaries, pituitary gland, hypothalamus and a blood sample were collected from six groups of mares (6-12 mares per group) at death, 1 week before day of the winter solstice and 1, 2, 3 and 12 weeks afterwards. No significant changes in weight of the anterior pituitary gland or concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were observed in the anterior pituitary gland (P > 0.1). Mean diameter of the largest follicle, number of follicles > or = 20 mm in diameter and concentrations of LH and FSH in serum remained unchanged for weeks -1 to +3 (P < 0.05), then increased significantly by week 12 (P < 0.001). Content and concentration of GnRH in the median eminence was low at -1 week, increased gradually (P < 0.05) to a maximum by +1 week, then decreased gradually (P < 0.05) to low values at 12 weeks. Means (+/- SEM) for -1, +1 and +12 weeks were 33.5 +/- 5.5, 117.7 +/- 18.6 and 29.8 +/- 3.7 ng GnRH, respectively. Mean content of GnRH in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus showed a reciprocal pattern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Bimodal TiO2 Contents of Mare Basalts at Apollo and Luna Sites and Implications for TiO2 Derived from Clementine Spectral Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2001-01-01

    A revised algorithm to estimate Ti contents of mare regions centered on Apollo and Luna sites shows a bimodal distribution, consistent with mare-basalt sample data. A global TiO2 map shows abundant intermediate TiO2 basalts in western Procellarum. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd chronology and genealogy of mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Depaolo, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of two Apollo 11 mare basalts, high-K basalt 10072 and low-K basalt 10062, are reported. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Ar-40-Ar-39 ages are in good agreement and indicate an extensive time interval for filling of the Sea of Tranquility, presumably by thin lava flows, in agreement with similar observations for the Ocean of Storms. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions on Apollo 11 basalts reveal at least two parent sources producing basalts. The Sm-Nd isotopic data demonstrate that low-K and high-Ti basalts from Apollo 11 and 17 derived from distinct reservoirs, while low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalt sources have Sm/Nd similar to the sources of Apollo 11 basalts. Groupings of mare basalt based on Ti content and on isotopic data do not coincide.

  13. A glass spherule of questionable impact origin from the Apollo 15 landing site: Unique target mare basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, G.; Delano, J.W.; Warren, P.H.; Kallemeyn, G.W.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    A 6 mm-diameter dark spherule, 15434,28, from the regolith on the Apennine Front at the Apollo 15 landing site has a homogeneous glass interior with a 200 ??m-thick rind of devitrified or crystallized melt. The rind contains abundant small fragments of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalt and rare volcanic Apollo 15 green glass. The glass interior of the spherule has the chemical composition, including a high FeO content and high CaO/Al2O3, of a mare basalt. Whereas the major element and Sc, Ni, and Co abundances are similar to those of low-Ti mare basalts, the incompatible elements and Sr abundances are similar to those of high-Ti mare basalts. The relative abundance patterns of the incompatible trace elements are distinct from any other lunar mare basalts or KREEP; among these distinctions are a much steeper slope of the heavy rare earth elements. The 15434,28 glass has abundances of the volatile element Zn consistent with both impact glasses and crystalline mare basalts, but much lower than in glasses of mare volcanic origin. The glass contains siderophile elements such as Ir in abundances only slightly higher than accepted lunar indigenous levels, and some, such as Au, are just below such upper limits. The age of the glass, determined by the 40Ar/39Ar laser incremental heating technique, is 1647 ?? 11 Ma (2 ??); it is expressed as an age spectrum of seventeen steps over 96% of the 39Ar released, unusual for an impact glass. Trapped argon is negligible. The undamaged nature of the sphere demonstrates that it must have spent most of its life buried in regolith; 38Ar cosmic ray exposure data suggest that it was buried at less than 2m but more than a few centimeters if a single depth is appropriate. That the spherule solidified to a glass is surprising; for such a mare composition, cooling at about 50??C s-1 is required to avoid crystallization, and barely attainable in such a large spherule. The low volatile abundances, slightly high siderophile abundances, and

  14. The mare as a model for luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome: intrafollicular endocrine milieu.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S T; Gastal, M O; Tazawa, S P; Tarso, S G S; Hales, D B; Cuervo-Arango, J; Baerwald, A R; Gastal, E L

    2016-03-01

    Luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome is a recurrent anovulatory dysfunction that affects up to 23% of women with normal menstrual cycles and up to 73% with endometriosis. Mechanisms underlying the development of LUF syndrome in mares were studied to provide a potential model for human anovulation. The effect of extended increase in circulating LH achieved by administration of recombinant equine LH (reLH) or a short surge of LH and decrease in progesterone induced by prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on LUF formation (Experiment 1), identification of an optimal dose of COX-2 inhibitor (flunixin meglumine, FM; to block the effect of prostaglandins) for inducing LUFs (Experiment 2), and evaluation of intrafollicular endocrine milieu in LUFs (Experiment 3) were investigated. In Experiment 1, mares were treated with reLH from Day 7 to Day 15 (Day 0=ovulation), PGF2α on Day 7, or in combination. In Experiment 2, FM at doses of 2.0 or 3.0 mg/kg every 12 h and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (1500 IU) were administered after a follicle ≥32 mm was detected. In Experiment 3, FM at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg every 12 h plus hCG was used to induce LUFs and investigate the intrafollicular endocrine milieu. No LUFs were induced by reLH or PGF2α treatment; however, LUFs were induced in 100% of mares using FM. Intrafollicular PGF2α metabolite, PGF2α, and PGE2 were lower and the ratio of PGE2:PGF2α was higher in the induced LUF group. Higher levels of intrafollicular E2 and total primary sex steroids were observed in the induced LUF group along with a tendency for higher levels of GH, cortisol, and T; however, LH, PRL, VEGF-A, and NO did not differ between groups. In conclusion, this study reveals part of the intrafollicular endocrine milieu and the association of prostaglandins in LUF formation, and indicates that the mare might be an appropriate model for studying the poorly understood LUF syndrome.

  15. Indigenous nitrogen in the Moon: Constraints from coupled nitrogen-noble gas analyses of mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füri, Evelyn; Barry, Peter H.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Marty, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen and noble gas (Ne-Ar) abundances and isotope ratios, determined by step-wise CO2 laser-extraction, static-mass spectrometry analysis, are reported for bulk fragments and mineral separates of ten lunar mare basalts (10020, 10057, 12008, 14053, 15555, 70255, 71557, 71576, 74255, 74275), one highland breccia (14321), and one ferroan anorthosite (15414). The mare basalt sub-samples 10057,183 and 71576,12 contain a large amount of solar noble gases, whereas neon and argon in all other samples are purely cosmogenic, as shown by their 21Ne/22Ne ratios of ≈0.85 and 36Ar/38Ar ratios of ≈0.65. The solar-gas-free basalts contain a two-component mixture of cosmogenic 15N and indigenous nitrogen (<0.5 ppm). Mare basalt 74255 and the olivine fraction of 15555,876 record the smallest proportion of 15Ncosm; therefore, their δ15 N values of -0.2 to + 26.7 ‰ (observed at the low-temperature steps) are thought to well represent the isotopic composition of indigenous lunar nitrogen. However, δ15 N values ≤ - 30 ‰ are found in several basalts, overlapping with the isotopic signature of Earth's primordial mantle or an enstatite chondrite-like impactor. While the lowest δ15 N values allow for nitrogen trapped in the Moon's interior to be inherited from the proto-Earth and/or the impactor, the more 15N-enriched compositions require that carbonaceous chondrites provided nitrogen to the lunar magma ocean prior to the solidification of the crust. Since nitrogen can efficiently be incorporated into mafic minerals (olivine, pyroxene) under oxygen fugacities close to or below the iron-wustite buffer (Li et al., 2013), the mare basalt source region is likely characterized by a high nitrogen storage capacity. In contrast, anorthosite 15414 shows no traces of indigenous nitrogen, suggesting that nitrogen was not efficiently incorporated into the lunar crust during magma ocean differentiation.

  16. Chemical and isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of the large mare basalt clast in breccia 15459

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L.; Lindstrom, M.; Bansal, B.; Mittlefehldt, D.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate that the large mare basalt clast in Apollo 15 breccia 15459 may represent one or more independent magma types. The complex nonequilibrium pyroxene and plagioclase compositions and relatively abundant mesostasis suggest that the 15459 clast is not a slowly cooled crystal cumulate. The addition of about 40 percent olivine to an olivine-normative basalt parental magma is found to be necessary to explain the high MgO abundances of picritic basalts by the accumulation of olivine in the magma. The present clast has a slightly younger age and a slightly higher Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio than most Apollo 15 basalts.

  17. Distribution of 28 elements in size fractions of lunar mare and highlands soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Wasson, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Four volatile, six siderophile and 18 generally lithophile elements were determined in six sieve fractions of mare soil 15100 (moderately mature) and seven sieve fractions of highlands soil 66080 (highly mature). Previous work (Boynton et al., 1976) showed that the volatile elements in lunar soils were enriched in the finest size fraction relative to the coarsest factors by up to about 20. The present investigation tests Boynton's interpretation that the distribution pattern of the volatiles indicates the presence of two components: a volume-correlated component having volatile concentrations independent of grain size and a surface-correlated component with concentration increasing with decreasing grain size.

  18. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  19. A Glass Spherule of Questionable Impact Origin from the Apollo 15 Landing Site: Unique Target Mare Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Delano, John W.; Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1996-01-01

    A 6 mm-diameter dark spherule, 15434,28, from the regolith on the Apennine Front at the Apollo 15 landing site has a homogeneous glass interior with a 200 microns-thick rind of devitrified or crystallized melt. The rind contains abundant small fragments of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalt and rare volcanic Apollo 15 green glass. The glass interior of the spherule has the chemical composition, including a high FeO content and high CaO/Al2O3, of a mare basalt. Whereas the major element and Sc, Ni, and Co abundances are similar to those of low-Ti mare basalts, the incompatible elements and Sr abundances are similar to those of high-Ti mare basaits. The relative abundance patterns of the incompatible trace elements are distinct from any other lunar mare basalts or KREEP; among these distinctions are a much steeper slope of the heavy rare earth elements. The 15434,28 glass has abundances of the volatile element Zn consistent with both impact glasses and crystalline mare basalts, but much lower than in glasses of mare volcanic origin. The glass contains siderophile elements such as Ir in abundances only slightly higher than accepted lunar indigenous levels, and some, such as Au, are just below such upper limits. The age of the glass, determined by the Ar-40/Ar-39 laser incremental heating technique, is 1647 +/- 11 Ma (2 sigma); it is expressed as an age spectrum of seventeen steps over 96% of the Ar-38 released, unusual for an impact glass. Trapped argon is negligible. The undamaged nature of the sphere demonstrates that it must have spent most of its life buried in regolith; Ar-38 cosmic ray exposure data suggest that it was buried at less than 2m but more than a few centimeters if a single depth is appropriate. That the spherule solidified to a glass is surprising; for such a mare composition, cooling at about 50 C/s is required to avoid crystallization, and barely attainable in such a large spherule. The low volatile abundances, slightly high siderophile

  20. Characterization of Lunar Swirls at Mare Ingenii: A Model for Space Weathering at Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Georgianna Y.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Harnett, Erika M.; Hawke, Bernard Ray; Noble, Sarah K.; Blewett, David T.; McCord, Thomas B.; Giguere, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of spectra from the Clementine ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared cameras of small, immature craters and surface soils both on and adjacent to the lunar swirls at Marc Ingenii has yielded the following conclusions about space weathering at a magnetic anomaly. (l) Despite having spectral characteristics of immaturity, the lunar swirls arc not freshly exposed surfaces. (2) The swirl surfaces arc regions of retarded weathering, while immediately adjacent regions experience accelerated weathering, (3) Weathering in the off-swirl regions darkens and flattens the spectrum with little to no reddening, which suggests that the production of larger (greater than 40 nm) nanophase iron dominates in these locations as a result of charged particle sorting by the magnetic field. Preliminaty analysis of two other lunar swirl regions, Reiner Gamma and Mare Marginis, is consistent with our observations at Mare Ingenii. Our results indicate that sputtering/vapor deposition, implanted solar wind hydrogen, and agglutination share responsibility for creating the range in npFe(sup 0) particle sizes responsible for the spectral effects of space weathering.

  1. Dependence of lunar mare microwave brightness temperature on FeO and TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabari, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    The Moon is known to radiate microwave emission as a grey body, depending on its surface emissivity and physical temperature. Measurement of lunar brightness temperature can reveal surface properties and thermal behavior, as it is dependent on the surficial material. To understand possible correlation and compare the results obtained from the measured data with those obtained from the theory, we have used the amount of lunar surface material (iron and titanium), measured by the lunar prospector mission, as a first quantity in the analysis. The lunar brightness temperature, measured by a microwave radiometer on Changé-1 mission, serves as the other variable in our analysis. Global maps of lunar surface materials have been generated from the lunar prospector data sets and presented in this article. A conditional coefficient, representing the correlation between microwave brightness temperature and lunar surface material has been defined, and its analysis has been carried out for the lunar Mare region. Results show that major contribution in brightness temperature comes from lunar regolith density driven component, while a small contribution is made by the lunar surface material. The correlation results disagree with the existing theoretical model used to describe the brightness temperature dependence with surface material. In this connection, a modified permittivity model is suggested for the Mare region, based on our correlation analysis.

  2. The emplacement age of the Muntele Mare Variscan granite (Apuseni Mountains, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balintoni, Ioan; Balica, Constantin; Cliveţi, Monica; Li, Li-Qiu; Hann, Horst Peter; Chen, Fukun; Schuller, Volker

    2009-12-01

    Like the Alps and Western Carpathians, the Apuseni Mountains represent a fragment of the Variscan orogen involved in the Alpine crustal shortenings. Thus the more extensive Alpine tectonic unit in the Apuseni Mountains, the Bihor Autochthonous Unit is overlain by several nappe systems. During the Variscan orogeny, the Bihor Unit was a part of the Someş terrane involved as the upper plate in subduction, continental collision and finally in the orogen collapse and exhumation. The Variscan thermotectonic events were marked in the future Bihor Unit by the large Muntele Mare granitoid intrusion, an S-type anatectic body. Zircon U-Pb laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) dating yielded a weighted mean age of 290.9 ± 3.0 Ma and a concordia age of 291.1 ± 1.1 Ma. U-Pb isotope dilution zircon analyses yielded a lower intercept crystallization age of 296.6 + 5.7/-6.2 Ma. These two ages coincide in the error limits. Thus, the Muntele Mare granitoid pluton is a sign of the last stage in the Variscan history of the Apuseni Mountains. Many zircon grains show inheritance and/or Pb loss, typical for anatectic granitoid, overprinted by later thermotectonic events.

  3. A reevaluation of spectral ratios for lunar mare TiO2 mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Larson, Stephen M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The empirical relation established by Charette et al. (1974) between the 400/560-nm spectral ratio of mature mare soils and weight percent TiO2 has been used extensively to map titanium content in the lunar maria. Relative reflectance spectra of mare regions show that a reference wavelength further into the near-IR, e.g., above 700 nm, could be used in place of the 560-nm band to provide greater contrast (a greater range of ratio values) and hence a more sensitive indicator of titanium content. An analysis of 400/730-nm ratio values derived from both laboratory and telescopic relative reflectance spectra suggests that this ratio provides greater sensitivity to TiO2 content than the 400/560-nm ratio. The increased range of ratio values is manifested in higher contrast 400/730-nm ratio images compared to 400/560-nm ratio images. This potential improvement in sensivity encourages a reevaluation of the original Charette et al. (1974) relation using the 400/730-nm ratio.

  4. Should a doctor prescribe hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, D

    1996-01-01

    Many clinicians are experiencing consumer resistance to the prescription of equine HRT (that is hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine). In this paper I consider the ethical implications of prescribing these preparations. I decide that patients should have a right to refuse such treatment but also ask whether a prescribing doctor should choose one preparation over another on moral grounds. I determine that there is prima facie evidence to suggest that mares may suffer and that prescription of equine HRT (instead of synthetic oestrogen-oestriol) would therefore have to be justified in terms of either offering greater benefits to the women or offering greater value for money to the health service. I find that there is no substantial evidence to suggest that equine HRT offers unique advantages over and above oestriol. I conclude that it would be preferable for a doctor to recommend the synthetic oestrogen to women who want relief from the symptoms of the menopause and protection from osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:8863143

  5. Should a doctor prescribe hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine?

    PubMed

    Cox, D

    1996-08-01

    Many clinicians are experiencing consumer resistance to the prescription of equine HRT (that is hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine). In this paper I consider the ethical implications of prescribing these preparations. I decide that patients should have a right to refuse such treatment but also ask whether a prescribing doctor should choose one preparation over another on moral grounds. I determine that there is prima facie evidence to suggest that mares may suffer and that prescription of equine HRT (instead of synthetic oestrogen-oestriol) would therefore have to be justified in terms of either offering greater benefits to the women or offering greater value for money to the health service. I find that there is no substantial evidence to suggest that equine HRT offers unique advantages over and above oestriol. I conclude that it would be preferable for a doctor to recommend the synthetic oestrogen to women who want relief from the symptoms of the menopause and protection from osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Melting of cognetic depleted and enriched reservoirs and the production of high Ti Mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1992-01-01

    Implicit in current understanding of the location of terrestrial enriched and depleted reservoirs is the notion that they are spatially separated. The depleted reservoir on Earth is situated in the upper mantle, and the complementary enriched reservoir is located in the crust. However, Earth reservoirs are continually being modified by recycling driven by mantle convection. The Moon is demonstrably different from Earth in that its evolution was arrested relatively early - effectively with 1.5 Ga of its formation. It is possible that crystallized trapped liquids (from the late stages of a magma ocean) have been preserved as LILE-enriched portions of the lunar mantle. This would lead to depleted (cumulate) and enriched (magma ocean residual liquid) reservoirs in the lunar upper mantle. There is no evidence for significant recycling from the highland crust back into the mantle. Therefore, reservoirs created at the Moon's inception may have remained intact for over 4.0 Ga. The topics discussed include the following: (1) radiogenic isotopes in high-Ti mare basalts; (2) formation of cogenetic depleted and enriched reservoirs; and (3) melting of the source to achieve high-Ti mare basalts.

  7. Shock-metamorphic effects in the Luna-16 soil sample from Mare Fecunditatis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1971-01-01

    The results of intensive studies indicate that shock-metamorphic effects, characteristic of meteorite impact and virtually identical to those observed in Apollo samples, are common in fragments of the Luna-16 soil sample from Mare Fecunditatis. Two types of shock effects are present: (1) deformation and partial melting features in rock and mineral fragments (1-2 percent of fragments); and (2) heterogeneous glasses and glassy breccias produced by shock melting (70-80 percent of fragments). Shock effects were observed in pyroxene (deformation twin lamellae, multiple planar shock lamellae, extreme mosaicism, partial isotropization); in plagioclase (planar shock lamellae, complete isotropization to form maskelynite); and in basalt fragments (plagioclase isotropization, selective partial melting). The glasses exhibit several characteristics of shock melting, especially: (1) diversity in chemical composition; (2) association with shock mineral fragments and Ni-Fe spherules; and (3) heterogeneous schlieren and incipient fusion of mineral inclusions. Two types of source rocks are present in the Luna-16 sample; basaltic (85-90 percent) and feldspathic (10-15 percent). The basaltic rocks are predominant and generally occur as unshocked fragments, indicating that they form the bedrock underlying Mare Fecunditatis.

  8. Comments on potential geologic and seismic hazards affecting Mare Island, Solano County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Wentworth, C.M.; Bakun, W.H.; Boatwright, J.; Brocher, T.E.; Çelebi, M.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Fletcher, J.P.B.; Geist, E.L.; Graymer, R.W.; Kayen, R.E.; Keefer, D.K.; Oppenheimer, D.H.; Savage, W.U.; Schwartz, D.P.; Simpson, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    This report was prepared in response to a written request from the City of Vallejo, California, to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). By letter of October 4, 2002, the City requested that the USGS "provide advice to the City’s LNG Health and Safety Committee on its review of a potential liquid natural gas project" on the southern portion of Mare Island. The City specifically requested that the USGS advise the committee on potential hazards including fault rupture, earthquake ground motion, soil failure during earthquakes, tsunami and seiche, and landslides. The City requested that the USGS: (1) comment on these hazards, (2) describe its degree of confidence in its opinions, and (3) describe the scope of additional studies that will be needed if the City enters into an agreement with project sponsors. Advice was also requested on the selection of the safe shutdown and operating basis earthquakes as specified in the NFPA 59A standard (NFPA, 2001). This review of published reports and other publicly available information indicates that all of the hazards on which the USGS was asked to comment should be considered for the proposed project on the southern portion of Mare Island. Available information differs greatly for each of these potential hazards, and adequate understanding for design will require detailed site-specific investigations.

  9. Integrated Pressure-Fed Liquid Oxygen / Methane Propulsion Systems - Morpheus Experience, MARE, and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric; Morehead, Robert; Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matt

    2016-01-01

    An integrated liquid oxygen (LOx) and methane propulsion system where common propellants are fed to the reaction control system and main engines offers advantages in performance, simplicity, reliability, and reusability. LOx/Methane provides new capabilities to use propellants that are manufactured on the Mars surface for ascent return and to integrate with power and life support systems. The clean burning, non-toxic, high vapor pressure propellants provide significant advantages for reliable ignition in a space vacuum, and for reliable safing or purging of a space-based vehicle. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Morpheus lander demonstrated many of these key attributes as it completed over 65 tests including 15 flights through 2014. Morpheus is a prototype of LOx/Methane propellant lander vehicle with a fully integrated propulsion system. The Morpheus lander flight demonstrations led to the proposal to use LOx/Methane for a Discovery class mission, named Moon Aging Regolith Experiment (MARE) to land an in-situ science payload for Southwest Research Institute on the Lunar surface. Lox/Methane is extensible to human spacecraft for many transportation elements of a Mars architecture. This paper discusses LOx/Methane propulsion systems in regards to trade studies, the Morpheus project experience, the MARE NAVIS (NASA Autonomous Vehicle for In-situ Science) lander, and future possible applications. The paper also discusses technology research and development needs for Lox/Methane propulsion systems.

  10. Insights into mare basalt thicknesses on the Moon from intrusive magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, Chloé; Thiriet, Mélanie; Thorey, Clément

    2016-08-01

    Magmatic intrusions preferentially spread along interfaces marked by rigidity and density contrasts. Thus the contact between a lunar mare and its substratum provides a preferential location for subsequent magmatic intrusions. Shallow intrusions that bend the overlying layer develop characteristic shapes that depend on their radius and on the overlying layer flexural wavelength and hence on their emplacement depth. We characterize the topography of seven, previously identified, candidate intrusive domes located within different lunar maria, using data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Their topographic profiles compare very well with theoretical shapes from a model of magma flow below an elastic layer, supporting their interpretation as intrusive features. This comparison allows us to constrain their intrusion depths and hence the minimum mare thickness at these sites. These new estimates are in the range 400-1900 m and are generally comparable to or thicker than previous estimates, when available. The largest thickness (⩾ 1700 m) is obtained next to the Hortensius and Kepler areas that are proposed to be the relicts of ancient volcanic shields.

  11. Mare glasses from Apollo 17 - Constraints on the moon's bulk composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.; Lindsley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two previously unreported varieties of mare volcanic glass have been discovered in Apollo 17 samples. Twenty-three chemical types of volcanic glass have now been analyzed from the six Apollo landing sites. These volcanic glasses, which may be samples of primary magmas derived from the differentiated lunar mantle, define two linear arrays that seem to reflect regional, if not global, regularities among the source regions of these melts. Additional systematics among these glasses have been used to estimate the bulk composition of the moon. The results suggest that the refractory lithophile elements are present at abundances of 1.7 x chondrites. The silicate portion of the moon appears to have a major-element composition similar to a volatile (Si, Na, K)-depleted, earth's upper mantle. The theory involving an earth-fission origin of the moon can be tested further through trace element analyses on the volcanic glasses, and through determination of the N/Ar-36 ratio and noble gas isotopes from primordial lunar gas trapped within vesicles associated with mare volcanic glass.

  12. Coleophora nepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, a new species of the C. lixella group (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae) from France and Italy

    PubMed Central

    Baldizzone, Giorgio; Nel, Jacques; Landry, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Coleophora nepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, sp. n. is described from the southern Alps (Italy and France). It belongs to the Coleophora lixella species group. Its host plants are Nepeta nepetella L. (Lamiaceae) and an unidentified Poaceae. The fifth instar larva, its case, the adult habitus, and genitalia are illustrated. The species is compared to Coleophora nevadella Baldizzone, 1985, here newly confirmed from France and whose larvae feed on Nepeta latifolia DC. in the Eastern Pyrénées. DNA barcodes are shown to be distinct and congruent with morphological differences among species of the lixella group. Barcodes revealed that Coleophora tricolor Walsingham, 1889, formerly known only from Great Britain, is also present in France and Greece. PMID:25561856

  13. Workshop on Mare Volcanism and Basalt Petrogenesis: Astounding Fundamental Concepts (AFC) Developed Over the Last Fifteen Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A. (Editor); Longi, John (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the workshop on mare volcanism and basalt petrogenesis are compiled. The discussion of recent ideas and concepts within the context of this workshop permitted to catch up on the developments over the last 15 years. The following subject areas were covered: (1) geological setting; (2) magma evolution and source regions; (3) magma source and ascent processes; and (4) history of volcanism.

  14. The Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Lunar Mare Basalts As Deduced From Analysis of Data for Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence; Basilevsky, A.; Neukum, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we analyze chronological data for lunar meteorites with emphasis on the spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts. The data are mostly from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium (http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/lmc/contents.cfm cited thereafter as Compendium) compiled by Kevin Righter and from the associated literature.

  15. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  16. Perioperative risk factors for mortality and length of hospitalization in mares with dystocia undergoing general anesthesia: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Eva; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Costa, Maria Carolina; Valverde, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated associations between perioperative factors and probability of death and length of hospitalization of mares with dystocia that survived following general anesthesia. Demographics and perioperative characteristics from 65 mares were reviewed retrospectively and used in a risk factor analysis. Mortality rate was 21.5% during the first 24 h post-anesthesia. The mean ± standard deviation number of days of hospitalization of surviving mares was 6.3 ± 5.4 d. Several factors were found in the univariable analysis to be significantly associated (P < 0.1) with increased probability of perianesthetic death, including: low preoperative total protein, high temperature and severe dehydration on presentation, prolonged dystocia, intraoperative hypotension, and drugs used during recovery. Type of delivery and day of the week the surgery was performed were significantly associated with length of hospitalization in the multivariable mixed effects model. The study identified some risk factors that may allow clinicians to better estimate the probability of mortality and morbidity in these mares.

  17. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  18. Remote sensing of potential lunar resources. 2: High spatial resolution mapping of spectral reflectance ratios and implications for nearside mare TiO2 content`

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melendrez, David E.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Larson, Stephen M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    High spatial resolution maps illustrating variations in spectral reflectance 400/560 nm ratio values have been generated for the following mare regions: (1) the border between southern Mare Serenitatis and northern Mare Tranquillitatis (including the MS-2 standard area and Apollo 17 landing site), (2) central Mare Tranquillitatis, (3) Oceanus Procellarum near Seleucus, and (4) southern Oceanus Procellarum and Flamsteed. We have also obtained 320-1000 nm reflectance spectra of several sites relative to MS-2 to facilitate scaling of the images and provide additional information on surface composition. Inferred TiO2 abundances for these mare regions have been determined using an empirical calibration which relates the weight percent TiO2 in mature mare regolith to the observed 400/560 nm ratio. Mare areas with high TiO2 abundances are probably rich in ilmenite (FeTiO3) a potential lunar resource. The highest potential TiO2 concentrations we have identified in the nearside maria occur in central Mare Tranquillitatis. Inferred TiO2 contents for these areas are greater than 9 wt% and are spatially consistent with the highest-TiO2 regions mapped previously at lower spatial resolution. We note that the morphology of surface units with high 400/560 nm ratio values increases in complexity at higher spatial resolutions. Comparisons have been made with previously published geologic maps, Lunar Orbiter IV, and ground-based images, and some possible morphologic correlatins have been found between our mapped 400/560 nm ratio values and volcanic landforms such as lava flows, mare domes, and collapse pits.

  19. Mare Volcanism in the nearside of the Moon: Reinterpretation based on Kaguya LRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshigami, S.; Watanabe, S.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamaji, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.

    2012-12-01

    The volume of basaltic lithofacies of lunar maria and its age differences are essential for revealing characteristics of mare volcanisms and constraining the thermal history of the Moon. However, there is no precedent study of direct estimation of basalt unit volume that is the total amount of lavas erupted during a series of magmatisms. At present, the vertical structures under the lunar maria are directly investigated using sounder observations. The Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) onboard Kaguya detected widespread horizontal reflectors under the nearside maria [e.g., Ono et al., 2009]. The LRS detects echoes from subsurface permittivity discontinuities [Ono and Oya, 2000]. The presumed depths of the detected reflectors are up to several 100s of meters [Oshigami et al., 2009]. The subsurface reflectors possibly correspond to the interfaces between basalt units with different FeO contents [Oshigami et al., 2012]. Therefore the LRS data have potential to determine a lava volume effused during a series of volcanic activities in a mare. We estimated thicknesses of units with in the ages of 2.7 to 3.8 Ga in the nearside maria using SAR-processed LRS data. Comparison between the subsurface reflectors detected in the LRS data and surface age maps [e.g., Hiesinger et al., 2000] allow us to discuss the volume of each basalt unit and its space and time variation. Estimated unit thicknesses are from several 10s to a few 100s of meters and correlate with their ages (Fig. 1). The thicknesses of single basalt flows at Apollo 11, 12, and 15 sites have been estimated to be no thicker than 10 m [Brett, 1975]. Therefore an eruption event might have occurred several to more than ten times during a series of volcanisms. Estimated unit volumes are an order of 1,000-10,000 cubic kilometers and decrease with time within a mare (Fig. 2). This volume range is consistent with flow volumes derived from numerical simulations of a thermal erosion model for lunar sinuous rilles formation [Hulme

  20. MARE2DEM: a 2-D inversion code for controlled-source electromagnetic and magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Kerry

    2016-10-01

    This work presents MARE2DEM, a freely available code for 2-D anisotropic inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data and frequency-domain controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data from onshore and offshore surveys. MARE2DEM parametrizes the inverse model using a grid of arbitrarily shaped polygons, where unstructured triangular or quadrilateral grids are typically used due to their ease of construction. Unstructured grids provide significantly more geometric flexibility and parameter efficiency than the structured rectangular grids commonly used by most other inversion codes. Transmitter and receiver components located on topographic slopes can be tilted parallel to the boundary so that the simulated electromagnetic fields accurately reproduce the real survey geometry. The forward solution is implemented with a goal-oriented adaptive finite-element method that automatically generates and refines unstructured triangular element grids that conform to the inversion parameter grid, ensuring accurate responses as the model conductivity changes. This dual-grid approach is significantly more efficient than the conventional use of a single grid for both the forward and inverse meshes since the more detailed finite-element meshes required for accurate responses do not increase the memory requirements of the inverse problem. Forward solutions are computed in parallel with a highly efficient scaling by partitioning the data into smaller independent modeling tasks consisting of subsets of the input frequencies, transmitters and receivers. Non-linear inversion is carried out with a new Occam inversion approach that requires fewer forward calls. Dense matrix operations are optimized for memory and parallel scalability using the ScaLAPACK parallel library. Free parameters can be bounded using a new non-linear transformation that leaves the transformed parameters nearly the same as the original parameters within the bounds, thereby reducing non-linear smoothing effects. Data

  1. A Model for the Thermal and Chemical Evolution of the Moon's Interior: Implications for the Onset of Mare Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Paul C.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1995-01-01

    Crystallization of the lunar magma ocean creates a chemically stratified Moon consisting of an anorthositic crust and magma ocean cumulates overlying the primitive lunar interior. Within the magma ocean cumulates the last liquids to crystallize form dense, ilmenite-rich cumulates that contain high concentrations of incompatible radioactive elements. The underlying olivine-orthopyroxene cumulates are also stratified with later crystallized, denser, more Fe-rich compositions at the top. This paper explores the chemical and thermal consequences of an internal evolution model accounting for the possible role of these sources of chemical buoyancy. Rayleigh-Taylor instability causes the dense ilmenite-rich cumulate layer and underlying Fe-rich cumulates to sink toward the center of the Moon, forming a dense lunar core. After this overturn, radioactive heating within the ilmenite-rich cumulate core heats the overlying mantle, causing it to melt. In this model, the source region for high-TiO2 mare basalts is a convectively mixed layer above the core-mantle boundary which would contain small and variable amounts of admixed ilmenite and KREEP. This deep high-pressure melting, as required for mare basalts, occurs after a reasonable time interval to explain the onset of mare basalt volcanism if the content of radioactive elements in the core and the chemical density gradients above the core are sufficiently high but within a range of values that might have been present in the Moon. Regardless of details implied by particular model parameters, gravitational overturn driven by the high density of magma ocean Fe-rich cumulates should concentrate high-TiO2 mare basalt sources, and probably a significant fraction of radioactive heating, toward the center of the Moon. This will have important implications for both the thermal evolution of the Moon and for mare basalt genesis.

  2. Clinical observations on the course of oxytocin- or prostaglandin E2/oxytocin-induced parturition in mares.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, M; Witkowski, M; Pawłowski, K

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the course of parturitions induced with sole oxytocin with those induced with the combination of intracervical prostaglandin E2 jelly and oxytocin. For this purpose 13 mares in advanced pregnancy were allocated to the groups pretreated with either intracervical PGE2 (experimental group) or saline (control group) two hours before intravenous oxytocin (5 IU) administration. The mares were compared with respect to cervical dilation diameter (CDD) 20 min. after oxytocin injection. Time intervals from the first oxytocin dose to: the first external signs of parturition, the chorioallantois rupture, the delivery of a foal and time interval from the delivery of a foal to the placenta separation were measured. Cervical dilatation diameter as well as proportion of mares with cervical dilatation > 20 cm were significantly higher in the group of PGE2 treated mares comparing with control group (p = 0.0115 and p = 0.0490, respectively). All time intervals measured were statistically insignificant for both groups of mares, however time intervals from the first oxytocin dose to the first external signs of parturition, to the allantochorion rupture and to the delivery of a foal, were very close to the significance level (alpha = 0.05). To conclude, PGE/oxytocin combination has positive influence on the preparation of the uterine cervix to parturition. Moreover, it seems that PGE2 pretreatment reduced total oxytocin dose for successful parturition induction and shortened time elapsing between the first oxytocin dose and the delivery of a foal what is crucial for foal's safety.

  3. Major element chemistry of Apollo 14 mare basalt clasts and highland plutonic clasts from lunar breccia 14321: Comparison with neutron activation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of lithic components in lunar breccias have documented a wide variety of rock types and magma suites which are not found among large, discrete lunar samples. Rock types found exclusively or dominantly as clasts in breccias include KREEP basalts, VHK mare basalts, high-alumina mare basalts, olivine vitrophyres, alkali anorthosites, and magnesian anorthosites and troctolites. These miniature samples are crucial in petrogenetic studies of ancient mare basalts and the highlands crust of the western nearside, both of which have been battered by basin-forming impacts and no longer exist as distinct rock units.

