Science.gov

Sample records for marginal cost pricing

  1. Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated cost-of-service pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers?

  2. Marginal Cost Pricing and Efficient Provision of Public Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Steven E.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of supply and demand functions for public campground recreation indicated that the estimated equilibrium price was considerably below the current price and that social welfare can be increased by charging the equilibrium price. Shifting to the equilibrium price had significantly negative revenue effects on the recreation-providing agency.…

  3. Marginal energy prices report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaitkin, Stuart; Biermayer, Peter; Bretz, Sarah; Brown, Steve; Constantine, Sachu; Fisher, Diane; Hakim, Sajid; Liew, Lucy; Lutz, Jim; Marnay, Chris; McMahon, James E.; Moezzi, Mithra; Osborn, Julie; Rawner, Esther; Roberson, Judy; Rosenquist, Greg; Ryan, Nancy; Turiel, Isaac; Wiel, Stephen

    1999-06-24

    This report responds to a recommendation from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advisory Committee on Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards. It presents the derivation of estimated consumer marginal energy prices for the commercial and residential sectors for use in the life-cycle cost (LCC) analyses for four of the high priority appliances' energy efficiency standards rule makings --clothes washers, water heaters,fluorescent lamp ballasts, and central airconditioners/heat pumps. Marginal prices as discussed here are those prices consumers pay (or save) for their last units of energy used (or saved). Marginal prices reflect a change in a consumer's bill (that might be associated with new energy efficiency standards) divided by the corresponding change in the amount of energy the consumer used.

  4. Price-cost margin in the pharmaceutical industry. Empirical evidence from Finland.

    PubMed

    Linnosmaa, Ismo; Hermans, Raine; Hallinen, Taru

    2004-06-01

    This contribution estimates the price-cost margin in the Finnish pharmaceutical industry. The estimation is based on the method developed by Hall who shows that under constant returns to scale total factor productivity growth depends on the growth of output-capital ratio if the market is imperfectly competitive. Measurement of the price-cost margin is based on this theoretical result. We utilize data on the Finnish pharmaceutical industry. The data cover the years 1975-1999 and include information on output, labor hours, and capital stock. The results show that the estimated price-cost margin is in the range 0.59-0.67, which is close to the estimates obtained in the United States market.

  5. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

  6. Toward a new spacecraft optimal design lifetime? Impact of marginal cost of durability and reduced launch price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelgrove, Kailah B.; Saleh, Joseph Homer

    2016-10-01

    The average design lifetime of satellites continues to increase, in part due to the expectation that the satellite cost per operational day decreases monotonically with increased design lifetime. In this work, we challenge this expectation by revisiting the durability choice problem for spacecraft in the face of reduced launch price and under various cost of durability models. We first provide a brief overview of the economic thought on durability and highlight its limitations as they pertain to our problem (e.g., the assumption of zero marginal cost of durability). We then investigate the merging influence of spacecraft cost of durability and launch price, and we identify conditions that give rise cost-optimal design lifetimes that are shorter than the longest lifetime technically achievable. For example, we find that high costs of durability favor short design lifetimes, and that under these conditions the optimal choice is relatively robust to reduction in launch prices. By contrast, lower costs of durability favor longer design lifetimes, and the optimal choice is highly sensitive to reduction in launch price. In both cases, reduction in launch prices translates into reduction of the optimal design lifetime. Our results identify a number of situations for which satellite operators would be better served by spacecraft with shorter design lifetimes. Beyond cost issues and repeat purchases, other implications of long design lifetime include the increased risk of technological slowdown given the lower frequency of purchases and technology refresh, and the increased risk for satellite operators that the spacecraft will be technologically obsolete before the end of its life (with the corollary of loss of value and competitive advantage). We conclude with the recommendation that, should pressure to extend spacecraft design lifetime continue, satellite manufacturers should explore opportunities to lease their spacecraft to operators, or to take a stake in the ownership

  7. Pricing hospital care: Global budgets and marginal pricing strategies.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Jason M

    2015-08-01

    The Canadian province of British Columbia (BC) is adding financial incentives to increase the volume of surgeries provided by hospitals using a marginal pricing approach. The objective of this study is to calculate marginal costs of surgeries based on assumptions regarding hospitals' availability of labor and equipment. This study is based on observational clinical, administrative and financial data generated by hospitals. Hospital inpatient and outpatient discharge summaries from the province are linked with detailed activity-based costing information, stratified by assigned case mix categorizations. To reflect a range of operating constraints governing hospitals' ability to increase their volume of surgeries, a number of scenarios are proposed. Under these scenarios, estimated marginal costs are calculated and compared to prices being offered as incentives to hospitals. Existing data can be used to support alternative strategies for pricing hospital care. Prices for inpatient surgeries do not generate positive margins under a range of operating scenarios. Hip and knee surgeries generate surpluses for hospitals even under the most costly labor conditions and are expected to generate additional volume. In health systems that wish to fine-tune financial incentives, setting prices that create incentives for additional volume should reflect knowledge of hospitals' underlying cost structures. Possible implications of mis-pricing include no response to the incentives or uneven increases in supply. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  9. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  10. Wastewater Treatment Costs and Outlays in Organic Petrochemicals: Standards Versus Taxes With Methodology Suggestions for Marginal Cost Pricing and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Russell G.; Singleton, F. D., Jr.

    1986-04-01

    With the methodology recommended by Baumol and Oates, comparable estimates of wastewater treatment costs and industry outlays are developed for effluent standard and effluent tax instruments for pollution abatement in five hypothetical organic petrochemicals (olefins) plants. The computational method uses a nonlinear simulation model for wastewater treatment to estimate the system state inputs for linear programming cost estimation, following a practice developed in a National Science Foundation (Research Applied to National Needs) study at the University of Houston and used to estimate Houston Ship Channel pollution abatement costs for the National Commission on Water Quality. Focusing on best practical and best available technology standards, with effluent taxes adjusted to give nearly equal pollution discharges, shows that average daily treatment costs (and the confidence intervals for treatment cost) would always be less for the effluent tax than for the effluent standard approach. However, industry's total outlay for these treatment costs, plus effluent taxes, would always be greater for the effluent tax approach than the total treatment costs would be for the effluent standard approach. Thus the practical necessity of showing smaller outlays as a prerequisite for a policy change toward efficiency dictates the need to link the economics at the microlevel with that at the macrolevel. Aggregation of the plants into a programming modeling basis for individual sectors and for the economy would provide a sound basis for effective policy reform, because the opportunity costs of the salient regulatory policies would be captured. Then, the government's policymakers would have the informational insights necessary to legislate more efficient environmental policies in light of the wealth distribution effects.

  11. Costing and pricing.

    PubMed

    Jones, T

    1993-01-01

    With spreadsheets at the ready, accountants in the NHS are waiting to apply the uniform costing methodology emerging from the National Steering Group on Costing. Before the money-number-crunchers hijack its eventual final report Costing for contracts, general managers need to work out the implications for their role in pricing services and contracts.

  12. Cost and Price Collaboration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    and individual relationships. This paper examines the state of current collaboration between price and cost analysts in four Army ground vehicle...detailed costs for labor, material, and overhead, but the CSDRs also provide costs by a standardized detailed work breakdown structure. Currently , this...information in addition to the PNMs that supported their cost and budgeting efforts. Current Contractor Rates enabled the estimation of current

  13. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  14. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  15. Incentive pricing and cost recovery at the basin scale.

    PubMed

    Ward, Frank A; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Incentive pricing programs have potential to promote economically efficient water use patterns and provide a revenue source to compensate for environmental damages. However, incentive pricing may impose disproportionate costs and aggravate poverty where high prices are levied for basic human needs. This paper presents an analysis of a two-tiered water pricing system that sets a low price for subsistence needs, while charging a price equal to marginal cost, including environmental cost, for discretionary uses. This pricing arrangement can promote efficient and sustainable water use patterns, goals set by the European Water Framework Directive, while meeting subsistence needs of poor households. Using data from the Rio Grande Basin of North America, a dynamic nonlinear program, maximizes the basin's total net economic and environmental benefits subject to several hydrological and institutional constraints. Supply costs, environmental costs, and resource costs are integrated in a model of a river basin's hydrology, economics, and institutions. Three programs are compared: (1) Law of the River, in which water allocations and prices are determined by rules governing water transfers; (2) marginal cost pricing, in which households pay the full marginal cost of supplying treated water; (3) two-tiered pricing, in which households' subsistence water needs are priced cheaply, while discretionary uses are priced at efficient levels. Compared to the Law of the River and marginal cost pricing, two-tiered pricing performs well for efficiency and adequately for sustainability and equity. Findings provide a general framework for formulating water pricing programs that promote economically and environmentally efficient water use programs while also addressing other policy goals.

  16. Wheeling rates based on marginal-cost theory

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, H.M.; Erickson, B.W. )

    1989-11-01

    Knowledge of what rates for wheeling electric power would be, if based on marginal costs, is vital in the debate on how wheeling should be priced. This paper presents the first extensive computations of marginal costs of wheeling, and of rates based on these marginal costs. Sensitivities to losses, constraints, load levels, amount of power wheeled, revenue reconciliation, etc., are examined in the context of two case studies.

  17. The importance of time cost in pricing outpatient care.

    PubMed

    Heshmat, S

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the component of the full price charged to patients using outpatient care. The full price of a visit to a physician is equal to out-of-pocket payment (money price), and time costs. In particular, the article discusses the concept of time price (marginal value of time for a patient), and presents a specific example to illustrate the concept of time price elasticity. The concepts and information presented in this article can help marketing managers in setting pricing strategy that would explicitly consider time price.

  18. Marginal Pricing and Student Investment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.; Stange, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of marginal price on students' educational investments using rich administrative data on students at Michigan public universities. Marginal price refers to the amount colleges charge for each additional credit taken in a semester. Institutions differ in how they price credits above the full-time minimum (of 12…

  19. Marginal Pricing and Student Investment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.; Stange, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of marginal price on students' educational investments using rich administrative data on students at Michigan public universities. Marginal price refers to the amount colleges charge for each additional credit taken in a semester. Institutions differ in how they price credits above the full-time minimum (of 12…

  20. Marginal Costs and Formula-Based Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Ellen

    Marginal cost is the cost of producing an additional unit. In higher education, one marginal cost would be cost of educating an additional student. Formula-based budget determination for public higher education is usually based on average cost per student. This study estimates marginal cost and compares it with average cost. There are several…

  1. A comparison of pay-as-bid and marginal pricing in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yongjun

    This thesis investigates the behaviour of electricity markets under marginal and pay-as-bid pricing. Marginal pricing is believed to yield the maximum social welfare and is currently implemented by most electricity markets. However, in view of recent electricity market failures, pay-as-bid has been extensively discussed as a possible alternative to marginal pricing. In this research, marginal and pay-as-bid pricing have been analyzed in electricity markets with both perfect and imperfect competition. The perfect competition case is studied under both exact and uncertain system marginal cost prediction. The comparison of the two pricing methods is conducted through two steps: (i) identify the best offer strategy of the generating companies (gencos); (ii) analyze the market performance under these optimum genco strategies. The analysis results together with numerical simulations show that pay-as-bid and marginal pricing are equivalent in a perfect market with exact system marginal cost prediction. In perfect markets with uncertain demand prediction, the two pricing methods are also equivalent but in an expected value sense. If we compare from the perspective of second order statistics, all market performance measures exhibit much lower values under pay-as-bid than under marginal pricing. The risk of deviating from the mean is therefore much higher under marginal pricing than under pay-as-bid. In an imperfect competition market with exact demand prediction, the research shows that pay-as-bid pricing yields lower consumer payments and lower genco profits. This research provides quantitative evidence that challenges some common claims about pay-as-bid pricing. One is that under pay-as-bid, participants would soon learn how to offer so as to obtain the same or higher profits than what they would have obtained under marginal pricing. This research however shows that, under pay-as-bid, participants can at best earn the same profit or expected profit as under marginal

  2. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  3. Marginal Costing Techniques for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard; Brinkman, Paul

    The techniques for calculating marginal costs in higher education are examined in detail. Marginal costs, as defined in economics, is the change in total cost associated with producing one additional unit of output. In higher education, the most frequently selected unit of output is a full-time-equivalent student or, alternatively, a student…

  4. The Shuttle Cost and Price model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leary, Katherine; Stone, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Cost and Price (SCP) model was developed as a tool to assist in evaluating major aspects of Shuttle operations that have direct and indirect economic consequences. It incorporates the major aspects of NASA Pricing Policy and corresponds to the NASA definition of STS operating costs. An overview of the SCP model is presented and the cost model portion of SCP is described in detail. Selected recent applications of the SCP model to NASA Pricing Policy issues are presented.

  5. The Shuttle Cost and Price model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leary, Katherine; Stone, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Cost and Price (SCP) model was developed as a tool to assist in evaluating major aspects of Shuttle operations that have direct and indirect economic consequences. It incorporates the major aspects of NASA Pricing Policy and corresponds to the NASA definition of STS operating costs. An overview of the SCP model is presented and the cost model portion of SCP is described in detail. Selected recent applications of the SCP model to NASA Pricing Policy issues are presented.

  6. Pricing for water conservation with cost recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehman, Edna Tusak

    2008-08-01

    Variable unit pricing provides incentives for conservation, similar to increasing block rates, while covering system costs. For supply-limited situations and planning contexts, it is also shown to provide for cost recovery with supply limits and capacity constraints. This paper presents two applications of pricing with supply constraints: (1) an application for Amman, Jordan, showing that VUP satisfying a supply limit can avoid more costly capacity expansion and (2) an example of seasonal pricing for Boulder, Colorado, as an alternative to water restrictions. These two cases also exhibit two methods for generating data needs: (1) a "full information approach" with specified demand and cost functions and (2) "iterative pricing" that uses a previous year's cost and consumption data to set future pricing.

  7. Book Discounts and Cost-Plus Pricing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, David C.

    1974-01-01

    The adoption of cost-plus pricing by a major book jobber may have profound effects on the discounts that libraries receive. The article explains the pricing system and presents a set of graphs for libraries to use to determine its effects. (Author)

  8. Acquisition Cost/Price Estimating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    SYSTEMS, RECOMMENDING COST COALS FOR THOSE SYSTEMS, AND VALIDATING THOSE ESTIMATES THROUGH INDEPENDENT COSTING METHODS. INSTRUMENTS THROUGH WHICH SYSTEM...REVIEW AND VALIDATION, (3) RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGY AND (4) DATA ANALYSIS. THESE FUNCTIONAL THRUSTS ARE IN TURN FOCUSED TO ESTIMATING AND ANALISIS ...ANALYSIS OF COST ISSUES -- TO PROVIDE CONSISTENCY AND COMPLETENESS OF ESTIMATES PREPARED BY OTHER FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES. MANAGERIAL 1. COST ANALISIS HAS

  9. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction.

    PubMed

    Mew, M C

    2016-01-15

    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation.

  10. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  11. 22 CFR 145.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 145.45 Section 145.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  12. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis... § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  13. 14 CFR § 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. § 1260.145....145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  14. 34 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45 Education... Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  15. 22 CFR 518.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cost and price analysis. 518.45 Section 518.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 518.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations submitted...

  16. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210... § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished...

  17. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis... § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  18. 24 CFR 84.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 84.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  19. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210... § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished...

  20. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office of... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  1. 22 CFR 518.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cost and price analysis. 518.45 Section 518.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 518.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations submitted...

  2. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  3. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210... § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished...

  4. 24 CFR 84.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 84.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  5. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  6. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations submitted...

  7. 22 CFR 145.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 145.45 Section 145.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  8. 7 CFR 3019.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 3019.45 Section 3019.45... Standards § 3019.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  9. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  10. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price...

  11. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  12. 7 CFR 3019.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 3019.45 Section 3019.45... Standards § 3019.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  13. 24 CFR 84.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 84.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  14. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office of... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  15. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations...

  16. 22 CFR 518.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 518.45 Section 518.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 518.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations...

  17. 7 CFR 550.47 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 550.47 Section 550.47... Agreements Procurement Standards § 550.47 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations...

  18. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  19. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  20. 48 CFR 52.215-10 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-10 Section 52.215-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-10 Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data... because— (1) The Contractor or a subcontractor furnished certified cost or pricing data that were not...

  1. Decommissioning Cost Estimating -The ''Price'' Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, R.; Gilmour, J.

    2002-02-26

    Over the past 9 years UKAEA has developed a formalized approach to decommissioning cost estimating. The estimating methodology and computer-based application are known collectively as the PRICE system. At the heart of the system is a database (the knowledge base) which holds resource demand data on a comprehensive range of decommissioning activities. This data is used in conjunction with project specific information (the quantities of specific components) to produce decommissioning cost estimates. PRICE is a dynamic cost-estimating tool, which can satisfy both strategic planning and project management needs. With a relatively limited analysis a basic PRICE estimate can be produced and used for the purposes of strategic planning. This same estimate can be enhanced and improved, primarily by the improvement of detail, to support sanction expenditure proposals, and also as a tender assessment and project management tool. The paper will: describe the principles of the PRICE estimating system; report on the experiences of applying the system to a wide range of projects from contaminated car parks to nuclear reactors; provide information on the performance of the system in relation to historic estimates, tender bids, and outturn costs.

  2. Cost-effectiveness as a price control.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    After a technology is developed, cost-effectiveness analysis can offer an economically sound approach to adoption decisions. Little attention has been paid, however, to the incentives these criteria induce for getting technologies to market in the first place. We argue that technology adoption procedures more fully take into account the key trade-off inherent in research and development: the decreased welfare of current patients as a result of higher prices versus the increased welfare of future patients as a result of the incentives for innovation that such prices provide. Empirical evidence from a case study of HIV/AIDS provides an illustration of our conclusions.

  3. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically

  4. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... complete, current, and accurate cost and pricing data or not based on costs allowable under the appropriate... sufficient cost and pricing data as described in paragraph (c) of this section to enable the grantee to... used, in those cases where §§ 35.937-2, 35.937-3 and 35.937-4 are applicable; (ii) the cost and pricing...

  5. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  6. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  7. 14 CFR 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1260.145 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  8. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  9. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  10. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  11. 38 CFR 49.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1260.145 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  13. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  14. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  15. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  16. Confronting Cost and Pricing Issues in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Thomas H.; Parker, G. D., III; Tebeaux, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that "the devil is in the details" when determining costs and prices for distance delivery of courses, and describes Texas A&M University's process of determining cost and price for distance education courses. (EV)

  17. 14 CFR 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1274.506 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  18. 2 CFR 215.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 215.45 Section 215... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  19. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  20. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  1. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  2. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  3. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  4. 14 CFR § 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. § 1274.506... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  5. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  6. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  7. 14 CFR 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1274.506 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  8. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for experience-rated carriers includes: (1) Information such as claims data; (2) Actual or negotiated benefits...

  9. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for experience-rated carriers includes: (1) Information such as claims data; (2) Actual or negotiated benefits...

  10. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for experience-rated carriers includes: (1) Information such as claims data; (2) Actual or negotiated benefits...

  11. 28 CFR 70.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 70.45 Section 70... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  12. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  13. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  14. 15 CFR 14.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 14.45 Section... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  15. 28 CFR 70.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 70.45 Section 70... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  16. Mean-reversion in income over feed cost margins: evidence and implications for managing margin risk by US dairy producers.

    PubMed

    Bozic, M; Newton, J; Thraen, C S; Gould, B W

    2012-12-01

    With the increased volatility of feed prices, dairy farm managers are no longer concerned with managing only milk price volatility, but are considering the adoption of risk management programs that address income over feed cost (IOFC) margin risk. Successful margin risk management should be founded on an understanding of the behavior of IOFC margins. To that end, we have constructed forward IOFC margins using Class III milk, corn, and soybean meal futures prices. We focus on the characteristics of the term structure of forward IOFC margins, that is, the sequence of forward margins for consecutive calendar months, all observed on the same trading day. What is apparent from the shapes of these term structures is that both in times when margins were exceptionally high and in times when they were disastrously low, market participants expected that a reversal back to average margin levels would not come quickly, but rather would take up to 9 mo. Slopes of the forward margin term structure before and after most of the major swings in IOFC indicate these shocks were mostly unanticipated, whereas the time needed for recovery to normal margin levels was successfully predicted. This suggests that IOFC margins may exhibit slow mean-reverting, rather than predictable cyclical behavior, as is often suggested in the popular press. This finding can be exploited to design a successful catastrophic risk management program by initiating protection at 9 to 12 mo before futures contract maturity. As a case study, we analyzed risk management strategies for managing IOFC margins that used Livestock Gross Margin for Dairy Cattle insurance contracts and created 2 farm profiles. The first one represents dairy farms that grow most of their feed, whereas the second profile is designed to capture the risk exposure of dairy farms that purchase all their dairy herd, dry cow, and heifer feed. Our case study of this program encompasses the 2009 period, which was characterized by exceptionally

  17. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-21... Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data... Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications (OCT 2010) (a) Exceptions...

  18. 48 CFR 239.7406 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. 239.7406 Section 239.7406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7406 Cost or pricing data and...

  19. 48 CFR 239.7406 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. 239.7406 Section 239.7406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7406 Cost or pricing data and...

  20. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the...

  1. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the...

  2. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including...

  3. 48 CFR 52.215-10 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or cost shall be reduced accordingly and the contract shall be modified to reflect the reduction. (b... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Price Reduction for... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-10 Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data...

  4. 48 CFR 570.110 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to and waivers for submitting cost or pricing data. Most leasing actions will have adequate price competition. For price analysis, you may use a market survey or an appraisal conducted using accepted real property appraisal procedures to establish a market price for comparison. (c) In exceptional cases,...

  5. 48 CFR 1652.215-70 - Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. 1652.215-70 Section 1652.215-70 Federal Acquisition... or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 1615.407-1, the following clause shall be... of cost and price analysis (community rated): Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost...

  6. Locational Marginal Pricing in the Campus Power System at the Power Distribution Level

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jun; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun Jason; Gao, David Wenzhong

    2016-11-14

    In the development of smart grid at distribution level, the realization of real-time nodal pricing is one of the key challenges. The research work in this paper implements and studies the methodology of locational marginal pricing at distribution level based on a real-world distribution power system. The pricing mechanism utilizes optimal power flow to calculate the corresponding distributional nodal prices. Both Direct Current Optimal Power Flow and Alternate Current Optimal Power Flow are utilized to calculate and analyze the nodal prices. The University of Denver campus power grid is used as the power distribution system test bed to demonstrate the pricing methodology.

  7. Pricing Medicare's diagnosis-related groups: Charges versus estimated costs

    PubMed Central

    Price, Kurt F.

    1989-01-01

    Hospital payments under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) are based on prices established for 474 diagnosis-related groups (DRG's). Previous analyses using 1981 data demonstrated that DRG prices based on charges alone were not that different from prices calculated from estimated costs. Data for 1986 were used in this study to show that the differences between the two sets of DRG prices are much larger than previously reported. If DRG prices were once again based on estimated costs instead of the current charge-based prices, payments would be significantly redistributed. PMID:10313356

  8. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 954(d)(3) to the seller give rise to foreign base company sales income as described in section 954(d....51, i.e., 23% of combined taxable income as determined under the marginal costing rules (23% of $154... gross receipts 950.00 Less: F's expenses 170.00 F's profit 35.51 Total (205.51) Transfer price...

  9. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost...

  10. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost...

  11. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost...

  12. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost...

  13. The Cost and Price Dilemma of Scholarly Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donald W.; Tenopir, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Examines overall costs of the scientific scholarly journal system and finds that relative system costs have not increased since the late 1970s. Describes scholarly publishing costs; factors that have contributed to spiraling price increases and changes in journal subscription demand; and alternative pricing policies that might help in the future.…

  14. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative... procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price...

  15. Analysis of probabilistic short run marginal cost using Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Alcaraz, G.; Navarrete, N.; Tovar-Hernandez, J.H.; Fuerte-Esquivel, C.R.; Mota-Palomino, R.

    1999-11-01

    The structure of the Electricity Supply Industry is undergoing dramatic changes to provide new services options. The main aim of this restructuring is allowing generating units the freedom of selling electricity to anybody they wish at a price determined by market forces. Several methodologies have been proposed in order to quantify different costs associated with those new services offered by electrical utilities operating under a deregulated market. The new wave of pricing is heavily influenced by economic principles designed to price products to elastic market segments on the basis of marginal costs. Hence, spot pricing provides the economic structure for many of new services. At the same time, the pricing is influenced by uncertainties associated to the electric system state variables which defined its operating point. In this paper, nodal probabilistic short run marginal costs are calculated, considering as random variables the load, the production cost and availability of generators. The effect of the electrical network is evaluated taking into account linearized models. A thermal economic dispatch is used to simulate each operational condition generated by Monte Carlo method on small fictitious power system in order to assess the effect of the random variables on the energy trading. First, this is carry out by introducing each random variable one by one, and finally considering the random interaction of all of them.

  16. 7 CFR 550.47 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., market prices and similar indicia, together with discounts. Cost analysis is the review and evaluation of... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 550.47 Section 550.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE,...

  17. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis....

  18. 48 CFR 52.214-27 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-27 Section 52.214-27 Federal... Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed Bidding. As prescribed in 14.201-7(b), insert the following clause: Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed...

  19. 48 CFR 52.214-27 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-27 Section 52.214-27 Federal... Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed Bidding. As prescribed in 14.201-7(b), insert the following clause: Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed...

  20. 48 CFR 52.214-27 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-27 Section 52.214-27 Federal... Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed Bidding. As prescribed in 14.201-7(b), insert the following clause: Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed...

  1. 48 CFR 52.214-27 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-27 Section 52.214-27 Federal... Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed Bidding. As prescribed in 14.201-7(b), insert the following clause: Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed Bidding...

  2. The economic cost of fuel price subsidies in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori, Roland Oduro

    I adapt the Harberger formula for deadweight loss to develop approximations for the deadweight loss created by multiple fuel price subsidies. I also estimate the own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel in Africa. I use data on fuel prices and sales in combination with my formulas and elasticity estimates to calculate the deadweight loss of fuel price subsidies in Ghana from 2009 to 2014. I show that the average efficiency cost of the gasoline and diesel price subsidies in Ghana is 0.8% of fuel price subsidy transfers. This result stresses the futility of basing subsidy reforms on economic efficiency losses, which are relatively small due to very inelastic energy demand, and the need for such reforms to be motivated by the poor-targeting of subsidies to low-income households and the impact of subsidies on government debt-financing.

  3. Incremental cost pricing of transmission services. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report, prepared by ICF Resources, under a sub-contract with IT Corporation, is concerned chiefly with examining the economic concepts underlying an Incremental Cost Pricing Framework (ICPF), which is defined here as a pricing regime that takes into account several factors: economic efficiency in terms of sending the correct long-term price signals to both users and owners of transmission assets; pricing of individual services in relationship to cost causation; full recovery of costs associated with transmission service; and applicability to real-world power systems without extraordinary administrative burdens. In the course of this examination, the report makes assumptions, as necessary, and assesses the extent to which they may or may not comport with real-world conditions. It also assesses the pros and cons of different approaches to pricing various components of transmission service without making a recommendation as to the superiority of one approach over another from a public policy perspective.

  4. Revenue Sufficiency and Reliability in a Zero Marginal Cost Future: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Frew, Bethany A.; Milligan, Michael; Brinkman, Greg; Bloom, Aaron; Clark, Kara; Denholm, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Features of existing wholesale electricity markets, such as administrative pricing rules and policy-based reliability standards, can distort market incentives from allowing generators sufficient opportunities to recover both fixed and variable costs. Moreover, these challenges can be amplified by other factors, including (1) inelastic demand resulting from a lack of price signal clarity, (2) low- or near-zero marginal cost generation, particularly arising from low natural gas fuel prices and variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar, and (3) the variability and uncertainty of this VG. As power systems begin to incorporate higher shares of VG, many questions arise about the suitability of the existing marginal-cost-based price formation, primarily within an energy-only market structure, to ensure the economic viability of resources that might be needed to provide system reliability. This article discusses these questions and provides a summary of completed and ongoing modelling-based work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to better understand the impacts of evolving power systems on reliability and revenue sufficiency.

  5. 48 CFR 52.215-11 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of Current Cost or Pricing Data. (e) If any reduction in the contract price under this clause reduces... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Price Reduction for... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-11 Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or...

  6. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sufficient cost and pricing data as described in paragraph (c) of this section to enable the grantee to... data the selected engineer submitted; (iii) a certification of review and acceptance of the selected...) Cost review. (1) The grantee shall review proposed subagreement costs. (2) As a minimum, proposed...

  7. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sufficient cost and pricing data as described in paragraph (c) of this section to enable the grantee to... data the selected engineer submitted; (iii) a certification of review and acceptance of the selected...) Cost review. (1) The grantee shall review proposed subagreement costs. (2) As a minimum, proposed...

  8. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990's. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

  9. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990’s. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services. PMID:23113171

  10. Cost accounting to determine prices: how well do prices reflect costs in the German DRG-system?

    PubMed

    Schreyögg, Jonas; Tiemann, Oliver; Busse, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    Germany has recently introduced a system of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) to engender more appropriate resource allocation. The following article describes the German DRG-system and the methodologies used to determine prices. It analyses the extent to which prices, or calculated cost weights, reflect the actual costs incurred by hospitals for their respective services. We reveal that a "compression" of DRG cost weights occurs, and that the data sample used to calculate cost weights is lacking in terms of its representativeness. Although cost data accuracy has improved over the last few years there are still a number of challenges that need to be addressed.

  11. 48 CFR 52.215-11 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-11 Section 52.215-11 Federal Acquisition... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications (OCT 2010) (a) This clause shall become operative... threshold for submission of certified cost or pricing data at FAR 15.403-4, except that this clause does not...

  12. Marginal cost of natural gas in developing countries: concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mashayekhi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Many developing nations are facing complex questions regarding the best strategy for developing their domestic gas reserves. The World Bank has addressed these questions in studies on the cost and prices of gas and its optimal allocation among different markets. Based on the average incremental method, an estimate of the marginal cost of natural gas in 10 developing countries proved to be $0.61-1.79/1000 CF or $3.59-10.54/bbl of oil equivalent, far below the border prices of competing fuels in these nations. Moreover, the cost of gas is not expected to rise in these countries within the next 20 years while the reserves/production ratios remain high. The sample involves a variety of gas compositions and production conditions among the countries of Bangladesh, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Tunisia.

  13. Asset Prices and Trading Volume under Fixed Transactions Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Andrew W.; Mamaysky, Harry; Wang, Jiang

    2004-01-01

    We propose a dynamic equilibrium model of asset prices and trading volume when agents face fixed transactions costs. We show that even small fixed costs can give rise to large "no-trade" regions for each agent's optimal trading policy. The inability to trade more frequently reduces the agents' asset demand and in equilibrium gives rise to a…

  14. Asset Prices and Trading Volume under Fixed Transactions Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Andrew W.; Mamaysky, Harry; Wang, Jiang

    2004-01-01

    We propose a dynamic equilibrium model of asset prices and trading volume when agents face fixed transactions costs. We show that even small fixed costs can give rise to large "no-trade" regions for each agent's optimal trading policy. The inability to trade more frequently reduces the agents' asset demand and in equilibrium gives rise to a…

  15. Blood product costing: relationship to price and clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Trenchard, P M; Dixon, R

    1995-09-01

    Detailed information is provided about primary product costing and price issues as they affect transfusion manufacturing practice and clinical transfusion practice. Product price is shown to have a crucial influence upon clinical practice and associated research. By focusing particularly upon cost-benefit analysis of blood product transfusion therapy a substantive conclusion is drawn that price should equal the associated manufacturing cost. Clinical outcome studies relate clinical efficacy to the manufacturing specification of the product, which should therefore determine the product cost. Thus, the true manufacturing cost is the sum of all the process activity costs that create the final product specification, e.g. red cell number+volume reduction+leucocyte reduction+microbiological safety, for processed red cells. Sometimes different product specifications may compete for a single activity cost, e.g. one-spin processing achieves volume reduction and leucocyte reduction for processed red cells but also plasma removal for protein fractionation. A method for understanding the relative clinical importance of different products is described, which guides the cost allocation process. Furthermore, for some products there is uncertainty about the clinical benefits of some components of the specification, e.g. leucocyte load and immunomodulation, and a method is described for ranking this quality-uncertainty level objectively. The optimal costing model must ensure that the product with the highest uncertainty ranking is assured a high degree of cost stability. These concepts prepare the way for a Quality Associated Costing model for blood products that correlates with clinical efficacy.

  16. Cost-effectiveness and pricing of antibacterial drugs.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the new antibacterial drugs were cost-effective compared to older generation drugs. Drug pricing is a complicated process, involving different stakeholders, and has a large influence on cost-effectiveness. Value-based pricing is a method to determine the price of a drug at which it can be cost-effective. It is currently unclear what the influence of value-based pricing will be on the prices of new antibacterial agents, but an important factor will be the definition of 'value', which as well as the impact of the drug on patient health might also include other factors such as wider social impact and the health impact of disease. © 2015 The Authors. Chemical Biology & Drug Design Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cost-effectiveness and Pricing of Antibacterial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the new antibacterial drugs were cost-effective compared to older generation drugs. Drug pricing is a complicated process, involving different stakeholders, and has a large influence on cost-effectiveness. Value-based pricing is a method to determine the price of a drug at which it can be cost-effective. It is currently unclear what the influence of value-based pricing will be on the prices of new antibacterial agents, but an important factor will be the definition of ‘value’, which as well as the impact of the drug on patient health might also include other factors such as wider social impact and the health impact of disease. PMID:25521641

  18. 48 CFR 15.406-2 - Certificate of current cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost or pricing data. 15.406-2 Section 15.406-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL....406-2 Certificate of current cost or pricing data. (a) When certified cost or pricing data are... contract file. Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data This is to certify that, to the best of my...

