Science.gov

Sample records for mare nel tardo

  1. MARES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-30

    View of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES),in the Columbus Module (COL1F3). MARES will carry out research on musculoskeletal,bio-mechanical,and neuromuscular human physiology. Photo was taken during Expedition 34.

  2. MARES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-01

    iss052e024957 (Aug. 1, 2017) --- Astronaut Paolo Nespoli ingressed the Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System (MARES) chair in the Columbus module and adjusted pads and constraints for the Sarcolab-3 ankle protocol. The data collected for Sarcolab-3 will be compared to pre and postflight measurements to assess the impact of hypothesized microgravity induced muscle loss.

  3. Titan Kraken Mare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-28

    NASA Cassini spacecraft looks toward Saturn largest moon, Titan, and spies the huge Kraken Mare in the moon north. Kraken Mare, a large sea of liquid hydrocarbons, is visible as a dark area near the top of the image.

  4. MARES Payload Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-16

    ISS024-E-014934 (16 Sept. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Shannon Walker, Expedition 24 flight engineer, works with Muscle Atrophy Resistive Exercise System (MARES) hardware during installation of MARES payload in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  5. MARES Payload Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-16

    ISS024-E-014979 (17 Sept. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Doug Wheelock, Expedition 24 flight engineer, works with Muscle Atrophy Resistive Exercise System (MARES) hardware during installation of MARES payload in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  6. MARES Payload Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-16

    ISS024-E-014956 (16 Sept. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Shannon Walker, Expedition 24 flight engineer, works with Muscle Atrophy Resistive Exercise System (MARES) hardware during installation of MARES payload in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  7. MARES Payload Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-16

    ISS024-E-014973 (17 Sept. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Doug Wheelock, Expedition 24 flight engineer, works with Muscle Atrophy Resistive Exercise System (MARES) hardware during installation of MARES payload in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  8. MARES Payload Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-16

    ISS024-E-014952 (16 Sept. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Doug Wheelock, Expedition 24 flight engineer, works with Muscle Atrophy Resistive Exercise System (MARES) hardware during installation of MARES payload in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  9. MARES Payload Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-16

    ISS024-E-014930 (16 Sept. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Doug Wheelock, Expedition 24 flight engineer, works with Muscle Atrophy Resistive Exercise System (MARES) hardware during installation of MARES payload in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  10. MARES Payload Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-16

    ISS024-E-014981 (17 Sept. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Shannon Walker, Expedition 24 flight engineer, works with Muscle Atrophy Resistive Exercise System (MARES) hardware during installation of MARES payload in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  11. NASA Electronic Library System (NELS) optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pribyl, William L.

    1993-01-01

    This is a compilation of NELS (NASA Electronic Library System) Optimization progress/problem, interim, and final reports for all phases. The NELS database was examined, particularly in the memory, disk contention, and CPU, to discover bottlenecks. Methods to increase the speed of NELS code were investigated. The tasks included restructuring the existing code to interact with others more effectively. An error reporting code to help detect and remove bugs in the NELS was added. Report writing tools were recommended to integrate with the ASV3 system. The Oracle database management system and tools were to be installed on a Sun workstation, intended for demonstration purposes.

  12. Uterus unicornis in two mares.

    PubMed

    Brown, J A; Hodder, A D J; Benak, J; Liu, I K M; Ball, B A

    2007-09-01

    Two American Paint Horses, a 3-year-old nulliparous mare and a 7-year-old primiparous mare, presented for recent infertility and a pre-breeding examination, respectively. Examination of the internal reproductive tract of both mares using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography revealed the presence of the cervix, uterine body, left uterine horn and bilateral ovaries. The right uterine horn could neither be palpated nor imaged. The clinical diagnosis of uterus unicornis in one mare was confirmed at necropsy, which revealed combined aplasia of the right uterine horn and oviduct.

  13. Despeckling Ligea Mare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-12

    Presented here are side-by-side comparisons of a traditional Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) view and one made using a new technique for handling electronic noise that results in clearer views of Titan's surface. The technique, called despeckling, produces images that can be easier for researchers to interpret. The view is a mosaic of SAR swaths over Ligeia Mare, one of the large hydrocarbons seas on Titan. In particular, despeckling improves the visibility of channels flowing down to the sea. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19052

  14. Dear Nel: Opening the Circles of Care (Letters to Nel Noddings)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This collection is a moving tribute to Nel Noddings, a fascinating and influential scholar who has contributed greatly to numerous fields, including education, feminism, ethics, and the study of social justice and equity. "Dear Nel: Opening the Circles of Care" presents contributions from renowned teachers, educators, and activists, such as David…

  15. Dear Nel: Opening the Circles of Care (Letters to Nel Noddings)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This collection is a moving tribute to Nel Noddings, a fascinating and influential scholar who has contributed greatly to numerous fields, including education, feminism, ethics, and the study of social justice and equity. "Dear Nel: Opening the Circles of Care" presents contributions from renowned teachers, educators, and activists, such as David…

  16. MC-22 Mare Tyrrhenum Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-22 quadrangle, Mare Tyrrhenum region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle. The central part is marked by a large shield volcano, Tyrrhena Patera, and associated ridged plains of Hesperia Planum that probably are made up of basaltic lava flows. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -135 to -90 degrees.

  17. Helium resources of Mare Tranquillitatis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Eugene N.

    Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, Univ. of Wisc., Madison, Wisc. Mare Tranquillitatis, about 300000 sq km in area, is currently the most promising lunar source of He-3 for fueling fusion power plants on Earth. About 60 pct. of the mare regolith consists of particles 100 microns or less in diameter. Helium and other gases derived from the solar wind are concentrated in the fine size fractions. Studies of very small craters indicate that the average regolith exceeds 3 m in areas away from larger craters and other mare features not amenable to mining. There is no evidence of decrease of helium content of regolith and depth. Helium is known to be enriched in regoliths that are high in TiO2 content. Remote sensing indicates that about 90 pct. of Mare Tranquillitatis is covered by regolith ranging from about 6 to +7.5 pct. TiO2; inferred He contents range from 20 to at least 45 wppm total helium (7 to 18 wppb He-3). Detailed studies of craters and inferred ejecta halos displayed on high resolution photographs of the Apollo 11 and Ranger 8 areas suggest that as much as 50 pct. of the mare regolith may be physically minable, on average, with appropriate mining equipment. Assuming that the average thickness of regolith is 3 m, and that 50 pct. of the mare area is minable, the He-3 content of minable regolith containing 20 to 45 wppm total He is estimated at about 94,000 tonnes.

  18. Mare Chromium Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This crater, located in Mare Chromium, shows evidence of exterior modification, with little interior modification. While the rim is still visible, the ejecta blanket has been removed or covered. There is some material at the bottom of the crater, but the interior retains the bowl shape from the initial formation of the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.4, Longitude 174.4 East (185.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Mare Chromium Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This crater, located in Mare Chromium, shows evidence of exterior modification, with little interior modification. While the rim is still visible, the ejecta blanket has been removed or covered. There is some material at the bottom of the crater, but the interior retains the bowl shape from the initial formation of the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.4, Longitude 174.4 East (185.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. MARE: Mars Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Lellis, A. M.; Capria, M. T.; Espinasse, S.; Magni, G.; Orosei, R.; Piccioni, G.; Federico, C.; Minelli, G.; Pauselli, C.; Scarpa, G.

    1999-09-01

    MARE is an experiment for the measurement of the beta and gamma radioactivity in space and in the Martian soil, both at the surface and in the subsurface. This will be accomplished by means of a dosimeter and a spectrometer. The radiation dose rate to which crews will be exposed is one of the hazards that has to be quantified before the human exploration of Mars may begin. Data for evaluating radioactivity levels at Martian surface are of great interest for environmental studies related to life in general. The dosimeter will be able to measure the beta and gamma radiation dose received, with a responsivity which is very close to that of a living organism. The dosimeter is based on thermo-luminescence pills which emit an optical signal proportional to the absorbed dose when heated. Radioactive elements ((40) K, (235) U, (238) U and (232) Th) can be used as a mean of tracing the evolution of a terrestrial planet. These radioactive elements are the source of the internal heat, which drives convection in the mantle. They have been redistributed in this process and they are now concentrated in the crust where they are accessible for study. Their different behavior during the fractionation process can be used as a mean to investigate the geochemical characteristic of Mars. The spectrometer, a scintillation radiation absorber system for single event counting, is capable of detecting gamma photons with energies between 200 KeV and 10 MeV. The detected events will be processed in such a way to allow the recognition of the spectral signature of different decay processes, and thus the identification and the measurement of the concentrations of different radionuclides in the Martian soil.

  1. Mummified fetus in a mare.

    PubMed

    Barber, J A; Troedsson, M H

    1996-05-01

    A 12-year-old Arabian mare with a history of repeated early embryonic losses gave birth to a mummified fetus. The fetus was not the result of a pregnancy with twins. The mare had been given a progestogen throughout gestation and expelled the mummified fetus at about 325 days of gestation, 2 weeks after progestogen treatment was discontinued. We estimate that the size of the fetus was consistent with a fetal age of 5 months. The mare and mummified fetus illustrated that progestogen administration after 100 days of gestation can promote retention of a nonviable fetus. When the fetoplacental unit is incapable of producing progestogens in adequate amounts for pregnancy maintenance at that stage of gestation, then it is also unlikely to provide sufficient oxygen and nutrients to meet the needs of the growing fetus. Monitoring fetal viability would enable practitioners to prevent prolonged retention of a nonviable fetus.

  2. MC-1 Mare Boreum Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-1 quadrangle, Mare Boreum region of Mars. The central part is covered by a residual ice cap that is cut by spiral-patterned troughs exposing layered terrain. The cap is surrounded by broad flat plains and large dune fields. Latitude range 65 to 90, longitude range -180 to 180.

  3. An Apollo 15 Mare Basalt Fragment and Lunar Mare Provinces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Burling, Trina Cox

    1996-01-01

    Lunar sample 15474,4 is a tiny fragment of olivine-augite vitrophyre that is a mare basalt. Although petroraphically distinct from all other Apollo 15 samples, it has been ignored since its first brief description. Our new petrographic and mineral chemical data show that the olivines and pyroxenes are distinct from those in other basalts. The basalt cooled and solidified extremely rapidly; some of the olivine might be cumulate or crystallized prior to extrusion. Bulk-chemical data show that the sample is probably similar to an evolved Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalt in major elements but is distinct in its rare earth element pattern. Its chemical composition and petrography both show that 15474,4 cannot be derived from other Apollo 15 mare basalts by shallow-level crystal fractionation. It represents a distinct extrusion of magma. Nonetheless, the chemical features that 15474,4 has in common with other Apollo 15 mare basalts, including the high FeO/Sc, the general similarity of the rare earth element pattern, and the common (and chondritic) TiO2/Sm ratio, emphasize the concept of a geochemical province at the Apollo 15 site that is distinct from basalts and provinces elsewhere. In making a consistent picture for the derivation of all of the Apollo 15 basalts, both the commonalities and the differences among the basalts must be explained. The Apollo 15 commonalities and differences suggest that the sources must have consisted of major silicate phases with the same composition but with varied amounts of a magma trapped from a contemporary magma ocean. They probably had a high olivine/pyroxene ratio and underwent small and reasonably consistent degrees of partial melting to produce the basalts. These inferences may be inconsistent with models that suggest greatly different depths of melting among basalts, primitive sources for the green glasses, or extensive olivine fractionation during ascent. An integrated approach to lunar mare provinces, of which the Apollo 15

  4. Apollo 15 mare units and their petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Samples from 12 different mare sites were identified and classified among the Apollo 15 samples. The genesis of the Apollo 15 mare units is summarized given the general model of mare basalt source regions and of more basalt genesis derived from a synthesis of the major oxide/major mineral, compatible siderophile, and incompatible trace element data and isotopic ratios of the Rb/Sr and Sm/Nd systems.

  5. Ovarian teratoma and endometritis in a mare

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract An 8-year-old Arabian mare was admitted for a large ovarian anovulatory follicle. A clinical diagnosis of ovarian tumor and endometritis was established. Histological examinations revealed an ovarian teratoma and a grade II endometritis. Three months after unilateral ovariectomy, the mare was confirmed pregnant and eventually gave birth uneventfully. PMID:16363331

  6. Apollo 15 mare volcanism: Constraints and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Apollo 15 landing site contains more volcanics in the form of crystalline basalts and pristine glasses, which form the framework for all models dealing with the mantle beneath that site. Major issues on the petrology of the mare source regions beneath that portion of Mare Imbrium are summarized.

  7. Mare basalt magma source region and mare basalt magma genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, A.B.

    1982-11-15

    Given the available data, we find that the wide range of mare basaltic material characteristics can be explained by a model in which: (1) The mare basalt magma source region lies between the crust-mantle boundary and a maximum depth of 200 km and consists of a relatively uniform peridotite containing 73--80% olivine, 11--14% pyroxene, 4--8% plagioclase, 0.2--9% ilmenite and 1--1.5% chromite. (2) The source region consists of two or more density-graded rhythmic bands, whose compositions grade from that of the very low TiO/sub 2/ magma source regions (0.2% ilmenite) to that of the very high TiO/sub 2/ magma source regions (9% ilmenite). These density-graded bands are proposed to have formed as co-crystallizing olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, ilmenite, and chromite settled out of a convecting magma (which was also parental to the crust) in which these crystals were suspended. Since the settling rates of the different minerals were governed by Stoke's law, the heavier minerals settled out more rapidly and therefore earlier than the lighter minerals. Thus the crystal assemblages deposited nearest the descending side of each convection cell were enriched in heavy ilmenite and chromite with respect to lighter olivine and pyroxene and very much lighter plagioclase. The reverse being the case for those units deposited near the ascending sides of the convection cells.

  8. MC-30 Mare Australe Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-30 quadrangle, Mare Australe region of Mars. The central part is dominated by a permanent residual ice cap that is enclosed by layered and troughed terrain. This cap is much smaller than the northern ice cap due to differing amounts of solar heating. The layered and troughed terrain is encircled by heavily and moderately cratered terrains that include unique depositional and erosional landforms, including large pits, troughs, and complex ridge systems. Latitude range -90 to -60 degrees, longitude range -180 to 180 degrees.

  9. MC-4 Mare Acidalium Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-4 quadrangle, Mare Acidalium region of Mars. The central part is characterized by dark depression--the northern Chryse basin, which contains relatively smooth plains where several large outflow channels terminate. The depression is partly bounded to the southwest by the highly faulted and heavily cratered Tempe Terra province, to the southeast by the heavily cratered Arabia Terra province, and to the north by relatively smooth plains of Vastitas Borealis. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 0 to 60 degrees.

  10. Reduction of mare basalts by sulfur loss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.

    1976-01-01

    Metallic Fe content and S abundance are inversely correlated in mare basalts. Either S volatilization from the melt results in reduction of Fe2+ to Fe0 or else high S content decreases Fe0 activity in the melt, thus explaining the correlation. All considerations favor the model that metallic iron in mare basalts is due to sulfur loss. The Apollo 11 and 17 mare basalt melts were probably saturated with S at the time of eruption; the Apollo 12 and 15 basalts were probably not saturated. Non-mare rocks show a positive correlation of S abundance with metallic Fe content; it is proposed that this is due to the addition of meteoritic material having a fairly constant Fe0/S ratio. If true, metallic Fe content or S abundance in non-mare rocks provides a measure of degree of meteoritic contamination. ?? 1976.

  11. Beginning and end of lunar mare volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.; Spudis, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution and characteristics of the early phases of mare vulcanism on the moon are discussed. Breccias have been observed that indicate the presence of magma flows before 3900 Myr BP. A mafic feature has been identified in more than 100 craters at least 1 km across. The absence of buried mare surfaces on the nearside and western hemispheres is attributed to ejecta deposits, and farside basins with no mare fill are suggested to have experienced early mare flooding. Photographs of the bright-rayed Lichtenberg crater have revealed that mare volcanism occurred within the time frame 1700-2000 Myr BP. It is concluded that the moon featured two periods of igneous activity, the last happening at 1000 Myr BP, and beginning 4300 BP.

  12. New Crater Counts for Mare Basalts in Mare Frigoris and Other Nearside Maria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2003-04-01

    Lunar mare basalts cover about 17% of the lunar surface, occur preferentially on the lunar nearside, and often fill the low-lying inner depressions of large impact basins and craters. Basalts in Mare Frigoris are special in that they occur in an area that is not clearly related to any unambiguously accepted impact structure. Mare Frigoris may be part of the large and very old Procellarum basin, but the existence of this basin is still debated. Mare basalts in Mare Frigoris are relatively homogeneous, low in titanium, have a bright albedo, and strong 1 µm- and prominent 2 µm-absorption bands. The thickness of these basalts has been estimated to be less than 500 m. Wilhelms found the basalts of eastern Mare Frigoris to be of Imbrian age and the basalts of central and western Frigoris (west of ~10deg E) to be Eratosthenian in age. Whitford-Stark proposed that the basalts in Mare Frigoris were emplaced by flood-style eruptions 3.2-3.6 b.y. ago. We report on crater counts for Mare Frigoris, Mare Nectaris, Mare Smythii, Mare Marginis, Mare Vaporum, Sinus Medii, and Palus Putredinis. We also determined ages for basalts exposed in the craters Schickard, Grimaldi, Crüger, Hubble, Joliot, Goddard, and two lava ponds south of the crater Endymion. Our crater counts let us conclude that (1) Mare Frigoris is mostly filled with Imbrian basalts but there are a few areas that are covered with Eratosthenian basalts, (2) these Eratosthenian basalts occur in few small-sized areas north of the crater Plato but are not connected with each other as shown by Wilhelms, (3) basalts in Mare Nectaris, Mare Vaporum, Sinus Medii and Palus Putredinis are Imbrian in age, (4) basalts in Mare Smythii are younger than in Mare Marginis, contrary to the geologic map of Wilhelms and El-Baz, (5) basaltic fills of the craters Goddard, Hubble, and Joliot are of Imbrian age, (6) there are no Eratosthenian basalts in the crater Schickard but basalts in the crater Grimaldi are Eratosthenian in age as

  13. Thickness of western mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An isopach map of the basalt thickness in the western mare basins is constructed from measurements of the exposed external rim height of partially buried craters. The data, although numerically sparse, is sufficiently distributed to yield gross thickness variations. The average basalt thickness in Oceanus Procellarum and adjacent regions is 400 m with local lenses in excess of 1500 m in the circular maria. The total volume of basalt in the western maria is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power cu km. The chief distinction between the eastern and western maria appears to be one of basalt volumes erupted to the surface. Maximum volumes of basalt are deposited west of the central highlands and flood subjacent terrain to a greater extent than on the east. The surface structures of the western maria reflect the probability of a greater degree of isostatic response to a larger surface loading by the greater accumulation of mare basalt.

  14. Graben and Pyroclastics in SW Mare Humorum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-09

    Two small black arrows on today image taken by NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter show the location of a small graben 28 meters in width in a pyroclastic mantling deposit in the SW portion of Mare Humorum.

  15. Mysterious Changing Feature in Ligeia Mare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-29

    These three images, created from NASA Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar SAR data, show the appearance and evolution of a mysterious feature in Ligeia Mare, one of the largest hydrocarbon seas on Saturn moon Titan.

  16. Vast Ligeia Mare in False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-22

    Ligeia Mare, shown here in a false color image from NASA Cassini mission, is the second largest known body of liquid on Saturn moon Titan. It is filled with liquid hydrocarbons, such as ethane and methane.

  17. Modelisation of tidal flows between Titan's seas Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, David; Karatekin, Özgür; Dehant, Véronique; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Numerous lakes and seas filled with liquid hydrocarbons have been detected on Titan's surface by Cassini spacecraft [1]. Most of these liquid bodies are located in the northern high latitudes [2]. In this study, we focus on two of them: Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare and in particular on the tidal currents between them. Recent observations of the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) from February 12, 2015 suggested the presence of waves in a strait called Trevize fretum linking the two seas [3]. These waves could be generated by either wind or strong currents between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare. We simulate the tidal response of Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare and the currents in the straits linking those seas with SLIM (Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model, www.climate.be/slim). SLIM resolves 2D shallow water equations on an unstructured mesh, which allows higher accuracy in the straits without drastically increasing the computational costs. It has been recently used to simulate the tidal response in Ontario Lacus [4]. The tide generating force modelled in this work is the gradient of tidal potential due to Titan's obliquity and Titan's orbital eccentricity around Saturn (other contribution such as sun tide generating force are unheeded). Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare composition might be different. Consequently, fluid exchanges could also occur due to a density gradient between those seas. In this study, we focus on the flow in the strait between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare and consider the effect of parameters such as the composition, solid deformations and the depth of the strait. [1] Stofan et al. (2007) Nature, 445, 61-64.[2] Aharonson et al. (2009), Nature geoscience, 2(12), 851-854. [3] Sotin et al. (2015) AGU, P12B-04. [4] Vincent et al. (2016) Ocean Dynamics.

  18. Perspective on Kraken Mare Shores

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-12

    This Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is presented as a perspective view and shows a landscape near the eastern shoreline of Kraken Mare, a hydrocarbon sea in Titan's north polar region. This image was processed using a technique for handling noise that results in clearer views that can be easier for researchers to interpret. The technique, called despeckling, also is useful for producing altimetry data and 3-D views called digital elevation maps. Scientists have used a technique called radargrammetry to determine the altitude of surface features in this view at a resolution of approximately half a mile, or 1 kilometer. The altimetry reveals that the area is smooth overall, with a maximum amplitude of 0.75 mile (1.2 kilometers) in height. The topography also shows that all observed channels flow downhill. The presence of what scientists call "knickpoints" -- locations on a river where a sharp change in slope occurs -- might indicate stratification in the bedrock, erosion mechanisms at work or a particular way the surface responds to runoff events, such as floods following large storms. One such knickpoint is visible just above the lower left corner, where an area of bright slopes is seen. The image was obtained during a flyby of Titan on April 10, 2007. A more traditional radar image of this area on Titan is seen in PIA19046. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19051

  19. Preliminary Results of the MARE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Bagliani, D.; Biassotti, M.; Ceruti, G.; Corsini, D.; Faverzani, M.; Gatti, F.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Kilbourne, C.; Kling, A.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Maino, M.; Manfrinetti, P.; Nucciotti, A.; Pessina, G.; Pizzigoni, G.; Ribeiro Gomes, M.; Schaeffer, D.; Sisti, M.

    2014-09-01

    The microcalorimeter array for a rhenium experiment (MARE) project aims at the direct and calorimetric measurement of the electron neutrino mass with sub-eV sensitivity. The design is based on large arrays of thermal detectors to study the beta decay of Re and the electron capture of Ho. One of the activities of the project, MARE 1 in Milan, has started in Milan using one array of 6 6 silicon implanted thermistors equipped with AgReO absorbers. The purposes of MARE 1 in Milan are to achieve a sensitivity on the neutrino mass of a few eV and to investigate the systematics of Re neutrino mass measurements, focusing on those caused by the beta environmental fine structure and the beta spectrum theoretical shape. In parallel, the MARE collaboration is performing an R&D work for producing absorbers embedded with radioactive metal Ho. We report here the status of MARE using Re as beta source and the preliminary results obtained with Ho.

  20. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of waterfront during World War II; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Building 253; 1920. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of sawmill after earthquake of 1898. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of Franklin D. Roosevelt walking past old Marine Corps Barracks; 1913. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Detail of building 390 east elevation, sign reading Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of building 390 east elevation, sign reading Mare Island Ship fitters Shop, above main door; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Forge Shop, Railroad Avenue, southwest corner of Railroad Avenue & Twelfth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of building 133 being moved; 1933. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. QUARTERS A IN THE SNOW; 1913. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Commandant's Quarters, Walnut Avenue, west side near Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Coal sheds with coals; 1906. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Coal Sheds, Waterfront Avenue, northwest corner of Waterfront Avenue & Fourth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Detector Development for the MARE Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Galeazzi, M.; Bogorin, D.; Molina, R.; Saab, T.; Ribeiro Gomes, M.

    2009-12-16

    The MARE experiment is designed to measure the mass of the neutrino with sub-eV sensitivity by measuring the beta decay of {sup 187}Re with cryogenic microcalorimeters. A preliminary analysis shows that, to achieve the necessary statistics, between 10,000 and 50,000 detectors are likely necessary. We have fabricated and characterized Iridium transition edge sensors with high reproducibility and uniformity for such a large scale experiment. We have also started a full scale simulation of the experimental setup for MARE, including thermalization in the absorber, detector response, and optimum filter analysis, to understand the issues related to reaching a sub-eV sensitivity and to optimize the design of the MARE experiment. We present our characterization of the Ir devices, including reproducibility, uniformity, and sensitivity, and we discuss the implementation and capabilities of our full scale simulation.

  9. Petrogenesis of Luna 16 aluminous mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Nielsen, R. L.; Taylor, G. J.; Warner, R. D.; Keil, K.

    1979-01-01

    Bulk compositions, petrology and mineralogy of Luna 16 aluminous mare basalt particles of less than 0.5 mm are described. The data rule out any close genetic relationships between Luna 16 and other major types of lunar mare basalts. Compared to high-Ti mare basalts, the Luna 16 basalts contain lower TiO2 and Ta and higher Al2O3 and REE abundances, suggesting that the Luna 16 source rocks crystallized later than (i.e. stratigraphically above) the ilmenite-bearing high-Ti basalt cumulate source rocks. The REE pattern for the Luna 16 basalts requires that the source material from which they were derived crystallized from a light REE enriched magma.

  10. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Lithograph of Mare Island, "showing the works already completed in the Navy Yard and the US. Frigate "Independence"; 1855. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. Connecticut Participation in the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Department of Education Research Bulletin, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Statewide information concerning the Connecticut eight-grade public school students who particpated in the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) in the spring of 1988 is presented. Over 900 students in 46 schools in 35 school districts, almost evenly divided between males and females, completed cognitive tests and student surveys about…

  12. Plasma cell numbers in uteri of mares with persistent endometritis and in ovariectomised mares treated with ovarian steroids.

    PubMed

    Watson, E D; Stokes, C R

    1988-11-01

    Immunoglobulins A, G and M were localised by immunoperoxidase staining of endometrial sections from ovariectomised mares. Treatment with progesterone or oestradiol-17 beta did not significantly affect numbers of cells secreting any of the isotypes. Mares with persistent endometritis did not have significantly greater numbers of endometrial plasma cells than genitally-normal mares.

  13. DCS Color near Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 28, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image covering an area near Mare Cimmerium. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    This area contains a mixture of basaltic materials (magenta/purple) and dust (green/blue). Faint blue areas may be due to some thin water ice clouds. The different compositional units are sometimes correlated with crater floors and other surface features, but they are often not tied to valleys, lava flows, etc... indicating that the surface materials could be mobile (dust and sand).

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 139.3 East (220.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter

  14. Ages of Lunar Mare Basalts in Mare Frigoris and Other Nearside Maria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2003-03-01

    We performed new crater counts for basalts in Mare Frigoris, Nectaris, Smythii, Marginis, Vaporum, Sinus Medii, Palus Putredinis and the craters Schickard, Grimaldi, Crüger, Hubble, Joliot, Goddard, and two lava ponds south of the crater Endymion.

  15. Mare basalts on the Apennine Front and the mare stratigraphy of the Apollo 15 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1989-01-01

    Olivine-normative mare basalts are present on the Apennine Front as crystalline particles and shocked or shock-melted fragments. Picritic basalts, which may be related to the olivine-normative basalts by olivine accumulation, not only occur on the Front but such samples so far recognized are confined to it. Mare volcanic and impact glasses also occur on the Front; all are olivine-normative, though none are quite the equivalent of the typical olivine-normative mare group. The quartz-normative mare basalts are not present (or are extremely rare) on the Front either as crystalline basalts or shocked or glass equivalents. These observations are consistent with the olivine-normative mare basalts being both local and the youngest flows at the site, and the fragments being emplaced on the Front by impacts. The picritic basalts raise the distinct possibility that the olivine-normative basalts also ponded on the Front. An influx of olivine-normative basalts from exotic sources (e.g., a ray from Aristillus) is inconsistent with their abundance, their dominance in the mare soil chemistry, and their age, isotopic, and trace element similarities with the quartz-normative basalts. However, the thermal histories of the olivine-normative basalts require elucidation.

  16. The history of mare volcanism in the Orientale Basin: Mare deposit ages, compositions and morphologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadel, S. D.; Greeley, R.; Neukum, G.; Wagner, R.

    1993-01-01

    The eruptive history of mare basalts in the Orientale Basin has been studied, using Lunar Orbiter 4 high-resolution photographs, Zond 8 photographs, and recently acquired Galileo EM-1 multispectral images. This work represents a refined set of compositional data incorporating the use of a linear mixing model for mare compositions, crater count data, and a comprehensive morphologic analysis of Orientale Basin mare deposits. Evidence for multiple eruptive episodes has been found, with compositions ranging from medium- to high-Ti basalt (less than 4 to greater than 6 wt. percent TiO2). Eruptive styles included flood, rille-forming, and shield-forming eruptions. Impact crater densities of mare units in the Orientale Basin enable determination of the ages of these deposits, using the method of Neukum et al. Earliest eruptions of mare basalt in the basin occurred at greater than or equal to 3.80 Ga and the latest eruptions occurred at about 2.3-2.5 Ga. Hence, mare volcanism occurred over a period of nearly 1.5 Ga.

  17. How thick are lunar mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that De Hon's estimates of the thickness of lunar mare basalts, made by analyzing 'ghost' craters on mare surfaces, were inflated as the result of the crater morphometric data of Pike (1977) to reconstruct rim heights of degraded craters. Crater rim heights of 82 randomly selected highland craters of various states of degradation were determined, and median rim height was compared to that of corresponding fresh impact structures. Results indicate that the thickness estimates of De Hon may be reduced by a factor of 2, and that the total volume of mare basalt produced throughout lunar history could be as little as 1-2 million cubic kilometers. A survey of geochemical and petrographic evidence indicates that lateral transport of regolith components over distances of much greater than 10 km is relatively inefficient; it is suggested that vertical mixing of a highland substrate underlying the basaltic fill may have had a primordial role in generating the observed mare width distributions and high concentrations of exotic components in intrabasin regoliths.

  18. How thick are lunar mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that De Hon's estimates of the thickness of lunar mare basalts, made by analyzing 'ghost' craters on mare surfaces, were inflated as the result of the crater morphometric data of Pike (1977) to reconstruct rim heights of degraded craters. Crater rim heights of 82 randomly selected highland craters of various states of degradation were determined, and median rim height was compared to that of corresponding fresh impact structures. Results indicate that the thickness estimates of De Hon may be reduced by a factor of 2, and that the total volume of mare basalt produced throughout lunar history could be as little as 1-2 million cubic kilometers. A survey of geochemical and petrographic evidence indicates that lateral transport of regolith components over distances of much greater than 10 km is relatively inefficient; it is suggested that vertical mixing of a highland substrate underlying the basaltic fill may have had a primordial role in generating the observed mare width distributions and high concentrations of exotic components in intrabasin regoliths.

  19. Study of liquid exchanges between Titan's seas Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, David; Karatekin, Özgur; Dehant, Véronique; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Titan is the only other solar system body with surface seas besides the Earth. Since 2006, Cassini has been observing those seas and, in particular, the two largest ones, Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare. A bathymetry map of Ligeia Mare is now available [1] while, in Kraken Mare, the seafloor was not detected except in Moray Sinus [2]. Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare have recently been shown to be connected by a strait called Trevise Fretum and observations of the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) from February 12, 2015 detected specular reflection away from the specular point on the Ligeia outlet of this strait [3]. This connection could explain the difference in liquid properties observed in Moray Sinus with respect to other areas of Kraken Mare: the methane richer liquid coming from Ligeia could modify the composition of the liquid in the northern part of Kraken Mare. In this work, we simulate the tidally induced liquid exchanges between Ligeia and Kraken Mare by means of SLIM (Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model, www.climate.be/slim_flyer). This will allow us to assess whether or not the tides can bring liquid from Ligeia to Moray Sinus and locally modify the liquid properties. SLIM2D solves the depth-averaged shallow water equations on an unstructured mesh, which allows higher accuracy in the straits without drastically increasing the computational costs. It has recently been used to simulate the tidal response in Ontario Lacus [4]. The impact of the density gradient due to the variation in the composition is then studied by means of the 3D version of SLIM. SLIM3D is a baroclinic model capable of simulating the effect of density gradient on the flow exchanges and, hence, studying accurately the flow in Trevise Fretum. This will be useful for assessing whether or not the solar glints observed in Trevise Fretum could be generated by strong currents [3]. The present study provides new insights into the liquid exchanges between Ligeia and

  20. NIF-0096141-OA Prop Simulations of NEL PBRS Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Widmayer, C; Manes, K

    2003-02-21

    Portable Back Reflection Sensor, PBRS, (NEL only) and Quad Back Reflection Sensor, QBRS, time delay reflectometer traces are among the most useful diagnostics of NIF laser status available. NEL PBRS measurements show several signals reaching the detector for each shot. The time delay between signals suggests that the largest of these is due to energy at the spatial filter pinhole planes leaking into adjacent pinholes and traveling back upstream to the PBRS. Prop simulations agree with current PBRS measurements to within 50%. This suggests that pinhole leakage is the dominant source of energy at the PBRS. However, the simulations predict that the energy leakage is proportional to beam output energy, while the PBRS measurements increase more slowly (''saturate''). Further refinement of the model or the measurement may be necessary to resolve this discrepancy.

  1. Bright Feature Appears in Titan Kraken Mare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-10

    Two Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from the radar experiment on NASA's Cassini spacecraft show that, between May 2013 and August 2014, a bright feature appeared in Kraken Mare, the largest hydrocarbon sea on Saturn's moon Titan. Researchers think the bright feature is likely representative of something on the hydrocarbon sea's surface, such as waves or floating debris. A similar feature appeared in Ligea Mare, another Titan sea, and was seen to evolve in appearance between 2013 and 2014 (see PIA18430). The image at left was taken on May 23, 2013 at an incidence angle of 56 degrees; the image at right was taken on August 21, 2014 at an incidence angle of 5 degrees. Incidence angle refers to the angle at which the radar beam strikes the surface. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19047

  2. Retained fetal membranes in the mare: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, Real; Threlfall, Walter R.; Murdick, Phillip W.; Wearly, W. Keith

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study of 3456 deliveries was conducted from the records of four Standardbred broodmare farms where mares were bred by artificial insemination and maintained under close veterinary supervision. Retained fetal membranes (RFM) were observed in 10.6% of the deliveries. Retained fetal membranes occurred more frequently (p < 0.05) after dystocia and in mares which had RFM the previous year. Retained fetal membranes after normal foaling had no significant effect on the reproductive performance (pregnancy rate, pregnancy loss rate, or foaling rate), nor on the general health of the mares, regardless of the duration of RFM (3 to 144 hours). Postfoaling laminitis was not observed. Oxytocin therapy of mares with RFM starting at two hours postpartum significantly reduced the incidence of RFM ≥ 8 hours. Mares with RFM which had received intrauterine antimicrobials between foaling and first breeding had a foaling rate similar to mares with RFM which had not received intrauterine therapy. PMID:17423164

  3. Mare Orientale Prime Meridian lunar coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walden, B.; York, C.; McGown, R.; Billings, T.

    The Moon was the first extraterrestrial body to be mapped. From 1514 to 1840, navigators sailing the open seas needed accurate lunar maps to determine longitude by the "lunar-distance" method. For the convenience of early navigators, astronomers and selenographers, the lunar prime meridian was made to bisect the lunar disk as seen from Earth, formalized as the present Mean Earth / Polar Axis system. In 1961, the International Astronomical Union reversed lunar east and west to avoid confusion by astronauts and their controllers, so that now Mare Orientale -- the Eastern Sea -- lies on the Moon's western limb. By international agreement in 1974, lunar longitude was defined to increase eastward from zero to 360 degrees and prime meridians are generally defined by an observable feature. Examination of popular lunar maps indicates these newer standards are not widely accepted. Modern navigation no longer relies on the Moon. Lunar maps are now made by satellite imagery from lunar orbit. Today, humankind anticipates navigating the Moon itself. A relatively simple change to the lunar coordinate system could benefit upcoming lunar activities and promote acceptance of a 360 degree standard: move the lunar prime meridian. We propose the lunar prime meridian intersect some natural monument that most nearly represents the center longitude of Mare Orientale (perhaps crater Hohmann), and longitude increase eastward from zero to 360 degrees. Mare Orientale is a dramatic large "target," easily identifiable from space. Nearside traffic will use low longitude numbers from zero to r ughly 180 degrees,o and will not frequently cross this prime meridian. Earth's angle above the eastern horizon equals approximate longitude. Low and high longitude numbers will reflect the distinctive nearside and farside geological domains. The face of the Moon as seen from Earth will no longer be split in two. Calculations are simplified and sources of error eliminated. This system is more convenient and

  4. Sulfur isotope homogeneity of lunar mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Boswell A.; Farquhar, James

    2015-12-01

    We present a new set of high precision measurements of relative 33S/32S, 34S/32S, and 36S/32S values in lunar mare basalts. The measurements are referenced to the Vienna-Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT) scale, on which the international reference material, IAEA-S-1, is characterized by δ33S = -0.061‰, δ34S ≡ -0.3‰ and δ36S = -1.27‰. The present dataset confirms that lunar mare basalts are characterized by a remarkable degree of sulfur isotopic homogeneity, with most new and published SF6-based sulfur isotope measurements consistent with a single mass-dependent mean isotopic composition of δ34S = 0.58 ± 0.05‰, Δ33S = 0.008 ± 0.006‰, and Δ36S = 0.2 ± 0.2‰, relative to V-CDT, where the uncertainties are quoted as 99% confidence intervals on the mean. This homogeneity allows identification of a single sample (12022, 281) with an apparent 33S enrichment, possibly reflecting cosmic-ray-induced spallation reactions. It also reveals that some mare basalts have slightly lower δ34S values than the population mean, which is consistent with sulfur loss from a reduced basaltic melt prior to eruption at the lunar surface. Both the sulfur isotope homogeneity of the lunar mare basalts and the predicted sensitivity of sulfur isotopes to vaporization-driven fractionation suggest that less than ≈1-10% of lunar sulfur was lost after a potential moon-forming impact event.

  5. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  6. Mare basalt genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Various types of mare basalt data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare basalt source region and mare basalt genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare basalt units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.

  7. VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING WEST Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING WEST - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION: CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION: CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING SOUTH Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING SOUTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING NORTH Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING NORTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of foal rejection in Arabian mares.

    PubMed

    Juarbe-Díaz, S V; Houpt, K A; Kusunose, R

    1998-09-01

    Separate surveys of Thoroughbred, Paint, and Arabian mare owners revealed a higher than expected rate of foal rejection in Arabian mares. A behavioural history form was submitted by owners of foal rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares, and maternal behaviour and management practices compared. Four generation pedigrees of rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares were also examined. Foal rejecting mares were more likely to avoid, threaten, squeal at, chase, bite, and kick their foals post partum than nonrejecting mares. Nonrejecting mares were more likely to lick, nicker and defend their foals post partum than rejecting mares. No statistically significant relationship was found between foal rejection and the type of breeding method (natural vs. artificial insemination), the presence of people at birth, the presence of nearby horses at birth, or assistance of the first nursing bout. The presence at least once of 1 of 2 related sires was statistically higher in the pedigrees of rejecting vs. nonrejecting mares. Inherited and learned or environmental factors are likely to affect the expression of foal rejection behaviour.

  12. Embryo transfer in competition horses: Managing mares and expectations

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M L H

    2014-01-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) is an accepted and successful technique for obtaining foals from mares without interrupting their competition careers. Recent research, however, suggests that the potential of factors including heat, exercise, repeated embryo flushing and repeated manipulation of the reproductive cycle using exogenous hormones to have a negative impact on fertility may have been underestimated. This paper reviews the evidence base for involvement of these factors in repeated failures to recover embryos from nongeriatric competition mares without obvious clinical or pathological indications of reproductive abnormalities. It concludes that, for some mares at least, a cessation of exercise for the periovulatory period and the period between ovulation and embryo flushing, combined with careful management of flushing-induced endometritis, and minimal hormonal manipulation of the reproductive cycle, may be necessary to optimise embryo recovery rates. Mare owners may have been encouraged to request ET for their mares following high-profile examples in the media of elite mares that have produced foals by ET whilst competing. The veterinarian should educate mare owners about the multiple factors that may affect the chances of recovering an embryo from their mares, and should manage the expectations of mare owners so that they do not approach ET programmes in the expectation that there will be no disruption to their training and competition plans. PMID:25977596

  13. The Apollo 16 Mare Component: Petrography, Geochemistry, and Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Gillis, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The A16 (Apollo16) site in the lunar nearside highlands is 220 km from the nearest mare. Thus it is no surprise that mare basalt samples are uncommon at the site. Here, we present the petrography and geochemistry of 5 new mare basalt samples found at the A16 site. We also discuss possible provenances of all A16 mare basalt samples using high-resolution global data for the distribution of Fe and Ti on the lunar surface derived from Clementine UV-VIS data [1-2].

  14. The Apollo 16 Mare Component: Petrography, Geochemistry, and Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Gillis, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The A16 (Apollo16) site in the lunar nearside highlands is 220 km from the nearest mare. Thus it is no surprise that mare basalt samples are uncommon at the site. Here, we present the petrography and geochemistry of 5 new mare basalt samples found at the A16 site. We also discuss possible provenances of all A16 mare basalt samples using high-resolution global data for the distribution of Fe and Ti on the lunar surface derived from Clementine UV-VIS data [1-2].

  15. Contextual view of building 733; camera facing southeast. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 733; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. Contextual view showing west elevation; camera facing southeast. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing west elevation; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Complications associated with intrauterine glass marbles in five mares.

    PubMed

    de Amorim, Mariana Diel; Chenier, Tracey; Nairn, Dawne; Green, Jodyne; Manning, Stephen; Card, Claire

    2016-11-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION 5 mares were evaluated because of reproductive complications following long-term (> 1 year) use of intrauterine glass marbles for estrus suppression. CLINICAL FINDINGS 3 mares had 1 intrauterine glass marble, and 2 mares had 2 intrauterine glass marbles. On examination, 2 mares had signs of chronic endometritis, and 3 had signs of pyometra. Marbles or glass shards adhered to the endometrium were identified by means of hysteroscopy in 3 of 5 mares. Five of 7 marbles had surface imperfections or were broken. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME All patients were treated with uterine lavage and intrauterine and systemic administration of antimicrobials chosen on the basis of results of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing. Two of 5 mares were treated with intrauterine Tris-EDTA. One mare underwent 3 unsuccessful embryo transfer procedures and was subsequently lost to follow-up. One mare was euthanized because of severe vaginal and cervical adhesions and chronic vaginal discharge. Three mares had no apparent signs of reproductive disease at the time of follow-up but were not rebred. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of the present small case series suggested that use of intrauterine glass marbles should be discouraged because of the potential for severe reproductive consequences.

  18. Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Oblique view of southeast corner; camera facing northwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southeast corner; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. NASA Electronic Library System (NELS): The system impact of security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgregor, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses security issues as they relate to the NASA Electronic Library System which is currently in use as the repository system for AdaNET System Version 3 (ASV3) being operated by MountainNET, Inc. NELS was originally designed to provide for public, development, and secure collections and objects. The secure feature for collections and objects was deferred in the initial system for implementation at a later date. The NELS system is now 9 months old and many lessons have been learned about the use and maintenance of library systems. MountainNET has 9 months of experience in operating the system and gathering feedback from the ASV3 user community. The user community has expressed an interest in seeing security features implemented in the current system. The time has come to take another look at the whole issue of security for the NELS system. Two requirements involving security have been put forth by MountainNET for the ASV3 system. The first is to incorporate at the collection level a security scheme to allow restricted access to collections. This should be invisible to end users and be controlled by librarians. The second is to allow inclusion of applications which can be executed only by a controlled group of users; for example, an application which can be executed by librarians only. The requirements provide a broad framework in which to work. These requirements raise more questions than answers. To explore the impact of these requirements a top down approach will be used.

  1. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Dry dock 2 with three submarines and one sailing ship; 1914. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 2, California Avenue, east side near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Cecal vascular hamartoma causing recurrent colic in an Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Nolf, Marie; Maninchedda, Ugo; Belluco, Sara; Lepage, Olivier; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2014-06-01

    A 5-year-old mare was treated for recurrent colic and weight loss by surgical removal of an intraluminal cecal mass. Microscopic examination revealed vascular hamartoma. A 6-month follow-up showed an improvement in the general condition of the mare. Vascular hamartoma should be one of the differential diagnoses for weight loss and colic.

  3. Cecal vascular hamartoma causing recurrent colic in an Arabian mare

    PubMed Central

    Nolf, Marie; Maninchedda, Ugo; Belluco, Sara; Lepage, Olivier; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    A 5-year-old mare was treated for recurrent colic and weight loss by surgical removal of an intraluminal cecal mass. Microscopic examination revealed vascular hamartoma. A 6-month follow-up showed an improvement in the general condition of the mare. Vascular hamartoma should be one of the differential diagnoses for weight loss and colic. PMID:24891636

  4. REVIEW paper: mare reproductive loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, M M; Bernard, W V; Riddle, T W; Latimer, C R; Fitzgerald, T D; Harrison, L R

    2008-09-01

    An epidemic of early fetal loss (EFL), late fetal loss (LFL), fibrinous pericarditis, and unilateral uveitis which occurred during the spring of 2001, are together now known as the mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS). A similar epidemic with less intensity was reported during the same period of time from southern Ohio, West Virginia, and Tennessee. The same syndrome with lesser intensity recurred in 2002. The estimated economic loss from the syndrome in 2001 and 2002 together was approximately $500 million. Both EFL and LFL were characterized by the absence of specific clinical signs in aborting mares. Nonhemolytic Streptococcus spp. and Actinobacillus spp. accounted for 65% of the organisms isolated from fetuses submitted for a postmortem during the MRLS period in 2001 and 2002. The pathologic findings in fetoplacental units of LFL included bronchopneumonia and funisitis, and there were no findings in EFL. Epidemiologic studies conducted in 2001 suggested an association between the presences of eastern tent caterpillars (ETC) in pastures with MRLS. Experimental studies in pregnant mares by exposure to ETC, or administration by stomach tube or with feed material, reproduced EFL and LFL. Similar experimental studies in mouse, rats, and goats with ETC were unsuccessful. Currently, 2 hypotheses are proposed for MRLS. One hypothesis proposes that an ETC-related toxin with secondary opportunistic bacterial invasion of the fetus leads to MRLS. The second hypothesis suggests that a breach of gastrointestinal mucosal integrity by hairs of ETC leads to a bacteremia and results in MRLS. In 2004, a similar equine abortion storm was reported from Australia and caterpillar exposure was identified as a risk factor for the abortion. In 2006, the syndrome was observed in Florida and New Jersey.

  5. Genetic study of gestation length in Andalusian and Arabian mares.

    PubMed

    Valera, M; Blesa, F; Dos Santos, R; Molina, A

    2006-09-01

    The length of gestation in Andalusian, or Spanish Purebred (SPB) and Arabian (AB) mares reared in Spain was analysed, based on 766 spontaneous full-term deliveries appertaining to 141 mares of SPB breed and 72 mares of AB breed in 31 breeding seasons. The data were obtained from the Yeguada Militar de Jerez de la Frontera stud farm in Cádiz, Spain. The mean length of gestation was of 336.8+/-0.48 days in the SPB mares and 340.3+/-0.63 days in AB mares. To assess the accurate prediction of time of birth the potential effect of a number of factors was investigated. The influences of the breed, mare, month and year of mating, age of the mother, number of births and sex of the foal were statistically significant. The factor have the greatest influence over the gestation length was the mare itself, with a correlation among consecutive births of around 0.4. The effect of inbreeding, both of the mare and foal, was negligible. Gestation length shortened as the breeding season progressed: in both breeds, a delay of 1 month in mating corresponded to a decrease of 3 days in the gestation length. According to our results, gestation length decrease as the mare gets older, with the shortest gestation periods when the mare is 10-12 years old, and from this point on, it slowly increases. The gestation period shortens as the 4th or 5th birth approaches, and then gets progressively longer. The range of variation in gestation length due to the number of births to the mare is of 2.9 days for the AB mares, and 2.2 days for SPB mares. The heritability for the gestation length for AB and the SPB breeds was 0.2, with a repeatability of 0.36 and 0.37, for SPB and AB breeds, respectively. With the data from both breeds, and using a classical approach, the response to selection was estimated if mares with extreme gestation lengths were culled, i.e. lengths which are under 310 days, or over 360 days. According to our results, in the case of SPB, a decrease of 14-45% would occur in the number

  6. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) Research Framework and Issues. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Gary; Salvucci, Sameena; Peng, Samuel; Owings, Jeffrey

    This report presents an analysis blueprint for data provided by the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), a survey system sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The report will inform beginning NELS:88 data users of the many substantive issues that can be addressed by the data, and it should present…

  7. Risk behaviors for varying categories of disability in NELS:88.

    PubMed

    Hollar, David

    2005-11-01

    A large body of research shows that youth with disabilities, who comprise about 13% of the country's school-aged population, report comparable to higher incidence rates of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use than their peers. Furthermore, youth with disabilities who reported ATOD use or who engaged in binge drinking had significantly more negative educational outcomes and engaged in sexual activity at a younger age than nonusers. This study describes risk factors for substance use, personal characteristics, aspects of the attitudinal environment, and educational, employment, and social outcomes among youth across 6 categories of disability. Data came from the National Center for Education Statistics' National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988-2000 (NELS:88). The findings indicate that (a) youth with varying types of disabilities are relatively homogenous with respect to risk behaviors, personal characteristics, and outcomes; (b) youth with emotional, learning, or multiple disabilities may be at heightened risk for binge drinking and marijuana use; and (c) youth with emotional and multiple disabilities may be less likely to graduate from high school or its equivalent 8 years beyond the 12th grade. Based on these results and limitations of the NELS sampling strategy, appropriate interventions are discussed as well as the need for more definitive operational definitions for disabilities, specifically the biopsychosocial approach used by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

  8. Mare volcanism: Reinterpretation based on Kaguya Lunar Radar Sounder data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshigami, Shoko; Watanabe, Shiho; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Yamaji, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takao; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Ishiyama, Ken; Ono, Takayuki

    2014-05-01

    The Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) onboard Kaguya (SELENE) detected widespread horizontal reflectors under some nearside maria. Previous studies estimated that the depths of the subsurface reflectors were up to several hundreds of meters and suggested that the reflectors were interfaces between mare basalt units. The comparison between the reflectors detected in the LRS data and surface age maps indicating the formation age of each basalt unit allows us to discuss the lower limit volume of each basalt unit and its space and time variation. We estimated volumes of basalt units in the ages of 2.7 Ga to 3.8 Ga in the nearside maria including Mare Crisium, Mare Humorum, Mare Imbrium, Mare Nectaris, Mare Serenitatis, Mare Smythii, and Oceanus Procellarum. The lower limit volumes of the geologic units estimated in this study were on the order of 103 to 104 km3. This volume range is consistent with the total amount of erupted lava flows derived from numerical simulations of thermal erosion models of lunar sinuous rille formation and is also comparable to the average flow volumes of continental flood basalt units formed after the Paleozoic and calculated flow volumes of Archean komatiite flows on the Earth. The lower limits of average eruption rates estimated from the unit volumes were on the order of 10-5 to 10-3 km3/yr. The estimated volumes of the geologic mare units and average eruption rate showed clear positive correlations with their ages within the same mare basin, while they vary among different maria compared within the same age range.

  9. Arne - Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thangavelautham, J.; Wagner, R.; Hernandez, V. A.; Finch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar mare "pits" are key science and exploration targets. The first three pits were discovered within Selene observations [1,2] and were proposed to represent collapses into lava tubes. Subsequent LROC images revealed 5 new mare pits and showed that the Mare Tranquillitatis pit (MTP; 8.335°N, 33.222°E) opens into a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent [3,4]. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a small lander (<130 kg) named Arne, that carries three flying microbots (or pit-bots) [5,6,7]. Key measurement objectives include decimeter scale characterization of the pit walls, 5-cm scale imaging of the eastern floor, determination of the extent of sublunarean void(s), and measurement of the magnetic and thermal environment. After landing and initial surface systems check Arne will transmit full resolution descent and surface images. Within two hours the first pit-bot will launch and fly into the eastern void. Depending on results from the first pit-bot the second and third will launch and perform follow-up observations. The primary mission is expected to last 48-hours; before the Sun sets on the lander there should be enough time to execute ten flights with each pit-bot. The pit-bots are 30-cm diameter spherical flying robots [5,6,7] equipped with stereo cameras, temperature sensors, sensors for obstacle avoidance and a laser rangefinder. Lithium hydride [5,6] and water/hydrogen peroxide power three micro-thrusters and achieve a specific impulse of 350-400 s. Each pit-bot can fly for 2 min at 2 m/s for more than 100 cycles; recharge time is 20 min. Arne will carry a magnetometer, thermometer, 2 high resolution cameras, and 6 wide angle cameras and obstacle avoidance infrared sensors enabling detailed characterization of extant sublunarean voids. [1] Haruyama et al. (2010) 41st LPSC, #1285. [2

  10. Observations of tabanid feeding on mares and foals.

    PubMed

    Foil, L; Stage, D; Adams, W V; Issel, C J

    1985-05-01

    The occurrence of tabanid feeding between mares and foals was observed. When mares and foals were observed freely moving within a pasture situation, foals had 2.43% (4 flies in 77 observations vs 297 flies in 139 observations) of the tabanid feeding occurrences of the mares. This difference in tabanid burden varied due to herd size, herd location, and tabanid species. Lower tabanid burden of foals was indicated as a practical protective mechanism against pathogenic agents mechanically transmitted by tabanids, such as equine infectious anemia virus.

  11. Variations in chemical composition of Apollo 15 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Chemical analyses of 30 different Apollo 15 mare basalts were examined to evaluate the effects of closure on the pearson moment correlation coefficient. It is shown possible to describe the Apollo 15 mare basalts in terms of an opaque, an olivine/pyroxene, an anorthite, and a KREEP component, if significant correlations are identified using the expected correlations as null values. Using Q-mode cluster analysis and nonlinear mapping, it is possible to recognize three groups of the mare basalts, groups 1 and 2 belonging to the olivine normative basalt cluster and group 3 to the quartz normative cluster.