  4. A model for eruption behavior of a volcanic vent in eastern Mare Serenitatis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiken, G.; Mckay, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The origin is considered of droplets of ultramafic composition which are present in all soils collected from the mare surface at the Apollo 17 landing site. The droplets consist of homogeneous orange glass or their partially crystallized equivalent, the black droplets. These clastic deposits have a mean grain size of 40 micrometers. The droplet formation ages range from 3.5 to 3.83 b.y. It has been proposed that the droplets formed as a spray of low viscosity melt during lava fountaining. Based upon the thermal history as determined by studying olivine and particle shapes, two models for the formation of the sequence of droplets represented by samples 74001 and 74220 are presented. Both models assume, as proposed by Heiken et al. (1974), that the droplets were formed as a spray from a lava fountain and the compound forms were evidence for 'recycling' of solid, cooler droplets back into the fountain, encountering molten droplets before being deposited.

  5. Single-dose oral pharmacokinetics of pergolide mesylate in healthy adult mares.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Ronette; Beard, Laurie; Wright, Abra; Coetzee, Johann; Havel, James; Apley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is probably the most common disease of geriatric horses. Affected horses show a variety of clinical signs, including hirsutism, polyuria/polydipsia, immunosuppression, muscle wasting, and laminitis. The most common treatment for PPID is pergolide, a dopamine agonist; however, there are no pharmacokinetic data about the use of this drug in horses. This article describes a study designed to address this complete lack of pharmacokinetic information. The pharmacokinetics of pergolide are described in a small group of relatively young, healthy mares (n = 6), with the objective of generating data on which to base larger studies in the future. To make definitive dosing recommendations to clinicians, more studies will be needed to investigate the relationship between plasma pergolide concentrations and clinical outcomes, as well as the effect of gender, age, and concomitant disease on the absorption and disposition of this drug.

  6. A young multilayered terrane of the northern Mare Imbrium revealed by Chang'E-3 mission.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Long; Zhu, Peimin; Fang, Guangyou; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zou, Yongliao; Zhao, Jiannan; Zhao, Na; Yuan, Yuefeng; Qiao, Le; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Jiang; Huang, Jun; Huang, Qian; He, Qi; Zhou, Bin; Ji, Yicai; Zhang, Qunying; Shen, Shaoxiang; Li, Yuxi; Gao, Yunze

    2015-03-13

    China's Chang'E-3 (CE-3) spacecraft touched down on the northern Mare Imbrium of the lunar nearside (340.49°E, 44.12°N), a region not directly sampled before. We report preliminary results with data from the CE-3 lander descent camera and from the Yutu rover's camera and penetrating radar. After the landing at a young 450-meter crater rim, the Yutu rover drove 114 meters on the ejecta blanket and photographed the rough surface and the excavated boulders. The boulder contains a substantial amount of crystals, which are most likely plagioclase and/or other mafic silicate mineral aggregates similar to terrestrial dolerite. The Lunar Penetrating Radar detection and integrated geological interpretation have identified more than nine subsurface layers, suggesting that this region has experienced complex geological processes since the Imbrian and is compositionally distinct from the Apollo and Luna landing sites.

  7. The emplacement of long lava flows in Mare Imbrium, the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garry, W. B.

    2012-12-01

    Lava flow margins are scarce on the lunar surface. The best developed lava flows on the Moon occur in Mare Imbrium where flow margins are traceable nearly their entire flow length. The flow field originates in the southwest part of the basin from a fissure or series of fissures and cones located in the vicinity of Euler crater and erupted in three phases (Phases I, II, III) over a period of 0.5 Billion years (3.0 - 2.5 Ga). The flow field was originally mapped with Apollo and Lunar Orbiter data by Schaber (1973) and shows the flow field extends 200 to 1200 km from the presumed source area and covers an area of 2.0 x 10^5 km^2 with an estimated eruptive volume of 4 x 10^4 km^3. Phase I flows extend 1200 km and have the largest flow volume, but interestingly do not exhibit visible topography and are instead defined by difference in color from the surrounding mare flows. Phases II and III flows have well-defined flow margins (10 - 65 m thick) and channels (0.4 - 2.0 km wide, 40 - 70 m deep), but shorter flow lengths, 600 km and 400 km respectively. Recent missions, including Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Kaguya (Selene), and Clementine, provide high resolution data sets of these lava flows. Using a combination of data sets including images from LRO Wide-Angle-Camera (WAC)(50-100 m/pixel) and Narrow-Angle-Camera (NAC) (up to 0.5m/pixel), Kaguya Terrain Camera (TC) (10 m/pixel), and topography from LRO Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), the morphology has been remapped and topographic measurements of the flow features have been made in an effort to reevaluate the emplacement of the flow field. Morphologic mapping reveals a different flow path for Phase I compared to the original mapping completed by Schaber (1973). The boundaries of the Phase I flow field have been revised based on Moon Mineralogy Mapper color ratio images (Staid et al., 2011). This has implications for the area covered and volume erupted during this stage, as well as, the age of Phase I. Flow

  8. The nature of rays and sources of highland material in Mare Crisium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, T. A.; El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Although highland fragments are rare in the Luna 24 core, they should provide an important source of information on the sequence of formation and lithology of lunar east-limb basins. The numerous rays that cross the Crisium basin suggest several sources of highland materials. Both deposition of primary ejecta and reworking of local material were most likely responsible for the formation of ray systems in Mare Crisium. In addition to the fact that Luna 24 landed near the uprange end of a Giordano Bruno ray, incomplete sampling of the uppermost layer and formation of the ray by reworking of in situ regolith suggest that its materials may be scarce or not present in the core. Highland fragments present are most likely to be representative of several highland sources.

  9. Using Apollo 17 high-Ti mare basalts as windows to the lunar mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 high-Ti mare basalts are derived from source regions containing plagioclase that was not retained in the residue. Ilmenite appears to remain as a residual phase, but plagioclase is exhausted. The open-system behavior of the type B2 basalts results in slightly higher Yb/Hf and La/Sm ratios. The nature of the added component is not clear, but may be a KREEP derivative or residue. The recognition of plagioclase in the source(s) of these basalts suggests that the location of the source region(s) would be more likely to be less than 150 km (i.e., closer to the plagioclase-rich crust), which would allow incorporation of plagioclase into the source through incomplete separation of crustal feldspar.

  10. Characterization and Distribution of Lunar Mare Basalt Types Using Remote Sensing Techniques. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C.

    1977-01-01

    The types of basal to be found on the moon were identified using reflectance spectra from a variety of lunar mare surfaces and craters as well as geochemical interpretations of laboratory measurements of reflectance from lunar, terrestrial, and meteoritic samples. Findings indicate that major basaltic units are not represented in lunar sample collections. The existence of late stage high titanium basalts is confirmed. All maria contain lateral variations of compositionally heterogenous basalts; some are vertically inhomogenous with distinctly different subsurface composition. Some basalt types are spectrally gradational, suggesting minor variations in composition. Mineral components of unsampled units can be defined if spectra are obtained with sufficient spectral coverage (.3 to 2.5 micron m) and spatial resolution (approximating .5 km).

  11. Melt immiscibility in Apollo 15 KREEP - Origin of Fe-rich mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollister, L. S.; Crawford, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    Silicate liquid immiscibility (SLI) is investigated in terms of chemistry and occurrence in two KREEP-rich Apollo 15 basalts. The two samples have different cooling histories but the same composition. In the first sample, SLI occurred at the time of 58% crystallization. In the second sample, SLI occurred after 20% had crystallized. It is noted that SLI could be initiated as soon as plagioclase (out of a total composition which also included zircon, FeS, SiO2, whitlockite, and ilmenite) alone had crystallized. Attention is given to Fe-rich immiscible melts, and it is suggested that SLI may play an important role in the formation of the source regions of Fe-rich mare basalts. The analytical technique used for the assays was an energy dispersive analysis system with a resolution of 167 eV.

  12. Preliminary Regional Analysis of the Kaguya Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) Data through Eastern Mare Imbrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, B.L.; Antonenko, I.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Osinski, G.; Ono, T.; Ku-mamoto, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) experiment on board the Kaguya spacecraft is observing the subsurface structure of the Moon, using ground-penetrating radar operating in the frequency range of 5 MHz [1]. Because LRS data provides in-formation about lunar features below the surface, it allows us to improve our understanding of the processes that formed the Moon, and the post-formation changes that have occurred (such as basin formation and volcanism). We look at a swath of preliminary LRS data, that spans from 7 to 72 N, and from 2 to 10 W, passing through the eastern portion of Mare Imbrium (Figure 1). Using software, designed for the mineral exploration industry, we produce a preliminary, coarse 3D model, showing the regional structure beneath the study area. Future research will involve smaller subsets of the data in regions of interest, where finer structures, such as those identified in [2], can be studied.

  13. Apollo 14 mare basalt petrogenesis - Assimilation of KREEP-like components by a fractionating magma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on analysis of whole rock and mineral data from 22 samples, it is shown that the trace element characteristics of 14321 high-AL mare basalts exhibit variations that cannot be related to short-range mixing alone. It is suggested that the five groups defined for Apollo 14 high-Al basalts are due to sampling. It is found that the addition of new data results in a continuum of compositions. Detailed trace element modeling demonstrates that a primitive parental magma evolves by assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) with KREEP. The ratio of mass assimilated to mass crystallized is found to be 0.22. It is suggested that this AFC process occurs within the lunar crust and that the fractionating phases are effectively removed from the system.

  14. Three-dimensional architecture of the myosalpinx in the mare as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Germanà, Antonino; Cassata, Rosa; Cristarella, Santo; Scirpo, Aurelio; Muglia, Ugo

    2002-07-01

    The three-dimensional architecture of the myosalpinx in the mare was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after removal of interstitial connective tissue with NaOH digestion. In the extramural portion of the tubo-uterine junction (TUJ), isthmus, and ampulla, the myosalpinx architecture is represented by a unique muscular structure which runs from the mesosalpinx to the base of the inner mucous folds. This unique muscular structure consists mainly of bundles of muscular fibers independent of one another, which show a multiple spatial arrangement and form a complex network. Such a muscular architecture is likely more suitable for stirring rather than pushing the embryos and gametes through the Fallopian tube.

  15. Radiological survey of the Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Alameda Naval Air Station, and Hunters Point Shipyard

    SciTech Connect

    Semler, M.O.; Blanchard, R.L. . Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility)

    1989-06-01

    Since 1963, the Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility (EERF), US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in cooperation with the US Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) has surveyed facilities serving nuclear-powered warships on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and the Gulf of Mexico. These surveys assess whether the operation of nuclear-powered warships, during construction, maintenance, overhaul, or refueling, have created elevated levels of radioactivity. The surveys emphasize sampling those areas and pathways that could expose the public. In 1984, NAVSEA requested that EPA survey all active facilities serving nuclear-powered warships over the next three years. This report contains the results of surveys conducted at Naval facilities located at Mare Island, Alameda, and Hunters Point in the San Francisco region. The locations of these facilities are shown. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Intradiploic hematoma of the frontal bone with secondary exophthalmos in a mare.

    PubMed

    Kafarnik, Christiane; Donaldson, David; Payne, Richard; Holloway, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A 13-year-old cob mare was presented with exophthalmos and periocular swelling of the left eye. The diagnostic work-up included ocular ultrasound, sonographic examination through the thinned frontal bone, radiography, standing computed tomography of the skull and exploratory osteoplastic surgery. Histopathology was consistent with an organized hematoma. An intradiploic hematoma of the frontal bone was diagnosed 5 years after head trauma, with progressive expansion and deformation of the skull resulting in exophthalmos. Exophthalmos with facial bone deformation was the only clinical finding of intradiploic hematoma. Standing computed tomography (CT) aided the diagnosis to differentiate intradiploic hematoma from other, more common causes of facial bone distortion associated with paranasal sinus diseases. Intradiploic hematoma of possible traumatic origin is a differential diagnosis for sinonasal disease and exophthalmos in the horse.

  17. MARIUS HILLS REGION, MOON: Stratigraphy of low shields and mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhart, Jennifer; Hiesinger, Harry; van der Bogert, Carolyn; Hendrik Pasckert, Jan; Weinauer, Julia; Lawrence, Samuel; Stopar, Julie; Robinson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The Marius Hills region consists of more than 250 individual basaltic low shields (usually referred to as "domes") and cones, located on a broad topographic rise. The bases of numerous low shields have slope angles of ~2-3° whereas the upper portions have slopes of ~6-7° [1], interpreted to reflect changes in composition over time [1]. However, the absence of spectral differences between the two dome morphologies and the surrounding mare basalts suggests that the observed morphologies are more plausibly explained by changes in effusion rates, temperature (viscosity), and/or crystallization over time [e.g., 2]. Previous studies indicate that volcanism in this region occurred in the Upper Imbrian (3.2-3.8 Ga) [3], although several other authors reported ages ranging from the Imbrian (~3.3 Ga) to the Eratosthenian (~2.5 Ga) [e.g., 1,2,4]. [2,5] reported that all low shields are embayed by younger mare units, indicating that they formed during an older stage of volcanic activity. Mare basalts surrounding the Marius Hills exhibit absolute model ages of 1.2-3.7 Ga [6]. We used 36 LRO NAC images to perform crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements. The images were calibrated and map-projected with ISIS 3 and imported into ArcGIS. Within ArcGIS, we used CraterTools [7] to perform our CSFD measurements. The crater size-frequency distributions were then plotted with CraterStats [8], using the production and chronology functions of [9]. We conducted CSFD measurements for 50 Marius Hills low shields. Our count area sizes ranged from 1.06 x 101 to 8.75 x 101 km2; those for adjacent basalts varied between 6.17 x 100 and 8.01 x 101 km2. We determined absolute model ages (AMAs) of 1.03 to 3.65 Ga for the low shields and did not find a spatial correlation of ages versus their locations. CSFD measurements for 27 adjacent basalts show AMAs of 1.20-3.69 Ga. Of those basalts, 24 exhibit AMAs of 3-3.5 Ga; there is no correlation of AMAs and the geographic position of the

  18. Shock metamorphic effects in the Luna 16 soil sample from Mare Fecunditatis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1972-01-01

    Diverse lunar soil fragments returned from the Luna 16 mission were examined for evidence in shock metamorphism in order to evaluate the role of meteorite impact in forming the lunar regolith at a new site relatively distant from the Apollo landing sites. It was found that shock metamorphic effects, characteristic of meteorite impact and virtually identical to those observed in Apollo samples, are common in the Luna 16 fragments. Two types of shock effects are present - i.e., a deformation and partial melting features in rock and mineral fragments, and heterogeneous glasses and glassy breccias produced by shock melting. It is concluded that these shock metamorphic effects indicate that regolith formation by meteorite impact has occurred in Mare Fecunditatis and is a general process over the entire moon.

  19. Histological investigations on the skin of the mammary gland of mares.

    PubMed

    Ludewig, T

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to give a histological picture of the different skin regions of the mammary gland in mares. Special emphasis on the dark coating in the sulcus intermammarius was given. As a result, the dark pigmented udder skin can be subdivided into the skin of the Corpus mammae, the sulcus intermammarius and the teat skin. In the sulcus intermammarius the whole epidermis was considerably thicker than usual, especially the stratum corneum (up to 70 layers of cornified layers) and the stratum spinosum. In general, the squamous keratinocytes were unusually large. The histological preparations of the coating revealed a stratum corneum instead of a supposed secretion of the sebaceous glands. The dermal papillae ended immediately below the stratum corneum.

  20. Some thoughts on the origin of lunar ANT-KREEP and mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakita, H.; Laul, J. C.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that a series of ANT (anorthosite-norite-troctolite)-KREEP type rocks and the source material for mare basalts sampled by Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 may have been derived from a common magmatic differentiation. This differentiation is studied on the basis of a model which proposes that, in the early history of the moon, extensive melting occurred in the outer lunar shell and a magma layer of 100-200 km was formed. The presence of a residual liquid which has not yet been sampled is suspected between high-K KREEP and the Apollo 11 basalt materials. This residual liquid would have a FeO/MgO ratio greater than one and would be significantly enriched in apatite, zircon, K-feldspar, and ilmenite minerals.

  1. Formation of Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalts by replenishment fractional crystallization and assimilation of precursor crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Tammy L.; Nelson, Dennis O.

    1991-01-01

    Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalts (AMB) have been the subject of considerable controversy. These basalts were divided into 5 distinct groups on the basis of RE and HFS element abundances. The groups are similar in major element compositions but display an 8 fold variation in REE abundances. Open-system processes were explored which are common on Earth: combined replenishment fractional crystallization (RFC); and assimilation fractional crystallization (AFC), where the assimilant is a partial melt of precursor crust. RFC often produces decoupled major and trace element variations, while AFC can produce significant variation in incompatible trace element ratios. A model was envisioned by which magmas of Group 5 composition were emplaced in shallow chambers. The Apollo 14 AMB was modeled by RFC using a parental magma of Group 5 composition with the fractionating assemblage consisting of 60 pct. Px, 30 pct. Plag, and 3 pct. Il.

  2. Morphometric Study of the Mare Oviductal Mucosa at Different Reproductive Stages.

    PubMed

    Mouguelar, Horacio; Díaz, Tomás; Borghi, Damiana; Quinteros, Rolando; Bonino, Facundo; Apichela, Silvana Andrea; Aguilar, José Javier

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this work were to describe some morphometric characteristics and to establish quantitative parameters of different regions of the equine oviductal mucosa from the isthmus, ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ), and ampulla. Twenty-one mixed-bred mares were used for this study. Mares were selected in the following reproductive phases: anestrus, estrus, and diestrus. The left oviducts were examined with light microscopy, and rights ones were studied through the intraoviductal molds. The isthmus showed the smallest luminal area, mucosal area, epithelial perimeter, and luminal diameter. On the molds surfaces, some grooves extended as longitudinal canals, reducing their depth as they approached to the AIJ. Several small height projections, some obliquely positioned towards utero-tubal junction, were observed in all reproductive phases. These formations may represent pockets or cul-de-sacs in the basal areas of the epithelial folds. The AIJ mucosa gradually changed from the smooth isthmic region toward highly folded ampulla. The number and complexity of epithelial folds showed moderate increase in the same way that many of the morphometric parameters. Multiple curves were observed on the molds of the AIJ, creating a zigzag path in the oviductal lumen. In the ampulla, the high branched epithelial folds occupied most of the lumen, leaving a small luminal area free. A linear relationship between epithelial perimeter and mucosal area was found. The presence of glandular-like structures was observed in all the reproductive stages studied. The equine endosalpinx reveals a highly complex tridimensional arrangement where each region shows very particular and specific designs.

  3. The dam breakage of Baia Mare??a pilot study of magnetic screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehland, F.; Panaiotu, C.; Appel, E.; Hoffmann, V.; Jordanova, D.; Jordanova, N.; Denut, I.

    Magnetic screening in the area of Baia Mare (Romania) was carried out in June 2000 in order to detect the degree of environmental pollution and to test the applicability of this method in this area. With a long tradition of mining activities, a gradual pollution of soil, air and rivers took place continuously in addition to smaller accidents in this area until the dam breakage on the 30.1.2000. During this accident, about 100,000 m 3 of mud containing cyanide and heavy metals leaked out and moved over fields and through a village into the river system of Lapûs, Someş, Tisza and Danube. Initial magnetic monitoring carried out during the translocation of the polluted waters along the Bulgarian part of the Danube revealed the effectiveness of the method for a proper and fast identification of pollution both in time and space even at remote distances from the source. For the later pilot project magnetic ( χ) screening was performed using a portable Bartington MS2 kappameter with a D-loop sensor. In addition fine-grained material (<0.5 mm) was sampled from the fields and river sediments and measured in the laboratory using a MS2 B-sensor. The results of the collected samples show a clear decrease in χ with increasing distance from the dams and mining areas in a regional and local scale, while the results gained by the MS2-D strongly depend on the nature of the ground. The dynamic geological setting around Baia Mare (fluvial sediments and valley fills), produces a heterogeneous background signal. A continuous monitoring system controlling the basic conditions could overcome these limitations.

  4. A nonsense mutation in the IKBKG gene in mares with incontinentia pigmenti.

    PubMed

    Towers, Rachel E; Murgiano, Leonardo; Millar, David S; Glen, Elise; Topf, Ana; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Cord; Goodship, Judith A; Clarke, Angus J; Leeb, Tosso

    2013-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a large and heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders characterized by abnormalities in structures of ectodermal origin. Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an ED characterized by skin lesions evolving over time, as well as dental, nail, and ocular abnormalities. Due to X-linked dominant inheritance IP symptoms can only be seen in female individuals while affected males die during development in utero. We observed a family of horses, in which several mares developed signs of a skin disorder reminiscent of human IP. Cutaneous manifestations in affected horses included the development of pruritic, exudative lesions soon after birth. These developed into wart-like lesions and areas of alopecia with occasional wooly hair re-growth. Affected horses also had streaks of darker and lighter coat coloration from birth. The observation that only females were affected together with a high number of spontaneous abortions suggested an X-linked dominant mechanism of transmission. Using next generation sequencing we sequenced the whole genome of one affected mare. We analyzed the sequence data for non-synonymous variants in candidate genes and found a heterozygous nonsense variant in the X-chromosomal IKBKG gene (c.184C>T; p.Arg62*). Mutations in IKBKG were previously reported to cause IP in humans and the homologous p.Arg62* variant has already been observed in a human IP patient. The comparative data thus strongly suggest that this is also the causative variant for the observed IP in horses. To our knowledge this is the first large animal model for IP.

  5. Potential demographic and genetic effects of a sterilant applied to wild horse mares

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roelle, James E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Wild horse populations on western ranges can increase rapidly, resulting in the need for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to remove animals in order to protect the habitat that horses share with numerous other species. As an alternative to removals, BLM has sought to develop a long-term, perhaps even permanent, contraceptive to aid in reducing population growth rates. With long-term (perhaps even permanent) efficacy of contraception, however, comes increased concern about the genetic health of populations and about the potential for local extirpation. We used simulation modeling to examine the potential demographic and genetic consequences of applying a mare sterilant to wild horse populations. Using the VORTEX software package, we modeled the potential effects of a sterilant on 70 simulated populations having different initial sizes (7 values), growth rates (5 values), and genetic diversity (2 values). For each population, we varied the treatment rate of mares from 0 to 100 percent in increments of 10 percent. For each combination of these treatment levels, we ran 100 stochastic simulations, and we present the results in the form of tables and graphs showing mean population size after 20 years, mean number of removals after 20 years, mean probability of extirpation after 50 years, and mean heterozygosity after 50 years. By choosing one or two combinations of initial population size, population growth rate, and genetic diversity that best represent a herd of interest, a manager can assess the likely effects of a contraceptive program by examining the output tables and graphs representing the selected conditions.

  6. Petrogenesis of Mare Basalts, Mg-Rich Suites and SNC Parent Magmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    The successful models for the internal evolution of the Moon must consider the volume, distribution, timing, composition and, ultimately, the petrogenesis of mare basaltic volcanism. Indeed, given the paucity of geophysical data, the internal state of the Moon in the past can be gleaned only be unraveling the petrogenesis of the various igneous products on the Moon and, particularly, the mare basalts. most useful in constraining the depth and composition of their source region [Delano, 1980] despite having undergone a certain degree of shallow level olivine crystallization.The bulk of the lunar volcanic glass suite can be modeled as the partial melting products of an olivine + orthopyroxene source region deep within the lunar mantle. Ti02 contents vary from 0.2 wt % -1 7.0wt [Shearer and Papike, 1993]. Values that extreme would seem to require a Ti- bearing phase such as ilmenite in the source of the high-Ti (but not in the VLT source) because a source region of primitive LMO olivine and orthopyroxene, even when melted in small degrees cannot account for the observed range of Ti02 compositions. The picritic glasses are undersaturated with respect to ilmenite at all pressures investigated therefore ilmenite must have been consumed during melting, leaving an ilmenite free residue and an undersaturated melt [Delano, 1980, Longhi, 1992, Elkins et al, 2000 among others]. Multi- saturation pressures for the glasses potentially represent the last depths at which the liquids equilibrated with a harzburgite residue before ascending to the surface. These occur at great depths within the lunar mantle. Because the liquids have suffered some amount of crystal fractionation, this is at best a minimum depth. If the melts are mixtures, then it is only an average depth of melting. Multisaturation, nevertheless, is still a strong constraint on source mineralogy, revealing that the generation of the lunar basalts was dominated by melting of olivine and orthopyroxene.

  7. Formation of lunar mare domes along crustal fractures: Rheologic conditions, dimensions of feeder dikes, and the role of magma evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhler, Christian; Lena, Raffaello; Phillips, Jim

    2007-08-01

    In this study we examine a set of lunar mare domes located in the Hortensius/Milichius/T. Mayer region and in northern Mare Tranquillitatis with respect to their formation along crustal fractures, their rheologic properties, the dimensions of their feeder dikes, and the importance of magma evolution processes during dome formation. Many of these domes display elongated summit vents oriented radially with respect to major impact basins, and several dome locations are also aligned in these preferential directions. Analysis of Clementine UV/VIS and Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer data reveals that the examined mare domes formed from low-Si basaltic lavas of high FeO and low to moderate TiO 2 content. Based on their morphometric properties (diameter, height, volume) obtained by photoclinometric and shape from shading analysis of telescopic CCD images, we derive rheologic quantities (lava viscosity during eruption, effusion rate, duration of the effusion process, magma rise speed) and the dimensions of the feeder dikes. We establish three rheologic groups characterised by specific combinations of rheologic properties and dike dimensions, where the most relevant discriminative parameter is the lava viscosity η. The first group is characterised by 10 Pas<η<10 Pas and contains the domes with elongated vents in the Milichius/T. Mayer region and two similar domes in northern Mare Tranquillitatis. The second group with 10 Pas<η<10 Pas comprises the very low aligned domes in northern Mare Tranquillitatis, and the third group with 10 Pas<η<10 Pas the relatively steep domes near Hortensius and in the T. Mayer region. The inferred dike dimensions in comparison to lunar crustal thickness data indicate that the source regions of the feeder dikes are situated within the upper crust for six of the domes in northern Mare Tranquillitatis, while they are likely to be located in the lower crust and in the upper mantle for the other examined domes. By comparing the time scale

  8. Differences in ability of jennies and mares to conceive with cooled and frozen semen containing glycerol or not.

    PubMed

    Vidament, Marianne; Vincent, Pierrick; Martin, François-Xavier; Magistrini, Michele; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2009-05-01

    A suitable method for the cryopreservation of donkey semen would be very valuable for the ex situ management of genetic diversity in this species. This report uses a variety of observation and trials to evaluate the effect of cryoprotectants in per-cycle pregnancy rates (PC) in equids females (jennies (donkey) and mares (horse)). This was explored by (1) comparing the results of insemination of jennies and mares with cooled or frozen donkey semen, (2) examining the possible toxic effect of the cryoprotectant (CPA) glycerol in these two species and (3) studying alternative solutions. Donkey and horse semen was either used immediately, or cooled according to some steps of the pre-freezing procedure or frozen and thawed. The pre-freezing procedure included semen dilution, centrifugation, resuspension in milk or in INRA82+2% egg yolk+various % CPA (expressed as final concentrations in extended semen (v/v)) and then cooling to 4 degrees C. PC was similar in mares and jennies inseminated with donkey semen cooled to 4 degrees C in milk. However, the PC was significantly higher in mares than in jennies when donkey semen was frozen with 2.2% glycerol (36%, n=50 cycles vs. 11%, n=38 cycles; P<0.01). Increasing the concentrations of glycerol (0, 2.2, 3.5, 4.8%) before cooling stallion semen resulted in a progressive decrease in mare PC (87, 53, 53, 13% (n=15 cycles for each concentration); P<0.0001). The addition of 2.2% glycerol before cooling donkey semen decreased the PC measured in jennies to 0. The replacement of glycerol by 2% dimethylformamide increased the fertility obtained in jennies with cooled donkey semen (PC: 67%, n=12 cycles) but did not increase the fertility obtained with frozen-thawed donkey semen (PC: 11%, n=28 cycles with dimethylformamide vs. 0%, n=16 cycles with glycerol). In conclusion, this study clearly shows that the ability of jennies to conceive after AI with donkey frozen semen is lower than that of mares. Glycerol affects the fertility of donkey

  9. Effects of periovulatory gonadotrophin treatment on luteal function and endometrial expression of selected genes in cyclic pony mares.

    PubMed

    Köhne, Martin; Ille, Natascha; Erber, Regina; Adib Razavi, Mahsa S; Walter, Ingrid; Aurich, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Progestin concentration in plasma during the early luteal phase is crucial for endometrial function and conceptus development. We hypothesized that periovulatory gonadotrophin treatment via support of luteal function affects endometrial gene expression in horses. Effect of age was analyzed as well. Shetland mares (n = 8, age 4-25 years) were assigned to the following treatments during five consecutive cycles in alternating order following a cross-over design: treatment hCG/-: preovulatory injection of hCG, but no gonadotrophin injection at detection of ovulation, treatment -/hCG: no preovulatory gonadodrophin injection, but injection of hCG at detection of ovulation, treatment eCG/-: preovulatory injection of eCG, but no gonadotrophin injection at detection of ovulation, treatment -/eCG: no preovulatory gonadotrophin injection, but injection of eCG at detection of ovulation, treatment control: no treatment. Concentration of progestin was analyzed by ELISA from the day of ovulation until Day 10. On Day 10, endometrial cells were collected transvaginally by cytobrush technique. Expression of mRNA of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin F2α-synthase, prostaglandin E-synthase, progesterone receptor (PR), estradiol receptor (E2R), acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (ACAD), uteroglobin (UGB), uteroferrin, and uterocalin was analyzed by RT qPCR. Immunohistological staining of endometrial tissue, obtained via biopsy, was performed for COX-2, PR and UGB. The P4 concentration was influenced by day of cycle (P < 0.01), but not by treatment. No effects of age on gene expression were determined. Neither of the periovulatory gonadotrophin treatments nor age influenced mRNA expression of the genes of interest. Treatment did also not affect immunohistological staining of the endometrium. In contrast, age affected the percentage of PR positive stromal cells (e.g. mare 1 (4 years): 65.5 ± 2.6, mare 2 (24 years): 82.7 ± 2.2%, P < 0.05) and COX-2 positive stained ciliated cells

  10. Type of Inflammation Differentially Affects Expression of Interleukin 1β and 6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Toll-Like Receptors in Subclinical Endometritis in Mares

    PubMed Central

    Szóstek, Anna Z.; Gajos, Katarzyna; Kozdrowski, Roland; Nowak, Marcin; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mares that fail to conceive or lose their embryos, without showing typical signs of clinical endometritis, should be suspected of subclinical endometritis (SE). In this study, the question was addressed: does SE fully activate selected mechanisms of innate immunity in mares? For this aim, expression of mRNAs for Toll-like Receptor 2 and 4 (TLR 2/4), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) was examined in control mares versus either mares suffering from chronic endometritis (ChE) or subacute suppurative endometritis (SSE). The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in supernatants from endometrial tissue cultures after 4 h incubation were measured using the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method. Eighty-two warmblood mares, of known breeding history, were enrolled in this study. Based on histopathological assessment, mares were classified as suffering from ChE, SSE or as being healthy. In addition, immuno-localization of both TLR2 and TLR4 as well as TNF-α was investigated in the equine endometria. The mRNA expression of TLR2 (P < 0.01), IL-1β (P < 0.0001), IL-6 (P < 0.0001) and TLR4 and TNF (P < 0.05) was up-regulated in endometria of mares suffering from SSE compared with unaffected mares. Concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were increased only in mares exhibiting SSE, compared with unaffected (P < 0.01 for both) and ChE mares (P < 0.05 for both). Immuno-localization of TNF-α and TLRs was confirmed, both in unaffected and SE-affected endometria, and was present in the luminal and glandular epithelia and stromal cells. The severity of inflammation impacts the immune response and fosters activation of innate immunity mechanisms, as observed in the endometria of mares. The intracellular localization of TLRs and TNF-α in the endometria indicates a key role of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in the immune response and inflammation. PMID:27152525

  11. Follicle Diameter and Systemic Hormone Interrelationships during Induction of Follicle Collapse with Intrafollicular Prostaglandin E2 and F2α in Mares.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Boví, R; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2016-04-01

    The objectives were to determine: (i) whether intrafollicular administration of PGE2 and PGF2α to mares would hasten follicle collapse and (ii) the differences in reproductive hormone characteristics in mares with spontaneous and prostaglandin-induced follicle collapses. Six mares were followed for two oestrous cycles each: when the mares reached a follicle diameter of 30-35 mm and showed mild-to-moderate endometrial oedema, mares were administered a single 0.5 ml dose containing 500 μg PGE2 and 125 μg PGF2α (treatment cycle) or a placebo (0.5 ml of water for injection; control cycle) into the preovulatory follicle (Hour 0). Blood samples were collected, and serial ultrasound examinations were performed until follicle collapse. Treated mares showed follicle collapse significantly earlier (20.0 ± 5.9 h) than the control mares (72.0 ± 10.7 h). The LH, progesterone, total oestrogens and oestradiol concentrations did not differ between groups; however, the progesterone concentration increased more between 48 and 72 h after follicle injection in the treatment compared to the control cycles (P < 0.05). In conclusion, intrafollicular treatment with PGE2 and PGF2α hastened follicle collapse in mares without the simultaneous use of an inductor of ovulation; despite the early induction of follicle collapse, the profiles of LH and oestradiol were not altered. This study provides information on the role of prostaglandins (PGs) in the process of follicle wall rupture and collapse and suggests that this may happen even before the beginning of the sharp rise in circulating LH at the final stage of the ovulatory surge.

  12. 105 NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY AND AQUAPHOTOMICS ANALYSIS OF SERUM FROM MARES EXPOSED TO THE FUNGAL MYCOTOXIN ZEARALENONE.

    PubMed

    Vance, C K; Counsell, K R; Agcanas, L A; Shappell, N; Bowers, S; Willard, S T; Ryan, P L

    2016-01-01

    Aquaphotomics is a branch of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in which bond vibrations from organic molecules and water create unique spectral absorbance patterns to profile complex aqueous mixtures. Aquaphotomics has been shown to detect virus infected soybean plants from extracts, classify probiotic bacteria, and detect contamination of aquatic ecosystems. We have used aquaphotomics to characterise serum profiles from horses in various phases of the reproductive cycle such as oestrus and diestrus. Because serum is a complex solution of biomolecules, various modes of serum processing (e.g. large protein removal for proteomics or mass spectrometry) may provide different NIR spectral profiles for quantitative analysis of specific compounds or their effects. Zearalenone is a fungal mycotoxin that may have estrogenic potential in mares and is found in feedstuffs. The objectives of this study were to (1) establish NIR spectral profiles of serum and protein-precipitated serum (PPS) collected at peak oestrus from mares; (2) determine if NIR profiles correlate and quantify E2 concentrations in serum or PPS; and (3) determine if NIR can detect differences in serum chemistry of zearalenone-treated mares. Mares were fed zearalenone daily at low (2mg, 2 mares, 5 cycles) and high (8mg, 1 mare, 3 cycles) concentrations, plus control (0mg, 1 mare, 3 cycles). Oestrus cycles were monitored by ultrasound and serum hormone analysis. Serum collected at peak oestrus had E2 values determined by radioimmunoassay (range 0.02-16.87pgmL(-1)). Protein precipitated serum had high and medium MW proteins removed with acetonitrile. NIR spectra, collected in triplicate with a 1mm quartz cuvette and ASD FieldSpec(®)3 (Boulder, CO, USA), were pre-treated with a Savitsky-Golay 1(st) derivative for inspection of spectral features, principal component analysis, and partial least-squares regression (PLS) to investigate spectral correlations to E2 concentrations and zearalenone treatment effects. The

  13. Effect of the inseminate and the site of insemination on the uterus and pregnancy rates of mares.

    PubMed

    Katila, Terttu

    2005-10-01

    In this review, effects of the composition of the inseminate on uterine response and pregnancy rates in mares are discussed. The inseminate can differ for volume, sperm concentration, total sperm numbers, presence, absence, or proportion of seminal plasma, and extender composition. Semen can be used as fresh, cooled, or frozen. The site of semen deposition also plays a role; semen is deposited either into the uterine body (standard artificial insemination (AI)) or into the tip of the uterine horn ipsilateral to the preovulatory follicle (deep AI) using the hysterocopical or transrectally guided techniques. In addition to pregnancy rates, some uterine responses to the inseminate are considered including myometrial contractions, transport and elimination of sperm, and uterine inflammation, which is reflected as numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, enzyme levels, and presence of intrauterine fluid. Reproductively normal and abnormal mares are compared.