  19. European attitudes to water pricing: Internalizing environmental and resource costs.

    PubMed

    Kejser, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Efficient use of the water resource requires internalization of all costs in the price of water, including environmental and resource costs. However, water resource management tends to be highly political and increasing water prices are a sensitive and complicated policy matter. Hence, there is a need for increased understanding of the implementation process and the attitudes towards implementation among the general public. This paper explores the spatial heterogeneity in the public attitude towards internalizing environmental and resource costs in the price of water across the EU regions. Within an extensive spatial dataset constructed for the purpose, we estimate the effect of individual information levels and affordability concerns on the attitude towards environmental water pricing. Information about water problems is found to have a significant and positive effect on attitudes as is affordability concern, which may be explained by expectations of inequity measures to come in place in parallel with increasing water prices. Overall these results support the hypothesis that lack of information and affordability concern could lead to resistance towards efficient water pricing among the general public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Future drug prices and cost-effectiveness analyses.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses worldwide assume that the price of any single drug increases with inflation. New guidance from the Pharmaceutical Management Agency in New Zealand suggests that, when it is known that a generic drug will be available in the near future, a best estimate of the lower price of the generic should be included in the base-case cost-effectiveness analysis. Furthermore, in the sensitivity analysis, the real prices of the new and comparator drugs should be deflated by 2% per year as a proxy for inflation. To challenge the widespread assumption that the price of any single drug increases with inflation in the UK, and to calculate the impact on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of using a more realistic estimate for the future price of individual drugs. The change in the real price of 373 drugs in the UK over the period 1980-2006 was calculated. Only those drugs launched after 1984 and with more than 500 prescriptions per year were analysed. A linear model of the change in real price by drug was fitted as a function of launch year, number of prescriptions, and British National Formulary (BNF) section. The mean annual decrease in the real price of individual drugs was 3.8% (95% CI 3.4, 4.2), with a standard deviation of 2.5%. Using this value, drugs would generally appear more cost effective than as presently calculated, i.e. the ICER would generally fall. The ICER would fall substantially for drugs for chronic conditions, e.g. by 15%, from 61,900 to 52,700 pound per QALY (year 2004 values) for cinacalcet for hyperparathyroidism. It is predicted that the ratio would fall even more for longer-term conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Most of the drugs previously appraised by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) are actually more cost effective than stated by NICE. Furthermore, most or all drugs for chronic conditions are actually far more cost effective than stated by NICE. Hence, it is likely that some of

  1. 48 CFR 239.7406 - Certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7406 Certified cost or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certified cost or pricing...

  2. Cost of synthetic fuels in relation to oil prices - revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E.J.

    1984-07-01

    The belief that oil prices drive the cost factors of synthetic fuels makes the economic analysis of these types of facilities certain and straightforward. The certainty, however, is neither logical nor mathematically correct. The expected costs of energy from synthetic fuels processes have undoubtably increased over time, but to infer that continued increases will make synthetic fuels always uncompetitive, regardless of the price of oil, is false. The task of estimating the economic feasibility of synthetic fuels processes or any technological process is difficult. Although the hypothesis may be appealing, there is no reason to believe that oil price increases cause increases in the expected cost of synthetic fuels. 11 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  3. The cost of lithium is unlikely to upend the price of Li-ion storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciez, Rebecca E.; Whitacre, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    As lithium ion batteries become more common in electric vehicles and other storage applications, concerns about the cost of their namesake material, and its impact on the cost of these batteries, will continue. However, examining the constituent materials of these devices shows that lithium is a relatively small contributor to both the battery mass and manufacturing cost. The use of more expensive lithium precursor materials results in less than 1% increases in the cost of lithium ion cells considered. Similarly, larger fluctuations in the global lithium price (from 0 to 25/kg from a baseline of 7.50 per kg of Li2CO3) do not change the cost of lithium ion cells by more than 10%. While this small cost increase will not have a substantial impact on consumers, it could affect the manufacturers of these lithium ion cells, who already operate with small profit margins.

  4. PACE 2: Pricing and Cost Estimating Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.; Shepherd, T.

    1977-01-01

    An automatic data processing system to be used for the preparation of industrial engineering type manhour and material cost estimates has been established. This computer system has evolved into a highly versatile and highly flexible tool which significantly reduces computation time, eliminates computational errors, and reduces typing and reproduction time for estimators and pricers since all mathematical and clerical functions are automatic once basic inputs are derived.

  5. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sales of such item, product, or product line for the DISC's taxable year does not exceed gross receipts...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.994-2 Marginal costing rules. (a... maintain a foreign market for sales of an item, product, or product line of export property (as defined...

  6. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sales of such item, product, or product line for the DISC's taxable year does not exceed gross receipts...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.994-2 Marginal costing rules. (a... maintain a foreign market for sales of an item, product, or product line of export property (as defined...

  7. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sales of such item, product, or product line for the DISC's taxable year does not exceed gross receipts...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.994-2 Marginal costing rules. (a... maintain a foreign market for sales of an item, product, or product line of export property (as defined...

  8. 48 CFR 15.407-1 - Defective certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective certified cost or pricing data. (a) If, before agreement on price, the contracting officer learns that any certified cost or pricing data submitted are inaccurate, incomplete, or noncurrent, the..., after award, certified cost or pricing data are found to be inaccurate, incomplete, or noncurrent as of...

  9. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their respective cost effectiveness. Alternative measures, such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS), are not considered as it is difficult to quantify their abatement potential. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of an energy system model to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NOx) that incorporates both end-of-pipe controls and these alternative measures. We decompose the MACC by sector, and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS relative to end-of-pipe controls. RE/EE/FS are shown to produce considerable emission reductions after end-of-pipe controls have been exhausted. Furthermore, some RE/EE/FS are shown to be cost-competitive with end-of-pipe controls. Demonstrate how the MARKAL energy system model can be used to evaluate the potential role of renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) in achieving NOx reductions. For this particular analysis, we show that RE/EE/FSs are able to increase the quantity of NOx reductions available for a particular marginal cost (ranging from $5k per ton to $40k per ton) by approximately 50%.

  10. The price of innovation: new estimates of drug development costs.

    PubMed

    DiMasi, Joseph A; Hansen, Ronald W; Grabowski, Henry G

    2003-03-01

    The research and development costs of 68 randomly selected new drugs were obtained from a survey of 10 pharmaceutical firms. These data were used to estimate the average pre-tax cost of new drug development. The costs of compounds abandoned during testing were linked to the costs of compounds that obtained marketing approval. The estimated average out-of-pocket cost per new drug is 403 million US dollars (2000 dollars). Capitalizing out-of-pocket costs to the point of marketing approval at a real discount rate of 11% yields a total pre-approval cost estimate of 802 million US dollars (2000 dollars). When compared to the results of an earlier study with a similar methodology, total capitalized costs were shown to have increased at an annual rate of 7.4% above general price inflation. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. 34 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements...

  12. 34 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements...

  13. 40 CFR 35.6585 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6585 Cost and price analysis... performance, and industry profit rates in the surrounding geographical area for similar work....

  14. 22 CFR 145.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 145.45 Section 145.45 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards §...

  15. 22 CFR 145.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 145.45 Section 145.45 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards §...

  16. 20 CFR 435.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 435.45 Section 435.45 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS,...

  17. FARM LABOR COSTS AND FOOD PRICES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    TO MEASURE THE IMPACT OF THE DECLINE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL WORKER EMPLOYMENT ON FARM-LABOR COSTS, FOOD PRICES, AND RETURN TO THE FARMER, AN ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF THE 1964-65 CHANGES IN THESE FACTORS FOR SELECTED CALIFORNIA CROPS. TOMATOES, LETTUCE, STRAWBERRIES, CANTALOUPES, CELERY, LEMONS, AND ASPARAGUS, WHICH ACCOUNTED FOR 71 PERCENT OF THE…

  18. FARM LABOR COSTS AND FOOD PRICES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    TO MEASURE THE IMPACT OF THE DECLINE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL WORKER EMPLOYMENT ON FARM-LABOR COSTS, FOOD PRICES, AND RETURN TO THE FARMER, AN ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF THE 1964-65 CHANGES IN THESE FACTORS FOR SELECTED CALIFORNIA CROPS. TOMATOES, LETTUCE, STRAWBERRIES, CANTALOUPES, CELERY, LEMONS, AND ASPARAGUS, WHICH ACCOUNTED FOR 71 PERCENT OF THE…

  19. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section 30.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  20. 34 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements...

  1. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information required by CAR 1352.215-70, the cost/price proposal must contain an explanation of the offeror's... Statement of Work. A brief definition of the education and experience requirements which qualify an employee... location(s) where work is to be performed will be proposed. Company-wide, joint venture, or affiliate...

  2. The Effect of Price Competition on Weapon System Acquisition costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    available to cover any production deficiencies. Also, by postponing actual price competition for produccion until the second source has sufficient...ecuivalt=nt sole-source Squantity. We identify these cost components (relative to ave ’-age cost under taie sole-source plan) as follows: j C-2 startin...NRC) are specified as $6 million. With the original production schedule the proJected net ,’ avings are $36.2 million if the second source has the same

  3. Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombella, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

  4. Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombella, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

  5. Higher U.S. Crop Prices Trigger Little Area Expansion so Marginal Land for Biofuel Crops Is Limited

    SciTech Connect

    Swinton, S.; Babcock, Bruce; James, Laura; Bandaru, Varaprasad

    2011-06-12

    By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food price increases and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states

  6. 48 CFR 52.214-28 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-28 Section 52.214-28 Federal Acquisition... Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed Bidding (OCT 2010) (a) The requirements of paragraphs (b) and... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-28 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing...

  7. 48 CFR 52.214-28 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-28 Section 52.214-28 Federal Acquisition... Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed Bidding (OCT 2010) (a) The requirements of paragraphs (b) and... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-28 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing...

  8. 48 CFR 52.214-28 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-28 Section 52.214-28 Federal Acquisition... Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed Bidding (OCT 2010) (a) The requirements of paragraphs (b) and... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-28 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing...

  9. 48 CFR 52.214-28 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-28 Section 52.214-28 Federal Acquisition... Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed Bidding (OCT 2010) (a) The requirements of paragraphs (b) and... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-28 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing...

  10. 48 CFR 52.214-28 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-28 Section 52.214-28 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-28 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data... Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed Bidding (OCT 2010) (a) The requirements of paragraphs (b) and...

  11. 75 FR 53135 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Cost or Pricing Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...-0001, Sequence 15] RIN 9000-AK74 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Cost or Pricing Data... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to clarify the distinction between ``certified cost or pricing data'' and ``data other than certified cost or pricing data'', and to clarify requirements for submission of...

  12. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  13. Estimated generic prices of cancer medicines deemed cost-ineffective in England: a cost estimation analysis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew; Redd, Christopher; Gotham, Dzintars; Erbacher, Isabelle; Meldrum, Jonathan; Harada, Ryo

    2017-01-20

    The aim of this study was to estimate lowest possible treatment costs for four novel cancer drugs, hypothesising that generic manufacturing could significantly reduce treatment costs. This research was carried out in a non-clinical research setting using secondary data. There were no human participants in the study. Four drugs were selected for the study: bortezomib, dasatinib, everolimus and gefitinib. These medications were selected according to their clinical importance, novel pharmaceutical actions and the availability of generic price data. Target costs for treatment were to be generated for each indication for each treatment. The primary outcome measure was the target cost according to a production cost calculation algorithm. The secondary outcome measure was the target cost as the lowest available generic price; this was necessary where export data were not available to generate an estimate from our cost calculation algorithm. Other outcomes included patent expiry dates and total eligible treatment populations. Target prices were £411 per cycle for bortezomib, £9 per month for dasatinib, £852 per month for everolimus and £10 per month for gefitinib. Compared with current list prices in England, these target prices would represent reductions of 74-99.6%. Patent expiry dates were bortezomib 2014-22, dasatinib 2020-26, everolimus 2019-25 and gefitinib 2017. The total global eligible treatment population in 1 year is 769 736. Our findings demonstrate that affordable drug treatment costs are possible for novel cancer drugs, suggesting that new therapeutic options can be made available to patients and doctors worldwide. Assessing treatment cost estimations alongside cost-effectiveness evaluations is an important area of future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Estimated generic prices of cancer medicines deemed cost-ineffective in England: a cost estimation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Andrew; Redd, Christopher; Gotham, Dzintars; Erbacher, Isabelle; Meldrum, Jonathan; Harada, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate lowest possible treatment costs for four novel cancer drugs, hypothesising that generic manufacturing could significantly reduce treatment costs. Setting This research was carried out in a non-clinical research setting using secondary data. Participants There were no human participants in the study. Four drugs were selected for the study: bortezomib, dasatinib, everolimus and gefitinib. These medications were selected according to their clinical importance, novel pharmaceutical actions and the availability of generic price data. Primary and secondary outcome measures Target costs for treatment were to be generated for each indication for each treatment. The primary outcome measure was the target cost according to a production cost calculation algorithm. The secondary outcome measure was the target cost as the lowest available generic price; this was necessary where export data were not available to generate an estimate from our cost calculation algorithm. Other outcomes included patent expiry dates and total eligible treatment populations. Results Target prices were £411 per cycle for bortezomib, £9 per month for dasatinib, £852 per month for everolimus and £10 per month for gefitinib. Compared with current list prices in England, these target prices would represent reductions of 74–99.6%. Patent expiry dates were bortezomib 2014–22, dasatinib 2020–26, everolimus 2019–25 and gefitinib 2017. The total global eligible treatment population in 1 year is 769 736. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that affordable drug treatment costs are possible for novel cancer drugs, suggesting that new therapeutic options can be made available to patients and doctors worldwide. Assessing treatment cost estimations alongside cost-effectiveness evaluations is an important area of future research. PMID:28110283

  15. 48 CFR 5252.215-9000 - Submission of cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... awarded based upon a determination that there is adequate price competition; therefore, the offeror is not... the proposals, the contracting officer determines that adequate price competition does not exist in... adequate price competition does not exist, the offeror shall provide certified cost or pricing data...

  16. Competition in the NHS internal market: an overview of its effects on hospital prices and costs.

    PubMed

    Propper, C; Söderlund, N

    1998-05-01

    The 1989 reforms of the UK National Health Service (NHS) introduced competition in the supply of hospital services. This paper synthesizes both the theory underlying the introduction of competition into the NHS, and the limited existing evidence on whether competition affects the prices posted by sellers of medical services, and the costs of producing these services. The results indicate high levels of price variability, widespread disregard for average cost pricing rules and some indication that competition had some effect on prices. It appears that lower prices may be offered to smaller purchasers, such as General Practice Fund Holders (GPFH). This effect of competition on price was mirrored, with a delay, in hospital costs.

  17. Fundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, Marissa; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Palchak, David; Kirby, Brendan; Ma, Ookie

    2013-07-01

    Operating reserves impose a cost on the electric power system by forcing system operators to keep partially loaded spinning generators available for responding to system contingencies variable demand. In many regions of the United States, thermal power plants provide a large fraction of the operating reserve requirement. Alternative sources of operating reserves, such as demand response and energy storage, may provide more efficient sources of these reserves. However, to estimate the potential value of these services, the cost of reserve services under various grid conditions must first be established. This analysis used a commercial grid simulation tool to evaluate the cost and price of several operating reserve services, including spinning contingency reserves and upward regulation reserves. These reserve products were evaluated in a utility system in the western United States, considering different system flexibilities, renewable energy penetration, and other sensitivities. The analysis demonstrates that the price of operating reserves depend highly on many assumptions regarding the operational flexibility of the generation fleet, including ramp rates and the fraction of fleet available to provide reserves.

  18. Fundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M. R.; Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.

    2013-07-01

    Operating reserves impose a cost on the electric power system by forcing system operators to keep partially loaded spinning generators available for responding to system contingencies variable demand. In many regions of the United States, thermal power plants provide a large fraction of the operating reserve requirement. Alternative sources of operating reserves, such as demand response and energy storage, may provide more efficient sources of these reserves. However, to estimate the potential value of these services, the cost of reserve services under various grid conditions must first be established. This analysis used a commercial grid simulation tool to evaluate the cost and price of several operating reserve services, including spinning contingency reserves and upward regulation reserves. These reserve products were evaluated in a utility system in the western United States, considering different system flexibilities, renewable energy penetration, and other sensitivities. The analysis demonstrates that the price of operating reserves depend highly on many assumptions regarding the operational flexibility of the generation fleet, including ramp rates and the fraction of fleet available to provide reserves.

  19. Production costs of biodiversity zones on field and forest margins: a case study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Antti; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Mäkinen, Antti

    2012-07-30

    This paper estimates and compares the costs incurred to a private landowner from establishing and managing 25-m wide biodiversity zones on field and forest margins in southern Finland. Crop and timber prices being at their long-term averages, current agricultural support paid and the real discount rate 3%, the average annual net costs per hectare of field and forest biodiversity zones were €30 ha(-1) and €108 ha(-1), respectively, the field zones being the less costly alternative in 95% of cases. This result is mainly due to the poor productivity of field cultivation relative to timber production under boreal climate conditions. In addition to soil quality, the initial stand structure affects the costs of both biodiversity zone types. It is less costly for a landowner to establish biodiversity zones in forests where no final felling is imminent but which already contain some tree volume. In field biodiversity zones, costs are slightly lower on fields where forest shading is great. Uneven-aged management practiced in forest biodiversity zones was found to lead to a 3-32% reduction in the net present value of forest land compared to conventional forest management. An increase in the real discount rate increases the relative efficiency of forest biodiversity zones.

  20. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-20 Section 52.215-20 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS...

  1. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-21 Section 52.215-21 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED...

  2. Cutting costs: the impact of price lists on the cost development at the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Ulf Martin

    2010-12-01

    It was shown that physicians working at the Swedish emergency department (ED) are unaware of the costs for investigations performed. This study evaluated the possible impact of price lists on the overall laboratory and radiology costs at the ED of a Swedish university hospital. Price lists including the most common laboratory analyses and radiological investigations at the ED were created. The lists were distributed to all internal medicine physicians by e-mail and exposed above their working stations continually. No lists were provided for the orthopaedic control group. The average costs for laboratory and radiological investigations during the months of June and July 2007 and 2008 were calculated. Neither clinical nor admission procedures were changed. The physicians were blinded towards the study. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test. A total of 1442 orthopaedic and 1585 medical patients were attended to in 2007. In 2008, 1467 orthopaedic and 1637 medical patients required emergency service. The average costs per patient were 980.27 SKR (98€)/999.41 SKR (100€, +1.95%) for orthopaedic and 1081.36 SKR (108€)/877.3 SKR (88€, -18.8%) for medical patients. Laboratory costs decreased by 9% in orthopaedic and 21.4% in medical patients. Radiology costs changed +5.4% in orthopaedic and -20.59% in medical patients. The distribution and promotion of price lists as a tool at the ED to heighten cost awareness resulted in a major decrease in the investigation costs. A significant decrease in radiological costs could be observed. It can be concluded that price lists are an effective tool to cut costs in public healthcare.

  3. The Basic Economics of CD-ROM Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkkila, John E.

    1991-01-01

    This explanation of how the basic economic model of pricing applies to the CD-ROM industry considers the supply and demand sides of the market and compares three distinct pricing strategies: (1) pricing to maximize profits; (2) average cost pricing; and (3) marginal cost pricing. (EAM)

  4. Costs and prices of single dental fillings in Europe: a micro-costing study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siok Swan; Ken Redekop, W; Rutten, Frans F H

    2008-01-01

    Dental fillings represent an established procedure to treat tooth decay. The present paper provides a cost comparison of dental filling procedures across nine European countries. More specifically, the paper aims to estimate the costs and prices (i.e. reimbursement fees) of a single dental filling procedure in an approximately 12-year-old child with a toothache in a lower molar who presents at a dental practice, as described in a case vignette. Both amalgam and composite fillings were examined. Total costs were determined by identifying resource use and unit costs for the following cost components: diagnostic procedures, labour, materials, drugs, and overheads. Altogether, 49 practices provided data for the cost calculations. Mean total costs per country varied considerably, ranging from 8 euros to 156 euros. Labour costs were the most important cost driver in all practices, comprising 58% of total costs. Overhead costs were the second-most important cost component in the majority of countries. Actual cost differences across practices within countries were relatively small. Cost variations between countries were primarily due to differences in unit costs, especially for labour and overheads, and only to a lesser extent to differences in resource use. Finally, cost estimates for a single dental filling procedure based on reimbursement fees led to an underestimation of the total costs by approximately 50%. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards... in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations submitted, market prices and similar...

  6. The high cost of medicines in Ireland. Is it time to change the pricing mechanism?

    PubMed

    Tilson, Lesley; McGowan, Bernadette; Bennett, Kathleen; Barry, Michael

    2004-12-01

    This study compared the prices of prescription medicines in Ireland to those in other countries to determine potential cost savings on the largest community drug scheme if an alternative pricing mechanism were adopted. The analysis covered a sample of 39 drugs (44.8% of the total ingredient cost) selected from the top 70 drugs in order of total ingredient cost. Potential cost savings ranged from Euro 20.73 million if a Danish price were adopted, to Euro 16.23 million for the average European price, to Euro 6.82 million for the UK price. The estimated savings were statistically significant for the Danish and average European price but not for the UK price. This study demonstrates the high ex-wholesale price of prescription medications in Ireland.

  7. Comparison of United States and Canadian Glaucoma Medication Costs and Price Change from 2006 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, Matthew B.; Trope, Graham E.; Buys, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Compare glaucoma medication costs between the United States (USA) and Canada. Methods. We modelled glaucoma brand name and generic medication annual costs in the USA and Canada based on October 2013 Costco prices and previously reported bottle overfill rates, drops per mL, and wastage adjustment. We also calculated real wholesale price changes from 2006 to 2013 based on the Average Wholesale Price (USA) and the Ontario Drug Benefit Price (Canada). Results. US brand name medication costs were on average 4x more than Canadian medication costs (range: 1.9x–6.9x), averaging a cost difference of $859 annually. US generic costs were on average the same as Canadian costs, though variation exists. US brand name wholesale prices increased from 2006 to 2013 more than Canadian prices (US range: 29%–349%; Canadian range: 9%–16%). US generic wholesale prices increased modestly (US range: −23%–58%), and Canadian wholesale prices decreased (Canadian range: −38%–0%). Conclusions. US brand name glaucoma medications are more expensive than Canadian medications, though generic costs are similar (with some variation). The real prices of brand name medications increased more in the USA than in Canada. Generic price changes were more modest, with real prices actually decreasing in Canada. PMID:25922760

  8. Comparison of United States and canadian glaucoma medication costs and price change from 2006 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Matthew B; Trope, Graham E; Buys, Yvonne M

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Compare glaucoma medication costs between the United States (USA) and Canada. Methods. We modelled glaucoma brand name and generic medication annual costs in the USA and Canada based on October 2013 Costco prices and previously reported bottle overfill rates, drops per mL, and wastage adjustment. We also calculated real wholesale price changes from 2006 to 2013 based on the Average Wholesale Price (USA) and the Ontario Drug Benefit Price (Canada). Results. US brand name medication costs were on average 4x more than Canadian medication costs (range: 1.9x-6.9x), averaging a cost difference of $859 annually. US generic costs were on average the same as Canadian costs, though variation exists. US brand name wholesale prices increased from 2006 to 2013 more than Canadian prices (US range: 29%-349%; Canadian range: 9%-16%). US generic wholesale prices increased modestly (US range: -23%-58%), and Canadian wholesale prices decreased (Canadian range: -38%-0%). Conclusions. US brand name glaucoma medications are more expensive than Canadian medications, though generic costs are similar (with some variation). The real prices of brand name medications increased more in the USA than in Canada. Generic price changes were more modest, with real prices actually decreasing in Canada.

  9. 40 CFR 35.6585 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determination of price reasonableness on a catalog or market price of a commercial product sold in substantial... analysis to determine the reasonableness of the proposed contract price. (b) Profit analysis. For each... recipient must negotiate profit as a separate element of the price. To establish a fair and reasonable...

  10. Evidence of cost growth under cost-plus and fixed-price contracting

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Paananaen, O.H.; Redgate, T.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Jaksch, J.A.

    1998-09-01

    As defined by the US Department of Energy (DOE), privatization refers to a shifting of responsibilities for the completion of projects from a cost-plus Management and Operations (M and O) contract, to incentive-based contracts with the private sector. DOE`s new vision is to arrange cleanup work around incentives-based contracts, which are won via competitive bidding. Competition in awarding cleanup contracts can make use of market incentives to lower project costs and reduce slippage time. Fixed-price contracts encourage contractors to minimize schedule delays and cost overruns once the scope of a project has been negotiated. Conversely, cost-plus contracting offers weak incentives for contractors to select cost-minimizing production and management approaches. Because privatization explicitly allocates more risk to the contractor, it forces the government to better define its goals and methods. This study summarizes actual cost experiences with government contracts performed under cost-plus and fixed-price incentive structures at all levels of government. The first section provides some background on the problem of making contractor activity more cost-efficient. Following this are sections on the measurement of performance and the costs of projects, limitations on measurement, and findings of similar studies. The study concludes with appendices discussing the details of the performance measurement methodology and the project data sets used in the study.

  11. Cost-price: a useful way to evaluate timber growing alternatives.

    Treesearch

    Allen L. Lundgren

    1973-01-01

    This paper explains how to calculate and use cost-price as an investment criterion for timber and other forest products. Cost-price is the cost (including a return on invested capital) of producing a unit of output, usually expressed as dollars per cubic foot or other unit of output.

  12. 48 CFR 15.406-2 - Certificate of current cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certificate of current....406-2 Certificate of current cost or pricing data. (a) When certified cost or pricing data are required, the contracting officer shall require the contractor to execute a Certificate of Current Cost or...

  13. 48 CFR 15.406-2 - Certificate of current cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certificate of current....406-2 Certificate of current cost or pricing data. (a) When certified cost or pricing data are required, the contracting officer shall require the contractor to execute a Certificate of Current Cost or...

  14. 48 CFR 15.406-2 - Certificate of current cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certificate of current....406-2 Certificate of current cost or pricing data. (a) When certified cost or pricing data are required, the contracting officer shall require the contractor to execute a Certificate of Current Cost or...

  15. Avoiding Terminations, Single Offer Competition, and Costly Changes with Fixed Price Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-13

    robust . Overall, 25.3 percent of fixed price contracts with durations greater than a year receive only one offer compared to 31.4 percent of cost-plus...WWW.CSIS.ORG Avoiding Terminations, Single Offer Competition, and Costly Changes with Fixed Price Contracts Greg Sanders, Fellow, Defense...and Costly Changes with Fixed Price Contracts 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  16. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  17. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  18. Are retail prices "just" when they do not include social costs?

    PubMed

    McMahon, T F

    1999-01-01

    The price is "right" when the buyer agrees to purchase goods or service. But is it "just"? That is, does the price include social costs such as pollution and discrimination? Cost shifting is the passing down of these costs from the seller to the buyer. The amount of cost shifting depends upon the inelasticity or elasticity of supply or demands, methods of assigning social costs, means used in promotion and the role of the market price. Wal-Mart and Body Shop International exemplify the problems of social costs. Recommendations for marketing managers concludes the article.

  19. Price comparison of high-cost originator medicines in European countries.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, high-cost medicines have increasingly been challenging the public health budget in all countries including high-income economies. In this context, this study aims to survey, analyze and compare prices of medicines that likely contribute to high expenditure for the public payers in high-income countries. We chose the following 16 European countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Slovakia, Spain and United Kingdom. The ex-factory price data of 30 medicines in these countries were collected in national databases accessible through the Pharmaceutical Price Information (PPI) service of Gesundheit Österreich GmbH (Austrian Public Health Institute). The ex-factory prices (median) per unit (e.g. per tablet, vial) ranged from 10.67 cent (levodopa + decarboxylase inhibitor) to 17,000 euro (ipilimumab). A total of 53% of the medicines surveyed had a unit ex-factory price (median) above 200 Euro. For two thirds of the medicines, price differences between the highest-priced country and lowest-priced country ranged between 25 and 100%; the remaining medicines, mainly low-priced medicines, had higher price differential, up to 251%. Medicines with unit prices of a few euros or less were medicines for the treatment of diseases in the nervous system (anti-depressants, medicines to treat Parkinson and for the management of neuropathic pain), of obstructive airway diseases and cardio-vascular medicines (lipid modifying agents). High-priced medicines were particularly cancer medicines. Medicine prices of Greece, Hungary, Slovakia and UK were frequently at the lower end, German and Swedish, as well as Danish and Irish prices at the upper end. For high-priced medicines, actual paid prices are likely to be lower due to confidential discounts and similar funding arrangements between industry and public payers. Pricing authorities refer to the higher undiscounted prices when they use

  20. Design the price signal mechanism of suppliers' cost in the commercial procurement process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinming, Huang; Wenjing, Li; Huazhen, Zhu

    2016-06-01

    In the process of commercial procurement, there exists information asymmetry between purchasers and suppliers in terms of commodity cost. The strike price is what purchasers care about, while the focus of suppliers is only the sales revenue. In order to achieve the relatively lower strike price, purchasers need to design a price signal mechanism, explicating the commodity cost of suppliers. In this article, we have designed a mechanism that purchasers can explicit the commodity cost price based on suppliers' choices by providing a variety of purchase contracts to suppliers.

  1. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs. 229.1204 Section 229.1204 Commodity and Securities...

  2. Reflections on Costing, Pricing and Income Measurement at UK Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduoza, Chike F.

    2009-01-01

    In these days of radical contraction of funding and expansion in student numbers, universities are under pressure to prioritise their resources, as well as to achieve effective costing and pricing to support judgement and decision making for funding and any external work undertaken. This study reviews costing, pricing and income measurement in…

  3. Price-Cost Ratios in Higher Education: Subsidy Structure and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of US institutions of higher education is manifested in many ways. This study looks at that diversity from the economic perspective by studying the subsidy structure through the distribution of institutional price-cost ratio (PCR), defined as the sum of net tuition price divided by total supplier cost and equals to one minus…

  4. 48 CFR 15.406-2 - Certificate of current cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certificate of current cost or pricing data. 15.406-2 Section 15.406-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... knowledge and belief, the cost or pricing data (as defined in section 2.101 of the Federal...

  5. 48 CFR 1815.403-170 - Waivers of cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 1815.403-170 Waivers of cost or pricing data. (a) NASA has waived the requirement for the submission of... found and refunded to NASA. (b) NASA has waived the requirement for the submission of cost or pricing data when contracting for Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program Phase II contracts. However...

  6. Reflections on Costing, Pricing and Income Measurement at UK Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduoza, Chike F.

    2009-01-01

    In these days of radical contraction of funding and expansion in student numbers, universities are under pressure to prioritise their resources, as well as to achieve effective costing and pricing to support judgement and decision making for funding and any external work undertaken. This study reviews costing, pricing and income measurement in…

  7. Price-Cost Ratios in Higher Education: Subsidy Structure and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of US institutions of higher education is manifested in many ways. This study looks at that diversity from the economic perspective by studying the subsidy structure through the distribution of institutional price-cost ratio (PCR), defined as the sum of net tuition price divided by total supplier cost and equals to one minus…

  8. 48 CFR 15.407-1 - Defective certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective certified cost or pricing data. 15.407-1 Section 15.407-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Government audit discloses defective subcontractor certified cost or pricing data, the information necessary...

  9. 48 CFR 15.407-1 - Defective certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective certified cost or pricing data. 15.407-1 Section 15.407-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Government audit discloses defective subcontractor certified cost or pricing data, the information necessary...

  10. 48 CFR 15.407-1 - Defective certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective certified cost or pricing data. 15.407-1 Section 15.407-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Government audit discloses defective subcontractor certified cost or pricing data, the information necessary...

  11. 48 CFR 15.407-1 - Defective certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective certified cost or pricing data. 15.407-1 Section 15.407-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Government audit discloses defective subcontractor certified cost or pricing data, the information necessary...

  12. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  13. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  14. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  15. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  16. Multi-period equilibrium/near-equilibrium in electricity markets based on locational marginal prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Bertrand, Raquel

    In this dissertation we propose an equilibrium procedure that coordinates the point of view of every market agent resulting in an equilibrium that simultaneously maximizes the independent objective of every market agent and satisfies network constraints. Therefore, the activities of the generating companies, consumers and an independent system operator are modeled: (1) The generating companies seek to maximize profits by specifying hourly step functions of productions and minimum selling prices, and bounds on productions. (2) The goals of the consumers are to maximize their economic utilities by specifying hourly step functions of demands and maximum buying prices, and bounds on demands. (3) The independent system operator then clears the market taking into account consistency conditions as well as capacity and line losses so as to achieve maximum social welfare. Then, we approach this equilibrium problem using complementarity theory in order to have the capability of imposing constraints on dual variables, i.e., on prices, such as minimum profit conditions for the generating units or maximum cost conditions for the consumers. In this way, given the form of the individual optimization problems, the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions for the generating companies, the consumers and the independent system operator are both necessary and sufficient. The simultaneous solution to all these conditions constitutes a mixed linear complementarity problem. We include minimum profit constraints imposed by the units in the market equilibrium model. These constraints are added as additional constraints to the equivalent quadratic programming problem of the mixed linear complementarity problem previously described. For the sake of clarity, the proposed equilibrium or near-equilibrium is first developed for the particular case considering only one time period. Afterwards, we consider an equilibrium or near-equilibrium applied to a multi-period framework. This model embodies binary

  17. Pharmaceutical prices continue to drive up supply costs.

    PubMed

    Hard, R

    1992-03-05

    The 1992 purchasing outlook from the Joint Purchasing Corp. (JPC), New York City, forecasts a difficult winter followed by a mild economic recovery beginning in the spring or early summer. Pharmaceuticals, however, are forecast to undergo significant price increases, due in part to hospital pharmaceutical price hikes associated with the ramifications of the 1990 Medicaid drug rebate legislation passed by Congress.