  12. A model for the evolution of opaques in mare lavas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haselton, J. D.; Nash, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    The apparent 'reduced' state of the opaque mineral assemblages of mare basalts has led to various hypotheses on their origin through reduction by various media. A model is developed whereby the presence of trivalent titanium (Ti/3+/) and metallic iron in mare lavas at low oxygen fugacities automatically leads to the production of the observed assemblages by cooling near the mare basalt solidus. The 'reduced' assemblages may evolve isochemically at oxygen fugacities near the iron-ilmenite-ferropseudobrookite buffer by a reaction of the form Fe(2+)+2 Ti(3+) = metallic iron +2 Ti(4+).

  13. NASA Electronic Library System (NELS) database schema, version 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melebeck, Clovis J.

    1991-01-01

    The database tables used by NELS version 1.2 are discussed. To provide the current functional capability offered by NELS, nineteen tables were created with ORACLE. Each table lists the ORACLE table name and provides a brief description of the tables intended use or function. The following sections cover four basic categories of tables: NELS object classes, NELS collections, NELS objects, and NELS supplemental tables. Also included in each section is a definition and/or relationship of each field to other fields or tables. The primary key(s) for each table is indicated with a single asterisk (*), while foreign keys are indicated with double asterisks (**). The primary key(s) indicate the key(s) which uniquely identifies a record for that table. The foreign key(s) is used to identify additional information in other table(s) for that record. The two appendices are the command which is used to construct the ORACLE tables for NELS. Appendix A contains the commands which create the tables which are defined in the following sections. Appendix B contains the commands which build the indices for these tables.

  14. ELECTROPHORETIC HOMOGENEITY OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPHIN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Choh Hao; Evans, Herbert M.; Wonder, Donald H.

    1940-01-01

    A highly purified and potent gonadotrophin in pregnant mare serum has been prepared. The preparation has been shown to be electrophoretically homogeneous in the Tiselius apparatus. The mobilities of the substance have been determined over a wide range of hydrogen ion concentrations. The isoelectric point lies at pH 2.60–2.65 and the value of See PDF for Equation is 4.0 x 10–5. Some chemical constituents have been studied. From the tryptophane and tyrosine content the molecular weight of the hormone is estimated to be 30,000. The hormone has been subjected to acetylation by ketene in aqueous solution at room temperature and the result suggests again the essentiality of free amino groups for the biological activity of the hormone. In this respect it is to be contrasted with human chorionic gonadotrophin. PMID:19873189

  15. A Modified CIPW Norm Calculation for Lunar Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, R. E.; Basu, A.

    2000-01-01

    CIPW norms of lunar mare basalts are anomalously low in pyroxene. A modified norm calculation allowing higher Ca, Ti, Al, Cr, and Mn in di' and hy' obtains closer matches between normative and modal mineralogy.

  16. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING EC; CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING EC; CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters E Garage, Walnut Avenue behind Quarters E, west side between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Coat color and gestation length in thoroughbred mares.

    PubMed

    Dring, L A; Hintz, H F; Van Vleck, L D

    1981-01-01

    Average gestation periods for bay, chestnut, dark bay, gray, and black Thoroughbred mares were compared. A total of 1359 gestation periods were used. A linear model including factors for age of mare, sex of foal, month and year of breeding, and sire effects was used in the analysis. Dam and sire coat-color combinations were also investigated in a similar manner. No significant differences in gestation length could be attributed to coat color of the mare of to dam and sire coat-color combinations. Heritability of gestation length was estimated to be 0.38. The results of this study strongly suggest that coat color is not associated with gestation length in Thoroughbred mares.

  18. Jules Verne Mare Soils as Revealed by Clementine UVVIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Head, J. W.

    1999-03-01

    To determine the nature of potentially low-Ca pyroxene (noritic) spectra in six South Pole-Aitken basin mare deposits, we undertake a multispectral analysis of a representative of these deposits, that associated with Jules Verne crater.

  19. Mare volcanism in the Taurus-Littrow region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    The products of mare volcanism at Taurus-Littrow occur in the form of crystalline basalts and volcanic glass beads. Both categories of samples define a compositionally diverse, but petrogenetically unrelated, suite of magmas derived by partial melting of a heterogenous, differentiated mantle beneath the region of the Apollo 17 landing site. This is a brief review of what is known and what is not known about mare volcanism at this location on the Moon.

  20. Confirmation of sublunarean voids and thin layering in mare deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Ashley, J. W.; Boyd, A. K.; Wagner, R. V.; Speyerer, E. J.; Ray Hawke, B.; Hiesinger, H.; van der Bogert, C. H.

    2012-08-01

    Typical flow thicknesses of lunar mare basalts were not well constrained in the past, because as craters and rilles age, downslope movement of loose material tends to mix and bury stratigraphy, obscuring the three dimensional nature of the maria. New Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera high resolution images unambiguously reveal thicknesses of mare basalt layers exposed in impact craters, rilles, and steep-walled pits. Pits up to one hundred meters deep present relatively unmodified, near-vertical sections of mare in three cases, and many young impact craters also expose well preserved sections of mare. Oblique views of each pit and many of these craters reveal multiple layers, 3 to 14 m thick, indicating that eruptions typically produced a series of ˜10 m thick flows (or flow lobes) rather than flows many tens to hundreds of meters thick. Additionally, these images unambiguously show that the floors of two pits extend beneath the mare surfaces, thus revealing sublunarean voids of unknown lateral extent. We also document the occurrence of pits that may be expressions of collapse into subsurface voids in non-mare impact melt deposits. These voids are compelling targets for future human and robotic exploration, with potential as temporary shelters, habitations, or geologic museums.

  1. A high-resolution radar and CCD imaging study of crater rays in Mare Serenitatis and Mare Nectaris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Bell, James F., III; Zisk, Stanley H.; Hawke, B. R.; Horton, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    Radar and spectral image processing techniques are reviewed and their application to the rays in Mare Serenitatis and Mare Nectaris is discussed. Analysis of data for Mare Serenitatis shows that the ray that passes west of the Bessel Crater is characterized by up to 40 percent highland ejecta. Radar data show that optically bright ray deposits are characterized by enhanced 1-50 cm scale roughness within the upper meter of the regolith, but not by enhanced 1-10 m blockiness. Stokes vector analysis of the 3.0 cm radar echoes shows that the western portion of the Bessel ejecta blanket is characterized by an anomalously high nondiffuse depolarized return. The ray analyzed in Mare Nectaris passes close to Rosse Crater and is characterized by a cluster of bright secondary craters within a radar-rough halo downrange of Tycho. This downrange deposit is attributed to excavation of local fragmental material by a secondary debris surge.

  2. Radar remote sensing of pyroclastic deposits in the southern Mare Serenitatis and Mare Vaporum regions of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael C.

    2009-11-01

    We use polarimetric radar observations to study the distribution, depth, and embedded rock abundance of nearside lunar pyroclastic deposits. Radar images were obtained for Mare Vaporum and the southern half of Mare Serenitatis; the imaged areas contain the large Rima Bode, Mare Vaporum, Sulpicius Gallus, and Taurus-Littrow pyroclastic deposits. Potential pyroclastic deposits at Rima Hyginus crater, the Tacquet Formation, and a dome in Mare Vaporum are also included. Data were acquired at S band (12.6 cm wavelength) using Arecibo Observatory and the Green Bank Telescope in a bistatic configuration. The S band images have resolutions between 20 and 100 m/pixel. The pyroclastic deposits appear dark to the radar and have low circular polarization ratios at S band wavelengths because they are smooth, easily penetrable by radar waves, and generally contain few embedded blocks. Changes in circular polarization ratio (CPR) across some of the pyroclastic deposits show areas with increased rock abundance as well as deposits that are shallower. Radar backscatter and CPR maps are used to identify fine-grained mantling deposits in cases where optical and near-infrared data are ambiguous about the presence of pyroclastics. The Tacquet Formation in southern Serenitatis, areas near Hyginus crater, and a dome in Mare Vaporum have lower-backscatter cross sections than would be expected for mare basalts of similar estimated titanium content. Combined with very low CPR values, this is strong evidence that these areas are covered in fine-grained pyroclastic mantling material.

  3. Development of a Non Explosive Low Shock (NELS) Holddown and Release System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustijn, J.; Grimminck, M.; Bongers, E.; Konink, T.; Koning, J.

    2015-09-01

    The NELS holddown and release system is an evolution of the hold-down and release systems used by Airbus Defence and Space Netherlands for solar arrays with over 500 successful releases in orbit without failure. The NELS HDRS is based on the principle of cutting a high-strength fibre-based restraint cable with a Thermal Knife resulting in a reliable, very low shock release.

  4. NELS 2.0 - A general system for enterprise wide information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephanie L.

    1993-01-01

    NELS, the NASA Electronic Library System, is an information management tool for creating distributed repositories of documents, drawings, and code for use and reuse by the aerospace community. The NELS retrieval engine can load metadata and source files of full text objects, perform natural language queries to retrieve ranked objects, and create links to connect user interfaces. For flexibility, the NELS architecture has layered interfaces between the application program and the stored library information. The session manager provides the interface functions for development of NELS applications. The data manager is an interface between session manager and the structured data system. The center of the structured data system is the Wide Area Information Server. This system architecture provides access to information across heterogeneous platforms in a distributed environment. There are presently three user interfaces that connect to the NELS engine; an X-Windows interface, and ASCII interface and the Spatial Data Management System. This paper describes the design and operation of NELS as an information management tool and repository.

  5. NELS 2.0 - A general system for enterprise wide information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephanie L.

    1993-01-01

    NELS, the NASA Electronic Library System, is an information management tool for creating distributed repositories of documents, drawings, and code for use and reuse by the aerospace community. The NELS retrieval engine can load metadata and source files of full text objects, perform natural language queries to retrieve ranked objects, and create links to connect user interfaces. For flexibility, the NELS architecture has layered interfaces between the application program and the stored library information. The session manager provides the interface functions for development of NELS applications. The data manager is an interface between session manager and the structured data system. The center of the structured data system is the Wide Area Information Server. This system architecture provides access to information across heterogeneous platforms in a distributed environment. There are presently three user interfaces that connect to the NELS engine; an X-Windows interface, and ASCII interface and the Spatial Data Management System. This paper describes the design and operation of NELS as an information management tool and repository.

  6. Plumbing Coastal Depths in Titan Kraken Mare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-10

    Radar data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft reveal the depth of liquid methane/ethane seas on Saturn's moon Titan. Cassini's Titan flyby on August 21, 2014, included a segment designed to collect altimetry (or height) data, using the spacecraft's radar instrument, along a 120-mile (200-kilometer) shore-to-shore track on Kraken Mare, Titan's largest hydrocarbon sea. For a 25-mile (40-kilometer) stretch of this data, along the sea's eastern shoreline, Cassini's radar beam bounced off the sea bottom and back to the spacecraft, revealing the sea's depth in that area. Observations in this region, near the mouth of a large, flooded river valley, showed depths ranging from 66 to 115 feet (20 to 35 meters). Plots of three radar echoes are shown at left, indicating depths of 89 feet (27 meters), 108 feet (33 meters) and 98 feet (30 meters), respectively. The altimetry echoes show the characteristic double-peaked returns of a bottom-reflection. The tallest peak represents the sea surface; the shorter of the pair represents the sea bottom. The distance between the two peaks is a measure of the liquid's depth. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image at right shows successive altimetry observations as black circles. The three blue circles indicate the locations of the three altimetry echoes shown in the plots at left. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19046

  7. Melengestrol acetate as a tool for inducing early ovulation in transitional mares.

    PubMed

    López-Bayghen, Consuelo; Zozaya, Heidy; Ocampo, Luis; Brumbaugh, Gordon W; Sumano, Héctor

    2008-03-01

    The efficacy of melengestrol acetate (MGA) to shorten the vernal transition of mares by synchronising and accelerating the first ovulation of the year after 60 days of phototherapy was determined by ultrasonographic monitoring. Sixteen mares in late transition were fed two doses of MGA (150 mg/mare/day and 100 mg/mare/day, respectively) for 10 days. A luteolytic dose of prostaglandin was administered to each mare one day after the end of MGA treatment. The presence and duration of oestrus, follicular growth, uterine oedema and presence of ovulation were monitored by ultrasonography and the cervical tone was evaluated by rectal palpation. Ovulation was detected in 87.5% of the mares treated with 150 mg MGA/mare/day for 10 days, and in 62.5% of the mares receiving 100 mg MGA/mare/day for 10 days. This was statistically different (P = 0.03) from the untreated control mares having an ovulation rate of 20%. Mares that received 150 mg MGA/day for 10 days had a mean treatment to ovulation interval of 13.1 +/- 5.97 days after the end of treatment, while mares that received 100 mg MGA/day for 10 days had a mean of 25.6 +/- 10.50 days (P = 0.01) to ovulation. These results suggest that MGA can be used for synchronising and hastening the first ovulation of the year in mares.

  8. MARE-l in Milan: Status and Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, E.; Arnaboldi, C.; Ceruti, G.; Faverzani, M.; Gatti, C.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Kilbourne, C.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Nucciotti, A.; Pessini, G.; Schaeffer, D.; Sisti, M.

    2012-01-01

    The international project MARE (Microcalorimeter Array for a Rhenium Experiment) aims at the direct and calorimetric measurement of the electron neutrino mass with sub-eV sensitivity. Although the baseline of the MARE project consists in a large array of rhenium based thermal detectors, a different option for the isotope is also being considered. The different option is Ho-163. The potential of using Re-187 for a calorimetric neutrino mass experiment has been already demonstrated. On the contrary, no calorimetric spectrum of Ho-163 has been so far measured with the precision required to set a useful limit on the neutrino mass. The first phase of the project (MARE-1) is a collection of activities with the aim of sorting out both the best isotope and the most suited detector technology to be used for the final experiment. One of the MARE-1 activities is carried out in Milan by the group of Milano-Bicocca in collaboration with NASA/GSFC and Wisconsin groups. The Milan MARE-l arrays are based on semiconductor thermistors, provided by the NASA/GSFC group, with dielectric silver perrhenate absorbers, AgReO4. The experiment, which is presently being assembled, is designed to host up to 8 arrays.

  9. A chemical model for lunar non-mare rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, N. J.; Rhodes, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Nearly all rocks returned from the moon are readily divided into three broad categories on the basis of their chemical compositions: (1) mare basalts, (2) non-mare rocks of basaltic composition (KREEP, VHA), and (3) anorthositic rocks. Only mare basalts may unambiguously be considered to have original igneous textures and are widely understood to have an igneous origin. Nearly all other lunar rocks have lost their original textures during metamorphic and impact processes. It is shown that for these rocks one must work primarily with chemical data in order to recognize and define rock groups and their possible modes of origin. Non-mare rocks of basaltic composition have chemical compositions consistent with an origin by partial melting of the lunar interior. The simplest origin for rocks of anorthositic chemical composition is the crystallization and removal of ferromagnesian minerals. It is proposed that the rock groups of anorthositic and non-mare basaltic chemical composition could have been generated from a single series of original but not necessarily primitive lunar materials.

  10. A chemical model for lunar non-mare rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, N. J.; Rhodes, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Nearly all rocks returned from the moon are readily divided into three broad categories on the basis of their chemical compositions: (1) mare basalts, (2) non-mare rocks of basaltic composition (KREEP, VHA), and (3) anorthositic rocks. Only mare basalts may unambiguously be considered to have original igneous textures and are widely understood to have an igneous origin. Nearly all other lunar rocks have lost their original textures during metamorphic and impact processes. For these rocks one must work primarily with chemical data in order to recognize and define rock groups and their possible modes of origin. Non-mare rocks of basaltic composition have chemical compositions consistent with an origin by partial melting of the lunar interior. The simplest origin for rocks of anorthositic chemical composition is the crystallization and removal of ferromagnesian minerals. It is proposed that the rock groups of anorthositic and non-mare basaltic chemical composition could have been generated from a single series of original, but not necessarily primitive, lunar materials.

  11. Ages, Thicknesses and Mineralogy of Lunar Mare Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W.; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2002-01-01

    About 17% of the lunar surface are covered with lunar mare basalts. Mare basalts occur preferentially on the lunar nearside and their presence on planetary surfaces is indicative of the thermal activity and volcanic evolution of the body. In order to place constraints on the thermal/volcanic evolution and petrogenetic models for the formation of lunar mare basalts, we dated basalts exposed on the lunar nearside. Over the last 6 years we performed crater counts for Oceanus Procellarum, Mare Nubium, Cognitum, Insularum, Humorum, Imbrium, Serenitatis, Tranquillitatis, Humboldtianum, and Australe. Currently we are extending our crater counts to basalt areas in Mare Frigoris, Nectaris, Vaporum, Smythii, and Marginis. We are also in the progress of dating some lava-filled impact craters such as Schickard, Cr?ger, and Grimaldi. Crater counts not only allow one to determine the age of a basalt unit but also provide important information about the thickness, the volume, and the temporal separation of individual basalt flow units. In addition, age data in combination with Clementine and Lunar Prospector data allow one to investigate changes in mineralogy with time.

  12. Mineralogical variation of the late stage mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xunyu; Wu, Yunzhao; Ouyang, Ziyuan; Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Chen, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Cai, Wei; Xu, Aoao; Tang, Zesheng

    2016-10-01

    The last major phases of lunar volcanism occurred mainly in Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Imbrium and produced spectrally unique medium- and high-titanium basalts. The composition and distribution of these basalts provide a record of the late stage thermal evolution of the Moon. To study the spectral and mineralogical variations of the late stage mare basalts, 31 distinct units were mapped employing a range of remote sensing data. Their inferred mineralogical characteristics were studied by analyzing the spectral features of small, fresh craters derived from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data. The strongest olivine spectral signatures were found around Lichtenberg crater, while the units with the lowest olivine/pyroxene ratio occurred mainly in the southern Kepler crater and some local areas. In Oceanus Procellarum, the olivine/pyroxene ratio decreases progressively from the Lichtenberg crater to the southern units. The northern and southern units within Mare Imbrium have higher olivine/pyroxene ratios than the central ones. The inferred abundance of olivine appears to vary stratigraphically, with the younger flows being more olivine rich. However, the stratigraphically younger units around Euler crater in Mare Imbrium, which present as dark red hues in the integrated band depth image of M3, were found to have lower olivine/pyroxene ratios than the units around Lichtenberg crater (shown as light red hues) in Oceanus Procellarum. It could be interpreted that the late stage mare basalts around Lichtenberg crater originated from a more olivine-rich source than those around Euler crater.

  13. Hematological and biochemical features of postpartum fever in the heavy draft mare

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Takahiro; KIMURA, Yuki; OYA, Anna; CHIBA, Akiko; ISHII, Mitsuo; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heavy draft mares potentially have a higher risk of suffering from postpartum fever (PF) than light breed mares. The purpose of this study was to compare hematological and biochemical features between clinically healthy mares (n=40) and PF-affected mares (n=16). Mares were classified as having PF when their rectal temperature rose to >38.5°C within 96 hr of foaling. The numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils and the serum magnesium level were significantly lower in PF-affected mares. The serum SAA and NEFA levels were significantly higher in PF-affected mares. Strong inflammation responses, fat mobilization associated with negative energy balance and possibly endotoxin participate in hematological and biochemical features of PF in heavy draft mares. PMID:27073331

  14. Effects of deslorelin or hCG administration on reproductive performance in first postpartum estrus mares.

    PubMed

    Blanchar, Terry L; Brinsko, Stevem P; Rigby, Sherri L

    2002-07-01

    A tendency for deslorelin implants to suppress subsequent follicular growth and delay return to estrus following induced ovulation has been documented in nonlactating mares. To investigate this phenomenon in lactating mares, 22 broodmares in southeast Texas were administered either deslorelin or hCG to induce ovulation in the first postpartum estrus during February and March 2001. Mares were teased daily and examined twice weekly (Tuesdays and Thursdays) by transrectal ultrasonography. When a follicle >35 mm diameter was detected on Tuesday, mares were treated with either 2,500 U hCG administered intravenously or with one implant (2.1 mg) deslorelin administered subcutaneously. Mares were bred every other day until ovulation was detected or until they ceased behavioral estrus, and were examined 16 days after treatment to detect pregnancy. Follicular measurements were recorded for all mares during each examination, and interestrous intervals were recorded for mares not becoming pregnant. Treatment of mares with either hCG or deslorelin resulted in similar ovulatory responses and pregnancy rates. Deslorelin-treated mares had fewer ovarian follicles >20 mm in diameter 16 days after treatment than hCG-treated mares (P < 0.01). Interestrous intervals for mares failing to become pregnant on foal heat breeding were prolonged in deslorelin-treated compared to hCG-treated mares (P < 0.01). Date of treatment was negatively correlated with length of the interestrous interval in deslorelin-treated mares (P < 0.01), but was not correlated with length of interestrous interval in hCG-treated mares (P > 0.10). All mares failing to become pregnant from foal heat breedings became pregnant from later breedings, but the parturition to conception interval was prolonged in deslorelin-treated compared to hCG-treated mares that did not become pregnant on foal heat (P < 0.01).

  15. Nortestosterone: endogenous in urine of goats, sheep and mares?

    PubMed

    Sterk, S; Herbold, H; Blokland, M; van Rossum, H; van Ginkel, L; Stephany, R

    1998-12-01

    For a number of species it is known that nortestosterone, either the alpha- or beta-epimer, can be of endogenous origin. For goats and mares similar results have not yet been published. As a follow-up on the experiments with cattle, a large number of urine samples per animal were collected from pregnant goats, sheep and mares. These samples were analysed for the presence of alpha- and beta-nortestosterone and alpha-estradiol using GC-MS. The results show that in the goats and mares studied alpha-nortestosterone is present during pregnancy. In this study no alpha-nortestosterone could be demonstrated in sheep. From our study and recently published data, however, it is proven that alpha-nortestosterone can occur endogenously.

  16. Lunar ferroan anorthosites and mare basalt sources - The mixed connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1991-01-01

    Global overturn of a hot, gravitationally unstable lunar mantle immediately following the solidification of a magma ocean explains several characteristics of lunar petrology. Lunar mare basalt sources are inferred to be depleted in europium and alumina. These depletions are consensually attributed to complementary plagioclase floating from a magma ocean. However, in contrast to the mare basalt source parent magma, the ferroan anorthosite parent magma was more evolved by virtue of its lower Mg/Fe ratio and Ni abundances, although less evolved in its poverty of clinopyroxene constituents, flat rare earth pattern, and lower incompatible element abundances. The europium anomaly in mare sources is inferred to be present at 400 km depth, too deep to have been directly influenced by plagioclase crystallization. Massive overturning of the post-magma ocean mantle would have carried down clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and phases containing fractionated rare earths, europium anomalies, and some heat-producing radionuclides.

  17. The Apollo 17 mare basalts: Serenely sampling Taurus-Littrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    As we are all aware, the Apollo 17 mission marked the final manned lunar landing of the Apollo program. The lunar module (LM) landed approximately 0.7 km due east of Camelot Crater in the Taurus-Littrow region on the southwestern edge of Mare Serenitatis. Three extravehicular activities (EVA's) were performed, the first concentrating around the LM and including station 1 approximately 1.1 km south-southeast of the LM at the northwestern edge of Steno Crater. The second traversed approximately 8 km west of the LM to include stations 2, 3, 4, and 5, and the third EVA traversed approximately 4.5 km to the northwest of the LM to include stations 6, 7, 8, and 9. This final manned mission returned the largest quantity of lunar rock samples, 110.5 kg/243.7 lb, and included soils, breccias, highland samples, and mare basalts. This abstract concentrates upon the Apollo 17 mare basalt samples.

  18. Observations of Mare Serenitatis from lunar orbit and their interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.; Evans, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Visual observations of color differences of Serenitatis mare materials from orbit complement photography and other remotely sensed data. The light tan gray inner fill of the Serenitatis Basin is younger than the dark blue gray annulus; the latter continues into and appears to be contemporaneous with the fill of Mare Tranquillitatis. Mare ridges occur in both the inner basin fill and the dark annulus of Serenitatis. Ridges are interpreted as the result of structural deformation and up-doming after the solidification of the basaltic lavas. On the southeastern rim of the Serenitatis Basin is the darkest blue gray unit within which Apollo 17 landed. Highland massifs surrounding this unit have unstable slopes which are believed to be the result of localized tectonic activity. On the southwest rim of the basin are the dark tan to brown gray mantling materials of the Sulpicius Gallus Formation.

  19. Lunar ferroan anorthosites and mare basalt sources - The mixed connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1991-11-01

    Global overturn of a hot, gravitationally unstable lunar mantle immediately following the solidification of a magma ocean explains several characteristics of lunar petrology. Lunar mare basalt sources are inferred to be depleted in europium and alumina. These depletions are consensually attributed to complementary plagioclase floating from a magma ocean. However, in contrast to the mare basalt source parent magma, the ferroan anorthosite parent magma was more evolved by virtue of its lower Mg/Fe ratio and Ni abundances, although less evolved in its poverty of clinopyroxene constituents, flat rare earth pattern, and lower incompatible element abundances. The europium anomaly in mare sources is inferred to be present at 400 km depth, too deep to have been directly influenced by plagioclase crystallization. Massive overturning of the post-magma ocean mantle would have carried down clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and phases containing fractionated rare earths, europium anomalies, and some heat-producing radionuclides.

  20. Lunar ferroan anorthosites and mare basalt sources - The mixed connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1991-01-01

    Global overturn of a hot, gravitationally unstable lunar mantle immediately following the solidification of a magma ocean explains several characteristics of lunar petrology. Lunar mare basalt sources are inferred to be depleted in europium and alumina. These depletions are consensually attributed to complementary plagioclase floating from a magma ocean. However, in contrast to the mare basalt source parent magma, the ferroan anorthosite parent magma was more evolved by virtue of its lower Mg/Fe ratio and Ni abundances, although less evolved in its poverty of clinopyroxene constituents, flat rare earth pattern, and lower incompatible element abundances. The europium anomaly in mare sources is inferred to be present at 400 km depth, too deep to have been directly influenced by plagioclase crystallization. Massive overturning of the post-magma ocean mantle would have carried down clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and phases containing fractionated rare earths, europium anomalies, and some heat-producing radionuclides.

  1. Fetal maceration and retention of fetal bones in a mare.

    PubMed

    Burns, T E; Card, C E

    2000-09-15

    A 19-year-old Quarter Horse mare was evaluated because of bloody vaginal discharge that was apparent immediately following breeding. On transrectal ultrasonography, it was evident that the uterus was filled with fluid containing echogenic particles; linear hyperechoic structures were also visible. Endoscopy was performed, which revealed a number of bones adhered to the cranial wall and floor of the right uterine horn as well as purulent fluid in both uterine horns. Bacterial endometritis and fetal maceration were diagnosed. The mare was treated with antibiotics, and the fetal bones were manually removed from the uterus. Fetal maceration with intrauterine retention of bones is rare in mares. Use of hysteroscopy supplements ultrasonography in the diagnosis of uncommon conditions of the uterus. Macerated bones may be adhered to the endometrium, thereby requiring manual removal.

  2. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on...

  3. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on...

  4. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on...

  5. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on...

  6. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on...

  7. Bilateral occurrence of granulosa-theca cell tumors in an Arabian mare

    PubMed Central

    Frederico, Lisa M.; Gerard, Mathew P.; Pinto, Carlos R.F.; Gradil, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    An Arabian mare was referred for right granulosa-theca cell tumor (GTCT) evaluation. The mare was presented 4.5 years later for a left GTCT, after successfully conceiving and delivering a normal foal in the interim. The concurrent or nonconcurrent occurrence of bilateral GTCT in mares appears to be rare. PMID:17542368

  8. Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) Mission Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.; Carson, John M., III

    2017-01-01

    On December 11, 1972, Apollo 17 marked the last controlled U.S. lunar landing and was followed by an absence of methodical in-situ investigation of the lunar surface. The Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) proposal provides scientific measurement of the age and composition of a relatively young portion of the lunar surface near Aristarchus Plateau and the first post-Apollo U.S. soft lunar landing. It includes the first demonstration of a crew survivability-enhancing autonomous hazard detection and avoidance system. This report focuses on the mission design and performance associated with the MARE robotic lunar landing subject to mission and trajectory constraints.

  9. Time of foaling in Arabian mares raised in Tiaret, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Meliani, Samia; Benallou, Bouabdellah; Halbouche, Miloud; Haddouche, Zohra

    2013-01-01

    Objective To enhance effectiveness of reproduction management in Arabian mares, factors influencing the time of foaling were investigated in this study. Methods Data were collected at the National Haras of Tiaret in Algeria from 2003 to 2010. The foaling time of 255 Arabian pure bred mares, aged from 3 to 20 years were used for this study. Results A total of 78.07% of foaling happens between 7 pm and 6 am. Conclusions The influence of the month of foaling and the sex of the foal, on the time of foaling was statically significant. PMID:23835758

  10. Experimental reduction of lunar mare soil and volcanic glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Morris, Richard V.; Mckay, David S.

    1994-01-01

    We have reduced high-titanium lunar mare soil and iron-rich lunar volcanic glass with hydrogen at temperatures of 900-1100 C. Ilmenite is the most reactive phase in the soil, exhibiting rapid and complete reduction at all temperatures. Ferrous iron in the glass is extensively reduced concurrent with partial crystallization. In both samples pyroxene and olivine undergo partial reduction along with chemical and mineralogical modifications. High-temperature reduction provides insight into the optical and chemical effects of lunar soil maturation, and places constraints on models of that process. Mare soil and volcanic glass are attractive feedstocks for lunar oxygen production, with achievable yields of 2-5 wt%.

  11. Hepatoencephalopathy and hypocalcemia in a miniature horse mare.

    PubMed

    Scarratt, W K; Furr, M O; Robertson, J L

    1991-12-15

    A pregnant, miniature horse mare had clinical signs of hepatoencephalopathy and concurrent hypocalcemia. The signs included dullness, inappetence, blindness, head pressing, weakness, muscle fasiculations, uveitis, and urinary incontinence. Hepatic dysfunction and hypocalcemia were confirmed by serum biochemical analysis. The mare was treated successfully with a continuous infusion of Ringer solution, calcium gluconate, dextrose, B-complex vitamins, sodium ampicillin, and flunixin meglumine; topical administration of ophthalmic ointments; and decompression of the urinary bladder. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy specimen revealed acute hepatic necrosis, which likely was associated with administration of a vaccine of equine origin 2 months earlier.

  12. Remote sensing and photogrammetric studies: Part A: remote sensing of Mare Serenitatis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, T.W.; Howard, K.A.; Shorthill, R.W.; Tyler, G.L.; Zisk, S.H.; Whitaker, E.A.; Schaber, G.G.; Moore, H.J.

    1973-01-01

    Mare Serenitatis is a circular mare approximately 600 km in diameter in the northeast quadrant of the lunar near side. It occupies an old multi-ringed basin (refs. 33-1 and 33-2) and is the site of a prominent mascon (ref. 33-3). A conspicuous dark annulus in this mare prompted subdivision of the mare materials into different stratigraphic units (refs. 33-2 and 33-4). A revised stratigraphic sequence for the southern part of Mare Serenitatis, based on photogeologic interpretation of Apollo 15 and 17 photographs, is summarized as follows after Howard et al.

  13. Composition, mineralogy, and petrology of 28 mare basalts from Apollo 15 rake samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, E.; Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

    1973-01-01

    Twenty-eight mare basalts from three Apollo 15 rake sample sections are divided into five rock groups which are considered to represent at least five rock units. Three of these groups (pyroxene-phyric basalt, olivine-phyric basalt, and olivine microgabbro) are from the mare area and are probably near-surface local mare rock units. The remaining groups (feldspathic peridotite and feldspathic microgabbro) are found outside the mare, in Spur Crater at the foot of the Apennines; they may come from deeper levels of the local mare or from a more distant source.

  14. Survival rates of mares and foals and postoperative complications and fertility of mares after cesarean section: 95 cases (1986-2000).

    PubMed

    Abernathy-Young, Kimberly K; LeBlanc, Michelle M; Embertson, Rolf M; Pierce, Scott W; Stromberg, Arnold J

    2012-10-01

    To assess survival-to-discharge rates of mares and foals and postoperative complications and fertility in mares following cesarean section (C-section). Retrospective case series. 95 mares. Medical and breeding records of mares that underwent C-section were reviewed; signalment, surgical technique, complications, survival-to-discharge rate, and pregnancy and foaling rates were recorded and evaluated. Foaling rates in the 3 years after C-section were compared with the cumulative foaling rate before C-section. C-section was performed because of dystocia (n = 71) or concurrent maternal disease (20) or was elective (4). Overall survival-to-discharge rate was 84% (80/95) for mares and 35% (28/80) for foals. Six of 15 mares that had partial fetotomies prior to C-section did not survive. Mares that had dystocia for < 90 minutes had the fewest complications. Cumulative foaling rate before C-section was 77% (394/509). Overall foaling rate for the 3 years after C-section was 52% (30/58) and 68% (13/19) when duration of dystocia was ≥ 90 minutes and < 90 minutes, respectively, and was 31 % (9/29) for mares ≥ 16 years old. Foaling rate was significantly lower for mares bred in the same year as C-section than for mares bred in later years. Breeding in the same year as C-section, dystocia for ≥ 90 minutes before C-section, and mare age ≥ 16 years were associated with poor foaling rates. Prognosis for delivery of a live foal in years following C-section was good if duration of dystocia was < 90 minutes and the mare was < 16 years old at the time of surgery.

  15. Reproductive Performance of Arabian and Thoroughbred Mares under Subtropical Conditions of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Warriach, H. M.; Memon, M. A.; Ahmad, N.; Norman, S. T.; Ghafar, A.; Arif, M.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding records of 57 Arabian and 66 Thoroughbred mares were analysed to assess their reproductive performance under the subtropical conditions of Pakistan. The Arabian mares showed significantly higher conception rates (p<0.05) in second mated oestrus and foal heat mated oestrus compared to Thoroughbred mares. However, conception rates for first lifetime mated oestrus were similar in both breeds of mares. Age at first mating (1,301±40 vs 1,500±32 days) was significantly (p<0.05) less in Arabian compared to Thoroughbred mares. Both breeds of mares showed significantly (p<0.05) higher frequencies of oestrous cycles and conception rates during the winter (October to March) compared to summer (June to August) months. Age of mares affected the conception rates, as mares at ages 3 to 7 and 8 to 12 years of ages had significantly higher conception rates (p<0.05) than those ≥18 years old in both breeds. This study demonstrates that i) reproductive performance in Arabians is better than Thoroughbred mares under the subtropical conditions of Pakistan, ii) mares remain cyclic throughout the year and iii) conception rates were higher in mares bred during winter compared to summer months. PMID:25050033

  16. Prostaglandins and the regulation of parturition in mares.

    PubMed

    Ousey, J C; Fowden, A L

    2012-02-01

    Prostaglandins play an essential role during the perinatal period in the mare. Prostaglandin concentrations are low for the majority of pregnancy due to the regulatory action of progestagens on those enzymes responsible for metabolism of prostaglandins. Towards term, prostaglandin concentrations gradually increase, closely associated with upregulation of the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, stimulation of the prostaglandin synthesising enzyme PGHS-2 and changes in the ratio of progestagens and oestrogens. Recent evidence in the mare indicates that proinflammatory cytokines are key mediators of prostaglandin synthesis both at term parturition in healthy mares and at preterm parturition associated with placental infection. Prostaglandin concentrations rise substantially during active labour and decline after birth, associated with delivery of the placenta. During induced labour, prostaglandin concentrations are variable depending on the proximity to spontaneous parturition at term. Once the proinflammatory endocrine cascade is initiated, it is difficult to prevent active labour by administration of drugs that reduce prostaglandin concentrations in peripheral plasma. Further work is needed to establish the inter-relationships between prostaglandin production and other endocrine changes associated with labour at term and preterm in the mare.

  17. The Nature of Mare Basalts in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.

    2000-01-01

    Unlike Apollo 12 and 15 basalts, many mare lavas of the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) have Th concentrations of 2.5-6 ppm and perhaps greater, as well as high TiO2. Lunar "picritic" volcanic glasses from the PKT have a similar range.

  18. Kraken Mare bathymetry and composition from Cassini RADAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrogiuseppe, M., Sr.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Le Gall, A. A.; Casarano, D.; Hofgartner, J. D.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Notarnicola, C.; Poggiali, V.; Karatekin, O.; Seu, R.

    2014-12-01

    On August 21st, 2014, the Cassini spacecraft will perform its T104 fly-by of Titan. The T104 fly-by will present unique opportunity to sound depths of the Titan biggest sea - Kraken Mare. During closest approach, the RADAR will be pointed at nadir and collect data along a 200 km shore-to-shore track of Kraken Mare. Based on the recent May 2013 (T91) nadir observations of Ligeia Mare, which were used to construct a bathymetric profile and determined the sea's loss tangent, we expect to detect echoes from both surface and seafloor of Kraken with the opportunity to derive the depth and composition of Titan's largest sea. The possibility to sound the deepest points of Kraken will depend mainly on the liquids absorption, seafloor morphology and surface flatness. Regardless, however, the near-shore returns are expected to provide sea-floor echo's above the Cassini RADAR's noise floor. We will present the results of the T104 flyby and contrast them against the results of similar analysis for both Ligeia Mare and Ontario Lacus. When analysed together, the results from all three will help discern the role of lakes/seas in Titan' overall hydrocarbon-based hydrologic cycle.

  19. Observations of Mare Serenitatis from lunar orbit and their interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.; Evans, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Visual observations are investigated of color differences of Serenitatis mare materials from orbit complement photography and other remotely sensed data. The light tan gray inner fill of the Serenitatis basin is younger than the dark blue gray annulus; the latter continues into and appears to be contemporaneous with the fill of Mare Tranquillitatis. Mare ridges occur in both the inner basin fill and the dark annulus of Serenitatis. Ridges are interpreted as the result of structural deformation and up-doming after the solidification of the basaltic lavas. On the southeastern rim of the Serenitatis basin is the darkes blue gray unit within which Apollo 17 landed. Highland massifs surrounding this unit have unstable slopes which are believed to be the result of localized tectonic activity. On the southwest rim of the basin are the dark tan to brown gray mantling materials of the Sulpicius Gallus Formation. Farther west on the rim are dark blue grap patches which resemble the mare material of the Serenitatis dark annulus.

  20. Mars at Ls 53°: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-09

    This picture is a composite of MOC daily global images acquired at Ls 53° during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53° occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars

  1. Headshaking in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented with a 2.5-week history of headshaking. Based on a thorough physical examination, blood analysis, and a fine needle aspirate of an enlarged thyroid gland, a tentative diagnosis of seasonal idiopathic headshaking was made. Treatment with cyproheptadine was attempted. PMID:15025153

  2. Fertility of pasture bred mares in synchronized oestrus.

    PubMed

    Bristol, F

    1987-01-01

    Oestrus was synchronized in 220, 300 and 272 mares in 1983, 1984 and 1985 respectively. Mares were given two injections of 250 micrograms fenprostalene 15 days apart except in 1983 and 1984 when 56 and 53 of the synchronized mares were given 1-10 daily injections of 150 mg progesterone and 10 mg oestradiol-17 beta to delay and synchronize post-partum oestrus. At 2 days after the second PG injection or 7 days after the last progesterone + oestradiol treatment, mares were divided into groups of 15-21, and each group was placed in a separate pasture with a stallion for 7 weeks. Pregnancy rates were 87.7, 93.7 and 97.1%, and foaling rates were 72.3, 89.7 and 94.1% in 1983, 1984 and 1985 respectively. The number of abortions occurring mainly between 3 and 6 months of gestation varied from 34 (17.8%) in 1983 to 12 (4.3%) in 1984 and 8 (3.0%) in 1985.

  3. Observations on the length and angle of declination of the vulva and its relation to fertility in the mare.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, R R

    1979-01-01

    An instrument has been designed to measure the effective length (l) and angle of declination (a) of the vulva in the mare. The product, la, provides an index (Caslick Index) suitable for determining the necessity for Caslick's operation in mares not exhibiting the classical symptoms associated with pneumovagina. The value l showed a significant increase (P less than 0.05) with increased age in breeding mares. Studies on 9020 mares revealed that all caslicked mares, and mares with a Caslick Index of less than 150, had a significantly higher pregnancy rate than non-caslicked mares of similar age and a Caslick Index greater than 150. Values of 100 and over should be an indication for more careful clinical appraisal of the genital tract in those mares not as yet clinically affected. Nulliparous mares caslicked for racing had a significantly higher pregnancy rate than non-casliked maiden mares in their first year at stud.

  4. School, Individual and Item Nonresponse in the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) Base Year Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; And Others

    Nonresponse issues are investigated for the base year (1988) survey of the United States Department of Education's National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), a national probability sample of middle schools and eighth-grade students in the spring of 1988. The total eighth-grade enrollment for the NELS:88 sample of schools was 203,002;…

  5. Mare Tranquillitatis: Basalt emplacement history and relation to lunar samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staid, Matthew I.; Pieters, Carlé M.; Head, James W.

    1996-10-01

    Galileo and Clementine multispectral data of the Mare Tranquillitatis region have been analyzed to investigate the stratigraphy of basaltic units and the effects of lateral and vertical mixing processes within the mare. The distribution of compositionally distinct mare units is observed to be correlated with previous UV/VIS ratio images, although estimates of soil titanium contents are low in some areas as a result of mixing of local basalts with nonmare feldspathic materials. Basalt units identified by their spectral properties and spectral mixture analysis are compared with groups of Apollo 11 samples defined by previous workers on the basis of age and chemistry. Spectral studies presented here indicate that the Apollo 11 site lies at the edge of a localized western mare unit which includes the youngest and most titanium-rich basalts in Tranquillitatis (Apollo 11 high-K, high-Ti samples). In southern Tranquillitatis, these basalts have been contaminated by a large degree of mixing with nonmare feldspathic materials. Nonmare materials near the Apollo 11 site are attributed largely to crater rays from Theophilus (100 km in diameter), which is located approximately 300 km to the south. A more extensive and stratigraphically older unit exposed near Apollo 11 is related to the low-K, high-Ti Apollo 11 samples and appears to extend as a coherent surface unit as far north as the Apollo 17 site in southern Serenitatis. The distribution of this spectrally identified basalt unit supports petrologic and geochemical evidence for the grouping of the high-Ti, low-K Apollo 11 and 17 basalt samples into the same regional volcanic events. Multispectral analysis of Tranquillitatis deposits also identify low-titanium basalts in the northeastern and southeastern portions of the basin that are older than the high-Ti basalts and are believed to be unsampled by Apollo 11. Several lines of evidence suggest that the Cayley Formation along the western Tranquillitatis margin may indeed lie

  6. Reduced anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in mares with hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, F; Akbarinejad, V; Youssefi, R; Masoudifard, M; Hasani, N

    2014-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) has been observed to decrease with the development of hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAFs) in mares. Two studies were conducted to evaluate AMH concentration in mares with HAFs compared to seasonally anoestrous and cyclic mares, and to elucidate changes of AMH with the development of luteinised unruptured follicles (LUFs). In study 1, AMH and progesterone were evaluated in seasonally anoestrous, anovulatory (with HAF) and cyclic mares (at mid luteal phase). In study 2, mares in control and LUF groups were treated with 1500 IU/case hCG when they had a ≥32-mm follicle and an endometrial oedema score of three (day 0). Mares in the control group received no further treatment. Mares in the LUF group received 1.7 mg/kg flunixin meglumine at the time of hCG administration, and 12, 24 and 36 h after it. Ultrasonography and blood collection for AMH and progesterone measurement were performed on days 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8. In study 1, AMH concentration was lower in seasonally anoestrous and HAF mares than cyclic mares (P<0.05). Progesterone concentration did not differ between HAF and cyclic mares (P>0.05). In study 2, AMH was not different between LUF and control mares (P>0.05); however, progesterone had a lower concentration and a delayed rise after hCG administration in LUF mares compared with the control group (P<0.05). The results indicated that similar to seasonally anoestrous mares, AMH concentrations decreased in mares with HAFs. LUFs were also found to be functionally different from HAFs. PMID:27175127

  7. Lunar Mare Photometry from SMART-1/AMIE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkman, Olli; Muinonen, K.; Parviainen, H.; Näränen, J.; Videen, G.; Josset, J.; Beauvivre, S.; SMART-1 AMIE Team

    2012-10-01

    The SMART-1 spacecraft pioneered European lunar exploration with its orbiting mission in 2004-2006. Among its instruments was the optical/near-infrared camera AMIE which mapped the lunar surface with a resolution between 40 to 200 metres per pixel. We have taken a sample of over eight hundred AMIE frames, representing most of the mare regions of the near side. We extracted multi-angular photometry from the images by sampling the brightness of the surface and estimating the local observational geometry (the directions to the camera and the Sun compared to the surface normal). We assume that the photometric properties of mare surfaces are similar in all the regions studied and consider the entire data set as representing "average" mare properties. Mare surfaces were chosen because they are smooth, making the estimation of the observational geometry simple, and also because they are dark, justifying the use of the Lommel-Seeliger scattering law. Using a numerical ray-tracing code with a simulated regolith medium we compute the effect of mutual shadowing of surface particles. This simulation considers the full observational geometry and includes azimuthal shadowings effects. The contribution of shadowing can then be removed from the data, resulting in a phase function for the lunar mare surfaces. In all cases, the reduced phase function shows a significant opposition effect, indicating that the lunar opposition effect is not explainable through shadowing effects only. Physical properties of the surface such as porosity and surface roughness affect the shadowing function. By varying these properties in the ray-tracing simulation, some information of the corresponding properties of the lunar surface may be gained. Research supported, in part, by the Academy of Finland (contract 127461) and by the NASA Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research Program (contract NNX11AB25G).

  8. Reproductive seasonality in the mare: neuroendocrine basis and pharmacologic control.

    PubMed

    Williams, G L; Thorson, J F; Prezotto, L D; Velez, I C; Cardoso, R C; Amstalden, M

    2012-08-01

    Reproductive seasonality in the mare is characterized by a marked decline in adenohypophyseal synthesis and secretion of LH beginning near the autumnal equinox. Thus, ovarian cycles have ceased in most mares by the time of the winter solstice. Endogenous reproductive rhythms in seasonal species are entrained or synchronized as a result of periodic environmental cues. In the horse, this cue is primarily day length. Hence, supplemental lighting schemes have been used managerially for decades to modify the annual timing of reproduction in the mare. Although a full characterization of the cellular and molecular bases of seasonal rhythms has not been realized in any species, many of their synaptic and humoral signaling pathways have been defined. In the mare, neuroendocrine-related studies have focused primarily on the roles of GnRH and interneuronal signaling pathways that subserve the GnRH system in the regulatory cascade. Recent studies have considered the role of a newly discovered neuropeptide, RF-related peptide 3 that could function to inhibit GnRH secretion or gonadotrope responsiveness. Although results that used native peptide sequences have been negative in the mare and mixed in all mammalian females, new studies that used an RFRP3 antagonist (RF9) in sheep are encouraging. Importantly, despite continuing deficits in some fundamental areas, the knowledge required to control seasonal anovulation pharmacologically has been available for >20 yr. Specifically, the continuous infusion of native GnRH is both reliable and efficient for accelerating reproductive transition and is uniquely applicable to the horse. However, its practical exploitation continues to await the development of a commercially acceptable delivery vehicle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved Digitization of Lunar Mare Ridges with LROC Derived Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, J. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Watters, T. R.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Enns, A. C.; Lawrence, S.

    2011-12-01

    Lunar wrinkle ridges (mare ridges) are positive-relief structures formed from compressional stress in basin-filling flood basalt deposits [1]. Previous workers have measured wrinkle ridge orientations and lengths to investigate their spatial distribution and infer basin-localized stress fields [2,3]. Although these plots include the most prominent mare ridges and their general trends, they may not have fully captured all of the ridges, particularly the smaller-scale ridges. Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC) global mosaics and derived topography (100m pixel scale) [4], we systematically remapped wrinkle ridges in Mare Serenitatis. By comparing two WAC mosaics with different lighting geometry, and shaded relief maps made from a WAC digital elevation model (DEM) [5], we observed that some ridge segments and some smaller ridges are not visible in previous structure maps [2,3]. In the past, mapping efforts were limited by a fixed Sun direction [6,7]. For systematic mapping we created three shaded relief maps from the WAC DEM with solar azimuth angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, and a fourth map was created by combining the three shaded reliefs into one, using a simple averaging scheme. Along with the original WAC mosaic and the WAC DEM, these four datasets were imported into ArcGIS, and the mare ridges of Imbrium, Serenitatis, and Tranquillitatis were digitized from each of the six maps. Since the mare ridges are often divided into many ridge segments [8], each major component was digitized separately, as opposed to the ridge as a whole. This strategy enhanced our ability to analyze the lengths, orientations, and abundances of these ridges. After the initial mapping was completed, the six products were viewed together to identify and resolve discrepancies in order to produce a final wrinkle ridge map. Comparing this new mare ridge map with past lunar tectonic maps, we found that many mare ridges were not recorded in the previous works. It was noted

  10. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Endometrium of Mares Infused with Gentamicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bagdadi, F. K.; Eilts, B. E.; Richardson, G. F.

    2004-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the endometrium of nine 1-year-old thoroughbred mares after twice intrauterine infusions of gentamicin, on 2 consecutive days. Five mares were infused on 2 consecutive days with 40 ml gentamicin (50 mg/ml) mixed with 80 ml of normal saline. Four mares served as controls and were infused with 120 ml of saline on 2 consecutive days. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from all mares 3 days after the second intrauterine infusion. Each biopsy was processed for SEM by standard methods. The endometrial epithelium of the gentamicin-infused mares had more cellular perforations than the saline-infused mares. The gentamicin-infused mares had less and shorter microvilli. The ciliated cells were fewer and some ciliated cells had disrupted and some had drooping cilia. The endometrial epithelium of the gentamicin-infused mares had a considerable number of endometrial cells that lost their luminal surfaces and some that lost their microvilli, compared to the saline-infused mares. We suggest that the information gathered in this pilot study should be used as basis for further investigation, on a larger scale basis, of the effects of repeated intrauterine infusion of gentamicin on the endometrial mucosa of mares.

  11. Identifying Students at Risk of Low Achievement in NAEP and NELS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark; And Others

    Data from the 1990 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS) are analyzed for eighth graders to distinguish the characteristics of low-achieving groups and the independent predictors of low test scores. Results provide a basis for evaluating the adequacy of the NAEP for these…

  12. Understanding the composition of the lunar mare through reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, Brett Wilcox

    2007-08-01

    In order to quantify the spectral behavior of maturity variations in the mare, spectral trends of nearly 10,000 craters in six mare regions are examined. Radiative transfer theory is used to model these trends in order to better understand their causes. The maturity trends are confirmed to be more parallel than radial as previously suggested, and this fact is exploited to develop a new algorithm for determination of iron content in mare regions. This new mare iron algorithm better compensates for maturity than previous methods, and uncertainties due to maturity variations are less than 0.5 wt% FeO. Measured optical constants of synthetic glasses of lunar-like compositions are used to predict the optical constants of any glass of an arbitrary combination of FeO and TiO 2 content. These optical constants are employed along with radiative transfer theory to determine composition from telescopic spectra of three regional lunar pyroclastic deposits which are likely to contain large amounts of glass: the Aristarchus Plateau, Mare Humorum, and Sulpicius Gallus. The imaginary coefficient of the complex index of refraction ( k ) is derived from reflectance spectra of 30 pyroxenes. Modified Gaussian modeling is applied to these k spectra to obtain two continuum parameters and nine Gaussian parameters that describe the 1, 2, and 1.2 mm crystal field absorptions. Multiple regression results indicate that the continuum and Gaussian parameters are well predicted by pyroxene FeO and CaO contents; thus, a method to predict a complete pyroxene k spectrum from its FeO and CaO concentrations is developed. The ability of radiative transfer modeling to reproduce reflectance spectra of known composition, and extract compositional information from reflectance spectra, is examined. This model is tested using spectra of mineral mixtures, nine lunar mare soil samples studied by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium, and the Apollo 11 landing site. The model is able to accurately

  13. Nel positively regulates the genesis of retinal ganglion cells by promoting their differentiation and survival during development.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Chizu; Kuan, Soh-Leh; Findlay, Amy S; Durward, Elaine; Ouyang, Zhufeng; Zakrzewska, Ewa D; Endo, Takuma; Nakamoto, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    For correct functioning of the nervous system, the appropriate number and complement of neuronal cell types must be produced during development. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the production of individual classes of neurons are poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the function of the thrombospondin-1-like glycoprotein, Nel (neural epidermal growth factor [EGF]-like), in the generation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in chicks. During eye development, Nel is strongly expressed in the presumptive retinal pigment epithelium and RGCs. Nel overexpression in the developing retina by in ovo electroporation increases the number of RGCs, whereas the number of displaced amacrine cells decreases. Conversely, knockdown of Nel expression by transposon-mediated introduction of RNA interference constructs results in decrease in RGC number and increase in the number of displaced amacrine cells. Modifications of Nel expression levels do not appear to affect proliferation of retinal progenitor cells, but they significantly alter the progression rate of RGC differentiation from the central retina to the periphery. Furthermore, Nel protects RGCs from apoptosis during retinal development. These results indicate that Nel positively regulates RGC production by promoting their differentiation and survival during development.