  14. Petrology and chemistry of Apollo 17 regolith breccias - A history of mixing of highland and mare regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Gosselin, D. C.; Laul, J. C.; Hughes, S. S.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of petrological and chemical analyses of ten Apollo 17 breccias, showing that two of these consist predominantly of highland material, seven are mare-dominated, and one is a welded volcanic glass deposit; all were formed at or near the Apollo 17 site, and all contain both mare and highland components. The data are indicative of the Apollo 17 breccias formation from immature source regolith. The breccias are considered to be formed locally after an eruption of basalt and orange glass at the site. Since the formation of the breccias, the regolith at the Apollo 17 site has become more mature, and the orange glass abundance has been somewhat decreased by mixing. One of the sample may contain a previously unreported volcanic glass type.

  15. Novel Wnt Regulator NEL-Like Molecule-1 Antagonizes Adipogenesis and Augments Osteogenesis Induced by Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; James, Aaron W.; Zhang, Xinli; Pang, Shen; Zara, Janette N.; Asatrian, Greg; Chiang, Michael; Lee, Min; Khadarian, Kevork; Nguyen, Alan; Lee, Kevin S.; Siu, Ronald K.; Tetradis, Sotirios; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2017-01-01

    The differentiation factor NEL-like molecule-1 (NELL-1) has been reported as osteoinductive in multiple in vivo preclinical models. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 is used clinically for skeletal repair, but in vivo administration can induce abnormal, adipose-filled, poor-quality bone. We demonstrate that NELL-1 combined with BMP2 significantly optimizes osteogenesis in a rodent femoral segmental defect model by minimizing the formation of BMP2-induced adipose-filled cystlike bone. In vitro studies using the mouse bone marrow stromal cell line M2-10B4 and human primary bone marrow stromal cells have confirmed that NELL-1 enhances BMP2-induced osteogenesis and inhibits BMP2-induced adipogenesis. Importantly, the ability of NELL-1 to direct BMP2-treated cells toward osteogenesis and away from adipogenesis requires intact canonical Wnt signaling. Overall, these studies establish the feasibility of combining NELL-1 with BMP2 to improve clinical bone regeneration and provide mechanistic insight into canonical Wnt pathway activity during NELL-1 and BMP2 osteogenesis. The novel abilities of NELL-1 to stimulate Wnt signaling and to repress adipogenesis may highlight new treatment approaches for bone loss in osteoporosis. PMID:26772960

  16. The effect of oxytocin and PGF2alpha on the uterine involution and pregnancy rates in postpartum Arabian mares.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Mehmet Can; Kaşikçi, Güven; Kaya, Huriye H

    2008-03-03

    In this study, the effects of oxytocin and an analog of prostaglandin (cloprostenol) on the uterine involution and pregnancy rates were investigated. Mares received 3 ml of 0.9% NaCl in Group C (n=10), 30 IU/mare of oxytocin in Group O (n=10) and 250 microg/mare of cloprostenol in Group P (n=10) within 12h after parturition. The gravid uterine horn's cross-sectional diameter was measured by ultrasonography. The mean uterine diameters did not differ significantly between the treatment (O and P) and the control (C) groups (p>0.05). The difference between the postpartum ovulation periods (Group C: 12.6+/-0.72 days, Group O: 15+/-1.33 days, Group P: 14.6+/-1.11 days), the pregnancy rates at foal heat (Group C: 60%, Group O: 60%, Group P: 80%) and the embryonic death rates at foal heat (Group C: 33.3%, Group O: 16%, Group P: 25%) were not found to be statistically significant between the treatment and the control groups. The mean progesterone concentrations were similar in all groups and decreased continuously from parturition to until foal heat (Group C: from 2.43+/-0.24 to 0.66 ng/ml, Group O: from 3.07+/-0.6 to 0.27+/-0.27 ng/ml and Group P: from 2.8+/-0.44 to 0 ng/ml) (p>0.05). In conclusion, it was decided that the oxytocin and PGF2alpha treatments performed on the mares with the purpose of stimulating involution had no effect on the duration of parturition-first ovulation, the shrinkage of the uterus diameter, the pregnancy and embryonic death rates.

  17. Chemical, mineralogical and textural systematics of non-mare melt rocks: Implications for lunar impact and volcanic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irving, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Based on a synthesis of chemical data for over 200 samples, the nonmare rocks with fine grained melt textures can be classified into 7 major groups: anorthositic basalts, troctolitic basalts, VHA basalts, Apollo 14-type KREEP basalts, Apollo 15-type KREEP basalts, Apollo 17-type KREEP basalts, and aluminous mare basalts. Review of chemical, mineralogical, textural and experimental evidence leads to preferred hypotheses for the origins of these rocks; those hypotheses are discussed in detail.

  18. Stratigraphy and structural evolution of southern Mare Serenitatis: A reinterpretation based on Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment data

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpton, V.L.; Head, J.W. III

    1982-12-10

    The Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment (ALSE) detected two subsurface reflecting horizons in southern Mare Serenitatis. These horizons appear to be regolith layers, >2 m thick, which correlate with major stratigraphic boundaries in southeastern Mare Serenitatis. Our analysis differs from previous interpretations and implies that the lower horizon represents the interface between the earliest mare unit (unit I; approx.3.8 b.y.) and the modified Serenitatis basin material below. The upper horizon represents the regolith developed by sustained impact bombardment of the unit I surface prior to the emplacement of the intermediate basalts (unit II; approx.3.5 b.y.). The latest volcanic episode (unit III; approx.3.2 b.y.) resulted in a very thin infilling (<400 m deep) in the southern portion of the basin and was undetected by ALSE. Profiles of the stratigraphic surfaces represented by the ALSE reflecting horizons are reconstructed for three stages in the basin filling history. These reconstructions permit the timing and magnitude of various volcanic and tectonic events within the Serenitatis basin to be assessed. On the basis of comparison with Orientale ring topography, the large subsurface arch is interpreted to be the peak-ring-related topography of the Serenitatis basin. The thickness of mare basalts across the ALSE ground track is highly variable: basalts are <400 m thick above the peak ring, while they reach a maximum thickness of approx.2.5 km in the depression between the first and second basin rings. Comparison with Orientale topography suggests that a major increase in basalt thickness of approx.6 km may occur approx.50 km inside the peak ring.

  19. A ground-based comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Kirk L.; Hackney, Kyle J.; De Witt, John K.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Goetchius, Elizabeth L.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2013-11-01

    IntroductionInternational Space Station (ISS) crewmembers perform muscle strength and endurance testing pre- and postflight to assess the physiologic adaptations associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity. However, a reliable and standardized method to document strength changes in-flight has not been established. To address this issue, a proprietary dynamometer, the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) has been developed and flown aboard the ISS. The aims of this ground-based investigation were to: (1) evaluate the test-retest reliability of MARES and (2) determine its agreement with a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer previously used for pre- and postflight medical testing. MethodsSix males (179.5±4.7 cm; 82.0±8.7 kg; 31.3±4.0 yr) and four females (163.2±7.3 cm; 63.2±1.9 kg; 32.3±6.8 yr) completed two testing sessions on a HUMAC NORM isokinetic dynamometer (NORM) and two sessions on MARES using a randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over design. Peak torque values at 60° and 180° s-1 were calculated from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF) for each session. Total work at 180° s-1 was determined from the area under the torque versus displacement curve during 20 maximal repetitions of KE and KF. ResultsIntraclass correlation coefficients were relatively high for both devices (0.90-0.99). Only one dependent measure, KE peak torque at 60° s-1 exhibited good concordance between devices (ρ=0.92) and a small average difference (0.9±17.3 N m). ConclusionMARES demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability and thus should serve as a good tool to monitor in-flight strength changes. However, due to poor agreement with NORM, it is not advisable to compare absolute values obtained on these devices.

  20. Climate services for an urban area (Baia Mare City, Romania) with a focus on climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Dana; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Mihalache, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    The Baia Mare Urban System is located in the north-western part of Romania, with around 200,000 inhabitants and represents one of the most important former mining areas in the country, whose socioeconomic profile and environmental conditions have greatly changed over the last 20 years during the transition and post-transition period. Currently the mining is closed in the area, but the historical legacy of this activity has implications in terms of economic growth, social and cultural developments and environmental quality. Baia Mare city lies in an extended depression, particularly sheltered by the mountain and hilly regions located in the north and respectively, in the south-south-eastern part of it, which explains the high frequency of calm conditions and low airstream channeling occurrences. This urban system has a typically moderate temperate-continental climate, subject to frequent westerly airflows (moist), which moderate the thermal regime (without depicting severe extremes, both positive and negative) and enhance the precipitation one (entailing a greater frequency of wet extremes). During the reference period (1971-2000), the climate change signal in the area is rather weak and not statistically significant. However, since the mid 1980s, the warming signal became more evident from the observational data (Baia Mare station), showing a higher frequency of dry spells and positive extremes. The modelling experiments covering the 2021-2050 time horizon using regional (RM5.1/HadRM3Q0/RCA3) and global (ARPEGE/HadCM3Q0/BCM/ECHAM5) circulation models carried out within the ECLISE FP7 project suggest an ongoing temperature rise, associated to an intensification of temperature and precipitation extremes. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate how the local authorities consider and include climate change in their activity, as well as in the development plans (e.g. territorial, economic and social development plans). Individual interviews have been

  1. Cryptosporidium spp. infection in mares and foals of the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Sandra Valéria; de Brito, Roberta Lomonte Lemos; Zucatto, Anaiza Simão; Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the occurrence of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in mares and their respective foals. This study was carried out in 11 farms located in the municipalities of Araçatuba, Birigui, Guararapes and Santo Antônio do Aracangua, in the northwest region of the State of Sao Paulo, from November 2010 to March 2011. A total of 98 mares and 98 foals of several breeds were analyzed; among foals, 59 were males and 39 females, aged from three to 330 days. Feces were collected directly from the rectal ampulla, purified and processed according to modified Kinyoun stain. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 21.4% (21/98) for foals and 18.4% (18/98) for mares. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. had significant association with breeds and age of animals. Results obtained led to the conclusion that foals older than two months and Mangalarga animals are less susceptible to the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp.

  2. Evidence for a high-magnesium subsurface basalt in Mare Crisium from orbital X-ray fluorescence data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, C. G.; Adler, I.; Wolfe, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Orbital X-ray fluorescence data taken by the Apollo 15 mission over Mare Crisium are analyzed in order to detect surface occurrences of the magnesium-rich materials found in the Luna 24 core sample. Apollo 15 data of the surface soils of the Luna 24 landing site, expressed as Al/Si and Mg/Si ratios, are found to be well correlated with the composition of the less than 74 micron fraction of the core sample. Orbital data indicate that most surface areas of the southern part of Mare Crisium have magnesium contents lower than or equal to that of the landing site, with the exception of areas in the vicinities of the post-mare craters Picard and Pierce and an area northeast of the Luna 24 site. The crater material is interpreted to be a magnesium-rich subsurface basalt excavated by crater formation, which may represent the material from which magnesium-rich Luna 24 samples, including olivine gabbro and olivine vitrophyre, were derived.

  3. La/Sm ratios in mare basalts as a consequence of mafic cumulate fractionation from an initial lunar magma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, E. E.; Brophy, J. G.; Basu, A.

    1991-01-01

    A model is constructed for the La/Sm ratio and the abundance of chrondrite-normalized La in different proportions of partial melts of a mafic cumulate source that might have settled to the bottom of an initial lunar magma ocean prior to any plagioclase separation. It is proposed that La/Sm ratios and chrondrite-normalized La abundances of common mare basalts are found in partial melts only if: the mafic cumulate consists mostly of clinopyroxene, a very low fraction of the cumulate melts, and the cumulate represents a moderate to high proportion of the crystallization of the initial magma ocean. Only if the partitioning of clinopyroxene is forced to mimic plagioclase (DLa is greater than DSm) do the present modeling results become compatible with the scenario for producing appropriate parent melts of mare basalts from mafic cumulates. It is found unlikely that parent melts of mare basalts were produced from mafic cumulates of an initial lunar magma ocean that had not had any plagioclase crystallization.

  4. Lunar Mare Basalts as Analogues for Martian Volcanic Compositions: Evidence from Visible, Near-IR, and Thermal Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The lunar mare basalts potentially provide a unique sample suite for understanding the nature of basalts on the martian surface. Our current knowledge of the mineralogical and chemical composition of the basaltic material on Mars comes from studies of the basaltic martian meteorites and from orbital and surface remote sensing observations. Petrographic observations of basaltic martian meteorites (e.g., Shergotty, Zagami, and EETA79001) show that the dominant phases are pyroxene (primarily pigeonite and augite), maskelynite (a diaplectic glass formed from plagioclase by shock), and olivine [1,2]. Pigeonite, a low calcium pyroxene, is generally not found in abundance in terrestrial basalts, but does often occur on the Moon [3]. Lunar samples thus provide a means to examine a variety of pigeonite-rich basalts that also have bulk elemental compositions (particularly low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalts) that are comparable to basaltic SNC meteorites [4,5]. Furthermore, lunar basalts may be mineralogically better suited as analogues of the martian surface basalts than the basaltic martian meteorites because the plagioclase feldspar in the basaltic Martian meteorites, but not in the lunar surface basalts, is largely present as maskelynite [1,2]. Analysis of lunar mare basalts my also lead to additional endmember spectra for spectral libraries. This is particularly important analysis of martian thermal emission spectra, because the spectral library apparently contains a single pigeonite spectrum derived from a synthetic sample [6].

  5. Glasses of impact origin from Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 16 - Evidence for fractional vaporization and mare/highland mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.; Lindsley, D. H.; Rudowski, R.

    1982-01-01

    Electron microprobe analyses have been performed on glasses of impact origin in Apollo 11 breccias (10059, 10060, 10061), Apollo 12 soil (12070), and Apollo 15 breccias (15318, 15425, 15426, 15427). These glasses were produced by shock melting of regolith, rather than of rock. Simple concepts for better understanding and interpreting the chemical data from impact glasses have been developed. These concepts are a significant improvement on earlier strategies, which centered principally on cluster analysis. Using ratios of refractory lithophile elements, the compositional effects of fractional vaporization often associated with impact melting to obtain chemical information about the mare and highland components in the regoliths parental to the glasses have been 'seen through'. This method is also applied to the mare-derived impact glasses from Apollo 16 in order to place constraints on the types of volcanic components occurring in Mare Nectaris. Since impact glasses can be used to derive chemical constraints on the indigenous lithologies comprising multi-component regoliths; the frequent occurrence of these glasses, as well as their low masses, should make them critically important for study when small quantities of grab-samples are returned by future unmanned spacecraft from planets, satellites, and asteroids where regoliths are present.

  6. Effects of coitus and the artificial insemination of different volumes of fresh semen on uterine contractions in mares.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M L H; England, G C W

    2006-12-16

    Uterine contractions may play an important role in the transportation of spermatozoa towards the site of fertilisation in the oviduct of mares. M-mode ultrasound was used to measure the number, amplitude and duration of uterine contractions in each uterine horn and the uterine body of oestrous mares for four minutes before and four minutes after either coitus, or the artificial insemination of either 80.0 ml of fresh semen or 10.0 ml of fresh semen. The direction of the uterine contractions in each uterine horn and the uterine body was measured before and after coitus. Coitus and the insemination of 80.0 ml semen significantly increased the total number, mean amplitude and mean duration of contractions in all parts of the uterus. The insemination of 10.0 ml of semen did not affect the total number or the mean duration of contractions in the uterine horns. Their mean amplitude was increased, but largely owing to the results from one mare; it also did not affect the contractions in the uterine body. There was no significant difference between the percentage of contractions moving in a cervicotubal or tubocervical direction after coitus in any part of the uterus examined.

  7. Transfer of a uterine lipocalin from the endometrium of the mare to the developing equine conceptus.

    PubMed

    Crossett, B; Suire, S; Herrler, A; Allen, W R; Stewart, F

    1998-09-01

    One of the major, progesterone-dependent proteins secreted into the uterine lumen of the mare is a 19-kDa lipocalin (P19). It associates strongly with the embryonic capsule that envelops the young horse conceptus in early gestation, suggesting that it may be involved in sustaining early development. However, it was not known whether the protein was transported through the capsule and/or trophoblast layer and into the yolk sac cavity. To address this question, polyclonal antisera were raised against a C-terminal peptide (based on the deduced amino acid sequence of P19) and a recombinant-derived P19 fusion protein. The antiserum raised against the C-terminal peptide recognized P19 on Western blots of denatured uterine secretions (subjected to SDS-PAGE), but it did not bind to the protein in tissue sections. However, the antiserum raised against the recombinant-derived fusion protein recognized P19 both on Western blots and in histological sections. Western blot analysis of tissues and fluids collected from early-pregnant mares demonstrated significant quantities of P19 in the endometrium and uterine secretions and in the embryonic capsule, the chorion, and the yolk sac fluid, showing that the protein is transferred through to the developing embryo. Concentrations of immunoreactive P19 declined during gestation so that, by Day 30, it had virtually disappeared from both maternal and fetal tissues and fluids. Immunohistochemical staining of endometrial biopsies collected during early pregnancy localized P19 to the glandular and luminal epithelia and to the lumina of the endometrial glands. The capsule and the trophoblast layer of the chorion from early (Days 16-17) horse conceptuses also stained positively with localization of P19 to the apical surface of the trophoblast cells. There was no detectable staining either in or on the embryonic disc. The presence of P19 in both the trophoblast layer and the yolk sac fluid suggests that P19 passes into the yolk sac fluid via

  8. Composition, seasonal change and bathymetry of Ligeia Mare, Titan, derived from its 2.2-cm thermal emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A. A.; Malaska, M.; Lorenz, R. D.; Janssen, M. A.; Tokano, T.; Hayes, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Veyssière, G.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Karatekin, O.; Encrenaz, P.

    2015-12-01

    For the last 10 years, the Cassini RADAR has been exploring Saturn's moon Titan, the only planetary body besides Earth whose surface presently exhibits significant accumulations of liquids in the forms of lakes and seas. In particular, the passive Radiometer that is incorporated in this instrument has been recording the 2.2 cm-wavelength thermal emission from Titan's three seas. Radiometry observations provide new information beyond the active radar reflection data. In this paper, we analyze the radiometry observations collected from Feb. 2007 to July 2013 over one of these seas, Ligeia Mare, with the goal of providing constrains on its liquid composition, seafloor nature, bathymetry, and dynamics. In light of the two-layer model we have developed for this analysis, we find that the dielectric constant of the sea liquid is most likely smaller than 1.8, suggesting that the composition of Ligeia Mare is dominated by liquid methane rather than liquid ethane (although a ternary methane-ethane-nitrogen mixture cannot be ruled out). This result is further supported by the value we infer for the liquid loss tangent of 3-5×10-5. This value is in agreement with the one first published by Mastrogiuseppe et al. (2014) based on active radar observation. A high methane concentration suggests that Ligeia Mare is either a sea from which ethane has been removed by crustal interaction, or a sea primarely fed by methane-rich precipitation, or both. For the seafloor, a dielectric constant of 2.6-2.9±0.9 is determined. Though this result is not very constraining, we favor a scenario where the floor of Ligeia Mare is covered by a sludge of compacted and possibly nitrile-rich organic material formed by the deposition of photochemical haze or by rain-washing of the nearby shores. These results are then used to convert the radiometry mosaic of Ligeia Mare into a qualitative low-resolution bathymetry map. Lastly, we establish limits on the physical temperature variation of the sea

  9. Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) : A Discovery Mission to Titan's Hydrocarbon Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Stofan, Ellen; T. H. E. Time Team

    2010-05-01

    The discovery of lakes in Titan's high latitudes confirmed the expectation that liquid hydrocarbons exist on the surface of the haze-shrouded moon. The lakes fill through drainage of subsurface runoff and/or intersection with the subsurface alkanofer, providing the first evidence for an active condensable-liquid hydrological cycle on another planetary body. The unique nature of Titan's methane cycle, along with the prebiotic chemistry and implications for habitability of Titan's lakes, make the lakes of the highest scientific priority for in situ investigation. The Titan Mare Explorer mission is an ASRG (Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator)-powered mission to a lake on Titan. The mission would be the first exploration of a planetary sea beyond Earth, would demonstrate the ASRG both in deep space and a non-terrestrial atmosphere environment, and pioneer low-cost outer planet missions. The scientific objectives of the mission are to: determine the chemistry of a Titan lake to constrain Titan's methane cycle; determine the depth of a Titan lake; characterize physical properties of liquids; determine how the local meteorology over the lakes ties to the global cycling of methane; and analyze the morphology of lake surfaces, and if possible, shorelines, in order to constrain the kinetics of liquids and better understand the origin and evolution of Titan lakes. The focused scientific goals, combined with the new ASRG technology and the unique mission design, allows for a new class of mission at much lower cost than previous outer planet exploration has required.

  10. Luna 24 - Opaque mineral chemistry of gabbroic and basaltic fragments from Mare Crisium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    Spinels and ilmenites are relatively sparse in the Luna 24 gabbro and basalts. Spinel compositions show some affinities to those of spinels in Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Luna 16 basalts; a characteristic feature is high Al2O3, reaching a maximum of 19.8 wt%. A comparison of spinels in the Luna 24 gabbro with those in other deep-seated lunar intrusive rocks shows a characteristic trend for Fe/Mg. This trend is systematic from gabbro to anorthosite to troctolite and is interpreted to be P-T dependent. Compositions of spinels in the gabbro fall within the Cr/Al trend defined by the spinels of the basalts, but form a Fe/Mg trend parallel to that of the basalts; this relationship suggests that both the gabbro and the basalts are derived from a closely similar source region, with the basalts originating at a slightly greater depth than the gabbro. The spinels in both rock types are considered to have formed at high crustal levels, at low pressures. The Luna 24 data suggest that the compositional discontinuities which exist between chromian spinels and titanian spinels in a large proportion of mare basalts are the result of nucleation of chromian spinels at high crustal levels prior to eruption, and of titanian spinels during melt crystallization at the lunar surface.

  11. Ovarian stimulation of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis) using pregnant mare serum gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Schuler, A Michele; Westberry, Jenne M; Scammell, Jonathan G; Abee, Christian R; Kuehl, Thomas J; Gordon, Jon W

    2006-02-01

    The application of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to nonhuman primates has created opportunities for improving reproductive management in breeding colonies, and for creation of new animal models by genetic modification. One impediment to the application of ART in Saimiri spp. has been the lack of an effective gonadotropin preparation for ovarian stimulation. Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) is inexpensive and readily available, but its repeated use in rhesus monkeys has been associated with induction of a refractory state. We have compared PMSG to recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH) for controlled ovarian stimulation in Bolivian squirrel monkeys. Groups of mature squirrel monkeys received rhFSH (75 IU daily) or PMSG (250 IU twice daily) by subcutaneous injection for 4 d during the breeding season (November to January) or nonbreeding season (March to September). Serum estradiol (E2) was measured daily. Follicular growth was monitored by abdominal ultrasound. During the breeding season, PMSG induced a higher E2 response than did rhFSH, with mean E2 levels being significantly higher within 3 d of stimulation. Superior follicular development in PMSG animals was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography. During the nonbreeding season, PMSG elicited a similar increase in serum E2 levels despite the fact that basal serum E2 is typically low during the nonbreeding season. Repeated use of PMSG (< or = 3 cycles of administration) produced no attenuation of the E2 response. We conclude that PMSG is highly effective for repeated cycles of controlled ovulation stimulation in the squirrel monkey.

  12. Environmental risks of abandoning a mining project already started: Romaltyn Mining Baia Mare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bud, I.; Duma, S.; Gusat, D.; Pasca, I.; Bud, A.

    2016-08-01

    The history of mining activity, which has been the economy engine in the region and has contributed to the formation of many localities, has been deleted too quickly. During all this time, in the world countries which have invested in mining sector have made considerable progress. The paper brings in question, within the framework of the theme, the implications arising from the abandonment of the Romaltyn project which mainly affects two objectives: Central Tailing Pond and Aurul Tailing Pond. The Central tailing pond constitutes an unfortunate source of pollution for groundwater, surface water, soil and air on a large area around it, because its location upstream of Baia Mare city and in the vicinity of a agricultural production zone. The consequences of the tailing pond maintenance in the current situation are: presence of sclerozing dust with sulphurs content scattered over large agricultural area; soil pollution by acidification; heavy metals release which enter in food chain and will be found in food. The final disposal of the pollution source is the only solution really safe in long term. Abandoning Aurul tailing pond in the current phase of construction involves high environmental risks. Taking in consideration the potential and the huge soil volume which are necessary for rehabilitation, isolation and rehabilitation of this area involve extremely high costs and the realization is, technically, almost impossible in the current context.

  13. The Mare Model to Study the Effects of Ovarian Dynamics on Preantral Follicle Features

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Kele A.; Alves, Benner G.; Gastal, Gustavo D. A.; de Tarso, Saulo G. S.; Gastal, Melba O.; Figueiredo, José R.; Gambarini, Maria L.; Gastal, Eduardo L.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian tissue collected by biopsy procedures allows the performance of many studies with clinical applications in the field of female fertility preservation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reproductive phase (anestrous vs. diestrous) and ovarian structures (antral follicles and corpus luteum) on the quality, class distribution, number, and density of preantral follicles, and stromal cell density. Ovarian fragments were harvested by biopsy pick-up procedures from mares and submitted to histological analysis. The mean preantral follicle and ovarian stromal cell densities were greater in the diestrous phase and a positive correlation of stromal cell density with the number and density of preantral follicles was observed. The mean area (mm2) of ovarian structures increased in the diestrous phase and had positive correlations with number of preantral follicles, follicle density, and stromal cell density. Biopsy fragments collected from ovaries containing an active corpus luteum had a higher follicle density, stromal cell density, and proportion of normal preantral follicles. In conclusion, our results showed: (1) the diestrous phase influenced positively the preantral follicle quality, class distribution, and follicle and stromal cell densities; (2) the area of ovarian structures was positively correlated with the follicle and stromal cell densities; and (3) the presence of an active corpus luteum had a positive effect on the quality of preantral follicles, and follicle and stromal densities. Therefore, herein we demonstrate that the presence of key ovarian structures favors the harvest of ovarian fragments containing an appropriate number of healthy preantral follicles. PMID:26900687

  14. Rospo Mare (Adriatic Sea) - An oil-bearing paleokarst in the Mediterranean region

    SciTech Connect

    Soudet, H.; Sorriaux, P.; Michaud, F. )

    1990-05-01

    The oil-bearing paleokarst at Rospo Mare is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km off the Italian coast. The reservoir lies at a depth of 1,300 m and consists of a paleokarst of Oligocene to Miocene age that developed within Cretaceous limestones, now covered by 1,200 m of Miocene-Pliocene clastics. The oil column is about 140 m. The karstic nature of the reservoir was identified through vertical cored drill holes, which allowed us to analyze the various solution features and the sedimentary infill (speleothems, terra rossa, marine clays), as well as their vertical distribution. Observations concerning the upper part of the reservoir were compared to a paleokarst of the same age, outcropping widely onshore, in quarries located nearby. Erosion morphology at the top of the karst is highly irregular, including especially paleovalleys as well as many pit-shaped sink holes. Detailed knowledge of that morphology through geophysics helped optimizing the development of the field through horizontal drilling.

  15. Enigmatic Hills of the Mottled Plains, Mare Acidalium Quadrangle (MC-4), Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witbeck, N. E.; Underwood, J. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Interpretations of Mariner 9 and Viking images of the mottled plains in Mare Acidalium are present and discussed. Although the boundaries between all the units are gradational, four subdivisions were recognized within the mottled plains region. One of these subdivisions was designated hummocky mottled plains. The unit is characterized by many small (1 km), irregularly spaced dark hills surrounded by brighter material. One very poor-quality, high-resolution Viking strip (528B01-04) indicates that some of these dark hills have circular summit depressions. Possible interpretations of origin of these hills include: cinder cones, volcanic domes, maar volcanoes, pseudocraters, impact craters, or pingos. The uncratered hills or knobs may be igneous plugs, volcanic necks, or the dark remnants of a hummocky, cratered surface protruding through a relatively bright eolian blanket. The presence, however, of the small dark hills on the flow of the large (130 km diameter) C(2) crater Lomonosov, suggests that similar dark hills elsewhere also may be secondary.

  16. Mare basalt types on the front side of the moon - A summary of spectral reflectance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    A unit map of nearside basalt types has been prepared from all telescopic spectral reflectance data currently available for lunar soils. Four parameters were chosen (UV/VIS ratio, albedo, 1 micron band strength, 2 micron band strength) to distinguish and map each of 13 mare basalt types and three additional volcanic groups. Multispectral imagery and albedo maps were used to define unit boundaries while spectra were used to examine the 1 and 2 micron bands and calibrate and quantify the multispectral images. Although the volume of each basalt type is not known, it is clear from the unit map that only 1/3 to 1/2 of the surface basalt types are likely to be represented in the returned lunar samples. For mature lunar soils a single parameter alone does not provide chemical information, but when the four are used together, TiO2 and in some cases FeO can be estimated. Further study of the mineralogy of unsampled lunar basalts requires precise spectra to 2.5 microns with higher spectra and spatial resolution.

  17. Fractal analysis of the dark matter and gas distributions in the Mare-Nostrum universe

    SciTech Connect

    Gaite, José

    2010-03-01

    We develop a method of multifractal analysis of N-body cosmological simulations that improves on the customary counts-in-cells method by taking special care of the effects of discreteness and large scale homogeneity. The analysis of the Mare-Nostrum simulation with our method provides strong evidence of self-similar multifractal distributions of dark matter and gas, with a halo mass function that is of Press-Schechter type but has a power-law exponent -2, as corresponds to a multifractal. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the dark matter and gas distributions are indistinguishable as multifractals. To determine if there is any gas biasing, we calculate the cross-correlation coefficient, with negative but inconclusive results. Hence, we develop an effective Bayesian analysis connected with information theory, which clearly demonstrates that the gas is biased in a long range of scales, up to the scale of homogeneity. However, entropic measures related to the Bayesian analysis show that this gas bias is small (in a precise sense) and is such that the fractal singularities of both distributions coincide and are identical. We conclude that this common multifractal cosmic web structure is determined by the dynamics and is independent of the initial conditions.

  18. The effect of treatment with flunixin meglumine at different times relative to hCG administration on ovulation failure and luteal function in mares.

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J

    2011-08-01

    Flunixin meglumine (FM), a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, causes ovulatory failure in the mare. However, the effect of the FM treatment relative to the time of hCG administration on the ovulation failure has not been determined nor has its effect on the luteal function of treated mares. Estrous mares with a follicle ≥32 mm (range of 32-38 mm) were treated with 1.7 mg/kg b.w. of FM iv at zero, 12, 24 and 36 h (n=6), at 24 and 36 h (n=6), at 28 and 36 h (n=6), at 24h (n=6) or at 30 h (n=6) after treatment with 1500 IU hCG. One group received no FM (control, n=6). Progesterone concentrations were determined using RIA. Mares treated with FM 0-36 h and 24-36 h had higher (P<0.05) incidence of ovulatory failure (83 and 80%, respectively) than mares treated twice at 28 and 36 h, or once at 24 or at 30 h after hCG (16.7, 0 and 0%, respectively). The anovulatory follicles of FM treated mares luteinized and produced progesterone (>2 ng/ml). The progesterone concentration was lower in mares treated with FM at zero to 36 h and at 24-36 h after hCG than in the other groups. In conclusion, the FM administration was effective in blocking ovulation only when the treatment began ≤24 h after hCG and was continued every 12 h until ≥36 h. In addition, the FM-induced anovulatory follicles underwent luteinization of follicular cells with active production of progesterone.

  19. Effect of constant administration of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on reproductive activity in mares: preliminary evidence on suppression of ovulation during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, B P; Peterson, K D; Silvia, P J

    1993-10-01

    During the breeding season, the effect of constant administration of an agonist analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; goserelin acetate) on reproductive activity of mares was determined. Twenty-four mares undergoing estrous cycles were allocated at random to 6 groups (n = 4/group) and, on May 29 (day 0), received no treatment (group 1, controls), 120 micrograms (group 2), 360 micrograms (group 3), 600 micrograms (group 4), or 1,200 micrograms (group 5) of GnRH agonist/d for 28 days via a depot implanted subcutaneously. The final group of mares (group 6) was treated with 120 micrograms of GnRH agonist/d for 84 days (3 occasions at 28-day intervals). During a pretreatment period (April 19 to May 29) and for 90 days after initiation of GnRH agonist treatment, follicular development and ovulation were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography of the reproductive tract at 2- to 3-day intervals. On each occasion a blood sample was collected for determination of luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone. Estrous behavior was monitored by teasing of mares with a stallion. Initiation of agonist treatment was random, relative to the stage of the estrous cycle, and all mares ovulated within 11 days before or after implantation. In 3 of 4 nontreated control mares, estrous cycles were observed throughout the study, with interovulatory intervals ranging from 18 to 26 days. In the remaining mare, concentration of progesterone was high after asynchronous double ovulation during the pretreatment period, suggestive of persistent corpus luteum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia.

  1. Oxygen Fugacity of Mare Basalts and the Lunar Mantle Application of a New Microscale Oxybarometer Based on the Valence State of Vanadium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Karner, J.; Papike, J. J.; Sutton, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to estimate oxygen fugacities for mare basalts and to extend these observations to the lunar mantle is limited using bulk analysis techniques based on buffering assemblages or the valence state of iron. These limitations are due to reequilibration of mineral assemblages at subsolidus conditions, deviations of mineral compositions from thermodynamic ideality, size requirements, and the limits of the iron valence at very low fO2. Still, these approaches have been helpful and indicate that mare basalts crystallized at fO2 between the iron-w stite buffer (IW) and the ilmenite breakdown reaction (ilmenite = rutile + iron). It has also been inferred from these estimates that the lunar mantle is also highly reduced lying at conditions below IW. Generally, these data cannot be used to determine if the mare basalts become increasingly reduced during transport from their mantle source and eruption at the lunar surface and if there are differences in fO2 among mare basalts or mantle sources. One promising approach to determining the fO2 of mare basalts is using the mean valence of vanadium (2+, 3+, 4+, 5+) determined on spots of a few micrometers in diameter using synchrotron x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The average valence state of V in basaltic glasses is a function of fO2, temperature, V coordination, and melt composition. Here, we report the initial results of this approach applied to lunar pyroclastic glasses.