  18. Fairness and dynamic pricing: comments

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-07-15

    In ''The Ethics of Dynamic Pricing,'' Ahmad Faruqui lays out a case for improved efficiency in using dynamic prices for retail electricity tariffs and addresses various issues about the distributional effects of alternative pricing mechanisms. The principal contrast is between flat or nearly constant energy prices and time-varying prices that reflect more closely the marginal costs of energy and capacity. The related issues of fairness criteria, contracts, risk allocation, cost allocation, means testing, real-time pricing, and ethical policies of electricity market design also must be considered. (author)

  19. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rules—(1) In general. Marginal costing is a method under which only direct production costs of producing... combined taxable income of the FSC and its related supplier under section 925(a)(2). The costs to be taken into account are the related supplier's direct material and labor costs (as defined in § 1.471-11(b)(2...

  20. Operator/service team cuts cost of completing marginal gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.N.; Watson, P. ); Buchanan, L.; Martin, C.D. )

    1995-01-16

    By combining optimized drilling and completion procedures with an operator/service company alliance, Union Pacific Resources Corp. (UPRC) decreased drilling/completion costs by 24%/well in its East Texas Cotton Valley gas production operations. Improved design of tubulars, cement, mud system, bits, fracturing gel, and zone isolation led to the steep decline in drilling and completion costs. In the past, gas reserves easily justified well costs of $1 million/well. However, for marginal areas this cost had to be substantially reduced. Many areas considered margin at $1 million are feasible at one-half that cost. The exploit marginal-acreage team (EMAT) of UPRC and Halliburton Energy Services (HES) personnel was formed in March 1993 to find ways to improve the economics of completing wells in marginal areas. The paper discusses drilling cost, completion styles, fracture stimulation, zone isolation, the alliance and its benefits.

  1. Increases in consumer cost sharing redirect patient volumes and reduce hospital prices for orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C; Brown, Timothy T

    2013-08-01

    Some employers are implementing reference-pricing benefit designs, which establish limits on the amount they will pay for some procedures covered by employer-sponsored insurance. Employees are required to pay the difference between the employer's contribution limit and the actual price received by the hospital. These initiatives encourage patients to select low-price facilities and indirectly encourage facilities to reduce prices to increase patient volume. We evaluated the impact of reference pricing on the use of and prices paid for knee and hip replacement surgery by members of the California Public Employees' Retirement System (CalPERS) from 2008 to 2012, using enrollees in Anthem Blue Cross as a comparison group. In the first year after implementation, surgical volumes for CalPERS members increased by 21.2 percent at low-price facilities and decreased by 34.3 percent at high-price facilities. Prices charged to CalPERS members declined by 5.6 percent at low-price facilities and by 34.3 percent at high-price facilities. Our analysis indicates that in 2011 reference pricing accounted for $2.8 million in savings for CalPERS and $0.3 million in lower cost sharing for CalPERS members.

  2. Peripheral occlusive disease may provide the highest hospital margins despite rising costs.

    PubMed

    Awad, Nadia; Lombardi, Joseph V; Carpenter, Jeffrey P; Trani, Jose; Caputo, Francis; Taylor, Nyali

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to review vascular surgical financial trends in a tertiary care setting and to evaluate the impact of a vascular program within a health care system in the face of lower reimbursements and rising costs. With use of Current Procedural Terminology codes and diagnosis-related groups, vascular categories of aortic disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral occlusive disease (POCD) were identified at an academic tertiary health care center. Hospital margins were calculated for each of the defined categories by Health Quest cost accounting data cross-walked with Current Procedural Terminology codes, date of service, and admitting physician for each year from 2010 to 2012. All categories realized volume growth and a positive margin for the hospital. In comparison of 2010 and 2012, aortic cases showed an overall volume growth of 19%, revenue increase of 31%, and cost increase of 54%, resulting in an overall margin decrease of 7%. Cerebrovascular cases showed a 30% increase in volume growth, revenue increase of 13%, and cost increase of 5%, resulting in a margin increase of 18%. POCD cases showed overall volume growth of 35%, revenue increase of 37%, cost increase of 54%, and a margin increase of 15%. The margin for POCD exceeded the margin for aortic and cerebrovascular cases combined by 77%. In evaluating a vascular program's fiscal viability, volume-driven POCD was the only category producing growing hospital margins in the face of significant cost increases. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 48 CFR 570.110 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL... competition. For price analysis of offered rental rates, the contracting officer may use a market survey, an appraisal conducted using accepted real property appraisal procedures to establish a market price for...

  4. Understanding differences between high- and low-price hospitals: implications for efforts to rein in costs.

    PubMed

    White, Chapin; Reschovsky, James D; Bond, Amelia M

    2014-02-01

    Private insurers pay widely varying prices for inpatient care across hospitals. Previous research indicates that certain hospitals use market clout to obtain higher payment rates, but there have been few in-depth examinations of the relationship between hospital characteristics and pricing power. This study used private insurance claims data to identify hospitals receiving inpatient prices significantly higher or lower than the median in their market. High-price hospitals, compared to other hospitals, tend to be larger; be major teaching hospitals; belong to systems with large market shares; and provide specialized services, such as heart transplants and Level I trauma care. High-price hospitals also receive significant revenues from nonpatient sources, such as state Medicaid disproportionate-share hospital funds, and they enjoy healthy total financial margins. Quality indicators for high-price hospitals were mixed: High-price hospitals fared much better than low-price hospitals did in U.S. News & World Report rankings, which are largely based on reputation, while generally scoring worse on objective measures of quality, such as postsurgical mortality rates. Thus, insurers may face resistance if they attempt to steer patients away from high-price hospitals because these facilities have good reputations and offer specialized services that may be unique in their markets.

  5. Price elasticity and medication use: cost sharing across multiple clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Gatwood, Justin; Gibson, Teresa B; Chernew, Michael E; Farr, Amanda M; Vogtmann, Emily; Fendrick, A Mark

    2014-11-01

    To address the impact that out-of-pocket prices may have on medication use, it is vital to understand how the demand for medications may be affected when patients are faced with changes in the price to acquire treatment and how price responsiveness differs across medication classes.  To examine the impact of cost-sharing changes on the demand for 8 classes of prescription medications. This was a retrospective database analysis of 11,550,363 commercially insured enrollees within the 2005-2009 MarketScan Database. Patient cost sharing, expressed as a price index for each medication class, was the main explanatory variable to examine the price elasticity of demand. Negative binomial fixed effect models were estimated to examine medication fills. The elasticity estimates reflect how use changes over time as a function of changes in copayments. Model estimates revealed that price elasticity of demand ranged from -0.015 to -0.157 within the 8 categories of medications (P  less than  0.01 for 7 of 8 categories). The price elasticity of demand for smoking deterrents was largest (-0.157, P  less than  0.0001), while demand for antiplatelet agents was not responsive to price (P  greater than 0.05). The price elasticity of demand varied considerably by medication class, suggesting that the influence of cost sharing on medication use may be related to characteristics inherent to each medication class or underlying condition.

  6. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs : F-35 Case Study Stanley Horowitz, Assistant Division...Graduate School of Engineering and Management, Air Force Institute of Technology Cost and Price Collaboration Venkat Rao, Professor, Defense...Acquisition University David Holm, Director, Cost and Systems Analysis, TACOM LCMC Patrick Watkins, Chief, Stryker/Armaments Pricing Group, Army

  7. 48 CFR 5215.804-3 - Exemptions from or waiver of submission of certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of submission of certified cost or pricing data. 5215.804-3 Section 5215.804-3 Federal Acquisition... 5215.804-3 Exemptions from or waiver of submission of certified cost or pricing data. (a) General. As explained in 5215.402, cost or pricing data would not normally be obtained because the predominant...

  8. Does therapeutic reference pricing always result in cost-containment? The Hungarian evidence.

    PubMed

    Kaló, Zoltán; Muszbek, Noémi; Bodrogi, József; Bidló, Judit

    2007-03-01

    Therapeutic reference pricing is one of the potential cost containment methods for pharmaceuticals. The most critical question of reference pricing is how to select reference product(s) if their efficacy is different, especially if different strengths of the same substance are available. Authors describe the Hungarian experience related to the introduction of therapeutic reference pricing for statin therapies as of 1 September 2003. The National Health Insurance Fund selected the reference products based on their low price per DDD. Therapeutic reference pricing was expected to reduce the expenditure on statins by switching therapy to cheaper alternatives and therefore decreasing the average price per prescribed unit. The National Health Insurance Fund expected price erosion not only for branded products directly affected by generics but even for patented ones. Despite generic price erosion of simvastatin, the average unit price of statins was reduced by only 3% at 7 months after the introduction of the reference pricing system. During the same period the average DDD per prescription was increased from 1.14 to 1.65. The price of patented statins did not change over this period. Introduction of therapeutic reference pricing neglected evidence-based medicine results and ultimately increased the expenditure on statins in Hungary. Selection of the cheapest DDD per unit as the reference product resulted in growth of DDD per prescription, and consequently increased price per prescribed unit of statins. The failure of the system could have been even more dramatic if increased utilisation of generic statins had not reduced the negative effect of therapeutic reference pricing. Based upon the first experiences of the Hungarian implementation, the method described in this paper for the extension of generic reference pricing to therapeutic categories is not justifiable.

  9. Cost Recovery in Pricing and Capacity Decisions for Automated Information Systems. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dei Rossi, James A.

    This paper examines the cost-benefit implications of alternative pricing and capacity investment decisions for automated scientific and technical information retrieval systems. Two typical systems are examined and numerical examples presented. In the first system, search requests are entered on-site. The show how setting price to maximize net…

  10. Proportional Transaction Costs in the Robust Control Approach to Option Pricing: The Uniqueness Theorem

    SciTech Connect

    El Farouq, Naïma; Bernhard, Pierre

    2015-10-15

    We prove the missing uniqueness theorem for the viscosity solution of a quasi-variational inequality related to a minimax impulse control problem modeling the option pricing with proportional transactions costs. This result makes our robust control approach of option pricing in the interval market model essentially complete.

  11. Method for computing marginal costs associated with on-site energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, R.; Davitian, H.

    1980-08-01

    A method for calculating long-run marginal costs for an electric utility is described. The method is especially suitable for computing the marginal costs associated with the use of small on-site energy technologies, i.e., cogenerators, solar heating and hot water systems, wind generators, etc., which are interconnected with electric utilities. In particular, both the costs a utility avoids when power is delivered to it from a facility with an on-site generator and marginal cost to the utility of supplementary power sold to the facility can be calculated. A utility capacity expansion model is used to compute changes in the utility's costs when loads are modified by the use of the on-site technology. Changes in capacity-related costs and production costs are thus computed in an internally consistent manner. The variable nature of the generation/load pattern of the on-site technology is treated explicitly. The method yields several measures of utility costs that can be used to develop rates based on marginal avoided costs for on-site technologies as well as marginal cost rates for conventional utility customers.

  12. Ramsey pricing and supply-side incentives in physician markets.

    PubMed

    Wedig, G J

    1993-12-01

    In this paper, I develop a theory of optimal prices using a relative value scale where there are fixed costs of medical practice. I consider a regulator constrained to set prices in excess of marginal cost, in markets where physicians can create demand at the margin. Under these conditions, basing prices on physician costs alone is shown to be suboptimal. Instead, prices should anticipate the behavior of physicians by setting profit margins highest for services least susceptible to demand creation. This is equivalent to a form of Ramsey pricing, used in this case to minimize the deadweight loss of oversupply.

  13. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... costs ($8, see line (2)(b)(iii) of example 1) plus Y's profit ($10.50). (2) If export promotion expenses... commissions Y receives from X are $20.50, i.e., Y's costs ($8, see line (2)(b)(iii) of example 1) plus Y's... that the commissions Y receives from X are $52.50, i.e., Y's costs ($40) plus Y's profit ($12.50). ...

  14. Marginal ambulatory teaching cost under varying levels of service utilization.

    PubMed

    Panton, D M; Mushlin, A I; Gavett, J W

    1980-06-01

    The ambulatory component of residency training jointly produces two products, namely, training and patient services. In costing educational programs of this type, two approaches are frequently taken. The first considers the total costs of the educational program, including training and patient services. These costs are usually constructed from historical accounting records. The second approach attempts to cost the joint products separately, based upon estimates of future changes in program costs, if the product in question is added to or removed from the program. The second approach relates to typical decisions facing the managers of medical centers and practices used for teaching purposes. This article reports such a study of costs in a primary-care residency training program in a hospital outpatient setting. The costs of the product, i.e., on-the-job training, are evaluated using a replacement-cost concept under different levels of patient services. The results show that the cost of the product, training, is small at full clinical utilization and is sensitive to changes in the volume of services provided.

  15. Hardwood timber sales on state forests in Indiana: characteristics influencing costs and prices

    Treesearch

    J. Michael Vasievich; W. L., Jr. Mills; Heidi R. Cherry

    1997-01-01

    Timber sales conducted on State-owned forests in INdiana from 1982 to 1994 were analyzed to determine changes in costs and prices and the effect of sale conditions on costs and prices. The data set included 445 sales that ranged in size from less than 1 acre to more than 500 acres. Sales were predominantly partial cuts in mature hardwood timber. Marked timber volume...

  16. CONSUMPTION AND RESPONSE OUTPUT AS A FUNCTION OF UNIT PRICE: MANIPULATION OF COST AND BENEFIT COMPONENTS

    PubMed Central

    Delmendo, Xeres; Borrero, John C; Beauchamp, Kenneth L; Francisco, Monica T

    2009-01-01

    We conducted preference assessments with 4 typically developing children to identify potential reinforcers and assessed the reinforcing efficacy of those stimuli. Next, we tested two predictions of economic theory: that overall consumption (reinforcers obtained) would decrease as the unit price (response requirement per reinforcer) increased and that the cost and benefit components that defined unit price would not influence overall consumption considerably when unit price values were equal. We tested these predictions by arranging unit price such that the denominator was one (e.g., two responses produced one reinforcer) or two (e.g., four responses produced two reinforcers). Results showed that consumption decreased as unit price increased and that unit price values with different components produced similar consumption. PMID:20190922

  17. Optimal pricing policies for services with consideration of facility maintenance costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Ruey Huei; Lin, Yi-Fang

    2012-06-01

    For survival and success, pricing is an essential issue for service firms. This article deals with the pricing strategies for services with substantial facility maintenance costs. For this purpose, a mathematical framework that incorporates service demand and facility deterioration is proposed to address the problem. The facility and customers constitute a service system driven by Poisson arrivals and exponential service times. A service demand with increasing price elasticity and a facility lifetime with strictly increasing failure rate are also adopted in modelling. By examining the bidirectional relationship between customer demand and facility deterioration in the profit model, the pricing policies of the service are investigated. Then analytical conditions of customer demand and facility lifetime are derived to achieve a unique optimal pricing policy. The comparative statics properties of the optimal policy are also explored. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effects of parameter variations on the optimal pricing policy.

  18. Consumption and response output as a function of unit price: manipulation of cost and benefit components.

    PubMed

    Delmendo, Xeres; Borrero, John C; Beauchamp, Kenneth L; Francisco, Monica T

    2009-01-01

    We conducted preference assessments with 4 typically developing children to identify potential reinforcers and assessed the reinforcing efficacy of those stimuli. Next, we tested two predictions of economic theory: that overall consumption (reinforcers obtained) would decrease as the unit price (response requirement per reinforcer) increased and that the cost and benefit components that defined unit price would not influence overall consumption considerably when unit price values were equal. We tested these predictions by arranging unit price such that the denominator was one (e.g., two responses produced one reinforcer) or two (e.g., four responses produced two reinforcers). Results showed that consumption decreased as unit price increased and that unit price values with different components produced similar consumption.

  19. College Costs, Prices and the Great Recession. Lumina Issue Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nate

    2014-01-01

    As states and families begin to recover from the effects of the Great Recession, some of the urgency about college affordability may start to ease. The most recent "Trends in College Pricing" report shows tuition rising more slowly than in recent years (Baum and Ma 2013). Growth in Pell grant applications is also expected to slow as…

  20. Reference Pricing, Consumer Cost-Sharing, and Insurer Spending for Advanced Imaging Tests.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C; Whaley, Christopher; Brown, Timothy T

    2016-12-01

    Fees charged for similar imaging tests often vary dramatically within the same market, leading to wide variation in insurer spending and consumer cost-sharing. Reference pricing is an insurance design that offers good coverage to patients up to a defined contribution limit but requires the patients who select high-priced facilities to pay the remainder out of pocket. To measure the association between implementation of reference pricing and patient choice of facility, test prices, out-of-pocket spending, and insurer spending for advanced imaging (CT and MRI) procedures. Difference-in-differences multivariable analysis of insurance claims data. Study included 4751 employees of a national grocery chain (treatment group) and 23,428 enrollees in the nation's largest private insurance plan (comparison group) that used CT or MRI tests between 2010 and 2013. Patient choice of facility, price paid per test, patient out-of-pocket cost-sharing, and employer spending. Compared with trends in prices paid by insurance enrollees not subject to reference pricing, and after adjusting for characteristics of tests and patients, implementation of reference pricing was associated with a 12.5% (95% CI, -25.0%, 2.1%) reduction in average price paid per test by the end of the second full year of the program for CT scans and a 10.5% (95% CI, -16.9%, 3.6%) for MRIs. Out-of-pocket cost-sharing by patients declined by $71,508 (13.8%). The savings accruing to employees amounted to 45.5% of total savings from reference pricing, with the remainder accruing to the employer. Implementation of reference pricing led to reductions in payments by both employer and employees.

  1. Prices, Costs, and Affordability of New Medicines for Hepatitis C in 30 Countries: An Economic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Swathi; Tay-Teo, Kiu; Vogler, Sabine; Beyer, Peter; Wiktor, Stefan; de Joncheere, Kees; Hill, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    New hepatitis C virus (HCV) medicines have markedly improved treatment efficacy and regimen tolerability. However, their high prices have limited access, prompting wide debate about fair and affordable prices. This study systematically compared the price and affordability of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir across 30 countries to assess affordability to health systems and patients. Published 2015 ex-factory prices for a 12-wk course of treatment were provided by the Pharma Price Information (PPI) service of the Austrian public health institute Gesundheit Österreich GmbH or were obtained from national government or drug reimbursement authorities and recent press releases, where necessary. Prices in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and select low- and middle-income countries were converted to US dollars using period average exchange rates and were adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP). We analysed prices compared to national economic performance and estimated market size and the cost of these drugs in terms of countries' annual total pharmaceutical expenditure (TPE) and in terms of the duration of time an individual would need to work to pay for treatment out of pocket. Patient affordability was calculated using 2014 OECD average annual wages, supplemented with International Labour Organization median wage data where necessary. All data were compiled between 17 July 2015 and 25 January 2016. For the base case analysis, we assumed a 23% rebate/discount on the published price in all countries, except for countries with special pricing arrangements or generic licensing agreements. The median nominal ex-factory price of a 12-wk course of sofosbuvir across 26 OECD countries was US$42,017, ranging from US$37,729 in Japan to US$64,680 in the US. Central and Eastern European countries had higher PPP-adjusted prices than other countries: prices of sofosbuvir in Poland and Turkey (PPP$101,063 and PPP$70,331) and of

  2. Prices, Costs, and Affordability of New Medicines for Hepatitis C in 30 Countries: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tay-Teo, Kiu; Vogler, Sabine; Beyer, Peter; Wiktor, Stefan; de Joncheere, Kees; Hill, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction New hepatitis C virus (HCV) medicines have markedly improved treatment efficacy and regimen tolerability. However, their high prices have limited access, prompting wide debate about fair and affordable prices. This study systematically compared the price and affordability of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir across 30 countries to assess affordability to health systems and patients. Methods and Findings Published 2015 ex-factory prices for a 12-wk course of treatment were provided by the Pharma Price Information (PPI) service of the Austrian public health institute Gesundheit Österreich GmbH or were obtained from national government or drug reimbursement authorities and recent press releases, where necessary. Prices in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and select low- and middle-income countries were converted to US dollars using period average exchange rates and were adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP). We analysed prices compared to national economic performance and estimated market size and the cost of these drugs in terms of countries’ annual total pharmaceutical expenditure (TPE) and in terms of the duration of time an individual would need to work to pay for treatment out of pocket. Patient affordability was calculated using 2014 OECD average annual wages, supplemented with International Labour Organization median wage data where necessary. All data were compiled between 17 July 2015 and 25 January 2016. For the base case analysis, we assumed a 23% rebate/discount on the published price in all countries, except for countries with special pricing arrangements or generic licensing agreements. The median nominal ex-factory price of a 12-wk course of sofosbuvir across 26 OECD countries was US$42,017, ranging from US$37,729 in Japan to US$64,680 in the US. Central and Eastern European countries had higher PPP-adjusted prices than other countries: prices of sofosbuvir in Poland and Turkey (PPP

  3. Straight Talk about College Costs and Prices. Report of The National Commission on the Cost of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, James; Williams, Roger M.; Kirshstein, Rita J.; O'Malley, Amy Smith; Wellman, Jane V.

    This report reviews trends affecting rising costs and prices in higher education and proposes an action agenda for colleges, government at all levels, families and students, and other patrons. The recommendations emphasize shared responsibility to (1) strengthen institutional cost control; (2) improve market information and public accountability;…

  4. Activity-based costing for pathology examinations and comparison with the current pricing system in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ergün, Ferda A K; Ağirbaş, Ismail; Kuzu, Işınsu

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the real cost data of the pathology examinations by using the activity-based costing method and to contribute to the financial planning of the departments, health managers and also the social security institution. Forty-four examinations selected from the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list and performed at the Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Pathology Department during September 2010 were studied. The analysis and the real cost calculations were done according to the duration of the procedures. Calculated costs were compared with the Healthcare Implementation Notification system and Medicare price lists. The costs of the pathology tests listed within the same pricing levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list showed great differences. The minimum and maximum costs in level 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 15,98-80,15 TL, 15,95-258,59 TL, 42,38- 236,87 TL, and 124,42-406,76 TL, respectively. Medicare price levels were more consistent with the real costs of the examinations compared to the Healthcare Implementation Notification system price list. The prices of the pathology examination listed at different levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system lists do not cover the real costs of the work done. The principal parameters of Activity-Based Costing system are more suitable for making the most realistic cost categorization. Although the prices could differ between countries, the Medicare system categories are more realistic than the Healthcare Implementation Notification system. The Healthcare Implementation Notification system list needs to be revised in order to reflect the real costs of the pathology examinations.

  5. A Distribution-class Locational Marginal Price (DLMP) Index for Enhanced Distribution Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinbode, Oluwaseyi Wemimo

    The smart grid initiative is the impetus behind changes that are expected to culminate into an enhanced distribution system with the communication and control infrastructure to support advanced distribution system applications and resources such as distributed generation, energy storage systems, and price responsive loads. This research proposes a distribution-class analog of the transmission LMP (DLMP) as an enabler of the advanced applications of the enhanced distribution system. The DLMP is envisioned as a control signal that can incentivize distribution system resources to behave optimally in a manner that benefits economic efficiency and system reliability and that can optimally couple the transmission and the distribution systems. The DLMP is calculated from a two-stage optimization problem; a transmission system OPF and a distribution system OPF. An iterative framework that ensures accurate representation of the distribution system's price sensitive resources for the transmission system problem and vice versa is developed and its convergence problem is discussed. As part of the DLMP calculation framework, a DCOPF formulation that endogenously captures the effect of real power losses is discussed. The formulation uses piecewise linear functions to approximate losses. This thesis explores, with theoretical proofs, the breakdown of the loss approximation technique when non-positive DLMPs/LMPs occur and discusses a mixed integer linear programming formulation that corrects the breakdown. The DLMP is numerically illustrated in traditional and enhanced distribution systems and its superiority to contemporary pricing mechanisms is demonstrated using price responsive loads. Results show that the impact of the inaccuracy of contemporary pricing schemes becomes significant as flexible resources increase. At high elasticity, aggregate load consumption deviated from the optimal consumption by up to about 45 percent when using a flat or time-of-use rate. Individual load

  6. Cost accounting models used for price-setting of health services: an international review.

    PubMed

    Raulinajtys-Grzybek, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article was to present and compare cost accounting models which are used in the area of healthcare for pricing purposes in different countries. Cost information generated by hospitals is further used by regulatory bodies for setting or updating prices of public health services. The article presents a set of examples from different countries of the European Union, Australia and the United States and concentrates on DRG-based payment systems as they primarily use cost information for pricing. Differences between countries concern the methodology used, as well as the data collection process and the scope of the regulations on cost accounting. The article indicates that the accuracy of the calculation is only one of the factors that determine the choice of the cost accounting methodology. Important aspects are also the selection of the reference hospitals, precise and detailed regulations and the existence of complex healthcare information systems in hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under paragraph (c)(1) of this section a DISC is treated for its taxable year as seeking to establish or... method of § 1.994-1(c)(3), the combined taxable income of the DISC and related supplier derived from such... section is applicable, costs attributable to deriving qualified export receipts for the DISC's taxable...

  8. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Jun 2013]. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs : F-35 Case Study...Background The application of price indexes presents a substantial challenge in estimating the costs of new defense systems. The problem is twofold...First, the analyst must use a price index when normalizing historical cost data to a common point in time (where the normalized costs are referred to

  9. Trends in the Marginal Cost of Male Circumcision in Rural Rakai Uganda.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Yira N; Bishai, David; Nantongo, Agnes; Kakembo, Rebecca; Kobusinge, Sarah; Kacker, Seema; Kigozi, Godfrey; Gray, Ronald

    2016-12-15

    Male circumcision (MC) is an effective intervention to reduce HIV acquisition in men in Africa. We conducted a cost analysis using longitudinal data on expenditures on services and community mobilization to estimate the marginal cost of MC over time and understand cost drivers during scale-up. We used a time series with monthly records from 2008 to 2013, for a total of 72 monthly observations, from the Rakai MC Program in Uganda. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the marginal cost of an MC procedure. The marginal cost per MC in a mobile camp was $23 (P < 0.01) and in static facilities was $35 (P < 0.1). Major cost drivers included supplies in mobile camps with increasing numbers of surgeries, savings due to task shifting from physicians to clinical officers, and increased efficiency as personnel became more experienced. As scale-up continues, marginal costs may increase because of mobilization needed for less motivated late adopters, but improved efficiency could contain costs.

  10. Marginal capacity costs of electricity distribution and demand for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Chi-Keung, Lloyd-Zanetti, D.; Orans, R.

    1995-12-31

    Marginal costs of electricity vary by time and location. Past researchers attributed these variations to factors related to electricity generation, transmission and distribution. Past authors, however, did not fully analyze the large variations in marginal distribution capacity costs (MDCC) by area and time. Thus, the objectives of this paper are as follows: (1) to show that large MDCC variations exist within a utility`s service territory; (2) to demonstrate inter-utility variations in MDCC; and (3) to demonstrate the usefulness of these costs in determining demand for distributed generation (DG). 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Financial Impact of Dual Vendor, Matrix Pricing, and Sole-Source Contracting on Implant Costs.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Lapham, Joan; Mead, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Implant costs comprise the largest proportion of operating room supply costs for orthopedic trauma care. Over the years, hospitals have devised several methods of controlling these costs with the help of physicians. With increasing economic pressure, these negotiations have a tremendous ability to decrease the cost of trauma care. In the past, physicians have taken no responsibility for implant pricing which has made cost control difficult. The reasons have been multifactorial. However, industry surgeon consulting fees, research support, and surgeon comfort with certain implant systems have played a large role in slowing adoption of cost-control measures. With the advent of physician gainsharing and comanagement agreements, physicians now have impetus to change. At our facility, we have used 3 methods for cost containment since 2009: dual vendor, matrix pricing, and sole-source contracting. Each has been increasingly successful, resulting in massive savings for the institution. This article describes the process and benefits of each model.

  12. Fuel prices, emission standards, and generation costs for coal vs natural gas power plants.

    PubMed

    Pratson, Lincoln F; Haerer, Drew; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2013-05-07

    Low natural gas prices and stricter, federal emission regulations are promoting a shift away from coal power plants and toward natural gas plants as the lowest-cost means of generating electricity in the United States. By estimating the cost of electricity generation (COE) for 304 coal and 358 natural gas plants, we show that the economic viability of 9% of current coal capacity is challenged by low natural gas prices, while another 56% would be challenged by the stricter emission regulations. Under the current regulations, coal plants would again become the dominant least-cost generation option should the ratio of average natural gas to coal prices (NG2CP) rise to 1.8 (it was 1.42 in February 2012). If the more stringent emission standards are enforced, however, natural gas plants would remain cost competitive with a majority of coal plants for NG2CPs up to 4.3.

  13. 48 CFR 2152.216-70 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-risk charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of the... cost redetermination-risk charge. 2152.216-70 Section 2152.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations....216-70 Fixed price with limited cost redetermination—risk charge. As prescribed in...

  14. 48 CFR 2152.216-71 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-service charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of the... cost redetermination-service charge. 2152.216-71 Section 2152.216-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations....216-71 Fixed price with limited cost redetermination—service charge. As prescribed in...

  15. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... (Extractive Activities—Oil and Gas Topic). Instruction 5 to Item 1204: The average production cost, not... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false (Item 1204) Oil and gas...

  16. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... (Extractive Activities—Oil and Gas Topic). Instruction 5 to Item 1204: The average production cost, not... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false (Item 1204) Oil and gas...

  17. Automobile Industry Retail Price Equivalent and Indirect Cost Multipliers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report develops a modified multiplier, referred to as an indirect cost (IC) multiplier, which specifically evaluates the components of indirect costs that are likely to be affected by vehicle modifications associated with environmental regulation. A range of IC multipliers a...

  18. Automobile Industry Retail Price Equivalent and Indirect Cost Multipliers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report develops a modified multiplier, referred to as an indirect cost (IC) multiplier, which specifically evaluates the components of indirect costs that are likely to be affected by vehicle modifications associated with environmental regulation. A range of IC multipliers a...

  19. How much does it cost? Physician pricing in the era of consumerism.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Robert

    2006-10-01

    Setting physician pricing--whether based on actual costs, historical charges or current competitive forces--faces new challenges. The new consumerism in health care has led to a larger retail market. Patients increasingly pay physicians directly for their services, and the role of third-party payers has changed, if not diminished. Two types of self-pay patients are growing in number, and the challenges to physician pricing strategies are, too.

  20. Marginal-cost contracting in the NHS: results of a preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Beddow, A J; Cohen, D R

    2001-05-01

    Market disciplines and incentives were expected to improve efficiency in the UK National Health Service following the introduction of an 'internal market' in 1991. An exploratory survey of all Health Authorities and Trusts in the UK was undertaken to investigate whether players in the NHS managed market are behaving as economic theory predicts they should. The focus was on how and to what extent marginal costing has been used in the contracting process and on whether in some instances an inappropriate use of marginal costing may be resulting in inappropriate investment decisions. Twenty of 29 responding Health Authorities (69%) and 16 of 39 Trusts (41%) stated that they had considered purchasing/providing services on a marginal-cost basis and all of these led to contracts. Marginal-cost contracting appears to be fairly commonplace and the process does not appear to be causing insurmountable conflicts between players. Most marginal-cost contracts were specifically to meet waiting-list initiative targets. Overall results suggest that economic principles are not being particularly adhered to, with expansion in output rarely being related to available capacity. As increased responsibility for commissioning passes to primary care teams and local health groups, there are lessons for those involved in this more disaggregated approach to service shaping and service delivery.

  1. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  2. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  3. Identifying cost-minimizing strategies for guaranteeing target dairy income over feed cost via use of the Livestock Gross Margin dairy insurance program.

    PubMed

    Valvekar, M; Cabrera, V E; Gould, B W

    2010-07-01

    Milk and feed price volatility are the major source of dairy farm risk. Since August 2008 a new federally reinsured insurance program has been available to many US dairy farmers to help minimize the negative effects of adverse price movements. This insurance program is referred to as Livestock Gross Margin Insurance for Dairy Cattle. Given the flexibility in contract design, the dairy farmer has to make 3 critical decisions when purchasing this insurance: 1) the percentage of monthly milk production to be covered, 3) declared feed equivalents used to produce this milk, and 3) the level of gross margin not covered by insurance (i.e., deductible). The objective of this analysis was to provide an optimal strategy of how a dairy farmer could incorporate this insurance program to help manage the variability in net farm income. In this analysis we assumed that a risk-neutral dairy farmer wants to design an insurance contract such that a target guaranteed income over feed cost is obtained at least cost. We undertook this analysis for a representative Wisconsin dairy farm (herd size: 120 cows) producing 8,873 kg (19,545 lb) of milk/cow per year. Wisconsin statistical data indicates that dairy farms of similar size must require an income over feed cost of at least $110/Mg ($5/cwt) of milk to be profitable during the coverage period. Therefore, using data for the July 2009 insurance contract to insure $110/Mg of milk, the least cost contract was found to have a premium of $1.22/Mg ($0.055/cwt) of milk produced insuring approximately 52% of the production with variable monthly production covered during the period of September 2009 to June 2010. This premium represented 1.10% of the desired IOFC. We compared the above optimal strategy with an alternative nonoptimal strategy, defined as a contract insuring the same proportion of milk as the optimal (52%) but with a constant amount insured across all contract months. The premium was found to be almost twice the level obtained

  4. Automobile Industry Retail Price Equivalent and Indirect Cost ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report develops a modified multiplier, referred to as an indirect cost (IC) multiplier, which specifically evaluates the components of indirect costs that are likely to be affected by vehicle modifications associated with environmental regulation. A range of IC multipliers are developed that 1) account for differences in the technical complexity of required vehicle modifications and 2) adjust over time as new technologies become assimilated into the automotive production process. To develop an improved methodology for estimating indirect costs of new environmental regulations on automobile manufacturers.

  5. Pricing postselection: the cost of indecision in state discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, Joshua; Ferrie, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Postselection is the process of discarding outcomes from statistical trials that are not the event one desires. Postselection can be useful in many applications where the cost of getting the wrong event is implicitly high. However, unless this cost is specified exactly, one might formally conclude that discarding all data is optimal. Here we analyze the optimal decision rules and quantum measurements in a decision theoretic setting where a pre-specified cost is assigned to discarding data. Non-trivial solutions are found for even the simplest state discrimination problem of choosing between two nonorthogonal qubit states. Our solutions interpolate between the Helstrom measurement and the unambiguous state discrimination experiment.