  14. Pregnancy rates and sexual behavior under pasture breeding conditions in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Scraba, S T; Nuti, L C

    1983-09-01

    Pony mares (n=480) and 16 stallions were assigned to four herds of 60 mares and one stallion (large herds) and to 12 herds of 20 mares and one stallion (small herds). The stallions remained with the herds continuously for all of the large herds and seven of the small herds. In the five remaining small herds the stallion was put into a herd for three hours every two days for 12 observation periods. Pregnancy rates and day of ovulation were estimated by size of embryonal enlargements. Mean pregnancy rates of 51% and 54% were obtained in the small herds and 42% in the large herds during a 48-day period (equivalent to two estrous cycles). Pregnancy rates for herds with the stallion present continuously were higher (P<0.01) for the small herds than for the large herds for days 1-24 (42% versus 19%). There was no effect of herd size on number of mares becoming pregnant per herd on days 1-24, but more mares (P<0.01) became pregnant during days 25-48 in the large herds (13.2 mares per herd versus 1.8). In the herds in which the stallion was present intermittently, the number of times that the stallion rebred the same mare when more than one mare was in estrus was greater (P<0.01) than what would be expected to occur by chance (observed, 21%; expected, 11%). Repeated breeding of the same mare seemed related to the availability or activity of the mare, since such mares more frequently followed and positioned themselves in the vicinity of the stallion. Most of the interferences by a mare which involved keeping the stallion and another mare apart were directed at the mare, whereas most of the interferences during mounting were directed at the stallion (P<0.01). Mares were more likely (P<0.01) to interfere when in estrus than when in nonestrus. When interfering mares were in nonestrus, their hostility was usually directed at the stallion (92%), whereas when in estrus their interference was more frequently directed at a mare (73%, P<0.01).

  15. Differences in extracellular matrix remodeling in the placenta of mares that retain fetal membranes and mares that deliver fetal membranes physiologically.

    PubMed

    Rapacz-Leonard, A; Kankofer, M; Leonard, M; Wawrzykowski, J; Dąbrowska, M; Raś, A; Paździor-Czapula, K; Janowski, T

    2015-10-01

    In mammals, placenta separation at term may involve degradation of the extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The activity of MMPs is modulated by TIMPs. We hypothesized that the placentas of mares that deliver fetal membranes physiologically and those that retain fetal membranes (FMR) differ in terms of histology; mRNA expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9; protein expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-2; and the potential activity of both MMPs. Placenta biopsies were taken from mares (n = 9; 4 FMR, 5 controls) immediately after foal expulsion. Retention was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 h of expulsion. All mares were monitored for time of expulsion. The degree of allantochorial/endometrial adhesion was determined in FMR mares, and biopsies from all mares were histologically examined. mRNA expression, protein immunolocalization, protein amount and potential enzyme activity were determined with RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, Western Blotting and zymography, respectively. FMR mares had strong to extremely strong allantochorial/endometrial adhesion, and significantly more connective tissue in the allantochorial villi than controls. The range of MMP-2 mRNA expression levels was more than 13 times greater in FMR mares than in controls. Protein content of both MMPs and TIMP-2 differed significantly between groups. The range of potential MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity was larger in FMR mares, and MMP-2 potential activity was 1.4 times higher in controls (P = 0.02). These results indicate differences in extracellular matrix remodeling in FMR mares and controls, and suggest dysregulation of MMP expression and activation in FMR mares. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) Mission Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The moon’s surface last saw a controlled landing from a U.S. spacecraft on December 11, 1972 with Apollo 17. Since that time, there has been an absence of methodical in-situ investigation of the lunar surface. In addition to the scientific value of measuring the age and composition of a relatively young portion of the lunar surface near Aristarchus Plateau, the Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) proposal provides the first U.S. soft lunar landing since the Apollo Program and the first ever robotic soft lunar landing employing an autonomous hazard detection and avoidance system, a system that promises to enhance crew safety and survivability during a manned lunar (or other) landing. This report focuses on the mission design and performance associated with the MARE robotic lunar landing subject to mission and trajectory constraints.

  17. Effect of prolonged use of altrenogest on behaviour in mares.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, David; Howe, Stephanie; Jeffcott, Leo; Reid, Stuart; Mellor, Dominic; Higgins, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Oral administration of altrenogest for oestrus suppression in competition horses is believed to be widespread in some equestrian disciplines, and can be administered continuously for several months during a competition season. To examine whether altrenogest has any anabolic or other potential performance enhancing properties that may give a horse an unfair advantage, we examined the effect of oral altrenogest (0.044 mg/kg), given daily for a period of eight weeks, on social hierarchy, activity budget, body-mass and body condition score of 12 sedentary mares. We concluded that prolonged oral administration of altrenogest at recommended dose rates to sedentary mares resulted in no effect on dominance hierarchies, body mass or condition score.

  18. Effect of prolonged use of altrenogest on behaviour in mares.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, David; Howe, Stephanie; Jeffcott, Leo; Reid, Stuart; Mellor, Dominic; Higgins, Andrew

    2005-05-01

    Oral administration of altrenogest for oestrus suppression in competition horses is believed to be widespread in some equestrian disciplines, and can be administered continuously for several months during a competition season. To examine whether altrenogest has any anabolic or other potential performance enhancing properties that may give a horse an unfair advantage, we examined the effect of oral altrenogest (0.044 mg/kg), given daily for a period of eight weeks, on social hierarchy, activity budget, body-mass and body condition score of 12 sedentary mares. It was concluded that prolonged oral administration of altrenogest at recommended dose rate to sedentary mares had no effect on dominance hierarchies, body-mass or condition score.

  19. Lunar mare domes - Classification and modes of origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Gifford, A.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, lunar mare domes (LMDs) are classified according to morphologic and morphometric (primarily diameter) characteristics, and consideration is given to their origin and role in lunar surface processes. In general, they occur either as low, flat, circular structures with convex shapes, slopes less than about 5 deg, and display summit craters, or as irregular structures often adjacent to highland regions and rarely containing summit craters. It is found that LMDs originate through extrusion of lavas through vents to produce low lava shields, or through flooding and draping of preexisting topography to produce kipukas and irregular domes. Smooth, vent-related mare domes range from about 3-17 km in diameter and up to several hundred meters in elevation; they are similar in morphology to small terrestrial lava shields.

  20. Contribution to reconstruction of third degree rectovestibular lacerations in mares

    PubMed Central

    Elkasapy, A.H.; Ibrahim, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted on ten mares suffering from third degree rectovestibular laceration. Four uterine washes were performed in all cases by using diluted betadine (mixing 5ml of betadine antiseptic solution in 1 liter of sterile saline) to control vaginal and uterine infections before surgery. Surgical repair of third degree rectovestibular laceration was done by one-stage Goetz technique after four to six weeks of initial injury, with the lateral dissection continued extensively until the two flaps were created and brought to the midline without any tension. Primary healing occurred in all cases without significant complications. The obtained results indicate that mares with third degree rectovestibular lacerations are candidates for uterine wash and one-stage Goetz technique with excessive lateral continuation of the flap. PMID:26623358

  1. Mare Crisium - Regional stratigraphy and geologic history. [from spectral reflectivities of Lunik 24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. B.; Head, J. W., III; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C.; Zisk, S.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral reflectance measurements of five Luna 24 samples and new telescopic reflectance spectra of 10-20 km areas of seven sites in Mare Crisium have been used to calibrate multispectral images of mare units. Based on these data, three major mare units are defined in the Crisium basin and their stratigraphy is interpreted. The oldest mare unit is exposed in the ejecta of the craters Picard and Peirce and along the outer edge of the southeastern part of the basin. The next younger unit includes the Luna 24 site and generally follows a topographic annulus along the basin margin. The youngest mare unit occupies the central part of the basin. It is concluded that subsidence occurred throughout the emplacement of mare units, including extensive warping and downfaulting of the inner part of the Crisium basin.

  2. Consortium reports on lunar meteorites Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757, a new type of mare basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanai, Keizo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Lindstrom, M. M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Torigoe, N.; Misawa, K.; Warren, P. H.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Koeberl, C.; Kojima, H.

    1993-01-01

    Consortium studies on lunar meteorites Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757 (formerly Asuka-31) were performed to characterize these new samples from unknown locations in the lunar mare. Both meteorites are coarse-grained mare rocks having low Mg/Fe ratios (bulk mg'=30-35) and low TiO2 (1.5-2.5 percent in homogenized bulk samples). They are intermediate between VLT and low-Ti mare basalts. Although these meteorites are not identical to each other, their mineral and bulk compositions, isotopic systematics, and crystallization ages are remarkably similar and distinct from those of all other mare basalts. They appear to represent a new type of low-Ti mare basalt that crystallized at about 3.9Ga. These meteorites are inconsistent with the canonical correlation between the TiO2 contents and ages of mare basalts and suggest that our knowledge of lunar volcanism is far from complete.

  3. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome in a postpartum mare concurrent with encephalopathy in the neonatal foal.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Charles E; Gould, Daniel H; Davidson, Ann H; Avery, Paul R; Legare, Marie E; Hyatt, Doreene R; DebRoy, Chitrita

    2008-03-01

    A postpartum mare and foal were presented for evaluation of fever and lethargy in the mare. The mare was diagnosed with endometritis and initially responded well to treatment. On the second day of hospitalization, the mare developed renal insufficiency characterized by oliguria, azotemia, hemolysis, and thrombocytopenia. Concurrently, the foal developed rapidly progressive central nervous system signs culminating in refractory seizures. Both animals failed to respond to treatment and were euthanized. Thrombotic microangiopathy involving glomeruli was evident on microscopic examination of the mare's kidneys. Microscopic evidence of brain edema was the principal postmortem finding in the foal. No specific etiology was confirmed in either case. Notably, Escherichia coli 0103:H2 was isolated from the mare's uterus and the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in which an organism implicated as a cause of hemolytic-uremic syndrome was isolated from an animal with clinical signs and postmortem findings consistent with the disease.

  4. A case of Candida guilliermondii abortion in an Arab mare

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species. PMID:24707460

  5. A case of Candida guilliermondii abortion in an Arab mare.

    PubMed

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2014-04-01

    Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species.

  6. Vermiculation patterns in Coiba Mare cave, Bihor Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Guja, Ovidiu; Stefanescu, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Vermiculation patterns developing on cave surfaces are certainly a spectacular feature. Sometimes vermiculation cover hundreds of square meters, like for example in Coiba Mare cave, which is situated in the Bihor Mountains, Romania. The Coiba Mare Cave is located at 1020 m altitude, on the Gardisoara Valley, not far from the Casa de Piatra Hamlet, in the Apuseni Natural Park (Bihor Mountains) situated in the western part of Romania. The first written document concerning the cave dates back to 1929, when R. Jeannel and E. Racovitza presented a brief description. Speleological investigations, which were started by I. Viehmann, D. Coman and M. Bleahu in 1953, were continued by several speleological clubs during 1975-1976. In this study, we are investigating the mineralogy, stable isotope distribution and patterns of vermiculations in the Coiba Mare cave. Material from the vermiculations developed on cave wall was analysed using Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive analyses (EDS). The material consists mainly of calcite with traces of quartz, muscovite, chlinochlore, kaolinite, potassium feldspar and organic material. In Coiba Mare, the general look of the vermiculation pattern is that of a "pelli de leopardo" (Leopard's spots), a term used by Bini et al. (1978) for large vermiculations composed of clay. In the light of previous literature and according, to the own field and laboratory data a mechanism responsible for the formation of vermiculations is proposed. Evaporation and water film rupture cause the concentration of the loose particles. Evaporation is also associated with the formation of calcite microcrystals at the water-air interface. Concentration of the particle in vermiculations patterns and crystallisation is the result of evaporation and shrinking water spots.

  7. Improving Information Management at Mare Island Naval Shipyard.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDEN’F CATION %(,MBER .)RGAN’ZAT.ON (if apicable) 8c ADDRESS(Cmy State. and ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT IT...600,000 drawings as well as records for modified drawings and documents specifically for Mare Island. e. Engineering Analisis This system is used for...method of maintaining records for accomplishing industrial plant equipment maintenance. j. ICS - Instrument Calibration System ICS is used primarily in

  8. On the natural remanent magnetism of certain mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, M.; Meshkov, E.; Cisowski, S. M.; Hale, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and magnetic properties of five fine-grain mare basalts were investigated. The NRM of two vitrophyres has a large soft component, and the directional stability during AF demagnetization is poor. The remaining samples have NRM which is too soft to be of thermal origin and yet too hard to be simply isothermal contamination. It is suggested that the NRM of the samples could be shock remanent magnetization.

  9. On the natural remanent magnetism of certain mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, M.; Meshkov, E.; Cisowski, S. M.; Hale, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and magnetic properties of five fine-grain mare basalts were investigated. The NRM of two vitrophyres has a large soft component, and the directional stability during AF demagnetization is poor. The remaining samples have NRM which is too soft to be of thermal origin and yet too hard to be simply isothermal contamination. It is suggested that the NRM of the samples could be shock remanent magnetization.

  10. Factors affecting gestation length in the Thoroughbred mare.

    PubMed

    Davies Morel, M C G; Newcombe, J R; Holland, S J

    2002-12-16

    In order to assist in the accurate prediction of the timing of parturition in the mare true gestation length, along with the potential effect of a number of factors, was investigated. Data from 433 Thoroughbred foal pregnancies were used. Sequential ultrasonic scanning allowed the true gestation length (fertilisation-parturition) to be ascertained, as apposed to previous work, which used the mating-parturition interval. An average gestation length of 344.1 +/- 0.49 days was evident. Colt foal pregnancies were significantly (P < 0.001) longer (346.2 +/- 0.72) than fillies (342.4 +/- 0.65). Month of birth had a significant effect on gestation length in all foals (P < 0.001). With foals born in January having the shortest gestation lengths and those born in April the longest. Mare age, year of birth, stallion age, stud farm and the interval between ovulation and mating had no significant effect. It is concluded that (i) the gestation length range (315-388 days), all resulting in viable foals is noteworthy and of clinical importance when considering the classification of dysmaturity in foals, (ii) mares carrying colt foals due to be born in the middle of the breeding season (April) are likely to have the longer gestation lengths.

  11. Remote Sensing and Geologic Studies of Mare Australe: The North Australe Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, S. J.; Stopar, J. D.; Ostrach, L. R.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; Giguere, T. A.; Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    A key goal of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is to investigate volcanic processes at different temporal and physical scales, with one emphasis being the characterization of ancient (meaning, greater than 3.9 Ga) volcanic units. One such ancient volcanic terrain is Mare Australe, a loosely-circular collection of mare basalts centered at approximately 38.9 deg S, 93 deg E (Fig. 1). Mare Australe is a complex, extensive, and poorly understood volcanic region.

  12. An Epidemiological Study of Leptospira-Induced Abortion in Mares in Central Kentucky (1990-2004)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-02

    or produce a stillborn foal (Wilkie et al., 1988; Donahue et al., 1991; Donahue at al., 1992; Donahue et al., 1995). Thus, in many cases, treatment can...geographical location using graphical information system (GIS) technology were examined. Other factors including time of year, gestational age of the foal ...examined. Other factors including time of year, gestational age of the foal , age of the mare, parity of the mare, future reproductive success of the mare

  13. [Evaluation of immunoglobulin G concentration in colostrum of mares by ELISA, refractometry and colostrometry].

    PubMed

    Venner, Monica; Markus, R G; Strutzberg-Minder, K; Nogai, K; Beyerbach, M; Klug, E

    2008-01-01

    In 360 samples of colostrum and 36 samples of blood of warmblood mares, the concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was evaluated in the post partal period with an ELISA and the results were compared to values obtained with 2 field methods--refractometry and colostrometry. A significant correlation (p < 0.0001) was determined between ELISA and colostrometry (r = +0.88) and between ELISA and refractometry (r = +0.93). So both field-methods seem suitable for evaluation of the colostral IgG-concentration in mares. Further the kinetic of the IgG concentration in colostrum, the volume of colostrum and the total amount of IgG was measured in the 12 hours post partum (p.p.) in each half udder of 36 mares of different parity. Immediately p.p. primiparous mares have a greater mean concentration of IgG (68 mg/ml) than multiparous mares (51 mg/ml). However, multiparous mares have a mean colostral volume of 1020 ml whereas, in primiparous mares, a mean volume of 527 ml was determined within the first three hours p.p. As a result of this the total amount of IgG was lower in primiparous (31.5 g) than in multiparous mares (48.5 g). A significant decrease of IgG concentration was measured in multiparous mares in the 1.5 hours following partum versus 3 hours in primiparous mares. The mean IgG concentration in the blood serum of the 36 mares immediately p.p. was 13.4 +/- 3.6 mg/ml. No significant correlation was observed between values of IgG concentration in the blood and in the colostrum of the mares.

  14. Ages and stratigraphy of lunar mare basalts in Mare Frigoris and other nearside maria based on crater size-frequency distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W.; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2010-03-01

    We report on ages derived from impact crater counts for exposed mare basalt units in the northern part of the lunar nearside hemisphere (Mare Frigoris), the eastern and northeastern part of the nearside hemisphere (Lacus Temporis, Joliot, Hubble, Goddard, Mare Marginis, and Mare Smythii), the central part of the nearside hemisphere (Palus Putredinis, Mare Vaporum, and Sinus Medii), and the southwestern part of the nearside hemisphere (Grimaldi, Crüger, Rocca A, Lacus Aestatis, and Schickard). In Mare Frigoris, we dated 37 basalt units, showing ages from 2.61 to 3.77 Gyr, with most units being formed in the late Imbrian period between 3.4 and 3.8 Gyr ago. In Mare Vaporum we dated six spectrally homogeneous units that show model ages of 3.10 to 3.61 Gyr. Our model ages of basalts in Mare Marginis range from 3.38 to 3.88 Gyr and are mostly older than basalts in Mare Smythii (3.14-3.48 Gyr). The model ages of four units in Sinus Medii indicate that the basalts in this region formed 3.63 to 3.79 Gyr ago. We find an excellent agreement of our crater size-frequency model ages of the Palus Putredinis area, which contains the Apollo 15 landing site, with the radiometric ages of Apollo 15 samples. According to our crater counts, basalts in Palus Putredinis are 3.34 Gyr old and this compares favorably with the radiometric ages of 3.30-3.35 Gyr of the olivine-normative and quartz-normative basalts of the Apollo 15 landing site. Lacus Aestatis is a small irregular-shaped mare patch in the southwestern nearside and shows an Imbrian age of 3.50 Gyr; basalts in Lacus Temporis in the northeastern nearside formed between 3.62 and 3.74 Gyr ago and are, therefore, older than the basalts in Lacus Aestatis. We found that basalts in craters of the southwestern nearside (Schickard, Grimaldi, Crüger, and Rocca A) are also mostly younger than basalts in craters of the northeastern nearside (Hubble, Joliot, and Goddard). While basalt ages vary between 3.16 and 3.75 Gyr in the southwest

  15. Lateral heterogeneity of lunar volcanic activity according to volumes of mare basalts in the farside basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Masako; Morota, Tomokatsu; Kato, Shinsuke

    2017-07-01

    Estimates for volumes of mare basalts are essential to understand the thermal conditions of the lunar mantle and its lateral heterogeneity. In this study, we estimated the thicknesses and volumes of mare basalts within five farside basins, Apollo, Ingenii, Poincare, Freundlich-Sharonov, and Mendel-Rydberg, using premare craters buried by mare basalts and postmare craters that penetrated/nonpenetrated mare basalts employing topographic and multiband image data obtained by SELENE (Kaguya). Furthermore, using the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory crustal thickness model and the mare volumes estimated by this and previous studies, we investigated the relationship between the volumes of the mare basalts and the crustal thicknesses. The results suggest that the minimum crustal thicknesses within the basins were a dominant factor determining whether magma erupted at the surface and that the critical crustal thicknesses for magma eruption were 10 km on the farside and >20 km on the nearside. The total areas of the regions in which magmas could erupt at the surface are 10 times larger on the nearside than on the farside. A comparison between the mare volumes within the mare basins on the nearside and the farside shows that magma production in the farside mantle might have been 20 times smaller than that in the nearside mantle, implying a stronger dichotomy than previously estimated. These results suggest that the mare hemispherical asymmetry should be attributed to both the difference in the crustal thickness distribution and the difference in the quantity of magma production between the nearside and farside mantles.

  16. Investigation of association between alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor haplotype and endometritis in the thoroughbred mare.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, A D; John, H A; Ricketts, S W; Rossdale, P D; Scott, A M

    1994-03-01

    Failure to inhibit proteinases can lead to excessive tissue damage. The possibility that the severity of endometritis in Thoroughbred mares correlates with the haplotypes of plasma alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI) expressed was investigated in two groups of mares. In mares with pyometritis before treatment, the frequency of the N haplotype, which is already high in the Thoroughbred population, was significantly increased when compared with that in a large published population. In mares with acute endometritis which persisted after treatment followed by sexual rest, the absence of S and T haplotypes was significant, suggesting that, when present, they may have a protective function.

  17. Trace-element modelling of mare basalt parental melts: Implications for a heterogeneous lunar mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallis, L. J.; Anand, M.; Strekopytov, S.

    2014-06-01

    The heterogeneous-source model of mare basalt formation indicates that Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) overturn produced an uneven mixture of early-formed olivine and pyroxene, and late-formed, ilmenite-rich cumulates, which subsequently partially melted to give rise to mare magmas. These heterogeneous cumulate source regions would not only have been characterised by different mineral modal abundances, but also by different trace element compositions. The aim of this work was to investigate the petrology and geochemistry of a diverse suite of Apollo mare basalts, and utilise trace-element modelling in order to understand their petrogenetic history. Chemical modelling confirms that the mare basalts were produced by relatively small degrees of partial melting (<10%) of the LMO cumulates, and that the dominant melting type (batch vs. fractional) varies among different basalt groups. Similarly, single-source mineralogy cannot be applied to all mare basalt types, confirming that the lunar mantle was heterogeneous at the time of generation of mare magmas. Plagioclase is not required in the source of most mare basalts, with the notable exception of the Apollo 14 high-Al basalts. Addition of more than 1% plagioclase to the source of other basalts produces weaker negative Eu anomalies than those observed in the samples. AFC calculations demonstrate the compositional differences between materials assimilated into the Apollo 14 high-Al and Apollo 11 high-K mare basalt partial melts, highlighting the complexities of mare basalt petrogenesis.

  18. Study of Mare Moscoviense based on orbital NIR hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Megha; Wöhler, Christian; Bhardwaj, Anil; Mall, Urs; Grumpe, Arne; Rommel, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The Moscoviense basin is an important lunar farside impact basin. Previous studies of this region suggest compositional variations across the mare basalts, and significant positive gravity anomaly within the basin [1, 2]. In the highlands immediately west of the mare regions inside the Moscoviense basin, unusual spectral signatures indicating small deposits of orthopyroxene, olivine and spinel have been detected [3]. A detailed study of the Moscoviense basin thus allows for an examination of lunar farside highland materials and mare basalts of varying composition and age, providing insights into the lunar mantle composition and magmatic history. We present a geological study of Mare Moscoviense based on near-infrared high-resolution hyperspectral data obtained by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) [4] and the near-infrared spectrometer, SIR-2 [5]. An M3 reflectance mosaic of the region has been prepared after applying corrections for thermal emission and topography. Two SIR-2 orbits recorded from 100 km spacecraft altitude have also been used for mineralogical study of the region. Elemental abundance maps of Ti, Ca and Mg as well as a petrologic map have been prepared based on the method described in [6]. Furthermore, we utilized the three different algorithms described in [6, 7, 8] for estimating Fe abundances using the 1-µm and/or 2-µm absorption band parameters. This comparative study aims to identify and map the major morphological and compositional units within the Mare Moscoviense region. References: [1] Gillis et al. (1998) Ph.D. thesis, 248 pp., Rice Univ., Houston, Texas; [2] Kramer et al. (2008) JGR 113, E01002, doi:10.1029/2006JE002860; [3] Pieters et al. (2011) JGR 116, E00G08, doi:10.1029/2010JE003727; [4] Pieters C. M. et al. (2009) Current Science 96, 500-505; [5] Mall, U. et al. (2009) Current Science 96, 506-511; [6] Wöhler C. et al. (2014) Icarus 235, 86-122; [7] Lucey P. G. et al. (2000) JGR 105, 20297-20306; [8] Bhatt M. et al. (2015) Icarus 248

  19. Hepatic encephalopathy in a pregnant mare: identification of histopathological changes in the brain of a mare and fetus.

    PubMed

    Johns, I C; Del Piero, F; Wilkins, P A

    2007-08-01

    An 11-year-old Thoroughbred broodmare was evaluated for suspected hepatic dysfunction. Clinical signs of hepatic encephalopathy were evident at admission. Hepatic ultrasonographic evaluation revealed an increase in hepatic size, rounded borders and normal echogenicity. There was no evidence of cholelithiasis or bile duct distention. Increased activity of hepatic enzymes, increased bile acid and bilirubin concentration and an increased ammonia concentration were supportive of a diagnosis of hepatic disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Histopathological evaluation of a liver biopsy specimen was consistent with chronic active hepatitis. The mare was treated with intravenous fluids and antimicrobials, pentoxyfilline, branched-chain amino acids and dietary manipulation. Clinical improvement was observed initially; however, 3 weeks later, deterioration in the mare's condition necessitated euthanasia. Pathological lesions at necropsy were restricted to the liver and brain. The liver was diffusely firm with a prominent reticular pattern on the cut surface. A large choledocholith was present in the main bile duct of the left liver lobe. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed severe fibrosis, with hyperplastic bile ducts and mononuclear and neutrophilic inflammation. Pathological changes consistent with hepatic encephalopathy, (Alzheimer type II cells), were evident in the cerebrum of both the mare and the fetus.

  20. Markers of the uterine innate immune response of the mare.

    PubMed

    Nash, D M; Sheldon, I M; Herath, S; Lane, E A

    2010-05-01

    Reproductive efficiency in mares is low and persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) is an important cause of subfertility. Mating-induced endometritis (MIE) an obligate precursor to PMIE, is a ubiquitous, transient inflammatory response to the presence of sperm, seminal components and pathogens. However, the specific inflammatory pathways that derive from MIE and that may also be precursors to PMIE are not clear. The ability to identify and measure robust, repeatable markers of inflammation integral to MIE may be key to understanding the progression to PMIE. The aim of the study was to (i) refine a protocol for inducing MIE and in doing so test a range of cellular and molecular parameters as valid markers of MIE to facilitate future studies of mares susceptible to PMIE (ii) concurrently identify those parameters with potential as inflammatory indicators during MIE to inform and enhance early treatment regimens in practice. Mating-induced endometritis was induced in pony mares using a stringent protocol; mares were treated intrauterine with frozen/thawed semen (n = 5; FTS) or frozen/thawed extender (n = 6: FTEx). The parameters tested were measured before treatment were compared to samples collected at strategic time points after treatment: uterine cytology using cytological (at 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment) or histological analysis (at 24 and 72 h); uterine bacteriology (at 24 and 72 h); secretion of prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha); at 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h); peripheral concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA; at 24h); endometrial mRNA gene expression, focussing upon IL8 and TLR4, as examples of genes pertinent to inflammation (at 24 h). Uterine neutrophil cell numbers in both treatment groups increased at 8 (P < 0.001), 16 (P < 0.01) and 24 (P < 0.01) h after insemination, indicative of MIE and distinguished between different treatments because neutrophil numbers were greater from FTS mares than FTEx mares 8h after challenge. Uterine

  1. The Concentrations of Circulating Plasma Oxytocin and the Pattern of Oxytocin Release in Mare during Oestrus and after Ovulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sung Eun

    Mares susceptible to persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) accumulate intrauterine fluid after mating. One of the factors causing delayed uterine clearance is thought to be impaired uterine contractility. Oxytocin is central in controlling myometrial contractility. The objective of the present study was to describe peripheral oxytocin release during estrus and in the early postovulatory period in reproductively-normal mares and to compare the baseline circulating oxytocin concentrations in reproductively-normal mares and mares with PMIE. Blood samples were collected from reproductively-normal mares (n=5) from day -5 of estrus to day 2 postovulation and every 5 min for 30 min from reproductively-normal mares (n=5) and mares with PMIE (n=5) on day 3 of estrus. Pulsatile secretion of oxytocin was observed in all mares. Mean plasma oxytocin concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) in estrus (day -5 to day -2) than on the day of ovulation (day 0). After ovulation, plasma oxytocin concentrations tended to increase. On day 3 of estrus, plasma oxytocin concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01) in reproductively-normal mares than in mares with PMIE. The results showed there is a significant difference in plasma oxytocin concentrations between mares to PMIE. The low plasma oxytocin concentrations in mares with PMIE may contribute to predisposing factors in their poor uterine clearance in these mares.

  2. Efficacy of domperidone gel in an induced model of fescue toxicosis in periparturient mares.

    PubMed

    Cross, D L; Reinemeyer, C R; Prado, J C; Donnell, R L; Bond, K G; Farr, H; Longhofer, S L

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of domperidone in the prevention of reproductive complications of fescue toxicosis in periparturient mares. Pregnant mares at ≤310 days of gestation were fed ≥200 μg ergovaline per kg diet daily in endophyte-infected fescue hay and seed, starting ≥30 days before their expected foaling date (EFD: 340 days after breeding). Thirty-five mares were randomized to a treatment group to receive either domperidone gel (n = 20, 1.1 mg/kg, PO, once daily) or placebo (n = 15). Treatment was initiated 10 to 15 days before the EFD and continued for 5 days after foaling. "Treatment success" was defined as foaling within 14 days of the EFD, adequate mammary development on the day of foaling, and adequate lactation for 5 days postpartum. Twenty-seven mares were included in the effectiveness analysis. More mares in the domperidone group (12/13, P < 0.0001) were treatment successes than in the control group (1/14). Gestation length was shorter (P = 0.0011), and lactation at foaling (P = 0.0011) was better for the domperidone-group mares. Foals from two control mares were born dead and four others died or were euthanized within a few days after birth, compared with one foal death (an autolyzed twin) from a domperidone-treated mare. Plasma IgG concentrations were evaluated in 24 foals. Failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins (IgG <800 mg/dL) occurred in 13/16 (81%) foals of domperidone-group mares and 7/8 (88%) foals of control mares. In conclusion, the reproductive complications of fescue toxicosis in periparturient mares induced by a fescue seed/hay model were prevented by treatment with domperidone.

  3. The pattern of embryonic fixation and its relationship to pregnancy loss in thoroughbred mares.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Davies Morel, M C G; Dhaliwal, G S; Dadarwal, D

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasonographic pregnancy records of 195 mares from six Thoroughbred stud farms, over a period of 7 years were retrospectively analysed to assess the effect of various factors on embryonic vesicle (EV) fixation pattern and pregnancy outcome. Of the total of 746 pregnancies analysed, significantly (p < 0.01) more EV fixations were evident in the right uterine horn than in the left (53.35% vs 46.65% respectively). There was no significant effect of either, the side of ovulation, or age of the mare, on the side of EV fixation. However, EV fixation, was significantly (p < 0.001) more likely to occur in the right uterine horn in maiden and barren mares (65.75% vs 57.45% respectively). The age and reproductive status of the mare as well as foal heat breeding failed to demonstrate a consistent effect on pregnancy loss relative to the side of EV fixation. In lactating and foal heat bred mares, EVs were significantly (p < 0.0001) more frequently established in the contralateral horn to the one from which the mare delivered her most recent foal. In lactating mares, significantly (p < 0.05) higher embryonic and pregnancy losses were observed in the ipsilateral horn. In conclusion, (a) side of EV fixation was (i) independent of the side of ovulation and mare age (ii) significantly (p < 0.001) affected by reproductive status, (b) neither age of mare nor reproductive status had any effect on pregnancy loss rates relative to the side of EV fixation and (c) in lactating mares the EV had a greater chance of fixation and survival in the horn contralateral to the one from which the mare delivered her most recent foal.

  4. Effective oxytocin treatment on placental expulsion after foaling in heavy draft mares.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Syuichi; Acosta, Tomas J; Miki, Wataru; Matsui, Motozumi; Yamanoi, Takahiro; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Miyamoto, Akio

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness of administration of oxytocin (OT) on placental expulsion after foaling. Four foaling mares with the placentas retained for up 1 hr after foaling received OT (50 IU) administration at 1 hr intervals before expulsion of the placenta. The changes in the plasma concentrations of OT and the PGF2alpha metabolite (PGFM) were investigated, and the influence of OT administration was considered. The results were as follows. The placenta was expelled after one to three OT administrations in all four mares that received OT. In two mares, which expelled the placenta within 30 min after OT administration, the OT concentration increased and remained high. Expulsion of the placenta was delayed in two mares, and one of these mares, which received three doses of OT beginning 1 hr after foaling, showed only a small increase in the OT concentration after the first administration; the other mare did not receive OT until 3 hr after foaling. The OT concentration was increased before placental expulsion in all the mares, and the PGFM concentration also increased in the two mares with retained placentas. In conclusion, we suggest that intramuscular administration of 50 IU of OT at 1-hr intervals beginning 1 hr after foaling is effective for inducing placental expulsion.

  5. Standing ovariectomy in mares using a transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES®) approach.

    PubMed

    Pader, Karine; Lescun, Timothy B; Freeman, Lynetta J

    2011-12-01

    To develop and assess the feasibility of standing transvaginal Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES®) ovariectomy in the mare. Descriptive study. Mares (n=10). The technique was developed in 6 mares and then evaluated in a short-term study in 4 mares. Abdominal access was developed using controlled access vaginal cannula placement under endoscopic guidance. With viewing provided by a flexible endoscope, hemostasis, and transection of ovarian pedicles was performed using a customized bipolar vessel-sealing device. The ovaries were retrieved and the colpotomy was sutured. Surgical time, intra-, and postoperative complications were recorded. Necropsy was performed immediately after surgery in 6 mares and 15 days after surgery in 4 mares to assess short-term complications. After the instruments and techniques were developed, transvaginal NOTES® ovariectomy was successfully performed. Analgesia during the procedure was adequate in all cases. The visual field provided by the endoscope was acceptable. The customized 60 cm vessel-sealing device provided good hemostasis and a comfortable working length. Intraoperative complications included difficult viewing that prolonged operative time and inability to remove the second ovary in 1 mare. Postoperative recovery was excellent. Postmortem findings of 1 true positive microbial culture, elevated cell counts in abdominal fluid, and adhesion formation raise questions that must be addressed in future studies. Using specialized instruments, transvaginal NOTES® ovariectomy is technically feasible in mares. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Compositional Gradients Across Mare and Highlands Contacts: The Importance and Geological Implication of Lateral Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    1997-07-01

    Variation in mare abundance across mare-highland contact depends on the relative importance of vertical and lateral mass transport. Nonlinear spectral mixing analysis of Clementine VIS-NIR data of the Grimaldi basin indicates that the abundance of mare and highland are approximately equal to 50% at the geologic contact and the amount of mare materials transported to the highlands is approximately equal to the amount of highland materials to the mare. Thus, vertical mixing is relatively unimportant except near the contact. There are apparently two mixing zones, a steep mixing gradient near the mare and highland contact and a more diffuse zone that extends some distance from the contact. The net transfer of mare across the geologic contact can be approximated by a diffusion process since the transport is a random process driven by impact cratering. We have developed a diffusion model and the results indicate that a typical profile of mare abundance requires two superimposed diffusion curves to match this compositional gradients. A third curve is found to be statistically invalid. The two diffusion parameters can be related to the geologic processes of regolith reworking and development that created the variations. This suggests that there are at least two superimposed processes at work, the one is the reworking of the surface ejecta debris having a larger diffusion coefficient, the other is the development of new regolith from subsurface layers having smaller diffusion coefficient.

  7. Mechanisms responsible for increase in circulating inhibin levels at the time of ovulation in mares.

    PubMed

    Nambo, Y; Nagaoka, K; Tanaka, Y; Nagamine, N; Shinbo, H; Nagata, S; Yoshihara, T; Watanabe, G; Groome, N P; Taya, K

    2002-04-01

    In female mammals, inhibin is secreted by the granulosa cells and selectively inhibits secretion of FSH. Although circulating immunoreactive (ir)-inhibin levels decrease after ovulation as a result of the disappearance of its main source, they abruptly increase at the time of ovulation in mares. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for this increase, 50 ml of equine follicular fluid (eFF) was administered into the abdominal cavity of mares during the luteal phase (eFF, n = 4). One hour after treatment, plasma levels of ir-inhibin and inhibin pro-alphaC (but not estradiol-17beta) were significantly higher in eFF-treated mares than in control mares (n = 4). The hormone profiles in eFF-treated mares were similar to those in mares with the spontaneous or hCG induced ovulations. The present study demonstrates that the release of follicular fluid into the abdominal cavity when the follicle ruptures is responsible for the ovulatory inhibin surge in the mare. These findings also suggest that circulating inhibin pro-alphaC may be useful for determining the time of ovulation in the mare.

  8. Baia Mare accident--brief ecotoxicological report of Czech experts.

    PubMed

    Soldán, P; Pavonic, M; Boucek, J; Kokes, J

    2001-07-01

    On 30 January 2000, following the breach in the tailing dam of the Aurul SA Baia Mare Co., a major spill of about 100,000 m(3) of cyanide and metal-rich liquid waste was released into the river system near Baia Mare in northwest Romania. The pollutants flowed via different tributaries into the Tizsa (Tisa) river and finally through the Danube river into the Black Sea. Along the way pollutants (especially cyanides) caused rapid death of aquatic organisms and animals living close to the poisoned rivers. Following request from the governments of Romania, Hungary, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, United Nations sent international mission experts to the area of accident. The Czech team of four experts took very active part in this mission. Samples of surface water collected by this team 3 weeks after the accident showed high toxicity in the rivers on the Romanian territory. Due to this impact, water from the Szamos river and a large area of the Tisza river in Hungarian territory was still medially toxic. Improvement of this situation was detected only in downstream areas of the Tisza/Tisa river. The high toxicity of surface water from the locality of the Lapos river upstream of the accident indicated the possibility of toxic pollution from other sources in the area. Aquatic sediments were highly toxic only in the Aurul reservoir and its surrounding area. Rapid decline of their toxicity indicated more limited adverse impact of the "Aurul pollution" in comparison with surface water. From ecotoxicological results it is evident that there is an urgent need to start abatement activities in the Baia Mare area because the possibility of future accidents still exists (this hypothesis was proved by further accidents on 10.3.2000 and the beginning of May 2000).

  9. Data analysis and double pulse detection for the MARE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jonathan D.

    With their existence first proposed in 1930, neutrinos have subsequently proven themselves as experts at avoiding detection. Until early this century, it was not even known if neutrinos were massive particles. With the results of neutrino oscillation experiments such as Super-Kamiokande and SNO, we now know that neutrinos have a non-zero mass. However, these experiments are only sensitive to the difference of the square of neutrino mass eigenstates and do not provide sufficient information to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy. Several complimentary methods are being explored to obtain an absolute mass scale, but the most promising model-independent approach is high precision spectroscopy of the beta-spectrum endpoint (Q-value). In general, all energy from the decay is detected except for that of the neutrino, which results in a correction near the endpoint of the spectrum that is related to the neutrino rest mass. To detect this difference requires excellent energy resolution. This may be obtained by utilizing a scalable approach consisting of microcalorimeter arrays with the beta-decay source embedded in the absorber. Two such experiments, Troitsk and Mainz have been able to set an upper limit of 2.3 eV on the neutrino mass, but higher precision is needed. MARE (Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment) is the successor to these experiments and plans to obtain resolution in the sub-eV range. Using an analysis program developed at the University of Miami, we have been able to verify the creation of holmium-163 which has a higher activity than rehenium-187. A landmark in the MARE project, this higher activity can provide better statistics and reduces the live time and array size requirements for a given sensitivity. One of the primary limits on the sensitivity of the MARE project, related to the source activity, is the pile-up spectrum, which is the result of unresolved double pulses. We have developed a platform to explore the efficiency of different

  10. Lunar mare versus terrestrial mid-ocean ridge basalts - Planetary constraints on basaltic volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Bence, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Major differences which exist between terrestrial midocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and lunar mare basalts reflect the different planetary characteristics of earth and moon. MORBs are enriched in aluminum and have higher Mg/(Mg + Fe(2+)). These features reflect a more aluminum- and magnesium-rich mantle source for MORBs. Mare basalts are depleted in sodium and potassium relative to MORBs and, consequently, mare feldspars are depleted in the albite component relative to MORB feldspars; these features are a reflection of the alkali-depleted nature of the moon relative to earth. The oxygen fugacities that obtained during MORB petrogenesis follow the quartz-magnetite-fayalite buffer curve very closely, while those of mare basalts are several orders of magnitude lower. This results in reduced valence states for Fe, Cr, and Ti in mare basalts, which, in turn, has a significant effect on mineral-melt partitioning.

  11. Electrical conductivity anomaly beneath Mare Serenitatis detected by Lunokhod 2 and Apollo 16 magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanian, L. L.; Vnuchkova, T. A.; Egorov, I. V.; Basilevskii, A. T.; Eroshenko, E. G.; Fainberg, E. B.; Dyal, P.; Daily, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic fluctuations measured by the Lunokhod 2 magnetometer in the Bay Le Monnier are distinctly anisotropic when compared to simultaneous Apollo 16 magnetometer data measured 1100 km away in the Descartes highlands. This anisotropy can be explained by an anomalous electrical conductivity of the upper mantle beneath Mare Serenitatis. A model is presented of anomalously lower electrical conductivity beneath Serenitatis and the simultaneous magnetic data from the Lunokhod 2 site at the mare edge and the Apollo 16 site are compared to the numerically calculated model solutions. This comparison indicates that the anisotropic fluctuations can be modeled by a nonconducting layer in the lunar lithosphere which is 150 km thick beneath the highlands and 300 km thick beneath Mare Serenitatis. A decreased electrical conductivity in the upper mantle beneath the mare may be due to a lower temperature resulting from heat carried out the magma source regions to the surface during mare flooding.

  12. Reproductive performance measures among Thoroughbred mares in central Kentucky, during the 2004 mating season.

    PubMed

    Bosh, K A; Powell, D; Shelton, B; Zent, W

    2009-12-01

    To improve efficiency at the farm level, a better understanding of how farm management factors impact reproductive performance is important. To assess reproductive efficiency and effectiveness among Thoroughbred mares in central Kentucky. A cohort of 1011 mares on 13 farms in central Kentucky was followed during the 2004 mating and 2005 foaling season. Information on farm level practices was collected via interviews with farm managers. Reproductive records were collected for each mare mated to obtain information on mare characteristics. The influence of mare age and status (maiden, foaling, barren) on Days 15 and 40 post mating pregnancy rates, foaling rates and total effective length of the mating season were assessed. The influence of stallion book size on reproductive performance measures was also examined. Per season pregnancy rates on Days 15 and 40 post mating and live foal rate were 92.1, 89.3 and 783%, respectively. Per cycle rates for the same time periods were 64.0, 583 and 50.8%. There were no significant associations between stallion book size and reproductive performance outcomes. The mean +/- s.d. interval from the beginning of the mating season to the last mating of the mare was 36.5 +/- 26.1 days. Mare age had a significant impact on efficiency of becoming pregnant, maintaining pregnancy and producing a live foal. Overall, fertility did not decrease among stallions with the largest book sizes. Total interval length of the mating season can be reduced if managers ensure maiden and barren mares are mated at the beginning of the season and foaling mares are mated at the earliest oestrus after acceptable uterine involution has been achieved. Measures identified in the study can be used by owners, farm managers and veterinarians to improve mare reproductive performance and identify parameters to assist with the implementation of effective culling practices.

  13. Petrologic models of 15388, a unique Apollo 15 mare basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, S. S.; Dasch, E. J.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    Mare basalt 15388, a feldspathic microgabbro from the Apennine Front, is chemically and petrographically distinct from Apollo 15 picritic, olivine-normative (ON), and quartz-normative basalts. The evolved chemistry, coarse texture, lack of olivine, and occurrence of cristobalite in 15388 argue for derivation by a late-stage magmatic process that is significantly removed from parental magma. It either crystallized from a magma evolved from the more mafic Apollo 15 basalts, or it crystallized from a currently unrepresented magma. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics yield isochron ages of 3.391 plus or minus 0.036 and 3.42 plus or minus 0.07 Ga, respectively, and epsilon(sub Nd) = 8.6 plus or minus 2.4, which is relatively high for Apollo 15 mare basalts. In contrast to chemical patterns of average Apollo 15 ON basalts and Apollo 15 picritic basalt, 15388 has a strongly positive LREE slope, high Ti, shallower HREE slope and a slightly positive Eu anomaly. These features argue against 15388 evolution by simple olivine fractionation of a parental ON or picritic basalt magma, although olivine is a dominant liquidus phase in both potential parents.

  14. Dark and baryonic matter in the MareNostrum Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlöber, S.; Yepes, G.; Khalatyan, A.; Sevilla, R.; Turchaninov, V.

    2006-11-01

    We report some results from one of the largest hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of large scale structures that has been done up to date. The MareNostrum Universe SPH simulation consists of 2 billion particles (2 × 10243) in a cubic box of 500 h-1 Mpc on a side. This simulation has been done in the MareNostrum parallel supercomputer at the Barcelona SuperComputer Center. Due to the large simulated volume and good mass resolution, our simulated catalog of dark matter halos comprises more than half a million objects with masses larger than a typical Milky Way galaxy halo. From this dataset we have studied several statistical properties such as the halo mass function, the distribution of shapes of dark and gas components within halos, the baryon fraction, cumulative void volume etc. This simulation is particularly useful to study the large scale distribution of baryons in the universe as a function of temperature and density. In this paper we also show the time evolution of the gas fractions at large scales.

  15. Parental magmas of Mare Fecunditatis - Evidence from pristine glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Y.; Taylor, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the petrography and electron microprobe analyses of 14 discrete glass beads from the Luna 16 core sample (21036,15) from Mare Fecunditatis regolith, that were previously characterized as representing pristine glasses. Compared to Apollo pristine glasses analyzed by Delano (1986), the Luna 16 pristine glasses have higher CaO and Al2O3 contents but lower MgO and Ni. On the basis of their contents of MgO, FeO, Al2O3, and CaO, these pristine glasses could be divided into two groups, A and B. It is suggested that at least two parental magmas are needed to explain the chemical variations among these glasses. The Group B glasses appear to represent primitive parental magma that evolved by olivine fractionation to the compositions of the Luna 16 aluminous mare basalts, whereas the Group A volcanic glasses may represent an unusual new basalt magma type that contains a high plagioclase component.

  16. Calibrazioni a terra e prestazioni in volo di spettrometri ad immagine nel visibile e nel vicino infrarosso per l'esplorazione planetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filacchione, Gianrico

    2006-10-01

    Nel corso dell’ultimo decennio l’esplorazione planetaria ha potuto beneficiare dei dati prodotti dagli spettrometri ad immagine: grazie a questa nuova classe di strumenti, realizzati per l’osservazione in remoto di superfici ed atmosfere planetarie, è possibile acquisire dati iperspettrali con elevati poteri risolutivi spaziali e spettrali. Il principale vantaggio offerto dagli spettrometri ad immagine, rispetto alle camere ed agli spettrometri puntuali, è rappresentato dalla capacità di misurare, identificare e mappare le unità composizionali delle superfici planetarie; queste informazioni permettono di investigare sia l’evoluzione geochimica delle superfici sia la dinamica e la composizione delle atmosfere. Sebbene i primi spettrometri ad immagine siano stati francesi (Phobos/ISM, Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) e statunitensi (Galileo/NIMS, Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer), il nostro paese nel corso degli ultimi anni è stato in grado di proporre alla com unità spaziale internazionale degli strumenti dalle elevate prestazioni che sono stati infatti accettati come payload scientifici su diverse missioni interplanetarie: dai canali visibili di VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) su Cassini (Nasa, JPL, ESA, ASI) e di OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l’Eau, les Glacies et l’Activitè de Mars) su MarsExpress (ESA) ai due VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) su Rosetta (ESA) e VenusExpress (ESA) fino a VIR-MS (Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) su Dawn (Nasa). In questo momento inoltre altri due spettrometri sono in avanzata fase di studio: JIRAM (Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper) su Juno (missione New Discovery Nasa) e VIHI (Visible and Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) integrato nel payload italiano di remote sensing SIMBIO-SYS di BepiColombo (missione cornerstone ESA). La realizzazione di uno spettrometro ad immagini da utilizzare su una missione interplanetaria richiede un’accurata analisi in fase

  17. [Estrus synchronization and insemination results in Arabian mares in the Eskisehir stud].

    PubMed

    Yurdaydin, N; Tekin, N; Gülyüz, F; Aksu, A; Klug, E

    1993-11-01

    An Arab broodmare herd of 30 mares age ranging from 4 to 12 years was grouped into 3 groups (group A, B, C) with 10 mares each and exposed to three different methods of cycle synchronisation. Group A mares received two PGF2 alpha injections 14 days apart. Group B mares got additionally 2,500 IU of hCG 5 days after second prostaglandin application. Group C consisted of mares which had foaled in a synchrony of one week and got a PGF2 alpha injection 3 weeks after parturition. All the mares responding to synchronisation were inseminated closely to ovulation detected by serial rectal palpations with an insemination doses of 0.5 billion of progressively motile spermatozoa. Conception control was performed on the 18th day after ovulation to be continued up to pregnancy confirmation on day 60. Synchronisation response in the different groups A, B, C was 60, 80, 80% starting first oestrus signs between 24 to 36 hours and ovulation time between 5 to 6.5 days post last PGF2 alpha application. Pregnancy rate (first cycle) was 66.7% (A), 75% (B) and 87% (C) basing on the number of mares who responded to synchronisation exposure.

  18. Ultrasound confirmation of ovulation in mares: a normal corpus luteum or a haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle?

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Newcombe, J R

    2013-02-01

    The most common pathological anovulatory condition that occurs spontaneously during the breeding season in the mare is the haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle (HAF). A relatively high proportion of mares, soon after ovulation, develop a corpus haemorrhagicum (CH) with a central lacuna. This type of corpora lutea may resemble an HAF, which may complicate the accurate diagnosis of ovulation. The main objective of this study was to compare the ultrasound data of mares examined frequently with HAFs and CHs to elucidate whether it is possible to distinguish them from each other. A total of 135 ovulating mares were classified according to the morphology of the corpus luteum (CL) in mares with: a solid CL, a CH with small or with large central cavities. Ultrasound characteristics of the development of 11 HAF and 13 CHs with a large central cavity were compared. The pre-ovulatory follicular diameter of ovulatory mares was significantly correlated with the diameter of CH with large central cavities. The percentage of mares with post-ovulatory areas eligible to be mistaken with a CH was <25%. Although a predictive diagnosis of an HAF/CH can be made on the basis of several ultrasonographic endpoints, the only parameter that allows a definitive diagnosis is the thickness of the luteal border. This is <3 mm in HAFs in contrast to >5 mm in CHs. However, this only applies when the unidentified structure has non-organized contents.

  19. Morphometric Changes in Polish Konik Mares After Nearly a Hundred Years of the Breed's Existence.

    PubMed

    Pasicka, E; Tarnawski, K; Chrószcz, A; Geringer de Oedenberg, H

    2017-01-20

    The study was carried out on 126 mares of the Polish Konik horse breed. Mares were bred under a stable system housing and they came from five leading conservation breeding centres. The mares were divided into three age groups: 3-5 years old, 6-9 years old and over 10 years old. Each animal was characterized using 40 morphometric measurements. Discriminant analysis proved the exterior differences of mares in terms of the analysed metric values. It was concluded that the morphotype of modern Polish Konik mares is statistically significantly influenced by the following traits: neck ventral length, forearm circumference, distance between the vascular notch (incisura vasorum facialium) and the oral angle (angulus oris), distance between the margo coronalis ungulae and the margo solearis ungulae of the thoracic limb, thorax circumference and pelvis width. Conformation traits of the studied Polish Konik mares show multidirectional changes, prevailingly an upward trend in the mean values. However, shoulder height turned out to be definitely the least modified trait. Results obtained in the research presented herein may be a confirmation of progressing exterior transformations, which have been identified in the new generation, namely in the youngest group of mares of this breed.

  20. Histomorphometry of the placental vasculature and microcotyledons in Thoroughbred mares with chronic laminitis.

    PubMed

    Pazinato, Fernanda M; Curcio, Bruna da Rosa; Fernandes, Cristina G; Santos, Carlos A; Feijó, Lorena S; Varela, Antonio Sérgio; Nogueira, Carlos E W

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the placental vasculature and microcotyledons in pregnant mares with chronic laminitis. Twenty-six pregnant mares were enrolled in the study, 13 had chronic laminitis (Laminitis Group) and 13 were healthy mares (Healthy Group). Arterial systolic pressure and heart rate were measured in the last 30 days of gestation. After foaling, the fetal membranes were grossly evaluated and samples were harvested for histopathologic examination. All mares had digitalized images taken from chorioallantois for histomorphometry analyses (software-NIH ImageJ). Images were assessed for: (i) arterioles from the allantoic region: total and lumen vascular diameter and vascular wall thickness; (ii) microcotiledonary and capillary area/field. Mares in the Laminitis Group showed hypertension, shorter gestational length, lower placental weight and lower birthweight (p < 0.05) foal in comparison with mares in the Healthy Group. Laminitis mares had a reduction of vascular lumen diameters in the uterine body and pregnant horn (p < 0.05), vascular wall thickening in the pregnant horn (p < 0.05) and smaller capillary area/field in the microcotyledons of uterine body and pregnant horn (p < 0.05). In conclusion, pregnant mares with chronic laminitis presented signs of hypertension syndrome, and vascular abnormalitities in placental vessels such as reduction in the vascular lumen and capillary area in the microcotyledones, and thickening of the vascular wall. Foals born from mares with chronic laminitis showed lower birth weight and shorter gestation lengths.

  1. Investigating the stratigraphy of Mare Imbrium flow emplacement with Earth-based radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, G. A.; Campbell, B. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Hawke, B. R.

    2016-08-01

    The lunar maria are the product of extensive basaltic volcanism that flooded widespread portions of the Moon's surface. Constraining mare volcanic history therefore provides a window into the endogenic processes responsible for shaping the Moon. Due to the low magma viscosity and the associated thin nature of lava units, the majority of mare surface structures are masked and subdued by impact regolith. Subtle individual mare flow morphologies, coupled with spatial limitations in the use of crater size distributions to distinguish surface units close in age, restrict our understanding of mare stratigraphy. Earth-based 70 cm wavelength (P band) radar can reveal features beneath the regolith and highlight very subtle changes in the ilmenite content of the flows, providing a unique means to map mare units. Here we map volcanic units in Mare Imbrium using high-resolution (200 m/pixel), Earth-based P band data. Situated within the heat-producing potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus terrane, Mare Imbrium experienced some of the most long-lived (and recent) lunar volcanism, and its surface exhibits a significant diversity of basaltic chemistry. Our investigation identifies at least four distinct stages of volcanic activity, originating from multiple sources within Imbrium. The most recent of these stages comprises extensive, yet relatively thin volcanic flow units that left remnant kipukas of older mare material distributed across much of the basin. From a future mission perspective, it may be possible to collect samples expressing a wide range in age from small areas of Mare Imbrium. Our map also places important constraints on the interpretation of the Chang'e-3 Lunar Penetrating Radar measurements.