  2. Susceptibility to persistent breeding-induced endometritis in the mare: relationship to endometrial biopsy score and age, and variations between seasons.

    PubMed

    Woodward, E M; Christoffersen, M; Campos, J; Squires, E L; Troedsson, M H T

    2012-08-01

    The objectives were to: (1) investigate the associations of age and endometrial biopsy score with uterine fluid retention after insemination; and (2) determine if a strict classification of susceptibility to persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE) based on biopsy score, endometrial cytology, and fluid retention after inseminations, is consistent over subsequent breeding seasons. In Experiment 1, 57 mares were inseminated with 10(9) freeze-killed sperm during estrus and evaluated for uterine fluid retention 48 h and 96 h after insemination. Comparisons were made between fluid retention and biopsy score or age. In Experiment 2, a subset of 14 mares was classified for susceptibility to persistent breeding-induced endometritis in two subsequent breeding seasons. Biopsy score and age were associated with fluid retention (P < 0.001). In addition, age was related to biopsy score (P < 0.001). Of the mares examined for susceptibility, 36% (5 of 14) changed status during subsequent seasons. Three mares changed to a more severe classification (intermediate to susceptible, or resistant to intermediate), whereas two mares changed to a less severe classification (susceptible to intermediate).

  3. Practical experience with the treatment of recipient mares with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in an equine embryo transfer programme.

    PubMed

    Koblischke, P; Budik, S; Müller, J; Aurich, C

    2010-12-01

    As part of a commercial embryo transfer programme, 20 embryos were transferred to spontaneously synchronous or synchronized recipient mares. In 14 cases, embryo recipients were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), receiving flunixin meglumine i.v. at the time of transfer and vedaprofen orally twice a day on the 3 days after embryo transfer, while six embryos were transferred to untreated mares that served as controls. Out of the 14 recipient mares treated with NSAID, 11 (79%) were pregnant at 6-8 days after transfer and in 10 mares, the pregnancy was continued. From the six untreated recipients, only one became pregnant but underwent early embryonic death between day 14 and 35 after ovulation. In conclusion, pregnancy rate in NSAID-treated recipients is higher than that in untreated recipients and above reported average values, indicating that treatment of recipient mares with NSAID helps to increase pregnancy rates after transcervical transfer and can be recommended for equine embryo transfer.

  4. MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare: an interactive and multidisciplinary approach to Geosphere sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Fanelli, Emanuela; Furia, Stefania; Garau, Daniela; Merlino, Silvia; Musacchio, Gemma; Carla Centineo, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that Earth and Marine Sciences are not properly treated in scholastic programs and in textbooks are included in a superficial way. These topics are interdisciplinary and experimental (biology, ecology, oceanography and geology) and the recent advance in these fields is strictly linked to technologic improvement. School cannot keep up with the huge advances of knowledge experimented in the last 20 years, also for the lack of didactic laboratories sufficiently updated to support experimental activities. In this context, in 2014-15 three Italian Research Institutes (INGV, ISMAR-CNR and ENEA-CRAM) have decided to support the Unified School District "ISA 10"of Lerici (Liguria, Italy) - comprehensive of kindergartner, primary and middle schools - to develop the project MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare (Planet Earth and Sea). The acronym MATER (MARe and TERra) has also a gender value, as people involved in the projects were women, mostly researchers and teachers, which have worked side by side with other women belonging to environmental and cultural associations of the territory. This heterogeneous group has a common objective: to promote the diffusion of a scientific culture and to sensitize students from 3 to 14 years towards problems occurring in marine and terrestrial environments, fostering the settlement of a sustainable attitude to the exploitation of natural resources and consciousness to natural hazards, such as earthquakes and floods, quite common in the Ligurian region. MATER has been considered as one of the best projects funded by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research) inside the Dissemination of Scientific and Technological Culture call for the year 2014. Natural hazards (Planet Earth) and the chemical-physical aspects and resources of the marine environment (Planet Sea) were the two modules of the project. Planet Earth developed through Piovono Idee! (Cloudy with a chance of Ideas!), an interactive exhibition on

  5. Titan Mare Explorer (TiME): A Discovery Mission to Titan’s Hydrocarbon Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Stofan, E. R.; Lunine, J. I.; Kirk, R. L.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Bierhaus, B.; Aharonson, O.; Clark, B. C.; Kantsiper, B.; Ravine, M. A.; Waite, J. H.; Harri, A.; Griffith, C. A.; Trainer, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    The discovery of lakes in Titan’s high latitudes confirmed the expectation that liquid hydrocarbons exist on the surface of the haze-shrouded moon. The lakes fill through drainage of subsurface runoff and/or intersection with the subsurface alkanofer, providing the first evidence for an active condensable-liquid hydrological cycle on another planetary body. The unique nature of Titan’s methane cycle, along with the prebiotic chemistry and implications for habitability of Titan’s lakes, make the lakes of the highest scientific priority for in situ investigation. The Titan Mare Explorer mission is an ASRG (Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator)-powered mission to a lake on Titan. The mission would be the first exploration of a planetary sea beyond Earth, would demonstrate the ASRG both in deep space and a non-terrestrial atmosphere environment, and pioneer low-cost outer planet missions. The scientific objectives of the mission are to: determine the chemistry of a Titan lake to constrain Titan’s methane cycle; determine the depth of a Titan lake; characterize physical properties of liquids; determine how the local meteorology over the lakes ties to the global cycling of methane; and analyze the morphology of lake surfaces, and if possible, shorelines, in order to constrain the kinetics of liquids and better understand the origin and evolution of Titan lakes. The focused scientific goals, combined with the new ASRG technology and the unique mission design, allows for a new class of mission at much lower cost than previous outer planet exploration has required.

  6. Titan Mare Explorer (time): A Discovery Mission To A Titan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Lunine, J.; Lorenz, R.; Aharonson, O.; Bierhaus, E.; Clark, B.; Kirk, R.; Kantsiper, B.; Morse, B.

    2009-09-01

    The discovery of lakes and seas in Titan's high latitudes confirmed the expectation that liquid hydrocarbons exist on the surface of the haze-shrouded moon. The lakes and seas fill through drainage of subsurface runoff and/or intersection with the subsurface alkanofer, providing the first evidence for an active condensable-liquid hydrological cycle on another planetary body. The unique nature of Titan's methane cycle, along with the prebiotic chemistry and implications for habitability, make the lakes and seas of the highest scientific priority for in situ investigation. The Titan Mare Explorer mission is an ASRG (Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator)-powered mission to a sea on Titan. The mission would be the first exploration of a planetary sea beyond Earth, would demonstrate the ASRG both in deep space and a non-terrestrial atmosphere environment, and pioneer low-cost outer planet missions. The scientific objectives of the mission are to: determine the chemistry of a Titan sea to constrain Titan's methane cycle; determine the depth of a Titan sea; characterize physical properties of liquids; determine how the local meteorology over the seas ties to the global cycling of methane; and analyze the morphology of sea surfaces, and if possible, shorelines, in order to constrain the kinetics of liquids and better understand the origin and evolution of Titan lakes and seas. The focused scientific goals, combined with the new ASRG technology and the unique mission design, allows for a new class of mission at much lower cost than previous outer planet exploration has required.

  7. Assimilation by Lunar Mare Basalts: Melting of Crustal Material and Dissolution of Anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnila, A. B.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss techniques for calculating the amount of crustal assimilation possible in lunar magma chambers and dikes based on thermal energy balances, kinetic rates, and simple fluid mechanical constraints. Assuming parent magmas of picritic compositions, we demonstrate the limits on the capacity of such magmas to melt and dissolve wall rock of anorthitic, troctolitic, noritic, and KREEP (quartz monzodiorite) compositions. Significant melting of the plagioclase-rich crustal lithologies requires turbulent convection in the assimilating magma and an efficient method of mixing in the relatively buoyant and viscous new melt. Even when this occurs, the major element chemistry of the picritic magmas will change by less than 1-2 wt %. Diffusion coefficients measured for Al2O3 from an iron-free basalt and an orange glass composition are 10(exp -12) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1340 C and 10(exp -11) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1390 C. These rates are too slow to allow dissolution of plagioclase to significantly affect magma compositions. Picritic magmas can melt significant quantities of KREEP, which suggests that their trace element chemistry may still be affected by assimilation processes; however, mixing viscous melts of KREEP composition with the fluid picritic magmas could be prohibitively difficult. We conclude that only a small part of the total major element chemical variation in the mare basalt and volcanic glass collection is due to assimilation/fractional crystallization processes near the lunar surface. Instead, most of the chemical variation in the lunar basalts and volcanic glasses must result from assimilation at deeper levels or from having distinct source regions in a heterogeneous lunar mantle.

  8. Assimilation by lunar mare basalts: Melting of crustal material and dissolution of anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnila, A. B.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss techniques for calculating the amount of crustal assimilation possible in lunar magma chambers and dikes based on thermal energy balances, kinetic rates, and simple fluid mechanical constraints. Assuming parent magmas of picritic compositions, we demonstrate the limits on the capacity of such magmas to melt and dissolve wall rock of anorthitic, troctolitic, noritic, and KREEP (quartz monzodiorite) compositions. Significant melting of the plagioclase-rich crustal lithologies requires turbulent convection in the assimilating magma and an efficient method of mixing in the relatively buoyant and viscous new melt. Even when this occurs, the major element chemistry of the picritic magmas will change by less than 1-2 wt %. Diffusion coefficients measured for Al2O3 from an iron-free basalt and an orange glass composition are 10(exp -12) sq m/s at 1340 C and 10(exp -11) sq m/s at 1390 C. These rates are too slow to allow dissolution of plagioclase to significantly affect magma compositions. Picritic magmas can melt significant quantities of KREEP, which suggests that their trace element chemistry may still be affected by assimilation processes; however, mixing viscous melts of KREEP composition with the fluid picritic magmas could be prohibitively difficult. We conclude that only a small part of the total major element chemical variation in the mare basalt and volcanic glass collection is due to assimilation/fractional crystallization processes near the lunar surface. Instead, most of the chemical variation in the lunar basalts and volcanic glasses must result from assimilation at deeper levels or from having distinct source regions in a heterogeneous lunar mantle.

  9. Fluid evolution in the Baia Mare epithermal gold/polymetallic district, Inner Carpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grancea, Luminita; Bailly, Laurent; Leroy, Jacques; Banks, David; Marcoux, Eric; Milési, Jean; Cuney, Michel; André, Anne; Istvan, Dumitru; Fabre, Cécile

    2002-08-01

    The Baia Mare district (Romania) represents a complex segment of the Neogene/Quaternary, subduction-related, volcanic chain of the Carpathians. In this province, the calc-alkaline volcanism and associated mineralization are closely related to a major strike-slip fault and an underlying pluton. The ore deposits of the district have many features typical of low-sulfidation (or adularia-sericite) epithermal deposits. The combination of fluid-inclusion microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, bulk crush-leach analysis, laser ablation-optical emission spectrometry (LA-OES) of individual fluid inclusions and stable isotope data has been used to characterize the ore-forming solutions involved with gold/polymetallic mineralization in three of the largest deposits. Ore fluids at Baia Sprie, Cavnic and Sasar deposits had temperatures of 320 to 150 °C and salinities in the range 0-21 wt% NaCl equiv. During phreatomagmatic activity, fracturing and periods of vein dilation, the pressure fluctuations may have caused boiling. The hydrothermal fluids were Na-K-Li-Ca chloride solutions with lesser amounts of SO4 and F. The Na/K ratios and the stable isotope compositions are consistent with equilibration of the fluids with country rocks at progressively lower temperatures. The halogen ratios (Br/Cl×103 in the range 0.13-1.21), together with sulfur isotopic systematics (δ34S=0.3-5.2 per mil), are consistent with a dominantly magmatic origin of the solutes, and probably of the ore fluids themselves.

  10. Transabdominal ultrasonographic evaluation of fetal well-being in the late-term mare and cow.

    PubMed

    Baska-Vincze, Boglárka; Baska, Ferenc; Szenci, Ottó

    2014-12-01

    In the equine practice, attempts have been made to examine the fetus in the second and third trimester of pregnancy but all of the available methods have limitations. Until now, transabdominal ultrasonography has been regarded as the most informative examination. This method allows us to measure fetal heart rate, fetal activity as well as the quality and quantity of the fetal fluids. A modified biophysical profile for horses was used by several researchers in the USA from the 1990s as a gold standard. However, it is not sensitive enough and, in the authors' experience, professionals can face difficulties during its application (e.g. for measuring aortic diameter and fetal breathing movements). In cows, this method was first used for this purpose by a Canadian research group in 2007. They reported that transabdominal ultrasound was promising but showed low sensitivity in this species. The present studies show that birth weight cannot be predicted from fetal aortic diameter measurement in cows as suggested by other researchers. Transabdominal ultrasound needs special equipment (2-3.5 MHz convex transducer) and basic ultrasonographic knowledge; however, we suggest that in most cases it can be performed with the dam placed in a stock and without shaving the examination area. The method provides useful information within 30-40 minutes, enabling the examiner to determine whether or not the fetus is alive and to recognise placentitis or twins. This technique also allows measuring the combined thickness of the uteroplacental unit, and the authors' ongoing study showed higher normal values in Lipizzaner mares compared to values in other breeds. In conclusion, with the help of advanced techniques, simple and low-cost methods should be developed for the evaluation of the pregnant dam and its fetus to assess fetal viability in the veterinary practice.

  11. Wave constraints for Titan's Jingpo Lacus and Kraken Mare from VIMS specular reflection lightcurves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, J.W.; Soderblom, J.M.; Brown, R.H.; Soderblom, L.A.; Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Rodriguez, S.; Sotin, C.; Buratti, B.J.; Baines, K.H.; Clark, R.N.; Nicholson, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    Stephan et al. (Stephan, K. et al. [2010]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, 7104-+.) first saw the glint of sunlight specularly reflected off of Titan's lakes. We develop a quantitative model for analyzing the photometric lightcurve generated during a flyby in which the specularly reflected light flux depends on the fraction of the solar specular footprint that is covered by liquid. We allow for surface waves that spread out the geographic specular intensity distribution. Applying the model to the VIMS T58 observations shows that the waves on Jingpo Lacus must have slopes of no greater than 0.15??, two orders of magnitude flatter than waves on Earth's oceans. Combining the model with theoretical estimates of the intensity of the specular reflection allows a tighter constraint on the waves: <0.05?? Residual specular signal while the specular point lies on land implies that either the land is wetted, the wave slope distribution is non-Gaussian, or that 5% of the land off the southwest edge of Jingpo Lacus is covered in puddles. Another specular sequence off of Kraken Mare acquired during Cassini's T59 flyby shows rapid flux changes that the static model cannot reproduce. Points just 1. min apart vary in flux by more than a factor of two. The present dataset does not uniquely determine the mechanism causing these rapid changes. We suggest that changing wind conditions, kilometer-wavelength waves, or moving clouds could account for the variability. Future specular observations should be designed with a fast cadence, at least 6 points per minute, in order to differentiate between these hypotheses. Such new data will further constrain the nature of Titan's lakes and their interactions with Titan's atmosphere. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    A major development programme comprising 15 gas fields of the northern Adriatic Sea has recently been submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, VIA Committee for the assessment of the environmental impact, by ENI-Agip, the Italian national oil company. One of the largest reservoirs is Chioggia Mare, located about 10 km offshore of the Venetian littoral, with a burial depth of 1000-1400 m. The planned gas production from this field is expected to impact the shoreline stability with a potential threat to the city of Venice, 25 km northwest of the center of Chioggia Mare. To evaluate the risk of anthropogenic land subsidence due to gas withdrawal, a numerical model was developed that predicts the compaction of both the gas-bearing formations and the lateral/bottom aquifer (water drive) during a 13-year producing and a 12-year post-production period, and the transference of the deep compaction to the ground surface. To address the uncertainty of a few important hydromechanical parameters, several scenarios are simulated and the most pessimistic predictions obtained. The modeling results show that at most 1 cm of land subsidence over 25 years may be expected at the city of Chioggia, whereas Venice is not subject to settlement. If aquifer drawdown is mediated by water injection, land subsidence is arrested 5 km offshore, with the Chioggia littoral zone experiencing a rebound of 0.6-0.7 cm. Résumé. Un important programme de développement portant sur 15 gisements de gaz du nord de l'Adriatique a été récemment soumis au Comité VIA pour l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement du Ministère de l'Environnement, par la société ENI-Agip, la compagnie nationale pétrolière italienne. L'un des plus importants réservoirs est celui de Chioggia Mare, situé à environ 10 km au large du littoral vénitien, à une profondeur de 1000 à 1400 m. La production de gaz prévue pour ce gisement laisse envisager un impact sur la stabilité du trait de côte, avec une

  13. Acute injection and chronic perfusion of kisspeptin elicit gonadotropins release but fail to trigger ovulation in the mare.

    PubMed

    Decourt, Caroline; Caraty, Alain; Briant, Christine; Guillaume, Daniel; Lomet, Didier; Chesneau, Didier; Lardic, Lionel; Duchamp, Guy; Reigner, Fabrice; Monget, Philippe; Dufourny, Laurence; Beltramo, Massimiliano; Dardente, Hugues

    2014-02-01

    Kisspeptin has emerged as the most potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretagogue and appears to represent the penultimate step in the central control of reproduction. In the sheep, we showed that kisspeptin could be used to manipulate gonadotropin secretion and control ovulation. Prompted by these results, we decided to investigate whether kisspeptin could be used as an ovulation-inducing agent in another photoperiodic domestic mammal, the horse. Equine kisspeptin-10 (eKp10) was administered intravenously as bolus injections or short- to long-term perfusions to Welsh pony mares, either during the anestrus season or at various stages of the cycle during the breeding season. In all the experimental conditions, eKp10 reliably increased peripheral concentrations of both luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The nature of the response to eKp10 was consistent across experimental conditions and physiological states: the increase in gonadotropins was always rapid and essentially transient even when eKp10 was perfused for prolonged periods. Furthermore, eKp10 consistently failed to induce ovulation in the mare. To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms, we used acute injections or perfusions of GnRH. We also cloned the equine orthologues of the kisspeptin precursor and Kiss1r; this was justified by the facts that the current equine genome assembly predicted an amino acid difference between eKp10 and Kp10 in other species while an equine orthologue for Kiss1r was missing altogether. In light of these findings, potential reasons for the divergence in the response to kisspeptin between ewe and mare are discussed. Our data highlight that kisspeptin is not a universal ovulation-inducing agent.

  14. Use of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin in donkey semen cryopreservation improves sperm viability but results in low fertility in mares.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R R; Rates, D M; Pugliesi, G; Ker, P G; Arruda, R P; Moraes, E A; Carvalho, G R

    2014-10-01

    The use of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) on semen cryopreservation has been related with better sperm viability in several species; however, the effect on fertility is not known in donkey semen. Ejaculates (n = 25) from five donkeys were diluted in S-MEDIUM with 0, 1, 2 or 3 mg of CLC/120 × 10(6) spermatozoa. Semen was frozen, and thawed samples were evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analyser system (CASA), supravital test, hyposmotic swelling test and fluorescent dyes to assess the integrity of sperm membranes. Mares (n = 60) were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen treated with the doses of 0 or 1 mg CLC. Percentages of sperm with progressive motility and with functional plasma membrane were greater (p < 0.05) in the CLC-treated groups than in the control. Percentages of intact plasma membrane and intact plasma membrane and acrosome detected by fluorescent dyes were also greater (p < 0.05) in CLC-treated groups. Although no difference (p > 0.05) in conception rates was detected between groups (control, 3/30, 10%; CLC-treated, 1/30, 3.3%), fertility was low for artificial insemination programs in mares. Therefore, we firstly demonstrated that frozen semen treated with CLC in S-MEDIA extender before freezing improves the in vitro sperm viability, but semen treated or not with CLC in S-MEDIUM extender results in a very low conception rate in mares inseminated with thawed donkey semen.

  15. Temporal relationships of a pulse of prolactin (PRL) to a pulse of a metabolite of PGF2α in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Pinaffi, F L V; Silva, L A; Beg, M A

    2012-01-01

    Hourly blood samples were collected from 10 mares during 24 h of each of the preluteolytic, luteolytic, and postluteolytic periods. The autocorrelation function of the R program was used to detect pulse rhythmicity, and the intra-assay CV was used to locate and characterize pulses of prolactin (PRL) and a metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PGFM). Rhythmicity of PRL and PGFM concentrations was detected in 67% and 89% of mares, respectively. Combined for the three periods (no difference among periods), the PRL pulses were 5.2±0.4 h (mean±SEM) at the base, 7.5±1.5 h between nadirs of adjacent pulses, and 12.3±1.5 h from peak to peak. The peaks of PRL pulses were greater (P<0.05) during the luteolytic period (46±14 ng/mL) and postluteolytic period (52±15 ng/mL) than during the preluteolytic period (17±3 ng/mL). Concentrations of PRL during hours of a PGFM pulse were different (P<0.003) within the luteolytic period and postluteolytic period and were greatest at the PGFM peak; PRL concentrations during a PGFM pulse were not different during the preluteolytic period. The frequency of the peak of PRL and PGFM pulses occurring at the same hour (synchrony) was greater for the luteolytic period (65%, P<0.01) and postluteolytic period (50%, P<0.001) than for the preluteolytic period (17%). This is the first report in mares on characterization and rhythmicity of PRL pulses, synchrony between PRL and PGFM pulses, and greater PRL activity during the luteolytic and postluteolytic periods than during the preluteolytic period.

  16. Stimulatory effect of PGF2α on PRL based on experimental inhibition of each hormone in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Pinaffi, F L V; Rodriguez, M B; Duarte, L F; Beg, M A

    2012-12-01

    During the luteolytic period in mares, the peak of 65% of pulses of a PGF2α metabolite (PGFM) and the peak of a pulse of PRL have been reported to occur at the same hour. It is unknown whether the synchrony reflects an effect of PGF2α on PRL or vice versa. Controls, a flunixin meglumine (FM)-treated group (to inhibit PGF2α), and a bromocriptine-treated group (to inhibit PRL), were used at 14 days postovulation in June and in September (n = 6 mares/group/mo). Blood samples were collected hourly from just before treatment (Hour 0) to Hour 10. Concentrations of PGFM in the FM group were lower (P < 0.05) at Hours 4 to 6 than in the controls in each month, but bromocriptine had no detected effects on PGFM. Concentrations of PGFM averaged over all groups and within each group did not differ between June and September. Compared to the controls, concentrations of PRL in June were lower (P < 0.05) in the FM group at Hours 4 to 8 and in the bromocriptine group at Hours 4 to 10. Concentration of PRL averaged over groups was lower (P < 0.0001) in September (0.9 ± 0.05 ng/mL, mean ± SEM) than in June (3.0 ± 0.3 ng/mL). Results supported the hypothesis that the positive association between PGFM and PRL concentrations in mares represents an effect of PGF2α on PRL rather than an effect of PRL on PGF2α.

  17. Mass dependent fractionation of stable chromium isotopes in mare basalts: Implications for the formation and the differentiation of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnand, Pierre; Parkinson, Ian J.; Anand, Mahesh

    2016-02-01

    We present the first stable chromium isotopic data from mare basalts in order to investigate the similarity between the Moon and the Earth's mantle. A double spike technique coupled with MC-ICP-MS measurements was used to analyse 19 mare basalts, comprising high-Ti, low-Ti and KREEP-rich varieties. Chromium isotope ratios (δ53Cr) for mare basalts are positively correlated with indices of magmatic differentiation such as Mg# and Cr concentration which suggests that Cr isotopes were fractionated during magmatic differentiation. Modelling of the results provides evidence that spinel and pyroxene are the main phases controlling the Cr isotopic composition during fractional crystallisation. The most evolved samples have the lightest isotopic compositions, complemented by cumulates that are isotopically heavy. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this fractionation: (i) equilibrium fractionation where heavy isotopes are preferentially incorporated into the spinel lattice and (ii) a difference in isotopic composition between Cr2+ and Cr3+ in the melt. However, both processes require magmatic temperatures below 1200 °C for appreciable Cr3+ to be present at the low oxygen fugacities found in the Moon (IW -1 to -2 log units). There is no isotopic difference between the most primitive high-Ti, low-Ti and KREEP basalts, which suggest that the sources of these basalts were homogeneous in terms of stable Cr isotopes. The least differentiated sample in our sample set is the low-Ti basalt 12016, characterised by a Cr isotopic composition of -0.222 ± 0.025‰, which is within error of the current BSE value (-0.124 ± 0.101‰). The similarity between the mantles of the Moon and Earth is consistent with a terrestrial origin for a major fraction of the lunar Cr. This similarity also suggests that Cr isotopes were not fractionated by core formation on the Moon.

  18. Solar Ion Processing of Major Element Surface Compositions of Mature Mare Soils: Insights from Combined XPS and Analytical TEM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C.; Keller, L. P.; Baragiola, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind ions are capable of altering the sur-face chemistry of the lunar regolith by a number of mechanisms including preferential sputtering, radiation-enhanced diffusion and sputter erosion of space weathered surfaces containing pre-existing compositional profiles. We have previously reported in-situ ion irradiation experiments supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and analytical TEM that show how solar ions potentially drive Fe and Ti reduction at the monolayer scale as well as the 10-100 nm depth scale in lunar soils [1]. Here we report experimental data on the effect of ion irradiation on the major element surface composition in a mature mare soil.

  19. Lunar mare deposits associated with the Orientale impact basin: New insights into mineralogy, history, mode of emplacement, and relation to Orientale Basin evolution from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from Chandrayaan-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitten, J.; Head, J.W.; Staid, M.; Pieters, C.M.; Mustard, J.; Clark, R.; Nettles, J.; Klima, R.L.; Taylor, L.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) image and spectral reflectance data are combined to analyze mare basalt units in and adjacent to the Orientale multiring impact basin. Models are assessed for the relationships between basin formation and mare basalt emplacement. Mare basalt emplacement on the western nearside limb began prior to the Orientale event as evidenced by the presence of cryptomaria. The earliest post-Orientale-event mare basalt emplacement occurred in the center of the basin (Mare Orientale) and postdated the formation of the Orientale Basin by about 60-100 Ma. Over the next several hundred million years, basalt patches were emplaced first along the base of the Outer Rook ring (Lacus Veris) and then along the base of the Cordillera ring (Lacus Autumni), with some overlap in ages. The latest basalt patches are as young as some of the youngest basalt deposits on the lunar nearside. M3 data show several previously undetected mare patches on the southwestern margins of the basin interior. Regardless, the previously documented increase in mare abundance from the southwest toward the northeast is still prominent. We attribute this to crustal and lithospheric trends moving from the farside to the nearside, with correspondingly shallower density and thermal barriers to basaltic magma ascent and eruption toward the nearside. The wide range of model ages for Orientale mare deposits (3.70-1.66 Ga) mirrors the range of nearside mare ages, indicating that the small amount of mare fill in Orientale is not due to early cessation of mare emplacement but rather to limited volumes of extrusion for each phase during the entire period of nearside mare basalt volcanism. This suggests that nearside and farside source regions may be similar but that other factors, such as thermal and crustal thickness barriers to magma ascent and eruption, may be determining the abundance of surface deposits on the limbs and farside. The sequence, timing, and elevation of mare basalt deposits

  20. The period of the follicular phase during which the uterus of mares shows estrus-like echotexture influences the subsequent pregnancy rate.

    PubMed

    Mateu-Sánchez, S; Newcombe, J R; Garcés-Narro, C; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2016-10-01

    The interval from both spontaneous and prostaglandin (PGF)-induced luteolysis to ovulation is greatly variable in mares. Several reports have shown a positive association between the length of the interval from PGF treatment to ovulation (ITO) and the subsequent pregnancy rate (PR). However, it is not known whether this association also occurs in estrous cycles with spontaneous luteolysis. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of the duration of estrus-like echotexture of the uterus during the follicular phase on the subsequent PR in both spontaneous and PGF-induced cycles. A total of 768 estrous cycles from 325 thoroughbred mares were analyzed (401 estruses were induced with exogenous PGF and 367 cycles were not treated with PGF). The following factors were taken into account to determine the effect on PR: age of the mare, stallion, year of breeding, month of season, reproductive status of the mare, use of PGF treatment, duration of follicular phase with estrus-like echotexture, interovulatory interval (IOI; in spontaneous cycles), and ITO (in PGF-induced cycles). The age of the mare (P = 0.017), mare status (P = 0.031), the ITO (P = 0.041), and the duration of the follicular phase with estrus-like echotexture (P < 0.001) influenced the PR. The PR increased with the duration of estrus and of endometrial edema in both PGF-induced and spontaneous cycles. The correlation between the duration of endometrial edema and the IOI and ITO was positive (r = 0.5) and significant (P < 0.05).

  1. Concentrations of oxytocin in the intercavernous sinus of mares during luteolysis: temporal relationship with concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2 alpha.

    PubMed

    Vanderwall, D K; Silvia, W J; Fitzgerald, B P

    1998-03-01

    The reproductive tracts of nine thoroughbred mares were examined by ultrasound to determine the day of ovulation (day 0). Mares were fitted with intercavernous sinus cannulae on the day before the start of sample collection of pituitary venous effluent rich in oxytocin. Intercavernous sinus blood samples were collected for at least 36 h at 5 min intervals beginning at noon on day 13 (n = 2), day 15 (n = 5) or day 16 (n = 2) after ovulation. Concentrations of oxytocin and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGFM) in plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay. Three high-magnitude surges of PGFM (> 1 ng ml-1) were found in these samples. Three high magnitude pulses of oxytocin (> 200 pg ml-1) were also observed, one associated with each of the PGFM surges. In each of these cases, the oxytocin pulse appeared to follow or coincide with the onset of the PGFM surge. Lower magnitude pulses of both hormones were detected throughout the bleeding period in every mare. The average interval between these pulses was 122.3 min for oxytocin and 121.0 min for PGFM. The interval between pulses for individual mares varied from 90 to 199 min for oxytocin, and from 87 to 213 min for PGFM. However, there was no correlation between PGFM and oxytocin pulse intervals among mares. Within each mare, there was no discernable association between low magnitude pulses of oxytocin and PGFM. From these data, it was concluded that high-magnitude surges of PGF2 alpha are associated with similar surges of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary gland, and that PGF2 alpha may induce their secretion. The posterior pituitary gland also appears to secrete oxytocin in a pulsatile manner at a frequency of approximately 1 pulse every 2 h but these pulses do not appear to be associated with the low magnitude pulses of PGF2 alpha secreted from the uterus.

  2. Osservazioni Mercurio nel 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassati, M.

    2008-10-01

    Report of the Mercury Program of the UAI Planets Section, 38 observations, drawings and digital images, during the year 2007. We had evidence of the ray system around the crater Kuiper, seen as a bright area.

  3. Zr and Nb partition coefficients - Implications for the genesis of mare basalts, KREEP, and sea floor basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, I. S.; Charette, M. P.

    1978-01-01

    The distribution coefficients of Zr and Nb have been found between armalcolite, ilmenite, clinopyroxene, rutile, plagioclase, and a coexisting high-Ti mare basalt melt in the 1105-1128 C temperature range. Henry's Law is not broken over the compositional range evaluated. The distribution coefficients of clinopyroxene are strongly dependent on melt and crystal compositions. The Al2O3 activity in the melt is a strong controlling parameter. It is concluded that: (1) Apollo 11 (low K) and Apollo 17 high-Ti mare basalts may have been generated by the partial melting of an ilmenite-rich cumulate, (2) Apollo 11 (high K) basalts may have been generated by a small amount of partial melting of a more fractionated ilmenite-rich cumulate, (3) KREEP magmas may have been formed as residual melts produced by fractional crystallization of the lunar magma ocean, and (4) anomalous (type II) MOR basalts may have been generated by small degrees of partial melting of a relatively undepleted mantle with clinopyroxene remaining in the residium.

  4. Study of olivine-rich dark halo crater - Beaumont L in Mare Nectaris using high resolution remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Chauhan, Prakash; Rajawat, A. S.; Kumar, A. S. Kiran

    2015-05-01

    Study of dark-haloed craters (DHCs) can provide important information about the geology, mineralogy and evolution of certain hidden mare deposits known as cryptomare. Some DHCs have been identified in the Mare Nectaris region of the near side of the Moon. Beaumont L represents one such DHC situated on the western flank of the Nectaris basin. Moon Mineralogical Mapper (M3) images were used to investigate the composition of DHCs. Morphological investigations have been carried out using Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera images. The morphological details captured by TMC and LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images provide evidence that Beaumont-L is of impact origin and do not show evidence of a volcanic origin. The compositional analysis using M3 data indicates the presence of an olivine rich cryptomare unit excavated due to the Beaumont L impact. Our study also confirms that the band I feature in the reflectance spectra of Beaumont L is completely attributable to olivine deposits without contribution from any type of glass/melt deposits. The presence of olivine in Beaumont L suggests either excavation of olivine-rich cryptomare or a subsurface mafic pluton.

  5. Evidences of "Lago-Mare" episode around the Messinian-Pliocene boundary in eastern Tunisia (central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigui, Mouna; Ben Youssef, Mohamed; Ouaja, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Eight stratigraphic sections, located in northeastern part of the Sahel area of Tunisia recorded evidences of "Lago-Mare" episode and events related to the Messinian-Late Pliocene interval. A comparison with previous studies carried on sections from neighboring areas and boreholes data drilled within the Gulf of Hammamet and the Gulf of Gabès, is conducted and gives useful information to characterize the Late Messinian to Late Pliocene events. The most notable feature distinguished in the studied area consists on the lack of gypsum, commonly recorded in relation with the crucial event of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. However, only lagoonal deposits, bearing messinian brackish fauna, are encountered. These sediments are usually attributed to the "Segui" formation or the so called "Mio-Pliocene continental". Thin sections samples and field observations have recognized sands, marls, clays, lacustrine limestone, some gypsum lenses, mud-cracks, lignite and Messinian brackish fauna. Similar deposits were previously described in the Kechabta basin from the Northern Tunisia and in some wells from the Gulf of Gabès and the Gulf of Hammamet. We suggest that all these facies belong to the coeval of the "Lago-Mare" facies within Eastern and Western Mediterranean basins (e.g. Sicily, Mallorca, Libya and Cyprus). Finally, four major erosional surfaces have been recorded within the Late Messinian-Late Pliocene deposits, aged post-Tortonian, intra-Messinian, Late Messinian and intra-Pliocene times. They seem to be the result of local tectonic uplifts and eustatic fluctuations.

  6. A distinct variant of high-titanium mare basalt from the Van Serg core, Apollo 17 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1990-01-01

    A fragment of basalt picked from the drive tube collected at Van Serg crater at the Apollo 17 landing site has a bulk chemistry more primitive than that of other high-titanium mare basalt groups collected at the site. The sample has a fine-grained olivine phyric, subophitic texture that is distinct from that of other high-titanium basalt samples. The grain size and texture suggest that the sample has a composition close to that of a magma. The crystallization sequence, with appearance of oxide minerals later than in other groups, and other petrographic features such as more-calcic plagioclase and early pigeonite rather than augite, are consistent with this sample representing a distinct variant of Apollo 17 high-titanium basalts. It is not related through closed-system igneous processes to any of the other mare basalt groups identified among Apollo 17 samples. Its characters emphasize the complexity of contemporaneous magma processes on the moon and the heterogeneity of that part of the mantle that was melted.