  6. Antihypertensive drugs: a perspective on pharmaceutical price erosion and its impact on cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Refoios Camejo, Rodrigo; McGrath, Clare; Herings, Ron; Meerding, Willem-Jan; Rutten, Frans

    2012-01-01

    When comparators' prices decrease due to market competition and loss of exclusivity, the incremental clinical effectiveness required for a new technology to be cost-effective is expected to increase; and/or the minimum price at which it will be funded will tend to decrease. This may be, however, either unattainable physiologically or financially unviable for drug development. The objective of this study is to provide an empirical basis for this discussion by estimating the potential for price decreases to impact on the cost-effectiveness of new therapies in hypertension. Cost-effectiveness at launch was estimated for all antihypertensive drugs launched between 1998 and 2008 in the United Kingdom using hypothetical degrees of incremental clinical effectiveness within the methodologic framework applied by the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed and compared with funding thresholds. In addition, the levels of incremental clinical effectiveness required to achieve specific cost-effectiveness thresholds at given prices were estimated. Significant price decreases were observed for existing drugs. This was shown to markedly affect cost-effectiveness of technologies entering the market. The required incremental clinical effectiveness was in many cases greater than physiologically possible so, as a consequence, a number of products might not be available today if current methods of economic appraisal had been applied. We conclude that the definition of cost-effectiveness thresholds is fundamental in promoting efficient innovation. Our findings demonstrate that comparator price attrition has the potential to put pressure in the pharmaceutical research model and presents a challenge to new therapies being accepted for funding. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pollution's Price--The Cost in Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the detrimental effects of air pollution, and especially sulfur dioxide, on human health. Any relaxation of existing national air pollution standards because of the energy crisis could be costly in terms of the nation's health. (JR)

  8. Pollution's Price--The Cost in Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the detrimental effects of air pollution, and especially sulfur dioxide, on human health. Any relaxation of existing national air pollution standards because of the energy crisis could be costly in terms of the nation's health. (JR)

  9. Scaling and long-range dependence in option pricing III: A fractional version of the Merton model with transaction costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Tian; Yan, Hai-Gang; Tang, Ming-Ming; Zhu, En-Hui

    2010-02-01

    A model for option pricing of fractional version of the Merton model with ‘Hurst exponent’ H being in [1/2,1) is established with transaction costs. In particular, for H∈(1/2,1) the minimal price Cmin(t,St) of an option under transaction costs is obtained, which displays that the timestep δt and the ‘Hurst exponent’ H play an important role in option pricing with transaction costs.

  10. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  11. [Cost price of robot-assisted and laparoscopic operations].

    PubMed

    Berelavichus, S V; Kriger, A G; Titova, N L; Smirnov, A V; Poljakov, I S; Kaldarov, A R; Son, A I

    2015-01-01

    High cost of robotized complex and expendables is significant difficulty for its acquisition and introduction of robot-assisted operations. Critical estimation of economic aspect is necessary for further development of robot-assisted surgery in our country. Because of robotic variant is alternative to laparoscopic technique we assessed the prime cost of robot-assisted and laparoscopic operations. The results may be used to assess recovery of expenses by state for high-technology care in clinic and to increase volumes of high-technology care using robotic techniques.

  12. Lookback Option Pricing with Fixed Proportional Transaction Costs under Fractional Brownian Motion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiao-Jiao; Zhou, Shengwu; Zhang, Yan; Han, Miao; Wang, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The pricing problem of lookback option with a fixed proportion of transaction costs is investigated when the underlying asset price follows a fractional Brownian motion process. Firstly, using Leland's hedging method a partial differential equation satisfied by the value of the lookback option is derived. Then we obtain its numerical solution by constructing a Crank-Nicolson format. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed form is verified through a numerical example. Meanwhile, the impact of transaction cost rate and volatility on lookback option value is discussed. PMID:27433525

  13. Two ideas to increase innovation and reduce pharmaceutical costs and prices.

    PubMed

    Jayadev, Arjun; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a period of uncertainty. Profits are being squeezed by increasing costs and competitive pressures, and new drug production is slowing down. This Perspective reviews two policies that could assist in realigning incentives toward genuine innovation while also keeping drug spending growth under check. Value-based pricing can incentivize genuinely new discoveries and align research and development with social welfare. Public funding of clinical trials likewise can reduce both pharmaceutical costs and prices and direct research effort in a manner that is more socially productive than the current state of affairs.

  14. Price transparency for MRIs increased use of less costly providers and triggered provider competition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sze-jung; Sylwestrzak, Gosia; Shah, Christiane; DeVries, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    To encourage patients to select high-value providers, an insurer-initiated price transparency program that focused on elective advanced imaging procedures was implemented. Patients having at least one outpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan in 2010 or 2012 were divided according to their membership in commercial health plans participating in the program (the intervention group) or in nonparticipating commercial health plans (the reference group) in similar US geographic regions. Patients in the intervention group were informed of price differences among available MRI facilities and given the option of selecting different providers. For those patients, the program resulted in a $220 cost reduction (18.7 percent) per test and a decrease in use of hospital-based facilities from 53 percent in 2010 to 45 percent in 2012. Price variation between hospital and nonhospital facilities for the intervention group was reduced by 30 percent after implementation. Nonparticipating members residing in intervention areas also observed price reductions, which indicates increased price competition among providers. The program significantly reduced imaging costs. This suggests that patients select lower-price facilities when informed about available alternatives. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Alternative methods of marginal abatement cost estimation: Non- parametric distance functions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.; Molburg, J.; Prince, R.

    1996-12-31

    This project implements a economic methodology to measure the marginal abatement costs of pollution by measuring the lost revenue implied by an incremental reduction in pollution. It utilizes observed performance, or `best practice`, of facilities to infer the marginal abatement cost. The initial stage of the project is to use data from an earlier published study on productivity trends and pollution in electric utilities to test this approach and to provide insights on its implementation to issues of cost-benefit analysis studies needed by the Department of Energy. The basis for this marginal abatement cost estimation is a relationship between the outputs and the inputs of a firm or plant. Given a fixed set of input resources, including quasi-fixed inputs like plant and equipment and variable inputs like labor and fuel, a firm is able to produce a mix of outputs. This paper uses this theoretical view of the joint production process to implement a methodology and obtain empirical estimates of marginal abatement costs. These estimates are compared to engineering estimates.

  16. 48 CFR 15.403-4 - Requiring certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403-4 Requiring certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b). (a)(1) The contracting officer shall obtain certified cost or pricing data only if the... under the exception at 15.403-1(b)(4). The threshold for obtaining certified cost or pricing data is...

  17. Essays on price dynamics and consumer search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew Stephen

    It has been documented that retail gasoline prices respond more quickly to increases in wholesale price than to decreases. However, there is very little theoretical or empirical evidence identifying the market characteristics responsible for this behavior. Chapter 2 presents a new theoretical model of asymmetric adjustment that empirically matches observed retail gasoline price behavior better than previously suggested explanations. I develop a "reference price" consumer search model that assumes consumers' expectations of prices are based on prices observed during previous purchases. The model predicts that consumers search less when prices are falling. This reduced search results in higher profit margins and therefore causes a slower price response to cost decreases than to cost increases. Chapter 3 discusses the robustness of some of the important assumptions of the reference price search model, and describes the effects of altering these assumptions. Chapter 4 develops testable implications that distinguish my model from two alternative explanations of asymmetric adjustment. The first is a model in which firms temporarily collude using past prices as a focal price. The second theory suggests that increases in wholesale cost volatility reduce consumer search behavior. Using a panel of gas station prices, I estimate the response pattern of prices to a change in costs. Estimates are consistent with the predictions of the reference price search model and contradict the previously suggested explanations of asymmetric price adjustment. Chapter 5 examines the empirical fact that price response varies depending on the current level of profit margins. This fact is contrasted with the common empirical observation that response differs based on the direction of the change in cost. I go on to document that this relationship between price response and margins is observed in gasoline markets across the country.

  18. 48 CFR 52.214-27 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reduction in the contract price under this clause reduces the price of items for which payment was made... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Price Reduction for... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-27 Price Reduction for Defective...

  19. Congressionally Mandated Studies of College Costs and Prices. NCES 2003-171

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2002

    2002-01-01

    In its 1998 Amendments to the Higher Education Act, Congress directed the Commissioner of Education Statistics to conduct a study of higher education costs paid by institutions and prices paid by students and their families for a postsecondary education. (For the full law, see: http://www.ed.gov/legislation/HEA/sec101C.html). Section 131 of the…

  20. 77 FR 76939 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Definition of Cost or Pricing Data (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... analysis. * * * * * 215.404-4 0 8. Section 215.404-4 is amended by-- 0 a. In the introductory text of... Supplement (DFARS) to update the text to reflect the distinction between ``certified cost or pricing data.... Discussion and Analysis Two respondents submitted comments. One respondent supported the rule without...

  1. Why Do Higher-Education Costs Rise More Rapidly than Prices in General?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Robert B.; Feldman, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Why do costs in higher education rise more rapidly than prices in general? They do so due to four factors: (1) higher education is a personal-service industry; (2) higher education relies on highly educated labor; (3) because of increased capital usage (in the form of the new technologies), higher education's reliance on highly educated labor has…

  2. 23 CFR 636.508 - Can price or cost be an issue in discussions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can price or cost be an issue in discussions? 636.508 Section 636.508 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Discussions, Proposal Revisions and Source Selection §...

  3. Increasing Fuel Costs Hit Hard: Districts Change Policies to Offset Rising Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that with fuel prices soaring nationwide, reaching more than $4 for each gallon of gas or diesel, school districts are struggling to supplement transportation-budget shortfalls and find ways to offset the increasing costs as a new school year approaches. Now districts--most of whose buses run on diesel fuel--are scrambling to…

  4. Putting a Price Tag on the Common Core: How Much Will Smart Implementation Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patrick; Regenstein, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English language arts and mathematics represent a sea change in standards-based reform and their implementation is the movement's next--and greatest--challenge. Yet, while most states have now set forth implementation plans, these tomes seldom address the crucial matter of cost. Putting a Price Tag on the…

  5. Issue Brief #1: Who Pays for Higher Education? Changing Patterns in Cost, Price, and Subsidies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity and Accountability, 2010

    2010-01-01

    To understand why tuitions are increasing at institutions of higher education, policymakers need to look at the relationships between and among cost, price and subsidy. This brief explains how to understand those relationships, what the trend data show at a national level, places to go for more information, and questions to ask. (Contains 3…

  6. 77 FR 2680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Cost or Pricing Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... RIN 0750-AH49 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Cost or Pricing Data.... SUMMARY: DoD is proposing to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to update.... Regulatory Flexibility Act This rule proposes to update the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

  7. 48 CFR 5252.215-9000 - Submission of cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Submission of cost or pricing data. 5252.215-9000 Section 5252.215-9000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions...

  8. Increasing Fuel Costs Hit Hard: Districts Change Policies to Offset Rising Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that with fuel prices soaring nationwide, reaching more than $4 for each gallon of gas or diesel, school districts are struggling to supplement transportation-budget shortfalls and find ways to offset the increasing costs as a new school year approaches. Now districts--most of whose buses run on diesel fuel--are scrambling to…

  9. Use of Programmed Review of Information for Costing and Evaluation (PRICE) model at CNES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, J. B.

    The bases of the PRICE model, which calculates a cost-mass relation for a given project from data of thousands of other projects are outlined, and its application to the Ariane project is outlined. Ten to 20 descriptors per project define key elements, like manufacturing processes, and regression analysis calculates their coefficients and range. The model assesses physical parameters and others such as time limits. The few differences between model forecasts and actual production costs for Ariane were due to special circumstances.

  10. [Comparison of Costs and Revenues in Conservative and Invasive Treatment in Cardiology: a Contribution Margin Analysis].

    PubMed

    Plehn, G; Oernek, A; Vormbrock, J; Maagh, P; Butz, T; Meissner, A

    2015-12-15

    Aim of the study: Direct costing is a specialized form of cost analysis well suited for medical areas with DRG-orientated flat rate payments. By comparing case-related variable costs and payments, it is possible to compare the economic benefits of different medical treatments. This aim was pursued by developing a direct costing concept and by its application to invasively and non-invasively treated cardiac patients. Methods: The entire database comprised 7 330 cases of a tertiary cardiac center between 2007 and 2011. It was derived from databases of the hospital information system, the materials management department and the catheter laboratory. On the revenue side, DRG payments were included. Costs related to heart catheterization such as material, personnel and maintenance expenses were considered to be variable costs. Contribution margins and relative contribution margins were calculated by introducing the length of hospital stay as a time reference. Results: During the observation period, caseload and annual revenues increased by about 20 percent. Contribution margins were higher in invasively than in non-invasively treated patients (2 097±1 590 vs. 1 614±1 105 €; p<0,001). However, the relative relation of both patient groups was not altered during the observation period. A remarkable shortening of the duration of catheter laboratory examinations was observed between 2007 and 2011 (46,2±39,1 auf 36,7±33,5 min; p<0,001). In the same period, relative contribution margins increased from 461±306 to 530±335 € (p<0,001). Conclusions: Within existing supply structures, direct costing is a useful tool for economic comparison of different treatment services. Furthermore, temporal constraints of an economic bottleneck can be easily monitored and tackled with the help of time management tools.

  11. Accounting for the drug life cycle and future drug prices in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health technologies typically assume constant real drug prices and model only the cohort of patients currently eligible for treatment. It has recently been suggested that, in the UK, we should assume that real drug prices decrease at 4% per annum and, in New Zealand, that real drug prices decrease at 2% per annum and at patent expiry the drug price falls. It has also recently been suggested that we should model multiple future incident cohorts. In this article, the cost effectiveness of drugs is modelled based on these ideas. Algebraic expressions are developed to capture all costs and benefits over the entire life cycle of a new drug. The lifetime of a new drug in the UK, a key model parameter, is estimated as 33 years, based on the historical lifetime of drugs in England over the last 27 years. Under the proposed methodology, cost effectiveness is calculated for seven new drugs recently appraised in the UK. Cost effectiveness as assessed in the future is also estimated. Whilst the article is framed in mathematics, the findings and recommendations are also explained in non-mathematical language. The 'life-cycle correction factor' is introduced, which is used to convert estimates of cost effectiveness as traditionally calculated into estimates under the proposed methodology. Under the proposed methodology, all seven drugs appear far more cost effective in the UK than published. For example, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio decreases by 46%, from £61, 900 to £33, 500 per QALY, for cinacalcet versus best supportive care for end-stage renal disease, and by 45%, from £31,100 to £17,000 per QALY, for imatinib versus interferon-α for chronic myeloid leukaemia. Assuming real drug prices decrease over time, the chance that a drug is publicly funded increases over time, and is greater when modelling multiple cohorts than with a single cohort. Using the methodology (compared with traditional methodology) all drugs in the UK and New

  12. 48 CFR 1616.7001 - Clause-contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community rated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Clause-contracts based on a...—contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community rated). The clause at section 1652.216-70 shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts based on a combination of cost and price...

  13. Impact of Coverage-Dependent Marginal Costs on Optimal HPV Vaccination Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ryser, Marc D.; McGoff, Kevin; Herzog, David P.; Sivakoff, David J.; Myers, Evan R.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of vaccinating males against the human papillomavirus (HPV) remains a controversial subject. Many existing studies conclude that increasing female coverage is more effective than diverting resources into male vaccination. Recently, several empirical studies on HPV immunization have been published, providing evidence of the fact that marginal vaccination costs increase with coverage. In this study, we use a stochastic agent-based modeling framework to revisit the male vaccination debate in light of these new findings. Within this framework, we assess the impact of coverage-dependent marginal costs of vaccine distribution on optimal immunization strategies against HPV. Focusing on the two scenarios of ongoing and new vaccination programs, we analyze different resource allocation policies and their effects on overall disease burden. Our results suggest that if the costs associated with vaccinating males are relatively close to those associated with vaccinating females, then coverage-dependent, increasing marginal costs may favor vaccination strategies that entail immunization of both genders. In particular, this study emphasizes the necessity for further empirical research on the nature of coverage-dependent vaccination costs. PMID:25979280

  14. Impact of coverage-dependent marginal costs on optimal HPV vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Ryser, Marc D; McGoff, Kevin; Herzog, David P; Sivakoff, David J; Myers, Evan R

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of vaccinating males against the human papillomavirus (HPV) remains a controversial subject. Many existing studies conclude that increasing female coverage is more effective than diverting resources into male vaccination. Recently, several empirical studies on HPV immunization have been published, providing evidence of the fact that marginal vaccination costs increase with coverage. In this study, we use a stochastic agent-based modeling framework to revisit the male vaccination debate in light of these new findings. Within this framework, we assess the impact of coverage-dependent marginal costs of vaccine distribution on optimal immunization strategies against HPV. Focusing on the two scenarios of ongoing and new vaccination programs, we analyze different resource allocation policies and their effects on overall disease burden. Our results suggest that if the costs associated with vaccinating males are relatively close to those associated with vaccinating females, then coverage-dependent, increasing marginal costs may favor vaccination strategies that entail immunization of both genders. In particular, this study emphasizes the necessity for further empirical research on the nature of coverage-dependent vaccination costs.

  15. Estimating the environmental and resource costs of leakage in water distribution systems: A shadow price approach.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Mocholí-Arce, Manuel; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2016-10-15

    Water scarcity is one of the main problems faced by many regions in the XXIst century. In this context, the need to reduce leakages from water distribution systems has gained almost universal acceptance. The concept of sustainable economic level of leakage (SELL) has been proposed to internalize the environmental and resource costs within economic level of leakage calculations. However, because these costs are not set by the market, they have not often been calculated. In this paper, the directional-distance function was used to estimate the shadow price of leakages as a proxy of their environmental and resource costs. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of leakage externalities. An empirical application was carried out for the main Chilean water companies. The estimated results indicated that for 2014, the average shadow price of leakages was approximately 32% of the price of the water delivered. Moreover, as a sensitivity analysis, the shadow prices of the leakages were calculated from the perspective of the water companies' managers and the regulator. The methodology and findings of this study are essential for supporting the decision process of reducing leakage, contributing to the improvement of economic, social and environmental efficiency and sustainability of urban water supplies.

  16. Presenting Germany's drug pricing rule as a cost-per-QALY rule.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2012-06-01

    In Germany, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) makes recommendations for ceiling prices of drugs based on an evaluation of the relationship between costs and effectiveness. To set ceiling prices, IQWiG uses the following decision rule: the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a new drug compared with the next effective intervention should not be higher than that of the next effective intervention compared to its comparator. The purpose of this paper is to show that IQWiG's decision rule can be presented as a cost-per-QALY rule by using equity-weighted QALYs. This transformation shows where both rules share commonalities. Furthermore, it makes the underlying ethical implications of IQWiG's decision rule transparent and open to debate.

  17. Cost drivers in total hip arthroplasty: effects of procedure volume and implant selling price.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael P; Bozic, Kevin J

    2009-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA), though a highly effective procedure for patients with end-stage hip disease, has become increasingly costly, both because of increasing procedure volume and because of the introduction and widespread use of new technologies. Data regarding procedure volume and procedure costs for THA were obtained from the National Inpatient Sample and other published sources for the years 1995 through 2005. Procedure volume increased 61% over the period studied. When adjusted for inflation, using the medical consumer price index, the average selling price of THA implants increased 24%. The selling price of THA implants as a percentage of total procedure costs increased from 29% to 60% during the period under study. The increasing cost of THA in the United States is a result of both increased procedure volume and increased cost of THA implants. No long-term outcome studies related to use of new implant technologies are available, and short-term results have been similar to those obtained with previous generations of THA implants. This study reinforces the need for a US total joint arthroplasty registry and for careful clinical and economic analyses of new technologies in orthopedics.

  18. Time Series Analysis on the Impact of Generic Substitution and Reference Pricing on Antipsychotic Costs in Finland.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Hanna; Mikkola, Hennamari; Saastamoinen, Leena K; Ahola, Elina; Martikainen, Jaana E

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the medium- to long-term impact of generic substitution and the reference price system on the daily cost of antipsychotics in Finland. The additional impact of reference pricing over and above previously implemented generic substitution was also assessed. An interrupted time series design with a control group and segmented regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of the implementation of generic substitution and the reference price system on the daily cost of antipsychotics. The data have 69 monthly values of the average daily cost for each of the studied antipsychotics: 39 months before and 30 months after the introduction of reference pricing. For one of the studied antipsychotic, the time before the introduction of reference pricing could be further divided into time before and after the introduction of generic substitution. According to the model, 2.5 years after the implementation of reference pricing, the daily cost of the studied antipsychotics was 24.6% to 50.6% lower than it would have been if reference pricing had not been implemented. Two and a half years after the implementation of the reference price system, however, the additional impact of reference pricing over and above previously implemented generic substitution was modest, less than 1 percentage point. Although the price competition induced by reference pricing decreased the prices of antipsychotics in Finland in the short-term, the prices had a tendency to stagnate or even to turn in an upward direction in the medium- to long-term. Furthermore, the additional impact of reference pricing over and above previously implemented generic substitution remained quite modest. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The importance of vehicle costs, fuel prices, and fuel efficiency to HEV market success.

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D. J.; Patterson, P. D.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-12-08

    Toyota's introduction of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) named ''Prius'' in Japan and Honda's proposed introduction of an HEV in the United States have generated considerable interest in the long-term viability of such fuel-efficient vehicles. A performance and cost projection model developed entirely at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is used here to estimate costs. ANL staff developed fuel economy estimates by extending conventional vehicle (CV) modeling done primarily under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Together, these estimates are employed to analyze dollar costs vs. benefits of two of many possible HEV technologies. We project incremental costs and fuel savings for a Prius-type low-performance hybrid (14.3 seconds zero to 60 mph acceleration, 260 time) and a higher-performance ''mild'' hybrid vehicle, or MHV (11 seconds 260 time). Each HEV is compared to a U.S. Toyota Corolla with automatic transmission (11 seconds 260 time). The base incremental retail price range, projected a decade hence, is $3,200-$3,750, before considering battery replacement cost. Historical data are analyzed to evaluate the effect of fuel price on consumer preferences for vehicle fuel economy, performance, and size. The relationship between fuel price, the level of change in fuel price, and consumer attitude toward higher fuel efficiency is also evaluated. A recent survey on the value of higher fuel efficiency is presented and U.S. commercial viability of the hybrids is evaluated using discount rates of 2090 and 870. Our analysis, with our current HEV cost estimates and current fuel savings estimates, implies that the U.S. market for such HEVS would be quite limited.

  20. Marginal abatement cost curve for nitrogen oxides incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, Daniel H; Macpherson, Alexander J; Kaufman, Katherine R; Keaveny, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs are typically developed by sorting control technologies by their relative cost-effectiveness. Other potentially important abatement measures such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) are often not incorporated into MACCs, as it is difficult to quantify their costs and abatement potential. In this paper, a U.S. energy system model is used to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NOx) that incorporates both traditional controls and these additional measures. The MACC is decomposed by sector, and the relative cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS and traditional controls are compared. RE/EE/FS are shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone. Furthermore, a portion of RE/EE/FS appear to be cost-competitive with traditional controls. Renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching can be cost-competitive with traditional air pollutant controls for abating air pollutant emissions. The application of renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching is also shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone.

  1. Welfare implications of electricity pricing and power outages in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Sabih, F.

    1986-01-01

    At the theoretical level, the existing literature on the application of marginal cost pricing is reviewed. Since it is not always possible to implement strict marginal cost pricing, the welfare implications of second best pricing given by the Ramsey pricing model are explored. The Ramsey pricing model is extended to incorporate the lifeline rates and the cots of power outages. Welfare effects of price vs. nonprice rationing are compared. On the empirical side, sector-wise electricity demand functions are estimated for the residential, industrial, commercial, and agricultural consumers in Pakistan. Ramsey numbers are derived for each sector by using the elasticity estimates from these demand functions combined with the prices and marginal cost estimates for each sector. It is determined that the current pricing policy does not follow the Ramsey pricing principles. The welfare losses resulting from divergence of prices from marginal costs are estimated. The problem of power outages in Pakistan is analyzed and its welfare costs are determined. Based on the results of this study, policy recommendations are made to bring the price of electricity in line with the cost of supplying electricity to each consumer group.

  2. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  3. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  4. Ownership, competition, and the adoption of new technologies and cost-saving practices in a fixed-price environment.

    PubMed

    Hirth, R A; Chernew, M E; Orzol, S M

    2000-01-01

    Advances in medical technology have been implicated as the primary cause of rising health care expenditures. It is not yet known whether the increasing prevalence of managed care mechanisms, particularly capitation, will change substantially incentives for acquiring and using cost-increasing innovations. We examined the decisions of dialysis units (a set of providers that has faced capitation and real decreases in payment for several decades) with respect to use of cost-increasing technologies that enhance quality of care, cost-cutting practices that reduce quality of care, and amenities desired by patients that are unrelated to quality of care. We found that the dialysis payment system does not appear to have blocked access to a number of new, quality-enhancing technologies that were developed in the 1980s. However, facilities made adjustments along other valuable margins to facilitate adoption of these technologies; use of new technologies varied with numerous facility, regulatory, and case-mix characteristics including ownership, chain membership, size, market competition, and certificate of need programs. Interestingly, the trade-offs made by for-profit and nonprofit facilities when faced with fixed prices appeared quite different. For-profits tended to deliver lower technical quality of care but more amenities, while nonprofits favored technical quality of care over amenities. Our findings may have implications for the response of other types of health care providers to capitation and increasing economic constraints.

  5. The value of marginal analysis in electric power system operations

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, M.T.; Shelton, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Electric utilities have traditionally based their calculation of costs and derived prices on the basis of averages. Marginal analysis provides an alternative method of costing and price setting. Not only does marginal analysis yield different computations, it can lead to different and more efficient decisions. This point is illustrated by the evaluation of biomass cogeneration to a utility and the costing of rural extensions. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortgang, H. R.; Mayers, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units are presented. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1,000, 25,000, 100,000 and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It is concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  7. Reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai; Gong, Chengzhu; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-15

    This paper analyses the reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China based on provincial panel data for 2001-2010. Using a parameterized quadratic form for the directional output distance function, we find that if agricultural sectors in all provinces were to produce on the production frontier, China could potentially reduce agricultural emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) by 16.0%, 16.2%, and 20.4%, respectively. Additionally, our results show that the shadow price of TN increased rapidly and continuously, while that of COD and TP fluctuated for the whole period. For the whole country, the average shadow price of COD, TN, and TP are 8266 Yuan/tonne, 25,560 Yuan/tonne, and 10,160 Yuan/tonne, respectively. The regional shadow prices of agricultural pollutants are unbalanced. Furthermore, we show that the pollution costs from emissions of COD, TN, and TP are 6.09% of the annual gross output value of the agricultural sector and are highest in the Western and lowest in the Eastern provinces. Our estimates suggest that there is scope for further pollution abatement and simultaneous output expansion for China's agriculture if farmers promote greater efficiency in their production process. Policymakers are required to dynamically adjust the pollution tax rates and ascertain the initial permit price in an emission trading system. Policymakers should also consider the different pollution costs for each province when making the reduction allocations within the agricultural sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Overhead Allocation and Marginal Cost in U.S. and Brazilian Defense Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    r - A𔃽 ZAC• 3 / 0U S , "shot-une and-long-ru’nd ahr- u verages and marginalcoture.I Figure 6, we can see that LRAC and LRMC are long-run average and...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC At)"’ S EL~ECTE A~r.~AAPR 1 2 1994U THESIS OVERHEAD ALLOCATION AND MARGINAL COST IN U.S. AND...Master~ s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OVERHEAD ALLOCATION AND S . FUNDING NUMBERS M’ARG[NAL COST IN U.S. AND BRAZILIAN DEFENSE CONTRACTING 6. AUTHOR

  9. Photovoltaic manufacturing cost analysis: a required-price approach. Volume 2. Appendixes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S.R.; Champagne, P.T.; Brookshire, K.L.

    1986-09-01

    These appendices contain supporting information to aid in interpreting a comparative assessment of the required module price drivers for five different processes of producing photovoltaic modules. They include: definition of the IMCAP model, base case simulation results, cost catalog, and definition of the dendritic web process, the Czochralski process, single-junction amorphous silicon process, tandem-junction amorphous silicon process, and 500X concentrator process. (LEW)

  10. Cost, Price and Public Policy: Peering into the Higher Education Black Box. New Agenda Series[TM], Volume 1, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, William L.; Cunningham, Alisa F.

    This report contains a conceptual framework for analyzing costs and prices by evaluating the higher education production function and the determinants of both prices and costs. The framework can be used to strengthen understanding of costs and prices within individual institutions and to inform macro level investments at state and national levels.…

  11. The impact of relative energy prices on industrial energy consumption in China: a consideration of inflation costs.

    PubMed

    He, Lingyun; Ding, Zhihua; Yin, Fang; Wu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Significant effort has been exerted on the study of economic variables such as absolute energy prices to understand energy consumption and economic growth. However, this approach ignores general inflation effects, whereby the prices of baskets of goods may rise or fall at different rates from those of energy prices. Thus, it may be the relative energy price, not the absolute energy price, that has most important effects on energy consumption. To test this hypothesis, we introduce a new explanatory variable, the domestic relative energy price, which we define as "the ratio of domestic energy prices to the general price level of an economy," and we test the explanatory power of this new variable. Thus, this paper explores the relationship between relative energy prices and energy consumption in China from the perspective of inflation costs over the period from 1988 to 2012. The direct, regulatory and time-varying effects are captured using methods such as ridge regression and the state-space model. The direct impacts of relative energy prices on total energy consumption and intensity are -0.337 and -0.250, respectively; the effects of comprehensive regulation on energy consumption through the economic structure and the energy structure are -0.144 and -0.148, respectively; and the depressing and upward effects of rising and falling energy prices on energy consumption are 0.3520 and 0.3564, respectively. When economic growth and the energy price level were stable, inflation persisted; thus, rising energy prices benefitted both the economy and the environment. Our analysis is important for policy makers to establish effective energy-pricing policies that ensure both energy conservation and the stability of the pricing system.

  12. Social Security cost-of-living adjustments and the Consumer Price Index.

    PubMed

    Burdick, Clark; Fisher, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    OASDI benefits are indexed for inflation to protect beneficiaries from the loss of purchasing power implied by inflation. In the absence of such indexing, the purchasing power of Social Security benefits would be eroded as rising prices raise the cost of living. By statute, cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for Social Security benefits are calculated using the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W). Some argue that this index does not accurately reflect the inflation experienced by the elderly population and should be changed to an elderly-specific price index such as the Experimental Consumer Price Index for Americans 62 Years of Age and Older, often referred to as the Consumer Price Index for the Elderly (CPI-E). Others argue that the measure of inflation underlying the COLA is technically biased, causing it to overestimate changes in the cost of living. This argument implies that current COLAs tend to increase, rather than merely maintain, the purchasing power of benefits over time. Potential bias in the CPI as a cost-of-living index arises from a number of sources, including incomplete accounting for the ability of consumers to substitute goods or change purchasing outlets in response to relative price changes. The BLS has constructed a new index called the Chained Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (C-CPI-U) that better accounts for those consumer adjustments. Price indexes are not true cost-of-living indexes, but approximations of cost-of-living indexes (COLI). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006a) explains the difference between the two: As it pertains to the CPI, the COLI for the current month is based on the answer to the following question: "What is the cost, at this month ' market prices, of achieving the standard of living actually attained in the base period?" This cost is a hypothetical expenditure-the lowest expenditure level necessary at this month's prices to achieve the

  13. Price-transparency and cost accounting: challenges for health care organizations in the consumer-driven era.

    PubMed

    Hilsenrath, Peter; Eakin, Cynthia; Fischer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC) to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Pricing landfill externalities: Emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The paper estimates landfill externalities associated with emissions, disamenities and transport. > Transport externalities vary from 24.22 to 31.42 Rands per tonne. > Costs of emissions (estimated using benefits transfer) vary from 0.07 to 28.91 Rands per tonne. > Disamenities (estimated using hedonic pricing) vary from 0.00 to 57.46 Rands per tonne. > Overall, external costs for urban landfills exceed those of a regional landfill. - Abstract: The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  15. Reimbursement and value-based pricing: stratified cost-effectiveness analysis may not be the last word.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Neil; Scott, David A

    2011-06-01

    During recent discussions, it has been argued that stratified cost-effectiveness analysis has a key role in reimbursement decision-making and value-based pricing (VBP). It has previously been shown that when manufacturers are price-takers, reimbursement decisions made in reference to stratified cost-effectiveness analysis lead to a more efficient allocation of resources than decisions based on whole-population cost-effectiveness analysis. However, we demonstrate that when manufacturers are price setters, reimbursement or VBP based on stratified cost-effectiveness analysis may not be optimal. Using two examples - one considering the choice of thrombolytic treatment for specific patient subgroups and the other considering the extension of coverage for a cancer treatment to include an additional indication - we show that combinations of extended coverage and reduced price can be identified that are advantageous to both payers and manufacturers. The benefits of a given extension in coverage and reduction in price depend both upon the average treatment benefit in the additional population and its size relative to the original population. Negotiation regarding trade-offs between price and coverage may lead to improved outcomes both for health-care systems and manufacturers compared with processes where coverage is determined conditional simply on stratified cost-effectiveness at a given price.

  16. 75 FR 13414 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-012, Clarification of Submission of Cost or Pricing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... items with the Truth In Negotiation Act (TINA) threshold for cost or pricing data. DATES: Effective Date... following changes: PART 15--CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 0 1. The authority citation for 48 CFR part 15...