  2. Pregnancy disruption in artificially inseminated domestic horse mares as a counterstrategy against potential infanticide.

    PubMed

    Bartoš, L; Bartošová, J; Pluháček, J

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study, we suggested that the common practice of transporting a mare for mating and then bringing her back to an environment that also contains males that did not sire the fetus may be a major cause of high percentages of pregnancy disruption in domestic horses. In this study, we tested whether disruption of pregnancies induced by AI occurs as frequently as after mating with a strange stallion away from home and is affected by the same factors in the home social environment. Based on 77 records, the probability of pregnancy disruption after AI depended on the social environment in which the mare was maintained after mating and the number of foals the mare had delivered in the past. Also after AI, as with natural matings away from home, the probability of pregnancy disruption was higher when the mare had no male company in her enclosure but stallions or geldings were present in an adjacent enclosure than when the mare was sharing the enclosure with geldings (generalized linear mixed model = 8.68, = 0.007, odds ratio = 8.17). These data support the prediction that the mare perceives conception after AI equally to natural mating with a strange stallion. The results suggested pregnancy disruption may be stimulated by the social circumstances of the home environment in mares artificially inseminated as in mares mated naturally away from home. The practical implications of this result is that after AI, to reduce risk of pregnancy disruption and improve welfare, horse breeders should place the pregnant mare into an environment with no stallion or stallions/gelding or geldings or to an enclosure together with the male or males.

  3. Reproductive efficiency of Thoroughbred mares under Indian subtropical conditions: A retrospective survey over 7 years.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sumeet; Dhaliwal, G S; Dadarwal, Dinesh

    2010-02-01

    Service records of 253 mares (1181 mare-years) spanning over 7 consecutive years, from nine organized Thoroughbred stud farms, situated in the subtropical northwestern India were retrospectively analyzed to assess their reproductive performance. The overall per cycle pregnancy rate at Day 16 and overall foaling rates were 50.30% and 68.95%, respectively, and were significantly higher in mares aged 3-7 years than > or =18 years old mares. The late embryonic losses (9.86%) that occurred between Days 16 and 39 post-ovulation contributed more than 50% of the overall detected pregnancy losses (19.11%). The overall percent detected pregnancy losses were lower in mares at ages 3-7 years compared to those at ages > or =18 years (14.78% vs. 46.43%, respectively; P<0.0001). Chronic barren and habitual aborter mares tended to affect reproductive efficiency of mares. Fifty percent of the mares that experienced > or =2 consecutive abortions or barren years, again stayed aborted or barren in the next seasons, respectively. No effect of numbers of matings per oestrus was observed on overall fertility. Neither the induction of oestrus nor ovulation by exogenous hormonal treatment had any effect on most of the analyzed reproductive parameters. Regarding breeding month or years, the reproductive efficiency did not differ significantly. The incidence of multiple pregnancies was 5.40% and percent late embryonic loses were higher (P=0.0016) in twin (21.98%) than singleton (8.64%) pregnancies. In conclusion, comparatively lower fertility rates were recorded in Thoroughbred mares bred under Indian subtropical climatic conditions than those reported from temperate regions that might be due to difference in breeding management rather than prevailing environment.

  4. Management Strategies Aiming to Improve Horse Welfare Reduce Embryonic Death Rates in Mares.

    PubMed

    Malschitzky, E; Pimentel, A M; Garbade, P; Jobim, Mim; Gregory, R M; Mattos, R C

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of management strategies aiming to improve animal well-being on pregnancy and embryonic death (ED) rates. Breeding records of a cohort of 1206 Thoroughbred mares brought to a stallion station facility, to be bred with the stallions housed there, were evaluated during ten breeding seasons. Mares were blocked according to management strategies in two groups: Stress and Relax. Strategies used to improve animal well-being (Relax group) were as follows: stopping the teasing routine, reducing or eliminating stall confinement, reducing the number of mares per group and maintaining herd stability during the breeding season. In barren mares, the pregnancy rate was higher in the Relax group (91.8%) when compared to the observed in Stress group (84.7%). However, no difference in pregnancy rates were observed (Stress = 85.2% vs. Relax = 86.2) in foaling mares. ED rate was higher in barren and foaling mares of the Stress group mares (25.5% and 26.8%, respectively) compared with the Relax group (16.1% and 14.7%, respectively). No significant differences were observed on foal heat pregnancy rate between groups; yet, the embryo loss on foal heat was significant reduced in Relax mares (Relax = 8.7% vs Stress = 24.5%). In conclusion, management strategies aimed to reduce social stress can reduce early pregnancy losses and the average cycles per pregnancy, improving reproductive performance in mares.

  5. Biodegradable estradiol microspheres do not affect uterine involution or characteristics of postpartum estrus in mares.

    PubMed

    Arrott, C; Macpherson, M; Blanchard, T; Varner, D; Thompson, J; Simpson, B; Bruemmer, J; Vogelsang, S; Fernandez, M; Fleet, T; Burns, P

    1994-08-01

    Quarterhorse mares were used to investigate effects of estradiol-17beta on uterine involution, duration of estrus, interval to ovulation, and fertility achieved by breeding on the first postpartum estrus. On the day of foaling, mares were injected with biodegradable poly (DL-lactide) microspheres containing either 100 mg estradiol-17beta (25 mares) or no drug (27 mares). The treatment period was considered to last for 12 to 15 d. Estrus was determined by teasing mares (n=16) with a stallion. Ovulation was detected by transrectal ultrasonographic examination of ovaries (n=48). On Days 6, 11 and 16 post partum, transrectal ultrasonography was used to measure cross-sectional diameters of the uterine body, uterine horns, and fluid within the uterine lumen (n=28). Uteri were swabbed for bacteriologic culture, and uterine biopsies were obtained from the previously gravid uterine horn on Days 11 and 16 post partum, for assessment of endometritis and morphometric analysis of endometrial histioarchitecture (n=19). Twenty-two mares were bred on foal-heat, and pregnancy was determined by transrectal ultrasonography on 14 to 16 and 30 to 35 d after breeding. With only one exception (diameter of previously gravid uterine horn on Day 11), mean values for all measures of uterine involution did not differ between treatment groups (P > 0.05). No differences were detected between treatment group means for length of estrus or interval to ovulation (P > 0.05). No differences were detected between treatment group liklihoods for recovery of potential bacterial pathogens, presence of endometritis, or presence of intrauterine fluid at 11 or 16 d post partum (P > 0.05). Pregnancy rate of mares treated with estradiol (5 11 ; 45%) was not different from that of control mares (9 11 ; 82%; P > 0.05). Estradiol treatment did not hasten uterine involution, increase duration of estrus, delay ovulation, or increase fertility in these postpartum mares.

  6. Effects of estradiol on uterine perfusion in anesthetized cyclic mares affected with uterine vascular elastosis.

    PubMed

    Esteller-Vico, A; Liu, I K M; Vaughan, B; Steffey, E P; Brosnan, R J

    2016-01-01

    Uterine vascular elastosis in mares is characterized by degeneration of uterine vasculature through thickening of the elastin layers. Factors commonly associated with this degeneration include age, parity, and chronic uterine endometritis. Affected mares have also been shown to exhibit decreases in uterine blood flow and perfusion of the uterus. Due to the increased thickness of the elastin layers, we hypothesize that vasodilatation of the uterine vasculature is also impaired. To test the functionality of these vessels, we evaluated the vasodilatory effects of estradiol on the uterine vascular bed in mares with normal vasculature and mares with severe elastosis. Both groups were tested in estrus and diestrus. Fluorescent microspheres were used to determine basal blood perfusion, followed by the intravenous administration of 1.0 μg/kg of 17β-estradiol. After 90 min, perfusion was measured once again to determine the vascular response to estradiol. Control mares in estrus displayed a significant increase in total uterine blood flow after the administration of estradiol when compared to baseline levels. No other group had a significant increase in total blood flow and perfusion after estradiol administration. The administration of estradiol in control mares induced regional increases in perfusion in the uterine horns and uterine body during estrus and only in the uterine horns during diestrus. Mares affected by elastosis exhibited no regional differences in perfusion levels post-estradiol administration. The difference in the vasodilatory response induced by estradiol between reproductively healthy mares and mares affected with elastosis indicates that the functionality of the affected vessels is compromised.

  7. Characteristics in mineral compositions of lunar latest mare volcanism revealed from spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Morota, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Otake, H.; Ohtake, M.; Nimura, T.

    2016-12-01

    Lunar mare basalts provide insights into the composition and thermal history of the lunar mantle. According to crater counting analysis with remote sensing data, the ages of mare basalts suggest a first peak of magma activity at 3.2-3.8 Ga and a second peak at 2 Ga. In order to understand the mechanism for causing the second peak and its magma source, we reassess the correlation between the titanium contents and the eruption ages of mare basalt units using the compositional and chronological data updated by SELENE (Kaguya). In the Procellarum KREEP Terrane, where the latest mare basalt units are concentrated, an increase in the mean titanium content is observed in the Eratosthenian Period, as reported by previous studies. We found that, however, a rapid increase in mean titanium content occurred near 2.3 Ga. This result suggests that the magma source of the mare basalts changed at this particular age. Moreover, the high-titanium basaltic eruptions are correlated with the second peak in mare volcanism at 2 Ga. The latest mare volcanism may have been induced by a super-hot plume originating from the core-mantle boundary. In this study, to reveal the difference between the volcanic activities before and after 2.3 Ga, we developed the method to estimate the mineral components and elemental compositions of lunar mare basalts by using the Kaguya Spectral Profiler data. We will introduce the detail of the method and discuss about the difference between the mineral compositions of mare basalts before and after 2.3 Ga based on our preliminary results.

  8. Collection of equine cord blood and placental tissues in 40 thoroughbred mares.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, S; Owens, S D; Ferraro, G L; Carrade, D D; Lara, D J; Librach, F A; Borjesson, D L; Galuppo, L D

    2009-11-01

    Stem cells derived from umbilical cord tissue (UCT) and umbilical cord blood (UCB) in human subjects and horses can be obtained in a minimally invasive fashion with successful propagation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Currently there are no detailed protocols documenting a procedure to harvest UCB and UCT safely for equine stem cell propagation. UCB and UCT could be collected without harm to mare or foal. To develop a standard and safe method for UCB and UCT collection, and prospectively to compare foal and mare health between groups of animals where tissue was and was not collected. This study was conducted at a Thoroughbred breeding facility in central California in 2008. UCB and UCT were collected from 40 mare and foal pairs. Clinical parameters including time for foal to stand and nurse, time for mare to pass the placenta, and foal haematology data at age 24 h were documented and compared to a control group, consisting of the succeeding 40 mare and foal pairs. UCB was obtained successfully from 36 of 40 (90%) mares and UCT from 38 of 40 (95%) mares. Bacterial contamination was documented in 6 out of 36 (16.6%) UCB samples. There were no significant differences in time to stand or nurse for foals or time to pass the placenta for mares, between the experimental and control groups. There were no clinically relevant differences identified in haematological data obtained from foals with and without UCB collection. UCB and UCT can be harvested safely without harm to mares or foals. UCB and UCT samples collected in an inherently contaminated environment can be successfully disinfected and transported with minimal bacterial overgrowth for use in cell culture to isolate MSCs.

  9. Real-time characterization of the uterine blood flow in mares before and after artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J C; Ignácio, F S; Rocha, N S; Thompson, D L; Pinto, C R; Meira, C

    2015-09-01

    The present experiment was divided into two studies to investigate the effect of age and endometrial degeneration on uterine blood flow of mares throughout the immediate post-breeding period. In study 1, uterine blood flow was characterized in mares (n = 7 mares/group) with minimal, moderate or severe endometrial degenerative changes (GI, GII and GIII, respectively). In study 2, the effect of age was investigated using young (≤ 6 years) and old (≥ 15 years) mares (n = 7 mares/group). Uterine vascular perfusion and mesometrial pulsatility index (PI) were evaluated every hour from H0 (moment immediately before AI) to H12. In study 1, a pronounced and transitory increase on uterine vascular perfusion was detected (P < 0.001) between H1 and H3 in the three endometrial groups. In addition, GIII mares had greater (P < 0.05) mesometrial PI than GI mares during the post-breeding period, denoting reduced uterine blood flow. In study 2, a transitory increase on uterine vascular perfusion was also observed in both age groups during the first hour after mating. However, mesometrial PI of young and old mares was similar (P > 0.05) and constant (P > 0.7) through the first 12h after AI. Results demonstrated, for the first time, the immediate changes on uterine vascular perfusion and mesometrial PI in response to semen infusion. Moreover, reduced blood flow of the uterus during the post-breeding period was strongly associated with endometrial degenerative changes in mares, regardless of age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposure of mares to processionary caterpillars (Ochrogaster lunifer) in early pregnancy: an additional dimension to equine amnionitis and fetal loss.

    PubMed

    Cawdell-Smith, A J; Todhunter, K H; Perkins, N R; Bryden, W L

    2013-11-01

    Equine amnionitis and fetal loss (EAFL) is an unusual form of abortion in mid- to late-gestation mares, first identified in Australia in 2004. It has been shown that both whole processionary caterpillars (Ochrogaster lunifer) and their shed exoskeletons can induce abortion in mares during midgestation. These abortions exhibited gross pathology and bacteriology results consistent with field cases of EAFL. To determine whether exposure of mares to the shed exoskeletons of processionary caterpillars can induce abortion in the preplacentation (<35 days' gestation) and early placentation (45-60 days) stages of pregnancy. In vivo experimental study. Mares less than 35 days' gestation and between 45 and 60 days' gestation were exposed to a slurry of shed processionary caterpillar exoskeletons by nasogastric intubation. Mares were monitored by clinical examination daily. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily (control and treated preplacentation mares, treated early placentation mares) or every second day (control early placentation mares). Uterine swabs were collected from mares that aborted. All live foals underwent a clinical examination. Placentas were examined, with sampling for bacteriology and histopathology if appropriate. Abortions occurred in treated mares in both experiments without signs of impending abortion. One mare aborted in the embryonic stage experiment and 2 in the early placentation experiment. Embryonic and fetal death was detected on transrectal ultrasonography prior to abortion. In the early placentation experiment, one foal was born 5 weeks preterm and was very small, with laxity of the tendons in all limbs. Enteric or environmental bacteria, consistent with EAFL, were isolated from the mares that aborted. Focal mucoid placentitis lesions were present on the placentas of 2 treated mares, one from each experiment. Processionary caterpillar exposure may be associated with EAFL-related embryonic and early fetal loss in mares. Processionary

  11. Age dating of mare in the lunar crater Tsiolkovsky by crater-counting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrie, A.

    1988-09-01

    Basic age dating of the mare in the crater Tsiolkovsky on the lunar far side is summarized. The cumulative crater frequency relative to crater diameter distribution is obtained for the mare using the Apollo 15 panoramic camera photographs. Comparison of the distribution with plots for the maria at Apollo 11, 12, and 15 landing sites show that Tsiolkovsky mare is 3.51 + or - 10 to the 9th yr old. It is concluded that the processes producing the vast basalt outpourings on the moon's face apply for the far side as well, and that there is a linking factor for the whole moon.

  12. Mars at Ls 269o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    9 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurs in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  13. Mars at Ls 249o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurs in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  14. Mars at Ls 249o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurred in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  15. Specular reflection on Titan: Liquids in Kraken Mare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Brown, Robert H.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Soderblom, Laurence A.; Barnes, Jason W.; Sotin, Christophe; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Clark, Roger N.; Lytle, Dyer M.; Nelson, Robert M.; Nicholson, Phillip D.

    2010-01-01

    After more than 50 close flybys of Titan by the Cassini spacecraft, it has become evident that features similar in morphology to terrestrial lakes and seas exist in Titan's polar regions. As Titan progresses into northern spring, the much more numerous and larger lakes and seas in the north-polar region suggested by Cassini RADAR data, are becoming directly illuminated for the first time since the arrival of the Cassini spacecraft. This allows the Cassini optical instruments to search for specular reflections to provide further confirmation that liquids are present in these evident lakes. On July 8, 2009 Cassini VIMS detected a specular reflection in the north-polar region of Titan associated with Kraken Mare, one of Titan's large, presumed seas, indicating the lake's surface is smooth and free of scatterers with respect to the wavelength of 5 μm, where VIMS detected the specular signal, strongly suggesting it is liquid.

  16. Very high potassium (VHK) basalt - Complications in mare basalt petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The first comprehensive report on the petrology and geochemistry of Apollo 14 VHK (Very High Potassium) basalts and their implications for lunar evolution is presented. The reported data are most consistent with the hypothesis that VHK basalts formed through the partial assimilation of granite by a normal low-Ti, high-Al mare basalt magma. Assimilation was preceded by the diffusion-controlled exchange of alkalis and Ba between basalt magma and the low-temperature melt fraction of the granite. Hypotheses involving volatile/nonvolatile fractionations or long-term enrichment of the source regions in K are inconsistent with the suprachondritic Ba/La ratios and low initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of VHK basalt. An important implication of this conclusion is that granite should be a significant component of the lunar crust at the Apollo 14 site.

  17. Regional stratigraphy and geologic history of Mare Crisium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W., III; Adams, J. B.; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C.; Zisk, S.

    1978-01-01

    Remote sensing and Luna 24 sample data are used to develop a summary of the regional stratigraphy and geologic history of Mare Crisium. Laboratory spectra of Luna 24 samples, telescopic reflectance spectra in the 0.3 to 1.1 micron range and orbital X-ray data have identified three major basalt groups in the region. Group I soil is derived from iron- and magnesium-rich titaniferous basalts and was apparently emplaced over the majority of the basin, however is presently exposed as a shelf in the southwest part. Group II soils, derived from very low titanium ferrobasalts, were emplaced in two stages subsequent to Group I emplacement and now appear as part of the outer shelf and topographic annulus. Subsidence of the basin interior preceded and continued after the emplacement of the third basalt group, a soil derived from a low titanium ferrobasalt. The Luna 24 site is found to be within a patch of Group II material.

  18. Very high potassium (VHK) basalt - Complications in mare basalt petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The first comprehensive report on the petrology and geochemistry of Apollo 14 VHK (Very High Potassium) basalts and their implications for lunar evolution is presented. The reported data are most consistent with the hypothesis that VHK basalts formed through the partial assimilation of granite by a normal low-Ti, high-Al mare basalt magma. Assimilation was preceded by the diffusion-controlled exchange of alkalis and Ba between basalt magma and the low-temperature melt fraction of the granite. Hypotheses involving volatile/nonvolatile fractionations or long-term enrichment of the source regions in K are inconsistent with the suprachondritic Ba/La ratios and low initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of VHK basalt. An important implication of this conclusion is that granite should be a significant component of the lunar crust at the Apollo 14 site.

  19. Mars at Ls 176°: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-03-08

    This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 176° during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 176° occurs in mid-March 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360° around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0°, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07443

  20. Mars at Ls 25o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurs in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  1. Mars at Ls 357o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurs in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  2. Mars at Ls 357o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurred in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  3. Mars at Ls 341o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 December 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 341o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 341o occurred in mid-December 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  4. Mars at Ls 107o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurs in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  5. Mars at Ls 66o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurs in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  6. Mars at Ls 79o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurred in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  7. Mars at Ls 12o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurs in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  8. Mars at Ls 79o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  9. Mars at Ls 66o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurred in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  10. Mars at Ls 39o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  11. Mars at Ls 93o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    8 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurs in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  12. Mars at Ls 107o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurred in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  13. Mars at Ls 53o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    9 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  14. Mars at Ls 39o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurred in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  15. Mars at Ls 53o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    23 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  16. Mars at Ls 12o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    28 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurred in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  17. Mars at Ls 25o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    28 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurred in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  18. Mars at Ls 193°: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-12

    This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 193° during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 193° occurs in mid-April 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360° around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0°, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Location near: 47.3°N, 294.0°W Image width: ~3 km (~1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07837

  19. Mars at Ls 324o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurs in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  20. Mars at Ls 288o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurred in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  1. Mars at Ls 269o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    9 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurs in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  2. Mars at Ls 249o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurred in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  3. Mars at Ls 249o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurs in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  4. Mars at Ls 324o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    22 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurred in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  5. Mars at Ls 230o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 June 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 230o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 230o occurs in mid-June 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  6. Mars at Ls 230o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    28 June 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 230o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 230o occurred in mid-June 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  7. Mars at Ls 211o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    10 May 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211o occurs in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  8. Mars at Ls 288o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    13 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurs in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  9. Mars at Ls 269o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurred in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  10. Mars at Ls 211o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 May 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211o occurred in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  11. Mars at Ls 306o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurred in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  12. Mars at Ls 306o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurs in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  13. Mars at Ls 193o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 April 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 193o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 193o occurred in mid-April 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern summer.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  14. Mars at Ls 25o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurs in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  15. Mars at Ls 53o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    9 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  16. Mars at Ls 107o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurs in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  17. Mars at Ls 107o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurred in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  18. Mars at Ls 12o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    28 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurred in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  19. Mars at Ls 39o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurred in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  20. Mars at Ls 288o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurred in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  1. Mars at Ls 306o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurs in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  2. Mars at Ls 341o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 December 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 341o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 341o occurred in mid-December 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  3. Mars at Ls 79o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurred in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  4. Mars at Ls 324o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    22 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurred in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  5. Mars at Ls 306o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurred in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  6. Mars at Ls 66o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurs in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  7. Mars at Ls 79o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  8. Mars at Ls 357o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurred in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  9. Mars at Ls 324o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurs in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  10. Mars at Ls 269o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurred in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  11. Mars at Ls 357o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurs in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  12. Mars at Ls 66o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurred in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  13. Mars at Ls 53o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    23 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  14. Mars at Ls 288o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    13 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurs in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  15. Mars at Ls 39o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  16. Mars at Ls 25o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    28 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurred in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  17. Mars at Ls 93o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    8 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurs in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  18. Mars at Ls 12o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurs in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  19. Mares Prefer the Voices of Highly Fertile Stallions

    PubMed Central

    Lemasson, Alban; Remeuf, Kévin; Trabalon, Marie; Cuir, Frédérique; Hausberger, Martine

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that stallion whinnies, known to encode caller size, also encoded information about caller arousal and fertility, and the reactions of mares in relation to type of voice. Voice acoustic features are correlated with arousal and reproduction success, the lower-pitched the stallion’s voice, the slower his heart beat and the higher his fertility. Females from three study groups preferred playbacks of low-pitched voices. Hence, females are attracted by frequencies encoding for large male size, calmness and high fertility. More work is needed to explore the relative importance of morpho-physiological features. Assortative mating may be involved as large females preferred voices of larger stallions. Our study contributes to basic and applied ongoing research on mammal reproduction, and questions the mechanisms used by females to detect males’ fertility. PMID:25714814

  20. Pre-mare cratering and early solar system history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the application of the high extra-lunar flux in pre-mare times to more general problems of early solar system history is attempted by combining the results of dynamic studies with lunar chronological data. Dynamical studies permit separate evaluation of the possible sources for both the normal flux during the first 600 m.y. years of lunar history as well as the peak which apparently occurred 4.0 b.y. ago. Dynamical studies have been carried out in order to determine the extent to which a heliocentric flux could be confined to the Moon (and Earth). A Monte Carlo method has been used to calculate the relative impact rates of planet-crossing bodies with the moon and the terrestrial planets. It is concluded that the time-variation of the flux on these planets is closely related to that on the moon.

  1. Mars at Ls 211°: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-24

    This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211° during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211° occurred in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360° around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0°, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07988

  2. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. IV - Deconvolution of the Mare Imbrium, Aristarchus, and adjacent regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Metzger, A. E.; Haines, E. L.; Hawke, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    Several fields of orbital gamma ray spectroscopy data have been deconvolved in order to model the distribution of Th over the Mare Imbrium and northern Oceanus Procellarum portions of the Apollo 15 lunar ground track, which in combination with a prior study of the Apenninus region covers a continuous swath from 10 deg E to 60 deg W in the northwest quadrant. The crater of the Aristarchus region dominates the Th distribution, with a concentration of 20 ppm, and substantial enhancements are also found in the mare regions around Brayley and at the ejecta blankets of Timocharis and Lambert. The existence of enhanced Th concentrations in mare basalt regions suggests that reservoirs of some late stage mare basalts incorporated KREEP-rich material during formation or transit.

  3. Is plagioclase removal responsible for the negative Eu anomaly in the source regions of mare basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J. )

    1989-12-01

    The nearly ubiquitous presence of a negative Eu anomaly in the mare basalts has been suggested to indicate prior separation and flotation of plagioclase from the basalt source region during its crystallization from a lunar magma ocean (LMO). Are there any mare basalts derived from a mantle source which did not experience prior plagioclase separation Crystal chemical rationale for REE substitution in pyroxene suggests that the combination of REE size and charge, M2 site characteristics of pyroxene, fO{sub 2}, magma chemistry, and temperature may account for the negative Eu anomaly in the source region of some types of primitive, low TiO{sub 2} mare basalts. This origin for the negative Eu anomaly does not preclude the possibility of the LMO as many mare basalts still require prior plagioclase crystallization and separation and/or hybridization involving a KREEP component.

  4. Is plagioclase removal responsible for the negative Eu anomaly in the source regions of mare basalts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The nearly ubiquitous presence of a negative Eu anomaly in the mare basalts has been suggested to indicate prior separation and flotation of plagioclase from the basalt source region during its crystallization from a lunar magma ocean (LMO). Are there any mare basalts derived from a mantle source which did not experience prior plagioclase separation? Crystal chemical rationale for REE substitution in pyroxene suggests that the combination of REE size and charge, M2 site characteristics of pyroxene, fO2, magma chemistry, and temperature may account for the negative Eu anomaly in the source region of some types of primitive, low TiO2 mare basalts. This origin for the negative Eu anomaly does not preclude the possibility of the LMO as many mare basalts still require prior plagioclase crystallization and separation and/or hybridization involving a KREEP component.

  5. Effect of exogenous ovarian steroids on the uterine luminal prostaglandins in ovariectomised mares with experimental endometritis.

    PubMed

    Watson, E D; Stokes, C R; Bourne, F J

    1988-05-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) F and E2 were measured in lavage fluid from the uterus of ovariectomised mares after experimental induction of uterine inflammation. Treatment with progesterone alone, or progesterone followed by oestradiol, significantly increased the concentrations of these PGs in the lavage compared with mares treated with oestradiol or control mares. Ovarian steroids, therefore, influenced uterine PG synthesis in response to an inflammatory stimulus. To determine whether the uterine lavage procedure might contribute to the concentrations of prostaglandins in the lavage, the procedure was also performed on six intact mares. With the exception of washings obtained at luteolysis, uterine concentrations of PGF (measured as the plasma metabolite 15-keto-13,14-dihydro PGF2 alpha) had returned to prewashing levels within 30 minutes of the start of uterine lavage. Lavage was therefore unlikely to have influenced the concentrations of prostaglandins in the lavage fluid.

  6. A preliminary analysis of lunar extra-mare basalts - Distribution, compositions, ages, volumes, and eruption styles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitford-Stark, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Extra-mare basalts occupy 8.5% of the lunar basalt area and comprise 1% of the total mare basalt volume. They are preferentially located where the crust is thin and topographically low. In terms of age, eruption style, and composition they are as variable as the mare basalts. In some instances extrusion in extra-mare craters was preceded by floor-fracturing whereas in other cases it apparently was not. The volume of lava erupted may have been controlled more by the volume of magma produced than by hydrostatic effects. A minimum of nearly 1300 separate basalt eruptions is indicated; the true value could be nearer 30,000 separate eruptions.

  7. Effect of uterine inflammation and ultrasonically-detected uterine pathology on fertility in the mare.

    PubMed

    Adams, G P; Kastelic, J P; Bergfelt, D R; Ginther, O J

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of intrauterine fluid collections during dioestrus (12/43, 28%) and uterine cysts throughout the oestrous cycle (11/73, 15%) found in this study indicates that these ultrasonically detectable abnormalities are prevalent in mares. The hypothesis that uterine cysts do not affect pregnancy was not supported. Intrauterine fluid collections at dioestrus represented the presence of an inflammatory process as indicated by a high biopsy score, reduced progesterone concentrations, and a shorter interovulatory interval. Mares with fluid collections at dioestrus had a lower pregnancy rate at Day 11 and a higher embryonic loss rate by Day 20 than did mares without such collections. The progesterone profile and length of interovulatory interval for mares with uterine inflammation supported the hypotheses that embryonic loss in this herd was due to uterine-induced luteolysis rather than primary luteal inadequacy.

  8. 12. PWD Drawing 10,0005(463AE1)(1936), 'Electrical Lighting and Power' Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. PWD Drawing 10,000-5(463A-E-1)(1936), 'Electrical Lighting and Power' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Battery Test Office & Storage Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. IV - Deconvolution of the Mare Imbrium, Aristarchus, and adjacent regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Metzger, A. E.; Haines, E. L.; Hawke, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    Several fields of orbital gamma ray spectroscopy data have been deconvolved in order to model the distribution of Th over the Mare Imbrium and northern Oceanus Procellarum portions of the Apollo 15 lunar ground track, which in combination with a prior study of the Apenninus region covers a continuous swath from 10 deg E to 60 deg W in the northwest quadrant. The crater of the Aristarchus region dominates the Th distribution, with a concentration of 20 ppm, and substantial enhancements are also found in the mare regions around Brayley and at the ejecta blankets of Timocharis and Lambert. The existence of enhanced Th concentrations in mare basalt regions suggests that reservoirs of some late stage mare basalts incorporated KREEP-rich material during formation or transit.

  10. Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES): Pilot Project - Marine Mammal Tagging and Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES): Pilot Project...inter-relationships of biophysical and chemical parameters on living resources, including marine mammals that use this ecosystem . This larger picture

  11. A preliminary analysis of lunar extra-mare basalts - Distribution, compositions, ages, volumes, and eruption styles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitford-Stark, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Extra-mare basalts occupy 8.5% of the lunar basalt area and comprise 1% of the total mare basalt volume. They are preferentially located where the crust is thin and topographically low. In terms of age, eruption style, and composition they are as variable as the mare basalts. In some instances extrusion in extra-mare craters was preceded by floor-fracturing whereas in other cases it apparently was not. The volume of lava erupted may have been controlled more by the volume of magma produced than by hydrostatic effects. A minimum of nearly 1300 separate basalt eruptions is indicated; the true value could be nearer 30,000 separate eruptions.

  12. Pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin. III. Hemispaying and the reversal of the antifertility faculty of pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A; Pal, A K; Gupta, T

    1977-10-01

    A single injection of 10 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on day 5 of pregancy caused wastage of the fetoplacental unit by day 16 of pregnancy. Semispaying, which seems to subtract approximately 50% of the ovarian steroid contribution, at 24, 48, and 72 hours following the PMSG schedule prevented the antifertility faculty of the hormone preparation. However, hemicastration at 96 hours following the gonadotropin regimen was found to be ineffective, and 100% of the test animals showed complete termination of pregnancy. Experimental data collectively tempt us to propose that an estrogen excess, particularly of follicular origin in both ovaries, is essential for more than 72 hours following gonadotropin sensitization before the antifertility faculty of PMSG can be demonstrated.

  13. Amniotic fluid and blood lactate concentrations in mares and foals in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Pirrone, A; Mariella, J; Gentilini, F; Castagnetti, C

    2012-10-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) lactate concentration and time-dependent changes in blood lactate concentration in mares after parturition have never been evaluated. In this study, the venous blood lactate concentration of mares and foals during the first 72 h of the postpartum period was assessed, and the concentration of lactate in the AF collected during delivery and the utility of its measurement for evaluating the foal's health were investigated. This prospective observational study was carried out on mares attended at delivery. They were divided into mares delivering healthy (Group 1) and sick (Group 2) foals. The following samples were collected: AF and umbilical blood at delivery, mare's and foal's jugular blood every 12 hours from parturition until 72 h postpartum (T0-T72). Sixty-two mares were enrolled in Group 1 and 19 in Group 2. In Group 2, the survival rate was 68.4%. The median blood lactate of the foals at T0 was 3.60 mmol/L in Group 1 and 5.05 mmol/L in Group 2. The monitoring of the blood lactate concentration showed a significant time-dependent decrease from T24 in the foals (P < 0.01) and from T12 in the mares (P < 0.01). Lactate concentration over time was significantly different between healthy and sick foals (P < 0.01) but not between mares with normal and dystocic delivery (P = 0.08). A significant difference (P = 0.04) was detected as regards AF lactate concentration between Group 1 (median 14.99 mmol/L) and Group 2 (median 12.61 mmol/L). For the first time, AF lactate concentration was evaluated during parturition, and significantly higher levels were found in mares delivering healthy foals. This was an unexpected and very interesting result which warrants further investigation involving a larger number of mares. Additional studies are needed before either mare's blood or AF lactate concentration can be used in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution and Composition of Mare Ponds in South Pole-Aitken Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, T.; Hori, S.

    2001-12-01

    Mare deposits play an important role to understand the origin of magma sources, resulting evolution of lunar secondary crust, and the relationship between volcanic eruptions and impact structures. In South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, more than 50 well-discrete mare ponds exist. In order to clarify the relationship between impact tectonic and post-impact volcanic activities, we investigate the distribution and compositional variation of mare ponds in SPA. The areal coverage of mare ponds indicates the highest areal ratio in central region and small peaks near ring regions, as observed in Orientale basin. It suggests that the structure of the basin is related to the initiation of volcanic eruptions. For the compositional analysis, FeO and TiO2 contents of mare materials of 43 mare ponds in SPA are estimated using Clementine UV/VIS images. The average of FeO contents of relatively large 14 mare ponds is 15.5 % in weight, which is within the range of typical samples of mare basalts. It is 4.5 % higher than the analysis of Yingst and Head (1999). The discrepancy may be originated from differences in estimation methods or investigated sites. The average value of TiO2 contents of our analysis is 3.5 %. All of the mare deposits in SPA are classified in Low-Ti basalts type, even though mare deposits of High-Ti basalts exist outside SPA basin, such as, mare Moscovience. The gradual increases in FeO and TiO2 contents are also recognized as a function of radial distance from SPA center. The variance of contents may be related to the subsurface structure of impact basin, since the content of TiO2 represents the depth of the magma source. In SPA region, most of crustal materials are excavated, and lower crust or upper mantle is exposed. The layer of the source of Hi-Ti basalts may be heavily brecciated, mixed with crustal materials, isositatically rebounded, and less-pressurized, after the impact. Then, magma chambers of High-Ti basaltic source may not be developed. Another

  15. Endometrial prostaglandin synthases, ovarian steroids, and oxytocin receptors in mares with oxytocin-induced luteal maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rebordão, Maria R; Galvão, António; Pinto-Bravo, Pedro; Pinheiro, Joana; Gamboa, Sandra; Silva, Elisabete; Mateus, Luísa; Ferreira-Dias, Graça

    2017-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) has been used to prolong the luteal phase in mares, but its mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic exogenous OXT administration to mid-luteal phase mares on luteal maintenance. Also, endometrial expression of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), prostaglandin F2α, E2 and I2 synthases (AKR1C3, PTGES, and PTGIS), oxytocin receptor (OXTR), progesterone receptor (PGR), and estrogen receptors 1 (ESR1) and 2 (ESR2) were assessed in mares experiencing luteal maintenance 2 weeks after chronic exogenous OXT administration. Control mares (n = 5; C group) received 6 mL of saline im, whereas OXT (60 units/mare) was administered im (n = 6; OXT group), every 12 hours, on days 7 to 14 postovulation. After endometrial biopsy in groups C (Day 10) and OXT (Day 24), luteolysis occurred within 3 or 6 days, respectively. Luteal maintenance took place in 4 of 6 (67%) of OXT-treated mares. Progesterone in C group was the highest on biopsy day (P < 0.05). In OXT mares, PTGS2, ESR1 (P < 0.05), PTGES, PTGIS, PGR, and ESR2 (P < 0.01) gene transcription decreased, whereas OXTR increased (P < 0.05) in comparison with the C group. In OXT-treated mares, endometrial ESR2 protein expression decreased (P < 0.05), but OXTR increased (P < 0.05) compared with control animals. In both experimental groups, PTGS2 was mainly immunolocalized in surface epithelium, whereas AKR1C3, PTGES, PTGIS, and PGR were in surface and glandular epithelia. ESR1 and ESR2 were found in glandular epithelium and OXTR in stromal cells. High immunolabeling for PTGES, PTGIS, PGR, and OXTR and low for ESR2 was detected in endometrium of OXT-group mares with extended diestrus. Prolonged luteal function associated with chronic OXT treatment may be related to different spatial expression of OXTR and PGR in the endometrium. The observed reduction of endometrial ESR2 may be responsible for the maintenance of PGR in luminal and glandular

  16. Endocrine alterations around the time of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen.

    PubMed

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and compare the concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), progesterone and estrone sulphate during normal and failed pregnancies of mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen, relating their individual endocrine profiles to the time of pregnancy loss, and to the histopathologic findings in the aborted fetuses and placenta. Mares (n=54) were used, 32 of them impregnated with donkey semen and 22 impregnated with horse semen. Blood samples were taken twice a week from Day 35 to 120 of pregnancy. Ultrasonographic observations of the fetus were carried out twice a week. The incidence of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey semen (30%) was greater (P<0.05) than the 5% observed in mares impregnated with horse semen. From Week 8 to the end of the sampling period, the mean progesterone concentrations of mares with normal mule pregnancies were less (P<0.05) than those of mares with normal pregnancies with equine fetuses. The concentrations of eCG were less (P<0.05) in mule pregnancies from Week 6. Estrone sulphate concentrations were only different (P<0.05) between types of pregnancy on Weeks 13 and 14, being in this case greater with the mule pregnancies. Most of the abortions of mule fetuses were associated with lesser progesterone concentrations than the average for mares with successful mule pregnancies. Four of the abortions of mule fetuses and the only abortion of horse fetus occurred in mares with lesser progesterone and very low eCG concentrations, and were classified as caused by luteal impairment secondary to eCG deficiency; estrone sulphate concentrations were less than normal or absent before these abortions. Two mares aborted after several weeks of low progesterone concentrations in the presence of eCG concentrations that were normal for mule pregnancies, suggesting primary luteal deficiency. In three mares carrying a mule fetus, the concentrations of progesterone and estrone sulphate decreased

  17. Chloroxylenol and zinc oxide containing cream (Nels cream) vs. 5% benzoyl peroxide cream in the treatment of acne vulgaris. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, P P; Chu, A C

    2000-01-01

    Forty-one subjects completed a double-blind controlled randomized study comparing the following: (i) Nels cream (containing chloroxylenol and zinc oxide); (ii) 5% benzoyl peroxide cream; and (iii) the vehicle of the Nels cream. Patients applied the medications twice daily for 8 weeks. At the end of the test period there was no significant difference in the reduction of inflammatory and noninflammatory lesion counts achieved by Nels cream and benzoyl peroxide. Both creams proved superior to the vehicle. Efficacy grading by subjects and investigators showed no significant difference between Nels cream and benzoyl peroxide. However, side-effects such as peeling and dryness caused by the treatment were significantly less in the Nels cream group.

  18. The mare model for follicular maturation and reproductive aging in the woman.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, E M

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive aging and assisted reproduction are becoming progressively more relevant in human medicine. Research with human subjects is limited in many aspects, and consequently animal models may have considerable utility. Such models have provided insight into follicular function, oocyte maturation, and reproductive aging. However, models are often selected based on factors other than physiological or functional similarities. Although the mare has received limited attention as a model for reproduction in women, comparisons between these species indicate that the mare has many attributes of a good model. As the mare ages, cyclic and hormonal changes parallel those of older women. The initial sign of reproductive aging in both species is a shortening of the reproductive cycle with elevated concentrations of FSH. Subsequently, cycles become longer with intermittent ovulations and elevated concentrations of FSH and LH. Reproduction ceases with failure of follicular growth and elevated gonadotropins, apparently because of ovarian failure. In the older woman and mare, oocytes have been maintained in meiotic arrest for decades -- approximately four to five for the woman and two to three for the mare; in both species, reduced oocyte quality is the end factor identified in age-associated infertility. After induction of oocyte maturation in vivo, the timeline to ovulation is the same for the mare and woman, suggesting a comparable sequence of events. The mare's anatomy, long follicular phase and single dominant follicle provide a foundation for studies in oocyte and follicular development. The aim of this review is to evaluate the mare as an animal model to study age-associated changes in reproduction and to improve our understanding of oocyte and follicular maturation in vivo.

  19. Changes in maternal androgens and oestrogens in mares with experimentally-induced ascending placentitis.

    PubMed

    Canisso, I F; Ball, B A; Esteller-Vico, A; Williams, N M; Squires, E L; Troedsson, M H

    2017-03-01

    While advanced stages of ascending placentitis can be diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography and clinical signs, early stages can be missed. Thus, additional tools could enhance assessment of placental health. To characterise peripheral dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and testosterone concentrations in mares carrying normal pregnancies (Study 1) and compare plasma concentrations of DHEA-S, testosterone, oestradiol 17-β (oestradiol) and oestrone sulphate (OES) in mares with or without placentitis (Study 2). Longitudinal cohort study of healthy mares (Study 1) and controlled experiment (Study 2). In Study 1, mares had serum samples collected from 100 days of gestation to term. In Study 2, pregnant mares (260-280 days gestation) were assigned to a control group or a group with placentitis. Placentitis was induced via intracervical inoculation of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus. Blood was collected at inoculation/commencement for control mares (day = 0) and daily for 12 days post inoculation (DPI) or until abortion. Steroid concentrations were determined by immunoassays. Concentrations of steroids in Study 2 were also evaluated relative to days from abortion (DFA -8 days to 0). In Study 1, DHEA-S peaked by 180 days gestation, while testosterone concentrations were progressively increased from Days 100 to 180 with a plateau until ~240 days and a progressive decline until 290 days of gestation. In Study 2, concentrations of DHEA-S and testosterone were not significantly different between groups. There were significant effects of time (oestradiol P = 0.0008, OES P = 0.01) and time-by-group interactions (oestradiol P<0.001, OES P<0.0001) for oestrogen concentrations. For mares with experimental placentitis, concentrations of oestradiol were significantly reduced at -6, -2, -1 and 0 DFA, while OES concentrations were significantly reduced on the day before abortion (0 DFA). Testosterone and DHEA-S were increased and varied through pregnancy. Oestrogens but

  20. A single subcutaneous administration of buserelin induces ovulation in the mare: field data.

    PubMed

    Levy, I; Duchamp, G

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study, was to evaluate whether a single subcutaneous administration of the GnRH analogue buserelin could induce ovulation in the mare during the breeding season. Two studies were carried out under field conditions. In Experiment 1, 90 cycles of trotter mares aged 2-7 years, were assigned to a buserelin group (Bus1) or to a control group (Control), in the presence of a >/=35 mm pre-ovulatory follicle, with uterine oedema and a relaxed cervix. Ten mares were assigned to the two groups for 32 cycles in Bus1 and 52 cycles in Control, two mares received only Bus1 for three cycles, and one mare was assigned to Control for three cycles. Mares treated with buserelin received 6 ml of SUPREFACT s.c. (1.05 mg/ml buserelin acetate), and no treatment was given in Control. The ovulation rate between 24 and 48 h was higher (p < 0.0001) in Bus1 (31/35) than in Control (15/55). In Experiment 2, the condition of inducing ovulation with 6 ml SUPREFACT s.c. (Bus2) or 1500 ui human chorionic gonadotropin were identical to the first study. Forty-nine mares of ages 2-21 years, were used for 120 cycles, 56 cycles were assigned to Bus2, and 64 cycles were induced with 1500 IU human chorionic gonadotropin i.v. No significant difference was found in the ovulation rate on day 2 (38/56, 50/64), or in the fertility rate (19/48, 26/57). No negative effect of the treatment was observed with repeated buserelin administration in either study during the breeding season. We can conclude that a single administration of buserelin induces ovulation in the mare, under suitable conditions for veterinary practitioners.

  1. Evaluation of chlorhexidine hydrochloride treatment on endometrial health of normal mares.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Natalie S; Johnson, Aime K; Wilborn, Robyn R; Dujovne, Ghislaine A; Nuehring, Leland

    2017-01-15

    Chlorhexidine gluconate solution is a potent antimicrobial and therefore could be used effectively for treatment of endometritis, but historically this substance has been implicated as irritating to mucous membranes, including the endometrium of the mare. The use of chlorhexidine hydrochloride suspension (Nolvasan Suspension, Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ, USA) was evaluated in the uterus of normal mares to determine if adverse effects on endometrial health were noted. Twelve healthy, adult light breed mares were included in this study. Procedures were approved by the Auburn University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. All mares were determined to be reproductively normal by evaluation of endometrial histopathology, cytology, and bacterial culture. Mares were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups (n = 6 per group). Each mare was treated during estrus with an intrauterine infusion of 1 g (28 mLs per tube; 35.7 mg/mL) of chlorhexidine hydrochloride suspension (treatment group) or an equal volume of lactated ringer's solution (control group) once daily for 3 consecutive days. Biopsy and cytology samples were taken 3, 7, and 14 days after completion of treatment. Cytology and biopsy samples were read by a board-certified pathologist (L.N.) blinded to treatments, and biopsy samples were graded using a standardized Kenney-Doig score. There was no difference with respect to biopsy grade, degree of endometrial fibrosis, or presence of cytologic inflammation comparing control and treatment groups (P = 0.55, 0.7, and 0.06, respectively), neither when accounting for sampling day. The suspension was visible within the uterine lumen when mares were examined with transrectal ultrasonography for up to 4 days after treatment. Treatment with chlorhexidine hydrochloride in this formulation and at this concentration does not appear to have a deleterious effect on short term endometrial health in mares. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. High fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk reduces the toxic effects of mercury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M.; Al-Dekheil, Ali; Babkr, Ali; Farahna, Mohammed; Mousa, Hassan M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Since the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century, we have all been unfortunately exposed to an increasingly toxic and polluted world. Among the most dangerous of these pollutants is mercury, which is considered to be the most toxic non-radioactive heavy metal. Fermented foods may help cleanse the body of heavy metals. Fermentation breaks down the nutrients in foods by the action of beneficial microorganisms and creates natural chelators that are available to bind toxins and remove them from the body. Aims: The current study was designed to determine the impact of feeding a high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk on the biological effects of mercury toxicity in rat model. Methods and Materials: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was prepared and its sensory properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity were determined. A rat model of mercury toxicity was used. The effect of feeding the high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk to rats, along with mercury ingestion, was determined by the analysis of several biochemical markers in serum and histopathological examinations of brain and kidney. Results: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was found to be acceptable by all test panels and volunteers. Mercury ingestion was found to cause biochemical and histopathological alterations in rat serum and tissues. The mercury-treated rats showed a decrease in body weight and an increase in kidney weight. Sera of the mercury treated rats showed alterations in biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes in brain and kidney. However, the rats fed high fiber fermented mare`s milk along with mercury ingestion showed improved histopathology of kidney and brain, and there was restoration of the biochemical parameters in serum to almost normal values. Conclusions: Feeding high fiber fermented mare`s milk may reduce the toxic effects of mercury. PMID:22558569

  3. Analysis of crater distribution in mare units on the lunar far side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. S.; El-Baz, F.

    1982-08-01

    Mare material is asymmetrically distributed on the moon. The earth-facing hemisphere, where the crust is believed to be 26 km thinner than on the farside, contains substantially more basaltic mare material. Using Lunar Topographic Orthophoto Maps, the thickness of the mare material in three farside craters, Aitken (0.59 km), Isaev (1.0 km), and Tsiolkovskiy (1.75 km) was calculated. Crater frequency distribution in five farside mare units (Aitken, Isaev, Lacus Solitudinis, Langemak, and Tsiolkovskiy) and one light plains unit (in Mendeleev) were also studied. Nearly 10,000 farside craters were counted. Analysis of the crater frequency on the light plains unit gives an age of 4.3 billion yr. Crater frequency distributions on the mare units indicate ages of 3.7 and 3.8 billion yr. suggesting that the units are distributed over a narrow time period of approximately 100 million yr. Returned lunar samples from nearside maria give dates as young as 3.1 billion yr. The results of this study suggest that mare basalt emplacement on the far side ceased before it did on the near side.

  4. Analysis of crater distribution in mare units on the lunar far side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, A. S.; El-Baz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Mare material is asymmetrically distributed on the moon. The earth-facing hemisphere, where the crust is believed to be 26 km thinner than on the farside, contains substantially more basaltic mare material. Using Lunar Topographic Orthophoto Maps, the thickness of the mare material in three farside craters, Aitken (0.59 km), Isaev (1.0 km), and Tsiolkovskiy (1.75 km) was calculated. Crater frequency distribution in five farside mare units (Aitken, Isaev, Lacus Solitudinis, Langemak, and Tsiolkovskiy) and one light plains unit (in Mendeleev) were also studied. Nearly 10,000 farside craters were counted. Analysis of the crater frequency on the light plains unit gives an age of 4.3 billion yr. Crater frequency distributions on the mare units indicate ages of 3.7 and 3.8 billion yr. suggesting that the units are distributed over a narrow time period of approximately 100 million yr. Returned lunar samples from nearside maria give dates as young as 3.1 billion yr. The results of this study suggest that mare basalt emplacement on the far side ceased before it did on the near side.

  5. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P < .07) muscle definition (1.8 +/- .6 and 2.5 +/- .6 for 6.25 and 12.5 mg eST/d, respectively) than control mares (.7 +/- .4). Total circulating leukocytes increased (P < .05) in both of the eST-treated groups during the 6-wk injection period, caused by an increase (P < .05) in granulocytes. Lymphocyte numbers were not altered. Granulocyte oxidative burst activity was not altered by eST treatment. Although lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, or lipopolysaccharide were not altered during the treatment period, lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen increased twofold in eST-treated horses at 2 wk after eST treatment. In overview, the increased musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares.

  6. Analysis of crater distribution in mare units on the lunar far side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, A. S.; El-Baz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Mare material is asymmetrically distributed on the moon. The earth-facing hemisphere, where the crust is believed to be 26 km thinner than on the farside, contains substantially more basaltic mare material. Using Lunar Topographic Orthophoto Maps, the thickness of the mare material in three farside craters, Aitken (0.59 km), Isaev (1.0 km), and Tsiolkovskiy (1.75 km) was calculated. Crater frequency distribution in five farside mare units (Aitken, Isaev, Lacus Solitudinis, Langemak, and Tsiolkovskiy) and one light plains unit (in Mendeleev) were also studied. Nearly 10,000 farside craters were counted. Analysis of the crater frequency on the light plains unit gives an age of 4.3 billion yr. Crater frequency distributions on the mare units indicate ages of 3.7 and 3.8 billion yr. suggesting that the units are distributed over a narrow time period of approximately 100 million yr. Returned lunar samples from nearside maria give dates as young as 3.1 billion yr. The results of this study suggest that mare basalt emplacement on the far side ceased before it did on the near side.

  7. Effect of ovarian hormones on promotion of bactericidal activity by uterine secretions of ovariectomized mares.

    PubMed

    Watson, E D; Stokes, C R; David, J S; Bourne, F J

    1987-03-01

    The bactericidal and phagocytic activities of blood neutrophils suspended in uterine washings and the mobilization of neutrophils into the uterine lumen were studied in ovariectomized mares receiving oestradiol benzoate (N = 4), progesterone (N = 4) or oily vehicle (N = 4). Uterine lavage was performed sequentially up to 144 h after induction of endometritis by intrauterine infusion of glycogen (1%). There was no significant difference between the 3 groups in speed of mobilization of neutrophils into the uterus in the first 6 h after infusion but there were significantly more uterine luminal neutrophils in progesterone-treated than in oestradiol-treated mares by 24 h after infusion (P less than 0.01). Uterine washings collected from progesterone-treated mares at 0, 24 and 144 h were significantly worse at promoting bactericidal activity by neutrophils than washings from oestradiol-treated and control mares (P less than 0.001). In oestrogen-treated and control mares bactericidal activity had increased by 144 h but in progesterone-treated mares bactericidal activity remained low. Neither treatment nor time affected the ability of washings to opsonize yeast blastospores. Elevated concentrations of progesterone in plasma were therefore associated with decreased bactericidal activity of neutrophils suspended in uterine washings but the generation of C3b in washings did not appear to be affected by hormone treatment.

  8. Analysis of several factors of variation of gestation loss in breeding mares.

    PubMed

    Langlois, B; Blouin, C; Chaffaux, S

    2012-12-01

    The files for ultrasound diagnosis of gestating mares belonging to the French equine herd recorded for 3 consecutive years were joined with the files for foal birth of these same mares, allowing the statistical analysis of factors of pregnancy loss. For 28 872 positive diagnoses of gestation, 2898 losses were recorded, that is, a global rate of gestation interruption of 9.12%. The etiology of these interruptions is mainly extrinsic: the year and month of insemination, as well as region for climatic reasons. The intrinsic causes that are implicated are breed of the father (heavy breeds except the hypermetric ones lose fewer pregnancies than warm-blooded breeds), age of the mother (losses are lower in mares of 7 to 10 years of age) and status (mares with foals have fewer pregnancy losses than mares not having foaled the previous year), as well as fetuses with consanguinity (when this increases, the pregnancy losses increase as well). However, the additive genetic effect is extremely low; it corresponds to heritability below 5% and few effects of the environment, common to the offspring of the same mare, were identified. This therefore gives little hope of being able to select against the 'gestation loss' trait.