  7. Surface of Ligeia Mare, Titan, from Cassini Altimeter and Radiometer Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebker, H. A.; Hayes, A.; Wye, L. C.; Le Gall, A. A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Janssen, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Cassini spacecraft radar acquired an altimeter-mode track on its pass T91 which imaged Ligeia Mare, a large sea presumed to be filled with liquid hydrocarbon material. The radar signal was intentionally highly attenuated to avoid saturation of the digital system so that the relatively bright specular echo from the surface could be accurately analyzed. We identified each specular echo and computed the radar cross section of the sea surface along the track. A specular echo results when the reflected signal adds coherently over its Fresnel zone, a size of ~100m for Titan's radius and Cassini's 1500 km altitude. We relate the measured cross section to that from a perfectly spherical surface to infer the small scale roughness of the sea surface using the method of Wye et al. (2009), and find values of less than 1mm rms for a sea surface dielectric constant of 1.7, and up to 2mm rms if the dielectric constant were 2.5, a value more appropriate to solid hydrocarbon materials. We constrain the dielectric constant by measuring the microwave brightness temperature, and find values from 1.7-2.2 corresponding to physical surface temperatures from 90-92 K, respectively. A 2K difference between sea surface and surrounding terrain suggests a solid surface dielectric constant range of 2.2-2.7 for the same temperature range. All of these measurements are consistent with an extremely flat sea surrounded by solid hydrocarbon (and not water ice) 'land,' over a large area some 100km by 300km, implying that no appreciable surface winds are present during this observation. This second near-nadir experiment over Titan's lakes and seas provides powerful constraints on Titan's near-surface winds. Both experiments estimating wind speeds over Titan's liquid surfaces find no evidence of winds strong enough to generate waves (>0.4-0.8m/s, Hayes et al., 2013). References: Wye L. C., H. A. Zebker, R. D. Lorenz (2009), Smoothness of Titan's Ontario Lacus: Constraints from Cassini RADAR

  8. Gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases and LH receptors in mare follicular development.

    PubMed

    Bastos, H B A; Kretzmann, N A; Santos, G O; Esmeraldino, A T; Rechsteiner, S Fiala; Mattos, R C; Neves, A P

    2014-11-01

    The period from the emergence of a dominant follicle until its formation requires tissue remodeling. Enzymes promoting collagen lysis, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), are fundamental for the process of extracellular matrix remodeling, which allows changes in ovarian tissue architecture during follicular growth. It has been suggested that the production of these enzymes may be affected by the rise in circulating concentrations of LH, which acts on the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, and LH receptor (LHR) in the ovulation fossa and in the central portion of the equine ovary during follicular deviation and dominance. Ovaries of 12 cyclic mares were selected and subsequently divided into two groups: development (DEV) group and dominant (DOM) group. The DEV group consisted of ovaries from six animals whose follicles were less than 28 mm in diameter (follicular deviation), and the DOM group consisted of ovaries from six animals whose follicles measured 28 mm or more in diameter (dominant follicles). The latter group was divided into two subgroups: the group of ovaries with a dominant follicle (DOM-D) and the group of contralateral ovaries (DOM-C). Our results showed that mRNA for MMP-1, MMP-2, and LHR was present in the equine ovary during follicle development, in the ovulation fossa, and in the central portion of the ovary. MMP-1 and LHR gene expression was greater (P < 0.05) for the DOM-D group compared with the DOM-C group. In the DOM-D group, MMP-1, MMP-2, and LHR gene expression was greater (P < 0.05) in the ovarian stroma compared with the ovulation fossa. Using immunohistochemistry, OSE from the DOM group showed increased expression compared with the DEV group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated that MMP-1 and MMP-2 might be fundamental for events related to tissue remodeling, which occurs during follicular development until the formation of the dominant follicle. We also

  9. Heavy metals in soils from Baia Mare mining impacted area (Romania) and their bioavailability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roba, Carmen; Baciu, Calin; Rosu, Cristina; Pistea, Ioana; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: heavy metals, soil contamination, bioavailability, Romania The fate of various metals, including chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, mercury, cadmium, and lead, and metalloids, like arsenic, antimony, and selenium, in the natural environment is of great concern, particularly in the vicinity of former mining sites, dumps, tailings piles, and impoundments, but also in urban areas and industrial centres. Most of the studies focused on the heavy metal pollution in mining areas present only the total amounts of metals in soils. The bioavailable concentration of metals in soil may be a better predictor for environmental impact of historical and current dispersion of metals. Assessment of the metal bioavailability and bioaccessibility is critical in understanding the possible effects on soil biota. The bioavailability of metals in soil and their retention in the solid phase of soil is affected by different parameters like pH, metal amount, cation-exchange capacity, content of organic matter, or soil mineralogy. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the total fraction and the bioavailable fraction of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn from soil in a well-known mining region in Romania, and to evaluate the influence of soil pH on the metal bioavailability in soil. The heavy metal contents and their bioavailability were monitored in a total of 50 soil samples, collected during June and July 2014 from private gardens of the inhabitants from Baia-Mare area. The main mining activities developed in the area consisted of non-ferrous sulphidic ores extraction and processing, aiming to obtain concentrates of lead, copper, zinc and precious metals. After 2006, the metallurgical industry has considerably reduced its activity by closing or diminishing its production capacity. The analysed soil samples proved to have high levels of Pb (50 - 830 mg/kg), Cu (40 - 600 mg/kg), Zn (100 - 700 mg/kg) and Cd (up to 10 mg/kg). The metal abundance in the total fraction is

  10. 19 A NOVEL APPROACH TO COMPARING REPRODUCTIVE STAGE SERUM PROFILES IN MARES USING NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY AND AQUAPHOTOMICS.

    PubMed

    Agcanas, L A; Counsell, K R; Shappell, N; Bowers, S; Ryan, P L; Willard, S T; Vance, C K

    2016-01-01

    The capability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) to detect biomolecules in aqueous solutions, a sub-field of NIR called aquaphotomics, has yet to be fully explored. Aquaphotomics references water absorbance patterns and wavelength shifts in the 1st overtone of the water spectrum as they change patterns with solute composition and concentrations. Recently, NIR was used as a rapid method for detecting oestrus in Holstein raw milk and for monitoring reproductive stages in urine of the Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Near-infrared spectroscopy detects bond vibrations from organic molecules and water to create unique absorbance patterns, which are used to profile complex mixtures of biomolecules. The objectives of this study are to (1) characterise serum NIR spectral profiles for oestrus, metestrus, and diestrus in mares, and (2) determine if NIR can accurately decipher these reproductive phases from serum due to the biochemical effects of reproductive hormones. Mare oestrus cycles were assessed every other day by ultrasound and serum hormone analysis. Serum was collected via jugular venipuncture on day 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 of each cycle for 3 consecutive cycles from each mare. Radioimmunoassay analysis of reproductive hormones E2 and P4 was used to validate and characterise the NIR spectra. Spectra were collected from triplicate samples of 200μL of serum in a 1-mm-path-length quartz cuvette with an ADS FieldSpec(®)3 spectrophotometer, at room temperature (22°C). Chemometric analysis (Unscrambler® X v.10.4; CAMO Software) included pretreatment with a Savitsky-Golay second-derivative function for visual inspection of spectral features and principal component analysis (PCA), after mean centering, for distinction of reproductive status. Spectral peaks at 1347, 1367, and 1465nm were unique to serum collected from mares in oestrus exhibiting high E2 (11.87 to 16.88pgmL(-1)). Early metestrus is characterised by prominent

  11. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. V. Endocrine changes and conception during the early post partum period.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, F E; van Niekerk, C H

    1998-09-01

    Pregnant Anglo-Arab and Thoroughbred mares (n = 24) were divided randomly according to age and breed into 4 groups of 6 mares each from approximately 6 weeks before their expected foaling date. Diets received by the 4 groups varied in essential amino-acid and total protein contents. Serum progestagen, FSH and LH concentrations were determined from the day of parturition until foal heat and during the 1st oestrous cycle following foal heat. Serum progestagen, FSH and LH concentrations did not differ between the treatment groups. Progestagen concentrations were high (mean = 7.0: 5.2-16.4 ng/ml) at parturition but decreased rapidly within 48 h. As progestagen concentrations decreased LH concentrations increased from Days 3-6 post partum to reach maximum values at, or the day after ovulation. FSH concentrations declined 3-4 d after parturition and increased 2-3 d before ovulation at foal heat. The duration of elevated progestagen concentrations during the luteal phase of the subsequent oestrous cycle affected the interovulatory period. A 12-14 d FSH cyclical releasing pattern occurred. Season/photoperiod affected the resumption of normal oestrous cyclicity during the post partum period. The duration of the 1st oestrous cycle after foal heat in mares fed a low-quality protein diet showed a greater range (13-30 d) compared to mares fed a high-quality protein diet (18-26 d).

  12. A noval approach to monitoring pathogen progression during uterine and placental infection in the mare using biophotonic imaging technology and lux modified bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uterine and placental infections are the leading cause of abortion, stillbirth, and preterm delivery in the mare. Whereas uterine and placental infections in women have been studied extensively, a comprehensive examination of the pathogenic processes leading to this unsatisfactory pregnancy outcome ...

  13. The Chronology and Petrogenesis of the Mare Basalt Clast from Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 287: Rb-Sr and Sm- Nd Isotopic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nazarov, M. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Sm-Nd isochron for lunar mare basalt meteorite Dhofar 287A yields T = 3.46 +/- 0.03 Ga and Nd = 0.6 +/- 0.3. Its Rb-Sr isotopic system is severely altered. The basalt is unique, probably coming from an enriched mantle source. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Late stage Imbrium volcanism on the Moon: Evidence for two source regions and implications for the thermal history of Mare Imbrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Zhu, M.-H.; Zou, Y. L.

    2016-07-01

    Large open fissures or volcanic rifts can form in volcanic terrain and they are also conduits for magma ascending through the lunar crust. On the Moon, we investigated two volcanic source regions within Mare Imbrium by tracking surface morphologic features and compositional information. The Euler source region is situated at the southwest edge of the basin, while the Lambert source region lies off the south margin of the Imbrium mascon. Survey of dike surface manifestations in Euler source site suggest that dikes are the possible source of the local upper basaltic flows and the last lava phases with well developed scarps near the Euler crater, which extend northeast to the basin center. The Euler dike swarm are radial to the basin and reveal possible dike-to-conduit transition mechanism. They reveal radial subsurface fractures which may be tensional cracks preceding to the emplacement of the last stage of the mare fill. Of these, the largest dike has a more than 100 km length. The spatial arrangement of tectonic and volcanic features in Lambert source site is directly or indirectly controlled by the regional compression and extension stresses associated with flexure in response to mascon and basalt loading. In addition, compositional variation trends show a general southwest-to-northeast flooding direction of the exposed high-Ti basalts. This will have important implications for both the Imbrium basin's mare volcanism and for the thermal evolution of Mare Imbrium and the Moon.

  15. Consortium study of lunar meteorites Yamato-793169 and Asuka-881757: Geochemical evidence of mutual similarity, and dissimilarity versus other mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1993-01-01

    Compositions of bulk powders and separated minerals from two meteorites derived from the mare lava plains of the Earth's Moon, Yamato-793169 and Asuka-881757, indicate a remarkable degree of similarity to one another, and clearly favor lunar origin. However, these meteorites are unlike any previously studied lunar rock. In both cases, the bulk-rock TiO2 content is slightly greater than the level separating VLT from low-Ti mare basalt, yet the Sc content is much higher than previously observed except among high-Ti mare basalts. Conceivably, the Sc enrichment in A881757 reflects origin of this rock as a cumulate from a mare magma of 'normal' Sc content, but this seems unlikely. Mineral-separate data suggest that most of the Sc is in pyroxene, and a variety of evidence weighs against the cumulus hypothesis as a major cause for the high Sc. The remarkable similarity between Y793169 and A881757 suggests the possibility that they were derived from a single source crater on the Moon.

  16. Effect of insemination volume on uterine contractions and inflammatory response and on elimination of semen in the mare uterus-scintigraphic and ultrasonographic studies.

    PubMed

    Sinnemaa, L; Järvimaa, T; Lehmonen, N; Mäkelä, O; Reilas, T; Sankari, S; Katila, T

    2005-11-01

    The effect of artificial insemination (AI) volume on uterine contractility and inflammation and on elimination of semen in the reproductive tract of mares was examined for 4 h after AI using two methods, scintigraphy and ultrasonography. The same doses were used in both methods: 2 and 100 ml of skim milk-extended frozen semen. In the scintigraphic study, the number of reproductively normal mares was four per group and in the ultrasonographic study five per group. For scintigraphy, the semen was radiolabelled with technetium-99m. The static scintigrams were acquired immediately before and 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after AI. The activities in the vagina and uterus were calculated and the values for sperm that had been discharged from the mare were obtained by subtracting the counts for the uterus and vagina from the total radioactivity. The dynamic scintigrams were taken continuously for the first 30 min after AI and in 5-min periods immediately after having acquired the static scintigrams. The uterine contractions were counted. In the ultrasonographic study, the mares were scanned before AI and at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min after AI, for at least 1 min each time. The examinations were videotaped and contractions counted per minute. More contractions were observed with the ultrasonographic method than with the scintigraphic method. No difference was present in the number of contractions between the groups, except in the ultrasonographic study at 4 h, when the mares inseminated with 100 ml showed more contractions than did the mares inseminated with 2 ml. The intraluminal fluid was sampled with a tampon and by uterine lavage 4 h after AI in the ultrasonographic study. The numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and spermatozoa were counted, but the differences between the groups were not significant. Under our experimental conditions and with the number of mares examined, the volume of the AI dose had an insignificant effect on

  17. Inferno Chasm Rift Zone, Idaho: A Terrestrial Analog for Plains-style Volcanism in Southeastern Mare Serenitatis on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garry, W. B.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic features aligned along a linear graben in southeastern Mare Serenitatis (19°N, 27.5°E) on the Moon resemble a series of effusive basaltic landforms erupted along the Inferno Chasm rift zone within Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve (COTM), Idaho (42°58'00"N, 113°11'25"W). This region in Idaho is the type-locale for terrestrial plains-style volcanism. Examples of lunar plains-style volcanism have previously been described within Orientale Basin at Lacus Veris and Lacus Autumni, but this eruption style has not been used to describe the site in Mare Serenitatis. The SSERVI FINESSE team (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) has documented the features along Inferno Chasm rift using a LiDAR, Differential Global Positioning Systems, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to compare with Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Narrow-Angle Camera images and digital terrain models. The region in southeastern Mare Serenitatis provides one of the best concentrations of features representative of lunar plains-style volcanism. On the Moon, these features include a cone (Osiris), a flat-topped dome, a rille-like channel (Isis), a vent, and a possible perched lava pond. In Idaho, the analog features include a dome (Grand View Crater), a rille-like channel (Inferno Chasm), vents (Cottrells Blowout, Horse Butte), and a perched lava pond (Papadakis). Both the scale and morphology of the features on the Moon are similar to the features in Idaho. For example, the channel in Isis is ~3 km long, 283 m-wide, and 25 m deep compared to Inferno Chasm which is ~1.7 km long, 100 m wide, and 20 m deep. The slope of the channel in Isis is -1.2°, while the channel in Inferno Chasm has a slope of -0.33°. The alignment of landforms on the Moon and Idaho are both consistent with dike emplacement. Observations of the flow stratigraphy for features in Idaho will inform the potential eruption conditions of the individual features on the Moon.

  18. A dynamic melting model for the origin of Apollo 15 olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Early studies of mare basalts from the Apollo 15 site established that two distinct groups are represented: the olivine-normative basalts (ONB) and the quartz-normative basalts (QNB). The ONB and QNB suites are distinguished petrographically by their phenocryst assemblages (the ONB's are olivine-phyric, the QNB's are generally pyroxene-phyric) and chemically by their major element compositions: the QNB's are higher in SiO2 and MgO/FeO, and lower in FeO and TiO2 than ONB's with similar MgO contents. Experimental data show that the QNB suite is derived from a more magnesian, olivine-normative parent magma, a conclusion which is supported by the recent discovery of high-SiO2 olivine-normative basalt clasts in breccia 15498. The high-SiO2 ONB's fall on olivine control lines with primitive QNB's, and least-squares mixing calculations are consistent with the high-SiO2 ONB's being parental to the more evolved QNB suite. These high-SiO2 ONB's are included as part of the 'QNB suite'. Our major element modeling results also are consistent with the conclusions of earlier studies which showed that the ONB and QNB suites cannot be related to one another by low pressure crystal fractionation. The combination of high Mg#, high SiO2, and low TiO2 in the QNB suite precludes a relationship to the ONB suite by simple removal of liquidus minerals (olivine and pigeonite). Despite these significant differences in petrography and major element composition, both groups have nearly identical trace element concentrations and chondrite-normalized abundance patterns. The major question to be addressed by any petrogenetic model for Apollo 15 mare basalts is how to form mare basalt suites with distinctly different major element characteristics but nearly identical trace element compositions. The similarity in trace element concentrations imply compositionally similar source regions and similar percent melting, but these conclusions are not easily reconciled with the observed differences in

  19. South Pole-Aitken Sample Return Mission: Collecting Mare Basalts from the Far Side of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Lucey, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the probability that a sample mission to a site within the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) would return basaltic material. A sample mission to the SPA would be the first opportunity to sample basalts from the far side of the Moon. The near side basalts are more abundant in terms of volume and area than their far-side counterparts (16:1), and the basalt deposits within SPA represent approx. 28% of the total basalt surface area on the far side. Sampling far-side basalts is of particular importance because as partial melts of the mantle, they could have derived from a mantle that is mineralogically and chemically different than determined for the nearside, as would be expected if the magma ocean solidified earlier on the far side. For example, evidence to support the existence of high-Th basalts like those that appear to be common on the nearside in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane has been found. Although SPA is the deepest basin on the Moon, it is not extensively filled with mare basalt, as might be expected if similar amounts of partial melting occurred in the mantle below SPA as for basins on the near side. These observations may mean that mantle beneath the far-side crust is lower in Th and other heat producing elements than the nearside. One proposed location for a sample-return landing site is 60 S, 160 W. This site was suggested to maximize the science return with respect to sampling crustal material and SPA impact melt, however, basaltic samples would undoubtedly occur there. On the basis of Apollo samples, we should expect that basaltic materials would be found in the vicinity of any landing site within SPA, even if located away from mare deposits. For example, the Apollo 16 mission landed in an ancient highlands region 250-300 km away from the nearest mare-highlands boundary yet it still contains a small component of basaltic samples (20 lithic fragments ranging is size from <1 to .01 cm). A soil sample from the floor of SPA will likely contain an

  20. The health impact of nonhazardous solid waste disposal in a community: the case of the Mare Chicose landfill in mauritius.

    PubMed

    Goorah, Smita Sulackshana Devi; Esmyot, Mary Libera Isabelle; Boojhawon, Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    The disposal of nonhazardous solid waste on the island of Mauritius is centered on the Mare Chicose landfill. Because of health concerns in the community, the authors conducted a health impact survey, took measurements of height and weight, and compared the results with a control locality. After adjusting for confounding factors, the authors observed that numerous complaints were significantly higher in the target population. After elimination of reporting bias, however, nausea and vomiting remained as the only significant self-reported outcomes. The mean body mass index (BMI) of target men was significantly lower when compared with the control. This result was not observed in the populations of women and children, and suggests a gender difference in the health impact of the landfill.

  1. Oxygen and iron isotope constraints on near-surface fractionation effects and the composition of lunar mare basalt source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Craddock, Paul R.; Day, James M. D.; Valley, John W.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2010-11-01

    Oxygen and iron isotope analyses of low-Ti and high-Ti mare basalts are presented to constrain their petrogenesis and to assess stable isotope variations within lunar mantle sources. An internally-consistent dataset of oxygen isotope compositions of mare basalts encompasses five types of low-Ti basalts from the Apollo 12 and 15 missions and eight types of high-Ti basalts from the Apollo 11 and 17 missions. High-precision whole-rock δ 18O values (referenced to VSMOW) of low-Ti and high-Ti basalts correlate with major-element compositions (Mg#, TiO 2, Al 2O 3). The observed oxygen isotope variations within low-Ti and high-Ti basalts are consistent with crystal fractionation and match the results of mass-balance models assuming equilibrium crystallization. Whole-rock δ 56Fe values (referenced to IRMM-014) of high-Ti and low-Ti basalts range from 0.134‰ to 0.217‰ and 0.038‰ to 0.104‰, respectively. Iron isotope compositions of both low-Ti and high-Ti basalts do not correlate with indices of crystal fractionation, possibly owing to small mineral-melt iron fractionation factors anticipated under lunar reducing conditions. The δ 18O and δ 56Fe values of low-Ti and the least differentiated high-Ti mare basalts are negatively correlated, which reflects their different mantle source characteristics (e.g., the presence or absence of ilmenite). The average δ 56Fe values of low-Ti basalts (0.073 ± 0.018‰, n = 8) and high-Ti basalts (0.191 ± 0.020‰, n = 7) may directly record that of their parent mantle sources. Oxygen isotope compositions of mantle sources of low-Ti and high-Ti basalts are calculated using existing models of lunar magma ocean crystallization and mixing, the estimated equilibrium mantle olivine δ 18O value, and equilibrium oxygen-fractionation between olivine and other mineral phases. The differences between the calculated whole-rock δ 18O values for source regions, 5.57‰ for low-Ti and 5.30‰ for high-Ti mare basalt mantle source regions

  2. Mapping the Concentration of Iron, Titanium, and Thorium in Mare Basalts in the Western Procellarum Region of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flor, E. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Gillis, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Mare basalt flows in the Western Procellarum region (WPR) are extensive and include some of the youngest geologic features on the Moon. Compositional remote sensing by the Lunar Prospector gammaray spectrometer (LPGRS) indicates elevated Th concentrations in many of these flows relative to basalts sampled by the Apollo and Luna missions [1,2,3,4]. The primary goals of this investigation are to determine whether the Th enrichment in this region contributed to the extensive and prolonged volcanism in the WPR, and to determine whether the Th is inherent to the basalts themselves or a result of contamination from nonvolcanic material. Thorium enrichment indigenous to the basalts of the Western Procellarum Region would provide evidence that the general concentration of Th in the Procellarum region extends below the crust and possibly as deep as the sources for the basalts themselves.

  3. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. II - Deconvolution modeling and its application to the regions of Aristarchus and Mare Smythii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Metzger, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    The broad angular response which characterized the Apollo gamma ray spectrometer resulted in a loss of spatial resolution and some of the contrast in determining surface concentrations within lunar regions small compared to the field of view. A deconvolution technique has been developed which removes much of this instrumental effect, thereby improving both spatial resolution and accuracy at the cost of a loss in precision. Geometric models of regional thorium distribution are convoluted through the response function of the instrument to yield a predicted distribution which is compared with the observed data field for quality of fit. Application to areas which include Aristarchus and Mare Smythii confirm some geological relationships and fail to support others.

  4. Stimulation of LH, FSH, and luteal blood flow by GnRH during the luteal phase in mares.

    PubMed

    Castro, T; Oliveira, F A; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A; Ginther, O J

    2016-03-01

    A study was performed on the effect of a single dose per mare of 0 (n = 9), 100 (n = 8), or 300 (n = 9) of GnRH on Day 10 (Day 0 = ovulation) on concentrations of LH, FSH, and progesterone (P4) and blood flow to the CL ovary. Hormone concentration and blood flow measurements were performed at hours 0 (hour of treatment), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Blood flow was assessed by spectral Doppler ultrasonography for resistance to blood flow in an ovarian artery before entry into the CL ovary. The percentage of the CL with color Doppler signals of blood flow was estimated from videotapes of real-time color Doppler imaging by an operator who was unaware of mare identity, hour, or treatment dose. Concentrations of LH and FSH increased (P < 0.05) at hour 0.25 and decreased (P < 0.05) over hours 1 to 6; P4 concentration was not altered by treatment. Blood flow resistance decreased between hours 0 and 1, but the decrease was greater (P < 0.05) for the 100-μg dose than for the 300-μg dose. The percentage of CL with blood flow signals increased (P < 0.05) between hours 0 and 1 with no significant difference between the 100- and 300-μg doses. The results supported the hypothesis that GnRH increases LH concentration, vascular perfusion of the CL ovary, and CL blood flow during the luteal phase; however, P4 concentration was not affected.

  5. Fluoride concentrations in the water of Maringá, Brazil, considering the benefit/risk balance of caries and fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Bergamo, Edmara Tatiely Pedroso; Barbana, Marlon; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Fujimaki, Mitsue

    2015-01-01

    Current Brazilian law regarding water fluoridation classification is dichotomous with respect to the risks of and benefits for oral diseases, and fluoride (F) concentrations less than 0.6 or above 0.8 mg F/L are considered outside the normal limits. Thus, the law does not consider that both caries and fluorosis are dependent on the dosage and duration of fluoride exposure because they are both chronic diseases. Therefore, this study evaluated the quality of water fluoridation in Maringá, PR, Brazil, considering a new classification for the concentration of F in water the supply, based on the anticaries benefit and risk of fluorosis (CECOL/USP, 2011). Water samples (n = 325) were collected monthly over one year from 28 distribution water networks: 20 from treatment plants and 8 from artesian wells. F concentrations were determined using a specific ion electrode. The average F concentration was 0.77 mg F/L (ppm F), ranging from 0.44 to 1.22 mg F/L. Considering all of the water samples analyzed, 83.7% of them presented from 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L, and according to the new classification used, they would provide maximum anticaries benefit with a low risk of fluorosis. This percentage was lower (75.4%) in the water samples supplied from artesian wells than from those distributed by the treatment plant (86%). In conclusion, based on the new classification of water F concentrations, the quality of water fluoridation in Maringá is adequate and is within the range of the best balance between risk and benefit.

  6. Effect of the in vitro maturation medium on equine oocytes: comparison of follicular fluid and oestrous mare serum.

    PubMed

    Gil, Lydia; Saura, S; Echegaray, Arantxa; Martinez, Felisa; de Blas, I; Akourki, A; Gonzalez, Noelia; Espinosa, E; Josa, A

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of supplementing the medium used to mature equine oocytes in vitro with oestrous mare serum (EMS) or horse follicular fluid (HFF). To this end, 144 ovaries were obtained from mares aged 16-21 months and transported to the laboratory in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (D-PBS) at 30 degrees C. Oocytes were harvested from the ovaries by slicing, and then selected for in vitro maturation (IVM) according to the number of cumulus cell layers and the characteristics of the cytoplasm. The selected oocytes were washed three times in TCM199 medium plus HEPES (TCM-199H) or in the same medium plus glutamine (TCM-199G), then matured in vitro in six study groups established according to the in vitro maturation (IVM) treatment to see possible interactions between HEPES and glutamine on other supplements: Ten percent EMS was added to two of these media (TCM-199H+EMS and TCM-199G+EMS) and 10% HFF was added to the media in two other groups (TCM-199H+HFF and TCM-199G+HFF). IVM was performed at 38.5 degrees C for 40 h in a controlled atmosphere (5% CO2, 95% relative humidity). The findings indicate that the presence of EMS or HFF in the TCM-199H medium gives rise to the best results in terms of the proportions of oocytes reaching maturity (37.7% and 36.8%, respectively). The values obtained with EMS and HFF were statistically similar to each other but differed from the other treatments. The media containing glutamine led to the highest proportions of degenerated oocytes.

  7. Occurrence of bacteria and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in fetal compartments at parturition; relationships with foal and mare health in the peripartum period.

    PubMed

    Hemberg, E; Einarsson, S; Kútvölgyi, G; Lundeheim, N; Bagge, E; Båverud, V; Jones, B; Morrell, J M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship of the health of the newborn foal and (1) number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) in the amniotic fluid, (2) bacteria present in the amniotic fluid and the venous umbilical blood, and (3) bacteria present in the uterus of the newly foaled mare. A further aim was to investigate relationships between the bacteriologic findings in the amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, and uterus postpartum. Samples were taken from 50 Standardbred trotter foaling mares from a well-managed stud in Sweden. Parturition was spontaneous in all cases. Length of pregnancy, parturition and postpartum complications, health status of the foal, the time between foaling and the expulsion of the placenta, and the number of postfoaling mares becoming pregnant after insemination were recorded. Amniotic fluid was collected when the amniotic vesicle was clearly visible; it was analyzed for bacteriology and occurrence of PMNLs. Umbilical blood was analyzed for the presence of bacteria and the concentration of serum amyloid A. The uterus of the mare was swabbed for bacteriology 6 to 17 hours postpartum. A blood sample was taken from the foal before administering plasma. The foals were divided into two groups: group 1 required up to 2 hours to rise after birth (≤2 hours; 31 foals) and group 2 required more than two hours (>2 hours; 19 foals). The length of gestation varied between 332 and 356 days; there was no significant difference in gestation length between the two foal groups. Partus and postpartum complications occurred in a significantly higher proportion of mares giving birth to group 2 foals than group 1 foals (P = 0.02), although uterine culture postpartum and the subsequent pregnancy rate per season were not different between the groups. Compromised health status was significantly higher among foals belonging to group 2 than group 1 (P = 0.001). Most of the amniotic samples contained 5% or less PMNLs. Only three samples contained more than 30

  8. Floor-fractured craters in Mare Smythii and west of Oceanus Procellarum: Implications of Crater Modification by Viscous Relaxation and Igneous Intrusion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichman, R. W.; Schultz, P. H.

    Endogenic modification in lunar floor-fractured craters can constrain spatial variations in early lunar conditions. The nature of these constraints, however, depends on the assumed mechanism of crater modification. For viscous relaxation, the extent of crater modification depends on the surrounding crustal viscosity and thus provides loose constraints on the history of crustal heating within a region. For igneous intrusion models, the extent of crater modification reflects magmatically driven deformation and can be inverted to estimate both local magma pressure and intrusion depth. Both models indicate clear differences between regional conditions at Mare Smythii and in the highlands west of Oceanus Procellarum. The uniformly shallow crater depths in Mare Smythii probably indicate a long-lived period of extreme crater relaxation, whereas the wide range of modified crater depths in the western highlands suggest a much shorter period of partial crater relaxation. For comparable relaxation times, the average viscosity derived for Mare Smythii is over 10 times lower than the average viscosity inferred for the western highlands. Alternatively, if modification reflects deformation over crater-centered, laccolithlike intrusions, the derived magma pressures indicate a broad, uniform magma source beneath Mare Smythii, whereas the spatial variation of estimated magma pressures in the western highlands suggests the presence of several, smaller magma sources. The derived intrusion depths are partly a function of crater size, but range from ~1 to 10 km in depth for both regions and may be slightly greater on average in the western highlands. While both viscous relaxation and igneous intrusions can explain the modification of individual craters, the regional variations in these derived modification conditions also allow further testing of each modification model. In particular, the correlation of the lowest viscosities or the longest relaxation times with the smallest craters in

  9. Petrology and geochemistry of olivine-normative and quartz-normative basalts from regolith breccia 15498 - New diversity in Apollo 15 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of mare basalt clasts from Apollo 15 shows a greater diversity than previously recognized and provides new constraints on the petrogenesis of these basalts. The quartz-normative basalts (QNB) from 15498 are divided into four groups based on chemical variations: primitive, intermediate/1, intermediate/2, and evolved. The olivine-normative basalts (ONB) are divided into three groups: low-SiO2, high-SiO2, and olivine-pyroxene cumulates. Least-squares mixing calculations show that the high SiO2 ONBs may be parental to the QNB suite. Variations within the low-SiO2 ONBs are explained by olivine factionation. It is suggested that the presence of these basalt types may result from the position of breccia 15498 near the edge of the mare plain where normal ONBs are scarce, and from its presumed origin as ejecta from Dune Crater.

  10. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Disposal and Reuse of Mare Island Naval Shipyard Vallejo, California. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    I \\ - a 11 KUW i \\13C L 4^T .Rewse Area 10. Retail/Residential (94 Acres) This reuse area , adjacent to Mare Island Strait, is bounded by the...inches by 2075 (US EPA 1995). Land subsidence is a process of settlement which lowers the land surface and can expose new areas to flood hazards...authority throughout the San Francisco Bay Area . Permit authority is derived from a combination of state and Federal legislation and can be categorized into

  11. Effects of estradiol-17beta administration on steady-state messenger ribonucleic acid (MRNA) encoding equine alpha and LH/CGbeta subunits in pituitaries of ovariectomized pony mares.

    PubMed

    Sharp, D C; Wolfe, M W; Cleaver, B D; Nilson, J

    2001-03-15

    The process of sexual recrudescence in the springtime in mares is characterized by renewal of follicular growth and acquisition of steroidogenic competence. Concomitant with renewal of follicular steroidogenesis is re-establishment of LH biosynthesis and secretion. Research results from our laboratory indicate that increased estradiol and LH secretion occur in close temporal association before the first ovulation of the year. Therefore, the hypothesis tested in this experiment was that estrogen administration to ovariectomized pony mares during the equivalent time of early vernal transition would enhance LH biosynthesis as monitored by messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding for the pituitary subunits of LH (alpha and LH/CGbeta). Mares were administered either sesame oil vehicle control, or estradiol (5 mg i.m. twice daily in sesame oil) for 3, 6 or 9 days, beginning on February 2. The pituitary glands were harvested, and examined for LH subunit mRNA by Northern Blot and slot blot analysis. There was a significant increase in LH secretion after 6 days of estradiol secretion compared with control vehicle administration. Similarly, there was a significant increase in both alpha and LH/CGbeta subunit mRNA when estradiol was administered for 9 days. These data indicate that estrogen stimulates LH subunit formation in mares during early equivalent vernal transition. These data do not, however, discriminate between a direct pituitary effect of estrogen, and a hypothalamic effect. Whether the surge of estradiol just prior to the first ovulation of the year is essential for the renewed biosynthesis of LH subunits cannot be determined from these data. However an important role of estrogen in the final stages of sexual recrudescence is indicated.

  12. Eruption of magmatic foams on the Moon: Formation in the waning stages of dike emplacement events as an explanation of ;irregular mare patches;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Lionel; Head, James W.

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions on the Moon take place in conditions of low gravity and negligible atmospheric pressure, very different from those on Earth. These differences lead to characteristic lunar versions of hawaiian and strombolian explosive activity, and to the production of unusual eruption products neither predicted nor observed on Earth in the terminal stages of eruptions. These include the unusual mounds and rough (hummocky, blocky) floors of some small-shield summit pit crater floors, elongate depressions and mare flows (similar to those named ;irregular mare patches;, IMPs, by Braden et al., 2014). We examine the ascent and eruption of magma in the waning stages of the eruptive process in small-shield summit pit crater floors and show that many IMP characteristics can be plausibly explained by basaltic magma behavior as the rise rate of the ascending magma slows to zero, volatiles exsolve in the dike and lava lake to form a very vesicular foam, and the dike begins to close. Stresses in the very vesicular and porous lava lake crust produce fractures through which the foam extrudes at a rate determined by its non-Newtonian rheology. Waning-stage extrusion of viscous magmatic foams to the surface produces convex mounds whose physical properties inhibit typical impact crater formation and regolith development, creating an artificially young crater retention age. This mechanism for the production and extrusion of very vesicular magmatic foams is also applicable to waning-stage dike closure associated with pit craters atop dikes, and fissure eruptions in the lunar maria, providing an explanation for many irregular mare patches. This mechanism implies that IMPs and associated mare structures (small shields, pit craters and fissure flows) formed synchronously billions of years ago, in contrast to very young ages (less than 100 million years) proposed for IMPs by some workers.