  17. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... establishing the price offered. If the price is controlled under law by periodic rulings, reviews, or similar... pricing data, and supporting attachments in accordance with the instructions contained in Table 15-2 of... inserted here in full text. The instructions in Table 15-2 are incorporated as a mandatory format to be...

  18. A Marginal Cost Based "Social Cost of Carbon" Provides Inappropriate Guidance in a World That Needs Rapid and Deep Decarbonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. G.; Vaishnav, P.; Azevedo, I. L.; Dowlatabadi, H.

    2016-12-01

    An interagency working group in the U.S. government has used three integrated assessment models of climate change to estimate "the social cost of carbon" and U.S. Federal Agencies and many others are using these figures as the benchmark for sound public policy. We argue that assessing the cost of emissions of CO2 on the margin is inappropriate for at least four reasons: 1) Greenhouse gas concentrations are cumulative and their radiative forcing is a non-linear function of the atmospheric concentration of many radiatively active gases. A marginal approach ignores these interactions and dependence of net forcing on concentrations of other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 2) Geologic evidence points to three quasi-equilibrium climate states. We know that the response of the climate system to changes in radiative forcing is non-linear. We also know that the feedbacks that have blessed us with a stable "climate optimum" for the past 10,000 years are uncertain in magnitude and operate over limited perturbations. Beyond that perturbation, it is likely that climate system dynamics will tip to a very different climate state. The probability and consequences of such climate transitions cannot be treated using a marginal approach. 3) Climate change and its impacts will vary by location, ecosystem and socio-economic context. The responses of social, economic and ecological systems are also likely to be non-linear, display hysteresis, and "tipping" or bifurcation. 4) We neither know how to characterize such impacts nor how they will be valued across different cultures and societies. Indeed, monetizing and discounting these heterogeneous and contextual impacts as a single global metric displays a hubris that has been roundly condemned by ethicists and decision-analysts. After outlining these limitations, we describe several strategies that could be used to inform climate policy to achieving deep decarbonization.

  19. Report on cost/pricing relationships for the space shuttle. [NASA/STS Operations Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The operations cost for the shuttle is the basis for developing the user charge policy for the system. The policy contains several elements that are significant to the user and to NASA. It will encourage the full use of the system to the benefits of the U.S. The charge policy will encourage early transition from the expendable launch vehicles to the shuttle and this will result in lower user costs for government as well as commercial users. The relationship between the charge policy and the utilization of the shuttle is critical to the economic efficiency of the system. NASA recognizes the challenging a relationship between pricing the cost of using a reusable space system, and the need to make sure it is re-used often.

  20. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  1. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

  2. Joint pricing and production management: a geometric programming approach with consideration of cubic production cost function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Hamidi Hesarsorkh, Aghil; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Bonyadi Naeini, Ali

    2014-08-01

    Coordination and harmony between different departments of a company can be an important factor in achieving competitive advantage if the company corrects alignment between strategies of different departments. This paper presents an integrated decision model based on recent advances of geometric programming technique. The demand of a product considers as a power function of factors such as product's price, marketing expenditures, and consumer service expenditures. Furthermore, production cost considers as a cubic power function of outputs. The model will be solved by recent advances in convex optimization tools. Finally, the solution procedure is illustrated by numerical example.

  3. Cost accounting methodologies in price setting of acute inpatient services in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Gaal, Peter; Stefka, Nóra; Nagy, Júlia

    2006-08-01

    On the basis of documentary analysis and interviews with decision makers, this paper discusses the cost accounting methodologies used for price setting of inpatient services in the Hungarian health care system focusing on sector of acute inpatient care, which is financed through the Hungarian adaptation of Diagnosis Related Groups since 1993. Hungary has a quite sophisticated DRG system, which had a deep impact on the efficiency of the acute inpatient care sector. Nevertheless, the system requires continuous maintenance, where the cooperation of hospitals, as well as the minimisation of political influence are critical success factors.

  4. Commonsense System Pricing; Or, How Much Will that $1,200 Computer Really Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1984-01-01

    Three methods employed to price and sell computer equipment are discussed: computer pricing, hardware pricing, system pricing (system includes complete computer and support hardware system and relatively complete software package). Advantages of system pricing are detailed, the author's system is described, and 10 systems currently available are…

  5. Marginal biotin deficiency can be induced experimentally in humans using a cost-effective outpatient design.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Shawna L; Henrich, Cindy L; Matthews, Nell I; Bogusiewicz, Anna; Dawson, Amanda M; Horvath, Thomas D; Owen, Suzanne N; Boysen, Gunnar; Moran, Jeffery H; Mock, Donald M

    2012-01-01

    To date, marginal, asymptomatic biotin deficiency has been successfully induced experimentally by the use of labor-intensive inpatient designs requiring rigorous dietary control. We sought to determine if marginal biotin deficiency could be induced in humans in a less expensive outpatient design incorporating a self-selected, mixed general diet. We sought to examine the efficacy of three outpatient study designs: two based on oral avidin dosing and one based on a diet high in undenatured egg white for a period of 28 d. In study design 1, participants (n = 4; 3 women) received avidin in capsules with a biotin binding capacity of 7 times the estimated dietary biotin intake of a typical self-selected diet. In study design 2, participants (n = 2; 2 women) received double the amount of avidin capsules (14 times the estimated dietary biotin intake). In study design 3, participants (n = 5; 3 women) consumed egg-white beverages containing avidin with a biotin binding capacity of 7 times the estimated dietary biotin intake. Established indices of biotin status [lymphocyte propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity; urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine (3HIA-carnitine), and biotin; and plasma concentration of 3HIA-carnitine] indicated that study designs 1 and 2 were not effective in inducing marginal biotin deficiency, but study design 3 was as effective as previous inpatient study designs that induced deficiency by egg-white beverage. Marginal biotin deficiency can be induced experimentally by using a cost-effective outpatient design by avidin delivery in egg-white beverages. This design should be useful to the broader nutritional research community.

  6. The hidden cost of low prices: limited access to new drugs in India.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Ernst R; Cockburn, Iain M

    2014-09-01

    The pricing and accessibility of patent-protected drugs in low- and middle-income countries is a contentious issue in the global context. But questions about price have little meaning if a drug is not available for purchase, and the extent to which patent policy affects when (and if) new drugs become available in these countries has largely been overlooked. We examined data on the sales of 184 drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration between 2000 and 2009. We found that 50 percent of those 184 drugs went on sale in India only after lags of more than five years from their first worldwide introduction. More than half of the drugs that became newly available in India during the study period were produced and sold by multiple manufacturers in the country within one year of their introduction. The presence of multiple manufacturers indicates sharp competition and weak patent protection--factors that are disincentives to manufacturers to incur the costs of gaining access to the market. We conclude that modest patent and regulatory reform could bring the faster availability of a wider range of new drugs in India with limited impact on prices--a trade-off that merits greater policy attention.

  7. Activism on rifapentine pricing: removing cost barriers to improve the uptake of tuberculosis research innovations

    PubMed Central

    Frick, M.; Lessem, E.; Kanouse, J.; Wegener, D.; Mingote, L. Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    As recent advances have been made in developing tools to fight tuberculosis (TB), there is also a trend towards increasing advocacy by the civil society for TB research and access. One recent successful effort to increase access to treatment options for TB involved a collaborative effort to identify the need for and barriers to the use of rifapentine (RPT) use in the United States. Survey responses confirmed the under-utilization of RPT: 82% of survey respondents selected cost as a significant or potential barrier to use. Survey results provided data to support a year-long advocacy campaign urging the drug company Sanofi to lower the price of RPT. This campaign was based on a common evidence base built in part by the stakeholders themselves. After multiple engagements with communities and providers, Sanofi US announced on 12 December 2013 that they would drop the price of RPT to US$32 per blister pack of 32 tablets for US public health programs. While further work remains to secure access to RPT in the United States and worldwide, the lowering of the price of RPT reflects the positive impact that collaborative advocacy can accomplish, and sets an example for other drug companies to follow. PMID:26400702

  8. Activism on rifapentine pricing: removing cost barriers to improve the uptake of tuberculosis research innovations.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, A; Frick, M; Lessem, E; Kanouse, J; Wegener, D; Mingote, L Ruiz

    2014-12-21

    As recent advances have been made in developing tools to fight tuberculosis (TB), there is also a trend towards increasing advocacy by the civil society for TB research and access. One recent successful effort to increase access to treatment options for TB involved a collaborative effort to identify the need for and barriers to the use of rifapentine (RPT) use in the United States. Survey responses confirmed the under-utilization of RPT: 82% of survey respondents selected cost as a significant or potential barrier to use. Survey results provided data to support a year-long advocacy campaign urging the drug company Sanofi to lower the price of RPT. This campaign was based on a common evidence base built in part by the stakeholders themselves. After multiple engagements with communities and providers, Sanofi US announced on 12 December 2013 that they would drop the price of RPT to US$32 per blister pack of 32 tablets for US public health programs. While further work remains to secure access to RPT in the United States and worldwide, the lowering of the price of RPT reflects the positive impact that collaborative advocacy can accomplish, and sets an example for other drug companies to follow.

  9. Pricing landfill externalities: emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  10. Some Simple Arguments about Cost Externalization and its Relevance to the Price of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.; Winfree, R.

    1999-09-27

    The primary goal of fusion energy research is to develop a source of energy that is less harmful to the environment than are the present sources. A concern often expressed by critics of fusion research is that fusion energy will never be economically competitive with fossil fuels, which in 1997 provided 75% of the world's energy. And in fact, studies of projected fusion electricity generation generally project fusion costs to be higher than those of conventional methods. Yet it is widely agreed that the environmental costs of fossil fuel use are high. Because these costs aren't included in the market price, and furthermore because many governments subsidize fossil fuel production, fossil fuels seem less expensive than they really are. Here we review some simple arguments about cost externalization which provide a useful background for discussion of energy prices. The collectively self-destructive behavior that is the root of many environmental problems, including fossil fuel use, was termed ''the tragedy of the commons'' by the biologist G. Hardin. Hardin's metaphor is that of a grazing commons that is open to all. Each herdsman, in deciding whether to add a cow to his herd, compares the benefit of doing so, which accrues to him alone, to the cost, which is shared by all the herdsmen using the commons, and therefore adds his cow. In this way individually rational behavior leads to the collective destruction of the shared resource. As Hardin pointed out, pollution is one kind of tragedy of the commons. CO{sub 2} emissions and global warming are in this sense classic tragedies.

  11. Cost-price estimation of clinical laboratory services based on activity-based costing: A case study from a developing country.

    PubMed

    Mouseli, Ali; Barouni, Mohsen; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza; Samiee, Siamak Mirab; Vali, Leila

    2017-04-01

    It is believed that laboratory tariffs in Iran don't reflect the real costs. This might expose private laboratories at financial hardship. Activity Based Costing is widely used as a cost measurement instrument to more closely approximate the true cost of operations. This study aimed to determine the real price of different clinical tests of a selected private clinical laboratory. This study was a cross sectional study carried out in 2015. The study setting was the private laboratories in the city of Kerman, Iran. Of 629 tests in the tariff book of the laboratory (relative value), 188 tests were conducted in the laboratory that used Activity Based Costing (ABC) methodology to estimate cost-price. Analyzing and cost-price estimating of laboratory services were performed by MY ABCM software Version 5.0. In 2015, the total costs were $641,645. Direct and indirect costs were 78.3% and 21.7% respectively. Laboratory consumable costs by 37% and personnel costs by 36.3% had the largest share of the costing. Also, group of hormone tests cost the most $147,741 (23.03%), and other tests group cost the least $3,611 (0.56%). Also after calculating the cost of laboratory services, a comparison was made between the calculated price and the private sector's tariffs in 2015. This study showed that there was a difference between costs and tariffs in the private laboratory. One way to overcome this problem is to increase the number of laboratory tests with regard to capacity of the laboratories.

  12. Cost-price estimation of clinical laboratory services based on activity-based costing: A case study from a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Mouseli, Ali; Barouni, Mohsen; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza; Samiee, Siamak Mirab; Vali, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Background It is believed that laboratory tariffs in Iran don’t reflect the real costs. This might expose private laboratories at financial hardship. Activity Based Costing is widely used as a cost measurement instrument to more closely approximate the true cost of operations. Objective This study aimed to determine the real price of different clinical tests of a selected private clinical laboratory. Methods This study was a cross sectional study carried out in 2015. The study setting was the private laboratories in the city of Kerman, Iran. Of 629 tests in the tariff book of the laboratory (relative value), 188 tests were conducted in the laboratory that used Activity Based Costing (ABC) methodology to estimate cost-price. Analyzing and cost-price estimating of laboratory services were performed by MY ABCM software Version 5.0. Results In 2015, the total costs were $641,645. Direct and indirect costs were 78.3% and 21.7% respectively. Laboratory consumable costs by 37% and personnel costs by 36.3% had the largest share of the costing. Also, group of hormone tests cost the most $147,741 (23.03%), and other tests group cost the least $3,611 (0.56%). Also after calculating the cost of laboratory services, a comparison was made between the calculated price and the private sector’s tariffs in 2015. Conclusion This study showed that there was a difference between costs and tariffs in the private laboratory. One way to overcome this problem is to increase the number of laboratory tests with regard to capacity of the laboratories. PMID:28607638

  13. The impact of reference pricing and extension of generic substitution on the daily cost of antipsychotic medication in Finland.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Hanna; Ahola, Elina; Saastamoinen, Leena K; Mikkola, Hennamari; Martikainen, Jaana E

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impact of reference pricing and extension of generic substitution on the daily cost of antipsychotic drugs in Finland during the first year after its launch. Furthermore, the additional impact of reference pricing on prior implemented generic substitution is assessed. A retrospective analysis was performed between 2006 and 2010. A segmented linear regression analysis of interrupted time series was used to estimate changes in the levels and trends in the cost of one day of treatment. Of the study drugs, clozapine belonged to generic substitution already at the start of the study period while olanzapine and quetiapine were included in generic substitution alongside with reference pricing in 2009. Risperidone was included in generic substitution in 2008, before reference pricing. A substantial decrease in the daily cost of all four antipsychotic substances was seen after one year of the implementation of reference pricing and the extension of generic substitution. The impact ranged from -29.9% to -66.3%, and it was most substantial on the daily cost of olanzapine. Also in the daily cost of risperidone a substantial decrease of -43.3% was observed. However, most of these savings, -32.6%, were generated by generic substitution which had been adopted prior. Reference pricing and the extension of generic substitution produced substantial savings on antipsychotic medication costs during the first year after its launch, but the intensity of the impact differed between active substances. Furthermore, our results suggest that the additional cost savings from reference pricing after prior implemented generic substitution, are comparatively low.

  14. Avoiding Terminations, Single Offer Competition, and Costly Change Orders with Fixed-Price Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Avoiding Terminations, Single Offer Competition , and Costly Change Orders With... Competition , and Costly Change Orders with Fixed-Price Contracts 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...www.acquisitionresearch.net). ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 307 - Avoiding Terminations, Single Offer Competition , and

  15. Valuing inter-sectoral costs and benefits of interventions in the healthcare sector: methods for obtaining unit prices.

    PubMed

    Drost, Ruben M W A; Paulus, Aggie T G; Ruwaard, Dirk; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2017-02-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about methods for valuing health intervention-related costs and monetary benefits in the education and criminal justice sectors, also known as 'inter-sectoral costs and benefits' (ICBs). The objective of this study was to develop methods for obtaining unit prices for the valuation of ICBs. By conducting an exploratory literature study and expert interviews, several generic methods were developed. The methods' feasibility was assessed through application in the Netherlands. Results were validated in an expert meeting, which was attended by policy makers, public health experts, health economists and HTA-experts, and discussed at several international conferences and symposia. The study resulted in four methods, including the opportunity cost method (A) and valuation using available unit prices (B), self-constructed unit prices (C) or hourly labor costs (D). The methods developed can be used internationally and are valuable for the broad international field of HTA.

  16. 48 CFR 1616.7001 - Clause-contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community rated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clause-contracts based on... Clause—contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community rated). The clause at section 1652.216-70 shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts based on a combination of cost and...

  17. 48 CFR 1616.7001 - Clause-contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community rated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clause-contracts based on... Clause—contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community rated). The clause at section 1652.216-70 shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts based on a combination of cost and...

  18. 48 CFR 15.403-4 - Requiring certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b). 15.403-4 Section 15.403-4 Federal Acquisition... NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403-4 Requiring certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b). (a)(1) The contracting officer shall obtain certified cost or pricing data only if...

  19. 48 CFR 15.403-4 - Requiring certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b). 15.403-4 Section 15.403-4 Federal Acquisition... NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403-4 Requiring certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b). (a)(1) The contracting officer shall obtain certified cost or pricing data only if...

  20. Hydrologic cost-effectiveness ratio favors switchgrass production on marginal croplands over existing grasslands.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Yohannes Tadesse; Ochsner, Tyson E; Fox, Garey A

    2017-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has attracted attention as a promising second generation biofuel feedstock. Both existing grasslands and marginal croplands have been suggested as targets for conversion to switchgrass, but the resulting production potentials and hydrologic impacts are not clear. The objectives of this study were to model switchgrass production on existing grasslands (scenario-I) and on marginal croplands that have severe to very severe limitations for crop production (scenario-II) and to evaluate the effects on evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflow. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the 1063 km2 Skeleton Creek watershed in north-central Oklahoma, a watershed dominated by grasslands (35%) and winter wheat cropland (47%). The simulated average annual yield (2002-2011) for rainfed Alamo switchgrass for both scenarios was 12 Mg ha-1. Yield varied spatially under scenario-I from 6.1 to 15.3 Mg ha-1, while under scenario-II the range was from 8.2 to 13.8 Mg ha-1. Comparison of average annual ET and streamflow between the baseline simulation (existing land use) and scenario-I showed that scenario-I had 5.6% (37 mm) higher average annual ET and 27.7% lower streamflow, representing a 40.7 million m3 yr-1 streamflow reduction. Compared to the baseline, scenario-II had only 0.5% higher ET and 3.2% lower streamflow, but some monthly impacts were larger. In this watershed, the water yield reduction per ton of biomass production (i.e. hydrologic cost-effectiveness ratio) was more than 5X greater under scenario-I than under scenario-II. These results suggest that, from a hydrologic perspective, it may be preferable to convert marginal cropland to switchgrass production rather than converting existing grasslands.

  1. Hydrologic cost-effectiveness ratio favors switchgrass production on marginal croplands over existing grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Yohannes Tadesse; Ochsner, Tyson E.; Fox, Garey A.

    2017-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has attracted attention as a promising second generation biofuel feedstock. Both existing grasslands and marginal croplands have been suggested as targets for conversion to switchgrass, but the resulting production potentials and hydrologic impacts are not clear. The objectives of this study were to model switchgrass production on existing grasslands (scenario-I) and on marginal croplands that have severe to very severe limitations for crop production (scenario-II) and to evaluate the effects on evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflow. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the 1063 km2 Skeleton Creek watershed in north-central Oklahoma, a watershed dominated by grasslands (35%) and winter wheat cropland (47%). The simulated average annual yield (2002–2011) for rainfed Alamo switchgrass for both scenarios was 12 Mg ha-1. Yield varied spatially under scenario-I from 6.1 to 15.3 Mg ha-1, while under scenario-II the range was from 8.2 to 13.8 Mg ha-1. Comparison of average annual ET and streamflow between the baseline simulation (existing land use) and scenario-I showed that scenario-I had 5.6% (37 mm) higher average annual ET and 27.7% lower streamflow, representing a 40.7 million m3 yr-1 streamflow reduction. Compared to the baseline, scenario-II had only 0.5% higher ET and 3.2% lower streamflow, but some monthly impacts were larger. In this watershed, the water yield reduction per ton of biomass production (i.e. hydrologic cost-effectiveness ratio) was more than 5X greater under scenario-I than under scenario-II. These results suggest that, from a hydrologic perspective, it may be preferable to convert marginal cropland to switchgrass production rather than converting existing grasslands. PMID:28792541

  2. 48 CFR 1615.407-1 - Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.407-1 Rate reduction... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rate reduction...

  3. Price control as a strategy for pharmaceutical cost containment - what has been achieved in Norway in the period 1994-2004?

    PubMed

    Håkonsen, Helle; Horn, Anne Marie; Toverud, Else-Lydia

    2009-05-01

    To describe and evaluate the different price control strategies implemented in Norway after its accession to the European Economic Area (1994-2004). Interviews with ten key persons who had broad insight into the field in question were held. All the available literature was reviewed. Direct price control involving international reference pricing of prescription drugs, and the subsequent price revisions, that occurred from the year 2000 onwards, resulted in predictable and substantial price reductions. With respect to the indirect methods which targeted the off-patent market, the price reductions resulting from reference-based pricing (1993-2000) were only marginal and the achieved savings derived mainly from increased patients' charges. The introduction of generic substitution in 2001 led to increased market shares for non-branded products, but discounts from the manufacturers were not reflected in retail prices. An index price system (2003-2004) was therefore created; but as it entailed negative economical incentives for the pharmacy chains, the price changes did not meet the expectations. The direct pricing strategy, i.e. the international reference pricing, was considered to be the most successful method. In contrast, due to the unpredictability of the market situation, the resulting effects of the indirect methods, i.e. reference-based pricing, generic substitution, and index pricing, were more limited.

  4. An economic approach that links volumetric estimates of resources with cost and price information

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, D.M. )

    1993-01-01

    For many years, organizations such as the US Geological Survey have assembled volumetric estimates of gas and oil in place. It is legitimate for people in industry to ask: [open quotes]What do such estimates mean to me What do they mean to my business What do they mean for commodity prices [close quotes] In a world of ideal, efficient markets, such estimates would have little relevance; the best use of one's time would be to merely survey the various markets. In reality, markets are not completely efficient, and methods other than market observations are required. Volumetric estimates can contribute to better decisionmaking if they can be associated with cost and price information and if their implications in the market can thereby be determined. Until the generalized equilibrium approach, volumetric information has never been linked with the market. It has never entered the decision process of private companies the United States, Canada, or the rest of the world. With the approach outlined, the US Geological Survey volumetric estimates can be used to support such decisionmaking and lead to better industry profits, more enlightened regulation and Government administration, and more efficient use of resources. 66 refs., 28 figs.

  5. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Marques, G.; Mohamed, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbours at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  6. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Marques, G.; Mohamed, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins have become more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoir operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  7. The relationship between price of services, quality of care, and patient time costs for general dental practice.

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, C W; Milgrom, P; Conrad, D; Fiset, L; O'Hara, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between price of services, quality of care, and patient time costs in private practices of general dentists. DATA SOURCE/STUDY SETTING: In October 1992, a 3.7 percent sample of eligible general dentists in part-time or full-time private practice in 1991 was randomly drawn from a sampling frame tailored from data gathered by the 1991-1992 American Dental Association Distribution of Dentists census of all United States dentists. DATA COLLECTION: A mail survey was used to collect data on dentist demographic characteristics, dental practice characteristics practice finances, and insurance. The survey was completed and returned by 3,048 general dentists (77 percent response rate). Local area population characteristics were obtained from secondary sources. STUDY DESIGN: Two-stage least squares regression was used to evaluate the structural relationships between price of services, quality of care, and time costs to patients. Structural equations were estimated for four different quality of care measures and two time costs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Price of services and quality of care were significantly related to each other. Higher quality of care was associated with higher price of services and, reciprocally, higher price of services was associated with higher quality of care. Shorter waits for a new patient appointment were associated with higher prices. Higher price of services, lower quality of care, and longer waits for a new patient appointment were related to shorter in-office waiting time. CONCLUSIONS: The implication of these findings is that if price of services is constrained, then the quality of care provided by the dentist may also be reduced. PMID:9018216

  8. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  9. Dual pricing algorithm in ISO markets

    DOE PAGES

    O'Neill, Richard P.; Castillo, Anya; Eldridge, Brent; ...

    2016-10-10

    The challenge to create efficient market clearing prices in centralized day-ahead electricity markets arises from inherent non-convexities in unit commitment problems. When this aspect is ignored, marginal prices may result in economic losses to market participants who are part of the welfare maximizing solution. In this essay, we present an axiomatic approach to efficient prices and cost allocation for a revenue neutral and non-confiscatory day-ahead market. Current cost allocation practices do not adequately attribute costs based on transparent cost causation criteria. Instead we propose an ex post multi-part pricing scheme, which we refer to as the Dual Pricing Algorithm. Lastly,more » our approach can be incorporated into current dayahead markets without altering the market equilibrium.« less

  10. Dual pricing algorithm in ISO markets

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, Richard P.; Castillo, Anya; Eldridge, Brent; Hytowitz, Robin Broder

    2016-10-10

    The challenge to create efficient market clearing prices in centralized day-ahead electricity markets arises from inherent non-convexities in unit commitment problems. When this aspect is ignored, marginal prices may result in economic losses to market participants who are part of the welfare maximizing solution. In this essay, we present an axiomatic approach to efficient prices and cost allocation for a revenue neutral and non-confiscatory day-ahead market. Current cost allocation practices do not adequately attribute costs based on transparent cost causation criteria. Instead we propose an ex post multi-part pricing scheme, which we refer to as the Dual Pricing Algorithm. Lastly, our approach can be incorporated into current dayahead markets without altering the market equilibrium.

  11. Dual pricing algorithm in ISO markets

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, Richard P.; Castillo, Anya; Eldridge, Brent; Hytowitz, Robin Broder

    2016-10-10

    The challenge to create efficient market clearing prices in centralized day-ahead electricity markets arises from inherent non-convexities in unit commitment problems. When this aspect is ignored, marginal prices may result in economic losses to market participants who are part of the welfare maximizing solution. In this essay, we present an axiomatic approach to efficient prices and cost allocation for a revenue neutral and non-confiscatory day-ahead market. Current cost allocation practices do not adequately attribute costs based on transparent cost causation criteria. Instead we propose an ex post multi-part pricing scheme, which we refer to as the Dual Pricing Algorithm. Lastly, our approach can be incorporated into current dayahead markets without altering the market equilibrium.

  12. Recovery of Indirect Costs in the Pricing of Equitable Adjustments and Terminations for Convenience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    or the threat of regulation. 178 -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ NS*’ .. U S -5 ~ , , ’ P S % . S ~ ’ .I.’ , S F 24Department of Defense, ARMED SERVICES PRICING MANUAL...UNCLASSIFIED , SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE ("en Data Entered): fI .C REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGEREAD INSTRUCT[I ’ S ’r’i " REPORT...O WOIRECT COSTS /0 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED T$0, PEIK~ O ITPA3L-, AO s ~tjQr5 AfJI0 MS THESIS p O12T0MIPJTIOOZ P 0 o, CO V rJiC I rL)C .. S

  13. A menu with prices: Annual per person costs of programs addressing community integration.

    PubMed

    Leff, H Stephen; Cichocki, Ben; Chow, Clifton; Salzer, Mark; Wieman, Dow

    2016-02-01

    Information on costs of programs addressing community integration for persons with serious mental illness in the United States, essential for program planning and evaluation, is largely lacking. To address this knowledge gap, community integration programs identified through directories and snowball sampling were sent an online survey addressing program costs and organizational attributes. 64 Responses were received for which annual per person costs (APPC) could be computed. Programs were categorized by type of services provided. Program types differed in median APPCs, though median APPCs identified were consistent with the ranges identified in the limited literature available. Multiple regression was used to identify organizational variables underlying APPCs such as psychosocial rehabilitation program type, provision of EBPs, number of volunteers, and percentage of budget spent on direct care staff, though effects sizes were moderate at best. This study adds tentative prices to the menu of community integration programs, and the implications of these findings for choosing, designing and evaluating programs addressing community integration are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The UNESCO Bioethics Declaration 'social responsibility' principle and cost-effectiveness price evaluations for essential medicines.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas Alured

    2005-07-01

    The United Nations Scientific, Education and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has commenced drafting a Universal Bioethics Declaration. Some in the relevant UNESCO drafting committee have previously desired to restrict its content to general principles concerning the application (but not necessarily the goals) of science and technology. As potentially a crucial agenda-setting statement of global bioethics, however, it is arguable important the Universal Bioethics Declaration transparently address major bioethical dilemmas in the field of public health, such as universal access to affordable, essential medicines. Article 13 (Social Responsibility) of the Preliminary Draft Universal Bioethics Declaration states: 'Any decision or practice shall ensure that progress in science and technology contributes, wherever possible, to the common good, including the achievement of goals such as: (i) access to quality health care and essential medicines, including for reproductive health and health of children.' Cost effectiveness pricing systems, such as that most notably used in Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), arguably represent one of the most scientifically effective mechanisms whereby public monies may be utilised to assist in the provision of medicines for the common good. They contain two essential elements: first, a process of scientific evaluation of objectively demonstrated therapeutic significance, and then, a fiscal lever (the government reimbursement price) attached to that evaluation. It is now well established that the US Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers Association (Pharma), through the assistance of the US Trade Representative (USTR), saw the Australia United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) as an opportunity to fulfill a legislative mandate to 'eliminate' the cost-effectiveness pricing system in Australia's PBS. One of the most remarkable features of the arguments raised against the PBS in this context was the fact that they made

  15. Prescription Drug Price Paradox: Cost Analysis of Canadian Online Pharmacies versus US Medicare Beneficiaries for the Top 100 Drugs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sean Hyungwoo; Ryu, Young Joo; Cho, Na-Eun; Kim, Andy Eunwoo; Chang, Jongwha

    2017-07-22

    Despite the introduction of Medicare Part D (MPD) and 2012 Affordable Care Act (ACA), patients have a cost burden due to increases in drug prices. To overcome cost barriers, some patients purchase their medications from Canadian online pharmacies as Canadian prescription drug prices are believed to be lower than US prescription drug prices. The objective of this study was to determine which top 100 Medicare drugs can be imported to the USA legally, and to determine which type of prescription drug would be more beneficial to be purchased from Canadian online pharmacies. Moreover, we also deemed it important to compare MPD beneficiary annual expenses with expenses patients would have when obtaining their prescriptions from Canadian online pharmacies. We conducted a cost analysis from a patient perspective. A list of the top 100 Medicare drugs was compiled and information on drug prices was collected from three Canadian online pharmacies and four MPD plans in Virginia. The annual cost of each Medicare drug and percent change between Canadian online pharmacies and MPD were compared. A total of 78 drugs from the top 100 Medicare drugs were included in the final analysis. Seventy-six prescription drugs (97.4%) that could be purchased from Canadian online pharmacies showed a significantly lower average drug price percent change of -72.71% (P < 0.0001). The heart health/blood pressure subgroup had the highest number of drugs that could be purchased from Canadian online pharmacies. The majority of prescription drugs can be purchased at lower prices from Canadian online pharmacies when compared to Medicare beneficiaries' potential expenses. Purchasing medications from Canadian online pharmacies may be a viable option to address cost barriers.

  16. Drug price regulation under consumer moral hazard. Two-part tariffs, uniform price or third-degree price discrimination?

    PubMed

    Felder, Stefan

    2004-12-01

    Drug price differences across national markets as they exist in the EU are often justified by the concept of Ramsey prices: with fixed costs for R&D, the optimal mark-ups on marginal costs are inversely related to the price elasticity in the individual markets. This well-known result prevails if consumer moral hazard is taken into account. Contrary to the situation without moral hazard, the uniform price does not necessarily dominate discriminatory pricing in welfare terms. The two-part tariff is a better alternative as it allows governments to address moral hazard. A uniform price combined with lump-payments reflecting differences in the willingness to pay and the moral hazard in member states appears to be an attractive option for a common EU drug market.

  17. [Business administration of PET facilities: a nationwide survey for prices of PET screening and a cost analysis of three facilities].

    PubMed

    Mitsutake, Naohiro; Fujii, Ryo; Oku, Shinya; Furui, Yuji; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the business administration of PET facilities based on the survey of the price of PET cancer screening and cost analysis of PET examination. The questionnaire survey of the price of PET cancer screening was implemented for all PET facilities in Japan. Cost data of PET examination, including fixed costs and variable costs, were obtained from three different medical institutions. The marked price of the PET cancer screening was 111,499 yen in average, and the most popular range of prices was between 80,000 yen and 90,000 yen. Costs of PET per examination were accounted for 110,675 yen, 79,158 yen and Y11,644 yen in facility A, B and C, respectively. The results suggested that facilities with two or more PET/CT per a cyclotron could only secure profits. In Japan, the boom in PET facility construction could not continue in accordance with increasing number of PET facilities. It would become more essential to analyze the appropriate distribution of PET facilities and the adequate amount of PET procedures from the perspective of efficient utilization of the PET equipments and supply of PET-related healthcare.

  18. Modeling electricity pricing in a deregulated generation industry: The potential for oligopoly pricing in a poolco

    SciTech Connect

    Rudkevich, A.; Duckworth, M.; Rosen, R. )

    1998-01-01

    The authors calculate the electricity prices that would result from a pure poolco market with identical profit-maximizing generating firms. They advance theoretical concepts developed by Klemperer and Meyer (1989) and Green and Newbery (1992), and propose a new formula for the instantaneous market clearing price when generating firms adopt bidding strategies given by the Nash Equilibrium. Applying his formula to empirical electricity supply and demand data, the authors find that even in markets with a relatively high number of firms, the price of electricity is significantly higher than the short-run marginal cost of generation. They express the average annual price mark-up with a Price-Cost Margin Index, and show how it varies with market concentration, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index (HHI). They conclude that the federal Energy Regulatory Commission's use of the HHI in its merger guidelines could prove inadequate in addressing market power concerns in deregulated poolco markets.

  19. An Economic Analysis of Textbook Pricing and Textbook Markets. ACSFA College Textbook Cost Study Plan Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1986 and 2004, textbook prices rose 186 percent in the United States, or slightly more than six percent per year. Meanwhile, other prices rose only about three percent per year. This paper examines the economic reasons why textbook prices have escalated so briskly and what reasonable alternatives are available that might slow down these…

  20. Time-changed geometric fractional Brownian motion and option pricing with transaction costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hui; Liang, Jin-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Xiu

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete time option pricing by a fractional subdiffusive Black-Scholes model. The price of the underlying stock follows a time-changed geometric fractional Brownian motion. By a mean self-financing delta-hedging argument, the pricing formula for the European call option in discrete time setting is obtained.