  9. Magma source transition of lunar mare volcanism at 2.3 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shinsuke; Morota, Tomokatsu; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Watanabe, Sei-Ichiro; Otake, Hisashi; Ohtake, Makiko

    2017-09-01

    Mare basalts provide insights into the composition and thermal history of the lunar mantle. The ages of mare basalts suggest a first peak of magma activity at 3.2-3.8 Ga and a second peak at 2 Ga. In this study, we reassess the correlation between the titanium contents and the eruption ages of mare basalt units using the compositional and chronological data updated by SELENE (Kaguya). Using morphological and geological criteria, we calculated the titanium content of 261 mare units across a representative area of each mare unit. In the Procellarum KREEP Terrane, where the latest eruptions are located, an increase in the mean titanium content is observed during the Eratosthenian period, as reported by previous studies. We found that the increase in the mean titanium content occurred within a relatively short period near approximately 2.3 Ga, suggesting that the magma source of the mare basalts changed at this particular age. Moreover, the high-titanium basaltic eruptions are correlated with a second peak in volcanic activity near 2 Ga. The high-titanium basaltic eruptions occurring during the last volcanic activity period can be explained by the three possible scenarios (1) the ilmenite-bearing cumulate rich layer in the core-mantle boundary formed after the mantle overturn, (2) the basaltic material layers beneath the lunar crust formed through upwelling magmas, and (3) ilmenite-bearing cumulate blocks remained in the upper mantle after the mantle overturn.

  10. Fertility, ovulation and maturation of eggs in mares injected with HCG.

    PubMed

    Webel, S K; Franklin, V; Harland, B; Dziuk, P J

    1977-11-01

    Pony mares were observed from January to August for incidence of oestrus, duration of oestrus, length of the oestrous cycle and for ovulation and fertility after injection of HCG. From January to 15 May most mares showed oestrus but the duration of oestrus was quite variable and few mares ovulated in response to HCG. From 15 May to 17 August oestrous cycles were more regular and ovulation was induced within 40-50 h by an intramuscular injection of 1500-5000 i.u. HCG. Pregnancy was established by one mating at a fixed time after HCG in 20 of 69 mares. Degenerate eggs were recovered from the oviducts of anoestrous recently ovulated, mated, unmated and pregnant mares. The first polar body was formed before ovulation in 2 eggs and had not formed in 2 recently ovulated eggs flushed from the oviduct. The second polar body formed after sperm penetration 10-12 h after ovulation. After formation of pronuclei, the first cleavage division occurred at 20 h and the second at 32 h after ovulation. Oestrus was inhibited by progesterone administered by vaginal devices but occurred within 1-3 days in 12 of the 20 mares after withdrawal of the devices.

  11. Stratigraphy and structural evolution of southern Mare Serenitatis - A reinterpretation based on Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Head, J. W., III

    1983-01-01

    Two subsurface reflecting horizons have been detected by the Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment (ALSE) in the southern Mare Serenitatis which appear to be regolith layers more than 2 m thick, and are correlated with major stratigraphic boundaries in the southeastern Mare Serenitatis. The present stratigraphic boundaries in the southeastern Mare Serenitatis. The present analysis implies that the lower horizon represents the interface between the earliest mare unit and the modified Serenitatis basin material below. The depth of volcanic fill within Serenitatis is highly variable, with an average thickness of mare basalts under the ALSE ground track of 1.6 km. Comparisons with the Orientale basin topography suggests that a major increaae in load thickness could occur a few km basinward of the innermost extent of the traverse. The history of volcanic infilling of Mare Serenitatis was characterized by three major episodes of volcanism.

  12. An "Ideal" Home for Care: Nel Noddings, Thomas Hill Green, and an Ontological Support for a Phenomenology of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decoste, Jordan; Boyd, Dwight

    2009-01-01

    This paper is grounded in a deep appreciation of Nel Noddings' "ethics of care" as an important contribution to moral philosophy and moral education. We seek to offer some philosophical reflections that have the potential to strengthen this important alternative to mainstream ethics and to how moral education might be conceived and practiced…

  13. Oscillatory Thermochemical Convection as a Cause for the Episodic Mare Basalt Volcanism in the PKT Region of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.; Zhong, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon possesses a number of hemispheric asymmetries including crustal thickness and mare basalt volcanism. Lunar mare volcanism, which lasted from about 4.0 to 1.5 Ga and occurred mostly on the nearside, is crucial in understanding the evolutionary history of the Moon. Recently, we analyzed the mare basalt age distribution for major mare basins, based on the latest mare basalt dating results from the crater size-frequency distribution measurements. Our analysis shows that most mare basalt eruptions are peaked at ~3.6 Ga and end at ~2.8 Ga, while mares Oceanus Procellarum, Imbrium, and Insularum in the Procelluram KREEP Terrane (PKT) feature episodic volcanism with reducing activities in the late stage. In this study, we propose that the episodic mare basalt volcanism is caused by oscillatory thermochemical convection, and has a strong correlation with the KREEP-enriched PKT. We formulate 3-D spherical thermochemical mantle convection models to investigate the genesis of episodic mare volcanism in one hemisphere, and the role of PKT in inducing and maintaining mare eruptions within its region. A MIC (mixture of ilmenite-rich cumulates and olivine-pyroxene) layer, which is rich in radiogenic elements and has a larger intrinsic density than the ambient mantle, is proposed to be the mare basalt source material. MIC is heated up due to radiogenic heating to become thermally buoyant and rise to the mare basalt source region, causing melting. When the heat is released to the extent that MIC becomes negatively buoyant, MIC sinks back to depth. Such a process may occur repetitively, causing episodic volcanism. On the other hand, the heating from KREEP materials in the PKT may maintain a high temperature anomaly in the nearside mantle that favors very long wavelength (i.e., degree 1) upwellings in the PKT region. This process may control the long-term evolution of the lunar interior and have implication for the present-day lunar mantle structure and dynamics.

  14. Sex ratio of equine offspring is affected by the ages of the mare and stallion.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marianna Machado; Maia, Leonardo Lara; Nobre, Daniel Magalhães; Oliveira Neto, José Ferraz; Garcia, Tiago Rezende; Lage, Maria Coeli Gomes Reis; de Melo, Maria Isabel Vaz; Viana, Walmir Santos; Palhares, Maristela Silveira; da Silva Filho, José Monteiro; Santos, Renato Lima; Valle, Guilherme Ribeiro

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of parental age on the sex ratio of offspring in horses. Two trials were performed. In the first trial, the data from a randomly obtained population with a 1:1 sex ratio of 59,950 Mangalarga Marchador horses born in Brazil from 1990 to 2011 were analyzed. The sex ratios of the offspring were compared among groups according to the mare and the stallion ages (from 3 to 25 years). In the first step of the analysis, the mares and stallions were grouped according to age in 5-year intervals. In the second step, the groups were based on the parental age gap at conception. In the third step, the group of the mares and stallions with similar ages from the second step was subdivided, and the different parental age subgroups that were divided into 5-year intervals were compared. In the fourth step, the sex ratio of the offspring was determined according to the ages of the mares and the stallions at conception. The second trial was based on the data from 253 horses of several breeds that were born after natural gestation into a herd from 1989 to 2010, and the offspring of groups that were younger or older than 15 years were compared. The data from both trials were analyzed using a chi-square test (P ≤ 0.01 for the first trial; and P ≤ 0.05 for the second trial) for the comparisons of the sex ratios. In the first trial, the Spearman test (P ≤ 0.01) was used to verify the correlations between the parental age and the offspring sex ratio. In the first trial, the offspring sex ratio decreased as the mare or stallion age increased, and the decrease was more marked for the mares than for the stallions. In the second trial, the mares older than 15 years had more fillies than the younger mares, but the stallion age had no effect on the sex of the offspring. The first trial, with a large number of horses, revealed the pattern of the distribution of the sex ratios of offspring according to the parental age in horses, whereas the

  15. Deep-Seated Reverse Faults in Mare Crisium, the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczak, C.; Byrne, P. K.; McGovern, P. J., Jr.; Mazarico, E.; James, P. B.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Mare Crisium partially fills a Nectarian basin 556×455 km in diameter on the lunar nearside, one of several such basins associated with a mass concentration or "mascon." The basin's interior topography is dominated by an elevated, circumferential bench that extends inward from the perimeter by ~20% of the basin's radius. A set of wrinkle ridges, landforms that are interpreted as folds over reverse faults that may be blind or surface breaking, lies along the inner edge of this bench. With the elastic dislocation program COULOMB we matched model solutions for surface displacements to topographic profiles across five of these wrinkle ridges. We find that the faults underlying the ridges each accumulated substantial along-slip displacement (c. 0.5-1.5 km) and, despite differences in geometry (some faults are planar whereas others are listric), they all penetrate the lunar lithosphere to depths of 18-20 km. Notably, the wrinkle ridges that follow the inner edge of the elevated bench are spatially coincident with the outer boundary of the highest free-air gravity anomaly values for the Crisium mascon returned by the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. Further, a GRAIL-derived crustal thickness model of the basin indicates that the subsurface geometry of the deep-seated faults bears a strong resemblance to the shape of the crust-mantle boundary beneath Crisium. The basin's mascon, therefore, appears to be structurally bound by a set of individual features that together define a shallowly and outward-dipping reverse ring-fault system. TEKTON finite-element models of lithospheric loading within the basin suggest that the combined action of a subsiding superisostatic mantle plug and a rising subisostatic collar of thickened crust produce a stress state consistent with the orientation of, and sense of displacement along, these ring faults. Importantly, Crisium is not the only lunar mare-filled basin that hosts both a mascon and a topographic bench

  16. Some volcanic and structural features of Mare Serenitatis. [as determined by low angle lighting in Apollo 17 photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, W. B.; Adams, M.

    1973-01-01

    Relationships between volcanic and structural features along the southern edge of Mare Serenitatis as determined from low angle lighting in Apollo 17 photographs are discussed. Observational summaries are given of: (1) contact relations between the dark border material and the central mare fill, (2) a late stage lava flow with associated cinder cones, and (3) certain structural features related to the development of the mare basin and its associated volcanic landforms. A chronologic summary is given of volcanic and structural events believed to be critical to understanding the development of Mare Serenitatis.

  17. Comparative efficacy of BioRelease Deslorelin® injection for induction of ovulation in oestrus mares: a field study.

    PubMed

    Finan, S A; Lamkin, E L; McKinnon, A O

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the comparative efficacy of BioRelease Deslorelin® (BRD) and Ovuplant® for induction of ovulation in cyclic mares in Australia. Ovarian follicular activity of 60 mares for a total of 95 cycles was monitored by ultrasonography until they developed a follicle ≥30 mm and a uterine oedema pattern of 3. Mares were then randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: (1) treatment with 1.25 mg BRD, (2) a single Ovuplant pellet or (3) 1 mL compound sodium lactate control. Follicular activity was monitored with ultrasonography every 12 h until ovulation was detected or for at least 5 days post treatment. The injection site on each mare was monitored for reaction for a minimum of 5 days post treatment. There was no difference in the percentage of mares ovulating within 48 h when treated with BRD (93.75%) compared with Ovuplant (87.09%). Treatment with both ovulating agents significantly decreased the time to ovulation compared with control mares (P < 0.00005). More mares had injection site reactions with Ovuplant (64.5%) treatment compared with BRD (15.6%) or control mares (0%) (P < 0.00005). Treatment of mares with 1.25 mg BRD when there is a follicle ≥30 mm and uterine oedema pattern of 3 is as effective as treatment with Ovuplant. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Effects of ovarian input on GnRH and LH secretion immediately postovulation in pony mares.

    PubMed

    Greaves, H E; Kalariotes, V; Cleaver, B D; Porter, M B; Sharp, D C

    2001-03-15

    The potential involvement of ovarian factors in regulating GnRH and LH postovulation was studied in ovarian intact (Group 1; n=3) and ovariectomized (OVX; Group 2; n=3) mares (OVX within 12 hr of ovulation). Blood samples were collected every 10 min for 6 hr from jugular vein (JV) and intercavernous sinus (ICS) during estrus and on Day 8 postovulation for LH and GnRH analysis. Additionally, JV samples were collected twice daily (12-hr intervals) for 30 days for LH and progesterone (P4) analysis. A significant treatment x day effect (P<0.0001) describes declining plasma LH concentrations in intact mares, and regression analysis indicated that response curves were not parallel (P<0.001). Plasma LH concentrations remained elevated in OVX mares. LH increased further in OVX mares by Day 8 post-OVX (P<0.06), reflecting the increased (P<0.07) LH episode amplitude. GnRH decreased from estrus to Day 8 in both groups reflecting an effect of sampling period (P<0.03). GnRH episode amplitude declined (P<0.08) from estrus (62.8+/-3.1 pg/mL) to Day 8 (46.3+/-3.1 pg/mL) in OVX mares, but not in control mares (intact estrus, 36.5+/-6.4; intact Day 8, 37.5+/-7.3; OVX estrus, 62.8+/-3.1; OVX Day 8, 46.3+/-3.1 pg/mL). In conclusion, we propose that postovulatory LH decline requires ovarian feedback in mares, and that OVX alters GnRH secretory dynamics such that LH concentrations does not decline postovulation and, in fact, is further elevated with time after OVX.

  19. Effects of Intrauterine Devices in Mares: A Histomorphological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of the Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Klein, V; Müller, K; Schoon, H A; Reilas, T; Rivera del Alamo, M M; Katila, T

    2016-02-01

    Oestrous suppression by intrauterine devices (IUDs) is caused by prolongation of luteal function, but the biological mechanism is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate mechanisms which could explain the action of IUDs. Thirty mares were age-matched and either inseminated (AI, n = 15) or fitted with an IUD (IUD, n = 15) and subsequently divided into four groups: AI-P, pregnant (n = 8); AI-N, non-pregnant (n = 7); IUD-P, prolonged luteal phase (n = 7); and IUD-N, normal luteal phase (n = 8). The median ages were 5.5 and 7 years in AI-P and IUD-P groups and 14 and 11 years in AI-N and IUD-N groups, respectively. On Day 15 after ovulation, an endometrial biopsy was obtained to study histomorphological and immunohistochemical expression patterns of uterine proteins (uteroferrin, UF; uterocalin, UC; uteroglobin, UG), oestrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR), proliferation marker Ki-67 and content of inflammatory cells. Expression of UF was higher in IUD mares; the difference between pregnant and IUD-P mares was significant. Mares exhibiting a prolonged luteal phase (AI-P, IUD-P) showed only mild angiosclerosis and lower expression of both ER and PR than mares with a normal luteal phase (AI-N, IUD-N). No significant differences were detected in the numbers of inflammatory cells, with the exception of macrophages, which were more numerous in AI-P than AI-N mares. Although inflammatory cells were not detected in IUD mares, increased UF levels may indicate chronic inflammation. Young age and normality of the endometrial blood vessels may improve the efficacy of IUDs. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Elevated plasma testosterone concentrations during stallion-like sexual behavior in mares (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Gastal, M O; Gastal, E L; Beg, M A; Ginther, O J

    2007-08-01

    Mounting interactions in mares isolated from stallions and the relationship to stage of the estrous cycle and level of circulating hormones were studied for 3 years in a herd averaging 105 mares. Mares were assigned to mounting, standing, and control groups. A control mare was selected by being within 1 day of the number of days after ovulation in a mounting mare. A total of 15 mounting interactions were detected by chance observation during the 3 years. A blood sample was collected immediately after the mounting interaction from each mare in the three groups, and a transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the reproductive tract was done. Two mounting interactions occurred during the early luteal phase and 13 during the follicular phase. The interactions that occurred during the follicular phase were used for comparisons among groups. The interval between mounting and the next ovulation, diameter of the two largest follicles, and the number of follicles larger and smaller than 20 mm were not different significantly among the mounting, standing, and control groups. Testosterone concentrations were higher (P<0.01) in the mounting group (17.7+/-2.3 pg/ml) than in standing group (10.9+/-0.5 pg/ml), and the difference between the mounting group and the control group (12.8+/-0.6 pg/ml) approached significance (P<0.08). Concentrations of androstenedione, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone did not differ significantly among groups. Results indicated that mounting behavior between mares is rare, usually occurs during the follicular phase, and is related to high circulating concentrations of testosterone.

  1. Luteogenic and luteotropic effects of eCG during pregnancy in the mare.

    PubMed

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2012-01-01

    The role of eCG during pregnancy was evaluated through the study of the temporal relationships between changes in eCG and progesterone concentrations and the formation of supplementary corpora lutea (SCL) in mares impregnated with donkey semen (mule pregnancies) or with horse semen (equine pregnancies). Concentrations of eCG were higher (p<0.01) in equine than in mule pregnancies between weeks 6.5 and 13. Progesterone concentrations were higher in equine than in mule pregnancies between weeks 9 and 17. All animals developed at least one SCL, but more SCL accumulated during equine pregnancies than during mule pregnancies (1.9 ± 0.2 vs 1.2 ± 0.1; p<0.01). In equine pregnancies, the mares that formed a second SCL had higher eCG concentrations (p<0.05) during the two weeks preceding its formation than those mares remaining with only one SCL. Mares that formed a third SCL had higher (p<0.5) eCG levels than those remaining with one or two SCL. Mares with equine pregnancies that formed three SCL had higher progesterone concentrations (p<0.05) than those that formed only one or two SCL. No differences were found in progesterone or eCG concentrations between mares with mule pregnancies that accumulated different numbers of SCL during pregnancy (p>0.05). It is concluded that eCG stimulates both the development of new SCL and the function of existing CL. While these effects are clearly expressed in mares impregnated by horses, the low eCG concentrations during mule pregnancies reduce the impact of this hormone on CL formation and function. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Outbreak of Abortions and Infertility in Thoroughbred Mares Associated with Waterborne Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Singh, B R; Gulati, B R; Virmani, Nitin; Chauhan, Mamta

    2011-06-01

    At a thoroughbred equine breeding farm near Hissar (Haryana), three mares aborted in their seventh month of pregnancy. The vaginal swabs of all aborted mares, and stomach contents, heart blood, liver, spleen and placenta of aborted fetuses yielded pure culture of Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, A. hydrophila was also isolated from the vaginal swabs of three repeat breeding mares and faecal sample of a diarrheic foal. The source of infection was possibly water supply as all the water samples collected from taps, mother tank and storage tank were found to be positive for A. hydrophila. The antibiogram of all the isolates was similar showing resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin and amikacin but sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cotrimoxazole, cotrimazine, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin and tetracycline. All the 20 sera samples collected from three aborted and three repeat breeding, and eight in-contact mares, a diarrheic foal, three cows and two male buffaloes maintained at the same farm contained antibodies against A. hydrophila with titres ranging from 80 to 640. The water supply was instantly chlorinated using 0.05% sodium hypochlorite for three consecutive days and all the culturally positive mares were treated with intravaginal administration of 1 g ciprofloxacin, while the foal was given nitrofurantoin for three days. After one month, A. hydrophila could not be isolated either from mares or from their environment and antibody titre in all the seropositive animals showed a declining trend. Later, all the aborted and repeat breeding mares were confirmed to be pregnant. Thus, the present study indicated that water-borne A. hydrophila might be associated with equine abortions and infertility, and diarrhea in newborn foals.

  3. Relationship between the latest activity of mare volcanism and topographic features of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shinsuke; Morota, Tomokatsu; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Otake, Hisashi; Ohtake, Makiko

    2016-04-01

    Lunar mare basalts provide insights into compositions and thermal history of lunar mantle. According to crater counting analysis with remote sensing data, the model ages of mare basalt units indicate a second peak of magma activity at the end of mare volcanism (~2 Ga), and the latest eruptions were limited in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), which has high abundances of heat-producing elements. In order to understand the mechanism for causing the second peak and its magma source, we examined the correlation between the titanium contents and eruption ages of mare basalt units using compositional and chronological data updated by SELENE/Kaguya. Although no systematic relationship is observed globally, a rapid increase in mean titanium (Ti) content occurred at 2.3 Ga in the PKT, suggesting that the magma source of mare basalts changed at that time. The high-Ti basaltic eruption, which occurred at the late stage of mare volcanism, can be correlated with the second peak of volcanic activity at ~2 Ga. The latest volcanic activity can be explained by a high-Ti hot plume originated from the core-mantle boundary. If the hot plume was occurred, the topographic features formed by the hot plume may be remained. We calculated the difference between topography and selenoid and found the circular feature like a plateau in the center of the PKT, which scale is ~1000 km horizontal and ~500 m vertical. We investigated the timing of ridge formation in the PKT by using stratigraphic relationship between mare basalts and ridges. The ridges were formed before and after the high-Ti basaltic eruptions and seem to be along with the plateau. These results suggest that the plateau formation is connected with the high-Ti basaltic eruptions.

  4. The Front-End System For MARE In Milano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, Claudio; Pessina, Gianluigi

    2009-12-01

    The first phase of MARE consists of 72 μ-bolometers composed each of a crystal of AgReO4 readout by Si thermistors. The spread in the thermistor characteristics and bolometer thermal coupling leads to different energy conversion gains and optimum operating points of the detectors. Detector biasing levels and voltage gains are completely remote-adjustable by the front end system developed, the subject of this paper, achieving the same signal range at the input of the DAQ system. The front end consists of a cold buffer stage, a second pseudo differential stage followed by a gain stage, an antialiasing filter, and a battery powered detector biasing set up. The DAQ system can be used to set all necessary parameters of the electronics remotely, by writing to a μ-controller located on each board. Fiber optics are used for the serial communication between the DAQ and the front end. To suppress interference noise during normal operation, the clocked devices of the front end are maintained in sleep-mode, except during the set-up phase of the experiment. An automatic DC detector characterization procedure is used to establish the optimum operating point of every detector of the array. A very low noise level has been achieved: about 3nV/□Hz at 1 Hz and 1 nV/□Hz for the white component, high frequencies.

  5. Mars at Ls 93o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    22 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurred in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Location near: 86.1oN, 208.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  6. Mars at Ls 193o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 April 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 193o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 193o occurs in mid-April 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Location near: 47.3oN, 294.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  7. Mars at Ls 93o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    22 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurred in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Location near: 86.1oN, 208.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  8. Detailed study of the Mare Crisium northern magnetic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, S. M.; Kim, K. H.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Jin, H.

    2016-12-01

    Low-altitude Lunar Prospector Magnetometer (LP-MAG) data for Mare Crisium show two magnetic anomalies near its inner northern and southern edges. Because these features are located inside a basin, they were likely formed by slow cooling of the basin's melt, instead of by any impact-related shock magnetization process. Therefore, they are important for assessing the nature of the ancient dynamo field that produced them. In this study we confine our attention to the simpler northern anomaly (CNA) and use low altitude ( 22 km) LP data to model its source body as a dipole and magnetized disks of different radii. We infer that the source is likely located 30-40 km from the surface and horizontally localized within a small (< 1° or < 30 km radius). The surface field intensity calculated from the best-fit dipole is in good agreement with that obtained from LP Electron Reflectometer (LP-ER) data. Our magnetization directions are substantially different from two previous studies, largely due to using lower altitude data to perform our inversions. We also find a surprising sensitivity to small changes in source body latitude. The magnetic paleopoles implied by our best-fit models are distant from previous estimates by up to 50° of great circle arc, and are substantially distant from the Moon's present pole. Our results demonstrate how multiple altitude datasets must be used when estimating paleopoles and other properties of even the simplest of the Moon's magnetic anomalies.

  9. The consanguinity of the oldest Apollo 11 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. P.; Coish, R. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    The textural, mineralogical, and chemical relationships between three of the oldest dates lunar mare basalt samples returned by Apollo 11 (10003, 10029 and 10062) were investigated. Very strong resemblances were noted between the modal minerologies of 10003 and 10029. Significantly more modal olivine and cristobalite was observed in 10062 than in the other basalt samples. A detailed examination of mineral-chemical relationships among the samples revealed similarities between 10003 and 10062 and differences between these two rocks and 10029, the most significant of which is the presence of akaganeite in 10029, implying that lawrencite was present in the pristine sample of 10029 but not in 10003 and 10062. Results of a Wright-Doherty mixing program used to test various fractional crystallization schemes show that 10062 can be derived from a liquid with the composition of either 10003 or 10029 by removing 2-5% ilmenite and 5% olivine. By removing about 6% plagioclase, 10003 can be derived from a liquid with the bulk composition of 10062. It is concluded that 10003 and 10029 may have come from different basaltic flows, whereas it is possible that 10003 and 10062 were derived from the same parental magma by near-surface fractionation of olivine plus ilmenite or of plagioclase plus or minus olivine.

  10. Investigations on the endometrial response to intrauterine administration of N-acetylcysteine in oestrous mares.

    PubMed

    Melkus, E; Witte, T; Walter, I; Heuwieser, W; Aurich, C

    2013-08-01

    In mares, mating-induced persistent endometritis contributes to low fertility. The condition is in part related to delayed clearance of mucus accumulated within the uterine lumen. The objective of this study was to investigate the endometrial response of healthy mares to intrauterine (i.u.) treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Oestrous mares (n = 12) were randomly assigned to a treatment (TM) or control (C) group and received an i.u. infusion of 5% NAC and saline (total volume 140 ml), respectively. Endometrial biopsies were collected in five of the mares 24 h after treatment, in the remaining seven mares 72 h after treatment. Endometrial biopsies were evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). The integrity of endometrial epithelial cells was not affected by treatment (no statistical differences between groups or times). At 24 h after treatment, the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies from NAC- and C-mares did not differ, but at 72 h after treatment, number of PMN was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in C (3.9 ± 0.6 PMN/field) compared with NAC-treated mares (2.3 ± 0.2 PMN/field). At 72 h after treatment, the intensity of staining for COX2 was significantly higher after saline than after NAC treatment (p < 0.05). In the epithelium, no differences in staining for the proliferation marker Ki-67 were seen with respect to time and treatment. Score for the lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was slightly higher in NAC-treated mares than in C-mares 72 h after treatment (p < 0.05). Score for PAS staining of mucus in deep uterine glands differed significantly between groups at 24 h after treatment (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that NAC does not adversely affect the endometrial function. Moreover, an anti-inflammatory effect on the equine endometrium was

  11. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface: IV. Deconvolution of the mare imbrium, aristarchus, and adjacent regions

    SciTech Connect

    Etchegaray-Ramirez, M.I.; Metzger, A.E.; Haines, E.L.; Hawke, B.R.

    1983-02-15

    The distribution of Th over the Mare Imbrium and northern Oceanus Procellarum portions of the Apollo 15 lunar ground track has been modeled by deconvolving several fields of orbital gamma ray spectroscopy data. Including a prior study of the Apenninus region, a continuous swath from 10/sup 0/E to 60/sup 0/W in the northwest quadrant has now been analyzed. In the Aristarchus region, the crater dominates the Th distribution with a concentration of 20 ppm. Other enhancements are seen on the Aristarchus Plateau and south of the plateau. The concentration across the Aristarchus Plateau is not uniform. The average Th concentration in Oceanus Procellarum is less to the west than to the east of the Aristarchus Plateau. Substantial enhancements are found in mare regions around Brayley, and at the ejecta blankets of Timocharis and Lambert. Th in the Eratosthenian mare regions is generally low with one notable exception lying rouhgly between the craters Euler and Carlini. The existence of enhanced Th concentrations in mare basalt regions suggests that reservoirs of some late stage mare basalts incorporated KREEP-rich material during formation or transit.

  12. Investigation of Neospora sp. antibodies in aborted mares from Normandy, France.

    PubMed

    Pitel, Pierre-Hugues; Romand, Stéphane; Pronost, Stéphane; Foucher, Nathalie; Gargala, Gilles; Maillard, Karine; Thulliez, Philippe; Collobert-Laugier, Claire; Tainturier, Daniel; Fortier, Guillaume; Ballet, Jean Jacques

    2003-12-01

    Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle while limited information is presently available on association between equine Neospora infections and abortions. The aim of the present study was to document prevalence of antibodies against Neospora sp. in aborted mares as a clue to the role of N. caninum in mare reproductive failure in Normandy, France. Using an agglutination test, the number of animals with elevated (>80) anti-Neospora sp. antibody titer was higher in a group of 54 aborted mares than in randomly chosen groups of 45 mares and 76 horses sampled for equine arteritis virus and Fasciola hepatica antibodies, respectively (P<0.001). N. caninum DNA was found in 3/91 fetal brains, 2/77 fetal hearts, and 1/1 placenta, and present in both brains and hearts of two fetuses. In 13 cases for which both mare serum and fetus were available, no fetal N. caninum amplification product was present while a large variation of maternal antibody titers was found. Data prompt at additional surveys of association between equine reproductive failure and Neospora sp. infection.

  13. A novel strategy of mesenchymal stem cells delivery in the uterus of mares with endometrosis.

    PubMed

    Mambelli, L I; Winter, G H Z; Kerkis, A; Malschitzky, E; Mattos, R C; Kerkis, I

    2013-03-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), because of their immunomodulation and trophic activities, in addition to their capacity to regenerate damaged tissues, have potential for treatment of many diseases. The success of stem cell therapies depends, in part, on the method of cell delivery, which should provide wide cell distribution and homing in to injured sites. The objective of the present study was to developing a novel strategy for delivery of MSCs into the uterus of mares with endometrosis (degenerative alteration of uterine glands and surrounding stroma). Endometrosis was confirmed in all mares (N = 6) used in this study. To trace multipotent equine adipose tissue-derived MSCs (eAT-MSCs) in endometrial tissue, before transplantation, cells were stained with a fluorescent dye. During a synchronized estrus, the eAT-MSCs (2 × 10(7) diluted in 20 mL of sodium chloride 0.9%) were inoculated into uterus using a simple technique, similar to artificial insemination (AI) in mares. At 7 and 21 days after transplantation, homing of fluorescently labeled eAT-MSCs was observed by confocal microscopy of uterine biopsies collected from the uterine body and in both uterine horns, including glandular and periglandular spaces, in three of four treated mares. Herein, we propose a new method of MSCs delivery in uterus of mares with endometrosis, which was minimally invasive and technically simple.

  14. Equine amnionitis and fetal loss: mare abortion following experimental exposure to Processionary caterpillars (Ochrogaster lunifer).

    PubMed

    Cawdell-Smith, A J; Todhunter, K H; Anderson, S T; Perkins, N R; Bryden, W L

    2012-05-01

    In Australia, there have been recent reports of unusual abortions in mid- to late-gestation mares. These were clinically distinct from other recognised causes of pregnancy loss and the term 'equine amnionitis and fetal loss' (EAFL) was adopted to describe this syndrome. Initial investigations concluded that possible causal factors included the presence on affected stud farms of Processionary caterpillars (Ochrogaster lunifer). To determine if exposure of pregnant mares to Processionary caterpillars or their shed exoskeletons can induce EAFL. Processionary caterpillars and their shed exoskeletons were collected and stored frozen. Mid-gestation mares were dosed with a slurry of caterpillars or shed exoskeleton by nasogastric intubation. Their clinical responses and times to abortion were recorded. All aborted fetuses were autopsied and samples taken for bacteriological and virological culture and histopathology. Intubating mares in mid-pregnancy with preparations of either whole Processionary caterpillars or shed caterpillar exoskeletons induced abortion with few impending clinical signs. The gross pathological and bacteriological findings of the aborted fetuses were similar to those observed in field cases of EAFL. Possible exposure to Processionary caterpillars should be considered when examining cases of fetal loss in the mare. The present results provide a starting point to further explore the aetiology and pathogenesis of EAFL. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Feeding and drinking behavior of mares and foals with free access to pasture and water.

    PubMed

    Crowell-Davis, S L; Houpt, K A; Carnevale, J

    1985-04-01

    The feeding and drinking behavior of 11 mares and 15 foals living on pasture with free access to water was recorded during 2,340 15-min focal samples taken over 2 yr. Lactating mares on pasture spent about 70% of the day feeding. Foals began feeding on their first day of life. As they grew older, they spent progressively more time feeding, but still spent only 47 +/- 6% of the time feeding by 21 wk of age. Foals fed primarily during the early morning and evening. While grass formed the major proportion of the diet of both foals and mares, they also ate clay, humus, feces, bark, leaves and twigs. Almost all feeding by foals was done while their mothers were feeding. Movement to water sources was frequently, but not invariably, carried out by an entire herd. Frequency (P = .005) but not duration (P greater than .05) of drinking bouts by mares increased as the temperature increased. Frequency was greatest at 30 to 35 C, at which temperature mares drank once every 1.8 h. Frequency of drinking varied with the time of day (P less than .01), being rarest during the early morning (0500 to 0900 h eastern daylight time) and most frequent during the afternoon (1300 to 1700 h). Drinking by foals was very rare. The youngest age at which a foal was observed to drink was 3 wk, and 8 of 15 foals were never observed to drink before weaning.

  16. Immunoreactivity of lactic acid-treated mare's milk after simulated digestion.

    PubMed

    Fotschki, Joanna; Szyc, Anna; Wróblewska, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    The similarity of mare's milk to breast milk makes it an interesting substrate for the creation of dairy beverages. The aim of this study was to determine the immunoreactivity of the digested mare's milk products carried out by lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei LCY, Streptococcus thermophilus MK10 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bi30. Simulation of digestion with saliva, pepsin and pancreatin/bile salts was carried out. The immunoreactivity of the milk proteins was assessed by competitive ELISA. The separation of proteins was studied using a tricine SDS-PAGE method. It has been demonstrated that lactic acid fermentation significantly decreases the immunoreactivity of β-lactoglobulin, β-casein, κ-casein and bovine serum albumin. The level of reduction was connected to the type of bacterial strain. The simulated digestion processes caused the decline of immunoreactivity, and the decreases obtained in the experiment were as follows: lactoferrin: 95%, β-lactoglobulin: 94%, β-casein: 93%, α-lactalbumin: 82%, α-casein: 82%, bovine serum albumin: 76% and κ-casein: 37%. The results of the study indicated that microbial fermentation with tested strains is a valuable method for reducing the immunoreactivity of mare's milk proteins. However, further studies with other bacterial strains are needed to gain a higher level of elimination or total reduction of mare's milk immunoreactivity to possibly introduce fermented mare's milk into the diet of patients with immune-mediated digestive problems.

  17. Titan Submarine: Exploring The Depths of Kraken Mare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I for 2014. The effort investigated what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon approximately 93 Kelvin (-180 degrees Centigrade) seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (approximately100 kilograms) it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive and exciting science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare The submerged science includes mapping using side looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the sea at all depths, as well as sampling of the sea's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 kilometers inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (approximately 2047) to allow for continuous lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth (DTE) communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid/sediment/chemical interactions. An estimated 25 megabits of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system. This paper discusses the results of Phase I as well as the plans for Phase II.

  18. Detailed study of the Mare Crisium northern magnetic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seul-Min; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Jin, Ho; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Jung-Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Low-altitude Lunar Prospector (LP) magnetometer data for Mare Crisium show two magnetic anomalies near its inner northern and southern edges. Because these features are located inside a basin, they were likely formed by slow cooling of the basin's melt, or the partially melted mantle, instead of by any impact-related shock magnetization process. Therefore, they are important for assessing the nature of the ancient dynamo field that produced them. In this study we confine our attention to the simpler northern anomaly (CNA) and use low-altitude (˜22 km) LP data to model its source body as a dipole and magnetized disks of different radii. We infer that the source is likely located ˜20-30 km from the surface and horizontally localized within a small region (<1° or <˜30 km radius). The surface field intensity calculated from the best fit dipole is in good agreement with that obtained from LP Electron Reflectometer data. Our magnetization directions are substantially different from two previous studies, largely due to using lower altitude data to perform our inversions. We also find a surprising sensitivity to small changes in source body latitude (˜1°). The magnetic paleopoles implied by our best fit models are distant from previous estimates by up to ˜50° of great circle arc and are substantially distant from the Moon's present rotation axis. Our results demonstrate how multiple altitude data sets must be used when estimating paleopoles and other properties of even the simplest of the Moon's magnetic anomalies.

  19. Evaluation of dexamethasone on fetal maturation and delivery in mares when administered on days 305 to 307 of gestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many species corticosteroids are administered to the dam to induce precocious fetal maturation when the pregnancy is at risk; however in the mare this has met with mixed results. Previously we showed that 24 mg betamethasone administered to pregnant mares on d305 to 307 of pregnancy tended to...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  4. Earth-based and Galileo SSI multispectral observations of eastern mare serenitatis and the Apollo 17 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    Both the Apollo 17 and the Mare Serenitatis region were observed by Galileo during its fly-by in December 1992. We used earth-based multispectral data to define mare units which then can be compared with the results of the Galileo SSI data evaluation.

  5. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  6. Serum levels of acute phase proteins: SAA, Hp and progesterone (P4) in mares with early embryonic death.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; Krawczyk, C H; Kostro, K; Stefaniak, T; Novotny, F; Obara, J

    2011-08-01

    The study involved 46 healthy purebred Arabian mares exhibiting regular oestrous cycles that underwent artificial insemination (AI). Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically (US) in 40 mares. In 15 mares in foal, early embryonic death (EED) was observed during the pregnancy days 14-21. Blood for determinations of serum acute phase proteins (SAA and Hp) and progesterone (P4) was sampled 12-24 h before ovulation and the first insemination, at 12, 24, 72, 96 h and on day 7, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 55 after ovulation. The results revealed that in 25 mares without EED, the serum levels of P4, SAA and Hp were within physiological limits; in 15 mares with EED, the levels of SAA and Hp were significantly increased. In seven mares with EED, high levels of SAA and Hp were already found before ovulation and at 12, 24, 72, 96 h as well as on day 7 and 10 post-ovulation, whereas the level of P4 was normal for early pregnancy. In the remaining eight mares with EED, increased levels of SAA and Hp were found at 72 h after ovulation and maintained until day 55. In this group, the level of P4 decreased since 96 h after ovulation. Determinations of SAA, Hp and P4 in mares in early pregnancy (EP) are useful for monitoring normal development of pregnancy and for diagnosis of subclinical genital inflammations, which may lead to EED. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Effect of hypothyroidism on the blood lipid response to higher dietary fat intake in mares.

    PubMed

    Frank, N; Sojka, J E; Latour, M A

    2004-09-01

    Blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were measured and compared between euthyroid and thyroidectomized mares on low-fat or high-fat diets to test the hypothesis that hypothyroidism alters the blood lipid response to higher dietary fat intake. Four healthy adult mares and four adult mares that had been thyroidectomized 3 to 6 mo earlier were placed on low-fat or high-fat diets according to a replicated 2 x 2 Latin square design consisting of two 5-wk feeding periods separated by a 2-wk washout interval. Plasma lipid concentrations were measured at 0, 3, 4, and 5 wk, and plasma lipase activities were measured at the end of each 5-wk feeding period. Compared with euthyroid mares (0.46 ng/mL [range 0.34 to 0.68 ng/mL T3], and 21.5 ng/mL [range 18.1 to 25.1 ng/mL T4], respectively), median serum concentrations of T3 and T4 were lower (P = 0.029 and P = 0.021, respectively) in thyroid-ectomized mares (0.26 ng/mL [range 0.23 to 0.26 ng/ mL T3], and undetectable T4). Serum T4 concentrations were below the limits of detection in thyroidectomized horses. Alterations in body weight over 5 wk did not differ between groups. Mean plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were higher (P = 0.045 and 0.034, respectively) in hypothyroid mares (55.42 +/- 35.05 mg/dL and 52.83 +/- 34.46 mg/dL, respectively) compared with euthyroid mares (28.28 +/- 13.76 mg/dL and 23.53 +/- 9.84 mg/dL, respectively). Mean plasma total cholesterol (TC) concentrations increased from 88.73 +/- 25.49 mg/dL at baseline to 103.93 +/- 24.42 mg/dL after 5 wk on the low-fat diet, but increased by a greater magnitude (P = 0.006 diet +/- time interaction) in mares that were on the high-fat diet (81.05 +/- 17.24 mg/dL and 123.84 +/- 32.27 mg/ dL, respectively). Mean plasma TC concentrations were higher (P = 0.099) in hypothyroid mares (116.16 +/- 32.89 mg/dL) than in euthyroid mares (89.56 +/- 14.45 mg/ dL). Higher post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase and hepatic

  8. Characteristics of Mare Deposits on the Eastern Limb of the Moon: Implications for Magma Transport Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Head, J. W.

    1996-03-01

    Lunar volcanic history has been examined in light of geomorphological and stratigraphic constraints placed upon the surface features. Compositional and petrological analyses have provided models for the conditions of mare parent magma generation . The connection between lunar magma source regions and volcanic surface features remains unclear, however, both conceptually and quantitatively with respect to our understanding of transport mechanisms. It has been suggested that mare emplacement was controlled by propagation of dikes driven by the overpressurization of diapir-like source regions stalled below the cooling lunar highland crust. Recent analyses of the characteristics of lava ponds in the South Pole/Aitken and Orientale/Mendel-Rydberg basins based on Clementine, Lunar Orbiter and Zond data have provided evidence that supports this theory. In this contribution we report on an analysis of the areas, volumes, modes of occurrence and crustal thicknesses for mare deposits in the Marginis and Smythii basins, and investigate implications for magma transport mechanisms.

  9. Selected aspects of lunar mare geology from Apollo orbital photography. [of lunar craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. A.; Brennan, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Crater size-frequency distributions were studied (100-500 m) and are shown to provide significant integrated information concerning mare surface ages, subsurface stratigraphy, and surficial geology. Equilibrium cratering is discussed gradually reducing the relative numbers of craters smaller than 300-400 m in diameter as surfaces age and regolith thickens. Results for surface ages are in good agreement with other published crater ages. The existing correlations of large ring structures among various circular mare basins are shown to be based on criteria that are inconsistent and nonstandardized. A means of comparing equivalent ring structures in the different maria is proposed which takes into account the important characteristics of young unflooded basins (Orientale) as well as the progressive development of tectonic and volcanic features within the older flooded maria. Specific geologic aspects of several of the lunar maria are discussed and especially Mare Smythii, because of its great age and significantly different surface morphology. Lunar photographs and maps are shown.

  10. Very low Ti /VLT/ basalts - A new mare rock type from the Apollo 17 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Phaneritic fragments, vitrophyres, and glass beads of a new very low Ti (VLT) mare basalt are found in the Apollo 17 drill core. VLT lithic fragments are characterized by TiO2 content of approximately 0.5%, Mg/(Mg + Fe) of approximately 0.52, CaO/Al2O3 of approximately 0.9, and low alkali content. Although mineral systematics and modal composition of VLT basalt are similar to Apollo 12 and 15 low Ti basalts, VLT basalts cannot be related to these mare basalts by crystal fractionation. Since VLT basalt is isochemical with some of the less mafic green glasses, fractionation of VLT magma from a liquid of green-glass composition is a possibility. Spectral reflectance studies suggest that VLT-type basalts may be relatively common in mare basins.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Horizon MareNostrum cosmological run (Gay+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, C.; Pichon, C.; Le Borgne, D.; Teyssier, R.; Sousbie, T.; Devriendt, J.

    2010-11-01

    The correlation between the large-scale distribution of galaxies and their spectroscopic properties at z=1.5 is investigated using the Horizon MareNostrum cosmological run. We have extracted a large sample of 105 galaxies from this large hydrodynamical simulation featuring standard galaxy formation physics. Spectral synthesis is applied to these single stellar populations to generate spectra and colours for all galaxies. We use the skeleton as a tracer of the cosmic web and study how our galaxy catalogue depends on the distance to the skeleton. We show that galaxies closer to the skeleton tend to be redder but that the effect is mostly due to the proximity of large haloes at the nodes of the skeleton, rather than the filaments themselves. The virtual catalogues (spectroscopical properties of the MareNostrum galaxies at various redshifts) are available online at http://www.iap.fr/users/pichon/MareNostrum/catalogues. (7 data files).

  12. Orange material in the Sulpicius Gallus formation at the southwestern edge of Mare Serenitatis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.; Schmitt, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Orange and red materials were observed and photographed in the dark mantle of the Sulpicius Gallus Formation on the southwestern rim of the Serenitatis basin. These materials occur only within the dark mantle that overlies old rilled mare and highland units and are absent on the younger mare unit in this area. Orange and red materials occur predominantly as halos, patches, or rays around fresh impact craters ranging in diameter from less than 50 to 250 m and in layers exposed at the base of the dark mantle deposit in the steep walls of a depression and a graben. Red material is present in the highland subsurface, possibly as dikes. We conclude that orange material, locally underlain by red material, occurs in the dark mantle to a depth of about 50 m as locally stratified but discontinuous pyroclastic deposits and that it may have been produced by multiple 'fire foundation' eruptions during the later stages of accumulation of the older mare basalt units.

  13. Evaluation of growth models for follicle development and ovulation in Lusitano mares.

    PubMed

    Mata, F

    2012-12-01

    Several growth models are commonly used in the biological sciences, to model the follicle growth occurring in the estrous cycle. The aim of this project was to find the model that best fit the follicular size growth data for Lusitano mares. Retrospective data collected from reproduction book records of n=84 mares and n=124 cycles was used to find the series to be fitted to the models. The exponential, Gompertz, logistic, von Bertalanffy, Richards and Weibull models were used, and the most parsimonious and best fit was achieved with the logistic model (r(2)=0.999). The logistic model fits the Lusitano mare's follicle size growth data very well and its parameters were also shown to have a credible biological interpretation.

  14. Basalt stratigraphy of southern Mare Serenitatis. [based on Apollo 17 photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, K. A.; Carr, M. H.; Muehlberger, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The major features of the stratigraphic and structural sequence are summarized for Mare Serenitatis. The dark oldest basalts include flows coextensive with Mare Tranquillitatis and also flows and pyroclastic deposits (dark mantles) that erupted from the edge of the Serenitatis basin. The basin sagged, possibly isostatically, as basalts of intermediate age were emplaced. Sagging had nearly ceased by the time the youngest flows were deposited. Compressive movements including thrusting followed, and small extensional fissures formed in late Copernican time. The revised stratigraphic sequence that was elaborated has implications for lunar stratigraphy that transcend the boundaries of Mare Serenitatis. Dark mantle deposits and the darkest maria have commonly been assumed in geologic mapping to be relatively youthful. These assumptions must now be reevaluated and perhaps discarded.

  15. Lunar mare volcanism: Mixing of distinct, mantle source regions with KREEP-like component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    Mare basalts comprise less than 1% of the lunar crust, but they constitute our primary source of information on the moon's upper mantle. Compositional variations between mare basalt suites reflect variations in the mineralogical and geochemical composition of the lunar mantle which formed during early lunar differentiation (4.5-4.4 AE). Three broad suites of mare basalt are recognized: very low-Ti (VLT) basalts with TiO2 less than 1 wt%, low-Ti basalts with TiO2 = 2-4 wt%, and high-Ti basalts with TiO2 = 10-14 wt%. Important subgroups include the Apollo 12 ilmenite basalts (TiO2 = 5-6 wt%), aluminous low-Ti mare basalts (TiO2 = 2-4 wt%, Al2O3 = 10-14 wt%), and the newly discovered Very High potassium (VHK) aluminous low-Ti basalts, with K2O = 0.4-1.5 wt%. The mare basalt source region has geochemical characteristics complementary to the highlands crust and is generally thought to consist of mafic cumulates from the magma ocean which formed the felsic crust by feldspar flotation. The progressive enrichment of mare basalts in Fe/Mg, alkalis, and incompatible trace elements in the sequence VLT basalt yields low-Ti basalt yields high-Ti basalt is explained by the remelting of mafic cumulates formed at progressively shallower depths in the evolving magma ocean. This model is also consistent with the observed decrease in compatible element concentrations and the progressive increase in negative Eu anomalies.

  16. Surfactant proteins A and D in the genital tract of mares.

    PubMed

    Kankavi, Orhan; Ata, Ayhan; Gungor, Orsan

    2007-04-01

    The presence of surface-active material in the lung alveolus has been known for several decades as being essential for normal lung function. Surfactant is essential for reducing the surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface. Pulmonary surfactant is composed of 90% lipids and 10% proteins. There are four non-serum proteins surfactant protein-A (SP-A), surfactant protein-B (SP-B), surfactant protein-C (SP-C) and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) named in chronologic order of discovery. Lung SP-A and SP-D belong to a family of collagen-containing C-type lectin family called collectins. The host defence and controlling inflammatory processes of the lung are the major functions of SP-A and SP-D. SP-A and SP-D were originally demonstrated in alveolar type II cells, but recent studies have shown extrapulmonary expression of SP-A and SP-D indicating systemic roles of these proteins. Present study describes the presence of SP-A and SP-D in the mare genital tract, vulva, vagina, ovarium, uterus and tuba uterina using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The aim of this study was to characterize surfactant proteins in terms of: (i) whether surfactant proteins were present in the various structures of the mare genital system, (ii) if so, identifying and locating the surfactant proteins and finally (iii) determining the differences from those previously characterized for the lung. Although beyond the scope of this report, it is recognized that there are also some potential implications for better defining the reproductive defence mechanisms in mare. Therefore, genital system organs and tissues from mares were examined. We were able to show that proteins reactive with surfactant-specific antibodies were present in the mare genital tract. Thus, surfactant proteins are present not in just lamellar bodies associated with lung, but also genital system of mare.

  17. Effect of oxytocin and flunixin meglumine on uterine response to insemination in mares.

    PubMed

    Risco, A M; Reilas, T; Muilu, L; Kareskoski, M; Katila, T

    2009-12-01

    The most probable reason for persistent postbreeding endometritis in mares is weak myometrial contractility. The influence of oxytocin (OT; an ecbolic agent) and flunixin meglumine (FLU; a prostaglandin inhibitor serving as a model for mares with decreased uterine contractility) on uterine response to artificial insemination (AI) was studied in mares with no history of reproductive failure. The mares were treated intravenously with 10 mL saline (Group C, n=10) or 0.01 IU/kg OT (Group OT, n=10) 2, 4, 8, and 25 h after AI. Group FLU (n=11) was treated with 1.1mg/kg FLU 2h after AI and with saline thereafter. The mares received the same treatments in the first and third cycles but were sampled either at 8 or 25 h. The amount of intrauterine fluid (IUF) and edema and the number of uterine contractions were recorded before AI and 10 min after the treatments using transrectal ultrasonography. At 8h after AI, the mares were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin, and, after 8-h or 25-h scans, a 500-mL uterine lavage and a biopsy were performed. Ovulation was confirmed at 48 h and pregnancy 14 to 17 d after AI. No manipulations were done during the second estrus. At 8h after AI, Group FLU had more polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the uterine lavage fluid than did Group OT (P<0.05), but uterine contractions did not differ significantly. At 25 h, the PMN concentrations were low in all groups. Group OT rarely showed IUF. The uterine biopsy specimens of Group FLU showed less inflammation of the stroma but more PMNs in the uterine lumen 8h after AI than that of the control group (P<0.05). The pregnancy rates did not differ between the groups (63% C, 53% OT, and 50% FLU). Oxytocin rapidly and effectively removed IUF and PMNs after AI and thereby shortened the duration of postbreeding inflammation.

  18. Magma source transition of lunar mare volcanism at 2.3 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Morota, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Otake, H.; Ohtake, M.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar mare basalts, the most common volcanic feature on the Moon, provide insights into compositions and thermal history of lunar mantle. According to the model ages of mare basalt units determined by crater counting with remote sensing data indicate that magma activity has a second peak at the end of mare volcanism (~2 Ga), and the latest eruptions were limited in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), which is characterized by high abundances of heat-producing elements. In order to understand the magma source of the latest volcanism and mechanism for causing the second peak, we examined the correlation between the titanium contents and eruption ages of mare basalt units using compositional and chronological data updated by SELENE/Kaguya. Although the systematic relationship is not observed globally, a rapid increase in mean titanium (Ti) content occurred at 2.3 Ga in the PKT, suggesting that the magma source of mare basalts changed at that time. The high-Ti basaltic eruptions can be correlated with the second peak of volcanic activity at ~2 Ga. The latest volcanic activity can be induced by a high-Ti hot plume originated from the core-mantle boundary. If the hot plume was occurred, the topographic features formed by the hot plume may be remained. Then, we calculated the difference between topography and selenoid and found the circular feature like a plateau in the center of the PKT, which scale is ~1000 km horizontal and ~500 m vertical. Moreover, mare ridges in this region seem to connect with the plateau. Using detailed models of the flexural response of the lunar elastic lithosphere, we estimated the elastic thickness at the time of occurrence of the hot plume. From our results, the effective elastic thickness at the period of latest volcanism is estimated 20-30 km, which is thinner than that of the period before ~2 Ga. These results may suggest that the up lift of lithosphere caused by the hot plume.

  19. Effects of neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser irradiation on endometrium and on endometrial cysts in six mares.

    PubMed

    Blikslager, A T; Tate, L P; Weinstock, D

    1993-01-01

    Effects of neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation on equine endometrium were evaluated in vitro and in six mares with endometrial cysts. The Nd:YAG laser was applied to six endometrial sites, in each of five uterine specimens, with power densities of 5659 to 33,954 J/cm2. Depth of tissue ablation was measured and graded on histologic sections of the tissue lesions. Power density had a significant effect on the depth of tissue ablation (p < .001). Grade 3 lesions (full-thickness ablation of the endometrium) were created with energy densities of 16,977 to 33,954 J/cm2. Six mares had endometrial cysts treated by photoablation. Two of the four mares that were reproductively sound but barren, despite appropriate breeding, produced foals after treatment. One mare remained reproductively unsound after treatment, and another mare that was treated postpartum was bred successfully.

  20. International cooperation in healthcare: model of IRCCS Policlinico San Donato and Bambini Cardiopatici nel Mondo Association for congenital heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    Frigiola, Alessandro; Moussaidi, Nadia; Giamberti, Alessandro; Pomé, Giuseppe; Isgrò, Giuseppe; Youssef, Tammam; Reali, Matteo; Varrica, Alessandro; Nuri, Halkawt A.; Cirri, Silvia; Carminati, Mario; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Ferrari, Roberto; Ranucci, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation activity in training programmes promoted by IRCCS Policlinico San Donato and Bambini Cardiopatici nel Mondo Association is a model of cooperation between people as an alternative intervention in promoting the right to healthcare, especially offering programmes of training and medical care on cardiovascular and congenital heart disease. This new strategy, implemented in several developing countries, has absolutely contributed to the improvement of the medical services concerning the diagnostic and surgical approach in the treatment of paediatric and adult cardiovascular disease. To strengthen this kind of activity, both IRCCS Policlinico San Donato and Bambini Cardiopatici nel Mondo have introduced a global perspective aiming at the realization of surgical missions ‘in situ’, building new cardiac surgery units in collaboration with the local partners, which are mainly university hospitals. They, furthermore, support financially the scholarship and accommodation in favour of medical and paramedical staff. PMID:28533720

  1. International cooperation in healthcare: model of IRCCS Policlinico San Donato and Bambini Cardiopatici nel Mondo Association for congenital heart diseases.