  13. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass - Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, S. S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Delano, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Electron microprobe and INAA were used to analyze forty spherules of Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass for major and trace elements. The glass is one of twenty-five high-Mg primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. The abundances show that the magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas are presented.

  14. The effect of select seminal plasma proteins on endometrial mRNA cytokine expression in mares susceptible to persistent mating-induced endometritis.

    PubMed

    Fedorka, C E; Scoggin, K E; Woodward, E M; Squires, E L; Ball, B A; Troedsson, Mht

    2017-02-01

    In the horse, breeding induces a transient endometrial inflammation. A subset of mares are unable to resolve this inflammation, and they are considered susceptible to persistent mating-induced endometritis PMIE Select seminal plasma proteins cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) and lactoferrin have been shown to affect the innate immune response to sperm in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of CRISP-3 and lactoferrin at the time of insemination had an effect on the mRNA expression of endometrial cytokines in susceptible mares after breeding. Six mares classified as susceptible to PMIE were inseminated during four consecutive oestrous cycles with treatments in randomized order of: 1 mg/ml CRISP-3, 150 μg/ml lactoferrin, seminal plasma (positive control) or lactated Ringer's solution (LRS; negative control) to a total volume of 10 ml combined with 1 × 10(9) spermatozoa pooled from two stallions. Six hours after treatment, an endometrial biopsy was obtained for qPCR analysis of selected genes associated with inflammation (pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (INF)-γ, anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1RN and IL-10, and inflammatory-modulating cytokine IL-6). Seminal plasma treatment increased the mRNA expression of IL-1β (p = .019) and IL-8 (p = .0068), while suppressing the mRNA expression of TNF (p = .0013). Lactoferrin also suppressed the mRNA expression of TNF (p = .0013). In conclusion, exogenous lactoferrin may be considered as one modulator of the complex series of events resulting in the poorly regulated pro-inflammatory response seen in susceptible mares.

  15. Detection and Extent of Ancient, Buried Mare Deposits in South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA):Implications for Robotic Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petro, N. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Gaddis, L. R.; Pieters, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    The origin of the large mafic anomaly associated with the interior of the South Pole-Aitken Basin has been inferred to be largely the result of iron-rich lower crustal/upper mantle material exposed at the surface and/or a combination of ancient mare basalts covered by younger crater/basin ejecta (cryptomare) interspersed with younger basalts [1-3]. However, the relative influence of either source is poorly constrained, due in part to the unknown abundance of cryptomare within SPA. Early geologic mapping of the interior of SPA identified several plains units, thought to represent basin ejecta deposits [4, 5]. Newer remotely sensed VIS-NIR wavelength data suggested the presence of more extensive deposits of ancient, buried basalts [2, 3, 6]. Mare basalts, when mantled by non-local, low-FeO material may appear to be non-mare plains units [7, 8]. Within SPA, because the regional basement material is inherently enriched in FeO, the mantling material imparts a dark, FeO-enriched, signature. In a survey of rock types within SPA, Pieters et al. [3] identified such a plains unit south of the Apollo Basin with a surface that is both dark and that contains an FeO-rich spectral signature. However, several small craters in the plains unit expose underlying basaltic materials or cryptomaria in this extensive (>75,000 km2), ancient (~3.89 Ga) unit [6, 9]. The positive identification and characterization of cryptomaria within SPA are facilitated by high-spatial and spectral resolution data from recent orbital missions (e.g., Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, LRO). Hyperspectral data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper and Multiband Imager for SPA show the presence of two primary mafic materials; a high-Ca pyroxene (gabbroic) signature is pervasive across the center of the basin and a noritic signature is present across the rest of SPA. High spatial resolution (10-0.5 m) images from the Kaguya Terrain Camera and LRO Narrow Angle Camera facilitate surface age dating and morphologic assessment of

  16. Chemistry and petrology of Luna 24 lithic fragments and less than 250-micron soils - Constraints on the origin of VLT mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Warner, R. D.; Lange, D. E.; Keil, K.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported on a combined INAA-petrologic study of 17 small (0.2-1.5 mg) Luna 24 lithic and mineral fragments and INAA study of 5 bulk soils and mineral separates from gabbro 24170. Lithic and mineral fragments are classified into VLT mare basalts (ferrobasalt and metabasalts), low-Ti, variolitic mare basalt, gabbros, melt rock and soil breccia. Data indicate 5 possible magma types, represented by: (1) VLT ferrobasalt and gabbro fragments, with low-TiO2 (about 1%), slightly bow-shaped REE pattern, and low REE concentrations (5-10X chondritic); (2) a ferrobasalt (Laul et al., 1978) and metabasalt fragments with major and trace element contents similar to (1), but positive Eu anomalies; (3) one gabbro fragment with distinctive pyroxene compositional trend (increasing Ti with nearly constant Fe/Fe + Mg) and highest REE contents of any Luna 24 mare basaltic sample, (4) a gabbro fragment with considerably less V and Cr2O3 than ferrobasalt and metabasalt fragments; and (5) variolitic basalt fragment with higher Ti2(2.3%) than other Luna 24 basalts and pyroxene that has increasing then decreasing Ti with increasing Fe/Fe + Mg. Trace element data place constraints on the nature of the source region and possible parent magmas for the Luna 24 VLT ferrobasalt.

  17. Accumulation of butyltins in sediments and lipid tissues of the Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, near Mare Island Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Wade, T.L.; Hostettler, F.D.; Parchaso, F.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of butyltin compounds in soil, benthic sediments and the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis were conducted at the former Mare Island Naval Shipyard, and nearby Mare Island and Carquinez Straits in San Francisco Bay, California. Soils from a sandblast abrasives dump site at the shipyard contained low concentrations of mono-, di- and tributyltin (0.3-52 ng/g, total butyltin). Similarly, concentrations of total butyltin in benthic sediments from nearby Mare Island and Carquinez Straits ranged from 1.3 to 8.1 ng/g. In contrast, clams accumulated much greater concentrations (152-307 ng/g, total butyltin). Tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) made up from 54-85% to 15-46%, respectively, of the total butyltin body burden of the clams. Biota Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs) for butyltins in Potamocorbula were in reasonable agreement with literature values; they are greater than those of neutral hydrophobic compounds, suggesting that partitioning and binding processes may be involved in bioaccumulation. Tributyltin is a potent endocrine disrupting chemical. There is potential for long-term chronic effects of TBT in San Francisco Bay.

  18. Effect of time during transport of excised mare ovaries on oocyte recovery rate and quality after in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Guignot, F; Bezard, J; Palmer, E

    1999-10-01

    In the mare only a limited number of oocytes can be successfully collected in vivo, so that when large numbers of oocytes are needed for experimentation, ovaries harvested from slaughtered mares must be used. The resulting temperature changes and time intervals mandated by handling and transport of ovaries from the slaughterhouse to the laboratory adversely affect the rate of oocyte recovery and their quality after IVF and maturation. We chose to study the effect of temperature and time in transit of excised ovaries by evaluating rate of oocyte recovery, nuclear maturation stage reached before, and cleavage rate reached after IVF, following short (1.5 to 4 h) and long (6 to 8 h) storage. Temperatures in the storage container decreased from 37-C to 32 degrees and 27.5 degrees C during the short and long interval, respectively. The cumulus-oocytes complexes (COCs) were classified as having a compact cumulus, completely or partially surrounding the oocyte (compact); those having only a corona radiata surrounding the oocyte (corona); those having a completely or partially expanded cumulus, showing a cellular or sparsely cellular, gelatinous cloud around the oocyte (expanded); and those that were completely denuded of both cumulus and corona cells (denuded). All COCs, except the denuded ones, which were discarded, were matured in vitro for 30 h at 38.5 degrees C in 5% CO2. The recovery rate of oocytes was significantly higher after long vs short storage (48 vs 35%; P < 0.01), but the distribution of the collected COCs into the 4 classes was not affected by the storage time. After in vitro maturation nuclear maturity was not affected by the storage time, but oocytes with intact cytoplasmic membranes were more frequently found after short than after long storage (54 vs 34%; P = 0.07), and fully matured oocytes were more often seen with intact membrane (P < 0.01). Moreover, oocytes with intact membranes in metaphase II (MII) were associated with short storage intervals and

  19. Trace element partitioning between ilmenite and anhydrous silicate melt: shedding light on the formation of lunar mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kan Parker, M.; Mason, P. R.; van Westrenen, W.

    2009-12-01

    Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is the main titanium-bearing, oxide mineral on the Moon. In contrast to its relatively minor role in terrestrial magmatic processes, it played a crucial role in the late stages of lunar magma ocean (LMO) crystallisation and in subsequent mare basalt formation. Quantifying its major and trace element incorporation behaviour at different conditions during partial melting and crystallisation processes is essential to constrain lunar interior evolution models. Trace element partitioning between ilmenite and silicate melt is poorly studied. Trace element partitioning between equilibrium phases depends on pressure, temperature, composition and oxygen fugacity. However, currently available ilmenite-melt partitioning data do not systematically consider these parameters. As a result, no predictive model explaining the large variations in partition coefficients seen in the literature is available. We performed systematic high-pressure, high-temperature ilmenite-melt partitioning experiments in the CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 (CFMATS) system. Starting materials were doped with a wide range of trace elements (LILE, REE, HFSE and transition metals). Experiments were carried out at atmospheric pressure in platinum capsules, and at high pressure in an end-loaded piston cylinder at the VU University using graphite-lined Pt capsules. Major and trace element compositions of experimental charges were determined using a JEOL Electron Microprobe (VU University) and laser ablation ICP-MS (Utrecht University), respectively. Our results show that transition metals are generally compatible at pressures between 1.1 and 1.7 GPa and 1580 ± 10 K, with Cr having the highest partition coefficient (D ~ 6), followed by V (D ~ 3.5). Mn and Co have D values near 1. The HFSE are moderately incompatible at elevated pressures, with partition coefficients of 0.11-0.54. The REE are all incompatible, with HREE D values of 0.06 ± 0.03, and LILE D values are all <0.004. No clear pressure

  20. Predictors of Student Persistence in the STEM Pipeline: Activities Outside the Classroom, Parent Aspirations, and Student Self-Beliefs using NELS:88 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joelle A.

    Focusing on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) literacy is a national priority for the United States. As competition increases internationally for scientific and technological innovations, the United States is concentrating on building its STEM capacity (Stephens, 2011). Despite the numerous STEM reform efforts there continues to be a decline in STEM graduates and STEM competencies (McNally, 2012; Langdon, Mckittrick, Beede, Doms, & Khan, 2011; Herschback, 2011). With attention focused on increasing STEM college majors and occupations among the student population, the current research investigation centered on the role of parent aspirations, student self-beliefs, and activities outside the classroom to determine the outcome of middle and high school students choosing a STEM college major. Research suggested that students formulate their degree attainment during their middle and high school years, and even earlier (Roach, 2006; Maltese & Tai, 2011); therefore, it was logical to investigate STEM persistence during middle and high school years. The study analyzed NELS:88, a longitudinal national public data set created by the National Center for Educational Statistics that used 12,144 participants. The students' self-reported data spanned over a 12-year period. Students completed five surveys in the NELS:88 data collection (NCES, 2011). Binary and multivariate logistical regressions determined if activities outside the classroom, parent aspirations, and student self-beliefs influenced STEM college majors. Conclusions of the study found significant relationships between the variables and STEM persistence. Individuals who participated in STEM activities after school were more likely to major in STEM (p<.001,Exp(B)=1.106). There was a significant positive relationship between parent aspirations and increased odds of choosing a STEM major (p<.0001, Exp(B)=1.041). There was a significant relationship between student self-beliefs and choosing a STEM

  1. Ultrasound characteristics of experimentally induced luteinized unruptured follicles (LUF) and naturally occurring hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAF) in the mare.

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Newcombe, J R

    2012-02-01

    The development of hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAF) involves luteinization and hemorrhage of the follicle. This is observed on ultrasound as an increase in the echogenicity of the granulosa layer and formation of echoic particles in the antrum. The inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with flunixin meglumine (FM) during the periovulatory period induces ovulatory failure with development of luteinized unruptured follicles (LUF). These two types of anovulatory follicles appear to share similar ultrasound features but they have not been compared critically. The following endpoints: follicle diameter, follicular contents score, interval from hCG administration to beginning of follicular hemorrhage, interval from hemorrhage to organization of follicular contents, and cycle length were studied and compared in mares with HAF (n = 11) and LUF (n = 13). The objective of this study was to elucidate whether these two unruptured follicles have a consistent clinical pattern of development and therefore can be considered as part of the same anovulatory syndrome. None of the endpoints analyzed differed significantly between HAF and LUF. However, there was a greater individual variation in HAF as compared with LUF in regards to interval from hCG to hemorrhage, follicular diameter at the administration of hCG, and beginning of hemorrhage. In conclusion, HAF share a similar cascade of ultrasound characteristics with the experimentally induced LUF. This finding may provide new insights in elucidating the pathogenesis of HAF.

  2. [Surgical treatment in severe acute pancreatitis. Last 15 years of experience in Emergency County Hospital of Baia Mare].

    PubMed

    Leşe, Mihaela; Tămăşan, Anca; Stoicescu, B; Brânduşe, M; Puia, Ioana; Mare, C; Lazăr, C

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the particular course of the patients operated for severe acute pancreatitis in a period of 15 years in surgical department of Emergency County Hospital of Baia Mare. Medical records of 202 patients admitted and operated for severe acute pancreatitis, were studied. Follow-up parameters were: age, gender, etiology, moment of operation, the type of operations and postoperative evolution of this patients. In the group of deceased patients alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis was prevailing. Almost a half of patients were operated in the first day of admission. A high number of patients were operated for diagnosis of acute abdomen with intention of exploratory laparotomy. In the last years, besides the usual closed drainage, open drainage and planning drainage were performed. Postoperative mortality is still high. The diagnose of severe acute pancreatitis is difficult in emergency. Global mortality in pancreatitis remains high, especially in the period of enzymatic shock, and is correlated with masculine gender, alcoholic etiology and somewhat with precocity of operation.

  3. Comparative Mineralogy, Microstructure and Compositional Trends in the Sub-Micron Size Fractions of Mare and Highland Lunar Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, M. S.; Christoffersen, R.; Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology, mineralogy, chemical composition and optical properties of lunar soils show distinct correlations as a function of grain size and origin [1,2,3]. In the <20 m size fraction, there is an increased correlation between lunar surface properties observed through remote sensing techniques and those attributed to space weathering phenomenae [1,2]. Despite the establishment of recognizable trends in lunar grains <20 in size [1,2,3], the size fraction < 10 m is characterized as a collective population of grains without subdivision. This investigation focuses specifically on grains in the <1 m diameter size fraction for both highland and mare derived soils. The properties of these materials provide the focus for many aspects of lunar research including the nature of space weathering on surface properties, electrostatic grain transport [4,5] and dusty plasmas [5]. In this study, we have used analytical transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) to characterize the mineralogy type, microstructure and major element compositions of grains in this important size range in lunar soils.

  4. Effect of artificial insemination protocol and dose of frozen/thawed stallion semen on pregnancy results in mares.

    PubMed

    Govaere, J L J; Hoogewijs, M K; De Schauwer, C; De Vliegher, S; Van Soom, A; Duchateau, L; de Kruif, A

    2014-06-01

    Deep intra-uterine insemination is commonly accepted as a routine procedure for artificial insemination in horses. The motives and principles of deep insemination are well described, but the equipment used may differ. In this trial, the efficiency of two different insemination pipettes for deep intra-uterine insemination in the mare was compared with insemination into the uterine body using commercially available frozen-thawed semen of two stallions of proven fertility. These inseminations were performed using two different doses. The semi-flexible Minitube pipette was compared with a newly designed insemination device with a more flexible telescopic insemination catheter (Ghent device). The semi-flexible Minitube pipette performed better than the newly designed insemination device with respect to pregnancy outcome (p = 0.008). The superiority of deep horn insemination over uterine body insemination was reflected by the better pregnancy rates obtained after deep insemination using the same low doses (30.6% better pregnancy rates) (p = 0.0123).

  5. Distinguishing between Apollo 14 impact melt and pristine mare basalt samples by geochemical and textural analyses of olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, A. L.; Neal, C. R.; Simonetti, A.; Donohue, P. H.; O'Sullivan, K. M.

    2013-04-01

    Apollo 14 (A-14) impact melt olivine vitrophyres (OVs), composed of olivine phenocrysts in an opaque glass matrix with minor amounts of pyroxene and plagioclase, are petrographically similar to pristine quenched A-14 high-alumina (high-Al) and Apollo 12 (A-12) basalts. Textural and chemical analyses have been conducted on olivines within impact melt and pristine mare basalt clasts from A-14 breccia 14321 as well as various olivine-phyric Apollo 12 and 17 basalts to be able to distinguish between the petrographically similar samples. The A-14 high-Al basalts examined here represent samples from each of the three chemical groups (A, B, C). Examples from the three A-12 basalt suites (Ilmenite, Olivine, Pigeonite) and olivine-rich Apollo 17 (A-17) Type C basalt, 74275, have also been analyzed. As a complement to the chemical analyses, crystal size distributions (CSDs) were determined for approximately half of the samples investigated here (due to a small number of olivine crystals that did not produce statistically meaningful CSDs on half of the samples), and confirm that although similar, the basalts and impact melts are texturally distinct. Olivines from A-14 impact melts have the highest average forsterite contents (average Fo ˜0.82) and generally the lowest average Co (37 ppm) and Mn (1544 ppm) abundances, thus chemically distinguishing them from the pristine basalts. In addition, chemical compositions obtained for olivine from 14321,1486 are most likely representative of an impact melt and thus contradict its previous classification as a high-Al basalt (Neal et al., 1988); olivine from, 1486 have similar average forsterite (average Fo ˜0.82) and Ti/V-ratio to the OVs. Furthermore, on the basis of their chemical compositions, olivines have been identified within the impact melts that are likely inherited from basalts; these olivines are chemically distinct from the rest of the impact melt olivine population with lower forsterite (0.67-0.80) and low Ti/V (˜10

  6. The toxicokinetics of cyanide and mandelonitrile in the horse and their relevance to the mare reproductive loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dirikolu, Levent; Hughes, Charlie; Harkins, Dan; Boyles, Jeff; Bosken, Jeff; Lehner, Fritz; Troppmann, Amy; McDowell, Karen; Tobin, Thomas; Sebastian, Manu M; Harrison, Lenn; Crutchfield, James; Baskin, Steven I; Fitzgerald, Terrence D

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiological association between black cherry trees and mare reproductive loss syndrome has focused attention on cyanide and environmental cyanogens. This article describes the toxicokinetics of cyanide in horses and the relationships between blood cyanide concentrations and potentially adverse responses to cyanide. To identify safe and humane blood concentration limits for cyanide experiments, mares were infused with increasing doses (1-12 mg/min) of sodium cyanide for 1 h. Infusion at 12 mg/min produced clinical signs of cyanide toxicity at 38 min; these signs included increased heart rate, weakness, lack of coordination, loss of muscle tone, and respiratory and behavioral distress. Peak blood cyanide concentrations were about 2500 ng/mL; the clinical and biochemical signs of distress reversed when infusion stopped. Four horses were infused with 1 mg/min of sodium cyanide for 1 h to evaluate the distribution and elimination kinetics of cyanide. Blood cyanide concentrations peaked at 1160 ng/mL and then declined rapidly, suggesting a two-compartment, open model. The distribution (alpha) phase half-life was 0.74 h, the terminal (beta phase) half-life was 16.16 h. The mean residence time was 12.4 h, the steady-state volume of distribution was 2.21 L/kg, and the mean systemic clearance was 0.182 L/h/kg. Partitioning studies showed that blood cyanide was about 98.5% associated with the red cell fraction. No clinical signs of cyanide intoxication or distress were observed during these infusion experiments. Mandelonitrile was next administered orally at 3 mg/kg to four horses. Cyanide was rapidly available from the orally administered mandelonitrile and the C max blood concentration of 1857 ng/mL was observed at 3 min after dosing; thereafter, blood cyanide again declined rapidly, reaching 100 ng/mL by 4 h postadministration. The mean oral bioavailability of cyanide from mandelonitrile was 57% +/- 6.5 (SEM), and its apparent terminal half-life was 13 h +/- 3 (SEM

  7. Melt rock components in KREEPy breccia 15205: Petrography and mineral chemistry of KREEP basalts and quartz-normative mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    Many current models for the origin of lunar highland rocks feature as an essential component the assimilation of KREEPy material by primitive magmas parental to the Mg-rich suite and alkali suite plutonic rocks. Similar models have also been proposed for the origin of various mare basalt suites. However, any model which considers assimilation of KREEP an important petrologic process must sooner-or-later deal with the question: what is KREEP? Because pristine KREEP basalts are rare, and most known samples are small (e.g., 15382/15386), the geochemical variability of KREEP basalts is poorly known. Other KREEP compositions which are commonly used in these models include the hypothetical 'high-K KREEP' component of Warren and Wasson, which is derived from Apollo 14 soil data, and the 'superKREEP' quartz-monzodiorite 15405. Lunar breccia 15205 is a polymict regolith breccia that consists of approximately 20% KREEP basalt clasts and 20% quartz-normative basalt clasts in a KREEP-rich matrix. Bulk rock mixing calculations show that this sample comprises about 84% KREEP. The clasts range up to 1 cm in size, but most are considerably smaller. The primary aim is to characterize pristine KREEP basalts petrographically, to establish the range in chemical compositions of KREEP basalts, and to test models that were proposed for their origin. In addition, we may be able to extend the compositional range recognized in the quartz-normative basalt suite and cast some light on its origin as well. Preliminary whole rock geochemical data on the KREEP basalts are presented in a companion paper by M.M. Lindstrom and co-workers. Concentration is on petrography and mineral chemistry of these clasts, and the implications these data have for the origin of the different melt rock suites.

  8. Probabilistic Classification Using Elemental Abundance Distributions and Lossless Image Compression in Apollo 17 Lunar Dust Samples from Mare Serenitatis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.; Hoover, Richard B.; Abbas, Mian; Jerman, Gregory; Coston, James; Fisk, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We have previously outlined a strategy for the detection of fossils [Storrie-Lombardi and Hoover, 2004] and extant microbial life [Storrie-Lombaudi and Hoover, 20051 during robotic missions to Mars using co-registered structural and chemical signatures. Data inputs included image lossless compression indices to estimate relative textural complexity and elemental abundance distributions. Two exploratory classification algorithms (principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis) provide an initial tentative classification of all targets. Nonlinear stochastic neural networks are then trained to produce a Bayesian estimate of algorithm classification accuracy. The strategy previously has been successful in distinguishing regions of biotic and abiotic alteration of basalt glass from unaltered samples. [Storrie-Lombardi and Fisk, 2004; Storrie-Lombardi and Fisk, 2004] Such investigations of abiotic versus biotic alteration of terrestrial mineralogy on Earth are compromised by .the difficulty finding mineralogy completely unaffected by the ubiquitous presence of microbial life on the planet. The renewed interest in lunar exploration offers an opportunity to investigate geological materials that may exhibit signs of aqueous alteration, but are highly unlikely to contain contaminating biological weathering signatures. We here present an extension of our earlier data set to include lunar dust samples obtained during the Apollo 17 mission. Apollo 17 landed in the Taurus-Littrow Valley in Mare Serenitatis. Most of the rock samples from this region of the lunar highlands are basalts comprised primarily of plagioclase and pyroxene and selected examples of orange and black volcanic glass. SEM images and elemental abundances (C6, N7, O8, Na11, Mg12, Al13, Si14, P15, S16, Cll7, K19, Ca20, Fe26) for a series of targets in the lunar dust samples are compared to the extant cyanobacteria, fossil trilobites, Orgueil meteorite, and terrestrial basalt targets previously

  9. Frequency of Toxocara infection in children attended by the health public service of Maringá, south Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paludo, Márcia L; Falavigna, Dina L M; Elefant, Guita R; Gomes, Mônica L; Baggio, Magda L M; Amadei, Luciano B; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia

    2007-01-01

    The lack of specific laboratorial diagnosis methods and precise symptoms makes the toxocariasis a neglected disease in Public Health Services. This study aims to determine the frequency of Toxocara spp. infection in children attended by the Health Public Service of Hospital Municipal de Maringá, South Brazil. To evaluate the association of epidemiological and clinical data, an observational and cross-section study was carried out. From 14,690 attended children/year aged from seven month to 12 years old, 450 serum samples were randomly collected from September/2004 to September/2005. A questionnaire was used to evaluate epidemiological, clinical and hematological data. An ELISA using Toxocara canis larval excretory-secretory products as antigen detected 130 (28.8%) positive sera, mainly between children from seven month to five years old (p = 0.0016). Significant correlation was observed between positive serology for Toxocara, and frequent playing in sandbox at school or daycare center (p = 0.011) and the presence of a cat at home (p = 0.056). From the families, 50% were dog owners which exposed soil backyards. Eosinophilia (p = 0.776), and signs and symptoms analyzed (fever p = 0.992, pneumonia p = 0.289, cold-like symptoms p = 0.277, cough p = 0.783, gastrointestinal problems p = 0.877, migraine p = 0.979, abdominal pain p = 0.965, joint pain p = 0.686 and skin rash p = 0.105) could not be related to the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies. Therefore, two asthmatics children showed titles of 1:10,240 and accentuated eosinophilia (p = 0.0001). The authors emphasize the needs of prevention activities.

  10. Ovarian and PGF2α responses to stimulation of endogenous PRL pulses during the estrous cycle in mares.

    PubMed

    Pinaffi, F L V; Khan, F A; Silva, L A; Beg, M A; Ginther, O J

    2012-10-01

    The effects of a PRL-stimulating substance (sulpiride) on PRL and PGF2α secretion and on luteal and ovarian follicular dynamics were studied during the estrous cycle in mares. A control group (n = 9) and a sulpiride group (Sp; n = 10) were used. Sulpiride (25 mg) was given every 8 h from Day 13 postovulation to the next ovulation. Repeated sulpiride treatment did not appear to maintain PRL concentrations at 12-h intervals beyond Day 14. Therefore, the hypothesis that a long-term increase in PRL altered luteal and follicular end points was not testable. Hourly samples were collected from the hour of a treatment (Hour 0) to Hour 8 on Day 14. Concentrations of PRL increased to maximum at Hour 4 in the Sp group. The PRL pulses were more prominent (P < 0.008) in the sulpiride group (peak, 19.4 ± 1.9 ng/mL; mean ± SEM) than in the controls (11.5 ± 1.8 ng/mL). Concentrations of a metabolite of PGF2α (PGFM), number, and characteristics of PGFM pulses, and concentrations of progesterone during Hours 0 to 8 were not affected by the increased PRL. A novel observation was that the peak of a PRL pulse occurred at the same hour or 1 h later than the peak of a PGFM pulse in 8 of 8 PGFM pulses in the controls and in 6 of 10 pulses in the Sp group (P < 0.04), indicating that sulpiride interfered with the synchrony between PGFM and PRL pulses. The hypothesis that sulpiride treatment during the equine estrous cycle increases concentrations of PRL and the prominence of PRL pulses was supported.

  11. Mineralogy of young lunar mare basalts: Assessment of temporal and spatial heterogeneity using M3 data from Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varatharajan, Indhu; Srivastava, Neeraj; Murty, Sripada V. S.

    2014-07-01

    A comparative assessment of the mineralogy of young basalts (∼1.2 Ga to ∼2.8 Ga) from the western nearside, Moscoviense basin, and the Orientale basin of the Moon has been made using Level 2 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from the Chandrayaan-1 mission. Spectral data characteristics of the individual units have been generated from fresh small craters to minimize the complications due to space weathering. Representative spectra for individual units and the derived spectral parameters (band centers and integrated band depth ratio) have been used to study composition of these young basalts. A modified approach of Gaffey et al. (Gaffey, M.J., Cloutis, E.A., Kelley, M.S., Reed, K.L. [2002]. Mineralogy of asteroids. In: Asteroids III. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 183-204) (for olivine-pyroxene mixtures) and the methodology of Adams (Adams, J.B. [1974]. J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4829-4836. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB079i032p04829) (for interpreting pyroxene type) have been used to improve our understanding of the spectral behavior of these basalts. Most of the young basalts of Oceanus Procellarum are characterized by abundant olivines and they show complex volcanic history. Vast exposures of olivine concentrated units having higher abundance of olivine content than high-Ca pyroxenes are emplaced in the northern Oceanus Procellarum region. Mostly, they show distinct stratigraphic gradation with the immediately underlying units of relatively lower olivine content. The Moscoviense unit shows signatures of Fe-rich glasses along with clinopyroxenes. The basalts of Orientale basin are typically devoid of olivine and are rich in high-Ca pyroxene. Thus, mineralogy of these mare basalts which erupted during the late stage volcanism vary across the Moon’s surface; however, broader observations reveal apparently higher FeO content in the younger basalts of western nearside and Orientale region.

  12. Investigation of strongyle EPG values in horse mares relative to known age, number positive, and level of egg shedding in field studies on 26 farms in Central Kentucky (2010-2011).

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Kuzmina, T A

    2012-06-01

    A parasite study was done in 1,300 horse mares on 26 farms in Central Kentucky over a 5-month period in 2010 and 2011. The mares included 1,114 Thoroughbreds (TB) on 24 farms, 64 Standardbreds (SB) on 1 farm, and 122 mixed light horse types (MLH) on 1 farm. The objective of this research was to determine strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPG) counts for evaluation by known age, number positive, and level of egg shedding by the mares. This was done to establish strongyle EPG profiles for the mares to aid in determining whether antiparasitic treatment was necessary. Eggs found were considered those of small strongyles. (A) For the Thoroughbred mares, (1) 362 (32%) were EPG-positive, and (2) the average (percentage) of EPG-positive mares by year of age was 3-5 (54%), 6-10 (36%), 11-15 (24%), 16-20 (17%), and >20 (21%); (3) EPG average counts were similar for all age categories except for the 6- to 10-year-olds, which were higher; (4) and the average (percentage) of positive mares by 100 units of EPG counts was ≤100 (50%), ≤200 (62%), ≤300 (70%), ≤400 (76%), ≤500 (80%), and >500 (20%). (B) For the Standardbred mares, 31 (48%) were EPG-positive; (2) the average (percentage) of EPG-positive mares by year of age (no >20 sampled) was lowest for the 3-5 and 16-20 categories and highest for the 6-10 and 11-15 groups; (3) EPG average counts by years of age were lowest for 3-5, 11-15, and 16-20 groups and highest for the 6-10 group; and (4) the average (percentage) of positive mares by 100 units of EPGs was 62% for the ≤100 category, 71-84% for ≤200 to ≤400 units, and the highest (97%) for the ≤500 unit. (C) For the mixed light horse type mares: (1) 94 (77%) were EPG-positive, (2) the average (percentage) of EPG-positive mares by age was lowest for the two oldest age groups, higher for the 11 to 15-year-old age group, and highest for the two youngest age groups; (3) EPG average counts by year of age were lowest for the 16-20 group, higher for the 6-10 and >20

  13. The effect of mare's age on multiple ovulation rate, embryo recovery, post-transfer pregnancy rate, and interovulatory interval in a commercial embryo transfer program in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marinone, A I; Losinno, L; Fumuso, E; Rodríguez, E M; Redolatti, C; Cantatore, S; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age is an important predisposing factor on the reduction of reproductive efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor's age on several reproductive parameters in a commercial equine embryo transfer program. Donors were classified into 3 age groups: Group 1=fillies (3 and 4 years old), Group 2=middle age mares (aged 5-10) and Group 3=old mares (aged 13-25). Embryo recovery, multiple ovulation and pregnancy rates and interovulatory intervals were compared amongst age groups. Group 1 (171/244, 70.1%) and Group 2 (774/1081, 71.6%) had a higher (P<0.005) embryo recovery rate than Group 3 (385/701, 54.9%). Groups 2 and 3 were 2.5 and 3.4 times more likely to have multiple ovulations than Group 1 (P<0.05), respectively. The effect of age group on pregnancy rate was not significant (P>0.05). The interovulatory intervals length was influenced by individual mare (P<0.001), age (P<0.04), Day of flushing (P=0.009) and by month (P<0.012). The overall mean interovulatory interval of Group 1 (16.4±0.17 days) and Group 2 (16.6±0.12 days) was not different (P>0.05), but was shorter than the one of Group 3 (17.4±0.15 days; P<0.04). The embryo recovery rate of flushings from Groups 1 and 2 was influenced by the length of the previous interovulatory interval (P=0.03).

  14. Effects of a single use of the GnRH analog buserelin on the induction of ovulation and endocrine profiles in heavy draft mares

    PubMed Central

    MIKI, Wataru; ONIYAMA, Hiroyuki; TAKEDA, Naomasa; KIMURA, Yuki; HANEDA, Shingo; MATSUI, Motozumi; TAYA, Kazuyoshi; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We observed structural changes in the follicles and uterus of heavy draft mares during estrus and examined the effect of a single injection of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog buserelin on ovulation and endocrine profiles. Twenty-two heavy draft mares were divided into a buserelin-treated group (n=8) and a control group (n=14). Mares were given an intramuscular injection of 40 µg buserelin when they presented signs of estrus to a teaser stallion, had ≥45 mm diameter follicles, and presented decreased uterine edema compared with the previous examination. The follicles and uterus were monitored using transrectal ultrasound imaging and measurement of blood levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone, and estradiol-17β. The ovulation rates within 48 hr was significantly higher in the treated group (100%, 8/8) than in the control group (57.1%, 8/14; P=0.051). The mean ± SEM time before confirmation of ovulation was 29 ± 9 hr for the treated group and 59 ± 7 hr for the control group. There were no significant differences in mating frequency, double ovulation rate, or fertility rate between the two groups. One to two days after administering buserelin, LH and FSH temporarily increased, and in the control group, LH was high during ovulation, whereas FSH temporarily increased with the growth of the follicle. These results indicate that a single injection of 40 µg buserelin when follicles are at least 45 mm in diameter and uterine edema is decreased is effective for inducing ovulation. PMID:27974874

  15. Progestin treatment does not affect expression of cytokines, steroid receptors, oxytocin receptor, and cyclooxygenase 2 in fetal membranes and endometrium from pony mares at parturition.

    PubMed

    Palm, F; Walter, I; Nowotny, N; Budik, S; Helmreich, M; Aurich, C

    2013-01-01

    In most mammalian species, progestins have a major function in maintaining pregnancy. In humans, the physiologic initiation of parturition bears similarities with inflammatory processes and anti-inflammatory effects of progestins have been suggested to postpone birth until term. To examine if comparable effects exist in the horse, mares were treated with the synthetic progestin altrenogest from day 280 of gestation until parturition (N = 5) or were left untreated as controls (N = 7). Tissue from the amnion (AMN), allantochorion (AC), and endometrium (EM) was collected at foaling and mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and -8, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), estrogen receptor (ER) α, progesterone receptor, and oxytocin receptor (OTR) was analyzed. Leukocytes, steroid receptors, COX2, and OTR were also investigated by histology and immunohistochemistry. Expression of mRNA for IL-6 was higher in AMN and EM versus AC (P < 0.01). Expression of IL-8 was higher in AMN than AC and EM (P < 0.001). Steroid receptors and OTR were highly expressed in EM but not in AMN and AC (P < 0.001). Expression of COX2 was most pronounced in AC whereas IL expression was not upregulated in AC. No differences in mRNA expression existed between altrenogest-treated and control animals. Endometrial polymorphonuclear leukocytes were increased in altrenogest-treated mares. Epithelial cells of all tissues, except AC chorionic villi stained progesterone receptor-positive. Staining for ER was more pronounced in the amnion facing epithelium of the AC in altrenogest-treated versus control animals (P < 0.01). In conclusion, COX2 is highly expressed in the AC. The fetal membranes thus might play a role in the onset of labor in the horse. Altrenogest did not affect gene expression in the AMN, AC, and EM but had localized effects on inflammatory cells and ER expression. No anti-inflammatory effects of altrenogest in healthy, late pregnant pony mares could be detected.