  1. A Methodology for Evaluating Technical Performance Parameter Design Margins to Control Earth and Space Science Instrument Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones-Selden, Felicia L.

    Costs of aerospace missions have increased over the last twenty years, placing the future of the space program in jeopardy. A potential source for such growth can be attributed to the complex multidisciplinary and challenging nature of earth and space science instrument development. Design margins are additional resources carried in technical performance parameters to mitigate uncertainties throughout the product lifecycle. Margins are traditionally derived and allocated based upon historical experience intrinsic to organizations, as opposed to quantitative methods, jeopardizing the development of low-cost space-based instruments. This dissertation utilizes a methodology to evaluate the interrelationships between pre-launch and actual launch margins for the key technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate to identify the extent to which excessive or insufficient margins are used in the design of space-based instruments in an effort to control instrument cost growth. The research examined 62 space-based instruments from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Federally Funded Research and Development Centers, and universities. Statistical analysis consisting of paired t-tests and multiple linear regression were utilized to determine the degree to which space-based instruments are over or under designed by the use of excessive or insufficient design margins and to determine the effect of design margins for the technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate on the percentage instrument cost growth from the preliminary design phase to launch. Findings confirm, that in the implementation of space-based instruments, design margins are allocated to technical performance parameters above suggested government/industry standards, impacting the development of low-cost space-based instruments. The findings provide senior leadership, systems engineers, project managers, and resource managers with the ability to determine where

  2. Comparison of Nutrient Content and Cost of Home-Packed Lunches to Reimbursable School Lunch Nutrient Standards and Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cara M.; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee; Gustof, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient content and cost of home-packed lunches to nutrient standards and prices for reimbursable school lunches. Methods: Researchers observed food and beverage contents of 333 home packed lunches at four north Texas elementary schools. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze lunches for calories,…

  3. Technology choice in a least-cost expansion analysis framework: Effects of gas price, planning period, and system characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Guziel, K.A.; South, D.W.; Bhatarakamol, S.; Poch, L.A.

    1990-04-01

    The current outlook for new capacity additions by electric utilities is uncertain and tenuous. The fundamental question about the additional capacity requirements center on technology choice and the factors influencing the decision process. Instead of building capital-intensive power plants, utilities have begun relying on natural gas technologies, which permit rapid construction and deployment and low capital investment. Of concern to policymakers and utility planners are the following questions: (1) What is the impact of alternative gas price projections on technology choice (2) What influence does the planning horizon have on technology choice (3) How important are existing system characteristics on technology choice (4) What effect does capital cost, when combined with other technology characteristics in a capacity expansion framework, have on technology choice In this study Argonne National Laboratory examined the impact of these concerns on technology choices in 10 representative power pools with a dynamic optimization expansion model, the Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP). At least-cost expansion plan was determined for each power pool with three candidate technologies--natural gas combustion turbine technology (GT), natural gas combined-cycle technology (NGCC), and integrated gasification combined-cycle technology (IGCC)--three alternative fuel price tracks, and two planning periods (10-yr versus 30-yr optimization) between the years 1995 and 2025. The three fuel price tracks represented scenarios for low, medium, and high gas prices. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on IGCC capital cost and unserved energy costs. 21 refs., 79 figs., 21 tabs.

  4. Comparison of Nutrient Content and Cost of Home-Packed Lunches to Reimbursable School Lunch Nutrient Standards and Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cara M.; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee; Gustof, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient content and cost of home-packed lunches to nutrient standards and prices for reimbursable school lunches. Methods: Researchers observed food and beverage contents of 333 home packed lunches at four north Texas elementary schools. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze lunches for calories,…

  5. 48 CFR 1615.406-2 - Certificate of accurate cost or pricing data for community-rated carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Certificate of accurate cost or pricing data for community-rated carriers. 1615.406-2 Section 1615.406-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION...

  6. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... equipment manufacturer, or reseller. Also explain the basis of each offered price and its relationship to... FAR 15.408, which is incorporated by reference with the same force and effect as though it were... electronic media: Alternate IV (OCT 2010). As prescribed in 15.408(l), replace the text of the basic...

  7. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manufacturer, or reseller. Also explain the basis of each offered price and its relationship to the established... reference with the same force and effect as though it were inserted here in full text. The instructions in... following electronic media: Alternate IV (OCT 2010). As prescribed in 15.408(m), replace the text of the...

  8. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... manufacturer, or reseller. Also explain the basis of each offered price and its relationship to the established... reference with the same force and effect as though it were inserted here in full text. The instructions in... following electronic media: Alternate IV (OCT 2010). As prescribed in 15.408(m), replace the text of the...

  9. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... equipment manufacturer, or reseller. Also explain the basis of each offered price and its relationship to... FAR 15.408, which is incorporated by reference with the same force and effect as though it were... electronic media: Alternate IV (OCT 2010). As prescribed in 15.408(l), replace the text of the basic...

  10. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment manufacturer, or reseller. Also explain the basis of each offered price and its relationship to... FAR 15.408, which is incorporated by reference with the same force and effect as though it were... electronic media: Alternate IV (OCT 2010). As prescribed in 15.408(l), replace the text of the basic...

  11. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... price is controlled under law by periodic rulings, reviews, or similar actions of a governmental body... in accordance with the instructions contained in Table 15-2 of FAR 15.408, which is incorporated by... Table 15-2 are incorporated as a mandatory format to be used in this contract, unless the Contracting...

  12. Contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic disparities in diet quality and health: a systematic review and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Context: It is well established in the literature that healthier diets cost more than unhealthy diets. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine the contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality. Data Sources: A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases was performed. Study Selection: Publications linking food prices, dietary quality, and socioeconomic status were selected. Data Extraction: Where possible, review conclusions were illustrated using a French national database of commonly consumed foods and their mean retail prices. Data Synthesis: Foods of lower nutritional value and lower-quality diets generally cost less per calorie and tended to be selected by groups of lower socioeconomic status. A number of nutrient-dense foods were available at low cost but were not always palatable or culturally acceptable to the low-income consumer. Acceptable healthier diets were uniformly associated with higher costs. Food budgets in poverty were insufficient to ensure optimum diets. Conclusions: Socioeconomic disparities in diet quality may be explained by the higher cost of healthy diets. Identifying food patterns that are nutrient rich, affordable, and appealing should be a priority to fight social inequalities in nutrition and health. PMID:26307238

  13. Contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic disparities in diet quality and health: a systematic review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Darmon, Nicole; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-10-01

    It is well established in the literature that healthier diets cost more than unhealthy diets. The aim of this review was to examine the contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality. A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases was performed. Publications linking food prices, dietary quality, and socioeconomic status were selected. Where possible, review conclusions were illustrated using a French national database of commonly consumed foods and their mean retail prices. Foods of lower nutritional value and lower-quality diets generally cost less per calorie and tended to be selected by groups of lower socioeconomic status. A number of nutrient-dense foods were available at low cost but were not always palatable or culturally acceptable to the low-income consumer. Acceptable healthier diets were uniformly associated with higher costs. Food budgets in poverty were insufficient to ensure optimum diets. Socioeconomic disparities in diet quality may be explained by the higher cost of healthy diets. Identifying food patterns that are nutrient rich, affordable, and appealing should be a priority to fight social inequalities in nutrition and health. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  14. Two essays on real-time pricing of electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nainish Kumar

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation contains two essays on a new innovative pricing mechanism in the electric power industry known as Real Time Pricing (RTP). RTP is a method of pricing electric power wherein at least one component of the price is set at or near levels that reflect the marginal costs of providing power during each time-specific interval. These prices vary in accord with time-specific, incremental supplier costs. RTP allows customers to manage their own bills by adjusting their consumption as spot prices and supplier costs vary, which may amount during a single day from 2 cents to 85 cents for one kilowatt hour (kWh) of usage. Using 1995 data the hypothesis that industrial customers shift their usage patterns of electricity in response to real time prices is tested. To measure customer responsiveness to real time electric rates, econometric techniques are applied to estimate demand elasticities.

  15. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Design Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. Setting England 2014-15. Population Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Interventions Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45p, and 50p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Main outcome measures Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers’ expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. Results The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers’ mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health—saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23 700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. Conclusions The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at

  16. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Alan; Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-09-30

    To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. England 2014-15. Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45 p, and 50 p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers' expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45 p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers' mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45 p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health-saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45 p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23,700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at expected levels between 40 p and 50 p per unit, is estimated to have an approximately 40-50 times

  17. Why do stumpage prices increase more than lumber prices?

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    1998-01-01

    Every sawmiller who has been in business more than 5 years realizes that hardwood stumpage prices tend to increase faster than lumber prices, decreasing the margin between these two prices. Although increases in stumpage versus lumber prices are readily apparent, the reason for the decrease in the margin is not. Recent research findings indicate that the stumpage/...

  18. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  19. 48 CFR 1652.215-70 - Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION... inserted in FEHBP contracts exceeding the threshold at FAR 15.403-4(a)(1) that are based on a combination... Contracting Officer. (iii) The contract was based on an agreement about the total cost of the contract...

  20. 48 CFR 1652.215-70 - Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION... inserted in FEHBP contracts exceeding the threshold at FAR 15.403-4(a)(1) that are based on a combination... Contracting Officer. (iii) The contract was based on an agreement about the total cost of the contract...

  1. Impact of coil price knowledge by the operator on the cost of aneurysm coiling. A single center study.

    PubMed

    Finitsis, Stephanos; Fahed, Robert; Gaulin, Ian; Roy, Daniel; Weill, Alain

    2017-09-15

    Endovascular treatment of aneurysms with coils is among the most frequent treatments in interventional neuroradiology, and represents an important expense. Each manufacturer has created several types of coils, with prices varying among brands and coil types. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of cost awareness of the exact price of each coil by the operating physician on the total cost of aneurysm coiling. This was a comparative study conducted over 1 year in a single tertiary care center. The reference cohort and the experimental cohort consisted of all aneurysm embolization procedures performed during the first 6 months and the last 6 months, respectively. During the second period, physicians were given an information sheet with the prices of all available coils and were requested to look at the sheet during each procedure with the instruction to try to reduce the total cost of the coils used. Expenses related to the coiling procedures during each period were compared. 77 aneurysms (39 ruptured) in the reference cohort and 73 aneurysms (36 ruptured) in the experimental cohort were treated, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference regarding aneurysm location and mean size. The overall cost of the coiling procedures, the mean number of coils used per procedure, and the median cost of each procedure did not differ significantly between the two cohorts. Awareness of the precise price of coils by operators without any additional measure did not have a scientifically proven impact on the cost of aneurysm embolization. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Price pressure. As the number of costly specialty drugs grows, insurers and providers push for more reasonable alternatives.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2013-01-28

    Faced with a rising tide of specialty drugs with eyebrow-raising prices, hospitals and insurers are pushing back. That means looking for less-costly alternatives, though options are limited. "Our goal is, as more patients come along, we get them on Elelyso and not on more expensive Cerezyme," says Eric Cannon, chief of pharmacy for insurer SelectHealth. Elelyso entered the market in 2012 and costs about $150,000 per year for a patient, versus the more costly rival drug Cerezyme.

  3. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Davidson, Carolyn; Fu, Ran; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scale systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.

  4. The Marginal Costs of Adverse Drug Events Associated With Exposures to Anticoagulants and Hypoglycemic Agents During Hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Spector, William D; Limcangco, Rhona; Furukawa, Michael F; Encinosa, William E

    2017-09-01

    Anticoagulants and hypoglycemic agents are 2 of the most challenging drug classes for medical management in the hospital resulting in many adverse drug events (ADEs). Estimating the marginal cost (MC) of ADEs associated with anticoagulants and hypoglycemic agents for adults in 5 patient groups during their hospital stay and the total annual ADE costs for all patients exposed to these drugs during their stay. Data are from 2010 to 2013 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases and Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS). Deidentified patients were linked using probabilistic matching in the same hospital and year for 5 patient groups. ADE information was obtained from the MPSMS using retrospective structured record review. Costs were derived using HCUP cost-to-charge ratios. MC estimates were made using Extended Estimating Equations controlling for patient characteristics, comorbidities, hospital procedures, and hospital characteristics. MC estimates were applied to the 2013 HCUP National Inpatient Sample to estimate annual ADE costs. Adjusted MC estimates were smaller than unadjusted measures with most groups showing estimates that were at least 50% less. Adjusted anticoagulant ADE costs added >45% and Hypoglycemic ADE costs added >20% to inpatient costs. The 2013 hospital cost estimates for ADEs associated with anticoagulants and hypoglycemic agents were >$2.5 billion for each drug class. This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for confounders in the estimation of ADEs, and the importance of separate estimates of ADE costs by drug class.

  5. 48 CFR 15.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....403-1(b)(1) or (2) applies; and (v) Consider the guidance in section 3.3, chapter 3, volume I, of the... to submit. (2) The contractor's format for submitting the data should be used (see 15.403-5(b)(2... award is not made. (b) Adequate price competition. When adequate price competition exists (see...

  6. Pricing products: juxtaposing affordability with quality appeal.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Choosing appropriate product prices is 1 of the most crucial steps in creating an effective contraceptive social marketing (CSM) sales campaign. The Social Marketing Forum conducted an informal survey of social marketing project managers, international contractors, and marketing consultants to determine how CSM programs cope with pricing problems and ways to circumvent some obstacles. According to Diana Altman, a family planning consultant, low prices that make products available to needy individuals are more important than the program's self sufficiency, yet if prices are too low, consumers think the products were unusable in the US and thus were dumped on local markets. Other key factors include commercial competition, spiraling inflation rates, and problems with rising prices and retailer/distributor margins. A sampling of per capita gross national products indicates the poverty level of most CSM projects' target market. Consequently, CSM projects must set low pices, regardless of program operating costs. The goal often is to increase the demand and availability for contraceptives. The fact that social marketing products must pass through retail networks to reach consumers complicates the pricing equation. To deal with the problem, India's Nirodh program gives a 25% margin to distributors/wholesalers, compared to 6% offered on most other goods. Retailers also receive a 25% margin, more than double the commercial rate. Once prices are set, increases pose hazards. Local government approval often is a prerequisite and can require lengthy negotiations. Market studies remain a valuable approach to effective pricing, according to PNA's Mallamad and other research consultants. They cite such effective research strategies as test marketing products and asking consumers how prices affect buying habits. Further, CSM projects can jump over some pricing hurdles through creative marketing. An effective pricing strategy alone cannot produce a successful CSM program. Pricing

  7. Natural gas price uncertainty and the cost-effectiveness of hedging against low hydropower revenues caused by drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Jordan D.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Foster, Benjamin T.

    2015-04-01

    Prolonged periods of low reservoir inflows (droughts) significantly reduce a hydropower producer's ability to generate both electricity and revenues. Given the capital intensive nature of the electric power industry, this can impact hydropower producers' ability to pay down outstanding debt, leading to credit rating downgrades, higher interests rates on new debt, and ultimately, greater infrastructure costs. One potential tool for reducing the financial exposure of hydropower producers to drought is hydrologic index insurance, in particular, contracts structured to payout when streamflows drop below a specified level. An ongoing challenge in developing this type of insurance, however, is minimizing contracts' "basis risk," that is, the degree to which contract payouts deviate in timing and/or amount from actual damages experienced by policyholders. In this paper, we show that consideration of year-to-year changes in the value of hydropower (i.e., the cost of replacing it with an alternative energy source during droughts) is critical to reducing contract basis risk. In particular, we find that volatility in the price of natural gas, a key driver of peak electricity prices, can significantly degrade the performance of index insurance unless contracts are designed to explicitly consider natural gas prices when determining payouts. Results show that a combined index whose value is derived from both seasonal streamflows and the spot price of natural gas yields contracts that exhibit both lower basis risk and greater effectiveness in terms of reducing financial exposure.

  8. Price adjustment in the hospital sector: how should the NHS discriminate between providers. A comment on Miraldo, Siciliani and Street.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, Michel; Naegelen, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Miraldo et al. (2011) have analyzed the price adjustment policy of a payer implementing a Prospective Payment System in the hospital sector in the presence of exogenous cost differences when no lump-sum transfers are allowed. They focus on deriving conditions for the price adjustment being positive. In this paper, using a result of Miraldo et al., we emphasize whether the price adjustment is larger or smaller than the marginal cost. We show how the discrimination operates against either the low-cost or the high-cost hospitals according to the value of the elasticity of the additional marginal cost with respect to the quantity of services.

  9. Electricity pricing: theory and case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Munasinghe, M.; Warford, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The book focuses on the importance of adopting correct power-pricing policies to maximize the net economic benefits of electricity consumption to society. It reports on the progress of the pricing reform program in the electric power sector that is underway in the developing world with the active encouragement of the World Bank. A valuable contribution to this effort was the book Electricity Economics by Turvey and Anderson, which helped stimulate an awareness of the importance of reflecting long-run marginal economic costs in pricing power in developing countries. The further stimulus of rapidly increasing electricity costs has caused this approach to be better understood by power authorities in the third world than in many industrialized countries. More specifically, the Bank's involvement in electric power project and sector work in the developing countries and the continuing exchange of information on pricing issues with utility companies have resulted in the synthesis and practical application of the pricing principles described in the book.

  10. The marginal effects of the price for carbon dioxide: quantifying the effects on the market for electric generation in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Kury, Theodore J.; Harrington, Julie

    2010-05-15

    Greater emphasis on public policy aimed at internalizing the societal cost of carbon dioxide emissions leads to more questions about the economic impacts of that policy. In cooperation with the State of Florida's Department of Environmental Protection, the authors have constructed a model to simulate the dispatch of electric generating units to serve electric load in the state - and obtained some counterintuitive results. (author)

  11. Estimating the cost of improving service quality in water supply: A shadow price approach for England and wales.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Maziotis, Alexandros; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Service quality to customers is an aspect that cannot be ignored in the performance assessment of water companies. Nowadays water regulators introduce awards or penalties to incentivize companies to improve service quality to customers when setting prices. In this study, the directional distance function is employed to estimate the shadow prices of variables indicating the lack of service quality to customers in the water industry i.e., written complaints, unplanned interruptions and properties below the reference level. To calculate the shadow price of each undesirable output for each water company, it is needed to ascribe a reference price for the desirable output which is the volume of water delivered. An empirical application is carried out for water companies in England and Wales. Hence, the shadow price of each undesirable output is expressed both as a percentage of the price of the desirable output and in pence per cubic meter of water delivered The estimated results indicate that on average, each additional written complaint that needs to be dealt with by the water company includes a service quality cost of 0.399p/m(3). As expected, when looking at the other service quality variables which involve network repair or replacement, these values are considerably higher. On average, the water company must spend an extra 0.622p/m(3) to prevent one unplanned interruption and 0.702p/m(3) to avoid one water pressure below the reference level. The findings of this study are of great importance for regulated companies and regulators as it has been illustrated that improvements in the service quality in terms of customer service could be challenging and therefore ongoing investments will be required to address these issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Impact of Reference Pricing of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents on the Use and Costs of Analgesic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Grootendorst, Paul V; Marshall, John K; Holbrook, Anne M; Dolovich, Lisa R; O'Brien, Bernie J; Levy, Adrian R

    2005-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of reference pricing (RP) of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on drug subsidy program and beneficiary expenditures on analgesic drugs. Data Sources/Study Setting Monthly claims data from Pharmacare, the public drug subsidy program for seniors in British Columbia, Canada, over the period of February 1993 to June 2001. Study Design RP limits drug plan reimbursement of interchangeable medicines to a reference price, which is typically equal to the price of the lowest cost interchangeable drug; any cost above that is borne by the patient. Pharmacare introduced two different forms of RP to the NSAIDs, Type 1 in April 1994 and Type 2 in November 1995. Under Type 1 RP, generic and brand versions of the same NSAID are considered interchangeable, whereas under Type 2 RP different NSAIDs are considered interchangeable. We extrapolated average reimbursement per day of NSAID therapy over the months before RP to estimate what expenditures would have been without the policies. These counterfactual predictions were compared with actual values to estimate the impact of the policies; the estimated impacts on reimbursement rates were multiplied by the postpolicy volume of NSAIDS dispensed, which appeared unaffected by the policies, to estimate expenditure changes. Principal Findings After Type 2 RP, program expenditures declined by $22.7 million (CAN), or $4 million (CAN), annually cutting expenditure by about half. Most savings accrued from the substitution of low-cost NSAIDs for more costly alternatives. About 20 percent of savings represented expenditures by seniors who elected to pay for partially reimbursed drugs. Type 1 RP produced one-quarter the savings of type 2 RP. Conclusions Type 2 RP of NSAIDs achieved its goal of reducing drug expenditures and was more effective than Type 1 RP. The effects of RP on patient health and associated health care costs remain to be investigated. PMID:16174135

  13. Estimating marginal and incremental effects in the analysis of medical expenditure panel data using marginalized two-part random-effects generalized Gamma models: Evidence from China healthcare cost data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yingyao

    2017-01-01

    Conditional two-part random-effects models have been proposed for the analysis of healthcare cost panel data that contain both zero costs from the non-users of healthcare facilities and positive costs from the users. These models have been extended to accommodate more flexible data structures when using the generalized Gamma distribution to model the positive healthcare expenditures. However, a major drawback with the extended model, which is inherited from the conditional models, is that it is fairly difficult to make direct marginal inference with respect to overall healthcare costs that includes both zeros and non-zeros, or even on positive healthcare costs. In this article, we first propose two types of marginalized two-part random-effects generalized Gamma models (m2RGGMs): Type I m2RGGMs for the inference on positive healthcare costs and Type II m2RGGMs for the inference on overall healthcare costs. Then, the concepts of marginal effect and incremental effect of a covariate on overall and positive healthcare costs are introduced, and estimation of these effects is carefully discussed. Especially, we derive the variance estimates of these effects by following the delta methods and Taylor series approximations for the purpose of making marginal inference. Parameter estimates of Type I and Type II m2RGGMs are obtained through maximum likelihood estimation. An empirical analysis of longitudinal healthcare costs collected in the China Health and Nutrition Survey is conducted using the proposed methodologies.

  14. Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A

    2009-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Our behaviour towards other people depends not only on what they have done to us but also on what they have done to others. Indirect reciprocity works through reputation. The standard model of indirect reciprocity offers a binary choice: people can either cooperate or defect. Cooperation implies a cost for the donor and a benefit for the recipient. Defection has no cost and yields no benefit. Currently there is considerable interest in studying the effect of costly (or altruistic) punishment on human behaviour. Punishment implies a cost for the punished person. Costly punishment means that the punisher also pays a cost. It has been suggested that costly punishment between individuals can promote cooperation. Here we study the role of costly punishment in an explicit model of indirect reciprocity. We analyse all social norms, which depend on the action of the donor and the reputation of the recipient. We allow errors in assigning reputation and study gossip as a mechanism for establishing coherence. We characterize all strategies that allow the evolutionary stability of cooperation. Some of those strategies use costly punishment; others do not. We find that punishment strategies typically reduce the average payoff of the population. Consequently, there is only a small parameter region where costly punishment leads to an efficient equilibrium. In most cases the population does better by not using costly punishment. The efficient strategy for indirect reciprocity is to withhold help for defectors rather than punishing them.

  15. 48 CFR 15.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a cost realism analysis; (iii) Consider whether cost data are necessary to determine a fair and... should request data to determine the cost realism of competing offers or to evaluate competing approaches...

  16. 48 CFR 15.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a cost realism analysis; (iii) Consider whether cost data are necessary to determine a fair and... should request data to determine the cost realism of competing offers or to evaluate competing...

  17. 48 CFR 15.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a cost realism analysis; (iii) Consider whether cost data are necessary to determine a fair and... should request data to determine the cost realism of competing offers or to evaluate competing approaches...

  18. 48 CFR 15.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a cost realism analysis; (iii) Consider whether cost data are necessary to determine a fair and... should request data to determine the cost realism of competing offers or to evaluate competing approaches...

  19. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: a policy and decision making guide for efficient water use in crop production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, Abebe; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Reducing water footprints (WF) in irrigated crop production is an essential element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, policy and decision making need to be supported with information on marginal cost curves that rank measures to reduce the WF according to their cost-effectiveness and enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a certain reasonable WF benchmark. This paper aims to develop marginal cost curves (MCC) for WF reduction. The AquaCrop model is used to explore the effect of different measures on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus WF that is used as input in the MCC. Measures relate to three dimensions of management practices: irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip); irrigation strategies (full and deficit irrigation); and mulching practices (no mulching, organic and synthetic mulching). A WF benchmark per crop is calculated as resulting from the best-available production technology. The marginal cost curve is plotted using the ratios of the marginal cost to WF reduction of the measures as ordinate, ranking with marginal costs rise with the increase of the reduction effort. For each measure, the marginal cost to reduce WF is estimated by comparing the associated WF and net present value (NPV) to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The NPV for each measure is based on its capital costs, operation and maintenances costs (O&M) and revenues. A range of cases is considered, including: different crops, soil types and different environments. Key words: marginal cost curve, water footprint benchmark, soil water balance, crop growth, AquaCrop

  20. Consumption and Response Output as a Function of Unit Price: Manipulation of Cost and Benefit Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delmendo, Xeres; Borrero, John C.; Beauchamp, Kenneth L.; Francisco, Monica T.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted preference assessments with 4 typically developing children to identify potential reinforcers and assessed the reinforcing efficacy of those stimuli. Next, we tested two predictions of economic theory: that overall consumption (reinforcers obtained) would decrease as the unit price (response requirement per reinforcer) increased and…

  1. 48 CFR 1815.403-170 - Waivers of cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applies to the CCC and its subcontractors. The CCC will provide assurance of the fairness and reasonableness of the proposed price. This assurance should be relied on; however, contracting officers shall... analysis. The CCC also will provide for follow-up audit activity to ensure that any excess profits...

  2. Production Functions for Water Delivery Systems: Analysis and Estimation Using Dual Cost Function and Implicit Price Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teeples, Ronald; Glyer, David

    1987-05-01

    Both policy and technical analysis of water delivery systems have been based on cost functions that are inconsistent with or are incomplete representations of the neoclassical production functions of economics. We present a full-featured production function model of water delivery which can be estimated from a multiproduct, dual cost function. The model features implicit prices for own-water inputs and is implemented as a jointly estimated system of input share equations and a translog cost function. Likelihood ratio tests are performed showing that a minimally constrained, full-featured production function is a necessary specification of the water delivery operations in our sample. This, plus the model's highly efficient and economically correct parameter estimates, confirms the usefulness of a production function approach to modeling the economic activities of water delivery systems.

  3. Automatic control of electric thermal storage (heat) under real-time pricing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Daryanian, B.; Tabors, R.D.; Bohn, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Real-time pricing (RTP) can be used by electric utilities as a control signal for responsive demand-side management (DSM) programs. Electric thermal storage (ETS) systems in buildings provide the inherent flexibility needed to take advantage of variations in prices. Under RTP, optimal performance for ETS operations is achieved under market conditions where reductions in customers` costs coincide with the lowering of the cost of service for electric utilities. The RTP signal conveys the time-varying actual marginal cost of the electric service to customers. The RTP rate is a combination of various cost components, including marginal generation fuel and maintenance costs, marginal costs of transmission and distribution losses, and marginal quality of supply and transmission costs. This report describes the results of an experiment in automatic control of heat storage systems under RTP during the winter seasons of 1989--90 and 1990--91.

  4. Indirect reciprocity provides a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity1-5 is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Our behavior toward other people depends not only on what they have done to us, but also on what they have done to others. Indirect reciprocity works via reputation5-17. The standard model of indirect reciprocity offers a binary choice: people can either cooperate or defect. Cooperation implies a cost for the donor and a benefit for the recipient. Defection has no cost and yields no benefit. Currently there is considerable interest in studying the effect of costly (or altruistic) punishment on human behavior18-25. Punishment implies a cost for the punished person. Costly punishment means that the punisher also pays a cost. It has been suggested that costly punishment between individuals can promote cooperation. Here we study the role of costly punishment in an explicit model of indirect reciprocity. We analyze all social norms, which depend on the action of the donor and the reputation of the recipient. We allow errors in assigning reputation and study gossip as a mechanism for establishing coherence. We characterize all strategies that allow the evolutionary stability of cooperation. Some of those strategies use costly punishment, while others do not. We find that punishment strategies typically reduce the average payoff of the population. Consequently, there is only a small parameter region where costly punishment leads to an efficient equilibrium. In most cases, the population does better by not using costly punishment. The efficient strategy for indirect reciprocity is to withhold help for defectors rather than punish them. PMID:19122640

  5. Price Estimation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.; Firnett, P. J.; Miller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG4, program provides comparatively simple, yet relatively accurate estimate of price of manufactured product. IPEG4 processes user supplied input data to determine estimate of price per unit of production. Input data include equipment cost, space required, labor cost, materials and supplies cost, utility expenses, and production volume on industry wide or process wide basis.

  6. Price Estimation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.; Firnett, P. J.; Miller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG4, program provides comparatively simple, yet relatively accurate estimate of price of manufactured product. IPEG4 processes user supplied input data to determine estimate of price per unit of production. Input data include equipment cost, space required, labor cost, materials and supplies cost, utility expenses, and production volume on industry wide or process wide basis.

  7. The marginal cost of carbon abatement from planting street trees in New York City

    Treesearch

    Kent F. Kovacs; Robert G. Haight; Suhyun Jung; Dexter H. Locke; Jarlath. O' Neil-Dunne

    2013-01-01

    Urban trees can store carbon through the growth process and reduce fossil fuel use by lowering cooling and heating energy consumption of buildings through the process of transpiration, shading, and the blocking of wind. However, the planting and maintenance of urban trees come at a cost. We estimate the discounted cost of net carbon reductions associated with planting...

  8. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... For purposes of this example, R and F have gross receipts of $4,000 from all domestic and foreign... all domestic and foreign sales $4,000.00 R's cost of goods sold (2,730.00) Combined gross income 1,270... gross receipts from all domestic and foreign sales of $3,500, total cost of goods sold and total...

  9. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... For purposes of this example, R and F have gross receipts of $4,000 from all domestic and foreign... all domestic and foreign sales $4,000.00 R's cost of goods sold (2,730.00) Combined gross income 1,270... gross receipts from all domestic and foreign sales of $3,500, total cost of goods sold and total...

  10. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  11. Substitution and price elasticity estimates using inter-countrypooled data in a translog cost model

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Joyashree; Sanstad, Alan H.; Sathaye, Jayant A.; Khaddaria,Raman

    2006-06-01

    Pooled data across several developing countries and the U.S. were used to estimate long-run substitution and price elasticities ina translog framework for the paper, iron and steel, and aggregatemanufacturing industries. While the quality of the estimates variesacross the several industry-specific models, the results suggest highervalues for these elasticities than appear commonly used in integratedassessment models. Estimates of own-price elasticities of energy rangefrom - 0.80 to - 1.76 and are comparable to estimates from previouseconometric studies in the context of developed countries (- 0.77 to -0.87). Substitution elasticities show wider variation across countriesand industries. For energy and capital they range from -1.96 to 9.80, forlabor and energy from 2.61 to 7.11, and for energy and material from -0.26 to 2.07.

  12. Star Wars: A Case Study of Marginal Cost Analysis and Weapon System Technology,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    34*20 KKVs per satellite Communications satellites at 5 x geo * 6 km/sec * 60g average acceleration Surveillance, tracking , and target designation...level (e.g., mirror, cross- track motors, cryogenic cooling components). Component-level cost estimates are best for this analysis because...Launch Cost Estimates (1985 dollars) design compared with the design of a surveillance, acquisition, tracking , and kill assessment (SATKA) satellite

  13. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: guiding a cost-effective reduction of crop water consumption to a permit or benchmark level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, Abebe D.; Krol, Maarten S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-07-01

    Reducing the water footprint (WF) of the process of growing irrigated crops is an indispensable element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, information on marginal cost curves (MCCs) that rank management packages according to their cost-effectiveness to reduce the WF need to support the decision making. MCCs enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a given WF permit (expressed in m3  ha-1 per season) or to a certain WF benchmark (expressed in m3  t-1 of crop). This paper aims to develop MCCs for WF reduction for a range of selected cases. AquaCrop, a soil-water-balance and crop-growth model, is used to estimate the effect of different management packages on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus the WF of crop production. A management package is defined as a specific combination of management practices: irrigation technique (furrow, sprinkler, drip or subsurface drip); irrigation strategy (full or deficit irrigation); and mulching practice (no, organic or synthetic mulching). The annual average cost for each management package is estimated as the annualized capital cost plus the annual costs of maintenance and operations (i.e. costs of water, energy and labour). Different cases are considered, including three crops (maize, tomato and potato); four types of environment (humid in UK, sub-humid in Italy, semi-arid in Spain and arid in Israel); three hydrologic years (wet, normal and dry years) and three soil types (loam, silty clay loam and sandy loam). For each crop, alternative WF reduction pathways were developed, after which the most cost-effective pathway was selected to develop the MCC for WF reduction. When aiming at WF reduction one can best improve the irrigation strategy first, next the mulching practice and finally the irrigation technique. Moving from a full to deficit irrigation strategy is found to be a no-regret measure: it reduces the WF by

  14. Price, cost and value of opiate detoxification treatments. Reanalysis of data from two randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Gossop, M; Strang, J

    2000-09-01

    Treatments in different settings have different costs. A dilemma arises if expensive treatments lead to better outcomes. To investigate conflicts between the priorities of cost minimisation, clinical effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness in the detoxification of opiate addicts. Cost and clinical effectiveness were examined using published outcome data. The main outcome measures were: achieving a drug-free state on completion of detoxification; the economic costs of treatment. In terms of simple cost, in-patient detoxification is much more expensive than out-patient treatment (ratio, 24:1). With adjustment for successful outcome, the costs are almost identical (ratio, 0.9:1). Comparison of specialist and general psychiatry in-patient settings showed that even when adjusted for clinical outcomes, the specialist setting is more costly (ratio, 1.9:1), although the outcomes are better. Naïve adherence to cost and cost-containment considerations is dangerous. Discussion of treatment costs is misleading if not informed by, and adjusted for, evidence of effectiveness. This is especially important where marked differences in outcome between treatment options exist.