    PubMed

    Frigiola, Alessandro; Moussaidi, Nadia; Giamberti, Alessandro; Pomé, Giuseppe; Isgrò, Giuseppe; Youssef, Tammam; Reali, Matteo; Varrica, Alessandro; Nuri, Halkawt A; Cirri, Silvia; Carminati, Mario; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Ferrari, Roberto; Ranucci, Marco

    2016-04-28

    Cooperation activity in training programmes promoted by IRCCS Policlinico San Donato and Bambini Cardiopatici nel Mondo Association is a model of cooperation between people as an alternative intervention in promoting the right to healthcare, especially offering programmes of training and medical care on cardiovascular and congenital heart disease. This new strategy, implemented in several developing countries, has absolutely contributed to the improvement of the medical services concerning the diagnostic and surgical approach in the treatment of paediatric and adult cardiovascular disease. To strengthen this kind of activity, both IRCCS Policlinico San Donato and Bambini Cardiopatici nel Mondo have introduced a global perspective aiming at the realization of surgical missions 'in situ', building new cardiac surgery units in collaboration with the local partners, which are mainly university hospitals. They, furthermore, support financially the scholarship and accommodation in favour of medical and paramedical staff.

  2. Where was the 1898 Mare Island Earthquake? Insights from the 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake provides an opportunity to reconsider the Mare Island earthquake of 31 March 1898, which caused severe damage to buildings at a Navy yard on the island. Revising archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, I estimate a lower intensity magnitude, 5.8, than the value in the current Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) catalog (6.4). However, I note that intensity magnitude can differ from Mw by upwards of half a unit depending on stress drop, which for a historical earthquake is unknowable. In the aftermath of the 2014 earthquake, there has been speculation that apparently severe effects on Mare Island in 1898 were due to the vulnerability of local structures. No surface rupture has ever been identified from the 1898 event, which is commonly associated with the Hayward-Rodgers Creek fault system, some 10 km west of Mare Island (e.g., Parsons et al., 2003). Reconsideration of detailed archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, together with a comparison of the intensity distributions for the two earthquakes, points to genuinely severe, likely near-field ground motions on Mare Island. The 2014 earthquake did cause significant damage to older brick buildings on Mare Island, but the level of damage does not match the severity of documented damage in 1898. The high intensity files for the two earthquakes are more over spatially shifted, with the centroid of the 2014 distribution near the town of Napa and that of the 1898 distribution near Mare Island, east of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek system. I conclude that the 1898 Mare Island earthquake was centered on or near Mare Island, possibly involving rupture of one or both strands of the Franklin fault, a low-slip-rate fault sub-parallel to the Rodgers Creek fault to the west and the West Napa fault to the east. I estimate Mw5.8 assuming an average stress drop; data are also consistent with Mw6.4 if stress drop was a factor of ≈3 lower than average for California earthquakes. I

  3. Relationship between uterine biopsy score, endometrial infection and inflammation in the mare.

    PubMed

    Buczkowska, Justyna; Kozdrowski, Roland; Nowak, Marcin; Sikora, Monika

    2016-06-16

    Endometrial biopsy score is an accepted marker of uterine health and predicted fertility, and it has been suggested that endometrial alternations are correlated with susceptibility to persistent infectious endometritis. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of endometrial biopsy score with: 1) presence of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the epithelium and stratum compactum in histopathology; 2) presence of PMNs in cytology and 3) presence of infection in microbiology. The material for examination was collected from 69 mares suspected for subclinical endometritis (bred three or more times unsuccessfully in the same breeding season) and from 15 maiden mares. Samples were collected by endometrial biopsy and cytobrush technique. Endometrial alterations (biopsy score IIA, IIB, III) were found in 64 of 82 mares (78%). There was an increase in PMN occurrence for grades IIA, IIB and III. When comparing grades and PMNs infiltration, we observed statistically significant differences between grades I and IIA (p  = 0.222) and grades I and IIB (p = 0.042) in samples collected by endometrial biopsy. Statistically significant differences were found in microbiological examination (biopsy p = 0.036; cytobrush p = 0.189), cytological examination (biopsy p = 0.040; cytobrush p = 0.079) and PMN infiltration (p    =    0.042) between mares with biopsy scores I and IIB. Furthermore, the highest percentage of infected mares was in grade IIA and IIB, and we found statistically significant differences between grades I and IIA (p = 0.043), and grades I and IIB (p = 0.036) in biopsy samples. We observed a tendency to higher prevalence of endometrial infection in mares with biopsy score IIA, IIB and III than with biopsy score I in samples collected using cytobrush technique. However, there were no statistical significant differences. Degenerative endometrial changes can predispose to uterine infection and inflammation. Our study shows

  4. Experimentally reproduced textures and mineral chemistries of high-titanium mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usselman, T. M.; Lofgren, G. E.; Williams, R. J.; Donaldson, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    Many of the textures, morphologies, and mineral chemistries of the high-titanium mare basalts have been experimentally duplicated using single-stage cooling histories. Lunar high-titanium mare basalts are modeled in a 1 m thick gravitationally differentiating flow based on cooling rates, thermal models, and modal olivine contents. The low-pressure equilibrium phase relations of a synthetic high-titanium basalt composition were investigated as a function of oxygen fugacity, and petrographic criteria are developed for the recognition of phenocrysts which were present in the liquid at the time of eruption.

  5. Superovulation in the cow with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin: effects of dose and antipregnant mare serum gonadotrophin serum.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, A; Wang, H; Carruthers, T D; Murphy, B D; Mapletoft, R J

    1994-01-01

    The effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) dose and PMSG antiserum on superovulation in crossbred beef cows were studied. In experiment I, three groups were treated with 1200, 2400 or 3600 IU of PMSG and 48 h later with prostaglandin (PGF). The mean numbers of corpora lutea (CL), unovulated follicles, and total ova/embryos collected increased as the PMSG dose increased. The percent of fertilized ova and transferable embryos was lowest in the highest dose group (p < 0.05). In experiment II, all cows received 2500 IU of PMSG; groups 1 and 2 were treated with sheep anti-PMSG serum at 48 h or 60 h after PGF; group 3 cows were PMSG-only controls. The number of CL was lowest and the number of unovulated follicles highest in the PMSG-only group (p < 0.05). The number of CL was higher in group 2 (anti-PMSG at 60 h) than in the control group, with the anti-PMSG at 48 h not different from the other groups. Numbers of total ova/embryos, fertilized ova, and transferable embryos were higher (p < 0.05) in both antiserum-treated groups relative to the PMSG-only group. We conclude that superovulation of beef cows with PMSG and treatment with PMSG antiserum will induce a higher superovulatory response and will result in higher CL numbers and fewer unovulated follicles. Further, the variability in the superovulatory response to PMSG treatment was still evident when PMSG antiserum was administered. PMID:8055430

  6. Invited review: the role of caterpillars in mare reproductive loss syndrome: a model for environmental causes of abortion.

    PubMed

    McDowell, K J; Webb, B A; Williams, N M; Donahue, J M; Newman, K E; Lindemann, M D; Horohov, D W

    2010-04-01

    A new abortigenic disease, now known as mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), significantly affected the horse industry in the Ohio River Valley of the United States in late April and early May of 2001 and 2002. In 2001, approximately 25% of all pregnant mares aborted within several weeks (over 3,000 mares lost pregnancies), and abortion rates exceeded 60% on some farms. Mare reproductive loss syndrome struck hard and without warning, it was caused by something in the environment, it was not transmitted between animals, and it was not associated with any known abortigenic agent or disease. These experiments demonstrated that horses will inadvertently consume Eastern tent caterpillars (ETC) when the insects are present in the pasture or other feedstuffs, and MRLS-type abortions were induced in experimental animals (mares and pigs) by mixing ETC with the feed of the animals. Eastern tent caterpillars are hirsute (hairy) caterpillars, and the only part of the caterpillar that caused MRLS abortions was the cuticle. The experiments revealed that the setae (hairs) embed into the submucosa of the alimentary tract creating microgranulomatous lesions. It is hypothesized that the alimentary tract lesions allow bacteria from the alimentary tract of the mare, principally streptococci, actinobacilli, and to a lesser extent enterococci, to invade the circulatory system of the mare. The bacteria then establish infections in tissues where the immune surveillance of the mare is reduced, such as the fetus and placenta. Fetal and placental fluid bacterial infections lead to fetal death and abortion characteristic of MRLS. Inadvertent ingestion of ETC by pregnant mares causes MRLS. Currently the only known means to prevent MRLS is to avoid exposure of horses, particularly pregnant mares, to ETC and probably most hirsute caterpillars.

  7. Maternal Lineage of Warmblood Mares Contributes to Variation of Gestation Length and Bias of Foal Sex Ratio.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, J; Stock, K F; Wulf, M; Aurich, C

    2015-01-01

    Maternal lineage influences performance traits in horses. This is probably caused by differences in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transferred to the offspring via the oocyte. In the present study, we investigated if reproductive traits with high variability-gestation length and fetal sex ratio-are influenced by maternal lineage. Data from 142 Warmblood mares from the Brandenburg State Stud at Neustadt (Dosse), Germany, were available for the study. Mares were grouped according to their maternal lineage. Influences on the reproduction parameters gestation length and sex ratio of offspring were analyzed by simple and multiple analyses of variance. A total of 786 cases were included. From the 142 mares, 119 were assigned to six maternal lineages with n≥10 mares per lineage, and 23 mares belonged to smaller maternal lineages. The mean number of live foals produced per mare was 4.6±3.6 (±SD). Live foal rate was 83.5%. Mean gestation length was 338.5±8.9 days (±SD) with a range of 313 to 370 days. Gestation length was affected by maternal lineage (p<0.001). Gestation length was also significantly influenced by the individual mare, age of the mare, year of breeding, month of breeding and sex of the foal (p<0.05). Of the 640 foals born alive at term, 48% were male and 52% female. Mare age group and maternal lineage significantly influenced the sex ratio of the foals (p<0.05). It is concluded that maternal lineage influences reproductive parameters with high variation such as gestation length and foal sex ratio in horses. In young primiparous and aged mares, the percentage of female offspring is higher than the expected 1:1 ratio.

  8. Maternal Lineage of Warmblood Mares Contributes to Variation of Gestation Length and Bias of Foal Sex Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, J.; Stock, K. F.; Wulf, M.; Aurich, C.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal lineage influences performance traits in horses. This is probably caused by differences in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transferred to the offspring via the oocyte. In the present study, we investigated if reproductive traits with high variability—gestation length and fetal sex ratio—are influenced by maternal lineage. Data from 142 Warmblood mares from the Brandenburg State Stud at Neustadt (Dosse), Germany, were available for the study. Mares were grouped according to their maternal lineage. Influences on the reproduction parameters gestation length and sex ratio of offspring were analyzed by simple and multiple analyses of variance. A total of 786 cases were included. From the 142 mares, 119 were assigned to six maternal lineages with n≥10 mares per lineage, and 23 mares belonged to smaller maternal lineages. The mean number of live foals produced per mare was 4.6±3.6 (±SD). Live foal rate was 83.5%. Mean gestation length was 338.5±8.9 days (±SD) with a range of 313 to 370 days. Gestation length was affected by maternal lineage (p<0.001). Gestation length was also significantly influenced by the individual mare, age of the mare, year of breeding, month of breeding and sex of the foal (p<0.05). Of the 640 foals born alive at term, 48% were male and 52% female. Mare age group and maternal lineage significantly influenced the sex ratio of the foals (p<0.05). It is concluded that maternal lineage influences reproductive parameters with high variation such as gestation length and foal sex ratio in horses. In young primiparous and aged mares, the percentage of female offspring is higher than the expected 1:1 ratio. PMID:26436555

  9. Unilateral white line disease and laminitis in a quarter horse mare.

    PubMed

    Oke, Ray A

    2003-02-01

    A 5-year-old quarter horse mare presented with unilateral, severe, chronic forelimb lameness. Radiographs revealed extensive hoof wall separation and capsular rotation of the distal phalanx. Treatment included dorsal hoof wall resection, phenylbutazone, a bar shoe, and stall rest. Whether white line disease or laminitis was the primary lesion remains unclear.

  10. Hormonal composition of follicular fluid from abnormal follicular structures in mares.

    PubMed

    Beltman, M E; Walsh, S W; Canty, M J; Duffy, P; Crowe, M A

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to characterise the hormonal composition of follicular fluid from mares with distinct anovulatory-cystic follicles. Follicular fluid was aspirated from six mares that presented with cystic follicles and from pre-ovulatory follicles of five normal mares (controls). Differences in progesterone, oestradiol, testosterone, IGF-I and IGF binding were analysed using Fisher's exact test. There were greater (P < 0.03) follicular fluid oestradiol concentrations in normal follicles and the testosterone concentration of the cystic fluid was greater (P < 0.05) than that of the normal fluid. There also was a greater (P < 0.03) percentage of IGF-I binding and lower (P < 0.02) IGF-I concentrations in the fluid collected from the cystic structures compared with the fluid from normal follicles. Despite the limited number of animals, the fact that fluid aspirated from cystic follicles had higher testosterone and lower oestradiol concentrations could be of diagnostic value when a practitioner wants to distinguish between a cystic and non-cystic persistent follicle. The research reported here also indicates a likely role for the IGF system in the pathogenesis of the development and maintenance of anovulatory follicular structures in mare ovaries.

  11. Interovulatory intervals in mares receiving deslorelin implants in Ireland (2009 to 2010).

    PubMed

    Henderson, I S F; Brama, P; Osborne, M; Beltman, M E

    2012-05-26

    Deslorelin acetate implants, recently licensed in Ireland and the UK for ovulation induction in mares, have been associated with prolonged interovulatory intervals in USA studies, leading to the practice of removing implants postovulation. Trial data in Australia indicate a less pronounced effect on interovulatory intervals, suggesting possible geographical variation. Objectives of the current study were to assess the effect of deslorelin implants, with and without removal on oestrous cycle length in Irish- and UK-based Thoroughbred broodmares. Data were collected retrospectively from 88 oestrous cycles. A statistically significant difference (P=0.02) was found between interovulatory intervals in mares in which the deslorelin implant was not removed, compared with administration and removal of the implant or the use of human chorionic gonadotrophin. The results suggest that implant removal when possible is advisable. The delay in subsequent ovulations was less marked than that reported in some studies from the USA. This information is useful in deciding when to schedule subsequent breeding for mares which received a deslorelin implant during the previous oestrous period and provides evidence to counter-concerns that mares treated with deslorelin implants may experience a long delay in return to oestrus if the implant is not removed.

  12. Lava flows in mare imbrium: An evaluation of anomalously low earth-based radar reflectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Thompson, T.W.; Zisk, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The lunar maria reflect two to five times less Earth-based radar power than the highlands, the spectrally blue maria surfaces returning the lowest power levels. This effect of weakening signal return has been attributed to increased signal absorption related to the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3). The surface of Mare Imbrium contains some of the most distinct red-blue colorimetric boundaries and depolarized 70 cm wavelength reflectivity variations on the near side of the Moon. The weakest levels of both 3.8 cm and 70 cm reflectivity within Imbrium are confined to regional mare surfaces of the blue spectral type that can be recognized as stratigraphically unique flow surfaces. Frequency distributions of the 70 cm polarized and depolarized radar return power for five mare surfaces within the basin indicate that signal absorption, and probably the ilmenite content, increases generally from the beginning of the Imbrian Period to the end of the Eratosthenian Period with slight reversal between the end of the Imbrian and beginning of the Eratosthenian. TiO2 calibrated radar reflectivity curves can be utilized for lunar maria geochemical mapping in the same manner as the TiO2 calibrated spectral reflectivity curves of Charette et al. (1974). The long wavelength radar data may be a sensitive indicator of mare chemical variations as it is unaffected by the normal surface rock clutter that includes ray materials from large impact craters. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  13. Relative ages of flow units in Mare Imbrium and Sinus Iridum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, J. M.; Dial, A. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A method for determining relative ages from low-resolution Lunar Orbiter photographs of lunar plains has been developed and applied to Mare Imbrium and Sinus Iridum. The method is an extension of previous ones and uses the shapes of craters and a small-impact erosion model to estimate the net accumulated impact flux. The net impact flux that has accumulated on a surface of uniform age is a measure of relative age of that surface and can be estimated by the largest diameters of craters that have been degraded by the net impact flux. Frequency distributions or relative ages indicate that there are four major units present in Mare Imbrium and Sinus Iridum. The older mare units are generally found along the edge of the basin and the younger units in the center. A similar distribution of ages of units in Mare Serenitatis shows the two basins have had similar filling histories. Filling histories for other circular basins may be similar to these two.

  14. Histopathological characteristics of endometrosis in thoroughbred mares in Japan: results from 50 necropsy cases.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Michiko; Maeda, Yousuke; Oikawa, Masa-Aki

    2014-01-01

    Uteri from 50 necropsied nonpregnant Japanese Thoroughbred brood mares (1-30 years of age) were investigated to clarify the histopathological characteristics of endometrosis in Japanese Thoroughbred mares and the distribution pattern of endometrosis lesions in the uterus as a whole. Endometrosis was observed in all animals over 6 years of age and in all of the 21 mares aged over 12 years of age. The affected mares showed elastofibrosis of arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels in the uterine wall, atrophy of the uterine smooth muscle layers and hyperplasia of collagen fibers among the smooth muscle fascicles of the myometrium, in addition to pathomorphologic features of endometrosis such as stromal endometrial fibrosis accompanied by endometrial atrophy, periglandular fibrosis and reduction of uterine glands. The severity of the histopathological changes increased with advancing age. Lymphatic vessels with elastofibrosis showed marked lymph congestion, leading to lymphatic edema. With increasing age, the extent of the distribution of these lesions tended to expand from focal to diffuse involvement of the entire uterus. Based on these findings, we speculate that aging plays a role in the pathogenesis of endometrosis; circulatory disturbances due to intrauterine angiosis or angiopathy, particularly reduction of the arterial blood supply and disturbance of venous drainage, resulting in a reduction of lymphatic drainage (lymphatic edema), are closely related to the onset and progression of endometrial fibrosis and myometrial atrophy with fibroplasia may result in myometrial hypofunction during the peri-implantation or puerperal period.

  15. Assessment of Pregnancy in the Late Gestation Mare Using Digital Infrared Thermography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to investigate use of digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) to determine whether surface temperature gradient differences exist between pregnant and nonpregnant mares as a noncontact method to determine pregnancy status. On the day measurements were collected, each ...

  16. Green glass vitrophyre 78526 - An impact of very low-Ti mare basalt composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Kiel, K.; Planner, H. H.; Nehru, C. E.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Rake sample 78526 is an 8.77 g rock consisting primarily of vitrophyric pale green glass with subordinate mineral and lithic relics. Petrographic and compositional evidence leads to the following conclusions: (1) the bulk composition represents that of a mixture formed by impact melting of at least two different textural and compositional varieties of VLT mare basalt that are now present in the rock as lithic relics and a poorly defined low-Ti mare basalt component observed in thin section only in the form of isolated mineral relics; (2) the admixed VLT mare basalts had REE abundances lower than those found in other mare basalts (but probably higher than emerald green glass) and REE patterns showing significant enrichment of the heavy relative to light REE's, suggesting that they were derived by comparatively high degrees of partial melting of a clinopyroxene-rich source region; and (3) the impact melt supercooled to produce the vitrophyre, with rather sharply contrasting textural domains present in the vitrophyre resulting from differences in nucleation kinetics and degrees of supercooling in various portions of the sample.

  17. Androgen insensitivity syndrome in a Thoroughbred mare (64, XY — testicular feminization)

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A Thoroughbred mare was presented for stallion-like behavior. Reproductive and ultrasonographic evaluation, testosterone assays, and karyotyping confirmed a diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome (64, XY — testicular feminization). Surgery to remove abdominal testicles was successful in alleviating the behavioral abnormality. This condition is discussed with reference to the current literature. PMID:15283519

  18. A Reflective Conversation with Kobus Maree, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy Lynne; Maree, Kobus

    2013-01-01

    Always regarded as somewhat of an "outsider" (the child of an English-speaking (Catholic) mother and an Afrikaans (Protestant) father in an exclusively Afrikaans milieu) and growing up extremely poor, seeing the hardship of others and realising how much talent was going to waste, Kobus Maree took a particular interest in gifted…

  19. Compositional gradients across mare-highland contacts - The importance of lateral mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Mustard, J. F.; He, G.

    1997-03-01

    The relative importance of vertical vs lateral mass transport on the moon has been the object of much debate. With the new multispectral observations provided by the Clementine spacecraft, we can now quantitatively analyze the magnitude of transport and assess the processes contributing to the observed distributions. We are currently analyzing a number of mare-highland boundaries but most analyzed thus far exhibit similar systematics to that observed in the Grimaldi Basin. On the basis of these results of observation, we seek to interpret and model the observed variation of mare/highland abundance through the use of a mathematical model that can quantitatively reproduce spatial distributions and the absolute concentrations of 'exotic' components on the mare or highland side. In this analysis, we use a nonlinear model, which is more accurate for the intimate mixing expected in lunar surface. On the basis of nonlinear spectral mixing analysis, two critical issues are clarified: (1) there are apparently two distinct mixing zones, one near the contact that is very steep (5-15 percent/km) the other far from the contact that is very gentle (below 2 percent/km); (2) the distribution of mare and highland across the contact is remarkably symmetric.

  20. Evidence for a PGF2α auto-amplification system in the endometrium in mares.

    PubMed

    Kozai, Keisuke; Tokuyama, Shota; Szóstek, Anna Z; Toishi, Yuko; Tsunoda, Nobuo; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Sakatani, Miki; Takahashi, Masashi; Nambo, Yasuo; Skarzynski, Dariusz J; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kimura, Koji; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2016-05-01

    In mares, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) secreted from the endometrium is a major luteolysin. Some domestic animals have an auto-amplification system in which PGF2α can stimulate its own production. Here, we investigated whether this is also the case in mares. In an in vivo study, mares at the mid-luteal phase (days 6-8 of estrous cycle) were injected i.m. with cloprostenol (250 µg) and blood samples were collected at fixed intervals until 72 h after treatment. Progesterone (P4) concentrations started decreasing 45 min after the injection and continued to decrease up to 24 h (P < 0.05). In turn, 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2α (PGFM) metabolite started to increase 4h after an injection and continued to increase up to 72 h (P < 0.05). PGF receptor (PTGFR) mRNA expression in the endometrium was significantly higher in the late luteal phase than in the early and regressed luteal phases (P < 0.05). In vitro, PGF2α significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) PGF2α production by endometrial tissues and endometrial epithelial and stromal cells and significantly increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2), an enzyme involved in PGF2α synthesis in endometrial cell. These findings strongly suggest the existence of an endometrial PGF2α auto-amplification system in mares. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. Experimentally Induced Placentitis with Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus in Late Gestation Mares: Prevention of Preterm Birth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Placental infection due to opportunistic pathogens is the most common cause of abortion and premature delivery in horses. However, current therapies used to treat mares with placentitis are based on clinical experience, anecdotal information or on case reports. Thus, the objective of this study was ...

  2. Twin pregnancy experimental model for transvaginal ultrasound-guided twin reduction in mares

    PubMed Central

    Raggio, Ignacio; Lefebvre, Réjean C.; Poitras, Pierre; Vaillancourt, Denis; Goff, Alan K.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple pregnancies are still an important cause of noninfectious abortion, stillbirth, neonatal mortality, and significant delays in reproductive performance in mares. Despite new management techniques, reduction in multiple pregnancies is an ongoing preoccupation and challenge for the equine veterinarian. The aim of the present study was to establish a twin pregnancy experimental model in the mare to study the effectiveness of a transvaginal ultrasound-guided embryonic vesicle injection. Mares in heat were inseminated and then received an embryo at day 7 of the estrous cycle. At days 14 and 30, 53.5% (n = 23) and 23% (n = 10) of the mares, respectively, were carrying twins. Twin pregnancies were reduced at day 30 by transvaginal ultrasound-guided puncture of the embryonic vesicle (control, n = 5) or by transvaginal ultrasound-guided injection (TVUEVI) of 25 mg of amikacin into the embryonic vesicle (n = 5). The TVUEVI treatment had a 40% success rate and no significant variations in progesterone and prostaglandin metabolite were observed. Even though the technique does not seem very effective, the experimental model could be useful for clinical research in embryo reduction and early embryonic loss. PMID:19183731

  3. Aggression and social spacing in light horse (Equus caballus) mares and foals.

    PubMed

    Weeks; Crowell-Davis; Caudle; Heusner

    2000-07-01

    Aggression and social spacing were studied in 14 light horse mares and their foals living at pasture. Focal samples were collected on each mare-foal dyad for 6 to 10.5 h from 2 months of foal age until weaning at approximately 4 months of age. Observations on foals continued until approximately 6 months of age for 7.5 to 10.5 h per foal. Every 2 min the identities of all individuals within 5 m were recorded. All occurrences of agonistic behavior, and the participants, were recorded during the focal samples. In addition, during feeding of supplemental grain, all occurrences of agonistic behavior by all subjects were recorded. Significant correlations were found between mare rank and the rank of foals both prior to and after weaning. Before weaning, the rank of the foal was significantly correlated with birth order. No significant correlation between birth order and foal rank was found for the post-weaning hierarchy. An animal's gender had no significant effect on foal rank or the choice of preferred associate. Both prior to and after weaning, foals associated preferentially with the foal of their dam's most preferred associate. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between rank of mares and foals and the rate at which they directed aggression to other herd members.

  4. A Reflective Conversation with Kobus Maree, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy Lynne; Maree, Kobus

    2013-01-01

    Always regarded as somewhat of an "outsider" (the child of an English-speaking (Catholic) mother and an Afrikaans (Protestant) father in an exclusively Afrikaans milieu) and growing up extremely poor, seeing the hardship of others and realising how much talent was going to waste, Kobus Maree took a particular interest in gifted…

  5. Evaluation of a vessel-sealing device for use in laparoscopic ovariectomy in mares.

    PubMed

    Hand, Reese; Rakestraw, Peter; Taylor, Tex

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate a vessel-sealing instrument (LigaSure) as a method for hemostasis of the ovarian vasculature. Prospective study. Thirteen mares (8 experimental, 5 patients), aged 2 to 20 years and weighing 405 to 500 kg. Thirteen mares had standing bilateral laparoscopic ovariectomy using a vessel-sealing device (LigaSure) to provide hemostasis. Eight reproductively normal experimental mares were divided into 2 groups: 1 group was re-examined laparoscopically 72 hours and the other group 10 days after the initial standing laparoscopic ovariectomy. The vessel-sealing device uses high current and low voltage, along with pressure, to reorganize the collagen into a translucent seal to achieve hemostasis of the ovarian vasculature. No major operative or postoperative complications were encountered. Complete hemostasis of the ovarian pedicle was accomplished. One mare had a fever for 24 hours' postoperatively; this responded to a single dose of flunixin meglumine. The LigaSure appears to be a safe method for hemostasis of the ovarian vasculature. Benefits of the LigaSure include no foreign material remaining in the abdomen and minimal to no need for surgical dissection before application. The LigaSure eliminates complications with potential ligature slippage and bleeding during dissection. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  6. Apollo 14 mare basalts - Petrology and geochemistry of clasts from consortium breccia 14321

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that polymict lunar breccia 14321 has long been renowned for the relative abundance of mare basalt clasts which it contains. However, few detailed studies of these clasts exist. The most comprehensive studies to date are those of the first 14321 consortium. Although the studies produced important results, a number of questions remain still unanswered. Thus, it is not certain if the clasts studied are representative of the entire clast population. In addition, there is a lack of correlation of petrography and mineral chemistry information with specific, analyzed clasts, and the major elements Mg and Ca were not analyzed. A second 14321 consortium effort has been organized with the objective to address the remaining questions. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a combined petrographic, mineral /chemical, and geochemical study of 11 mare basalt clasts chipped from five separate subsamples of breccia 14321. It is found that the mare basalt suite at the Apollo 14 site comprises a diverse assemblage of petrographic and compositional types which confirm the importance of ancient mare volcanism.

  7. Hadfield and Marshburn work on the MARES in the Columbus Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-03

    ISS034-E-014618 (3 Jan. 2013) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield (left) and NASA astronaut Tom Marshburn, both Expedition 34 flight engineers, work with Muscle Atrophy Resistive Exercise System (MARES) hardware in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  8. Experimentally Induced Placentitis with Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus in Late Gestation Mares: Prevention of Preterm Birth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Placental infection due to opportunistic pathogens is the most common cause of abortion and premature delivery in horses. However, current therapies used to treat mares with placentitis are based on clinical experience, anecdotal information or on case reports. Thus, the objective of this study was ...

  9. Evolution and Depths of the High-Ti Mare Picrite Glass Source Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Paul C.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to examine the igneous evolution of the Moon with emphasis on the petrogenesis of Mare basalts, lunar troctolites and the Mg-rich suite and on the evolution of the crystallization products of the magma ocean.

  10. The outcome of the first stages of pregnancy on mares' bloodstream thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Fazio, E; Medica, P; Trifiletti, C; Ferlazzo, A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare in detail the total and free iodothyronines' pattern of mares from the first ovulation of the year over an extended period of 12 weeks. A total of 20 mares were used in the study. The mares were classified into two groups: mares mated at the ovulation (n = 10) used as observational group and mares unmated at the ovulation (n = 10) used as control group. Serum total and free triiodothyronine (T3, fT3) and thyroxine (T4, fT4) levels were measured in baseline conditions at the first ovulation of year and once a week until 12 weeks later. For the experimental group, the first week of postovulation mating was considered as the first week of gestation. One-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of time over 12 weeks for T3 (F = 2.44; P = 0.007) in pregnant mares, with the higher levels at the seventh and 12th weeks (P < 0.05) than baseline values, and for fT3 (F = 2.36; P = 0.009), with the higher levels at the 11th week (P < 0.05) than baseline values. Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant pregnancy effect compared with nonpregnancy stage for T3 (F = 15.82; P = 0.009), with the higher levels at the seventh and 12th weeks (P < 0.05) of pregnancy than that in nonpregnant values. Thus, it appears that, under similar environment, management and nutritional regime, the first trimester of pregnancy plays a dynamic role on the thyroid patterns by their anabolic activity; therefore, significant effects of time points on the T3 and fT3 concentrations probably may contribute to the control of early embryonic growth and development, before the onset of fetal thyroid activity. Considerable additional research, outwith the aim of this study, will be required to elucidate the mechanisms by which gestational age affects the physiological thyroid function in mares and/or fetus ratio in the first pregnancy stage.

  11. Tectonic Mapping of Mare Frigoris Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. R.; Bell, J. F.; Watters, T. R.; Banks, M. E.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional wisdom has been that extensional tectonism on the Moon largely ended ~3.6 billion years ago and that contractional deformation ended ~1.2 billion years ago. New NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) high resolution images are forcing a re-assessment of this view. Mapping in Mare Frigoris and the surrounding area has revealed many tectonic landforms enabling new investigations of the region's structural evolution. Sinuous wrinkle ridges with hundreds of meters of relief are interpreted as folded basalt layers overlying thrust faults. They have often been associated with lunar mascons identified by positive free-air gravity anomalies where thick basaltic lava causes flexure and subsidence to form ridges. No mascon-like gravity anomaly is associated with Mare Frigoris, yet large ridges deform the mare basalts. Lobate scarps are also found near Frigoris. These asymmetric linear hills inferred to be surface expressions of thrust faults are distributed globally and thought to originate from cooling and radial contraction of the lunar interior. Clusters of meter-scale extensional troughs or graben bounded by normal faults also occur in Frigoris. Tectonic landforms are being mapped in and around Mare Frigoris using LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images. Preliminary results show that wrinkle ridges in Frigoris occur both near and distal to the basin perimeter, trend E/W in western and central Frigoris, and form a polygonal pattern in the eastern section. Several complex wrinkle ridges are observed to transition into morphologically simpler lobate scarps at mare/highland boundaries, with the contrast in tectonic morphology likely due to the change from layered (mare) to un-layered (highlands) substrate. Lobate scarps in Frigoris occur primarily in the highlands, tend to strike E/W, and often but not always follow the boundary between mare and highlands. Small graben mapped in Frigoris occur in several clusters adjacent to or atop ridges and scarps, and

  12. Neutrophil extracellular traps formation by bacteria causing endometritis in the mare.

    PubMed

    Rebordão, M R; Carneiro, C; Alexandre-Pires, G; Brito, P; Pereira, C; Nunes, T; Galvão, A; Leitão, A; Vilela, C; Ferreira-Dias, G

    2014-12-01

    Besides the classical functions, neutrophils (PMNs) are able to release DNA in response to infectious stimuli, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and killing pathogens. The pathogenesis of endometritis in the mare is not completely understood. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro capacity of equine PMNs to secrete NETs by chemical activation, or stimulated with Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (Szoo), Escherichia coli (Ecoli) or Staphylococcus capitis (Scap) strains obtained from mares with endometritis. Ex vivo endometrial mucus from mares with bacterial endometritis were evaluated for the presence of NETs. Equine blood PMNs were used either without or with stimulation by phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA), a strong inducer of NETs, for 1-3h. To evaluate PMN ability to produce NETs when phagocytosis was impaired, the phagocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin (Cyt) was added after PMA. After the addition of bacteria, a subsequent 1-h incubation was carried out in seven groups. NETs were visualized by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and anti-histone. Ex vivo samples were immunostained for myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase. A 3-h incubation period of PMN + PMA increased NETs (p < 0.05). Bacteria + 25 nM PMA and bacteria + PMA + Cyt increased NETs (p<0.05). Szoo induced fewer NETs than Ecoli or Scap (p < 0.05). Ex vivo NETs were present in mares with endometritis. Scanning electron microscopy showed the spread of NETs formed by smooth fibers and globules that can be aggregated in thick bundles. Formation of NETs and the subsequent entanglement of bacteria suggest that equine NETs might be a complementary mechanism in fighting some of the bacteria causing endometritis in the mare. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lunar Prospector Neutron Measurements and TiO2 in Mare Basalt Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; Maurice, S.; Feldman, W. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Gasnault, O. M.; Lucey, P. G.; Blewett, D. T.; Binder, A. B.

    2001-05-01

    The TiO2 content in mare basalt soils primarily reflects the abundance of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3), and has been used to classify the mare basalts sampled at the landing sites. Titanium is an important elemental indicator in mare basalt petrogenesis, reflecting the composition and state of the partial melt at depth. Consequently it is important to establish the global abundance of titanium in mare basalt soils. Neutron spectrometer data can be used to do this: iron and titanium have large cross sections for thermal neutron absorption compared to other major elements in lunar minerals. The thermal neutron leakage flux of Fe- and Ti-rich mare soils is nearly a factor of three smaller than that of highlands soils. For this reason, Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer measurements can provide constraints on TiO2 abundance on the lunar surface. Sophisticated Monte Carlo simulations of neutron transport and capture reveal that there is a linear relationship between the epithermal-to-thermal neutron flux ratio and the macroscopic absorption cross section, Σ a. Σ a is a measure of a material's ability to absorb thermal neutrons, in effect a weighted sum of the absorption contributions due to all elements. Using FeO and thorium abundance estimates from Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer we can estimate the contributions of all major elements except titanium to Σ a, as well as the additional absorbing effects of the rare earth elements gadolinium and samarium. Any additional absorption must be due to the presence of titanium. We can thus derive abundance estimates of TiO2 and compare to other estimates derived spectroscopically. Our results show a significantly lower abundance of TiO2 than has been estimated using spectral reflectance techniques with Clementine data. In particular, we find much lower abundances in M. Crisium, M. Fecunditatis, and within M. Serenitatis and northern M. Nubium.

  14. A chemical model for generating the sources of mare basalts - Combined equilibrium and fractional crystallization of the lunar magmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Neal, Clive R.

    1992-01-01

    A chemical model for simulating the sources of the lunar mare basalts was developed by considering a modified mafic cumulate source formed during the combined equilibrium and fractional crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO). The parameters which influence the initial LMO and its subsequent crystallization are examined, and both trace and major elements are modeled. It is shown that major elements tightly constrain the composition of mare basalt sources and the pathways to their creation. The ability of this LMO model to generate viable mare basalt source regions was tested through a case study involving the high-Ti basalts.

  15. Cassini RADAR Observes Titan's Kraken Mare, The Largest Extraterrestrial Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging by Cassini's RADAR instrument beginning in 2006 revealed the presence of hundreds of hydrocarbon lakes and three large seas in Titan's north polar region [1,2]. Kraken Mare appeared to be the largest sea in IR images [3] but only the northern end was imaged by RADAR prior to 2012. High altitude SAR (HiSAR) observations on recent Titan flybys T84, T91, and T92 now provide complete coverage of Kraken and environs to ~50°N, at resolutions of 2-10 km. Backscatter statistics of the sea are 0.002 × 0.04, i.e., any return is substantially less than the noise and much less than typical dry land cross sections of 0.1-1.5. We conclude that Kraken is liquid filled to substantial depth over its entire extent. A surprising result is that the major seas all lie within a 1800 x 900 km 'box' (Fig.1). A third of the area inside this box (0.6 M km2) is sea, whereas the largest lake outside the box is only 0.005 M km2. Kraken's overall shape is complex (lobateness 4.4 vs 2.1 for Ligeia) but its 0.44 M km2 is divided by 20 to 160 km wide straits into 5 sub-basins that are elongated E-W across the box. Numerous straight shoreline segments parallel the edges of the box. Others parallel the 10°, 80°, and 170°W meridians, as do the rectangular drainage patterns mapped by [4]. These alignments suggest a key role for tectonics in creating the depressions occupied by the northern seas. Fensal and Aztlan (the 'lazy H' of dune-filled lows straddling the equator at longitudes 0°-70°W) form a similar pattern of elongated depressions connected by a narrow strait within a rectangular box. In contrast, Titan's small lakes are widely distributed. Multiple depressions with radar-dark floors have been identified near the south pole and hypothesized as former seabeds [5], but though similar in size to the northern seas, they are not aligned with one another or tightly clustered. Thus, the geography of the north and south poles will remain distinct even if

  16. Thermal Demagnetization of Mare Basalts 10017 and 10020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suavet, C. R.; Weiss, B. P.; Grove, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    unstable. The fact that the NRM and the ARM have similar behavior upon heating confirms that the magnetization is a TRM. We compared the AF demagnetization of a 0.1 mT ARM before and after heating a subsample of 10017 up to 250°C: there was no change in the coercivity spectrum, which shows that the demagnetization was not due to alteration of the magnetic carriers. The thermal demagnetization of a subsample of 10017 with a saturation isothermal magnetization (SIRM) does not show a Curie point at 250°C. Therefore, the low-temperature demagnetization of mare basalts 10017 and 10020 is real. It could be caused by a defect magnetization of troilite, interaction between troilite and kamacite, presence of cohenite, or an unknown phenomenon.

  17. Inspiring our future citizens and scientists: follow the Blue Paths (Percorsi nel Blu)!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioni, Erika; Stroobant, Mascha; Merlino, Silvia; Traverso, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Very often we hear about scientific communication and education as separate and disconnected domains: in fact while the first one is seen more as a moment of disclosure for disseminating results and latest achievements and consequences (a look to our direct future), the second is, instead, identified as a formative moment in the long term, that often is based on obsolete and dated programs that refer to the past. What would happen if these two domains were, instead, considered as inseparable? As stated by Andrea Schleicher (OECD): "Schools have to prepare students for jobs that have not yet been created, technologies that have not yet been invented and problems that we don't know will arise." How to manage this challenge? The European Commission has proposed seven recommendations to follow for improving Science education and to bring more and more young people closer to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) disciplines. Especially three of them (Reccomendation n. 1, 4 and 7) pin out the to-do list for improving communication an education in Science, indicating that "a primary goal of science education across the EU should be to educate students both about the major explanations of the material world that science offers and about the way science works. Moreover teachers of science of the highest quality should be provided for students in primary and lower secondary school; moreover the emphasis in science education before 14 should be on engaging students with science and scientific phenomena (extended investigative work and 'hands-on' experimentation and not through a stress on the acquisition of canonical concepts). Last but not least: good quality teachers, with up to date knowledge and skills, are the foundation of any system of formal science education. Systems to ensure the recruitment, retention and continuous professional training of such individuals must be a policy priority in Europe". Blue Paths (Percorsi nel Blu) is a transversal

  18. Formation and reactivation ages of a lunar mare ridge in northern Imbrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daket, Yuko; Yamaji, Atsushi; Sato, Katsushi; Morota, Tomokatsu; Haruyama, Junichi; Ohtake, Makiko; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    2013-04-01

    Mare ridges and lobate scarps are the manifestations of ancient or recent horizontal compression in the shallow part of the Moon. Regional and global stress fields have been controlled possibly by mascon loading (e.g., Solomon and Head, 1980) and/or global cooling, the latter of which is affected by the origin of the Moon (e.g., Prichard and Stevenson, 2000). On the other hand, mascon loading results in tectonic deformations immediately after the deposition of mare fills (Mohit and Phillips, 2006). Therefore, the timing of deformations is a clue to distinguish the mechanisms. We constrained the formation age of a mare ridge in northern Mare Imbrium as follows. Mare basalts were so inviscid that their lava fields have level surfaces. And, lava flows would have been dammed by pre-existing mare ridges. Therefore, the depositional ages of the mare units-the one involved in the ridge and the other dammed by the ridge, indicate the range of the formation age of the ridge. Using images taken by SELENE (Kaguya), we found such an ENE-WSW trending ridge in northern Imbrium with the height, width and length of 300-400 m, 30 km and ~150 km, respectively. We defined spectrally distinctive two basaltic units in this area: Ti-poor basalt makes up the ridge, and relatively Ti-rich one lies on the plain at the foot of the ridge. Their boundary runs along the southern foot of the ridge. There are no fissures along the boundary that could have fed the Ti-rich basalt. Their model ages were estimated by crater-size frequency distribution measurements using craters of 250 m to 1 km in diameter. As a result, the Ti-poor and Ti-rich units gave the ages at 2.97 +0.16/-0.23 and 2.07 +0.17/-0.17 Ga, respectively, indicating the ridge was formed between ~3.0 and ~2.0 Ga. The majority of mare basalts in mare Imbrium were deposited before ~3.0 Ga (Solomon and Head, 1980), indicating that the ridge formation is explained as a latest event of the mascon loading. However, the unit boundary does

  19. The uniform K distribution of the mare deposits in the Orientale Basin: Insights from Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meng-Hua; Chang, Jin; Xie, Minggang; Fritz, Jörg; Fernandes, Vera A.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Ma, Tao; Xu, Aoao

    2015-05-01

    The composition of mare basalt units in the Orientale Basin are investigated by using the potassium (K) map derived from Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer (CE-2 GRS) and FeO map derived from Clementine UV-Vis data set. Together with crater retention ages of the mare basalts from literature data, we aim to investigate possible magma sources underneath the Orientale Basin and their chemical evolution over time. Analyses of the chemical composition of the resurfaced mare basalts together with the reported eruption ages suggest a unique magma generating process for the resurfaced mare deposits. The early mare basalts in the central Mare Orientale and the later resurfaced mare deposits probably derived from magma generated by heat release due to high radioactive element concentrations. Based on forward modeling, the similar K abundances observed in the small mare deposits of the SW polygon area, Lacus Veris, and Lacus Autumni and those in the central Mare Orientale imply the same heat source for these lava eruptions. The chemical similarities (e.g., K, FeO, and TiO2) of these regions suggest that mare basalts within the Orientale Basin are a result of multiple eruptions from a relatively homogeneous source underneath the Basin.

  20. The relationship between constructivist supervisory practices, school climate, and student proficiency in reading, mathematics, and science: Evidence from NELS:88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, John Alexander

    In an effort to improve instruction and student learning, school reform efforts have become prevalent. School reformers have examined many aspects of the school experience, including learning theories such as behaviorism and constructivism, the changing roles of teachers and supervisors, and even the concept of the school itself. The theoretical framework for this study centered around constructivist learning theory. The study itself focused on the application of constructivist learning theory to the supervisory process. The study examined five areas of interest: (a) teachers' perceptions of constructivist supervisory behavior; (b) teachers' perceptions of efficacy and control in the classroom; (c) teachers' perceptions of school climate; (d) teachers' perceptions of job satisfaction, and (e) the influences of each of the aforementioned on student proficiency in mathematics, reading, and science. Data for the study was drawn from the first follow-up survey of the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88). NELS: 88 investigated a wide variety of factors that influence the educational process. The first follow-up focuses on environmental factors that affect teachers and students. Variables were selected from the NELS:88 data set that represented the areas to be examined. Factor analysis and correlational analysis were applied to ensure that the variables were measuring distinct constructs and to determine ways they could be grouped for analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine relationships among the individual and composite variables, controlling for student and teacher demographic factors. The results of the study suggest that varying relationships do exist between constructivist supervisory practices and the constructs measuring school climate and job satisfaction. The results also suggest that varying relationships exist between each of these factors and student proficiency in mathematics, reading, and science

  1. A preliminary study on the induction of dioestrous ovulation in the mare--a possible method for inducing prolonged luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Ylva; Dalin, Anne-Marie; Santesson, Malin; Kindahl, Hans

    2006-07-26

    Strong oestrous symptoms in the mare can cause problems with racing, training and handling. Since long-acting progesterone treatment is not permitted in mares at competition (e.g. according to FEI rules), there is a need for methods to suppress unwanted cyclicity. Spontaneous dioestrous ovulations in the late luteal phase may cause a prolongation of the luteal phase in mares. In this preliminary study, in an attempt to induce ovulation during the luteal phase, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (3000 IU) was injected intramuscularly in four mares (experimental group) in the luteal phase when a dioestrous follicle > or = 30 mm was detected. A fifth mare included in this group was not treated due to no detectable dioestrous follicles > or = 30 mm. Four control mares were similarly injected with saline. The mares were followed with ultrasound for 72 hours post injection or until ovulation. Blood samples for progesterone analysis were obtained twice weekly for one month and thereafter once weekly for another two to four months. Three of the hCG-treated mares ovulated within 72 hours after treatment and developed prolonged luteal phases of 58, 68 and 82 days respectively. One treated mare never ovulated after the hCG injection and progesterone levels fell below 3 nmol/l nine days post treatment. Progesterone levels in the control mares were below 3 nmol/l within nine days after saline injection, except for one mare, which developed a spontaneously prolonged luteal phase of 72 days. HCG treatment may be a method to induce prolonged luteal phases in the mare provided there is a dioestrous follicle > or = 30 mm that ovulates post-treatment. However, the method needs to be tested on a larger number of mares to be able to draw conclusions regarding its effectiveness.

  2. Moon Diver: A Mission Concept for Exploring the History of Lunar Mare Deposits with the Axel Extreme Terrain Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L.; Nesnas, I.; Ashley, J. W.; Malaska, M. J.; Parcheta, C.; Mitchell, K. L.; Anderson, R. C.

    2016-11-01

    Moon Diver is a lunar exploration concept that would access a mare pit, allowing thorough exploration of a cross sectional exposure of both regolith and bedrock on the Moon, including stratigraphy, textures, chemistry, and mineralogy.

  3. Effects of rice bran oil on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition, and glucose dynamics in mares.

    PubMed

    Frank, N; Andrews, F M; Elliott, S B; Lew, J; Boston, R C

    2005-11-01

    Plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition, and glucose dynamics were measured and compared between mares fed diets containing added water, corn oil (CO), refined rice bran oil (RR), or crude rice bran oil (CR) to test the hypothesis that rice bran oil lowers plasma lipid concentrations, alters lipoprotein composition, and improves insulin sensitivity in mares. Eight healthy adult mares received a basal diet fed at 1.5 times the DE requirement for maintenance and each of the four treatments according to a repeated 4 x 4 Latin square design consisting of four 5-wk feeding periods. Blood samples were collected for lipid analysis after mares were deprived of feed overnight at 0 and 5 wk. Glucose dynamics were assessed at 0 and 4 wk in fed mares by combined intravenous glucose-insulin tolerance tests. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured, and estimated values of insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose effectiveness, and net insulin response were obtained using the minimal model. Mean BW increased (P = 0.014) by 29 kg (range = 10 to 50 kg) over 5 wk. Mean plasma concentrations of NEFA, triglyceride (TG), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) decreased (P < 0.001) by 55, 30, and 39%, respectively, and plasma high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations increased (P < 0.001) by 15 and 12%, respectively, over 5 wk. Changes in plasma NEFA (r = 0.58; P < 0.001) and TC (r = 0.44; P = 0.013) concentrations were positively correlated with weight gain over 5 wk. Lipid components of VLDL decreased (P < 0.001) in abundance over 5 wk, whereas the relative protein content of VLDL increased by 39% (P < 0.001). Addition of oil to the basal diet instead of water lowered plasma NEFA and TG concentrations further (P = 0.002 and 0.020, respectively) and increased plasma TC concentrations by a greater magnitude (P = 0.072). However, only plasma TG concentrations and VLDL free cholesterol content were affected (P = 0.024 and 0.009, respectively

  4. Effects of altrenogest treatment of mares in late pregnancy on parturition and on neonatal viability of their foals.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, S; Palm, F; Ambuehl, F; Aurich, C

    2008-07-01

    In this study, effects of altrenogest treatment (0.088 mg/kg daily) given to mares during late gestation until parturition on the time and the process of foaling, neonatal adaptation and postnatal development were analysed. The number of animals was 6 in the treatment group and 7 in the control group. Gestational length tended to be shorter in mares given altrenogest. Birth weight of the foals and weight of the placenta did not differ between groups. The second stage of parturition was prolonged in the altrenogest-treated mares (p<0.05). Foals born to altrenogest-treated mares had a significantly lower respiratory rate than control foals during the first 30 minutes of life (p<0.05). At no time differences in heart rate and body temperature were found between groups. In foals of altrenogest treated mares, venous plasma pH was significantly higher than in control foals at 15 and 30 minutes after birth (p<0.05). Base excess in foals of altrenogest treated mares was significantly higher than in control foals at 45 minutes and up to 12 hours after birth (p<0.05). There were significantly more problems in the perinatal period (3/6) in foals born after altrenogest treatment to their dams than in control foals (0/7; p<0.05). In conclusion, treatment with altrenogest did not prevent parturition and its effectiveness to prevent abortion or preterm foalings in mares with disturbed pregnancies should be doubted. In addition, altrenogest treatment of mares affected adaptation of the foals to the extrauterine environment.

  5. eCG concentrations, luteal structures, return to cyclicity, and postabortion fertility in embryo transfer recipient mares.

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Aguilar, J J; Vettorazzi, M L; Martínez-Boví, R

    2015-10-01

    The present study characterizes the relationship between the levels of eCG, ovarian morphology, resumption of cyclicity, and fertility in postaborted embryo transfer recipient mares. A total of 32 pregnant recipient mares carrying a male fetus were aborted at approximately 65 days of gestation by single transcervical administration of cloprostenol. In addition, 25 gestation age-matched mares were used as nonaborted controls. The concentration of progesterone, but not of eCG, differed significantly between controls and aborted mares 48 hours after abortion. Of treated mares, 84.4% (27 of 32) expelled the fetus within 48 hours of treatment. The eCG concentration and the number of supplementary luteal structures were lower in mares aborted in November (equivalent to May in Northern Hemisphere) than in January. A total of 6.2%, 37.5%, and 56.2% of the mares entered anestrus, ovulated normally, and had 1 to 2 consecutive anovulatory cycles, respectively. The mean interval from abortion to the first ovulation was 28.5 ± 3.3 days (range, 5-65 days). The correlation between the levels of eCG at abortion and the interval to the first ovulation was poor (r = 0.38; P = 0.03). Of aborted mares, 90% (18 of 20) were reused and became pregnant after embryo transfer at a mean of 57.6 ± 4.4 days after abortion (range, 19-103 days) and eCG concentration of 0.9 ± 0.3 IU/mL (range, 0.1-3.6 IU/mL). In conclusion, the levels of eCG at the time of abortion were extremely variable and did not correlate well with the number of luteal structures or the interval from abortion to the first ovulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of the interval from PGF treatment to ovulation on embryo recovery and pregnancy rate in the mare.

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Mateu-Sánchez, S; Aguilar, J J; Nielsen, J M; Etcharren, V; Vettorazzi, M L; Newcombe, J R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the interval from induced luteolysis to ovulation on fertility of mares from two different farms. At farm 1, 215 mares were inseminated with frozen/thawed semen during 513 estrous cycles over seven consecutive breeding seasons. Estrus was induced with analogues of PGF2α in 179 cycles. At farm 2, 375 embryo flushings were performed in 65 donor mares inseminated with fresh semen; of which, 327 were performed following artificial insemination after PGF-induced luteolysis. In both farms, the intervals from PGF treatment to ovulation (ITO) data were divided into three interval groups: less than 6 days, 6 to 8 days, and greater than 8 days. A mixed regression model was created to determine the effect of different factors on the pregnancy rate (PR) and embryo recovery rate (ERR). Of all factors analyzed, the ITO was the only one that significantly influenced the PR and ERR (P < 0.05). In farm 1, the PR of mares with an ITO of less than 6 days, 6 to 8 days, and greater than 8 days was 26.6%, 39.4%, and 55.9%, respectively (P = 0.01). The PR for mares inseminated after spontaneous luteolysis (without PGF) was 42.5%. In farm 2, the ERR of donor mares for the same ITO groups was 55.0%, 62.6%, and 73.7%, respectively (P = 0.02). The ERR for mares flushed after a previous spontaneous estrus was 75.0%. In conclusion, the ITO had a significant effect on the PR and ERR in the mare. Fertility was reduced as the ITO became shorter.

  7. Comparative study between pony mares and ewes evaluating gonadotrophic response to administration of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Porter, M B; Cleaver, B D; Peltier, M; Robinson, G; Thatcher, W W; Sharp, D C

    1997-07-01

    This study compared equine and ovine LH secretory responses to GnRH treatment. Dioestrous mares and ewes were challenged with continuous GnRH for 15 h. Mares that received constant GnRH (110 micrograms h-1) had sustained LH secretion (P < 0.01), whereas LH concentrations in ewes treated with continuous GnRH (25 micrograms h-1) initially increased, then declined and remained low, suggesting GnRH receptor desensitization or downregulation. In addition, progesterone-primed, ovariectomized mares and ewes were challenged with pulsatile or continuous GnRH for 5 days. Plasma LH concentrations were increased by day 5 in mares treated with pulsatile (25 micrograms pulse-1 h-1) and continuous (110 micrograms h-1) GnRH (P < 0.01). Furthermore, mean LH concentrations and time-response curves were not different. In contrast, ewes treated with continuous GnRH (2.5 micrograms h-1) demonstrated LH secretory patterns indicative of GnRH receptor downregulation on day 1 of treatment. LH concentrations in ewes treated with pulsatile GnRH (250 ng pulse-1 h-1) did not differ from controls. In conclusion, pony mares responded continuously to GnRH treatment (pulsatile and continuous), whereas ewes treated with continuous GnRH experienced reduced LH secretion. These findings suggest a unique hypothalamic-pituitary axis in pony mares.