  16. The oxygen isotope composition, petrology and geochemistry of mare basalts: Evidence for large-scale compositional variation in the lunar mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallis, L. J.; Anand, M.; Greenwood, R. C.; Miller, M. F.; Franchi, I. A.; Russell, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the formation and early evolution of the lunar mantle and crust we have analysed the oxygen isotopic composition, titanium content and modal mineralogy of a suite of lunar basalts. Our sample set included eight low-Ti basalts from the Apollo 12 and 15 collections, and 12 high-Ti basalts from Apollo 11 and 17 collections. In addition, we have determined the oxygen isotopic composition of an Apollo 15 KREEP (K - potassium, REE - Rare Earth Element, and P - phosphorus) basalt (sample 15386) and an Apollo 14 feldspathic mare basalt (sample 14053). Our data display a continuum in bulk-rock δ 18O values, from relatively low values in the most Ti-rich samples to higher values in the Ti-poor samples, with the Apollo 11 sample suite partially bridging the gap. Calculation of bulk-rock δ 18O values, using a combination of previously published oxygen isotope data on mineral separates from lunar basalts, and modal mineralogy (determined in this study), match with the measured bulk-rock δ 18O values. This demonstrates that differences in mineral modal assemblage produce differences in mare basalt δ 18O bulk-rock values. Differences between the low- and high-Ti mare basalts appear to be largely a reflection of mantle-source heterogeneities, and in particular, the highly variable distribution of ilmenite within the lunar mantle. Bulk δ 18O variation in mare basalts is also controlled by fractional crystallisation of a few key mineral phases. Thus, ilmenite fractionation is important in the case of high-Ti Apollo 17 samples, whereas olivine plays a more dominant role for the low-Ti Apollo 12 samples. Consistent with the results of previous studies, our data reveal no detectable difference between the Δ 17O of the Earth and Moon. The fact that oxygen three-isotope studies have been unable to detect a measurable difference at such high precisions reinforces doubts about the giant impact hypothesis as presently formulated.

  17. Modeling and Observing the Role of Wind-Waves in Lake-Climate Interactions on Titan using the T104 Flyby of Kraken Mare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Lorenz, R. D.; Zebker, H. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Karatekin, O.; Mastrogiuseppe, M., Sr.; Le Gall, A. A.; Hofgartner, J. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Poggiali, V.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanography is no longer just an Earth Science. Standing bodies of liquid that interact with both atmospheric and surface reservoirs are known to exist on Titan, and are thought to have existed on early Mars. The exchange of heat, moisture, and momentum between lakes/seas and the atmosphere are of fundamental importance to the hydrologic systems of all three bodies. The generation and propagation of wind-waves, and their consequent shoreline erosion, are key factors in air-sea-surface exchange. Titan, in particular, offers a laboratory in which to understand these processes at a more fundamental level. Much of the parameterization for wave models on Earth are empirical, despite laboratory studies that have demonstrated wave growth depends on both gravity and fluid properties. Titan's exotic environment ensures that even rudimentary measurements of wave generation will provide valuable data to anchor physical models. Furthermore, in the presence of wind waves, Cassini can be used as an anemometer to measure wind speeds over hydrocarbon liquids. Herein, we will report on the results of the Aug 21st altimetry observation over Titan's largest sea, Kraken Mare, and interpret them in the context of wave activity and composition (from passive radiometry). On Earth, it is rare to observe a body of water whose surface is not disturbed by some form of wave activity. On Titan, Cassini observations through the end of its Equinox Mission in Dec 2010 showed no indication of waves. These observations are intriguing given the predominance of aeolian features at equatorial latitudes and have been attributed to the light winds predicted during the Titan winter. More recently, however, the previous series of upper limits and non-detections are giving way to indications that the expected freshening of winds in northern summer may be causing sporadic ruffling of the sea surfaces. Specifically, apparent sunglints offset from the geometric specular point has been observed by VIMS in

  18. Petrogenetic modeling of 74220 high-Ti orange volcanic glasses and the Apollo 11 and 17 high-Ti mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, S. S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Delano, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    An INAA analysis of 16 individual spherules of orange volcanic glass extracted from the 74220,680 soil was performed in order to determine trace element signatures in a primary high-Ti mare magma. The composition of these glasses is shown to be nearly identical to that of 74220 bulk soil, indicating a general absence of constituents other than volcanic glass in the soil. The results suggest that the evolving lunar mantle included processes of cumulate-mass transport and/or segregation of the primordial lunar magma ocean into separate differentiating zones, allowing commingling of early and late components.

  19. Environments and tectonic instability in central Italy (Garigliano Basin) during the late Messinian Lago Mare episode: New data from the onshore Mondragone 1 well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Domenico; Federici, Ilaria; Cipollari, Paola; Gliozzi, Elsa

    2006-06-01

    The Mondragone 1 well, drilled in 1968 by Agip, for hydrocarbon exploration, cut across siliciclastic fine-to-coarse-grained upper Miocene-Quaternary deposits, for a total depth of 2002 m. Thirteen cores have been recovered from 495 down to 2002 m. This paper deals with both the results of the biostratigraphical analyses performed on a new sampling of the cores and the significance of the well stratigraphy in the context of the late Messinian Lago-Mare episode in central Mediterranean. The Lago-Mare biofacies has been characterised from 675 down to 2002 m by the ostracod assemblages that are made of species belonging to the Loxocorniculina djafarovi Zone, as defined by Carbonnel [Carbonnel, G., 1978. La zone a Loxoconcha djaffarovi Schneider (Ostracoda, Miocène supérieur) ou le Messinien de la Vallée du Rhône. Rev. Micropaleontol. 21, 106-118.] (e.g. L. djafarovi, Loxoconcha eichwaldi, Cyprideis anlavauxensis, Amnicythere palimpsesta, Zalanyiella venusta). Thus, the Lago-Mare deposits have a true thickness of about 938 m since the strata show a mean dip value of 45°. Similar thickness (530 m) has been measured in the pre-Pliocene sediments drilled at ODP Site 652, which can be correlated with Mondragone 1 by the occurrence of brackish-water forms. In both these areas syn-rift depositional processes have been suggested to explain the unusual thickness of the late Messinian sediments. Data from seismic lines have been used to reconstruct the geometry and the structural setting of the Garigliano Basin during the latest Messinian. Moreover, the analysis of the SP log integrated with the palaeoecological indications from the ostracod assemblages allows us to suggest a possible sequence stratigraphy evolution of the Garigliano Basin during the late Messinian Lago-Mare episode. Different tectonic behaviour with differences in subsidence rates between the northern and the southern Tyrrhenian Basin have been suggested since the uppermost Messinian syn-rift clastic

  20. Les minéralisations épithermales à Au-Cu-Zn-Sb du district de Baia Mare (Nord Roumanie): nouvelles données minéralogiques et microthermométriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, Laurent; Milesi, Jean-Pierre; Leroy, Jacques; Marcoux, Eric

    1998-09-01

    The Au-Cu-Zn-Sb epithermal mineralisations of the Baia Mare district (north Romania) and their Mio-Pliocene calc-alkaline volcanic host rocks are linked to the presence, at depth, of the Baia Mare batholith, recognised by geophysical and field studies. The salinity and temperature evolution of fluid inclusions from Baia Sprie and Sasar deposits are interpreted as being linked to the thermal evolution of the underlying laccolith. The global evolution, however, shows many irregularities related to brittle tectonic activity and phreatomagmatism during mineral deposition.

  1. Fermentation characteristics and angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus helveticus isolate H9 in cow milk, soy milk, and mare milk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jicheng; Li, Changkun; Xue, Jiangang; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Yongfu

    2015-06-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus isolate H9 demonstrated high angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity in previous research. Here, we evaluated the fermentation characteristics (pH, titratable acidity, free amino nitrogen, and viable bacterial counts), ACE-inhibitory activity, and contents of Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) peptides of stored yogurt (4°C for 28 d) fermented by L. helveticus isolate H9 (initially inoculated at 4 concentrations), from cow, mare, and soy milks. During storage, the pH and titratable acidity remained stable in yogurts produced from all milk types and all inoculation concentrations. The viable bacterial counts in all stored yogurts ranged between 10(6.72) and 10(8.59) cfu/g. The highest ACE-inhibitory activity (70.9-74.5%) was achieved at inoculation concentrations of 5×10(6) cfu/mL. The ACE-inhibitory tripeptides VPP and IPP as determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were not produced in yogurt made from soy milk or mare milk. These evaluations indicate that L. helveticus H9 has good probiotic properties and would be a promising candidate for production of fermented food with probiotic properties.

  2. A Non-Reciprocal Autosomal Translocation 64,XX, t(4;10)(q21;p15) in an Arabian Mare with Repeated Early Embryonic Loss.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Das, P J; Avila, F; Thwaits, B K; Chowdhary, B P; Raudsepp, T

    2016-02-01

    Balanced autosomal translocations are a known cause for repeated early embryonic loss (REEL) in horses. In most cases, carriers of such translocations are phenotypically normal, but the chromosomal aberration negatively affects gametogenesis giving rise to both genetically balanced and unbalanced gametes. The latter, if involved in fertilization, result in REEL, whereas gametes with the balanced form of translocation will pass the defect into next generation. Therefore, in order to reduce the incidence of REEL, identification of translocation carriers is critical. Here, we report about a phenotypically normal 3-year-old Arabian mare that had repeated resorption of conceptuses prior to day 45 of gestation and was diagnosed with REEL. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses revealed that the mare had normal chromosome number 64,XX but carried a non-mosaic and non-reciprocal autosomal translocation t(4;10)(q21;p15). This is a novel translocation described in horses with REEL and the first such report in Arabians. Previous cases of REEL due to autosomal translocations have exclusively involved Thoroughbreds. The findings underscore the importance of routine cytogenetic screening of breeding animals.

  3. Mode of emplacement of lunar mare volcanic deposits: Graben formation due to near surface deformation accompanying dike emplacement at Rima Parry 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Wilson, L.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical analyses, together with the observed style of emplacement of lunar mare volcanic deposits, strongly suggest that mare volcanic eruptions are fed by dikes from source regions at the base of the crust or deeper in the lunar mantle. Some dikes intrude into the lower crust, while others penetrate to the surface and are the sources for voluminous outpourings of lava. Still others stall near the surface generating a near-surface extensional stress field. We have investigated the hypothesis that some lunar linear rilles (graben) are the near-surface manifestations of dikes intruded to shallow depths. For a specific example (Rima Parry 5), we show that the geometry of the faults implies a mean dike width of about 150 m and depth to the dike top of about 500 m, values consistent with other theoretical and observational data on lunar dike geometry. Localized pyroclastic deposits along Rima Parry 5 are evidence for the presence of near-surface magma, and are interpreted to be the result of degassing and pyroclastic eruption subsequent to the emplacement of the dike.

  4. Northwest Africa 773: Lunar Mare Breccia with a Shallow-formed Olivine-Cumulate Component, Very-Low-Ti Heritage, and a KREEP Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Floss, C.; Haskin, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Northwest Africa 773 is one of the more unusual lunar meteorites found in recent years because it contains a prominent clast lithology, which appears to be an olivine-rich cumulate and because it is a very-low-Ti (VLT) mare breccia with relatively high incompatible-trace-element concentrations and LREE/HREE enrichment. A lunar origin was verified by Fagan and coworkers on the basis of noble-gas contents, oxygen isotopes, and mineral compositions. Fagan et al. described two lithologies: (1) heterolithic impact breccia with a regolith component and (2) cumulus olivine gabbronorite. Here, we refer to these as the breccia (Bx) lithology and the olivine-cumulate (OC) lithology. The impact breccia components are predominantly volcanic (basaltic), and, in this context, the occurrence of the cumulus lithology is especially significant: is it related to the volcanic components or does it represent a deep-seated rock entrained by the basaltic magma as it rose to the surface? Elevated incompatible-element concentrations with more or less KREEP-like inter-element ratios and very-low-Ti concentrations distinguish both lithologies of this meteorite from Apollo mare basalts. Here, we summarize key compositional information (bulk and mineral), especially related to the OC lithology, to show that it formed at shallow depth and comes from a VLT ultramafic precursor that mixed with a KREEP-like trace-element component deep in the crust or upper mantle.

  5. Assessment for predicting parturition in mares based on prepartum temperature changes using a digital rectal thermometer and microchip transponder thermometry device.

    PubMed

    Korosue, Kenji; Murase, Harutaka; Sato, Fumio; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Endo, Yoshiro; Nambo, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the changes in body temperature before parturition using a wireless temperature monitoring device (WTMD) and to evaluate the usefulness of body temperature measurements using a digital rectal thermometer (DRT) and a microchip transponder thermometry device (MTTD) for predicting parturition in mares. The body temperatures using a WTMD at 0 hr and -1 hr were significantly different from those at the same time on Days 1-5 (P<0.01). The temperature differences between the morning of Day 0 and at -3 hr, -2 hr, -1 hr and 0 hr using the DRT and MTTD showed a significant drop compared with the temperature differences between the morning and evening of Days 1-5 (P<0.05). Furthermore, when the cutoff value of the temperature differences between the morning and other times was set to ≤0, the sensitivities of the DRT and MTTD in the evening of Day 0 and at -3 hr were 43% and 100% and 71% and 86%, respectively. The results suggested that monitoring the body temperature differences between morning and within 3 hr before the time of parturition is a valuable method for predicting parturition in mares. Conversely, this method would be more useful in predicting parturition when used in combination with other observations such as the mammary gland size and waxing of the teat ends because it has nearly a 20% probability of false-positive results prior to the day of parturition.

  6. Antibody and cellular immune responses of naïve mares to repeated vaccination with an inactivated equine herpesvirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wagner, B; Goodman, L B; Babasyan, S; Freer, H; Torsteinsdóttir, S; Svansson, V; Björnsdóttir, S; Perkins, G A

    2015-10-13

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) continues to cause severe outbreaks of abortions or myeloencephalopathy in horses despite widely used vaccination. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of frequent vaccination with an inactivated EHV vaccine on immune development in horses. Fifteen EHV-1 naïve mares were vaccinated a total of 5 times over a period of 8 months with intervals of 20, 60, 90 and 60 days between vaccine administrations. Total antibody and antibody isotype responses were evaluated with a new sensitive EHV-1 Multiplex assay to glycoprotein C (gC) and gD for up to 14 months after initial vaccination. Antibodies peaked after the first two vaccine doses and then declined despite a third administration of the vaccine. The fourth vaccine dose was given at 6 months and the gC and gD antibody titers increased again. Mixed responses with increasing gC but decreasing gD antibody values were observed after the fifth vaccination at 8 months. IgG4/7 isotype responses mimicked the total Ig antibody production to vaccination most closely. Vaccination also induced short-lasting IgG1 antibodies to gC, but not to gD. EHV-1-specific cellular immunity induced by vaccination developed slower than antibodies, was dominated by IFN-γ producing T-helper 1 (Th1) cells, and was significantly increased compared to pre-vaccination values after administration of 3 vaccine doses. Decreased IFN-γ production and reduced Th1-cell induction were also observed after the second and fourth vaccination. Overall, repeated EHV vaccine administration did not always result in increasing immunity. The adverse effects on antibody and cellular immunity that were observed here when the EHV vaccine was given in short intervals might in part explain why EHV-1 outbreaks are observed worldwide despite widely used vaccination. The findings warrant further evaluation of immune responses to EHV vaccines to optimize vaccination protocols for different vaccines and horse groups at risk.

  7. Heavy metal content in vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania) and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Roba, Carmen; Roşu, Cristina; Piştea, Ioana; Ozunu, Alexandru; Baciu, Călin

    2016-04-01

    Information about heavy metal concentrations in food products and their dietary intake are essential for assessing the health risk of local inhabitants. The main purposes of the present study were (1) to investigate the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in several vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania); (2) to assess the human health risk associated with the ingestion of contaminated vegetables and fruits by calculating the daily intake rate (DIR) and the target hazard quotient (THQ); and (3) to establish some recommendations on human diet in order to assure an improvement in food safety. The concentration order of heavy metals in the analyzed vegetable and fruit samples was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. The results showed the heavy metals are more likely to accumulate in vegetables (10.8-630.6 mg/kg dw for Zn, 1.4-196.6 mg/kg dw for Cu, 0.2-155.7 mg/kg dw for Pb, and 0.03-6.61 mg/kg dw for Cd) than in fruits (4.9-55.9 mg/kg dw for Zn, 1.9-24.7 mg/kg dw for Cu, 0.04-8.82 mg/kg dw for Pb, and 0.01-0.81 mg/kg dw for Cd). Parsley, kohlrabi, and lettuce proved to be high heavy metal accumulators. By calculating DIR and THQ, the data indicated that consumption of parsley, kohlrabi, and lettuce from the area on a regular basis may pose high potential health risks to local inhabitants, especially in the area located close to non-ferrous metallurgical plants (Romplumb SA and Cuprom SA) and close to Tăuții de Sus tailings ponds. The DIR for Zn (85.3-231.6 μg/day kg body weight) and Cu (25.0-44.6 μg/day kg body weight) were higher in rural areas, while for Pb (0.6-3.1 μg/day kg body weight) and Cd (0.22-0.82 μg/day kg body weight), the DIR were higher in urban areas, close to the non-ferrous metallurgical plants SC Romplumb SA and SC Cuprom SA. The THQ for Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd was higher than 5 for <1, <1, 12, and 6% of samples which indicates that those consumers may experience major health risks.

  8. Composition and bathymetry of Ligeia Mare, Titan, derived from its 2.2-cm wavelength thermal microwave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A. A.; Janssen, M. A.; Mastrogiuseppe, M., Sr.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Lorenz, R. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Malaska, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    In May 2013, the bottom of Ligeia Mare (LM), Titan, was detected in the active altimetry mode of the Cassini RADAR at a maximum depth of 160 m (Mastroguiseppe et al., 2014). This was the first and, so far, only detection of the floor of an extraterrestrial sea. The difference of amplitude of the surface and bottom echoes was also investigated in order to evaluate losses by absorption in the liquid layer. In this paper, we analyze the passive radiometry data that were acquired concurrently with the active data, in order to provide an independent estimate of the liquid loss tangent and to determine the dielectric constant of both the liquid and the seafloor. We then used these results to convert the radiometry mosaic of LM into a low-resolution bathymetry map. For the last 10 years, the passive radiometer incorporated in the Cassini RADAR has been observing the 2.2-cm wavelength thermal microwave emission from Titan. Its calibration has been recently refined to an unprecedented accuracy of <1% (Janssen et al., this meeting). To date, all LM has been mapped in high-spatial resolution. The 2.2-cm emissivity measured over it is directly related to the depth of the seafloor, the most emissive areas being the deepest and vice-versa. Comparing the radiometry data acquired in May 2013 to a two-layer model and using as an input the altimetry-derived depth profile, we find that the loss tangent value that best fits data is very low and only slightly smaller than that found by Mastroguiseppe et al. (2014) (3.0±1.0 10-5). This strongly suggests that the sea is composed of pure hydrocarbons with no or few suspended particles. A dielectric constant of 2.9 is inferred for the sea bottom pointing to water ice as its most likely composition rather than organic sediments. Lastly, the dielectric constant of the liquid is found to be <1.7, which, together with the low loss tangent, supports the idea of a methane-dominated composition (rather than ethane, Mitchell et al., submitted).

  9. Osservazioni di Mercurio nel 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, Massimo

    2001-03-01

    The observations of the planet Mercury collected by the UAI Planet Section during 1999 are analysed. Six observers in Italy and UK contributed 40 visual reports and 1 CCD image. Bright and dark details were detected on the planet disk as well as some evidence of a blunting of the south cusp.

  10. Osservazioni di Mercurio nel 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassati, Mario

    2006-02-01

    The report of the Mercury Program of the UAI Planet Section for 2003 is based on the analysis of 56 visual and digital images received during this year. There was reasonable agreement between details recorded by visual and digital observers, and with current albedo maps of reference. Two observers produced intensity estimates of bright and dark markings. It is confirmed that features may be seen quite easily in spite of the small disk and comparative photometry is worth attempting.

  11. Osservazioni di Mercurio nel 1998.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, M.

    2000-04-01

    The observations of Mercury collected by the UAI Planet Section during 1998 are analyzed. Eight observers in Italy and UK contributed 47 report forms, mainly concerning the March, July and December elongations of the planet. The most significative results were obtained by M. Frassati and D. Gray during the December morning apparition, their drawings showing several disk markings together with brilliant cusps.

  12. Osservazioni di Mercurio nel 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassati, Mario

    2005-02-01

    The report of the Mercury Program of the UAI Planet Section for 2002 is based on an analysis of 86 visual and digital images received during the year. These are generally of high quality and in their various representations of bright and dark features, they exemplify what is possible to observe with telescopes of modest aperture. There is an overall excellent agreement between all the observations, with 20 positive identifications of IAU named features, and three unnamed bright areas, designated "a", "b" and "c" on the M. Frassati's albedo map.

  13. Osservazioni di Mercurio nel 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassati, M.

    2011-04-01

    All East and West 2008 elongations of the planet were followed by Italian, American and German observers, both visually and by digital imaging, though with different degree of coverage. Dark and bright areas were identified on existing albedo maps. The recent Messenger flybys revealed general agreement between coarse albedo patterns and markings reported for years by Earth observers.

  14. Osservazioni di Mercurio nel 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, Massimo; Frassati, Mario

    2001-11-01

    The observations of Mercury collected by the UAI Planet Section during the year 2000 are analyzed. Eight observers in Italy and UK contributed 44 visual reports of the planet. Bright and dark details were detected on the planet disk as well as some evidence of a blunting of the southern cusp. A well defined bright spot was observed by M. Frassati on 2000 June 7 in excellent seeing conditions, just south of Solitudo Alarum. This detail possibly marks the site of a ray system.

  15. Osservazioni di Mercurio nel 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, Massimo

    2005-02-01

    The observations of Mercury collected by the UAI Planet Section during the year 2001 are analyzed. Twelve observers in Italy, UK, USA and Portugal contributed 75 visual, CCD, and photographic reports of the planet. Many albedo markings on the planet disk were detected by various contributors.

  16. Osservazioni di Mercurio nel 1996.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, M.

    1997-12-01

    The observations of Mercury received by the UAI Planet Section during 1996 are analyzed. Six observers contributed 31 report forms, about half of them concerning the favourable april eastern elongation. Some disk markings were detected and a bright spot was recorded at the northern cusp. An anomalous appearance of the terminator was observed on April 18 and 19.

  17. Osservazioni di Mercurio nel 1997.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, M.

    1999-08-01

    The observations of Mercury received by the UAI Planet Section during 1997 are analyzed. Nine observers contributed 60 report forms, mainly concerning the January, April and July elongations of the planet. Several disk markings were detected, as well as bright cusps. Visual phase estimates showed a reverse Schroeter effect.

  18. Changes in plasma melanocyte-stimulating hormone, ACTH, prolactin, GH, LH, FSH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in response to injection of sulpiride, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, or vehicle in insulin-sensitive and -insensitive mares.

    PubMed

    Valencia, N Arana; Thompson, D L; Mitcham, P B

    2013-05-01

    Six insulin-sensitive and 6 insulin-insensitive mares were used in a replicated 3 by 3 Latin square design to determine the pituitary hormonal responses (compared with vehicle) to sulpiride and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 2 compounds commonly used to diagnose pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) in horses. Mares were classified as insulin sensitive or insensitive by their previous glucose responses to direct injection of human recombinant insulin. Treatment days were February 25, 2012, and March 10 and 24, 2012. Treatments were sulpiride (racemic mixture, 0.01 mg/kg BW), TRH (0.002 mg/kg BW), and vehicle (saline, 0.01 mL/kg BW) administered intravenously. Blood samples were collected via jugular catheters at -10, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min relative to treatment injection. Plasma ACTH concentrations were variable and were not affected by treatment or insulin sensitivity category. Plasma melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) concentrations responded (P < 0.01) to both sulpiride and TRH injection and were greater (P < 0.05) in insulin-insensitive mares than in sensitive mares. Plasma prolactin concentrations responded (P < 0.01) to both sulpiride and TRH injection, and the response was greater (P < 0.05) for sulpiride; no effect of insulin sensitivity was observed. Plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations responded (P < 0.01) to TRH injection only and were higher (P < 0.05) in insulin-sensitive mares in almost all time periods. Plasma LH and FSH concentrations varied with time (P < 0.05), particularly in the first week of the experiment, but were not affected by treatment or insulin sensitivity category. Plasma GH concentrations were affected (P < 0.05) only by day of treatment. The greater MSH responses to sulpiride and TRH in insulin-insensitive mares were similar to, but not as exaggerated as, those observed by others for PPID horses. In addition, the reduced TSH concentrations in insulin-insensitive mares are

  19. MARE CLEAN 200

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this solvent-based dispersant for oil spill cleanups is not affected by salinity, and is effective on any liquid hydrocarbon. Solvent is paraffinic hydrocarbons, surfactants include sorbitan fatty acid esters and polysorbates.

  20. A strontium and neodymium isotopic study of Apollo 17 high-Ti mare basalts - Resolution of ages, evolution of magmas, and origins of source heterogeneities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paces, James B.; Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Nakai, Shun'ichi; Halliday, Alex N.

    1991-01-01

    The geochronological and compositional differences between previously identified magma types (A, B1, B2, and C) were investigated using high-precision Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic data for a set of Apollo 17 high-Ti mare basalt samples chosen to span the range of each of the magma types. These data, combined with previously reported geochemical ages, suggest that Apollo 17 volcanism was initially dominated by an eruption of Type B basalts. Data obtained from new whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopic analyses exhibited distinct differences in initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions between Types A, B1, B2, and C basalts and were found to be consistent with existing petrogenetic models.

  1. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass: Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, S.S.; Schmitt, R.A.; ); Delano, J.W. )

    1988-10-01

    Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass is one of twenty-five, high Mg, primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. Forty spherules of this glass were individually analyzed by electron microprobe and INAA for major- and trace-elements. The abundances demonstrate that this primary magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models are developed to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas as being products of hybridization involving three ancient differentiated components of a primordial lunar magma ocean: (a) early olivine {plus minus} orthopyroxene cumulates; (b) late-stage clinopyroxene + pigeonite + ilmenite + plagioclase cumulates; and (c) late-stage inter-cumulus liquid.

  2. Stress Response of Veterinary Students to Gynaecological Examination of Horse Mares - Effects of Simulator-Based and Animal-Based Training.

    PubMed

    Nagel, C; Ille, N; Erber, R; Aurich, C; Aurich, J

    2015-10-01

    Invasive procedures in animals are challenging for veterinary students who may perceive a gynaecological examination of mares as stressful. Simulator-based training may reduce stress. In this study, students received equine gynaecology training 4 times either on horses (group H; n = 14) or a teaching simulator (group SIM; n = 13). One day and 14 days thereafter, their diagnostic skills were tested on horses (skills tests 1 and 2). During the skills tests, the students' stress response was analysed by heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) parameters SDRR (standard deviation of beat-to-beat [RR] interval) and RMSSD (root-mean-square of successive RR differences), and salivary cortisol. In addition, students answered a questionnaire on their perceived stress. Sympathetic activation with increased heart rate (p < 0.001) occurred in both skills tests. In test 1, this increase was more pronounced in SIM than in H students (time × group p < 0.01). HRV decreased in students of both groups (p < 0.001). In skills test 1, this decrease was more pronounced for SIM than for H students (between groups and time × group p < 0.01 for SDRR and p < 0.05 for RMSSD). High cortisol concentrations before the skills tests may indicate an anticipatory stress response. Subjective stress perception of students was higher in skills test 1 vs 2 (p < 0.01). In skills test 2, H students felt more stressed than SIM students (p < 0.01). Self-assessment thus differed from physiological stress parameters. In conclusion, gynaecological examination of mares evoked a moderate stress response in veterinary students, which was more evident after simulator-based than animal-based training.

  3. Pulsatile gonadotropin secretion determined by frequent sampling from the intercavernous sinus of the mare: possible modulatory role of progesterone during luteolysis.

    PubMed

    Silvia, P J; Meyer, S L; Fitzgerald, B P

    1995-08-01

    Twelve horse mares were used in a repeated-measures design consisting of 3 replicates of 4 mares each. On Day 6 following ovulation, luteolysis was initiated with an i.m. injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha; Lutalyse, 10 mg). Either 12 (-12) or 36 (-36) h before PGF2 alpha (PRE), blood samples were collected simultaneously from the intercavernous sinus (ICS) and jugular (JUG) vein at 10-min intervals for an 8-h period. Pituitary capacity to exogenous GnRH (2 micrograms/kg BW, i.v.) was evaluated at the alternate time point within this period. Frequent sampling and GnRH challenge were repeated 36 (+36) or 60 (+60) h after PGF2 alpha (POST). Progesterone reached a nadir 48 h after PGF2 alpha, while the first significant elevation in estradiol (p < 0.05) was not detected until 156 h. PRE LH and FSH pulse frequencies in ICS samples were 0.6 +/- 0.3 and 1.8 +/- 0.8 pulses/8 h, respectively. Three high-amplitude, concurrent ICS pulses of LH and FSH were observed during this period. These were associated with elevated gonadotropin levels in the corresponding JUG samples. In contrast, low-amplitude ICS pulses at this time were predominately releases of FSH alone that were not detectable in the JUG. Following luteolysis, POST gonadotropin pulse frequencies in the ICS increased (p < 0.001) to 7.4 +/- 0.4 and 6.8 +/- 0.5 pulses/8 h for LH and FSH, respectively. Concurrent LH and FSH releases of relatively low amplitude characterized 87.7% of the POST ICS pulses, none of which were measurable in corresponding JUG samples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Mare and Highlands Studies of Correlated Observations of the Moon's Diurnally Modulating Epithermal Neutron Flux using LRO's LEND, Diviner and LOLA instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Several independent observational studies have identified a modulating diurnal signal in the Moon's neutron leakage flux. Those studies show that the diurnally varying neutron flux signal is of global extent, that the phase of the flux modulations are similar, that the flux minima occur at dawn and that the maxima occur at dusk. Two plausible hypotheses suggest differing explanations for the flux modulation. 1) Diurnally variant surface hydration or 2) Regolith temperature variation, which may modulate the neutron leakage flux with temperature. Studies of the high-latitudes found that for the north and south polar regions >75°, the amplitude of the neutron flux modulation was significantly greater for poleward-facing slopes (PFS) as compared to equator-facing slopes (EFS). If regolith temperature alone is driving the neutron flux modulation, then EFS should exhibit the greater diurnal amplitude, opposite the observation. More recently, studies of the neutron leakage flux in the mid-latitudes indicated that the greater amplitude of the neutron flux modulation on EFS was greater than PFS and is consistent with an interpretation that regolith temperature is modulating the neutron flux towards the northern Mare. However, between +/-(65° to 72°) latitude the ratio of the EFS to PFS neutron flux amplitudes inverts, with the PFS maintaining the greater amplitude as compared to the EFS. In this study the lunar mid to upper latitudes +/-(45° to 90°) will be studied in an effort to discriminate the source of the neutron flux modluation. Neutron, temperature and topography observations by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), Diviner Radiometer, and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimiter (LOLA) will be used to investigate the properties of the neutron leakage flux. Correlated studies of these three datasets in Mare and highlands regions will be used to determine the neutron flux characteristics of their respective EFS and PFS.

  5. Dysphagia caused by focal guttural pouch mycosis: mononeuropathy of the pharyngeal ramus of the vagal nerve in a 20-year-old pony mare

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old pony mare was presented to the equine hospital with a ten-day history of dysphagia, regurgitation and coughing. An obstruction of the oesophagus was excluded via endoscopy, but the proximal oesophagus appeared to be distended and circular contractions were missing. A guttural pouch endoscopy revealed a single, black-mottled plaque on the pharyngeal ramus of the vagus nerve in the left guttural pouch, causing a local swelling of this nerve. The pharyngeal ramus seemed to be atrophic distal to the lesion. A biopsy was taken from the lesion and histopathological findings proved the reasonable suspicion of a guttural pouch mycosis with a high degree of purulent-necrotic inflammation and invasion of fungal hyphae. There were no signs of neoplasia, such as melanoma. Daily guttural pouch irrigations with a clotrimazole emulsion (20 g Canesten® Gyn4 solved in 500 ml water), led to a good recovery of the mucosa above the nerve. Periodic endoscopic examination of the left guttural pouch showed that local thickening and distal atrophy of this pharyngeal ramus did not improve, neither did the clinical symptoms. Due to progressive weight loss, acute respiratory distress and aspiration pneumonia, the 20-year-old pony mare unfortunately had to be euthanized three weeks after discharge. This case report emphasizes the enormous importance of a single nerve for the realization of the swallowing process. The one-sided loss of function of the pharyngeal branch of the vagal nerve cannot be compensated neither by the remaining ipsilateral nerves nor by the contralateral normal functioning glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves and thus inevitably leads to severe dysphagia. PMID:23845027

  6. The mare reproductive loss syndrome and the eastern tent caterpillar: a toxicokinetic/statistical analysis with clinical, epidemiologic, and mechanistic implications.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Manu; Gantz, Marie G; Tobin, Thomas; Harkins, J Daniel; Bosken, Jeffrey M; Hughes, Charlie; Harrison, Lenn R; Bernard, William V; Richter, Dana L; Fitzgerald, Terrence D

    2003-01-01

    During 2001, central Kentucky experienced acute transient epidemics of early and late fetal losses, pericarditis, and unilateral endophthalmitis, collectively referred to as mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS). A toxicokinetic/statistical analysis of experimental and field MRLS data was conducted using accelerated failure time (AFT) analysis of abortions following administration of Eastern tent caterpillars (ETCs; 100 or 50 g/day or 100 g of irradiated caterpillars/day) to late-term pregnant mares. In addition, 2001 late-term fetal loss field data were used in the analysis. Experimental data were fitted by AFT analysis at a high (P <.0001) significance. Times to first abortion ("lag time") and abortion rates were dose dependent. Lag times decreased and abortion rates increased exponentially with dose. Calculated dose x response data curves allow interpretation of abortion data in terms of "intubated ETC equivalents." Analysis suggested that field exposure to ETCs in 2001 in central Kentucky commenced on approximately April 27, was initially equivalent to approximately 5 g of intubated ETCs/day, and increased to approximately 30 g/day at the outbreak peak. This analysis accounts for many aspects of the epidemiology, clinical presentations, and manifestations of MRLS. It allows quantitative interpretation of experimental and field MRLS data and has implications for the basic mechanisms underlying MRLS. The results support suggestions that MRLS is caused by exposure to or ingestion of ETCs. The results also show that high levels of ETC exposure produce intense, focused outbreaks of MRLS, closely linked in time and place to dispersing ETCs, as occurred in central Kentucky in 2001. With less intense exposure, lag time is longer and abortions tend to spread out over time and may occur out of phase with ETC exposure, obscuring both diagnosis of this syndrome and the role of the caterpillars.