  15. The Potential Cost Effectiveness of Different Dengue Vaccination Programmes in Malaysia: A Value-Based Pricing Assessment Using Dynamic Transmission Mathematical Modelling.

    PubMed

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Yeo, Hui Yee; Coudeville, Laurent; Steinberg, Lucas; Gill, Balvinder Singh; Jahis, Rohani; Amar-Singh Hss

    2017-05-01

    Dengue disease poses a great economic burden in Malaysia. This study evaluated the cost effectiveness and impact of dengue vaccination in Malaysia from both provider and societal perspectives using a dynamic transmission mathematical model. The model incorporated sensitivity analyses, Malaysia-specific data, evidence from recent phase III studies and pooled efficacy and long-term safety data to refine the estimates from previous published studies. Unit costs were valued in $US, year 2013 values. Six vaccination programmes employing a three-dose schedule were identified as the most likely programmes to be implemented. In all programmes, vaccination produced positive benefits expressed as reductions in dengue cases, dengue-related deaths, life-years lost, disability-adjusted life-years and dengue treatment costs. Instead of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), we evaluated the cost effectiveness of the programmes by calculating the threshold prices for a highly cost-effective strategy [ICER <1 × gross domestic product (GDP) per capita] and a cost-effective strategy (ICER between 1 and 3 × GDP per capita). We found that vaccination may be cost effective up to a price of $US32.39 for programme 6 (highly cost effective up to $US14.15) and up to a price of $US100.59 for programme 1 (highly cost effective up to $US47.96) from the provider perspective. The cost-effectiveness analysis is sensitive to under-reporting, vaccine protection duration and model time horizon. Routine vaccination for a population aged 13 years with a catch-up cohort aged 14-30 years in targeted hotspot areas appears to be the best-value strategy among those investigated. Dengue vaccination is a potentially good investment if the purchaser can negotiate a price at or below the cost-effective threshold price.

  16. Cost-utility analysis of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: Protection at what price in the Thai context?

    PubMed Central

    Kulpeng, Wantanee; Leelahavarong, Pattara; Rattanavipapong, Waranya; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Meeyai, Aronrag; Punpanich, Warunee; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the costs and outcomes of offering the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Thailand compared to the current situation of no PCV vaccination. Methods Two vaccination schedules were considered: two-dose primary series plus a booster dose (2 + 1) and three-dose primary series plus a booster dose (3 + 1). A cost-utility analysis was conducted using a societal perspective. A Markov simulation model was used to estimate the relevant costs and health outcomes for a lifetime horizon. Costs were collected and values were calculated for the year 2010. The results were reported as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in Thai Baht (THB) per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained, with future costs and outcomes being discounted at 3% per annum. One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation were performed to assess parameter uncertainty. Results Under the base case-scenario of 2 + 1 dose schedule and a five-year protection, without indirect vaccine effects, the ICER for PCV10 and PCV13 were THB 1,368,072 and THB 1,490,305 per QALY gained, respectively. With indirect vaccine effects, the ICER of PCV10 was THB 519,399, and for PCV13 was THB 527,378. The model was sensitive to discount rate, the change in duration of vaccine protection and the incidence of pneumonia for all age groups. Conclusions At current prices, PCV10 and PCV13 are not cost-effective in Thailand. Inclusion of indirect vaccine effects substantially reduced the ICERs for both vaccines, but did not result in cost effectiveness. PMID:23588084

  17. Optimal pricing and investment in the electricity sector in Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Ranganath Srinivas

    2001-07-01

    Faulty pricing policies and inadequate investment in the power sector are responsible for the chronic power shortages that plague Tamil Nadu and the rest of India. Formulae for optimal pricing rules are derived for a social welfare maximizing Electricity Board which sells electricity that is used both as an intermediate, and as a final good. Because of distributional constraints, the optimal prices deviate systematically from marginal costs. Optimal relative price-marginal cost differentials are computed for Tamil Nadu, and are found to indicate a lower degree of subsidization than the prevailing prices. The rationalization of electricity tariffs would very likely increase the Board's revenues. The cost-effectiveness of nuclear power in India is examined by comparing actual data for the Madras Atomic Power Project and the Singrauli coal-fired thermal power station. The conventional (non-environmental) costs of power generation are compared at both market prices and shadow prices, calculated according to the UNIDO guidelines for project evaluation. Despite favorable assumptions for the costs of the nuclear plant, coal had a decided edge over nuclear in Tamil Nadu. Remarkably, the edge varied little when market prices are replaced by shadow prices in the computations. With regard to the environmental costs, far too much remains unknown. More research is therefore needed on the environmental impacts of both types of power generation before a final choice can be made.

  18. The price of information: Increased inspection costs reduce the confirmation bias in visual search.

    PubMed

    Rajsic, Jason; Wilson, Daryl E; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-31

    In visual search, there is a confirmation bias such that attention is biased towards stimuli that match a target template, which has been attributed to covert costs of updating the templates that guide search [Rajsic, Wilson, & Pratt, 2015. Confirmation bias in visual search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/xhp0000090 ]. In order to provide direct evidence for this speculation, the present study increased the cost of inspections in search by using gaze- and mouse-contingent searches, which restrict the manner in which information in search displays can be accrued, and incur additional motor costs (in the case of mouse-contingent searches). In a fourth experiment, we rhythmically mask elements in the search display to induce temporal inspection costs. Our results indicated that confirmation bias is indeed attenuated when inspection costs are increased. We conclude that confirmation bias results from the low-cost strategy of matching information to a single, concrete visual template, and that more sophisticated guidance strategies will be used when sufficiently beneficial. This demonstrates that search guidance itself comes at a cost, and that the form of guidance adopted in a given search depends on a comparison between guidance costs and the expected benefits of their implementation.

  19. Cost Determination and Cost Recovery Pricing in Non-Business Situations: The Case of University Research Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Keith

    1989-01-01

    A university's income will rise if it changes its policy on charging for commissioned research and for applications to external funding agencies to one of full cost recovery. However, there are a number of technical and policy implications to be appreciated before embarking on the pursuit of additional income. (MSE)

  20. How Much Does It Cost Institutions to Produce Stem Degrees? Data Brief. The Price and Cost of Science Degrees Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Cost Project at American Institutes for Research, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This AIR Data Brief breaks down the "cost per degree" estimates for 28 disciplines, including those in the STEM fields, which among the most expensive degrees to produce. The brief points to ways colleges can change their tuition structure to finance STEM degrees more affordably. This data brief is the fourth of four in the series. (See…

  1. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  2. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., product, or product line of export property (as defined in § 1.927(a)-1T) from which foreign trading gross.... For purposes of this example, R and F have gross receipts of $4,000 from all domestic and foreign... all domestic and foreign sales $4,000.00 R's cost of goods sold (2,730.00) Combined gross income 1,270...

  3. Coal-fired power-plant-capital-cost estimates. Final report. [Mid-1978 price level; 13 different sites

    SciTech Connect

    Holstein, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    Conceptual designs and order-of-magnitude capital cost estimates have been prepared for typical 1000-MW coal-fired power plants. These subcritical plants will provide high efficiency in base load operation without excessive efficiency loss in cycling operation. In addition, an alternative supercritical design and a cost estimate were developed for each of the plants for maximum efficiency at 80 to 100% of design capacity. The power plants will be located in 13 representative regions of the United States and will be fueled by coal typically available in each region. In two locations, alternate coals are available and plants have been designed and estimated for both coals resulting in a total of 15 power plants. The capital cost estimates are at mid-1978 price level with no escalation and are based on the contractor's current construction projects. Conservative estimating parameters have been used to ensure their suitability as planning tools for utility companies. A flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been included for each plant to reflect the requirements of the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions. The estimated costs of the FGD facilities range from 74 to 169 $/kW depending on the coal characteristics and the location of the plant. The estimated total capital requirements for twin 500-MW units vary from 8088 $/kW for a southeastern plant burning bituminous Kentucky coal to 990 $/kW for a remote western plant burning subbituminous Wyoming coal.

  4. The unwritten price of cosmetic tourism: an observational study and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, K; Auberson, D; Patel, A J; Malata, C M

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetic tourism, driven by the promise of inexpensive operations abroad, is increasingly popular despite warnings from professional bodies regarding associated risks. Increasing numbers of individuals have presented to our department requesting NHS treatment of complications from such surgery. We set out to characterize these patients and evaluate costs incurred through their assessment and management. An observational study was conducted from 2007 to 2009 on patients presenting to a tertiary referral Plastic Surgery practice with complications of cosmetic tourism surgery. Demographic characteristics, as well as those related to the operation, were recorded. Hospital patient flow pathways were constructed, cost analysis performed using Patient Level Costing, and expenditure and profitability calculated. Nineteen patients presented within the study period. Most operations were performed in Europe or Asia, and were primarily breast augmentation procedures (n=13). The principal complications were wound infection or dehiscence, and poor cosmetic results. Eleven patients received NHS treatment, at a cost of £120,841. The mean cost for all patients' management was £6360 (range: £114-£57,968), rising to £10,878 for those accepted for treatment. For 8 of the 9 patients (89%) for whom full patient level costing was available, the hospital incurred a financial loss. The costs to the NHS of managing complications of cosmetic tourism are substantial, and underestimated by central funding agencies. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Frozen Price Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Lori

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…

  6. Value of crops: Quantity, quality and cost price. [algae as a nutritional supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    1979-01-01

    Possibilities of using algae as a nutritional supplement are examined. The nutritional value and protein content of spirulines of blue algae are discussed. A cost analysis of growing them artificially is presented.

  7. White cider consumption and heavy drinkers: a low-cost option but an unknown price.

    PubMed

    Black, Heather; Michalova, Lucie; Gill, Jan; Rees, Cheryl; Chick, Jonathan; O'May, Fiona; Rush, Robert; McPake, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    To compare characteristics of heavy drinkers who do, or do not, drink white cider during their typical drinking week and to contrast white cider drinkers' behaviour with a similar group recruited in comparable settings 4 years previously. To consider if excessive white cider consumption poses a specific health risk. Cross-sectional survey of alcohol purchasing and consumption by heavy drinkers consuming white cider in Edinburgh and Glasgow during 2012; comparison of purchasing patterns within Edinburgh in 2008-2009 and 2012. Participants were 639 patients (in- and out-patient settings) with serious health problems linked to alcohol, 345 in Glasgow, 294 in Edinburgh in 2012, and 377 in Edinburgh in 2008-2009. In 2012 white cider consumption was reported by 25% of participants (median consumption (all alcohol) was 249 UK units per week-1 UK unit being 8 g of ethanol). They were more likely to be male and younger. They drank more units of alcohol than non-white cider drinkers and reported more alcohol-related problems. The median price paid for white cider in 2012 was 17 ppu. The period 2008-2012 was associated with decreasing affordability of alcohol, but consumption levels amongst the heaviest drinkers were maintained, associated with an increased proportion of units purchased as white cider. White cider makes an important contribution to the weekly intake of heavy drinkers in Scotland, likely facilitated by low price per unit of alcohol. We suggest these characteristics permit this drink to act as a buffer, supporting the continuation of a heavy drinking pattern when affordability of alcohol falls. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  8. Three essays on access pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of

  9. Global water marginal cost curves to battle the future water gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Hunink, Johannes; Buitink, Joost; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Karssenberg, Derek; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity affects a major part of the globe, and is expected to increase significantly until 2100 as a result of climate change and socioeconomic developments. Yet, global projections are unavailable on the effectiveness and costs of adaptation measures to close the future water gap under global change. Here, we present a 21st century projection of the closure of the water gap under two contrasting climate and socio-economic scenarios: RCP2.6/SSP1(s1) and RCP8.5/SSP5(s5). We coupled a global hydrological model to water demand and redistribution model, and forced them with five General Circulation Models (GCMs) to assess the future water gap for 1604 water provinces covering most of the global land mass. Subsequently, we determined the water gap reduction that could be achieved by adaptation measures aimed at improving agriculture, increasing water supply, and reducing water demands. Our results show that for s1, the water gap peaks around 2050 and declines towards 2100. Contrastingly, for s5, the gap increases linearly. Hotspots in water scarcity are found in the USA, India, and China. The adaptations reduce the water gap, but are not sufficient to close the water gap completely. The median annual adaptation costs amount to less than 2% of the GDP of the affected water provinces. Given the low toll on GDP, we conclude that there is certainly room for unorthodox measures to close the water gap.

  10. The price of safety: costs for mitigating and coping with Alpine hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfurtscheller, C.; Thieken, A. H.

    2013-10-01

    Due to limited public budgets and the need to economize, the analysis of costs of hazard mitigation and emergency management of natural hazards becomes increasingly important for public natural hazard and risk management. In recent years there has been a growing body of literature on the estimation of losses which supported to help to determine benefits of measures in terms of prevented losses. On the contrary, the costs of mitigation are hardly addressed. This paper thus aims to shed some light on expenses for mitigation and emergency services. For this, we analysed the annual costs of mitigation efforts in four regions/countries of the Alpine Arc: Bavaria (Germany), Tyrol (Austria), South Tyrol (Italy) and Switzerland. On the basis of PPP values (purchasing power parities), annual expenses on public safety ranged from EUR 44 per capita in the Free State of Bavaria to EUR 216 in the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol. To analyse the (variable) costs for emergency services in case of an event, we used detailed data from the 2005 floods in the Federal State of Tyrol (Austria) as well as aggregated data from the 2002 floods in Germany. The analysis revealed that multi-hazards, the occurrence and intermixture of different natural hazard processes, contribute to increasing emergency costs. Based on these findings, research gaps and recommendations for costing Alpine natural hazards are discussed.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Price Subsidies on Fortified Packaged Infant Cereals in Reducing Iron Deficiency Anemia in 6-23-Month-Old-Children in Urban India.

    PubMed

    Plessow, Rafael; Arora, Narendra Kumar; Brunner, Beatrice; Wieser, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major public health problem in India and especially harmful in early childhood due to its impact on cognitive development and increased all-cause mortality. We estimate the cost-effectiveness of price subsidies on fortified packaged infant cereals (F-PICs) in reducing IDA in 6-23-monthold children in urban India. Cost-effectiveness is estimated by comparing the net social cost of price subsidies with the disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted with price subsidies. The net social costs correspond to the cost of the subsidy minus the monetary costs saved by reducing IDA. The estimation proceeds in three steps: 1) the current lifetime costs of IDA are assessed with a health economic model combining the prevalence of anemia, derived from a large population survey, with information on the health consequences of IDA and their costs in terms of mortality, morbidity, and DALYs. 2) The effects of price subsidies on the demand for F-PICs are assessed with a market survey among 4801 households in 12 large Indian cities. 3) The cost-effectiveness is calculated by combining the findings of the first two steps with the results of a systematic review on the effectiveness of F-PICs in reducing IDA. We compare the cost-effectiveness of interventions that differ in the level of the subsidy and in the socio-economic strata (SES) eligible for the subsidy. The lifetime social costs of IDA in 6-23-month-old children in large Indian cities amount to production losses of 3222 USD and to 726,000 DALYs. Poor households incur the highest costs, yet even wealthier households suffer substantial losses. The market survey reveals that few households currently buy F-PICs, with the share ranging from 14% to 36%. Wealthier households are generally more likely to buy FPICs. The costs of the subsidies per DALY averted range from 909 to 3649 USD. Interventions targeted at poorer households are most effective. Almost all interventions are cost saving from a

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Price Subsidies on Fortified Packaged Infant Cereals in Reducing Iron Deficiency Anemia in 6-23-Month-Old-Children in Urban India

    PubMed Central

    Plessow, Rafael; Arora, Narendra Kumar; Brunner, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major public health problem in India and especially harmful in early childhood due to its impact on cognitive development and increased all-cause mortality. We estimate the cost-effectiveness of price subsidies on fortified packaged infant cereals (F-PICs) in reducing IDA in 6-23-monthold children in urban India. Materials and Methods Cost-effectiveness is estimated by comparing the net social cost of price subsidies with the disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted with price subsidies. The net social costs correspond to the cost of the subsidy minus the monetary costs saved by reducing IDA. The estimation proceeds in three steps: 1) the current lifetime costs of IDA are assessed with a health economic model combining the prevalence of anemia, derived from a large population survey, with information on the health consequences of IDA and their costs in terms of mortality, morbidity, and DALYs. 2) The effects of price subsidies on the demand for F-PICs are assessed with a market survey among 4801 households in 12 large Indian cities. 3) The cost-effectiveness is calculated by combining the findings of the first two steps with the results of a systematic review on the effectiveness of F-PICs in reducing IDA. We compare the cost-effectiveness of interventions that differ in the level of the subsidy and in the socio-economic strata (SES) eligible for the subsidy. Results The lifetime social costs of IDA in 6-23-month-old children in large Indian cities amount to production losses of 3222 USD and to 726,000 DALYs. Poor households incur the highest costs, yet even wealthier households suffer substantial losses. The market survey reveals that few households currently buy F-PICs, with the share ranging from 14% to 36%. Wealthier households are generally more likely to buy FPICs. The costs of the subsidies per DALY averted range from 909 to 3649 USD. Interventions targeted at poorer households are most effective. Almost

  13. Associations between mothers' perceptions of the cost of fruit and vegetables and children's diets: will children pay the price?

    PubMed

    Williams, L; Abbott, G; Crawford, D; Ball, K

    2012-02-01

    Perceptions that fruit and vegetables are expensive are more common among the socio-economically disadvantaged groups and are linked to poor dietary outcomes. Such perceptions may be exacerbated in countries recently affected by natural disasters, where devastation of fruit and vegetable crops has resulted in increase in prices of fruit and vegetables. Examining the associations of perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability and children's diets can offer insights into how the high prices of fruit and vegetables might have an impact on the diets of children. We analysed the data from 546 socio-economically disadvantaged mother-child pairs to assess the relationship between maternal perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability and the diets of their children. Fruit consumption was lower among children whose mothers felt the cost of fruit was too high. Maternal perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability were not associated with any other aspect of child's diet. Our results suggest a possible role for maternal perceptions of fruit affordability in children's diet, though further research is warranted.

  14. Reliability-based pricing of electricity service

    SciTech Connect

    Hagazy, Y.A.

    1993-01-01

    This research has two objectives: (a) to develop a price structure that unbundles electricity service by reliability levels, and (b) to analyze the implications of such a structure on economic welfare, system operation, load management, and energy conservation. The authors developed a pricing mechanism for electricity service that combines priority (reliability differentiation) pricing with real-time Ramsey type pricing. The electric utility is assumed to be a single welfare-maximizing firm able to set and communicate prices instantly. At time of supply shortages, the utility has direct control over customer loads and follows a rationing method among customers willing to accept power interruptions. Therefore, customers are given the choice either to be served with a high reliability [open quotes]firm[close quotes] service, or to be subject to interruption. To encourage customers to make rational reliability choices, a payment/compensation mechanism was integrated into the welfare-maximization model. In order to account for uncertainties associated with the operation of electric power systems, a stochastic production cost simulation is also integrated with the model. The stochastic production cost simulation yields the estimation of the expected production, cost, marginal costs, and system reliability level at total demand. The authors examine the welfare gain and energy and reserve saving possibilities due to different pricing schemes. The results show that reliability-based pricing yields higher economic efficiency and energy and power saving than both spot and Ramsey pricing when system imperfect reliability is considered. Therefore, the implication of this research is that reliability-based pricing provides a feasible solution to electric utilities as a substitute for power purchases, and/or new capacity investment.

  15. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  16. Price controls and international petroleum product prices

    SciTech Connect

    Deacon, R.T.; Mead, W.J.; Agarwal, V.B.

    1980-02-01

    The effects of Federal refined-product price controls upon the price of motor gasoline in the United States through 1977 are examined. A comparison of domestic and foreign gasoline prices is made, based on the prices of products actually moving in international trade. There is also an effort to ascribe US/foreign market price differentials to identifiable cost factors. Primary emphasis is on price comparisons at the wholesale level, although some retail comparisons are presented. The study also examines the extent to which product price controls are binding, and attempts to estimate what the price of motor gasoline would have been in the absence of controls. The time period under consideration is from 1969 through 1977, with primary focus on price relationships in 1970-1971 (just before US controls) and 1976-1977. The foreign-domestic comparisons are made with respect to four major US cities, namely, Boston, New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles. 20 figures, 14 tables.

  17. Utility-Scale Solar 2014. An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Seel, Joachim

    2015-09-01

    Other than the nine Solar Energy Generation Systems (“SEGS”) parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or “utility-scale” solar projects – defined here to include any groundmounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar thermal power (“CSP”) project larger than 5 MWAC – existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in both 2013 and 2014 and that is expected to continue for at least the next few years. Over this same short period, CSP also experienced a bit of a renaissance in the United States, with a number of large new parabolic trough and power tower systems – some including thermal storage – achieving commercial operation. With this critical mass of new utility-scale projects now online and in some cases having operated for a number of years (generating not only electricity, but also empirical data that can be mined), the rapidly growing utility-scale sector is ripe for analysis. This report, the third edition in an ongoing annual series, meets this need through in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of not just installed project costs or prices – i.e., the traditional realm of solar economics analyses – but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects in the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are presented where appropriate.

  18. Enhancing the comparability of costing methods: cross-country variability in the prices of non-traded inputs to health programmes.

    PubMed

    Johns, Benjamin; Adam, Taghreed; Evans, David B

    2006-04-24

    National and international policy makers have been increasing their focus on developing strategies to enable poor countries achieve the millennium development goals. This requires information on the costs of different types of health interventions and the resources needed to scale them up, either singly or in combinations. Cost data also guides decisions about the most appropriate mix of interventions in different settings, in view of the increasing, but still limited, resources available to improve health. Many cost and cost-effectiveness studies include only the costs incurred at the point of delivery to beneficiaries, omitting those incurred at other levels of the system such as administration, media, training and overall management. The few studies that have measured them directly suggest that they can sometimes account for a substantial proportion of total costs, so that their omission can result in biased estimates of the resources needed to run a programme or the relative cost-effectiveness of different choices. However, prices of different inputs used in the production of health interventions can vary substantially within a country. Basing cost estimates on a single price observation runs the risk that the results are based on an outlier observation rather than the typical costs of the input. We first explore the determinants of the observed variation in the prices of selected "non-traded" intermediate inputs to health programmes--printed matter and media advertising, and water and electricity--accounting for variation within and across countries. We then use the estimated relationship to impute average prices for countries where limited data are available with uncertainty intervals. Prices vary across countries with GDP per capita and a number of determinants of supply and demand. Media and printing were inelastic with respect to GDP per capita, with a positive correlation, while the utilities had a surprisingly negative relationship. All equations had

  19. Enhancing the comparability of costing methods: cross-country variability in the prices of non-traded inputs to health programmes

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Benjamin; Adam, Taghreed; Evans, David B

    2006-01-01

    Background National and international policy makers have been increasing their focus on developing strategies to enable poor countries achieve the millennium development goals. This requires information on the costs of different types of health interventions and the resources needed to scale them up, either singly or in combinations. Cost data also guides decisions about the most appropriate mix of interventions in different settings, in view of the increasing, but still limited, resources available to improve health. Many cost and cost-effectiveness studies include only the costs incurred at the point of delivery to beneficiaries, omitting those incurred at other levels of the system such as administration, media, training and overall management. The few studies that have measured them directly suggest that they can sometimes account for a substantial proportion of total costs, so that their omission can result in biased estimates of the resources needed to run a programme or the relative cost-effectiveness of different choices. However, prices of different inputs used in the production of health interventions can vary substantially within a country. Basing cost estimates on a single price observation runs the risk that the results are based on an outlier observation rather than the typical costs of the input. Methods We first explore the determinants of the observed variation in the prices of selected "non-traded" intermediate inputs to health programmes – printed matter and media advertising, and water and electricity – accounting for variation within and across countries. We then use the estimated relationship to impute average prices for countries where limited data are available with uncertainty intervals. Results Prices vary across countries with GDP per capita and a number of determinants of supply and demand. Media and printing were inelastic with respect to GDP per capita, with a positive correlation, while the utilities had a surprisingly negative

  20. Narrow Networks On The Health Insurance Marketplaces: Prevalence, Pricing, And The Cost Of Network Breadth.

    PubMed

    Dafny, Leemore S; Hendel, Igal; Marone, Victoria; Ody, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Anecdotal reports and systematic research highlight the prevalence of narrow-network plans on the Affordable Care Act's health insurance Marketplaces. At the same time, Marketplace premiums in the period 2014-16 were much lower than projected by the Congressional Budget Office in 2009. Using detailed data on the breadth of both hospital and physician networks, we studied the prevalence of narrow networks and quantified the association between network breadth and premiums. Controlling for many potentially confounding factors, we found that a plan with narrow physician and hospital networks was 16 percent cheaper than a plan with broad networks for both, and that narrowing the breadth of just one type of network was associated with a 6-9 percent decrease in premiums. Narrow-network plans also have a sizable impact on federal outlays, as they depress the premium of the second-lowest-price silver plan, to which subsidy amounts are linked. Holding all else constant, we estimate that federal subsidies would have been 10.8 percent higher in 2014 had Marketplaces required all plans to offer broad provider networks. Narrow networks are a promising source of potential savings for other segments of the commercial insurance market. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. The Price: A Study of the Costs of Racism in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    America cannot afford to continue to pay the sociopsychological, sociopolitical, and economic costs of racism. The economic and psychosocial benefits of racism to the majority population during the slavery era are obvious. Similar interests motivated the discriminatory treatment of African Americans during the Jim Crow period, when Whites still…

  2. Using Cost Estimating Relationships to Develop A Price Index for Tactical Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    stealth (Nelson, Harmon, Bontz, & Devers , 2001). By including the quantity variables in the regression, the coefficients of the quality variables are...D-908-REV). Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses. Nelson, R., Harmon, B. R., Bontz, R. J., & Devers , W. C. (2001, June). Cost estimating

  3. The Price: A Study of the Costs of Racism in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    America cannot afford to continue to pay the sociopsychological, sociopolitical, and economic costs of racism. The economic and psychosocial benefits of racism to the majority population during the slavery era are obvious. Similar interests motivated the discriminatory treatment of African Americans during the Jim Crow period, when Whites still…

  4. 43 CFR 426.6 - Leasing and full-cost pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... water delivered to any acreage that exceeds their nonfull-cost entitlement. (d) Types of lands that... 426.14; and (ii) Land that is leased for incidental grazing or similar purposes during periods when... assumption that equal amounts of water per acre are being delivered to both types of land during periods...

  5. 43 CFR 426.6 - Leasing and full-cost pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... water delivered to any acreage that exceeds their nonfull-cost entitlement. (d) Types of lands that... 426.14; and (ii) Land that is leased for incidental grazing or similar purposes during periods when... assumption that equal amounts of water per acre are being delivered to both types of land during periods...

  6. 43 CFR 426.6 - Leasing and full-cost pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... water delivered to any acreage that exceeds their nonfull-cost entitlement. (d) Types of lands that... 426.14; and (ii) Land that is leased for incidental grazing or similar purposes during periods when... assumption that equal amounts of water per acre are being delivered to both types of land during periods...

  7. 43 CFR 426.6 - Leasing and full-cost pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... water delivered to any acreage that exceeds their nonfull-cost entitlement. (d) Types of lands that... 426.14; and (ii) Land that is leased for incidental grazing or similar purposes during periods when... assumption that equal amounts of water per acre are being delivered to both types of land during periods...

  8. Anomalous Aspects of Pricing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanikoski, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses six propositions concerning higher education contradicting prevailing pricing wisdom: high demand rarely drives prices up; market share increases rarely drive prices down; competition drives prices up; tuition prices are only loosely tied to delivery costs; student tuition is only loosely tied to price; and high tuition prices do not…

  9. Program Information Digest for the Professional Designation in Cost Analysis and Price Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Science degree. THE PROGRAM The primary purpose of the graduate programs offered by ’the School of Systems and Logistics is to provide selected...Each of the graduate programs conducted by the School is designed to help students accomplish the following specific educational objectives: 1. Apply...Management/Cost Analysis Elective STUDENTS Students are accepted in the graduate programs of the School of Systems and Logistics in t;.e grades of

  10. The price of the precautionary principle: cost-effectiveness of BSE intervention strategies in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Benedictus, A; Hogeveen, H; Berends, B R

    2009-06-01

    Since 1996, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle has been linked to a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a fatal brain disease in man. This paper assessed the cost-effectiveness of BSE control strategies instituted by the European Commission. In a Monte Carlo simulation model, a non-intervention baseline scenario was compared to three intervention strategies: removal of specified risk materials from slaughter animals, post-mortem testing for BSE and the culling of feed and age cohorts of BSE cases. The food risk in the baseline scenario ranged from 16.98 lost life years in 2002 to 2.69 lost life years in 2005. Removing specified risk materials removal practices, post-mortem testing and post-mortem testing plus cohort culling reduced this risk with 93%, 82.7% and 83.1%. The estimated cost-effectiveness of all BSE measures in The Netherlands ranged from 4.3 million euros per life year saved in 2002 to 17.7 million euros in 2005. It was discussed that the cost-effectiveness of BSE control strategies will further deviate from regular health economics thresholds as BSE prevalence and incidence declines.

  11. Bounding the marginal cost of producing potable water including the use of seawater desalinization as a backstop potable water production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2014-04-01

    The analysis presented in this technical report should allow for the creation of high, medium, and low cost potable water prices for GCAM. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) based desalinization should act as a backstop for the cost of producing potable water (i.e., the literature seems clear that SWRO should establish an upper bound for the plant gate cost of producing potable water). Transporting water over significant distances and having to lift water to higher elevations to reach end-users can also have a significant impact on the cost of producing water. The three potable fresh water scenarios describe in this technical report are: low cost water scenario ($0.10/m3); medium water cost scenario ($1.00/m3); and high water cost scenario ($2.50/m3).

  12. A Study of Crude Oil Price Behavior Based on Fictitious Economy Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoming; Cheng, Siwei; Wang, Shouyang

    The over fluctuating of international crude oil price has aroused wide concern in the society and the academics. Based on the theory of fictitious economy, this paper has studied and explained the crude oil price behavior from Jan 1946 to Dec 2008. It concludes that the long term prices of crude oil are subject to mean reversion in accordance with the decisive law of value, which is fluctuating around the long term marginal opportunity cost. However, at the same time the prices also appeared to deviate far from long term marginal opportunity cost for several relatively long periods. This paper highlights four aspects of this issue: the diversification of international crude oil market participants, the structural changes of the participants, the evolution of pricing mechanism, and the periodic change of world economy.

  13. Unit pricing of household garbage in Melbourne: improving welfare, reducing garbage, or neither?

    PubMed

    Pickin, Joe

    2008-12-01

    Charging for household garbage collection per unit of waste is becoming more popular. Discussions in the practical literature focus on unit pricing as a way to encourage diversion to recycling and reduction in waste, but the economics literature emphasizes welfare maximization through charging at the marginal social cost. In the present study unit pricing was examined from both perspectives through a case study on unit pricing by volume in Melbourne, Australia, using longitudinal data. The marginal social cost per unit weight was estimated using a custom costing model and a valuation of environmental externalities. This cost was applied to a derived regression equation for change in waste quantities with unit price. The results suggest a very weak link between marginal pricing and change in garbage quantities, with an arc elasticity of demand at the margin of -0.02. Small reductions in garbage may have been achieved by local governments that overtly used pricing systems to this end. Enforced reduction of standard bin sizes had much more impact on waste quantities and did not lead to any significant management or political problems.

  14. Price Competition in Weapons Production: A Framework to Analyze its Cost-Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    not consider potential impacts on other programs. SAI 82 In 1982, Michael Beltramo and David Jordan of Science Applications, Incorporated (SAl...firms are "hungry." They concluded that dual-sourcing is of little benefit as a cost reducer when industry is very active. 3eltramo 84 Beltramo prepared a...o) OO tv c ) u .4a) S--~ L >-, Q) 0oI S- -) t.0 - - tu -0 Z 𔃺 c0 0. co I ~L AL Using these previously calculated data, Beltramo concludel competitive

  15. Study of College Costs and Prices, 1988-89 to 1997-98. Volume 2: Commissioned Papers. Statistical Analysis Report. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alisa F.; Wellman, Jane V.; Clinedinst, Melissa E.; Merisotis, Jamie P.

    In the 1998 Amendments to the Higher Education Act, Congress directed the National Center for Education Statistics to conduct a new study of higher education costs paid by institutions and prices paid by students and their families. This report contains commissioned papers prepared in support of this study and a summary of a meeting convened to…

  16. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A

    2011-04-01

    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  17. Impact of energy pricing and discount-rate policies on energy conservation in federal buidings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, S.K.; Ruegg, R.T.

    1985-11-01

    The study investigates how energy-conservation projects for federal buildings would be affected by a change in energy pricing and discount-rate policies. It focuses on the choice between marginal-cost prices versus average market prices and a 10% discount rate versus a 7% discount rate. Graphical and numerical comparisons of hypothetical cases in selected geographical areas illustrate the expected impact on selection, design and sizing, and priority of energy-saving projects.