  8. The spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts as deduced from analysis of data for lunar meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.

    2010-12-01

    In this work we analyze data for lunar meteorites with emphasis on the spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts. The data are mostly from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium ( http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/lmc/contents.cfm cited hereafter as Compendium) compiled by Kevin Righter, NASA Johnson Space Center, and from the associated literature. Analysis of the data showed that (i) a significant part of the lunar meteorite source craters are not larger than hundreds of meters in diameter; (ii) cryptomaria seem to be rather abundant in lunar highlands; (iii) the ratios of lunar meteorites belonging to three broad petrologic groups (mare basalt/gabbro, feldspatic highland breccias, and mingled breccias which are a mixture of mare and highland components) seem to be roughly proportional to the areal distribution of these rocks on the lunar surface; and (iv) the meteorite mare basalt ages show a range from ˜2.5 to 4.3 Ga and fill the gaps in the Apollo/Luna basalt age distribution. The ages of mare basalt clasts from mingled breccias seem to be systematically higher than those of "normal" mare basalts, which supports the suggestion that mingled breccias originated mostly from cryptomaria.

  9. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  10. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  11. Foaling rates after surgical repair of ventral cervical lacerations using a Trendelenburg position in 18 anesthetized mares.

    PubMed

    Leary, John Mark O'; Rodgerson, Dwayne; Spirito, Michael; Gomez, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    To (1) describe a surgical technique for repair of lacerations of the ventral aspect of the cervix in anesthetized mares in Trendelenburg position; and (2) report conception rates and foaling after repair. Case series. Mares (n = 18). Cervical lacerations were repaired in 2 layers with anesthetized mares in Trendelenburg position. The cervix was retracted caudally with stay-sutures, and after excision of the healed margin of the laceration, the internal cervical mucosa and fibromuscular tissue were sutured in 1 layer with a continuous Lembert pattern. The external cervical mucosa was sutured using a simple-continuous suture pattern. Number of foals produced by each mare before and after surgical repair was obtained from client/farm communication and from a commercial record keeping service. Mean repair time for 1 laceration was 22 minutes and for 2 lacerations was 29 minutes. Nine mares conceived and 7 had at least 1 live healthy foal. Trendelenburg position allows for efficient repair of a ventrally located cervical laceration in anesthetized mares. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. Endoscopic-assisted resection of a pedunculated uterine leiomyoma with maximal tissue preservation in a cow and a mare.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, Wilfried; Krump, Lea; Metcalfe, Lucy; Ryan, Eoin; Beltman, Marijke; Jahns, Hanne; David, Florent

    2015-02-01

    To report successful minimally invasive treatment of a uterine leiomyoma in a cow and a mare. Clinical report. Limousine cow (n = 1), Thoroughbred mare (n = 1). A 10-year-old cow and an 18-year-old mare were presented for difficulties in breeding and infertility, respectively. Examination of the reproductive tract revealed the presence of a large mass attached to the uterine wall via a wide and short peduncle in both cases. The mass expanded into the uterine lumen in the mare and into the abdomen in the cow. Both masses were removed using a minimally invasive endoscopic approach and a vessel-sealing and dividing device. Minimally invasive surgical resection of a subserosal and a submucosal leiomyoma with maximal sparing of uterine tissue resulted in a short convalescence period and apparent return to breeding function in a cow and a mare. Use of a vessel-sealing and dividing device provided excellent hemostasis and decreased tissue handling. Leiomyoma with short, wide, and thick peduncles were treated successfully in a cow and a mare with minimally invasive endoscopic approaches aiming at maximal uterine tissue preservation. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. Human Perivascular Stem Cells Show Enhanced Osteogenesis and Vasculogenesis with Nel-Like Molecule I Protein

    PubMed Central

    Askarinam, Asal; James, Aaron W.; Zara, Janette N.; Goyal, Raghav; Corselli, Mirko; Pan, Angel; Liang, Pei; Chang, Le; Rackohn, Todd; Stoker, David; Zhang, Xinli; Ting, Kang; Péault, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    An ideal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) source for bone tissue engineering has yet to be identified. Such an MSC population would be easily harvested in abundance, with minimal morbidity and with high purity. Our laboratories have identified perivascular stem cells (PSCs) as a candidate cell source. PSCs are readily isolatable through fluorescent-activated cell sorting from adipose tissue and have been previously shown to be indistinguishable from MSCs in the phenotype and differentiation potential. PSCs consist of two distinct cell populations: (1) pericytes (CD146+, CD34−, and CD45−), which surround capillaries and microvessels, and (2) adventitial cells (CD146−, CD34+, and CD45−), found within the tunica adventitia of large arteries and veins. We previously demonstrated the osteogenic potential of pericytes by examining pericytes derived from the human fetal pancreas, and illustrated their in vivo trophic and angiogenic effects. In the present study, we used an intramuscular ectopic bone model to develop the translational potential of our original findings using PSCs (as a combination of pericytes and adventitial cells) from human white adipose tissue. We evaluated human PSC (hPSC)-mediated bone formation and vascularization in vivo. We also examined the effects of hPSCs when combined with the novel craniosynostosis-associated protein, Nel-like molecule I (NELL-1). Implants consisting of the demineralized bone matrix putty combined with NELL-1 (3 μg/μL), hPSC (2.5×105 cells), or hPSC+NELL-1, were inserted in the bicep femoris of SCID mice. Bone growth was evaluated using microcomputed tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry over 4 weeks. Results demonstrated the osteogenic potential of hPSCs and the additive effect of hPSC+NELL-1 on bone formation and vasculogenesis. Comparable osteogenesis was observed with NELL-1 as compared to the more commonly used bone morphogenetic protein-2. Next, hPSCs induced greater implant vascularization than the

  14. Modes of emplacement of basalt terrains and an analysis of mare volcanism in the Orientale Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1976-01-01

    Three distinctive types of basalt terrains can be recognized on earth on the basis of surface morphology: flood basalts, shield basalts, and plains basalts, each of which reflects unique styles of eruption and modes of emplacement. Two of these, flood basalts and plains basalts, appear to be important in the emplacement of mare basalts on the moon. Using surface features as identifying criteria, mare units in the Orientale Basin were examined and the following emplacement sequence was derived: (1) initial emplacement of impact melt in the basin center, (2) eruption of flood-type basalts in the basin center and approximately concurrent emplacement of plains type basalts in Lacus Veris, and (3) emplacement of plains type basalts in Lacus Autumni

  15. Modeling approaches to describe H2O and CO2 exchange in mare ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olchev, A.; Novenko, E.; Volkova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The modern climatic conditions is strongly influenced by both internal variability of climatic system, and various external natural and anthropogenic factors (IPCC 2007). Significant increase of concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and especially the growth of atmospheric CO2 due to human activity are considered as the main factors that are responsible for global warming and climate changes. A significant part of anthropogenic CO2 is absorbed from the atmosphere by land biota and especially by vegetation cover. However, it is still not completely clear what is the role of different land ecosystems and especially forests and mares in global cycles of H2O and CO2 and what is a sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate changes. Within the frameworks of this study the spatial and temporal variability of H2O and CO2 fluxes in different types of mare ecosystems of the forest-steppe zone in European part of Russia was described using modeling approaches and results of field measurements. For this modeling and experimental study the mare ecosystems of Tula region were selected. The Tula region is located mostly in the forest-steppe zone and it is unique area for such studies because almost all existed types of mare ecosystems of Northern Eurasia distinguished by a geomorphological position, water and mineral supply can be found there. Most mares in Tula region have a relatively small size and surrounded by very heterogeneous forests that make not possible an application of the classical measuring and modeling approaches e.g. an eddy covariance technique or one-dimensional H2O and CO2 exchange models for flux estimation in such sites. In our study to describe the radiation, sensible heat, H2O and CO2 exchange between such heterogeneous mare ecosystems and the atmosphere a three-dimensional model Forbog-3D and one-dimensional Mixfor-SVAT were applied. The main concept used in the Forbog-3D and Mixfor-SVAT models is an aggregated description of physical and

  16. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma associated with a retained molar in an Oldenburg mare.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Susan; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Butler, Abigail M; Gomez-Ibañez, Sara E; Lowder, Michael Q; Fayrer-Hosken, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    An 11-year-old Oldenburg mare presented with a 3-month history of weight loss and swelling of the posterior right mandible. Physical examination and radiographs showed a soft-tissue mass in the right mandible with foci of mineralization, periosteal proliferation, and a retained molar. The tumor increased in size over several weeks, and the mare was euthanized. On necropsy, a 24 cm × 15 cm × 15 cm firm, white mass had obliterated the posterior right mandible. The mass was multinodular with discrete clusters of blood-filled cystic spaces. Histologically, the mass was composed of neoplastic odontogenic epithelium and pulpal mesenchyme with an accumulation of eosinophilic material resembling dentin or enamel. Microscopic and immunohistochemical staining features of the neoplasm were most consistent with an ameloblastic fibro-odontoma.

  17. Apollo 17 KREEPy basalt - A rock type intermediate between mare and KREEP basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Stoeser, D. B.; Wood, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The Apollo 17 KREEPy basalt is a unique lunar volcanic rock, observed only as clasts in the light friable breccia matrix (72275) of Boulder 1, Station 2 at Taurus-Littrow. Its status as a volcanic rock is confirmed by the absence of any meteoritic contamination, a lack of cognate inclusions or xenocrystal material, and low Ni contents in metal grains. The basalt was extruded 4.01 + or - 0.04 b.y. ago, approximately contemporaneously with the high-alumina mare basalts at Fra Mauro; shortly afterwards it was disrupted, probably by the Serenitatis impact, and its fragments emplaced in the South Massif. The basalt, which is quartz-normative and aluminous, is chemically and mineralogically intermediate between the Apollo 15 KREEP basalts and the high-alumina mare basalts in most respects. It consists mainly of plagioclase and pigeonitic pyroxene in approximately equal amounts, and 10-30% of mesostatis.

  18. Experimental partitioning of rare earth elements and scandium among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and mare basalt liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irving, A. J.; Merrill, R. B.; Singleton, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to measure partition coefficients for two rare-earth elements (Sm and Tm) and Sc among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and liquid coexisting in a system modeled on high-Ti mare basalt 74275. This 'primitive' sample was chosen for study because its major and trace element chemistry as well as its equilibrium phase relations at atmospheric pressure are known from previous studies. Beta-track analytical techniques were used so that partition coefficients could be measured in an environment whose bulk trace element composition is similar to that of the natural basalt. Partition coefficients for Cr and Mn were determined in the same experiments by microprobe analysis. The only equilibrium partial melting model appears to be one in which ilmenite is initially present in the source region but is consumed by melting before segregation of the high-Ti mare basalt liquid from the residue.

  19. Modes of emplacement of basalt terrains and an analysis of mare volcanism in the Orientale Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1976-01-01

    Three distinctive types of basalt terrains can be recognized on earth on the basis of surface morphology: flood basalts, shield basalts, and plains basalts, each of which reflects unique styles of eruption and modes of emplacement. Two of these, flood basalts and plains basalts, appear to be important in the emplacement of mare basalts on the moon. Using surface features as identifying criteria, mare units in the Orientale Basin were examined and the following emplacement sequence was derived: (1) initial emplacement of impact melt in the basin center, (2) eruption of flood-type basalts in the basin center and approximately concurrent emplacement of plains type basalts in Lacus Veris, and (3) emplacement of plains type basalts in Lacus Autumni

  20. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Hanneke J M; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G B; Van Den Hoek Ostende, Lars W; Hume, Julian P; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ∼4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo (Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  1. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G. B.; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hume, Julian P.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ˜4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  2. Some clinical observations on the effect of an implant of oestradiol benzoate in brood mares.

    PubMed

    Azzie, M A

    1975-10-01

    The clinical effects and therapeutic value of a 500 mg implant of oestradiol benzoate was observed in thirty-nine Thoroughbred brood mares showing various abnormalities of the ovary and/or the reproductive tract. Sixteen similarly affected, untreated mares acted as controls. The implant was inserted during the early part of the normal anoestrous period and was removed 6 to 10 weeks later. The conception rate among the treated group (59%) during the onset of the ensuing breeding season was significantly higher (P less than 0-02) than that in the control group. The value of this form of treatment in septic endometritis and as an anabolic aid in cases of immaturity is also discussed.

  3. Magnetic beneficiation of highland and hi-Ti mare soils - Rock, mineral, and glassy components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Oder, Robin R.

    1990-01-01

    The exploitation of lunar soil can provide valuable raw materials for in situ resource utilization at a lunar base. A study of magnetic characterization was undertaken of three mare and two highland soils obtained from NASA. Beneficiation of mare and highland soils by sizing and magnetic separation can effectively concentrate the important components of the soils (e.g., ilmenite, native Fe, plagioclase, and aggluminates). As a soil matures and the impact melts consume additional minerals and rocks, the modal percentage of the minerals will decrease. The 'normative' percentage will become much greater than the modal percentage. Therefore, greater efficiency of separation can be realized with the proper selection of maturity of the soil, as well as by secondary grinding to further liberate specific minerals from lithic fragments (e.g., ilmenite and plagioclase).

  4. The probable continuum between emplacement of plutons and mare volcanism in lunar crustal evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    A scenario for the formation of the Moon is advanced and is argued to be consistent with both known data and the leading hypothesis regarding the formation of the Moon. It is concluded that, although the volume of mare basalts is estimated to be only 0.1 percent of the lunar total, this value should not be taken to represent the amount of partial melt produced within the lunar interior, nor should the mare basalts be viewed as representing the only products of internal heating. The actual amount of magnetic activity is certain to be substantially larger, but cannot be estimated without a global assessment of lunar highland heterogeneity and the character, scale, and abundance of lunar plutons.

  5. The probable continuum between emplacement of plutons and mare volcanism in lunar crustal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-06-01

    A scenario for the formation of the Moon is advanced and is argued to be consistent with both known data and the leading hypothesis regarding the formation of the Moon. It is concluded that, although the volume of mare basalts is estimated to be only 0.1 percent of the lunar total, this value should not be taken to represent the amount of partial melt produced within the lunar interior, nor should the mare basalts be viewed as representing the only products of internal heating. The actual amount of magnetic activity is certain to be substantially larger, but cannot be estimated without a global assessment of lunar highland heterogeneity and the character, scale, and abundance of lunar plutons.

  6. Antiluteogenic effects of serial prostaglandin F2α administration in cycling mares.

    PubMed

    Coffman, E A; Pinto, C R F; Snyder, H K; Leisinger, C A; Cole, K; Whisnant, C S

    2014-12-01

    A single dose of PGF2α does not consistently induce luteolysis in the equine CL until at least 5 days after ovulation, leading to the erroneous assumption that the early CL is refractory to the luteolytic effects of PGF2α. We hypothesized that serial administration of PGF2α in early diestrus would induce a return to estrus similar to mares treated with a single injection in mid-diestrus, and fertility of the induced estrus would not differ. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of the 2 approaches as reflected by: (1) concentrations of plasma progesterone; (2) interovulatory and treatment-to-ovulation intervals; (3) the proportion of mares pregnant after artificial insemination. The study consisted of a balanced crossover design in which 10 reproductively normal Quarter Horse Mares were exposed to 2 treatments on 2 consecutive reproductive cycles. At detected ovulation (Day 0), mares were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatment groups: I, mid-diestrus treatment, administration of a single 10-mg dose of dinoprost tromethamine (PGF2α) im on Day 10; II, early diestrus treatment, administration of 10-mg PGF2α im twice daily on Days 0, 1, and 2 and once daily on Days 3 and 4. Mares in estrus and with a follicle 35 mm or greater in diameter were artificially inseminated with at least 2 billion motile sperm from a fertile stallion. Pregnancy was defined as detection of a growing embryonic vesicle on 2 consecutive examinations approximately 14 days after ovulation. Serial plasma samples were collected throughout the study period, and concentration of plasma progesterone was determined by RIA. A mixed-model ANOVA for repeated measures was used to analyze hormonal data. Interovulatory and treatment-to-ovulation intervals were compared by a paired t test and fertility by a McNemar chi-square analysis. All mares in group I underwent luteolysis after PGF2α administration denoted by mean (±SD) concentration of plasma progesterone of 0.25 ± 0.21 ng

  7. An outbreak of abortion in mares associated with Salmonella abortusequi infection.

    PubMed

    Madić, J; Hajsig, D; Sostarić, B; Curić, S; Seol, B; Naglić, T; Cvetnić, Z

    1997-05-01

    An abortion outbreak occurred in a herd of 38 horses, 26 of which were pregnant mares. Twenty-one mares aborted between 5-10 months of gestation. In no case were there indications of impending abortion. Pathoanatomical, histopathological, virological and bacteriological examinations were carried out on 4 aborted fetuses. Histopathology identified Gram-negative bacteria compatible with salmonella in all 4 placentae. By subsequent bacteriological examination Salmonella abortusequi was isolated as the single causative agent in each case. Nonmotile Salmonella abortusequi with antigenic formula 4,12:-:- was isolated from one of the 4 fetuses. The described episode of equine abortion clearly indicates that Salmonella abortusequi has not been eradicated from Europe as previously thought.

  8. Morphological evaluation of Day 8 embryos developed during induced aluteal cycles in the mare.

    PubMed

    Leisinger, C A; Medina, V; Markle, M L; Paccamonti, D L; Pinto, C R F

    2017-09-25

    A novel in vivo model utilizing serial administrations of PGF2α to induce aluteal cycles in the mare was used to evaluate the effects of progesterone-deprivation on the morphology of in vivo preimplantation embryos. We hypothesized that equine embryos produced during induced aluteal cycles (AL) would be developmentally affected, characterized by earlier embryo stage at collection, smaller embryo diameter, and lower quality grade, compared with those collected on the same day post-ovulation from control cycles during diestrus (high progesterone; > 4 ng/mL). Seven cyclic mares with a median age of 6.5 years (range 3-16) were utilized in a crossover design. Mares in estrus were artificially inseminated to a fertile stallion and randomly assigned to control or AL groups. Mares received either saline solution (control mares) or PGF2α (AL mares), twice daily on days 0, 1, and 2 and once daily on days 3 and 4. Serial blood samples were collected daily during estrus and until the day of embryo collection 8 days after ovulation. Mares were monitored until they returned to estrus, and artificially inseminated. Mares were switched to the opposite treatment group only after a successful embryo collection occurred during the previous cycle. Only cycles that produced embryos were used for analyses. No significant rise in progesterone was observed in the AL group with mean concentrations of plasma progesterone remaining <1.0 ng/mL from ovulation until embryo collection on Day 8. This is in sharp contrast to the control (luteal) cycle where a post-ovulatory rise in plasma progesterone was observed. The mean daily concentrations of plasma progesterone were significantly higher in control vs. AL group beginning at Day 3 and remained so until Day 8. The mean (±SEM) embryo diameter of AL embryos was 171 ± 5 μm compared to 756 ± 99 μm for control embryos. The majority of the Day 8 AL embryos were classified as morulas (3/9) or early blastocysts (5/9) with only 2

  9. Titan's lakes and Mare observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. H.; Soderblom, L. A.; Sotin, C.; Barnes, J. W.; Hayes, A. G.; Lawrence, K. J.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Soderblom, J. M.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Jaumann, R.; Nicholson, P. D.; Stephan, K.

    2012-04-01

    Titan is the only place, besides Earth, that holds stable liquid bodies at its surface. The large Kraken Mare, first seen by ISS [1], was then observed by the radar instrument that discovered a large number of small lakes as well as two other Mare [2]. The liquid nature of these radar-dark features was later confirmed by the specular reflection observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) over Kraken Mare [3] and by the very low albedo at 5-micron over Ontario Lacus [4]. The three largest lakes are called Mare and are all located in the North Pole area. It is remarkable that most of these lakes have been observed on the North Pole with only one large lake, Ontario lacus, located in the South Pole area. This observation suggests the influence of orbital parameters on the meteorology and the occurrence of rainfalls to refill the depressions [5]. Ethane was detected by the VIMS instrument as one component of Ontario lacus [4]. These lakes and Mare play a key role in Titan's meteorology as demonstrated by recent global circulation models [6]. Determining the composition and the evolution of those lakes has become a primary science objective of the Cassini extended mission. Since Titan entered northern spring in August 2009, the North Pole has been illuminated allowing observations at optical wavelengths. On June 5, 2010 the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft observed the northern pole area with a pixel size from 3 to 7 km. These observations demonstrate that little of the solar flux at 5-micron is scattered by the atmosphere, which allowed us to build a mosaic covering an area of more than 500,000 km2 that overlaps and complements observations made by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in 2007. We find that there is an excellent correlation between the shape of the radar dark area, known as Ligeia Mare and the VIMS 5-micron dark unit. Matching most of the radar shoreline, the 2010 VIMS observations suggest

  10. The solubility of sulfur in high-TiO2 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danckwerth, P. A.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of the solubility of sulfur of the high-TiO2 mare basalt 74275 at 1 atm, 1250 C. The data indicate that at saturation, 74275 is capable of dissolving 3400 ppm sulfur at 10 to 15 degrees below its liquidus. The analyzed samples of 74275 show sulfur contents of 1650 ppm S, which indicates that 74275 was 50% undersaturated at the time of eruption.

  11. Diapirism and the origin of high TiO2 mare glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    High TiO2 mare picritic glasses are derived from cumulate source regions that are only modestly endowed with ilmenite-enriched crystallization products. These sources are mobilized by the heat derived from the primitive interior and evolve into diapirs which rise adiabatically from depths in excess of 700 km. As these diapirs undergo pressure-release melting, they also stir in significant portions of the surrounding mantle.

  12. Comparison of the biopsy and cytobrush techniques for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in mares

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endometritis is a major cause of infertility in the mare. Therefore, the diagnosis of this disease is very important in veterinary practice. The objective of this study was to compare bacteriological and cytological results obtained from the mare uterus using biopsy (EB) and cytobrush (CB) techniques and relating these findings to the presence of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in endometrial tissue as the gold standard for detection of endometritis. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that endometrial cytology and microbiology data obtained from material collected using the EB and CB techniques are similar, so that the CB technique could preferentially be used to detect subclinical endometritis in clinical practice. Methods A total of 69 mares suspected of subclinical endometritis because of previous reproductive history and 15 maiden mares were enrolled in this study. Material collected from both EB and CB was smeared on sterile glass slides for cytological examinations and on culture media for microbiological examinations. Bacteriological cultures and cytological samples were classified as negative (no growth or mixed cultures of more than three microorganisms; <2% PMNs) or positive (pure growth of microorganisms; >2% PMNs) for endometritis. Results Positive growth was observed in 43% of CB samples and in 54% of EB samples (difference not significant). The growth of β-hemolytic streptococci was always connected with positive cytology. This relationship was not observed for growth of E. coli or for non-pathogenic flora. The sensitivity of bacterial growth and cytology from EB was 0.63 and 0.73 respectively. The sensitivities of bacterial growth and cytology from CB were 0.50 and 0.71 respectively. Conclusion Microbiological and cytological results obtained from CB are similar to those obtained from EB and based on these findings the CB technique may be recommended for collection of materials from the mare’s uterus in clinical practice. PMID

  13. Use of a novel silk mesh for ventral midline hernioplasty in a mare.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Jennifer; García-López, José M; Chope, Kate

    2015-03-13

    Ventral midline hernia formation following abdominal surgery in horses is an uncommon complication; however, it can have serious consequences leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Currently, mesh hernioplasty is the treatment of choice for large ventral midline hernias in horses to allow potential return to normal function. Complications following mesh hernioplasty using polypropylene or polyester mesh in horses can be serious and similar to complications seen in human patients, including persistent incisional drainage, mesh infection, hernia recurrence, intra-abdominal adhesions, mesh or body wall failure, recurrent abdominal pain (colic), and peritonitis. This report describes the use of a novel bioresorbable silk mesh for repair of a large ventral midline incisional hernia in a mature, 600-kg horse. To our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind in the literature. A 9-year-old, 600-kg Warmblood mare presented with a ventral midline hernia following emergency exploratory celiotomy 20 months prior. The mare was anesthetized and a hernioplasty was performed using a novel bioresorbable silk mesh (SERI(®) Surgical Scaffold; Allergan Medical, Boston, MA). No complications were encountered either intra- or postoperatively. The mare was discharged from the hospital at 3 days postoperatively in an abdominal support bandage. At 8 and 20 weeks postoperatively, ultrasonographic assessment showed evidence of tissue ingrowth within and around the mesh. The mare was able to be bred 2 years in a row, carrying both foals to full gestation with no complications. Following both foalings, the abdomen has maintained a normal contour with no evidence of hernia recurrence. Ventral abdominal hernias can be repaired in horses using a bioresorbable silk mesh, which provides adequate biomechanical strength while allowing for fibrous tissue ingrowth. The use of a bioresorbable silk mesh for the repair of ventral hernias can be considered as a realistic option as it

  14. Oxytocin treatment does not change cardiovascular parameters, hematology and plasma electrolytes in parturient horse mares.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Christina; Trenk, Lisa; Wulf, Manuela; Ille, Natascha; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine

    2017-03-15

    In mares, foaling is associated with changes in hematology, plasma electrolytes, blood pressure and heart rate and it has been hypothesized that these are induced by oxytocin. To test this hypothesis, mares (n = 8-14/group) were treated with oxytocin (OT; 20 I.U.) or saline (CON) at 1 h (test A) and 12 h after foaling (test B) and during first postpartum diestrus (test C). Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), atrioventricular blocks, salivary cortisol concentration, blood pressure, plasma electrolytes and blood count were determined. Heart rate decreased from test A to C (P < 0.001) but at no time differed between groups. The HRV, blood pressure and occurrence of atrioventricular blocks did not change in response to oxytocin. Cortisol concentration decreased from test A to C (P < 0.001). Oxytocin induced a cortisol release in test B (time x treatment P < 0.001, time x test P < 0.001). Plasma sodium and chloride concentrations decreased from test A to C (P < 0.001) but did not differ between groups. In test A, potassium concentration increased in CON but not OT mares (time P < 0.01, time x test P < 0.01, time x treatment P < 0.05). Polymorphnuclear cell (PMN) numbers in blood decreased from test A to C (P < 0.001) while lymphocytes increased (P < 0.05). At no time PMN and lymphocytes differed between groups. Oxytocin treatment had no effect on skin temperature. In conclusion, except for a limited effect on cortisol release, oxytocin was without effect and the hypothesis of oxytocin-induced alterations in cardiac parameters, plasma electrolytes and hematology of foaling mares was not verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lunar Meteorites: What They Tell us About the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.

    2010-01-01

    Here we analyze the chronology and statistical distribution of lunar meteorites with emphasis on the spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts. The data are mostly from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium (http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ antmet/ lmc/contents.cfm cited hereafter as Compendium) compiled by Kevin Righter, NASA Johnson Space Center, and from the associated literature. The Compendium was last modified on May 12, 2008.

  16. Whole-Genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a quarter Horse mare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The catalog of genetic variants in the horse genome originates from a few select animals, the majority originating from the Thoroughbred mare used for the equine genome sequencing project. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs), and copy number variants (CNVs) in the genome of an individual Quarter Horse mare sequenced by next-generation sequencing. Results Using massively parallel paired-end sequencing, we generated 59.6 Gb of DNA sequence from a Quarter Horse mare resulting in an average of 24.7X sequence coverage. Reads were mapped to approximately 97% of the reference Thoroughbred genome. Unmapped reads were de novo assembled resulting in 19.1 Mb of new genomic sequence in the horse. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified 3.1 million SNPs, 193 thousand INDELs, and 282 CNVs. Genetic variants were annotated to determine their impact on gene structure and function. Additionally, we genotyped this Quarter Horse for mutations of known diseases and for variants associated with particular traits. Functional clustering analysis of genetic variants revealed that most of the genetic variation in the horse's genome was enriched in sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. Conclusions This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation sequencing and the first genomic sequence of an individual Quarter Horse mare. We have increased the catalog of genetic variants for use in equine genomics by the addition of novel SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs. The genetic variants described here will be a useful resource for future studies of genetic variation regulating performance traits and diseases in equids. PMID:22340285

  17. The seahorse, the almond, and the night-mare: elaborative encoding during sleep-paralysis hallucinations?

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's proposal that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming reflects elaborative encoding mediated by the hippocampus ("seahorse") offers an interesting perspective for understanding hallucinations accompanying sleep paralysis (SP; "night-mare"). SP arises from anomalous intrusion of REM processes into waking consciousness, including threat-detection systems mediated by the amygdala ("almond"). Unique aspects of SP hallucinations offer additional prospects for investigation of Llewellyn's theory of elaborative encoding.

  18. X-ray digital imaging petrography of lunar mare soils: modal analyses of minerals and glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Patchen, A.; Taylor, D. H.; Chambers, J. G.; McKay, D. S.

    1996-01-01

    It is essential that accurate modal (i.e., volume) percentages of the various mineral and glass phases in lunar soils be used for addressing and resolving the effects of space weathering upon reflectance spectra, as well as for their calibration such data are also required for evaluating the resource potential of lunar minerals for use at a lunar base. However, these data are largely lacking. Particle-counting information for lunar soils, originally obtained to study formational processes, does not provide these necessary data, including the percentages of minerals locked in multi-phase lithic fragments and fused-soil particles, such as agglutinates. We have developed a technique for modal analyses, sensu stricto, of lunar soils, using digital imaging of X-ray maps obtained with an energy-dispersive spectrometer mounted on an electron microprobe. A suite of nine soils (90 to 150 micrometers size fraction) from the Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 mare sites was used for this study. This is the first collection of such modal data on soils from all Apollo mare sites. The abundances of free-mineral fragments in the mare soils are greater for immature and submature soils than for mature soils, largely because of the formation of agglutinitic glass as maturity progresses. In considerations of resource utilization at a lunar base, the best lunar soils to use for mineral beneficiation (i.e., most free-mineral fragments) have maturities near the immature/submature boundary (Is/FeO approximately or = 30), not the mature soils with their complications due to extensive agglutination. The particle data obtained from the nine mare soils confirm the generalizations for lunar soils predicted by L.A. Taylor and D.S. McKay (1992, Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. 23rd, pp. 1411-1412 [Abstract]).

  19. X-ray digital imaging petrography of lunar mare soils: modal analyses of minerals and glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Patchen, A.; Taylor, D. H.; Chambers, J. G.; McKay, D. S.

    1996-01-01

    It is essential that accurate modal (i.e., volume) percentages of the various mineral and glass phases in lunar soils be used for addressing and resolving the effects of space weathering upon reflectance spectra, as well as for their calibration such data are also required for evaluating the resource potential of lunar minerals for use at a lunar base. However, these data are largely lacking. Particle-counting information for lunar soils, originally obtained to study formational processes, does not provide these necessary data, including the percentages of minerals locked in multi-phase lithic fragments and fused-soil particles, such as agglutinates. We have developed a technique for modal analyses, sensu stricto, of lunar soils, using digital imaging of X-ray maps obtained with an energy-dispersive spectrometer mounted on an electron microprobe. A suite of nine soils (90 to 150 micrometers size fraction) from the Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 mare sites was used for this study. This is the first collection of such modal data on soils from all Apollo mare sites. The abundances of free-mineral fragments in the mare soils are greater for immature and submature soils than for mature soils, largely because of the formation of agglutinitic glass as maturity progresses. In considerations of resource utilization at a lunar base, the best lunar soils to use for mineral beneficiation (i.e., most free-mineral fragments) have maturities near the immature/submature boundary (Is/FeO approximately or = 30), not the mature soils with their complications due to extensive agglutination. The particle data obtained from the nine mare soils confirm the generalizations for lunar soils predicted by L.A. Taylor and D.S. McKay (1992, Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. 23rd, pp. 1411-1412 [Abstract]).

  20. X-ray digital imaging petrography of lunar mare soils: modal analyses of minerals and glasses.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L A; Patchen, A; Taylor, D H; Chambers, J G; McKay, D S

    1996-12-01

    It is essential that accurate modal (i.e., volume) percentages of the various mineral and glass phases in lunar soils be used for addressing and resolving the effects of space weathering upon reflectance spectra, as well as for their calibration such data are also required for evaluating the resource potential of lunar minerals for use at a lunar base. However, these data are largely lacking. Particle-counting information for lunar soils, originally obtained to study formational processes, does not provide these necessary data, including the percentages of minerals locked in multi-phase lithic fragments and fused-soil particles, such as agglutinates. We have developed a technique for modal analyses, sensu stricto, of lunar soils, using digital imaging of X-ray maps obtained with an energy-dispersive spectrometer mounted on an electron microprobe. A suite of nine soils (90 to 150 micrometers size fraction) from the Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 mare sites was used for this study. This is the first collection of such modal data on soils from all Apollo mare sites. The abundances of free-mineral fragments in the mare soils are greater for immature and submature soils than for mature soils, largely because of the formation of agglutinitic glass as maturity progresses. In considerations of resource utilization at a lunar base, the best lunar soils to use for mineral beneficiation (i.e., most free-mineral fragments) have maturities near the immature/submature boundary (Is/FeO approximately or = 30), not the mature soils with their complications due to extensive agglutination. The particle data obtained from the nine mare soils confirm the generalizations for lunar soils predicted by L.A. Taylor and D.S. McKay (1992, Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. 23rd, pp. 1411-1412 [Abstract]).

  1. The solubility of sulfur in high-TiO2 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danckwerth, P. A.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of the solubility of sulfur of the high-TiO2 mare basalt 74275 at 1 atm, 1250 C. The data indicate that at saturation, 74275 is capable of dissolving 3400 ppm sulfur at 10 to 15 degrees below its liquidus. The analyzed samples of 74275 show sulfur contents of 1650 ppm S, which indicates that 74275 was 50% undersaturated at the time of eruption.

  2. Determining the Neutrino Mass with a Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detector - The Experiment MARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.

    2008-06-01

    In the light of the recent cosmological discussion, the direct measurement of the lightest neutrino mass from single β-decay has become an important issue. Calorimetric low-temperature detectors measure the temperature rise induced by the energy deposition of the β-electron in an absorber of low heat capacity. It has been demonstrated in the past that observing the β-decay spectrum of 187Re provides a suitable method to determine the mass of the electron anti-neutrino from β-endpoint measurements. In a first step, with the experiments MANU and MIBETA a sensitivity of mve ≤20 eV/c2 was achieved. To compete with the sensitivity of mve ≤ 0.2 eV/c2 aimed at with the KATRIN experiment, a new experiment MARE has been initiated. As a first stage, MARE-I will reach a sensitivity of mve ≤ 2 eV/c2. With 300 detectors mounted, systematic effects of the calorimetric approach will be studied in detail. The second stage MARE-II will consist of several 10000 detectors and aim at a sensitivity of mve ≤ 0.2 eV/c2.

  3. Geological and geophysical field investigations from a lunar base at Mare Smythii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Hood, Lon L.

    1992-01-01

    Mare Smythii, located on the equator and east limb of the Moon, has a great variety of scientific and economic uses as the site for a permanent lunar base. Here a complex could be established that would combine the advantages of a nearside base (for ease of communications with Earth and normal operations) with those of a farside base (for shielding a radio astronomical observatory from the electromagnetic noise of Earth). The Mare Smythii region displays virtually the entire known range of geological processes and materials found on the Moon; from this site, a series of field traverses and investigations could be conducted that would provide data on and answers to fundamental questions in lunar geoscience. This endowment of geological materials also makes the Smythii region attractive for the mining of resources for use both on the Moon and in Earth-Moon space. We suggest that the main base complex be located at 0, 90 deg E, within the mare basalts of the Smythii basin; two additional outposts would be required, one at 0, 81 deg E to maintain constant communications with Earth, and and the other, at 0, 101 deg E on the lunar farside, to serve as a radio astronomical observatory. The bulk of lunar surface activities could be conducted by robotic teleoperations under the direct control of the human inhabitants of the base.

  4. Milking tests on Murgese mares and the design of adapted stalls.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, F; Bianchi, B; D'Emilio, F P

    2005-01-01

    The results of research into the milking of mares of the Murgese breed are described. A comparison was made between hand and mechanical milking with two pulsation rates (120 and 140 cycles/min) with the objective of defining mechanical and operational solutions for the design or standardisation of machine milking of mares with special reference to the Murgese breed. The study was performed on four multiparous mares, after a suitable adaptation period. The trial lasted 45 days, during which the animals were milked twice a day. Research showed considerable advantages, both from productive and technical manipulation viewpoints, of milking this species by mechanical means, rather than by hand. Moreover, mechanical milking at 140 cycles/min provided better results than other techniques examined, as it is possible to obtain the best milk production, the smallest specific power consumption and, in addition, the highest working capacity and labour productivity. The adaptation of the animals to mechanical milking and the resultant production can be considered adequate. Mechanical and operating solutions are proposed for new plants, together with adaptations to ensure security in existing plants.

  5. Abortions in Thoroughbred mares associated with consumption of bulbosus buttercups (Ranunculus bulbosus L).

    PubMed

    Swerczek, Thomas W

    2016-03-15

    Unexplained clinical signs of weight loss and emaciation were reported in a herd of Thoroughbred horses grazing spring pastures on a central Kentucky farm, even though supplemental grain and hay were provided. A buttercup plant, Ranunculus bulbosus L, was abundantly present in all pastures and paddocks on the farm. All horses, especially lactating mares and their foals, had mild to severe weight loss as assessed by body condition. Seven mares on the farm had been confirmed pregnant between 30 and 45 days of gestation, but were later found to have aborted. Two 2-year-old fillies developed severe diarrhea, incoordination, recumbency, and paralysis and were euthanized. Necropsy of these horses revealed ulcers and erosions in the stomach and large intestine. The findings were considered consistent with buttercup toxicosis. The horses were moved from the buttercup-infested pastures to a farm free of the weed. All horses made an uneventful recovery, and clinical signs resolved after the horses were transferred to buttercup-free pastures. Mares that had aborted conceived successfully in the next breeding season. The buttercup plant is toxic for all classes of livestock. The clinical signs associated with buttercup toxicosis may mimic other disease syndromes affecting the gastrointestinal tract of herbivores. On-farm epidemiological investigations are an essential part of the diagnosis of this condition. Consumption of buttercups has previously been associated with abortions in cattle, but to the author's knowledge, this has not previously been described in horses.

  6. Glanzmann thrombasthenia in a 17-year-old Peruvian Paso mare.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Macarena G; Wills, Tamara B; Christopherson, Peter; Hines, Melissa T

    2011-03-01

    A 17-year-old Peruvian Paso mare was evaluated for bilateral epistaxis that had been present for at least 3 years. The mare had mild anemia, platelet count within the reference interval, unremarkable coagulation times, and a negative Coggins test. On endoscopic examination, structural abnormalities were not observed in the nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, or either guttural pouch, but petechiation was noted in the nasal mucosa. Additional tests revealed prolonged cutaneous bleeding time, normal concentration of von Willebrand factor antigen, an abnormal clot retraction test, and failure of plalelet aggregation in response to agonists, suggesting a functional disorder of platelets. Genetic analysis indicated the horse was homozygous for a 10-base-pair deletion that included the last 3 base pairs of exon 11 and the first 7 base pairs of intron 11 of the gene encoding glycoprotein IIb. The diagnosis was Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) caused by a structural defect in glycoprotein IIb. GT is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex on platelet surfaces. Separate genes encode each glycoprotein, and mutations in either gene can result in GT. This case of GT is unique given the age of the mare at the time of diagnosis. We conclude that GT, although an inherited disorder, should be considered in horses with suspected dysfunctional platelets, regardless of age. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. The effect of altrenogest, an oral progestin, on hematologic and biochemical parameters in mares.

    PubMed

    Shideler, R K; Voss, J L; Aufderheide, W M; Hessemann, C P; Squires, E L

    1983-08-01

    Twenty mares were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: no altrenogest; altrenogest at 0.044 mg/kg BW; altrenogest at 0.132 mg/kg BW; or altrenogest at 0.220 mg/kg BW. Treatment was administered daily for 86 days. No signs of illness attributable to feeding altrenogest were observed during the trial. Treatment had no effect (P greater than .05) on the following parameters: WBC, differential WBC, platelet number, creatinine, LDH, CPK, total bilirubin, cholesterol, globulin, BSP, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. When comparing values over time with pretreatment means or among treatment groups, there were differences (P less than .05) in RBC, PCV, Hb, ALT, PT, PTT, P, Na, TP, BUN, Cl and glucose. However, these changes remained within established normal ranges and also occurred in mares in the control group. There was no treatment by time interaction for any of these parameters. Treatment differences (P less than .05) were observed for K, Ca, alkaline phosphatase and AST during the course of the trial. However, only occasional values of these parameters were outside the established ranges. They were only slightly elevated and tended to be either sporadic or also occurred in control mares. Few of the observed changes could be attributed to the feeding of altrenogest.

  8. Preantral follicle density in ovarian biopsy fragments and effects of mare age.

    PubMed

    Alves, K A; Alves, B G; Gastal, G D A; Haag, K T; Gastal, M O; Figueiredo, J R; Gambarini, M L; Gastal, E L

    2017-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) evaluate preantral follicle density in ovarian biopsy fragments within and among mares; (2) assess the effects of mare age on the density and quality of preantral follicles; and (3) determine the minimum number of ovarian fragments and histological sections needed to estimate equine follicle density using a mathematical model. The ovarian biopsy pick-up method was used in three groups of mares separated according to age (5-6, 7-10 and 11-16 years). Overall, 336 preantral follicles were recorded with a mean follicle density of 3.7 follicles per cm(2). Follicle density differed (P<0.05) among animals, ovarian fragments from the same animal, histological sections and age groups. More (P<0.05) normal follicles were observed in the 5-6 years (97%) than the 11-16 years (84%) age group. Monte Carlo simulations showed a higher probability (90%; P<0.05) of detecting follicle density using two experimental designs with 65 histological sections and three to four ovarian fragments. In summary, equine follicle density differed among animals and within ovarian fragments from the same animal, and follicle density and morphology were negatively affected by aging. Moreover, three to four ovarian fragments with 65 histological sections were required to accurately estimate follicle density in equine ovarian biopsy fragments.

  9. Risk factors associated with the incidence of foal mortality in an extensively managed mare herd.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, S D; Bristol, F; Card, C E

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal mortality in a large, extensively managed mare herd and what risk factors were involved in foal mortality. For a 6 wk period between April 18, 1994, and May 31, 1994, 334 foals were born, of which 74 died before reaching 10 d of age, giving an overall mortality of 22% for this period. Seventy four percent of the foal deaths occurred within 48 h of parturition. The major causes of foal mortality included starvation/exposure 27%, septicemia 26%, and dystocia 20%. Weekly incidences varied significantly, ranging from 67% for week 1 to 14% for week 5 (P < 0.01). Other risk factors that were associated with foal death included failure of passive transfer (P < 0.0001), poor mothering ability (P < 0.0001), the presence of dystocia (P < 0.0001), low birth weight (p < 0.05), lack of rainfall (P < 0.01), and low temperatures (P < 0.1). The effect of sire, mare age, mare body condition, and foal sex were not significant risk factors for foal survival (P > 0.1). Further studies are required to determine if changing management procedures will be effective in reducing the incidence of neonatal foal mortality in this extensively managed herd. PMID:8640655

  10. Elastic lithosphere thickness on the moon from mare tectonic features - A formal inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comer, R. P.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The thickness (T) of the lunar elastic lithosphere at the time (3.6 to 3.8 billion years ago) of the earliest preserved basalt flows in circular mare basins can be estimated by inverting the observed locations of extensional tectonic features in and surrounding the maria. In performing the inversion, the lithosphere is modeled as an elastic shell with a liquid interior, and the basalt load for each mare is approximated by a set of concentric cylinders. To permit solving the forward problem of placing radial limits on the positions of the rilles around a given mare, an additional parameter F, the ratio of the radial stress at the radial limits to the maximum radial stress, is introduced. T and F are chosen to give the best weighted-squares fit of the radial limits to the observations, and are used as the initial values in a linearized matrix inversion to check the resolution and estimate errors. The application of the procedure to three maria with prominent extensional features, Humorum, Orientale, and Serenitatis, gives values of T from about 40 + or - 10 to 50 + or - 10 km, and in each case the linearized matrix equation has an exact inverse.

  11. Relation between leptin and estradiol levels in Egyptian lactating Arab mares during foaling heat.

    PubMed

    El-Maaty, Amal M Abo; Gabr, Faten I

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen Arab lactating mares belonging to Al-Zahraa Arab Horse Stud underwent two ultrasound examinations at 3 weeks interval starting from the day of demonstration of foaling heat. In addition, daily blood samples were collected from parturition until after exhibiting first postpartum estrus (day 11) with daily observation of estrous signs. Both leptin and estradiol hormones were assayed. Mean day of foaling heat was 8.9+/-0.9 day. Most mares came in foaling heat during days 9 and 10 had high conception rate compared to those who came in estrus earlier or later. Estradiol levels were high after day of foaling then decrease after expression of foaling heat. But leptin levels increase from day 8 to day 10 compared to other days before and after the first ovulation. A significant positive correlation was found between estradiol and leptin (r=0.58, p<0.025). The positive correlation between leptin and estradiol led us to suggest that leptin hormone plays an important role in ovulation of the first postpartum estrus in mares.

  12. The Status of the MARE Experiment with 187Re and 163Ho Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Bagliani, D.; Biasotti, M.; Ceruti, G.; Corsini, D.; Faverzani, M.; Gatti, F.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Kilbourne, C.; Kling, A.; Maino, M.; Manfrinetti, P.; Nucciotti, A.; Pessina, G.; Pizzigoni, G.; Gomes, M. Ribeiro; Sisti, M.

    Neutrino oscillation experiments have proved that neutrinos are massive particles but the assessment of their absolute mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in today particle physics and cosmology. The laboratory experiments dedicated to effective electron-neutrino mass determination are the ones based on the study of single beta decay or electron capture (EC) decay. Exploiting only on energy-momentum conservation, this kinematic measurement is the only one which permits to estimate neutrino masses without theoretical assumptions on neutrino nature and it is truly model-independent. To date the most competitive isotopes for a calorimetric measurement of the neutrino mass are 187Re and 163Ho. While the first decays beta, the latter decays via electron capture, and both have a Q-value around 2.5 keV. The measurement of 163Ho EC is an appealing alternative to the 187Re beta decay measurement because few nuclei are needed and it is a self-calibrating measurement. In this context the MARE project, based on rhenium thermal detectors has been born. We report here the status of MARE in Milan with Rhenium and the activity concerning the production of radioactive 163Ho isotope in the framework of MARE.

  13. Elastic lithosphere thickness on the moon from mare tectonic features - A formal inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comer, R. P.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The thickness (T) of the lunar elastic lithosphere at the time (3.6 to 3.8 billion years ago) of the earliest preserved basalt flows in circular mare basins can be estimated by inverting the observed locations of extensional tectonic features in and surrounding the maria. In performing the inversion, the lithosphere is modeled as an elastic shell with a liquid interior, and the basalt load for each mare is approximated by a set of concentric cylinders. To permit solving the forward problem of placing radial limits on the positions of the rilles around a given mare, an additional parameter F, the ratio of the radial stress at the radial limits to the maximum radial stress, is introduced. T and F are chosen to give the best weighted-squares fit of the radial limits to the observations, and are used as the initial values in a linearized matrix inversion to check the resolution and estimate errors. The application of the procedure to three maria with prominent extensional features, Humorum, Orientale, and Serenitatis, gives values of T from about 40 + or - 10 to 50 + or - 10 km, and in each case the linearized matrix equation has an exact inverse.

  14. Geological and geophysical field investigations from a lunar base at Mare Smythii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Hood, Lon L.

    1992-09-01

    Mare Smythii, located on the equator and east limb of the Moon, has a great variety of scientific and economic uses as the site for a permanent lunar base. Here a complex could be established that would combine the advantages of a nearside base (for ease of communications with Earth and normal operations) with those of a farside base (for shielding a radio astronomical observatory from the electromagnetic noise of Earth). The Mare Smythii region displays virtually the entire known range of geological processes and materials found on the Moon; from this site, a series of field traverses and investigations could be conducted that would provide data on and answers to fundamental questions in lunar geoscience. This endowment of geological materials also makes the Smythii region attractive for the mining of resources for use both on the Moon and in Earth-Moon space. We suggest that the main base complex be located at 0, 90 deg E, within the mare basalts of the Smythii basin; two additional outposts would be required, one at 0, 81 deg E to maintain constant communications with Earth, and and the other, at 0, 101 deg E on the lunar farside, to serve as a radio astronomical observatory. The bulk of lunar surface activities could be conducted by robotic teleoperations under the direct control of the human inhabitants of the base.

  15. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd evolution in lunar mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, D. M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Stille, P.; Patchett, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Existing cumulate remelting models for mare basalt genesis are evaluated in light of Lu-Hf, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd data and overall REE characteristics in order to determine the simplest model that can account for these data. A data base for comparing Lu-Hf evolution in the lunar mantle as inferred from Lu-Hf analyses of oceanic basalts is presented along with a preliminary comparison of Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd evolution betwee mare basalts and terrestrial oceanic basalts. It is found that Lu/Hf characteristics of mare basalts cannot be explained in terms of modal melting of cumulate sources formed from a magma ocean with chondritic Lu/Hf. The data are consistent with a model in which the cumulate sources formed from a light REE + HF-enriched magma ocean. Nonmodal melting of ilmenite in the sources is also required. The Lu-Hf data suggest that even the high-Ti basalt sources contained no more than about 3 percent ilmenite.

  16. Longitudinal changes in serum catecholamines, dopamine, serotonin, ACTH and cortisol in pregnant Spanish mares.

    PubMed

    Marcilla, María; Muñoz, Ana; Satué, Katy

    2017-01-21

    Systemic physiological changes required for placental and fetal development during pregnancy are associated with an activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) in women, but this fact has not been investigated in mares. Venous blood samples were taken monthly from 31 successful Spanish mares during the 11months of pregnancy. During the first 4months of pregnancy, adrenaline (AD), dopamine (DOPA) and ACTH increases, whereas 5-hydroxitryptamine (5-HT) decreased, and noradrenaline (NAD) and cortisol (CORT) did not change. Serum NAD increased at 8th month, 5-HT at 5th, 7th months, and DOPA increased progressively between the 5th and 8th months and CORT concentrations peak at 5th month. During the three last months of pregnancy, NAD, 5-TH and DOPA decreased, particularly at the 11th month. These results confirmed an activation of the SNS and the HPA axis in pregnant mares during successful pregnancies. The next step would be to elucidate whether these changes also appear in unsuccessful pregnancies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. How does the suppression of energy supplementation affect herbage intake, performance and parasitism in lactating saddle mares?

    PubMed

    Collas, C; Fleurance, G; Cabaret, J; Martin-Rosset, W; Wimel, L; Cortet, J; Dumont, B

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology opens up new perspectives for the design of sustainable farming systems by using the stimulation of natural processes to reduce the inputs needed for production. In horse farming systems, the challenge is to maximize the proportion of forages in the diet, and to develop alternatives to synthetic chemical drugs for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes. Lactating saddle mares, with high nutritional requirements, are commonly supplemented with concentrates at pasture, although the influence of energy supplementation on voluntary intake, performance and immune response against parasites has not yet been quantified. In a 4-month study, 16 lactating mares experimentally infected with cyathostome larvae either received a daily supplement of barley (60% of energy requirements for lactation) or were non-supplemented. The mares were rotationally grazed on permanent pastures over three vegetation cycles. All the mares met their energy requirements and maintained their body condition score higher than 3. In both treatments, they produced foals with a satisfying growth rate (cycle 1: 1293 g/day; cycle 2: 1029 g/day; cycle 3: 559 g/day) and conformation (according to measurements of height at withers and cannon bone width at 11 months). Parasite egg excretion by mares increased in both groups during the grazing season (from 150 to 2011 epg), independently of whether they were supplemented or not. This suggests that energy supplementation did not improve mare ability to regulate parasite burden. Under unlimited herbage conditions, grass dry matter intake by supplemented mares remained stable around 22.6 g DM/kg LW per day (i.e. 13.5 kg DM/al per day), whereas non-supplemented mares increased voluntary intake from 22.6 to 28.0 g DM/kg LW per day (13.5 to 17.2 kg DM/al per day) between mid-June and the end of August. Hence total digestible dry matter intake and net energy intake did not significantly differ between supplemented and non-supplemented mares during the

  18. Effects of oral treatment with N-acetylcysteine on the viscosity of intrauterine mucus and endometrial function in estrous mares.

    PubMed

    Witte, T S; Melkus, E; Walter, I; Senge, B; Schwab, S; Aurich, C; Heuwieser, W

    2012-10-01

    Persistent breeding-induced endometritis is ranked as the third most common medical problem in the adult mare and leads to enormous economic loss in horse breeding. In mares suffering from persistent breeding-induced endometritis, increased amounts of intrauterine (i.u.) fluid or viscous mucus in estrus or after breeding may act as a barrier for sperm and can contribute to low fertility. Current therapies of these mares aim to eliminate i.u. fluid and mucus by uterine lavage and/or administration of ecbolic drugs. Recently, i.u. administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to support therapy in mares with endometritis. It was the objective of the present study to investigate effects of an oral administration of NAC on the viscosity of i.u. fluid in estrous mares. It was hypothesized that oral treatment with NAC reduces the viscosity of i.u. fluid and has a positive effect on the inflammatory response of the endometrium. Mares (n = 12) were included in the study as soon as estrus was detected (ovarian follicle >3.0 cm and endometrial edema), which was defined as Day 1. They were randomly assigned to a treatment (10 mg/kg NAC on Days 1-4) or a control group (no treatment). On days 1 and 5 i.u. mucus was collected and its rheologic properties were accessed. On Day 5, endometrial biopsies were obtained and evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the treatment group, viscosity of i.u. mucus increased significantly between Days 1 and 5 (P < 0.05), while no differences were found in control mares (n.s.). At no time were significant differences between treated and control mares seen. Integrity of epithelium was not affected. After NAC treatment the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies was significantly lower compared to mares of the control group (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 4.8 ± 0.4; P < 0

  19. Differential luteolytic function between the physiological breeding season, autumn transition and persistent winter cyclicity in the mare.