  7. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and blood profile in mares during the last 3 months of gestation and the peripartum period.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Christina; Trenk, Lisa; Aurich, Jörg; Wulf, Manuela; Aurich, Christine

    2016-10-15

    In this study, peripartum changes in complete blood count, plasma electrolyte concentrations, blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined in pregnant Warmblood mares (n = 10). Blood was collected from Days 245 to 330 of gestation (phase A), 2Days 3 to 1 before foaling (phase B), repeatedly within 12 hours after foaling (phase C), and on Days 1 to 3 postpartum (phase D). On the same days as blood collection, blood pressure and cardiac beat-to-beat intervals were measured and time domain HRV variables were calculated. Blood pressure decreased during the past 3 months of gestation, reached a nadir at foaling and increased rapidly thereafter (P < 0.001). Heart rate increased in phase A, reached a maximum in phase B, and decreased directly after foaling (P < 0.001) while HRV increased transiently after foaling (P < 0.001). The number of polymorphonuclear granulocytes was higher during phases B, C, and D than that during phase A (P < 0.001) and total leukocyte numbers peaked in phase C (P < 0.001). Erythrocyte counts and hematocrit increased immediately after foaling with a rapid decrease thereafter (P < 0.001), while plasma total protein was highest 1 hour after foaling (P < 0.001). Sodium and chloride concentrations increased from phases A to C and decreased in phase D (P < 0.001). Calcium concentrations were lowest immediately after foaling. In conclusion, changes in cardiovascular function and a transient hemoconcentration occur in peripartum mares. These changes may favor adequate uterine perfusion.

  8. Structural uplift and ejecta thickness of lunar mare craters: New insights into the formation of complex crater rims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Tim; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    on High-resolution imagery from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera [8] we studied several complex lunar craters and precisely measured their total rim height, the amount of structural uplift and the ejecta thickness along the final crater rim. Our detailed investigation is focused on the lunar mare craters Bessel (16 km), Euler (28 km), Kepler (32 km), Harpalus (39 km) and Bürg (41 km). A mean of 70.6% of the rim height of the final crater of the five lunar craters is due to the structural uplift of the target. The rest is contributed by the ejecta thickness (29.4 %). These results are in good agreement with previous studies [1]. The final crater diameter is given as a multiple of the transient crater diameter (DT) for all investigated craters: Bessel (1.01DT), Euler (1.16DT), Kepler (1.21DT), Harpalus (1.40DT) and Bürg (1.10DT). The transient crater diameter increases with the diameter of the final crater. Currently we are assessing the mechanism of a structural uplift at larger distance to the transient cavity rim. The structural uplift of the crater rim only by dike injection and plastic deformation in the underlying target material seems unlikely at distances >1 km from the transient crater cavity. Other mechanisms, like reverse faulting, beginning in the excavation stage of crater formation, could be responsible for additional structural uplift of the crater rim. Nevertheless, our results show that structural uplift is a more dominant effect than ejecta emplacement for complex impact craters. References: [1] Sharpton V.L. (2014) JGR, 119, 1, 154-168. [2] Melosh H.J. (1989) Oxford monographs on geology and geophysics, 11, Impact cratering: a geologic process. [3] Shoemaker E. M. (1963) The Solar System, 4, 301-336. [4] Poelchau M.H. et al. (2009) JGR, 114, E01006. [5] Settle M., and Head J.W. (1977) Icarus, v. 31, p. 123. [6] McGetchin, T. R., Settle, M. and Head, J. W. 1973. EPSL 20: 226-236. [7] Pike R. J. (1974) EPSL, 23, 265-274. [8] Robinson M.S. et

  9. Lunar Science Conference, 8th, Houston, Tex., March 14-18, 1977, Proceedings. Volume 1 - The moon and the inner solar system. Volume 2 - Petrogenetic studies of mare and highland rocks. Volume 3 - Planetary and lunar surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merril, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Solar system processes are considered along with the origin and evolution of the moon, planetary geophysics, lunar basins and crustal layering, lunar magnetism, the lunar surface as a planetary probe, remote observations of lunar and planetary surfaces, earth-based measurements, integrated studies, physical properties of lunar materials, and asteroids, meteorites, and the early solar system. Attention is also given to studies of mare basalts, the kinetics of basalt crystallization, topical studies of mare basalts, highland rocks, experimental studies of highland rocks, geochemical studies of highland rocks, studies of materials of KREEP composition, a consortium study of lunar breccia 73215, topical studies on highland rocks, Venus, and regional studies of the moon. Studies of surface processes, are reported, taking into account cratering mechanics and fresh crater morphology, crater statistics and surface dating, effects of exposure and gardening, and the chemistry of surfaces.

  10. Evolved mare basalt magmatism, high Mg/Fe feldspathic crust, chondritic impactors, and the petrogenesis of Antarctic lunar breccia meteorites Meteorite Hills 01210 and Pecora Escarpment 02007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Floss, Christine; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Anand, Mahesh; Patchen, Allan D.

    2006-12-01

    Antarctic lunar meteorites Meteorite Hills 01210 and Pecora Escarpment 02007 are breccias that come from different regolith lithologies on the Moon. MET 01210 is composed predominantly of fractionated low-Ti basaltic material and is classified as an immature, predominantly basaltic glassy matrix regolith breccia. PCA 02007 is a predominantly feldspathic regolith breccia consisting of metamorphosed feldspathic, noritic, troctolitic and noritic-anorthosite clasts, agglutinate and impact-glasses, as well as a number of basaltic clasts with mare and possible non-mare affinities. The basalt clasts in MET 01210 have undergone 'Fenner' trend enrichments in iron and may also have witnessed late-stage crystallization of zircon or a zirconium-rich mineral. Some of the features of MET 01210 are similar to other basaltic lunar breccia meteorites (e.g., Northwest Africa 773; Elephant Moraine 87521/96008; Yamato 793274/981031), but it is not paired with them. The presence of metamorphic anorthositic clasts as well as agglutinates indicates a small regolith component. Similarities with previously discovered evolved (e.g., LaPaz Icefield 02205; Northwest Africa 032) and ferroan (e.g., Asuka 881757; Yamato 793169) basaltic lunar meteorites suggest a similar mare source region for MET 01210. Despite lack of evidence for pairing, PCA 02007 shares many features with other feldspathic regolith breccias (e.g., Yamato 791197, Queen Alexandra Range 94281), including a high Mg/Fe whole-rock composition, glass spherules, agglutinate fragments and a diverse clast inventory spanning the range of ferroan anorthosite and high magnesium suite rocks. Some of the basalt fragments in this sample are fractionated and have an igneous origin. However, the majority of the basalt fragments are impact melt clasts. PCA 02007 supports previous studies of feldspathic lunar meteorites that have suggested an aluminous crust for the Moon, with compositions more similar to magnesium granulite breccias than

  11. Geologic characteristics of the Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 and Chang'E-3/Yutu landing sites, Northwest Mare Imbrium of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Wu, Yunzhao; Xiao, Long

    2015-11-01

    We compared and assessed the results of measurements and observations by the Lunokhod 1 and Yutu rovers, both of which explored the northwestern part of Mare Imbrium. Both sites are within the distinctive Eratosthenian-aged lava flow geologic unit and our comparisons showed that the geologies of these exploration sites are very similar. As in the majority of other areas of the Moon, the dominant landforms in these sites are small impact craters, having various degrees of morphologic prominence and states of preservation, and rock fragments, mostly associated with the rims and interiors of fresh craters. The shape and the degree of preservation of the observed rock fragments in these two sites are similar. In both sites sporadic rock fragments were observed whose morphologies suggest that their source rocks had columnar jointing. Localization of these specific rocks on the rims of 450-470 m in diameter craters implies that the source rocks are at depths of 40-50 m. Regolith in the study areas is typically a few meters thick, but locally can be much thicker. The ground penetrating radar of the Yutu rover revealed the multilayer regolith structure, which is determined by superposition of crater ejecta; with some local variations, this type of the regolith stratigraphy should be typical of the majority of lunar mare sites. The physico-mechanical properties of the regolith in these two sites appear to be rather similar: the bearing capacity ranges from 0.04 to 1.44 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.45 kg/cm2, and the shear strength ranges from 0.02 to 0.1 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.05 kg/cm2. Both these factors decrease by a factor of 3-4 with an increase of surface slope from ∼2 to 12°. The chemical composition of surface materials determined by the rover instruments at these two sites differ from those derived from the remote sensing data for the Eratosthenian-aged basalts on which the two sites are located. This could be partly due to low measurement accuracies

  12. A 19 kDa protein secreted by the endometrium of the mare is a novel member of the lipocalin family.

    PubMed Central

    Crossett, B; Allen, W R; Stewart, F

    1996-01-01

    Large quantities of an unusual 19 kDa protein (p19) are secreted into the lumen of the uterus of the mare (Equus caballus) during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy. p19 associates strongly with the acellular capsule that surrounds the young horse conceptus and is believed to be important in maintaining pregnancy. Here we report the complete cDNA sequence encoding p19, its expression patterns in horse tissues and a Southern blot analysis of the gene in horse DNA. The predicted amino acid sequence of the p19 cDNA demonstrated a signal peptide of 18 residues and a mature protein of 162 residues, giving a predicted molecular mass of 18.8 kDa for the secreted protein. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence showed that p19 belongs to the lipocalin family of proteins, which are classified on the basis of three conserved amino acid sequence motifs and an eight-stranded anti-parallel beta-barrel conformation. Overall, p19 was most similar to the mouse major urinary protein (MUP) lipocalins (30-34% identity). Secondary structural predictions and structural modelling using the MUP 1 crystal structure coordinates gave convincing evidence that the three-dimensional structure of p19 closely resembles that of the lipocalins. However, p19 has several unusual substitutions in one of the three conserved lipocalin motifs and therefore seems to be a novel member of the family. Lipocalins perform many different functions but most bind small hydrophobic molecules and the majority act as transport proteins. The function of p19 might therefore be as a carrier of a maternal factor needed to sustain the developing embryo during pregnancy, or it could be incorporated into the embryonic capsule and perform some other function. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that expression of p19 is confined to the endometrial lining of the mare's uterus, and hybridization studies in situ showed that the mRNA for p19 is localized to the glandular and luminal epithelia of the endometrium. A

  13. Growth rate of ovulatory follicles during the first ovulatory oestrus (after seasonal anoestrus) and subsequent oestrous period in Irish Draught mares.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, John R; Cuervo-Arango, Juan

    2013-03-12

    It is believed that during the spring transition, the developing follicle tends to grow more slowly, persist longer and grow to a larger diameter prior to ovulation than at subsequent oestrus periods. A general suspicion, that the first ovulation of the year is less fertile than subsequent ovulations could be explained by a slower growth rate of the ovulatory follicle during transition with the consequent production of a subfertile oocyte. By detailed serial examination of the same group of Irish Draught mares over three winter/spring periods, no significant difference was found in either growth rate or pre-ovulatory diameter when compared with subsequent ovulations. Mean growth rates over the ten days prior to ovulation were 2.20 mm/day (range 1.18 to 3.64) and 2.19 mm/day (range 1.25 to 3.41) for first and subsequent ovulations respectively. Mean maximum pre-ovulatory diameters were 44.7 mm (range 35 to 59) and 43.5 mm (range 31 to 57.5) for first and subsequent ovulations respectively. The impression gained by practitioners that the first follicle develops more slowly during the transition to the first ovulation of the season may be due to less frequent examinations and consequently a failure to observe and record that follicles may grow and then regress during this period. The largest follicle observed a few days previously is not necessarily the same large follicle found at a later examination.

  14. Changes in Genetic Structure of Posidonia oceanica at Monterosso al Mare (Ligurian Sea) and Its Resilience Over a Decade (1998-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Carla; Cupido, Roberta; Lombardi, Chiara; Belmonte, Alessandro; Peirano, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Genetic differences in the Posidonia oceanica meadow of Monterosso al Mare (NW Mediterranean, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) "Cinque Terre") were compared in three stations, at an increasing distance from a source of impact (beach nourishment) in the recent decade. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed a higher genetic variability (>20 %) in the area directly subjected to the stress, increasing with time. Clone integration, confirmed by phenotypic analysis, showed increases both in shoot density and leaf length connected to genetic differences observed in DNA fingerprints of new shoots. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 45 % individual differences within populations and 54 % among the populations. The fixation index ( F ST = 0.54), of the genetic differentiation, showed a marked difference between the populations at different temporal scales. Over a decade AMOVA indicated genetic variations from 28 % (1998) to 54 % (2009). These results make it clear that in the P. oceanica population examined the environment had, in ten years, selected those clones which were more resistant to the anthropogenic impact, despite being subjected to the effects of the resuspension of fine sediments. These findings could help to explain both the survival of the regressed Mediterranean P. oceanica meadows in areas subjected to moderate impacts and the extreme variability in success of revegetation experiments. Management of the ecological disturbance here described indicates also the timescale in population response to stress and its increased resilience in MPAs.

  15. Zirconium, hafnium, and rare earth element partition coefficients for ilmenite and other minerals in high-Ti lunar mare basalts - An experimental study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, G.; Wagstaff, J.; Yang, S.-R.

    1986-01-01

    Partition coefficients were determined for Gd, Lu, Hf and Zr among ilmenite, armalcolite, and synthetic high-Ti mare basaltic melts at temperatures from 1122 deg to 1150 deg, and at oxygen fugacities of IW x 10 exp 0.5, by in situ analysis with an electron microprobe, using samples doped to present concentration levels. Coefficients for Zr were also measured for samples containing 600-1600 ppm Zr using this microprobe. In addition, coefficients were determined for Hf and Zr between chromian ulvospinel and melt, for Hf between pigeonite and melt, and for Lu between olivine and melt by microprobe analysis of samples doped to present levels. Values measured using the microprobe were in agreement with the values measured by analyzing mineral separates from the same run products by isotope dilution. Coefficient values for ilmenite are less than 0.01 for the LREE, are around 0.1 for the HREE, and are several times greater than this for Zr and Hf.

  16. Growth rate of ovulatory follicles during the first ovulatory oestrus (after seasonal anoestrus) and subsequent oestrous period in Irish Draught mares

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that during the spring transition, the developing follicle tends to grow more slowly, persist longer and grow to a larger diameter prior to ovulation than at subsequent oestrus periods. A general suspicion, that the first ovulation of the year is less fertile than subsequent ovulations could be explained by a slower growth rate of the ovulatory follicle during transition with the consequent production of a subfertile oocyte. By detailed serial examination of the same group of Irish Draught mares over three winter/spring periods, no significant difference was found in either growth rate or pre-ovulatory diameter when compared with subsequent ovulations. Mean growth rates over the ten days prior to ovulation were 2.20 mm/day (range 1.18 to 3.64) and 2.19 mm/day (range 1.25 to 3.41) for first and subsequent ovulations respectively. Mean maximum pre-ovulatory diameters were 44.7 mm (range 35 to 59) and 43.5 mm (range 31 to 57.5) for first and subsequent ovulations respectively. The impression gained by practitioners that the first follicle develops more slowly during the transition to the first ovulation of the season may be due to less frequent examinations and consequently a failure to observe and record that follicles may grow and then regress during this period. The largest follicle observed a few days previously is not necessarily the same large follicle found at a later examination. PMID:23497443

  17. Separation and characterization of mares' milk alpha(s1)-, beta-, kappa-caseins, gamma-casein-like, and proteose peptone component 5-like peptides.

    PubMed

    Egito, A S; Miclo, L; López, C; Adam, A; Girardet, J M; Gaillard, J L

    2002-04-01

    The equine alpha(s1)- and beta-caseins (CN) were purified by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and by reversed-phase HPLC. The alpha(s1)-, beta-, and kappa-CN were characterized either by monodimensional urea-PAGE or sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)-PAGE or by bidimensional electrophoresis. Kappa-casein was characterized after electrophoresis by glycoprotein-specific staining. To identify alpha(s1)-CN without ambiguity, internal sequences were determined after trypsin or chymosin digestion of purified alpha(s1)-CN. These sequences, that could be estimated to correspond to 62% of the full protein, presented strong identities with regions of alpha(s1)-CN primary structures of other species. In particular, 51, 48, 43, and 40% identities were obtained with corresponding regions of sow, dromedary, cow, and human alpha(s1)-CN, respectively. On the other hand, trace amounts of equine gamma-CN-like and proteose peptone component 5-like peptides were found in the whole CN. They were identified by microsequencing and corresponded to beta-CN peptides generated by plasmin action on the whole CN. The equine alpha(s1), beta-, and kappa-CN were separated by bidimensional electrophoresis in numerous isoelectric variants with apparent isoelectric points distributed between pH 4.4 to 6.3, 4.4 to 5.9, and 3.5 to 5.5, respectively. The beta- and kappa-CN displayed a more acidic character in the mare than in the cow.

  18. Expression of receptors for ovarian steroids and prostaglandin E2 in the endometrium and myometrium of mares during estrus, diestrus and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silva, E S M; Scoggin, K E; Canisso, I F; Troedsson, M H T; Squires, E L; Ball, B A

    2014-12-30

    myometrium during early pregnancy in mares.

  19. 11- years of temporal evolution of the 'Mare à Poule d'Eau' landslide on La Reunion island using optical SPOT5 images correlation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LE Bivic, R.; Delacourt, C.; Allemand, P.; Quiquerez, A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to measure and understand the relationship between water and landslides in tropical environment we studied the correlation between annual rainfall and 'Mare à Poule d'Eau'landslide located in the Salazie erosion basin in the Island of La Reunion. This island is characterized by annual cumulative rainfall locally exceeding 7m. Among the three major techniques used to measure landslide displacement (GNSS measurements, InSAR techniques and image correlation), we chose correlation of SPOT5 images acquired between 2002 and 2014 which gives a synoptic view of landslide displacements on a period of several months to years combined with GNSS measurements. The combination of these two techniques avoids the smoothing of the temporal signal produced by image correlation only and preserves a synoptic view of the landslide displacement. We used 10 panchromatic SPOT 5 images acquired with similar incidence angles and ortho-rectified by CNES (French spatial agency) at a spatial resolution of 2.5m. The dates of these images are 02/2002, 07/2003, 05/2004, 06/2005, 06/2006, 05/2008, 02/2010, 08/2012, 01/2014, 05/2014. The correlation, realized with a precision of 0.1pixel, was realized using MicMac open source software (IGN-French geographical institute). Every pixel was correlated with a correlation window of 9 px. The GNSS data were acquired by the BRGM since 2003 at a daily period. The rainfall data have been acquired by Meteo France on 7 stations located among the Salazie erosion basin. The first results of this study shows that the maximum displacement of the landslide measured by image correlation is 1.70 m.y-1 and also that there is a large spatial variability among the landslide. These values match well with GNSS data. There is not a good correlation between averaged yearly rainfall values and landslide displacement; however there is a significant correlation between intense meteorological events and displacement. In 2007, the tropical cyclone GAMEDE (02

  20. Mare Imbrium Regolith and Rock Information Retrieved from Imaging Spectrometer and Panorama Cameras onboard the Yutu Rover of Chang'E 3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Jin, Weidong; Yuan, Ye; Yang, Yazhou; Wang, Ziwei; Xiao, Long

    2014-11-01

    The Chang’E 3 mission successfully landed on the Mare Imbrium region on December 14, 2013 and deployed the Yutu Rover to roam near the Chang’E A Crater. Although the rover roamed just over 100 meters before its premature failure, its onboard visible and near-infrared (VisNIR) imaging spectrometer was able to collect 4 spectra at 4 different sites which are the first in-situ lunar surface spectra ever taken. The onboard panorama cameras (PCAM) also photographed large amount of surface features since the Apollo era and some images have clearly shown the lunar opposition effect. The VisNIR spectrometer spans the wavelength from 450 to 2395 nm with a step of 5 nm. By performing radiometric and photometric calibrations, the absolute reflectance are obtained and it is found that the in-situ spectra are much bighter than that of the same area measured by the M3 instrument. The in-situ spectra also have a much deeper 1 μm absorption feature than that of the M3 spectra measured remotely. We conjecture that such differences are caused by the fact that the lander’s descent engines must have blown away the top-most layers which are much more mature than the exposed underlying layers. A comparison of the continuum-removed in-situ spectra with that of the mineral spectral library gives the concentrations of major lunar rock-forming minerals including olivine, pyroxenes and plagioclase at these 4 different sites. The phase curve retrieved from the PCAM shows a strong opposition surge below 10-deg phase angle and the phase reddening effect. We attempt to retrieve the regolith physical properties using both the Hapke and Shkuratov photometric models. At a close distance the PCAM also captured high resolution images of a 4-meter across boulder at the edge of the Chang’E A Crater. Centimeter-sized bright clasts on its surface may indicate its basaltic nature. By comparing the VisNIR spectra of its nearby regoliths with that of the Apollo samples, we believe this boulder

  1. The impact of salt tectonics on supra-salt (Lago Mare?) deposits and on the structural evolution of the Cyprus-Eratosthenes collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, Sönke; Hübscher, Christian; Ehrhardt, Axel

    2015-04-01

    Averagely 1.5 km thick Messinian evaporites laterally continue from the Levant Basin, easternmost Mediterranean Sea, into the collision zone between Cyprus and Eratosthenes Seamount where incipient continent-continent-collision is believed to occur. In this study, the impact of Messinian evaporites on the structural evolution of the collision zone is investigated for the first time based on a comprehensive set of seismic reflection profiles. Results show that the collision zone may be subdivided into an eastern and a western domain. In the eastern part, bordered by Eratosthenes Seamount and the Hecataeus Rise, compressionally thickened autochthonous salt is observed. Sub- and supra-salt deposits within this area appear to be in the stage of active accretion. Further west, between Cyprus and Eratosthenes Seamount strongly deformed allochthonous salt has evidently started to advance across sediments of post-Messinian age. In this domain, previously active sediment accretion at the Cyprus margin has now become inactive and shortening is largely accommodated at the leading edge of the allochthonous salt sheet. Such observations bear important implications for the structural interrelation between salt tectonics and the evolution of a young collision zone. On top of highly deformed mobile Messinian evaporites, up to 700 m thick late Messinian supra-salt deposits are mapped within the western part of the Cyprus - Eratosthenes collision zone. Their uppermost 200 m were drilled in the course of ODP Leg 160 (Site 968) and interpreted as Lago Mare sediments, deposited during the final stage of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Robertson, 1998). These sediments occupy small sub-basins flanked by salt diapirs, indicating a salt-tectonic control on late Messinian sediment deposition. Distribution of these sediments may have further been controlled by sea-level, inferred from rapid eastward thinning and pinchout of Messinian supra-salt deposits towards the Levant Basin

  2. Effect of GnRH and hCG on progesterone concentration and ovarian and luteal blood flow in diestrous mares.

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A; Ginther, O J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of reproductive hormones (GnRH, hCG, LH and progesterone) on the regulation of corpus luteum (CL) and ovarian blood flow. Diestrous mares received a single treatment of saline, 100μg gonadorelin (GnRH), or 1500IU hCG 10days after ovulation. Plasma LH and progesterone concentrations, resistance index (RI) for ovarian artery blood-flow, and percentage of corpus luteum (CL) with color-Doppler signals of blood flow were determined immediately before treatment (hour 0) and at hours 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. In the GnRH group, LH increased (P<0.0001) between hours 0 and 0.25 and then progressively decreased; concentration of LH was not affected in the saline and hCG groups. Progesterone concentration was not different among groups. In the GnRH group, RI tended (P<0.07) to decrease between hours 0 and 1.5 and increased (P<0.01) between hours 1.5 and 4. In the hCG group, two transient RI decreases (P<0.05) occurred before hour 2. The percentage change from hour 0 in the percentage of CL with blood-flow signals was greater at hour 0.5 in the GnRH group than in the saline group and was intermediate in the hCG group. The similarity among groups in progesterone concentration indicated that changes in progesterone were not involved in the GnRH and hCG stimulation of ovarian vascular perfusion. Effects of treatment might have been mediated through LH; however, since hCG biological activity is primarily LH-like, the differences in timing and degree of ovarian and luteal blood flow changes after GnRH or hCG administration in the present study suggest that GnRH might have a direct effect on ovarian blood vessels and vascular control.

  3. Lead isotope systematics of mare basalt 75075

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Tilton, G. R.; Mattinson, J. M.; Vidal, P.

    1978-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and isotopic lead data are reported for two bulk samples and separated pyroxene, ilmenite and plagioclase from basalt 75075. In a concordia diagram the whole rock, ilmenite and four pyroxene samples define a chord intersecting the concordia curve at approximately 4.25 and 2.8 AE. Three plagioclase samples plot distinctly off the chord. The crystallization age of 75075 is accurately determined at 3.74 AE by Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and K-Ar measurements from other laboratories. It is not possible to adjust the isotopic composition of initial lead so as to reconcile the U-Pb data with a crystallization age of 3.74 AE. The data therefore indicate some type of post-crystallization disturbance of the U-Pb system that is not detected by the other systems. The 75075 data are one of the few examples of this type of age pattern found on the moon. If the disturbance was a single event, it probably occurred around 2.8 AE ago, the time indicated by the pyroxene, whole rock and ilmenite data.

  4. Moon - 'Ghost' craters formed during Mare filling.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Wood, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses formation of 'pathological' cases of crater morphology due to interaction of craters with molten lavas. Terrestrial observations of such a process are discussed. In lunar maria, a number of small impact craters (D less than 10 km) may have been covered by thin layers of fluid lavas, or formed in molten lava. Some specific lunar examples are discussed, including unusual shallow rings resembling experimental craters deformed by isostatic filling.

  5. Il Sessismo Linguistico nel Messagio Pubblicitario (Language Sexism in Commercials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Antoni, Francesca

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the differences in production and comprehension of sexist stereotypes used in TV commercials. Compares metaphor choice and figures of speech and some syntactic markers and impact of such language on male and female viewers. (LET)

  6. Gli Italiani nel Mondo: Italy's Workers around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabaccia, Donna

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the migration of Italians who left Italy to search for work and migrated in multiple directions around the world forming a global network of social connections to their homeland. Explains that Italian men migrated much more often than women to work in construction, mining, industry, and on plantations or do other forms of agriculture.…

  7. Mercury Observations 2009. (Italian Title: Osservazioni di Mercurio nel 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassati, M.

    2011-10-01

    Visual observations and digital images were received dealing with all, but one, morning and evening apparitions of Mercury in 2009, though coverage was unequal. Dark and bright albedo features reported in maps were recognized and two visual observers took estimates of their relative intensity. Both visual scrutiny and digital imaging still proved useful to record markings that show a correlation with high-resolution mapping now being undertaken by the Messenger space probe.

  8. Riferimenti, simboli e numerologia astronomica nel Canzoniere di Petrarca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colona, Paolo

    The astronomical knowledge of Petrarch and his use of astronomical references in the renowned Canzoniere are examined with a commented anthology of the most relevant astronomical verses in that work. We discuss the identification of the first two verses of the poetry "Solo et pensoso" as a precise description of the astrological type of Saturn. The repeated presence of an ancient astronomical symbol such as the division of the circle in 12 parts is highlighted. The coded presence in the Canzoniere of the most relevant astronomical numbers 7, 12 and 365 is also discovered and shown.

  9. Risk Behaviors for Varying Categories of Disability in NELS:88

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollar, David

    2005-01-01

    A large body of research shows that youth with disabilities, who comprise about 13% of the country's school-aged population, report comparable to higher incidence rates of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use than their peers. Furthermore, youth with disabilities who reported ATOD use or who engaged in binge drinking had significantly more…

  10. Bioclastic turbiditic reservoirs: San Giorgio, Santa Maria Mare, Sarago Mare fields (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Heritier, F.E.; Soudet, H.; Richert, J.

    1987-05-01

    These three fields and the associated Mormora discovery are located along the coastline of the central Adriatic Sea or on the very proximate shelf south of Ancona. Geologically they belong to the Marches basin. These fields are situated on highly faulted northwest-trending anticlines which are related to a north-south shear zone under the disharmonic cover of late Miocene and early Pliocene shales. Oil and gas are contained in the Scaglia limestone formation of Late Cretaceous to Paleocene age whose reservoirs consist of high-energy bioclastic grainstones interbedded in open marine chalk deposits, and spread and deposited by turbiditic currents. The diagenesis of these bioclastic grainstones is closely related to the thickness and composition of the different beds and is chiefly located at the top and bottom of them. It is also related to the fluid content of the reservoir. Fracturing of these beds under the tectonic stresses is linked to the reservoir's characteristics and to the extension of consolidated facies by diagenesis. This fracturing is responsible for the production behavior of the different wells. Source rocks are the evaporitic shales of upper Miocene age, mature in the deeper part of the Marches basin under the upper Pliocene olistostromes.

  11. The depths of the mare basalt source region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical data for the parental magmas of the nine known VLT Array I pyroclastic glasses show statistically significant trends due to olivine (approximately Fo83) control during their formation by partial melting. The compositional scatter is largely due to compositional variations in the source regions on the + or - 1 percent level. This compositional scatter is small when one considers that the scale of the source region is up to 1000 km, but is sufficient to make positive identification of the residual phase(s) in the source regions difficult. Nevertheless, when the effects of the scatter are properly modeled, it is relatively clear that olivine is the residual phase in the source region. Hence these data and additional constraints indicate that the source regions are at shallow depths in the moon.

  12. Vulvar epithelioid hemangiosarcoma with solar elastosis in a mare.

    PubMed

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Baia, Petrisor; Wakamatsu, Nobuko

    2011-09-01

    A 15-year-old female gray Appaloosa horse was presented with history of a mass over the right dorsal commissure of vulva for the past 7 months. Based on histopathological examination, and positive staining with factor VIII-related antigen, vimentin, and Verhoeff-van Gieson stain, the vulvar mass was diagnosed as hemangiosarcoma with marked solar elastosis.

  13. Lead isotope systematics of three Apollo 17 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, G. R.; Chen, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with new and more accurate determinations of uranium, thorium, and isotopic lead data for five bulk samples and separate pyroxene, ilmenite, and plagioclase from basalt 71055. In a concordia diagram, the samples suggest a postcrystallization disturbance of the U-Pb systems of the rock. There is no compelling reason, from U-Pb data, to believe that the moon is younger than 4.55 AE.

  14. Osler usque ad mare: the SS William Osler

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, C S; Fransiszyn, M

    1999-01-01

    William Osler's connections with the sea included a strong family history of seafaring, his own transatlantic crossings (of which there were at least 32) and the occasional use of nautical imagery in his inspirational writings. An unusual Oslerian connection with the sea emerged after his death in the form of a World War II Liberty ship. Through the SS William Osler and its sister ships, Osler was symbolically reunited with colleagues associated with the early days of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The William Osler circumnavigated the globe in 1943 without engaging the enemy. She was then converted into an army hospital ship and renamed the USHS Wisteria. PMID:10530306

  15. Acute pancreatitis following granulosa cell tumor removal in a mare

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Diego E.; Radtke, Catherine L.; Russell, Lauren A.; Lopez, Alfonso; Wichtel, Maureen W.

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare disease in horses and is often associated with gastrointestinal disorders. Accurate diagnosis is challenging due to the presence of nonspecific clinical signs. This case represents the first documentation of acute pancreatitis in a horse following surgery of the reproductive tract. PMID:26483579

  16. Cassini sheds light on Titan's second largest lake, Ligeia Mare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is known for its dense, planet-like atmosphere and large lakes most likely made of methane and ethane. It has been suggested that Titan's atmosphere and surface are a model of early Earth. Since the early 2000s, NASA's Cassini space probe has been unlocking secrets of the distant moon.

  17. Titan Submarine: Exploring the Depths of Kraken Mare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; Colozza, Anthony; Oleson, Steven; Landis, Geoff; Schmitz, Paul; Lorenz, Ralph; Paul, Michael; Walsh, Justin

    2015-01-01

    To explore the depths of the hydrocarbon rich seas on the Saturn moon Titan, a conceptual design of an unmanned submarine concept was recently developed for a Phase I NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) study. Data from Cassini Huygens indicates that the Titan polar environment sustains stable seas of variable concentrations of ethane, methane, and nitrogen, with a surface temperature around 93K. To meet science exploration objectives, the submarine must operate autonomously, study atmosphere sea exchange, interact with the seabed at pressures up to 10 atm, traverse large distances with limited energy, hover at the surface and at any depth within the lake, and be capable of tolerating multiple different concentration levels of hydrocarbons. Therefore Titan presents many cryogenic design challenges. This paper presents the trade studies and preliminary design of the power, thermal, and ballast control subsystems for the Saturn Titan submarine.

  18. The elder's child of Mare Island, New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Mouchenik, Yoram

    2007-03-01

    On Maré Island in New Caledonia ;the elder's child' is an etiologic category with its own specific features. This article describes the work of a clinical psychologist with the family of a polyhandicapped child described as 'the elder's child.' Psychological and ethnographic perspectives provide complementary approaches to investigating cultural meanings, social organization and cosmogony, which all influence clinical interaction with the family and provides tools for developing a therapeutic alliance.

  19. Irregular Mare Patches (IMPs): 100 Ma or 3 Ga?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stopar, Julie; Robinson, Mark Southwick; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.; Giguere, Thomas; Lawrence, Samuel J.; Ostrach, Lillian Rose; Clegg-Watkins, Ryan N.

    2016-01-01

    IMPs exhibit a perplexing combination of characteristics that are consistent with either an approximately 100 Ma or 3 Ga formation. Dozens of small-area IMPs have crisp morphologies and crater size-frequency distributions (SFDs) that denote relatively recent geologic activity (less than 100 Ma); however, the apparently well-developed regolith on portions of the IMPs are in conflict with such a young age [1]. To test possible formation hypotheses (e.g., [1-5]), which range from ancient volcanism to contemporary outgassing, we examined IMP morphology at the meter-scale with LROC NAC images and derived elevation models. We focused on the largest IMPs (Ina, Sosigenes, Cauchy, Maskelyne, and Nubium), where contacts between deposits are best developed. Most of our observations are consistent with multiple generations of inflation and breakouts (or squeeze-ups) of basaltic lavas that were affected by local slopes. Some of the extrusions coalesced into larger mounds or filled pre-existing craters. We did not observe evidence of large-scale void space (e.g., fissures, fractures, linear depressions, or pits) within or beneath the mounds or rougher deposits (e.g., [5]). But, small-scale voids may be signified by isolated pitted textures. We also did not detect evidence of the cooling fractures or lava plates expected in young lava flows and observed in lunar impact melt deposits. The smooth texture of the mounds is enigmatic. Block-less craters suggest at least 5 m of friable or poorly-cohesive material (such as regolith), yet mound margins exhibit slopes greater than 30 deg requiring significant material strength. Blocks are not common on the mounds, but are sometimes excavated by impacts (usually excavated from beneath the mounds). The uneven deposits are equally enigmatic and texturally varied (blocky, pitted, and crenulated). They are deficient in superposed craters compared to the mounds. If the mounds are indeed of similar age to the rougher units, then their different superposed crater morphologies and SFDs need to be explained by factors other than their ages. Any mounds originally composed of friable surface materials would evolve differently from more coherent deposits (e.g., [6-7]).

  20. Determinants of the Availability of Opportunities for Gifted Children: Evidence from NELS '88

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.; Friedman-Nimz, Reva

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study is to present a brief, statistically rigorous assessment of the determinants of the availability of gifted and talented programming both across and within states. Of particular interest is whether gifted and talented program opportunities are randomly distributed across students by their socioeconomic status and race across…