  18. Implications of Cost Effectiveness Screening Practices in a Low Natural Gas Price Environment: Case Study of a Midwestern Residential Energy Upgrade Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Borgeson, Merrian Goggio; Zimring, Mark

    2013-04-12

    With the proliferation of statewide energy savings targets and other policies favorable to energy efficiency, savings from utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs could rise to offset much of annual load growth by 2025 (Barbose et al 2013). For these increased savings to occur, however, nearly all of these programs must pass screening for cost effectiveness. Some program administrators and state regulators are finding that conventional analyses, which only consider a narrow set of energy-savings related efficiency program benefits, are now resulting in some natural gas efficiency programs failing their cost-effectiveness criteria in the new low natural gas price environment. Regulators are considering whether to scale back or terminate gas portfolios in at least four states (WA, OR, ID, NM) because of cost-effectiveness concerns. Stakeholders in several regions of the country have asked LBNL to help assess alternatives to reducing the pursuit of energy savings in their regions. We address these requests by producing two working papers: one exploring cost-effectiveness screening policy implications of low to moderate natural gas prices, and a second assessing some of the values that policymakers may take into account in weighing the pros and cons of ending natural gas efficiency programs. In this policy brief, we lay out the challenges that low gas prices pose for cost effectiveness of an electric-gas efficiency program and portfolio. We then quantify options available to regulators and administrators who want to evaluate the tradeoffs among multiple policy objectives. A multi-measure, residential energy upgrade program in the Midwest is used as a lens to explore the implications of common and emerging cost-effectiveness policies in the context of low prices for natural gas. We illustrate the results across a range of cost-effectiveness screening options, including different discount rates, levels of test application, various benefit-cost tests, and the

  19. What is the price of neglecting parasite groups when assessing the cost of co-infection?

    PubMed

    Serrano, E; Millán, J

    2014-07-01

    Although co-infection by multiple groups of pathogens is the norm rather than the exception in nature, most research on the effects of pathogens on their hosts has been largely based on a single or few pathogen species. Nevertheless, the health impact of co-occurring infections is evident, and it is important that scientists should consider pathogen communities rather than single relevant pathogen species when assessing the impact of multiple infections. In this work we illustrate the consequences of neglecting different pathogen taxa (viruses, protozoa, helminths, arthropods) in the explanatory power of a set of Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS-R) models used for exploring the impact of co-infections on the body condition of 57 adult feral cats; 71·5% cats were co-infected by ≥3 groups of pathogens. The best two PLS-R models provided a first component based on the combination of helminths, protozoa and viruses, explaining 29·15% of body-condition variability. Statistical models, partially considering the pathogen community, lost between 24% and 94% of their explanatory power for explaining the cost of multiple infections. We believe that in the future, researchers assessing the impact of diseases on host life-history traits should take into account a broad representation of the pathogen community, especially during early assessment of the impact of diseases on host health.

  20. Assessing the environmental costs and benefits of plantations under future carbon pricing scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.; Barrett, D. J.; Farley, K.; Guenther, A.; Jobbágy, E. G.; Murray, B. C.; McCarl, B. A.; Schlesinger, W. H.

    2004-12-01

    Carbon sequestration programs are gaining attention globally as a means to offset increasing fossil fuel emissions and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We are examining scenarios of C sequestration in four regions of the world: the U.S., South America, China, and Australia. The analysis uses economic models to predict where the plantations will be grown and then categorizes the other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. The goals of the project include: 1) Evaluating the assumptions behind C sequestration programs for plantations, including the importance of rotation rates, a full accounting of carbon costs (e.g., planting and site preparation), and how the C would be stored and safeguarded. 2) Examining the scale of the process needed to make a substantial contribution to offset fossil fuel emissions (see below). The scenario we have chosen to evaluate is one that addresses the consequences of storing 1 PgC yr-1 for 50 years. 3) Determining and summarizing the evidence for other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. Some of the factors to be evaluated include soil acidification, changes in water fluxes and water-table dynamics, nutrient losses, changes in soil fauna and biodiversity, volatile organic carbon emissions, and erosion. 4) A final goal of the project is to make concrete recommendations for where plantations may be the most beneficial in terms of C storage and other environmental benefits, such as the amelioration of salinity and groundwater upwelling in Australia.

  1. Essays on pricing dynamics, price dispersion, and nested logit modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinda, Jeremy Alan

    The body of this dissertation comprises three standalone essays, presented in three respective chapters. Chapter One explores the possibility that local market power contributes to the asymmetric relationship observed between wholesale costs and retail prices in gasoline markets. I exploit an original data set of weekly gas station prices in Southern California from September 2002 to May 2003, and take advantage of highly detailed station and local market-level characteristics to determine the extent to which spatial differentiation influences price-response asymmetry. I find that brand identity, proximity to rival stations, bundling and advertising, operation type, and local market features and demographics each influence a station's predicted asymmetric relationship between prices and wholesale costs. Chapter Two extends the existing literature on the effect of market structure on price dispersion in airline fares by modeling the effect at the disaggregate ticket level. Whereas past studies rely on aggregate measures of price dispersion such as the Gini coefficient or the standard deviation of fares, this paper estimates the entire empirical distribution of airline fares and documents how the shape of the distribution is determined by market structure. Specifically, I find that monopoly markets favor a wider distribution of fares with more mass in the tails while duopoly and competitive markets exhibit a tighter fare distribution. These findings indicate that the dispersion of airline fares may result from the efforts of airlines to practice second-degree price discrimination. Chapter Three adopts a Bayesian approach to the problem of tree structure specification in nested logit modelling, which requires a heavy computational burden in calculating marginal likelihoods. I compare two different techniques for estimating marginal likelihoods: (1) the Laplace approximation, and (2) reversible jump MCMC. I apply the techniques to both a simulated and a travel mode

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis in markets with high fixed costs.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Ericson, Keith M Marzilli

    2010-01-01

    We consider how to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis when the social cost of a resource differs from the posted price. From the social perspective, the true cost of a medical intervention is the marginal cost of delivering another unit of a treatment, plus the social cost (deadweight loss) of raising the revenue to fund the treatment. We focus on pharmaceutical prices, which have high markups over marginal cost due to the monopoly power granted to pharmaceutical companies when drugs are under patent. We find that the social cost of a branded drug is approximately one-half the market price when the treatment is paid for by a public insurance plan and one-third the market price for mandated coverage by private insurance. We illustrate the importance of correctly accounting for social costs using two examples: coverage for statin drugs and approval for a drug to treat kidney cancer (sorafenib). In each case, we show that the correct social perspective for cost-effectiveness analysis would be more lenient than researcher recommendations.

  3. Utility-Scale Solar 2015: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Seel, Joachim

    2016-08-17

    The utility-scale solar sector—defined here to include any ground-mounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar power (“CSP”) project that is larger than 5 MWAC in capacity—has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. It is expected to maintain its market-leading position for at least another five years, driven in part by December 2015’s three-year extension of the 30% federal investment tax credit (“ITC”) through 2019 (coupled with a favorable switch to a “start construction” rather than a “placed in service” eligibility requirement, and a gradual phase down of the credit to 10% by 2022). In fact, in 2016 alone, the utility-scale sector is projected to install more than twice as much new capacity as it ever has previously in a single year. This unprecedented boom makes it difficult, yet more important than ever, to stay abreast of the latest utility-scale market developments and trends. This report—the fourth edition in an ongoing annual series—is intended to help meet this need, by providing in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. Drawing on empirical project-level data from a wide range of sources, this report analyzes not just installed project costs or prices—i.e., the traditional realm of most solar economic analyses—but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects throughout the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are also presented where appropriate.

  4. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007). Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with < US $25,000 due to governmental resource-sharing. The network operated at break-even profit, leaving little room to lower medicine prices and mark-ups. Medicine mark-ups needed for sustainability were greater than originally envisioned by network administration. In 2005, 55%, 35%, and 10% of the network's top 50 products revealed mark-ups of < 50%, 50-99% and > 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of < 50% and 50-99%, respectively; while 35% of products revealed mark-ups > 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using

  5. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Waning, Brenda; Maddix, Jason; Soucy, Lyne

    2010-07-13

    Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007). Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with < US $25,000 due to governmental resource-sharing. The network operated at break-even profit, leaving little room to lower medicine prices and mark-ups. Medicine mark-ups needed for sustainability were greater than originally envisioned by network administration. In 2005, 55%, 35%, and 10% of the network's top 50 products revealed mark-ups of < 50%, 50-99% and > 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of < 50% and 50-99%, respectively; while 35% of products revealed mark-ups > 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource

  6. A Comparative Study of Activity-Based Costing vs. Current Pricing System for Pathology Examinations at Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yarikkaya, Enver; Özekinci, Selver; Sargan, Aytül; Durmuş, Şenay Erdoğan; Yildiz, Fetin Rüştü

    2017-01-01

    To provide real cost data for pathology examinations by using activity-based costing method, in order to provide means to departments, health administrators and the social security institution to achieve improvements in financial planning, quality and cost control. The cost of the histopathological examinations, which were accepted by the Department of Pathology at Okmeydanı Training and Research Hospital during August 2014, was calculated using the activity-based costing method. The costs were compared with the amounts specified in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff and the conventional volume-based costing. Most pathology examinations listed within a given band in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff show variations in unit costs. The study found that the costs of 77.4% of the examinations were higher than the prices listed in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff. The pathology examination tariffs specified in the Healthcare Implementation Notification do not reflect the real costs of the examinations. The costs that are calculated using the activity-based costing system may vary according to the service types and levels of health care institutions. However, the main parameters of the method used in the study reflect the necessity of a more accurate banding of pathology examinations. The banding specified by the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff needs to be revised to reflect the real costs in Turkey.

  7. The Prices of Secrecy: The Social, Intellectual, and Psychological Costs of Current Assessment Practice. A Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Judah L., Ed.; Viator, Katherine A., Ed.

    Problems in accountability assessment are examined from a unique perspective by considering the prices paid as a result of the use of secret tests (tests comprised of items drawn from non-publicly available item banks). This report is a compilation of the following articles: (1) "The Social, Intellectual, and Psychological Prices of…

  8. The Prices of Secrecy: The Social, Intellectual, and Psychological Costs of Current Assessment Practice. A Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Judah L., Ed.; Viator, Katherine A., Ed.

    Problems in accountability assessment are examined from a unique perspective by considering the prices paid as a result of the use of secret tests (tests comprised of items drawn from non-publicly available item banks). This report is a compilation of the following articles: (1) "The Social, Intellectual, and Psychological Prices of…

  9. Drug pricing and control of health expenditures: a comparison between a proportional decision rule and a cost-per-QALY rule.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) makes recommendations for reimbursement prices of drugs on the basis of a proportional relationship between costs and health benefits. This paper analyzed the potential of IQWiG's decision rule to control health expenditures and used a cost-per-quality-adjusted life year (QALY) rule as a comparison. A literature search was conducted, and a theoretical model of health expenditure growth was built. The literature search shows that the median incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of German cost-effectiveness analyses was €7650 per QALY gained, thus yielding a much lower threshold cost-effectiveness ratio for IQWiG's rule than an absolute rule at €30 000 per QALY. The theoretical model shows that IQWiG's rule is able to contain the long-term growth of health expenditures under the conservative assumption that future health increases at a constant absolute rate and that the threshold incremental cost-effectiveness ratio increases at a smaller rate than health expenditures. In contrast, an absolute rule offers the potential for manufacturers to raise drug prices in response to the threshold, thus resulting in an initial spike in expenditures. Results suggest that IQWiG's proportional rule will lead to lower drug prices and a slower growth of health expenditures than an absolute cost-effectiveness threshold at €30 000 per QALY. This finding is surprising as IQWiG's rule-in contrast to a cost-per-QALY rule-does not start from a fixed budget. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Periodicals Price Survey 2002: Doing the Digital Flip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Presents the annual periodicals price study. Highlights include average prices; cost histories; cost projections for future budgeting; electronic journal issues; flip pricing, defined as online access at the core of pricing negotiations; various pricing models; purchasing print at deeply discounted prices; and current trends in pricing and in the…

  11. The economic feasibility of seawater desalination over the global scale: assessment of the production cost development and national water price until 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, L.; Yoshikawa, S.; Iseri, Y.; Kanae, S.

    2016-12-01

    As many countries are suffering water scarcity due to the climate change and human activities, seawater desalination using reverse osmosis (SWRO) has shown to be a progressively promising countermeasure to satisfy the growing water demand. Therefore, the economic feasibility assessment of SWRO will be beneficial for the potential investors and policy-makers of government. In present study, it have proposed a systematic method to evaluate the economic feasibility of implementing SWRO in 140 counties and further estimated the potential future diffusion of SWRO over global scale by 2050. To the purpose, two models has been separately developed to simulate the production cost of SWRO and conventional water price, which are identified as the critical economic factors for feasibility evaluation of SWRO. These two models were firstly applied to historical validation in which proven to be able to well simulate both these two economic factors, and then were applied globally for future simulation over the period of 2015-2050 under three socioeconomic scenarios, i.e. SSP (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways) 1-3. Basin on the estimated production cost and water price, the economic feasibility of adopting SWRO coupling with its future potentialities were carefully evaluated. As a result, it indicated that SWRO was expected to be cost-effectively adopted in more countries by 2050, especially in these developing countries. The significant potential diffusion of SWRO in countries was mainly attributed to both the diminishing production cost and the increasing conventional water price as a result of income growth globally in three SSPs scenarios.

  12. Airport Pricing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  13. Determining the True Cost to Deliver Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Over the Full Cycle of Care: Preparing for Bundling and Reference-Based Pricing.

    PubMed

    DiGioia, Anthony M; Greenhouse, Pamela K; Giarrusso, Michelle L; Kress, Justina M

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act accelerates health care providers' need to prepare for new care delivery platforms and payment models such as bundling and reference-based pricing (RBP). Thriving in this environment will be difficult without knowing the true cost of care delivery at the level of the clinical condition over the full cycle of care. We describe a project in which we identified true costs for both total hip and total knee arthroplasty. With the same tool, we identified cost drivers in each segment of care delivery and collected patient experience information. Combining cost and experience information with outcomes data we already collect allows us to drive costs down while protecting outcomes and experiences, and compete successfully in bundling and RBP programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The ethics of dynamic pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic pricing has garnered much interest among regulators and utilities, since it has the potential for lowering energy costs for society. But the deployment of dynamic pricing has been remarkably tepid. The underlying premise is that dynamic pricing is unfair. But the presumption of unfairness in dynamic pricing rests on an assumption of fairness in today's tariffs. (author)

  15. The Association of Gasoline Prices With Hospital Utilization and Costs for Motorcycle and Nonmotorcycle Motor Vehicle Injuries in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Araz, Ozgur M; Kim, Jungyoon; Chen, Baojiang; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the association between gasoline prices and hospitalizations for motorcycle and nonmotorcycle motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries. Data on inpatient hospitalizations were obtained from the 2001 to 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Panel feasible generalized least squares models were used to estimate the effects of monthly inflation-adjusted gasoline prices on hospitalization rates for MVC injuries and to predict the impact of increasing gasoline taxes. On the basis of the available data, a $1.00 increase in the gasoline tax was associated with an estimated 8348 fewer annual hospitalizations for nonmotorcycle MVC injuries, and reduced hospital costs by $143 million. However, the increase in the gasoline tax was also associated with an estimated 3574 more annual hospitalizations for motorcycle crash injuries, and extended hospital costs by $73 million. This analysis of some existing data suggest that the increased utilization and costs of hospitalization from motorcycle crash injuries associated with an increase in the price of gasoline are likely to substantially offset reductions in nonmotorcycle MVC injuries. A policy decision to increase the gasoline tax could improve traffic safety if the increased tax is paired with public health interventions to improve motorcycle safety.

  16. New type of price measurement for medical services: interest of a cost sensitivity index for a research agenda on pharmaceutical models.

    PubMed

    Huttin, Christine C

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to propose a new methodological agenda for new price measurement for medical services; it is based on a cost sensitivity index coming from series of pilot studies on physicians, in order to provide adjustment methods to household surveys for health care expenditure budgets. The use of stated-revealed preference models with inclusion of stated preference studies is proposed with an example on a physician cost sensitivity study in Europe; it could also help the ISPOR task for force best practices in conjoint study designs.

  17. Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd

    2007-04-01

    For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

  18. [Is the price of cancer drugs related to the cost of develo-pment and production or to the economic value of their clincal efficacy?].

    PubMed

    Russi, Alberto; Serena, Marta; Palozzo, Angelo C

    2016-04-01

    In the past years, the expenditure for cancer drugs has quickly increased, especially for biologic agents. Pharmaceutical companies and national health systems have different approaches in handling the issue of drug reimbursement. Companies support a price based on research and development (R&D) expenditures including those for unsuccessful drug projects while national health systems generally argue that pricing should be based on the incremental benefit generated by the agent under examination (value-based pricing - VBP). Nevertheless, current oncologic drugs prices are too high and not really justified by their incremental benefits or innovation, nor can they demonstrate that higher thresholds in QALYs could bring wider societal benefits. In this article we discuss these two points of view in the light of the most recent national and international literature. In Italy, drug reimbursement is currently managed through a mixed approach between the recognition of R&D expenditures and VBP. Reimbursement is also integrated with post-marketing patient-based national registries, particularly in the field of anti-cancer agents, that provide rebates based on financial risk sharing, cost-sharing, payment by results and success fee methods.

  19. Large Extent Spatial Models of Grain Yield: Where Are the Marginal Areas?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Landscapes marginal for grain productivity are those having low or negative profitability due to lower grain yield or high risk of crop failure. These are the first acres to come into production when cost and price changes increase profitability. Food grain, biofuel grain and potential cellulosic bi...

  20. An Analysis of the RCA Price-S Cost Estimation Model as it Relates to Current Air Force Computer Software Acquisition and Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    of skill level, experience, productivity, efficiency, overhead, and labor rates for individual organizations on software development costs. This...GrE LE MfE T7 .. . . . . ESTr . ...... Tr. L o E . ...... . ........ OTFIC " STE UTG Eri TrJ F T NGjT . ..... . ..... .’ ......... ... ... . 5

  1. Animal health and price transmission along livestock supply chains.

    PubMed

    Aragrande, M; Canali, M

    2017-04-01

    Animal health diseases can severely affect the food supply chain by causing variations in prices and market demand. Price transmission analysis reveals in what ways price variations are transmitted along the supply chain, and how supply chains of substitute products and different regional markets are also affected. In perfect markets, a price variation would be completely and instantaneously transmitted across the different levels of the supply chain: producers, the processing industry, retailers and consumers. However, empirical studies show that food markets are often imperfect, with anomalies or asymmetries in price transmission and distortions in the distribution of market benefits. This means, for instance, that a price increase at the consumer level may not be transmitted from retailers to processors and producers; yet, on the other hand, price falls may rapidly affect the upstream supply chain. Market concentration and the consequent exertion of market power in key segments of the supply chain can explain price transmission asymmetries and their distributional effects, but other factors may also be involved, such as transaction costs, scale economies, and imperfect information. During the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, asymmetric price transmission in the beef supply chain and related meat markets determined distributional effects among sectors. After the spread of the BSE food scare, the fall in demand marginally affected the price paid to retailers, but producers and wholesalers suffered much more, in both price reductions and the time needed to recover to precrisis demand. Price transmission analysis investigates how animal health crises create different economic burdens for various types of stakeholder, and provides useful socioeconomic insights when used with other tools.

  2. Production costs and operative margins in electric energy generation from biogas. Full-scale case studies in Italy.

    PubMed

    Riva, C; Schievano, A; D'Imporzano, G; Adani, F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the economic sustainability of three different biogas full scale plants, fed with different organic matrices: energy crops (EC), manure, agro-industrial (Plants B and C) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) (Plant A). The plants were observed for one year and total annual biomass feeding, biomass composition and biomass cost (€ Mg(-1)), initial investment cost and plant electric power production were registered. The unit costs of biogas and electric energy (€ Sm(-3)biogas, € kWh(-1)EE) were differently distributed, depending on the type of feed and plant. Plant A showed high management/maintenance cost for OFMSW treatment (0.155 € Sm(-3)biogas, 45% of total cost), Plant B suffered high cost for EC supply (0.130 € Sm(-3)biogas, 49% of total cost) and Plant C showed higher impact on the total costs because of the depreciation charge (0.146 € Sm(-3)biogas, 41% of total costs). The breakeven point for the tariff of electric energy, calculated for the different cases, resulted in the range 120-170 € MWh(-1)EE, depending on fed materials and plant scale. EC had great impact on biomass supply costs and should be reduced, in favor of organic waste and residues; plant scale still heavily influences the production costs. The EU States should drive incentives in dependence of these factors, to further develop this still promising sector.

  3. STS pricing policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  4. STS pricing policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  5. Calculating proper transfer prices

    SciTech Connect

    Dorkey, F.C. ); Jarrell, G.A. )

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  6. 48 CFR 32.501-3 - Contract price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... costs exceed the target price, the contracting officer may provisionally increase the price up to the... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Progress Payments Based on Costs 32.501-3 Contract price. (a) For the purpose... until modified. (3) Under a fixed-price incentive contract, the contract price is the target price...

  7. The Tuition Puzzle: Putting the Pieces Together. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing, and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    This report reviews two decades of trends in college tuition, the effects on student access and college choice, and how governments and institutions have responded. Among major findings are: (1) overall, average tuition and fees have increased almost five-fold over the last two decades; (2) a major cause of higher prices has been the declining…

  8. Target prices for mass production of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for global cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Andrew; Gotham, Dzintars; Fortunak, Joseph; Meldrum, Jonathan; Erbacher, Isabelle; Martin, Manuel; Shoman, Haitham; Levi, Jacob; Powderly, William G; Bower, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective To calculate sustainable generic prices for 4 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Background TKIs have proven survival benefits in the treatment of several cancers, including chronic myeloid leukaemia, breast, liver, renal and lung cancer. However, current high prices are a barrier to treatment. Mass production of low-cost generic antiretrovirals has led to over 13 million people being on HIV/AIDS treatment worldwide. This analysis estimates target prices for generic TKIs, assuming similar methods of mass production. Methods Four TKIs with patent expiry dates in the next 5 years were selected for analysis: imatinib, erlotinib, lapatinib and sorafenib. Chemistry, dosing, published data on per-kilogram pricing for commercial transactions of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and quotes from manufacturers were used to estimate costs of production. Analysis included costs of excipients, formulation, packaging, shipping and a 50% profit margin. Target prices were compared with current prices. Global numbers of patients eligible for treatment with each TKI were estimated. Results API costs per kg were $347–$746 for imatinib, $2470 for erlotinib, $4671 for lapatinib, and $3000 for sorafenib. Basing on annual dose requirements, costs of formulation/packaging and a 50% profit margin, target generic prices per person-year were $128–$216 for imatinib, $240 for erlotinib, $1450 for sorafenib, and $4020 for lapatinib. Over 1 million people would be newly eligible to start treatment with these TKIs annually. Conclusions Mass generic production of several TKIs could achieve treatment prices in the range of $128–$4020 per person-year, versus current US prices of $75161–$139 138. Generic TKIs could allow significant savings and scaling-up of treatment globally, for over 1 million eligible patients. PMID:26817636

  9. Target prices for mass production of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for global cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew; Gotham, Dzintars; Fortunak, Joseph; Meldrum, Jonathan; Erbacher, Isabelle; Martin, Manuel; Shoman, Haitham; Levi, Jacob; Powderly, William G; Bower, Mark

    2016-01-27

    To calculate sustainable generic prices for 4 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). TKIs have proven survival benefits in the treatment of several cancers, including chronic myeloid leukaemia, breast, liver, renal and lung cancer. However, current high prices are a barrier to treatment. Mass production of low-cost generic antiretrovirals has led to over 13 million people being on HIV/AIDS treatment worldwide. This analysis estimates target prices for generic TKIs, assuming similar methods of mass production. Four TKIs with patent expiry dates in the next 5 years were selected for analysis: imatinib, erlotinib, lapatinib and sorafenib. Chemistry, dosing, published data on per-kilogram pricing for commercial transactions of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and quotes from manufacturers were used to estimate costs of production. Analysis included costs of excipients, formulation, packaging, shipping and a 50% profit margin. Target prices were compared with current prices. Global numbers of patients eligible for treatment with each TKI were estimated. API costs per kg were $347-$746 for imatinib, $2470 for erlotinib, $4671 for lapatinib, and $3000 for sorafenib. Basing on annual dose requirements, costs of formulation/packaging and a 50% profit margin, target generic prices per person-year were $128-$216 for imatinib, $240 for erlotinib, $1450 for sorafenib, and $4020 for lapatinib. Over 1 million people would be newly eligible to start treatment with these TKIs annually. Mass generic production of several TKIs could achieve treatment prices in the range of $128-$4020 per person-year, versus current US prices of $75161-$139,138. Generic TKIs could allow significant savings and scaling-up of treatment globally, for over 1 million eligible patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of vegetable pricing in supermarket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Suci

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the variables affecting the determination of the sale price of vegetable which is constant over time in a supermarket qualitatively and quantitavely. It focuses on the non-organic vegetable with a fixed selling price over time such as spinach, beet, and parsley. In qualitative analysis, the sale price determination is influenced by the vegetable characteristics: (1) vegetable segmentation (low to high daily consumed); (2) vegetable age (how long it can last related to freshness); which both characteristic relates to the inventory management and ultimately to the sale price in supermarket. While quantitatively, the vegetables are divided into two categories: the leaf vegetable group that the leaves are eaten as a vegetable with the aging product (a) = 0 and the shelf life (t) = 0, and the non-leafy vegetable group with the aging group (a) = a+1 and the shelf life (t) = t+1. The vegetable age (a) = 0 means they only last for one day when they are ordered then they have to terminate. Whereas a+1 is that they have a longer life for more than a day such as beet, white radish, and string beans. The shelf life refers to how long it will be placed in a shelf in supermarket in line with the vegetable age. According to the cost plus pricing method using full price costing approach, production costs, non-production costs, and markup are adjusted differently for each category. There is a holding cost added to the sale price of the non-leafy vegetable, yet it is assumed a 0 holding cost for the leafy vegetable category. The amount of expected margin of each category is correlated to the vegetable characteristics.

  11. Concept of Price in a Library Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talaga, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses pricing problems of public library service. The meaning of price in a library context is examined, including amount charged and patron's cost; components of price setting are described, including the impact of demand, cost, and competition; and library pricing strategies are suggested that should help achieve the library's goals. (13…

  12. Concept of Price in a Library Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talaga, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses pricing problems of public library service. The meaning of price in a library context is examined, including amount charged and patron's cost; components of price setting are described, including the impact of demand, cost, and competition; and library pricing strategies are suggested that should help achieve the library's goals. (13…

  13. Consumer Choice of E85 Denatured Ethanol Fuel Blend: Price Sensitivity and Cost of Limited Fuel Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David

    2014-12-01

    The promotion of greater use of E85, a fuel blend of 85% denatured ethanol, by flex-fuel vehicle owners is an important means of complying with the Renewable Fuel Standard 2. A good understanding of factors affecting E85 demand is necessary for effective policies that promote E85 and for developing models that forecast E85 sales in the United States. In this paper, the sensitivity of aggregate E85 demand to E85 and gasoline prices is estimated, as is the relative availability of E85 versus gasoline. The econometric analysis uses recent data from Minnesota, North Dakota, and Iowa. The more recent data allow a better estimate of nonfleet demand and indicate that the market price elasticity of E85 choice is substantially higher than previously estimated.

  14. Consumer Choice of E85 Denatured Ethanol Fuel Blend: Price Sensitivity and Cost of Limited Fuel Availability

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David

    2014-12-01

    The promotion of greater use of E85, a fuel blend of 85% denatured ethanol, by flex-fuel vehicle owners is an important means of complying with the Renewable Fuel Standard 2. A good understanding of factors affecting E85 demand is necessary for effective policies that promote E85 and for developing models that forecast E85 sales in the United States. In this paper, the sensitivity of aggregate E85 demand to E85 and gasoline prices is estimated, as is the relative availability of E85 versus gasoline. The econometric analysis uses recent data from Minnesota, North Dakota, and Iowa. The more recent data allowmore » a better estimate of nonfleet demand and indicate that the market price elasticity of E85 choice is substantially higher than previously estimated.« less

  15. Financial comparison of time-of-use pricing with technical DSM programs and generating plants as electric-utility resource options

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-04-01

    Changing electricity prices to more closely reflect production costs has a significant impact on the consumption of electricity. It is known, for example, that most of the efficiency gains in the electric power sectors of the industrialized world since the first international oil price shock in 1973 are attributable to the rising trend of electricity prices. This was due to the rising average price of electricity. Because of the unique characteristics of producing electricity, its marginal cost is higher than its average cost during many hours of the day. This study shows that, for utilities not reflecting these cost differences in their rates, there is ample room to satisfy a portion of their resource needs by exploiting the load-shaping properties of time-of-use (TOU) rates. Satisfying a portion of resource requirements by implementing a TOU-pricing program, however, is not costless. Metering and administering TOU pricing requires a financial commitment by an electric utility. And the commitment has an opportunity cost. That is, the funds could be used to construct generating plants or run DSM programs (other than a TOU-pricing program) and satisfy the same resource needs that TOU pricing does. The question addressed in this study is whether a utility is better-served financially by (i) implementing TOU pricing or (ii) running technical DSM programs and building power plants. The answer is that TOU pricing compares favorably on a financial basis with other resources under a wide set of conditions that real-world utilities confront.

  16. Soaring prices, soaring sales.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, L

    1998-12-01

    DuPont Pharmaceuticals and Glaxo Wellcome began marketing two new drugs, and the pricing of the drugs started a controversy. DuPont's efavirenz (Sustiva) was priced 60 percent higher than any other nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), with an annual retail price close to $5,000. In response, an ad hoc coalition called the Fair Price Working Group circulated a consensus statement demanding that the drug be priced like other drugs in that category. DuPont refused to reconsider, citing potency, once-daily dosing, and development costs. Several of the largest AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) also refused to add efavirenz to their formularies even though Dupont offered ADAPs a 5 percent rebate on the drug. Glaxo Wellcome learned from this dispute and priced its nucleoside analog abacavir at a level that ADAPs could afford, even though it is at the high end for its class of drugs. The coalition commended Glaxo for fairness in its pricing decision. Agouron and Bristol-Myers Squibb have also been criticized for repeatedly raising prices on their drugs. A continuing dialog, prior to price setting, will lead to greater understanding of a company's costs and may improve a company's reputation.

  17. Strategies for the prevention of perinatal hepatitis B transmission in a marginalized population on the Thailand-Myanmar border: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Devine, Angela; Harvey, Rebecca; Min, Aung Myat; Gilder, Mary Ellen T; Paw, Moo Koh; Kang, Joy; Watts, Isabella; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2017-08-09

    Data on the cost effectiveness of hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening and vaccination strategies for prevention of vertical transmission of HBV in resource limited settings is sparse. A decision tree model of HBV prevention strategies utilised data from a cohort of 7071 pregnant women on the Thailand-Myanmar border using a provider perspective. All options included universal HBV vaccination for newborns in three strategies: (1) universal vaccination alone; (2) universal vaccination with screening of women during antenatal visits with rapid diagnostic test (RDT) plus HBV immune globulin (HBIG) administration to newborns of HBV surface antigen positive women; and (3) universal vaccination with screening of women during antenatal visits plus HBIG administration to newborns of women testing HBV e antigen positive by confirmatory test. At the time of the study, the HBIG after confirmatory test strategy was used. The costs in United States Dollars (US$), infections averted and incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and sensitivity analyses were conducted. A willingness to pay threshold of US$1200 was used. The universal HBV vaccination was the least costly option at US$4.33 per woman attending the clinic. The HBIG after (RDT) strategy had an ICER of US$716.78 per infection averted. The HBIG after confirmatory test strategy was not cost-effective due to extended dominance. The one-way sensitivity analysis showed that while the transmission parameters and cost of HBIG had the biggest impact on outcomes, the HBIG after confirmatory test only became a cost-effective option when a low test cost was used or a high HBIG cost was used. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that HBIG after RDT had an 87% likelihood of being cost-effective as compared to vaccination only at a willingness to pay threshold of US$1200. HBIG following confirmatory test is not a cost-effective strategy for preventing vertical transmission of HBV in the Thailand

  18. Differential pricing for pharmaceuticals: reconciling access, R&D and patents.

    PubMed

    Danzon, Patricia M; Towse, Adrian

    2003-09-01

    This paper reviews the economic case for patents and the potential for differential pricing to increase affordability of on-patent drugs in developing countries while preserving incentives for innovation. Differential pricing, based on Ramsey pricing principles, is the second best efficient way of paying for the global joint costs of pharmaceutical R&D. Assuming demand elasticities are related to income, it would also be consistent with standard norms of equity. To achieve appropriate and sustainable price differences will require either that higher-income countries forego trying to "import" low drug prices from low-income countries, through parallel trade and external referencing, or that such practices become less feasible. The most promising approach that would prevent both parallel trade and external referencing is for payers/purchasers on behalf of developing countries to negotiate contracts with companies that include confidential rebates. With confidential rebates, final transactions prices to purchasers can differ across markets while manufacturers sell to distributors at uniform prices, thus eliminating opportunities for parallel trade and external referencing. The option of compulsory licensing of patented products to generic manufacturers may be important if they truly have lower production costs or originators charge prices above marginal cost, despite market separation. However, given the risks inherent in compulsory licensing, it seems best to first try the approach of strengthening market separation, to enable originator firms to maintain differential pricing. With assured market separation, originators may offer prices comparable to the prices that a local generic firm would charge, which eliminates the need for compulsory licensing. Differential pricing could go a long way to improve LDC access to drugs that have a high income market. However, other subsidy mechanisms will be needed to promote R&D for drugs that have no high income market.

  19. The Financial Impact of Part-Time Enrollments on Two-Year Colleges: A Marginal-Cost Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Paul T.

    In light of the increasing enrollment of part-time students at public two-year colleges, the question arises whether the conventional ratio (3:1 or so) for converting part-time to full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment accurately represents the actual costs of providing services to part-time versus full-time students. A study was conducted to…

  20. Lower Costs, Higher Returns: UNCF HBCUs in a High-Priced College Environment. Financing African American College Aspirations Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, David A. R.

    2014-01-01

    While research consistently shows the earning power of college degrees, those returns are best weighed against the cost of attending post-secondary institutions, historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) included. This study is an update of "Affordability of UNCF-Member Institutions" (2009), and compares the average costs at…