    PubMed

    King, S S; Douglas, B L; Roser, J F; Silvia, W J; Jones, K L

    2010-02-01

    There is a well-documented increase in luteolytic failure, resulting in spontaneously prolonged corpus luteum (SPCL) function, during estrous cycles of horses in autumn. The cause of this phenomenon may be due to seasonal alterations in PGF(2alpha) and/or in prolactin (PRL) secretion around luteolysis. To investigate this, progesterone (P4), 13, 14-dihydro, 15-keto PGF(2alpha) (PGFM) and PRL concentrations were compared between summer and autumn estrous cycles during natural luteolysis and luteolysis induced by benign uterine stimulation. A single estrous cycle from mares in June-July (n=12) was compared to multiple estrous cycles from these 12 mares plus 8 additional mares in September through December. Reproductive behavior was monitored by bringing a stallion in close proximity to the mare and ovarian events by ultrasonography. Blood was collected via jugular cannula every 6h from d 13 to 17 post-ovulation in untreated control mares (n=8 summer, n=9 autumn). In treated mares, blood collection occurred at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240min followed by 6h intervals for a total of 5d following intrauterine saline infusion on d 7 (n=4 summer, n=11 autumn). Mares failing to return to estrus for 30d received intrauterine saline and the described intensive blood sampling protocol on d 30. Progesterone and PRL were determined on daily samples and PGFM on frequent plasma collections by RIA. Duration of ovarian luteal and follicular phases, P4 and PRL concentrations and PGFM secretion around luteolysis were compared between treatments and seasons by ANOVA. Mean P4 declined from June to December in all groups. Pulses of PGFM were detected on d 13-17 in controls and d 7-11 in saline-infused mares. Pulse patterns were not different between groups. The incidence of SPCL increased during autumn in the control group. PGFM pulses were absent on d 13-17 in mares with SPCL, but PGFM pulses could be induced in these mares by saline infusion at d 30. Autumn PGFM profiles

  20. Lunar crustal analysis of Mare Orientale from topographic and gravity correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Frese, Ralph R. B.; Tan, Li; Potts, Laramie V.; Kim, Jeong Woo; Merry, Carolyn J.; Bossler, John D.

    1997-11-01

    We investigated the use of spectral correlation analysis for modeling the crustal features of Mare Orientale from lunar 70th degree spherical harmonic topographic and gravity field models derived from Clementine satellite and earlier investigations. The analysis considered a 64°-by-64° region of the Moon centered roughly on Mare Orientale at an altitude of 100 km. The topography of the study region, which includes over 11 km of relief, was modeled for its gravity effects in lunar spherical coordinates by Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration assuming a terrain density of 2.8g/cm3. We observed substantial positive and negative correlations between terrain gravity effects and free-air gravity anomalies that seriously limit the utility of simple Bouguer gravity anomalies for subsurface studies. Using the wavenumber correlation spectrum between the two data sets, we designed correlation filters to extract the common features. Possible interpretations for the terrain-correlated free-air gravity anomalies include isostatic crustal mass imbalances that may be equilibrated by radial adjustments of the Moho of up to 44 km, assuming Airy-Heiskanen compensation and a mantle density contrast of 0.5g/cm3 with the crust. These Moho adjustments define mass variations that account for most of the mascon and flanking negative free-air gravity anomalies. Furthermore, their remarkable correlation with the topographic rings of Mare Orientale points to the possible influence of a strong local stress field of the crust in the development of the ring structures. Subtracting the terrain-correlated free-air anomalies from the free-air gravity anomalies and terrain gravity effects yielded terrain-decorrelated free-air and isostatically compensated terrain gravity anomalies, respectively, that show zero correlation. This lack of correlation may be interpreted for a Moho that involves over 100 km of relief assuming Airy-Heiskanen compensation of the crust. Beneath Mare Orientale, we

  1. Mini-RF and LROC observations of mare crater layering relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickle, A. M.; Patterson, G. W.; Cahill, J. T. S.; Bussey, D. B. J.

    2016-07-01

    The lunar maria cover approximately 17% of the Moon's surface. Discerning discrete subsurface layers in the mare provides some constraints on thickness and volume estimates of mare volcanism. Multiple types of data and measurement techniques allow probing the subsurface and provide insights into these layers, including detailed examination of impact craters, mare pits and sinuous rilles, and radar sounders. Unfortunately, radar sounding includes many uncertainties about the material properties of the lunar surface that may influence estimates of layer depth and thickness. Because they distribute material from depth onto the surface, detailed examination of impact ejecta blankets provides a reliable way to examine deeper material using orbital instruments such as cameras, spectrometers, or imaging radars. Here, we utilize Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) data to investigate the scattering characteristics of ejecta blankets of young lunar craters. We use Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR) information from twenty-two young, fresh lunar craters to examine how the scattering behavior changes as a function of radius from the crater rim. Observations across a range of crater size and relative ages exhibit significant diversity within mare regions. Five of the examined craters exhibit profiles with no shelf of constant CPR near the crater rim. Comparing these CPR profiles with LROC imagery shows that the magnitude of the CPR may be an indication of crater degradation state; this may manifest differently at radar compared to optical wavelengths. Comparisons of radar and optical data also suggest relationships between subsurface stratigraphy and structure in the mare and the block size of the material found within the ejecta blanket. Of the examined craters, twelve have shelves of approximately constant CPR as well as discrete layers outcropping in the subsurface, and nine fall along a trend line when comparing shelf-width with thickness of subsurface layers. These

  2. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    PubMed

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gestational length in Carthusian broodmares: effects of breeding season, foal gender, age of mare, year of parturition, parity and sire.

    PubMed

    Satué, K; Felipe, M; Mota, J; Muñoz, A

    2011-01-01

    The length of gestation in Carthusian broodmares was calculated on the basis of 339 spontaneous full-term deliveries taking place in the 8-year period 1998-2005 from 158 broodmares and 29 stallions in a major farm of Spanish horses of Carthusian strain in southern Spain. Ultrasonography was used to determine follicular dehiscence, 1st day of pregnancy and to confirm conception in mares. Mean GL was 332.4 +/- 12.1 days, and a normal interval of 297-358 days was established for this breed. GL records were grouped on the basis of foal sex (colts or fillies), mating month (between November and January; February and April; May and July), age of the mare (4 to 7 years; 8 to 12 years; 13 to 17 years), breeding year, stallion and parity (primiparous vs. multiparous). GLs were 12.9 days shorter in mares mated between May and July than those mated between November and January and 15.3 days in mares mated between February and April (p < 0.001). Mares aged between 8-12 years had 5.3 days shorter GLs than those aged between 13-17 years (p < 0.05). Pregnancy was significantly 5.7 days longer when the mare gave birth to colts than fillies (p < 0.05). GL was 14.5 days longer in primiparous than in multiparous mares ( p < 0.001). No statistical differences in GL were found between the studied years. This study shows the influence of certain stallion on GL.

  4. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Isotopic Studies of Meteorite Kalahari 009: An Old VLT Mare Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Bischoff, A.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Kalahari 009 is a fragmental basaltic breccia contain ing various very-low-Ti (VLT) mare basalt clasts embedded in a fine-g rained matrix of similar composition. This meteorite and lunar meteorite Kalahari 008, an anorthositic breccia, were suggested to be paired mainly due to the presence of similar fayalitic olivines in fragment s found in both meteorites. Thus, Kalahari 009 probably represents a VLT basalt that came from a locality near a mare-highland boundary r egion of the Moon, as compared to the typical VLT mare basalt samples collected at Mare Crisium during the Luna-24 mission. The concordant Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar ages of such a VLT basalt (24170) suggest that the extrusion of VLT basalts at Mare Crisium occurred 3.30 +/- 0.05 Ga ag o. Previous age results for Kalahari 009 range from approximately 4.2 Ga by its Lu-Hf isochron age to 1.70?0.04 Ga of its Ar-Ar plateau ag e. However, recent in-situ U-Pb dating of phosphates in Kalahari 009 defined an old crystallization age of 4.35+/- 0.15 Ga. The authors su ggested that Kalahari 009 represents a cryptomaria basalt. In this r eport, we present Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic results for Kalahari 009, discuss the relationship of its age and isotopic characteristics to t hose of other L-24 VLT mare basalts and other probable cryptomaria ba salts represented by Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalts, and discuss it s petrogenesis.

  5. Mixing Across a Simple Mare-Highland Contact in the Grimaldi Basin: New Insights from Clementine UV/VIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Mustard, J. F.; He, G.

    1996-03-01

    The investigation of the composition of mare-highland boundaries carried out by Mustard et al. using multispectral images from the Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) instrument reveals the existence of three distinct mixing systematics across the mare-highland contacts in the region of southwestern Procellarum. The three basic types are narrow, moderate, and complex mixing gradients, and each implies a different set of fundamental processes that have contributed to the observed gradients. However, the 4 km resolution of the Galileo SSI data is too low to critically evaluate the exact properties of these boundaries, particularly in areas with rapidly changing abundances. The higher spatial resolution of Clementine UV/VIS data ( ~200 m/pixel, 5 filters between 0.415- 1.0 am-micrometers) allows the contact of mare-highland to be addressed in more detail. We have begun a series of studies to characterize and model mixing across mare-highland boundaries using these data, beginning with simple boundaries (sharp geologic contact, simple superposition of mare on highland). In this study, the contact between the Grimaldi mare and the highland on the southern edge is investigated through the spectral mixture analysis of Clementine UV/VIS data. Our preliminary analyses reveals the boundary consists of three mixing zones: moderate, steep, and moderate. The moderate zones on the mare and highland sides of the contact are approximately 30km wide, while the steep zone is ~6-8 km wide. We are currently examining other such simple boundaries to determine if the physical dimensions and properties are consistent across the moon, and thus a chracteristic properties of simple boundaries.

  6. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P < 0.05. Data were first evaluated using the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality. Differences between groups in days to luteolysis (DTL) were examined using analysis of variance and Bonferroni, and the effect of day and treatment on P4 levels were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's all pairwise test. There was a significant

  7. Relationships between sexual behaviour, dominant follicle area, uterus ultrasonic image and pregnancy rate in mares of two breeds differing in reproductive efficiency.

    PubMed

    Górecka, Aleksandra; Jezierski, Tadeusz A; Słoniewski, Krzysztof

    2005-07-01

    Weak or equivocal expression of oestrous behaviour, related to different level of mares' reactivity, may cause problems in oestrus detection and thus influence the reproductive efficiency. The aim of the study was to test whether a breed characterised by low pregnancy rate and high emotional reactivity (Thoroughbreds) differs in oestrous behaviour from a primitive breed with higher reproductive efficiency (Koniks). Additionally, the follicle size was examined to determine how it influences the intensity of oestrus and uterine ultrasonic image and whether the pregnancy rate differs in relation to the intensity of oestrous behaviour and the size of the dominant follicle(s) area on day preceding ovulation in both breeds. During four reproductive seasons the behaviour of 20 Konik polski (K) and 37 Thoroughbred (T) was observed during daily teasing. Simultaneously, the ultrasonic examinations of the reproductive system were carried out. The behaviour of mares was quantified by scoring on an 8-point scale (behavioural score, BS), according to increasing sexual receptivity. Cross-sectional follicular area (FA) was taken as a product of the two largest perpendicular follicular diameters and mean values for each breed were estimated on 1693 and 1982 mm2 for K and T mares, respectively (P < 0.05). Mares were classified according to the pooled area of dominant follicle (FA) during the preovulatory period: group A (FA < or = breed mean) and group B (FA > breed mean). Uterus image (UI) was scored (1-5) according to the increasing uterine echogenicity. The BS was higher (P < 0.01) in K mares (BS = 5.19) than in T mares (BS = 4.04). The BS was significantly related to increasing follicular area (FA). There was no breed difference in uterus image (UI) score. However, significant regression of UI on FA was found in K mares. The intensity of oestrus was positively related with UI (r = 0.29; P < 0.01) only in K mares, no such relationship was found in T mares. The pregnancy rate was

  8. Factors affecting the incidence of postpartum oestrus, ovarian activity and reproductive performance in Thoroughbred mares bred at foal heat under Indian subtropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sumeet; Davies Morel, M C G; Dhaliwal, G S

    2010-07-01

    Decreased reproductive performance due to summer stress is a well known phenomenon in farm livestock. Whether this occurs in the mare and specifically how this might affect postpartum reproductive activity and performance, especially at Foal Heat (FH), is unknown. This study, therefore, aims to investigate this and the factors that might affect postpartum reproductive activity. Reproductive records of 228 Thoroughbred mares (694 mare years) bred in subtropical north-western India were retrospectively analysed. Overt oestrous activity occurred within 21 d postpartum in 92.94% (645/694) of mares. Significantly (p<0.001) more April foaling mares (97.37%, 185/190) expressed postpartum oestrous activity than those foaling in January (83.61%; 51/61) and February (88.49; 123/139). Similarly significantly (p<0.01) fewer multiparous mares failed to demonstrate oestrous activity than primiparous mares (6.12% vs.15.07%; 38/621 vs. 11/73, respectively). 190 of these 694 mares were additionally monitored to confirm ovulation; in these mares onset of FH (oestrus plus confirmed ovulation) occurred 8.42+/-0.17 d and first ovulation 13.64+/-0.20 d postpartum. Month, stud farm, year, and parity did not affect interval from parturition to FH onset or to first ovulation; or FH onset to ovulation. In FH bred mares Day 16 pregnancy rate and overall foaling rate were 53.76% (100/186) and 46.24% (86/186) respectively and were similar to those of mares bred later postpartum. FH pregnancy rates were not affected by stud, season, month, year, number of matings, or day of ovulation but were significantly (p<0.008) lowered by increasing mare age. Significantly (p<0.01) lower Day 16 pregnancy rates were observed in uterine treated mares compared to untreated mares (31.09% vs. 57.96%; 9/29 vs. 91/157, respectively), this difference was not evident during the rest of pregnancy. In conclusion, postpartum reproductive and ovarian activity appears to be affected by environment, i.e., delayed in

  9. Systemic treatment with high dose of flunixin-meglumine is able to block ovulation in mares by inducing hemorrhage and luteinisation of follicles.

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Domingo-Ortiz, R

    2011-03-01

    Prostaglandins play an obligatory role during the process of ovulation in mammals. Ovulation can be blocked by intrafollicular administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in several domestic species including the mare as well as by systemic administration of these drugs in women. In the mare, the effect of systemic NSAIDs treatment on ovulation has not been critically studied. The objectives of this study were: a) to determine whether high dose of flunixin-meglumine (FM) administered systemically to mares during the periovulatory period was able to block ovulation; and b) to study the follicular ultrasound characteristics of FM treated mares. Six mares were used in the study during two consecutive estrous cycles. Each mare received 2 mg FM/kg i.v. twice a day starting at the time of treatment with hCG when the follicle reached a diameter of ≥ 32 mm and continuing until ovulation. During the consecutive control cycle (CON) the mares received the same dose of hCG but were not administered FM. During the FM cycles five of six mares failed to ovulate and collapse the preovulatory follicle; but echoic specks were observed within the follicles, which continued to grow until a mean diameter of 55 mm. Eventually, the follicular contents were organised and luteinised. All CON mares ovulated normally. In conclusion, when mares were treated with FM, they had a higher incidence of ovulatory failure and development of luteinised unruptured follicles (83%, P = 0.015) compared with untreated mares. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicular punctures in the mare on heart rate, respiratory rate, facial expression changes, and salivary cortisol as pain scoring.

    PubMed

    Diego, Rodrigo; Douet, Cécile; Reigner, Fabrice; Blard, Thierry; Cognié, Juliette; Deleuze, Stefan; Goudet, Ghylène

    2016-10-15

    Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicular punctures are widely used in the mare for diagnosis, research, and commercial applications. The objective of our study was to determine their influence on pain, stress, and well-being in the mare, by evaluating heart rate, breath rate, facial expression changes, and salivary cortisol before, during, and after puncture. For this experiment, 21 pony mares were used. Transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspirations were performed on 11 mares. After injections for sedation, analgesia, and antispasmodia, the follicles from both ovaries were aspirated with a needle introduced through the vagina wall into the ovary. In the control group, 10 mares underwent similar treatments and injections, but no follicular aspiration. Along the session, heart rate and breath rate were evaluated by a trained veterinarian, ears position, eyelid closure, and contraction of facial muscles were evaluated, and salivary samples were taken for evaluation of cortisol concentration. A significant relaxation was observed after sedative injection in the punctured and control mares, according to ear position, eyelid closure, and contraction of facial muscles, but no difference between punctured and control animals was recorded. No significant modification of salivary cortisol concentration during puncture and no difference between punctured and control mares at any time were observed. No significant modification of the breath rate was observed along the procedure for the punctured and the control mares. Heart rate increased significantly but transiently when the needle was introduced in the ovary and was significantly higher at that time for the punctured mares than that for control mares. None of the other investigated parameters were affected at that time, suggesting discomfort is minimal and transient. Improving analgesia, e.g., through a multimodal approach, during that possibly more sensitive step could be recommended. The evaluation of facial expression

  11. A potpourri of pristine moon rocks, including a VHK mare basalt and a unique, augite-rich Apollo 17 anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, P. H.; Shirley, D. N.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    The anorthosite fragment, 76504,18, the first of the Apollo 17's pristine anorthosites, was found to have: (1) a higher ratio of high-Ca pyroxine to low-Ca pyroxene, (2) higher Na in its plagioclase, (3) higher contents of incompatible elements, and (4) a higher Eu/Al ratio in comparison to ferroan anorthosites. With a parent melt having a negative Eu anomaly, 76504,18 closely resembles a typical mare basalt. This anorthosite was among the latest to be formed by plagioclase flotation above a primordial magmasphere; typical mare basalt regions accumulated at about the same time or even earlier. Another fragment 14181c, a very high potassium basalt, was studied and found to be similar to typical Apollo 14 mare basalt though it has a K/La ratio of 1050. It is suggested that this lithology formed after a normal Apollo 14 mare basaltic melt partially assimilated granite. New data for siderphile elements in Apollo 12 mare basalts indicate that only the lowest of earlier data are trustworthy as being free of laboratory contamination.

  12. Effect of a povidone-iodine intrauterine infusion on progesterone levels and endometrial steroid receptor expression in mares

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intrauterine infusions have been widely used for the treatment of endometritis in the mare. Nevertheless, their consequences on endocrine and endometrial molecular aspects are unknown. We studied the effect of a 1% povidone-iodine solution intrauterine infusion on progesterone levels, endometrial histology and estrogen (ERα) and progesterone (PR) receptor distribution by immunohistochemistry. Methods Fourteen healthy mares were used in this study. Estruses were synchronized and seven mares were treated with intrauterine infusions at days 0 and 2 post ovulation of two consecutive estrous cycles. Uterine biopsy samples were taken on days 6 and 15 post ovulation. Results The treatment did not induce an inflammatory response indicating endometritis, neither affected the ERα. However, it reduced the percentage of PR positive cells (PPC) on day 6 (deep glandular epithelium, control: 95.7 vs. infused: 61.5, P < 0.05). Treated mares tended to have lower progesterone levels on day 2 (3.9 ng/ml vs. 6.6 ng/ml, P = 0.07), and higher levels on day 15 compared with controls (4.4 ng/ml vs. 1.3 ng/ml, P = 0.07). Conclusion a 1% povidone-iodine infusion during days 0 and 2 post ovulation in healthy mares did not induce histological changes indicating endometritis, but altered progesterone concentrations and reduced the expression of endometrial PR at day 6 without affecting the ERα. These changes could reduce embryo survival. PMID:21162724

  13. Anaphylaxis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome induced by inadvertent intravenous administration of mare's milk in a neonatal foal.

    PubMed

    Alcott, Cody J; Wong, David M

    2010-12-01

    To describe the diagnostic procedures, therapeutic management and successful outcome of a case of anaphylaxis induced by the inadvertent intravenous (IV) administration of mare's milk to a neonatal foal. A 3-day-old Thoroughbred colt was presented for treatment of bilateral flexural limb deformities of the forelimbs. Because the foal was unable to ambulate initially, mare's milk was administered via nasoesophageal tube feedings during treatment of the musculoskeletal disorder. Anaphylaxis resulted after unintentional administration of a bolus of 150mL of mare's milk through a jugular catheter. Aggressive therapy for anaphylaxis and careful monitoring resulted in the successful recovery of the foal after 9 days of intensive care. This case is the first published report to describe the effects of accidental IV administration of mare's milk to a neonatal foal. Medical errors are commonly reported in pediatric medicine; the intent of this report is to raise awareness of medical errors and student education in equine medicine as well as describe the therapy and outcome of anaphylaxis induced by IV administration of mare's milk in a neonatal foal. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2010.

  14. Coleophora nepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, a new species of the C. lixella group (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae) from France and Italy

    PubMed Central

    Baldizzone, Giorgio; Nel, Jacques; Landry, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Coleophora nepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, sp. n. is described from the southern Alps (Italy and France). It belongs to the Coleophora lixella species group. Its host plants are Nepeta nepetella L. (Lamiaceae) and an unidentified Poaceae. The fifth instar larva, its case, the adult habitus, and genitalia are illustrated. The species is compared to Coleophora nevadella Baldizzone, 1985, here newly confirmed from France and whose larvae feed on Nepeta latifolia DC. in the Eastern Pyrénées. DNA barcodes are shown to be distinct and congruent with morphological differences among species of the lixella group. Barcodes revealed that Coleophora tricolor Walsingham, 1889, formerly known only from Great Britain, is also present in France and Greece. PMID:25561856

  15. Bimodal TiO2 Contents of Mare Basalts at Apollo and Luna Sites and Implications for TiO2 Derived from Clementine Spectral Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2001-01-01

    A revised algorithm to estimate Ti contents of mare regions centered on Apollo and Luna sites shows a bimodal distribution, consistent with mare-basalt sample data. A global TiO2 map shows abundant intermediate TiO2 basalts in western Procellarum. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Bimodal TiO2 Contents of Mare Basalts at Apollo and Luna Sites and Implications for TiO2 Derived from Clementine Spectral Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2001-01-01

    A revised algorithm to estimate Ti contents of mare regions centered on Apollo and Luna sites shows a bimodal distribution, consistent with mare-basalt sample data. A global TiO2 map shows abundant intermediate TiO2 basalts in western Procellarum. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Presumed case of "stiff-horse syndrome" caused by decreased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production in an American Paint mare.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Tawna Backman; Sellers, Ann Davidson; Goehring, Lutz S

    2012-01-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) converts glutamic acid into the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Increased serum GAD (auto) antibody concentrations were found in a mare with increased postural musculature tone resulting in stiffness and recumbence. The mare was treated with dexamethasone which resulted in resolution of clinical signs and decreased GAD antibody concentrations.

  18. Composition, seasonal change, and bathymetry of Ligeia Mare, Titan, derived from its microwave thermal emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A.; Malaska, M. J.; Lorenz, R. D.; Janssen, M. A.; Tokano, T.; Hayes, A. G.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Lunine, J. I.; Veyssière, G.; Encrenaz, P.; Karatekin, O.

    2016-02-01

    For the last decade, the passive radiometer incorporated in the Cassini RADAR has recorded the 2.2 cm wavelength thermal emission from Titan's seas. In this paper, we analyze the radiometry observations collected from February 2007 to January 2015 over one of these seas, Ligeia Mare, with the goal of providing constraints on its composition, bathymetry, and dynamics. In light of the depth profile obtained by Mastrogiuseppe et al. (2014) and of a two-layer model, we find that the dielectric constant of the sea liquid is <1.8, and its loss tangent is <3.6-2.1+4.3×10-5. Both results point to a composition dominated by liquid methane rather than ethane. A high methane concentration suggests that Ligeia Mare is primarily fed by methane-rich precipitation and/or ethane has been removed from it (e.g., by crustal interaction). Our result on the dielectric constant of the seafloor is less constraining (<2.9-0.9+0.9), but we favor a scenario where the floor of Ligeia Mare is covered by a sludge of compacted and possibly nitrile-rich organic material formed by the deposition of photochemical haze or by rain washing of the nearby shores. We use these results to produce a low-resolution bathymetry map of the sea. We also estimate the temperature variation of the bulk sea between February 2007 and July 2013 to be <2 K, which provides a constraint on its net evaporative cooling currently being explored in ocean circulation models. Lastly, we suggest a lag in the summer warming of the northern polar terrains.

  19. Accuracy of a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure progesterone in mares

    PubMed Central

    Relave, Fabien; Lefebvre, Réjean C.; Beaudoin, Sandra; Price, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of progesterone (P4) in mares. Specifically, the objectives were as follows: 1) to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the ELISA test for determination of P4, 2) to measure the potential agreement between the 2 people performing the test, and 3) to evaluate the effect of time on the outcome. Ten mares were sampled on the day before ovulation (D-1), and on days 1 (D1), 3 (D3), and 5 (D5) following ovulation, during the reproductive season. While mares were cycling regularly, estrus was induced by the injection of 5 mg of prostaglandin (PGF2) and monitored starting on the 4th day by daily transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine the time of ovulation. Blood was collected and all samples (n = 96) were assayed for P4 by a semiquantitative ELISA, by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Based on the RIA, values of P4 on D-1, D1, D3, and D5 were significantly different (P < 0.0001) with mean and standard deviation(s) of 0.004, s = 0.52; 2.05, s = 2.58; 8.37, s = 4.17; and 12.76, s = 4.00 ng/mL respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the semiquantitative assay were 94% and 95%, respectively for the lowest values of P4 (< 1.0 ng/mL). The value of kappa was 0.90 between 2 individuals performing the test. In conclusion, these results suggest that the semi-quantitative test may be used reliably and economically to evaluate P4 levels in equine plasma in the clinical situation. PMID:17824324

  20. Geochronology and petrogenesis of Apollo 14 very high potassium mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and Sm-Nd isotopic studies were undertaken for two Apollo 14 very high potassium (VHK) highly radiogenic mare basaltic clasts from breccias 14305 and 14168. Rb-Sr data indicate ages of 3.83 + or - 0.08 b.y., and 3.82 + or - 0.12 b.y. for samples 14305 and 14168 respectively, for lambda(Rb-87) = 0.0 139/b.y. Their corresponding initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios are nearly identical, as well as their Ar-39 to Ar-40 age spectra, and it is proposed that they were derived from the same flow. The Sm-Nd isotopic data of whole rock and mineral separates for the two VHK basalts define an internal isochrone age of 3.94 + or - 0.16 b.y. for lambda (Sm-147) = 0.00654/b.y. and an initial Nd-143/Nd-144 of 0.50673 + or - 21. The similarity in isotopic ages suggests that VHK basalts crystallized from a melt about 3.85 b.y. ago. VHK basalts show very large Rb/Sr fractionation but no significant Sm/Nd fractionation at the time of crystallization. The source material had a Rb/Sr ratio similar to those of Apollo 14 high-Al mare basalts and a nearly chrondritic Sm/Nd ratio. Basalt/granite interaction was found to be responsible for the extreme enrichments of Rb/Sr and K/La during the formation of VHK basalts. It is concluded that K, Rb-rich components of granitic wall rocks in the highland crust were selectively introduced into ascending hot high-Al mare basaltic magma upon contact.

  1. Geochronology and petrogenesis of Apollo 14 very high potassium mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and Sm-Nd isotopic studies were undertaken for two Apollo 14 very high potassium (VHK) highly radiogenic mare basaltic clasts from breccias 14305 and 14168. Rb-Sr data indicate ages of 3.83 + or - 0.08 b.y., and 3.82 + or - 0.12 b.y. for samples 14305 and 14168 respectively, for lambda(Rb-87) = 0.0 139/b.y. Their corresponding initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios are nearly identical, as well as their Ar-39 to Ar-40 age spectra, and it is proposed that they were derived from the same flow. The Sm-Nd isotopic data of whole rock and mineral separates for the two VHK basalts define an internal isochrone age of 3.94 + or - 0.16 b.y. for lambda (Sm-147) = 0.00654/b.y. and an initial Nd-143/Nd-144 of 0.50673 + or - 21. The similarity in isotopic ages suggests that VHK basalts crystallized from a melt about 3.85 b.y. ago. VHK basalts show very large Rb/Sr fractionation but no significant Sm/Nd fractionation at the time of crystallization. The source material had a Rb/Sr ratio similar to those of Apollo 14 high-Al mare basalts and a nearly chrondritic Sm/Nd ratio. Basalt/granite interaction was found to be responsible for the extreme enrichments of Rb/Sr and K/La during the formation of VHK basalts. It is concluded that K, Rb-rich components of granitic wall rocks in the highland crust were selectively introduced into ascending hot high-Al mare basaltic magma upon contact.

  2. Changes in the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis of mares in relation to the winter solstice.

    PubMed

    Silvia, P J; Johnson, L; Fitzgerald, B P

    1992-09-01

    In mares, the amount of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is low in the hypothalamus during seasonal anoestrus, but by early spring, concentrations of GnRH are high. The timing of this response was characterized more precisely by determining concentrations of GnRH in hypothalamic tissue collected immediately before and at various times after the winter solstice (22 December 1986). Ovaries, pituitary gland, hypothalamus and a blood sample were collected from six groups of mares (6-12 mares per group) at death, 1 week before day of the winter solstice and 1, 2, 3 and 12 weeks afterwards. No significant changes in weight of the anterior pituitary gland or concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were observed in the anterior pituitary gland (P > 0.1). Mean diameter of the largest follicle, number of follicles > or = 20 mm in diameter and concentrations of LH and FSH in serum remained unchanged for weeks -1 to +3 (P < 0.05), then increased significantly by week 12 (P < 0.001). Content and concentration of GnRH in the median eminence was low at -1 week, increased gradually (P < 0.05) to a maximum by +1 week, then decreased gradually (P < 0.05) to low values at 12 weeks. Means (+/- SEM) for -1, +1 and +12 weeks were 33.5 +/- 5.5, 117.7 +/- 18.6 and 29.8 +/- 3.7 ng GnRH, respectively. Mean content of GnRH in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus showed a reciprocal pattern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Elephant Moraine 87521: The first lunar meteorite composed of predominantly mare material

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, P.H.; Kallemeyn, G.W. )

    1989-12-01

    The trace-element chemistry and detailed petrography of brecciated Antarctic meteorite EET87521 reveal that it is not, as originally classified, a eucrite. Its Fe/Mn ratio and bulk Co content are fair higher than expected for a eucrite. Only one known type of extraterrestrial material resembles EET87521 in all important respects for which constraints exist: very-low-Ti (VLT) lunar mare basalts. Even compared to VLT basalts, EET87521 is enriched in REE. However, other varieties of high-alumina, low-Ti mare basalt are known that contain REE at even higher concentrations than EET87521. Several clasts in EET87521 preserve clear vestiges of coarse-grained igneous, possibly orthocumulate, textures. Mineralogically, these coarse-grained clasts are diverse; e.g., olivine ranges from Fo{sub 15} in one to Fo{sub 67} in another. One clast with an anomalously fine-grained texture is anorthositic and contains exceptionally Mg-rich pyroxene and Na-poor plagioclase, along with the only FeNi-metal in the thin section. Its FeNi-metals have compositions typical of metals incorporated into lunar soils and polymict breccias as debris from metal-rich meteorites. However, the low Ni and Ir contents of our bulk-rock analysis imply that the proportion of impact-projectile matter in our chip sample is probably small. The moderate degree of lithologic diversity among the lithic lasts and the bulk composition in general indicate that EET87521 is dominated by a single rock type: VLT mare basalt.

  4. A glass spherule of questionable impact origin from the Apollo 15 landing site: Unique target mare basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, G.; Delano, J.W.; Warren, P.H.; Kallemeyn, G.W.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    A 6 mm-diameter dark spherule, 15434,28, from the regolith on the Apennine Front at the Apollo 15 landing site has a homogeneous glass interior with a 200 ??m-thick rind of devitrified or crystallized melt. The rind contains abundant small fragments of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalt and rare volcanic Apollo 15 green glass. The glass interior of the spherule has the chemical composition, including a high FeO content and high CaO/Al2O3, of a mare basalt. Whereas the major element and Sc, Ni, and Co abundances are similar to those of low-Ti mare basalts, the incompatible elements and Sr abundances are similar to those of high-Ti mare basalts. The relative abundance patterns of the incompatible trace elements are distinct from any other lunar mare basalts or KREEP; among these distinctions are a much steeper slope of the heavy rare earth elements. The 15434,28 glass has abundances of the volatile element Zn consistent with both impact glasses and crystalline mare basalts, but much lower than in glasses of mare volcanic origin. The glass contains siderophile elements such as Ir in abundances only slightly higher than accepted lunar indigenous levels, and some, such as Au, are just below such upper limits. The age of the glass, determined by the 40Ar/39Ar laser incremental heating technique, is 1647 ?? 11 Ma (2 ??); it is expressed as an age spectrum of seventeen steps over 96% of the 39Ar released, unusual for an impact glass. Trapped argon is negligible. The undamaged nature of the sphere demonstrates that it must have spent most of its life buried in regolith; 38Ar cosmic ray exposure data suggest that it was buried at less than 2m but more than a few centimeters if a single depth is appropriate. That the spherule solidified to a glass is surprising; for such a mare composition, cooling at about 50??C s-1 is required to avoid crystallization, and barely attainable in such a large spherule. The low volatile abundances, slightly high siderophile abundances, and

  5. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd chronology and genealogy of mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Depaolo, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of two Apollo 11 mare basalts, high-K basalt 10072 and low-K basalt 10062, are reported. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Ar-40-Ar-39 ages are in good agreement and indicate an extensive time interval for filling of the Sea of Tranquility, presumably by thin lava flows, in agreement with similar observations for the Ocean of Storms. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions on Apollo 11 basalts reveal at least two parent sources producing basalts. The Sm-Nd isotopic data demonstrate that low-K and high-Ti basalts from Apollo 11 and 17 derived from distinct reservoirs, while low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalt sources have Sm/Nd similar to the sources of Apollo 11 basalts. Groupings of mare basalt based on Ti content and on isotopic data do not coincide.

  6. A glass spherule of questionable impact origin from the Apollo 15 landing site: Unique target mare basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Graham; Delano, John W.; Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Brent Dalrymple, G.

    1996-02-01

    A 6 mm-diameter dark spherule, 15434,28, from the regolith on the Apennine Front at the Apollo 15 landing site has a homogeneous glass interior with a 200 μm-thick rind of devitrified or crystallized melt. The rind contains abundant small fragments of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalt and rare volcanic Apollo 15 green glass. The glass interior of the spherule has the chemical composition, including a high FeO content and high CaO/Al 2O 3, of a mare basalt. Whereas the major element and Sc, Ni, and Co abundances are similar to those of low-Ti mare basalts, the incompatible elements and Sr abundances are similar to those of high-Ti mare basalts. The relative abundance patterns of the incompatible trace elements are distinct from any other lunar mare basalts or KREEP; among these distinctions are a much steeper slope of the heavy rare earth elements. The 15434,28 glass has abundances of the volatile element Zn consistent with both impact glasses and crystalline mare basalts, but much lower than in glasses of mare volcanic origin. The glass contains siderophile elements such as Ir in abundances only slightly higher than accepted lunar indigenous levels, and some, such as Au, are just below such upper limits. The age of the glass, determined by the 40Ar/ 39Ar laser incremental heating technique, is 1647 ±11 Ma (2 δ); it is expressed as an age spectrum of seventeen steps over 96% of the 39Ar released, unusual for an impact glass. Trapped argon is negligible. The undamaged nature of the sphere demonstrates that it must have spent most of its life buried in regolith; 38Ar cosmic ray exposure data suggest that it was buried at less than 2m but more than a few centimeters if a single depth is appropriate. That the spherule solidified to a glass is surprising; for such a mare composition, cooling at about 50 °C s -1 is required to avoid crystallization, and barely attainable in such a large spherule. The low volatile abundances, slightly high siderophile abundances

  7. The global distribution of calcium on the Moon: Implications for high-Ca pyroxene in the eastern mare region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, N.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; d'Uston, C.; Reedy, R. C.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Hareyama, M.; Nagaoka, H.; Hasebe, N.; Kim, K. J.

    2012-11-01

    The first unambiguous global distribution of Ca on the Moon has been revealed by the Kaguya Gamma-Ray Spectrometer. The observation of the 3737 keV gamma rays from 40Ca with a high energy resolution Ge detector, corrected for fast neutrons, improved greatly our confidence in these remote sensing data. While the derived Ca abundance generally confirms the mare-highland dichotomy, we found that the eastern mare regions such as Crisium, Nectaris, and Fecunditatis exhibit unexpected high Ca abundances. This may be explained by regional concentrations of high-Ca clinopyroxene. Our Ca map also shows that the lowest CaO abundance found in the returned samples (∼8 wt%) may actually be common in Oceanus Procellarum, suggesting the possible sampling bias of Apollo and Luna missions. These observational results on Ca serve as a complementary criterion for better characterization of mare regions on the Moon.

  8. [Profiles of estrone, estrone sulfate and progesterone in donkey (Equus asinus) mares during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, B; Bernhardt, A W; Failing, K; Schuler, G

    2014-01-01

    To gain further data on the hormonal control of pregnancy in the donkey and to obtain reference values for hormonal pregnancy testing. Blood samples were collected at monthly intervals from 23 donkey mares with normal singleton pregnancies. Further samples were obtained from six mares displaying pregnancies with clinical disorders. Progesterone (P4), total estrone (TE), free (E) and conjugated estrone (ES) were determined using radioimmunoassay. Mean duration of pregnancy was 372 ± 16 days. It was longer (p < 0.05) in large (375.9 ± 5.7 days) and standard (385.8 ± 20.7 days) donkeys than in miniature donkeys (357.4 ± 5.7 days) and negatively correlated to the age of the mare (p = 0.043). P4-concentrations varied between 12-35 ng/ml during weeks 2-5 of pregnancy and increased thereafter in eight jennies concomitant with the formation of the secondary corpora lutea (sCL), reaching values of 40-110 ng/ml during weeks 12-17. The decrease observed thereafter resulted in concentrations between 5-16 ng/ml until week 46, followed by a slight increase in most of the mares prior to parturition. Concentrations of TE remained < 1 ng/ml until week 6. They increased thereafter to 600-2700 ng/ml during midpregnancy and displayed a decrease to 1-20 ng/ml during the last 2 weeks of pregnancy. The course of E and ES was correlated (p < 0.0001) and E concentrations were up to 1000 times lower than those of ES. The course of hormone concentrations did not provide any clear indications in relation to the observed clinical disorders. The course of P4-concentrations resembles largely the situation in the horse. In contrast to the horse, the course of ES does not show an increase concomitant with the formation of the sCL. Breed-specific effects became apparent regarding pregnancy duration. Hormonal pregnancy diagnostic in the jenny could be put on a solid basis with TE values > 5 ng/ml being indicative for pregnancy. At present, monitoring of P4 and estrone during pregnancy does not

  9. Indigenous nitrogen in the Moon: Constraints from coupled nitrogen-noble gas analyses of mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füri, Evelyn; Barry, Peter H.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Marty, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen and noble gas (Ne-Ar) abundances and isotope ratios, determined by step-wise CO2 laser-extraction, static-mass spectrometry analysis, are reported for bulk fragments and mineral separates of ten lunar mare basalts (10020, 10057, 12008, 14053, 15555, 70255, 71557, 71576, 74255, 74275), one highland breccia (14321), and one ferroan anorthosite (15414). The mare basalt sub-samples 10057,183 and 71576,12 contain a large amount of solar noble gases, whereas neon and argon in all other samples are purely cosmogenic, as shown by their 21Ne/22Ne ratios of ≈0.85 and 36Ar/38Ar ratios of ≈0.65. The solar-gas-free basalts contain a two-component mixture of cosmogenic 15N and indigenous nitrogen (<0.5 ppm). Mare basalt 74255 and the olivine fraction of 15555,876 record the smallest proportion of 15Ncosm; therefore, their δ15 N values of -0.2 to + 26.7 ‰ (observed at the low-temperature steps) are thought to well represent the isotopic composition of indigenous lunar nitrogen. However, δ15 N values ≤ - 30 ‰ are found in several basalts, overlapping with the isotopic signature of Earth's primordial mantle or an enstatite chondrite-like impactor. While the lowest δ15 N values allow for nitrogen trapped in the Moon's interior to be inherited from the proto-Earth and/or the impactor, the more 15N-enriched compositions require that carbonaceous chondrites provided nitrogen to the lunar magma ocean prior to the solidification of the crust. Since nitrogen can efficiently be incorporated into mafic minerals (olivine, pyroxene) under oxygen fugacities close to or below the iron-wustite buffer (Li et al., 2013), the mare basalt source region is likely characterized by a high nitrogen storage capacity. In contrast, anorthosite 15414 shows no traces of indigenous nitrogen, suggesting that nitrogen was not efficiently incorporated into the lunar crust during magma ocean differentiation.

  10. Elephant Moraine 87521 - The first lunar meteorite composed of predominantly mare material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of trace-element analyses and detailed petrography obtained for the Elephant Moraine 87521 meteorite (EET87521) found recently in Antarctica. Its high values found for the Fe/Mn ratio and the bulk-Co content indicate that the EET87521 is not, as was originally classified, a eucrite. Moreover, its low Ga/Al and Na/Ca ratios exclude the possibility that it is an SNC meteorite. These and other characteristics (e.g., a very low Ti content) of the EET87521 suggest its affinity with very-low-Ti high-alumina varieties of lunar mare basalt.

  11. Chemical and isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of the large mare basalt clast in breccia 15459

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L.; Lindstrom, M.; Bansal, B.; Mittlefehldt, D.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate that the large mare basalt clast in Apollo 15 breccia 15459 may represent one or more independent magma types. The complex nonequilibrium pyroxene and plagioclase compositions and relatively abundant mesostasis suggest that the 15459 clast is not a slowly cooled crystal cumulate. The addition of about 40 percent olivine to an olivine-normative basalt parental magma is found to be necessary to explain the high MgO abundances of picritic basalts by the accumulation of olivine in the magma. The present clast has a slightly younger age and a slightly higher Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio than most Apollo 15 basalts.

  12. Distribution of 28 elements in size fractions of lunar mare and highlands soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Wasson, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Four volatile, six siderophile and 18 generally lithophile elements were determined in six sieve fractions of mare soil 15100 (moderately mature) and seven sieve fractions of highlands soil 66080 (highly mature). Previous work (Boynton et al., 1976) showed that the volatile elements in lunar soils were enriched in the finest size fraction relative to the coarsest factors by up to about 20. The present investigation tests Boynton's interpretation that the distribution pattern of the volatiles indicates the presence of two components: a volume-correlated component having volatile concentrations independent of grain size and a surface-correlated component with concentration increasing with decreasing grain size.

  13. Comparative geology of crater Aratus CA (Mare Serenitatis) and Bear Crater (Idaho). [from Apollo 17 photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1973-01-01

    Aratus CA (lat. 24.5 N, long. 11.3 E) is an irregular-shaped crater 8.6 km long by 3 km wide in western Mare Serenitatis, which was photographed during the Apollo 15 and 17 missions. It is similar in form to Bear Crater (fig. 30-2), a small volcanic vent formed in Holocene basalt flows of the Snake River Plains, Idaho. The two features are compared and it is concluded that Aratus CA may have a geologic structure and history similar to that of Bear Crater.

  14. The mare as a model for luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome: intrafollicular endocrine milieu.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S T; Gastal, M O; Tazawa, S P; Tarso, S G S; Hales, D B; Cuervo-Arango, J; Baerwald, A R; Gastal, E L

    2016-03-01

    Luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome is a recurrent anovulatory dysfunction that affects up to 23% of women with normal menstrual cycles and up to 73% with endometriosis. Mechanisms underlying the development of LUF syndrome in mares were studied to provide a potential model for human anovulation. The effect of extended increase in circulating LH achieved by administration of recombinant equine LH (reLH) or a short surge of LH and decrease in progesterone induced by prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on LUF formation (Experiment 1), identification of an optimal dose of COX-2 inhibitor (flunixin meglumine, FM; to block the effect of prostaglandins) for inducing LUFs (Experiment 2), and evaluation of intrafollicular endocrine milieu in LUFs (Experiment 3) were investigated. In Experiment 1, mares were treated with reLH from Day 7 to Day 15 (Day 0=ovulation), PGF2α on Day 7, or in combination. In Experiment 2, FM at doses of 2.0 or 3.0 mg/kg every 12 h and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (1500 IU) were administered after a follicle ≥32 mm was detected. In Experiment 3, FM at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg every 12 h plus hCG was used to induce LUFs and investigate the intrafollicular endocrine milieu. No LUFs were induced by reLH or PGF2α treatment; however, LUFs were induced in 100% of mares using FM. Intrafollicular PGF2α metabolite, PGF2α, and PGE2 were lower and the ratio of PGE2:PGF2α was higher in the induced LUF group. Higher levels of intrafollicular E2 and total primary sex steroids were observed in the induced LUF group along with a tendency for higher levels of GH, cortisol, and T; however, LH, PRL, VEGF-A, and NO did not differ between groups. In conclusion, this study reveals part of the intrafollicular endocrine milieu and the association of prostaglandins in LUF formation, and indicates that the mare might be an appropriate model for studying the poorly understood LUF syndrome.

  15. The effects of intrauterine infusion of peanut oil on endometrial health, salivary cortisol and interovulatory period in mares.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Madeleine L H; Hampshire, Daniel; Hamstead, Lauren E; Rose, Belinda V; Smith, Ken C; de Mestre, Amanda M

    2017-10-15

    Intrauterine infusion of peanut oil at Day 10 post-ovulation has been reported to prolong dioestrus in mares. However, the effects of peanut oil treatment on the endometrium and whether the technique is painful have not been assessed. The objectives of this study were, (i) to determine the effect of intrauterine infusion of peanut oil on endometrial health, (ii) to determine whether use of intrauterine peanut oil is painful and (iii) to confirm that peanut oil causes prolonged dioestrus. Six mares aged 3-12 years old were used in a cross-over design with each mare administered both 1 ml of intrauterine peanut oil and a sham treatment on different oestrous cycles. The effect of intrauterine infusion of 1 ml peanut oil or sham treatment were measured using interovulatory period, uterine fluid accumulation as determined by transrectal ultrasonography, serum progesterone levels, endometrial Kenney biopsy scores and histological features, endometrial eosinophil numbers and salivary cortisol measurements. The individual mare response to intrauterine infusion of peanut oil was variable. Peanut oil infusion did not statistically prolong the luteal phase, nor elevate salivary cortisol levels but did cause superficial erosion of the endometrial surface epithelium in all mares and significantly increased eosinophil numbers in the endometrium (P = 0.0068). The Kenney grade for biopsies from 2/6 mares worsened transiently following infusion. In conclusion, intra-uterine peanut oil does not statistically increase the duration of the luteal phase but results in an inflammatory response and increase in endometrial eosinophil numbers suggesting treatment may be associated with a hypersensitivity-type reaction. Those contemplating using peanut oil to suppress oestrus should also be aware of the legislative and regulatory implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  17. A Glass Spherule of Questionable Impact Origin from the Apollo 15 Landing Site: Unique Target Mare Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Delano, John W.; Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1996-01-01

    A 6 mm-diameter dark spherule, 15434,28, from the regolith on the Apennine Front at the Apollo 15 landing site has a homogeneous glass interior with a 200 microns-thick rind of devitrified or crystallized melt. The rind contains abundant small fragments of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalt and rare volcanic Apollo 15 green glass. The glass interior of the spherule has the chemical composition, including a high FeO content and high CaO/Al2O3, of a mare basalt. Whereas the major element and Sc, Ni, and Co abundances are similar to those of low-Ti mare basalts, the incompatible elements and Sr abundances are similar to those of high-Ti mare basaits. The relative abundance patterns of the incompatible trace elements are distinct from any other lunar mare basalts or KREEP; among these distinctions are a much steeper slope of the heavy rare earth elements. The 15434,28 glass has abundances of the volatile element Zn consistent with both impact glasses and crystalline mare basalts, but much lower than in glasses of mare volcanic origin. The glass contains siderophile elements such as Ir in abundances only slightly higher than accepted lunar indigenous levels, and some, such as Au, are just below such upper limits. The age of the glass, determined by the Ar-40/Ar-39 laser incremental heating technique, is 1647 +/- 11 Ma (2 sigma); it is expressed as an age spectrum of seventeen steps over 96% of the Ar-38 released, unusual for an impact glass. Trapped argon is negligible. The undamaged nature of the sphere demonstrates that it must have spent most of its life buried in regolith; Ar-38 cosmic ray exposure data suggest that it was buried at less than 2m but more than a few centimeters if a single depth is appropriate. That the spherule solidified to a glass is surprising; for such a mare composition, cooling at about 50 C/s is required to avoid crystallization, and barely attainable in such a large spherule. The low volatile abundances, slightly high siderophile

  18. Coumestrol and its metabolite in mares' plasma after ingestion of phytoestrogen-rich plants: potent endocrine disruptors inducing infertility.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Dias, G; Botelho, M; Zagrajczuk, A; Rebordão, M R; Galvão, A M; Bravo, P Pinto; Piotrowska-Tomala, K; Szóstek, A Z; Wiczkowski, W; Piskula, M; Fradinho, M J; Skarzynski, D J

    2013-10-01

    Phytoestrogens exist in plants that are present in forages fed to horses. They may compete with 17-β estradiol and influence the estrous cycle. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether coumestrol from clover-mixed pastures is present in mare's plasma after their ingestion (experiment I), and when this phytoestrogen was present in mare's plasma after ingestion (experiment II). The effect of a long-term ingestion of phytoestrogens on estrous cycle disruption was assessed (experiment III; clinical case). Experiment I was carried out in nonpregnant anestrous and cyclic Lusitano mares (n = 14) kept on clover and grass-mixed pastures, and supplemented with concentrate and hay or cereal straw. Blood and feedstuff were obtained from November to March. In experiment II, stabled cyclic Lusitano mares (n = 6) were fed for 14 days with increasing amounts of alfalfa pellets (250 g to 1 kg/day). Sequential blood samples were obtained for 8 hours after feed intake on Day 0 (control) and on Days 13 and 14 (1 kg/day alfalfa pellets). Experiment III mares were fed with a mixture of alfalfa and clover haylage for 5 months (group 1; n = 4) or for 9 months (group 2; n = 12). Estrous cycle was determined on the basis of plasma estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and ultrasound (experiment III). Concentrations of phytoestrogen coumestrol and its metabolite methoxycoumestrol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Phytoestrogens decreased in pasture from November until March (P < 0.01) (experiment I), but were always detected in mares' plasma. In experiment II, plasma-conjugated forms of coumestrol and methoxycoumestrol were higher on Days 13 and 14 than in control (P < 0.05). The highest concentrations of conjugated form of coumestrol were at 1.5 and 4 hours (P < 0.001), whereas its free forms peaked at 1 and at 3.5 hours after ingestion (P < 0.05). Methoxycoumestrol-conjugated form concentration was the highest at 1.5 and 5

  19. Changes in intrauterine pressure after oxytocin administration in reproductively normal mares and in those with a delay in uterine clearance.

    PubMed

    Cadario, M E; Merritt, A M; Archbald, L F; Thatcher, W W; LeBlanc, M M

    1999-04-01

    Intrauterine pressure was measured in 4 reproductively normal mares and 4 mares with delay in uterine clearance after administration of oxytocin to determine if intrauterine pressure varied between dosage and group. Changes in intrauterine pressure were measured during estrus, when a follicle was > or =35 mm, using a Millar "Mikro-tip" catheter that had 3 discrete pressure sensors/channels. Mares received 4 different treatments of 10, 5, 2.5 or 0 IU (vehicle) of oxytocin. The protocol for each treatment consisted of a 10-min baseline recording, administration of treatment and measurement of changes in intrauterine pressure for 65 min. After administration of the first two treatments, mares were rested for 2 h and the protocol repeated for the remaining 2 treatments. Changes in intrauterine pressure were measured on a physiograph and stored in a computer. The results were analyzed by 4x4 Latin Square Design analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the GLM procedure of the Statistical Analysis System. The ANOVA detected a main effect of treatment (P<0.01) and mare (nested within group; P<0.01) but no effect of channels, group or treatment-by-group interaction. There was a dose-dependent increase in uterine activity in both normal mares and those with delayed uterine clearance. A dose of 10 IU of oxytocin induced a larger number of uterine contractions (5.67+/-0.06) for a longer time (24.09+/-1.18 min) than the 5 IU (4.16+/-0.06 contractions and 16.31+/-1.18; P<0.01 min) or 2.5 IU dose (4.08+/-0.06 contractions and 17.61+/-1.18 min). The first intrauterine wave occurred most often near the tip of the horn in 10 of 12 recordings in normal mares and in 8 of 12 recordings in mares with delayed uterine clearance. It was then propagated from the middle of the horn to the uterine body just cranial to the cervix. There was no pattern of propagation for subsequent intrauterine pressure waves. We conclude that the difference in spontaneous clearance of the uterus between the 2

  20. Should a doctor prescribe hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine?

    PubMed

    Cox, D

    1996-08-01

    Many clinicians are experiencing consumer resistance to the prescription of equine HRT (that is hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine). In this paper I consider the ethical implications of prescribing these preparations. I decide that patients should have a right to refuse such treatment but also ask whether a prescribing doctor should choose one preparation over another on moral grounds. I determine that there is prima facie evidence to suggest that mares may suffer and that prescription of equine HRT (instead of synthetic oestrogen-oestriol) would therefore have to be justified in terms of either offering greater benefits to the women or offering greater value for money to the health service. I find that there is no substantial evidence to suggest that equine HRT offers unique advantages over and above oestriol. I conclude that it would be preferable for a doctor to recommend the synthetic oestrogen to women who want relief from the symptoms of the menopause and protection from osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.