Science.gov

Sample records for marginal cost pricing

  1. Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated cost-of-service pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers?

  2. Marginal Cost Pricing and Efficient Provision of Public Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Steven E.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of supply and demand functions for public campground recreation indicated that the estimated equilibrium price was considerably below the current price and that social welfare can be increased by charging the equilibrium price. Shifting to the equilibrium price had significantly negative revenue effects on the recreation-providing agency.…

  3. Price-cost margin in the pharmaceutical industry. Empirical evidence from Finland.

    PubMed

    Linnosmaa, Ismo; Hermans, Raine; Hallinen, Taru

    2004-06-01

    This contribution estimates the price-cost margin in the Finnish pharmaceutical industry. The estimation is based on the method developed by Hall who shows that under constant returns to scale total factor productivity growth depends on the growth of output-capital ratio if the market is imperfectly competitive. Measurement of the price-cost margin is based on this theoretical result. We utilize data on the Finnish pharmaceutical industry. The data cover the years 1975-1999 and include information on output, labor hours, and capital stock. The results show that the estimated price-cost margin is in the range 0.59-0.67, which is close to the estimates obtained in the United States market.

  4. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

  5. Toward a new spacecraft optimal design lifetime? Impact of marginal cost of durability and reduced launch price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelgrove, Kailah B.; Saleh, Joseph Homer

    2016-10-01

    The average design lifetime of satellites continues to increase, in part due to the expectation that the satellite cost per operational day decreases monotonically with increased design lifetime. In this work, we challenge this expectation by revisiting the durability choice problem for spacecraft in the face of reduced launch price and under various cost of durability models. We first provide a brief overview of the economic thought on durability and highlight its limitations as they pertain to our problem (e.g., the assumption of zero marginal cost of durability). We then investigate the merging influence of spacecraft cost of durability and launch price, and we identify conditions that give rise cost-optimal design lifetimes that are shorter than the longest lifetime technically achievable. For example, we find that high costs of durability favor short design lifetimes, and that under these conditions the optimal choice is relatively robust to reduction in launch prices. By contrast, lower costs of durability favor longer design lifetimes, and the optimal choice is highly sensitive to reduction in launch price. In both cases, reduction in launch prices translates into reduction of the optimal design lifetime. Our results identify a number of situations for which satellite operators would be better served by spacecraft with shorter design lifetimes. Beyond cost issues and repeat purchases, other implications of long design lifetime include the increased risk of technological slowdown given the lower frequency of purchases and technology refresh, and the increased risk for satellite operators that the spacecraft will be technologically obsolete before the end of its life (with the corollary of loss of value and competitive advantage). We conclude with the recommendation that, should pressure to extend spacecraft design lifetime continue, satellite manufacturers should explore opportunities to lease their spacecraft to operators, or to take a stake in the ownership

  6. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  7. Marginal-cost electric rate making: some realities

    SciTech Connect

    Rothey, A.S.; Randazzo, S.C.

    1982-07-08

    This article points up a shortcoming in much of the advocacy of marginal-cost pricing of electricity, namely, a failure to analyze the institutional arrangements for the provision of electrical service that may frustrate the realization of the stated aims of such pricing. The attitude exemplified by the authors is not one of hostility to marginal-cost theory. Their purpose is to note some serious problems that most, if not all, marginal-cost pricing proponents have failed to address, such as the lower ability of utilities to cover fixed costs and the disturbing signals sent to volume customers. 8 references.

  8. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  9. Marginal Pricing and Student Investment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.; Stange, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of marginal price on students' educational investments using rich administrative data on students at Michigan public universities. Marginal price refers to the amount colleges charge for each additional credit taken in a semester. Institutions differ in how they price credits above the full-time minimum (of 12…

  10. Hospital pricing: cost shifting and competition.

    PubMed

    Morrisey, M A

    1993-05-01

    The issue of cost shifting has taken on enormous policy implications. It is estimated that unsponsored and undercompensated hospital costs--one measure of cost shifting--has totaled $21.5 billion in 1991. The health services research literature indicates that hospitals set different prices for different payers. However, the empirical evidence on hospitals' ability to raise prices to one payer to make up for unsponsored care or lower payments by other payers is mixed at best. No study has concluded that hospitals have raised prices to fully adjust for such actions. The extent of cost shifting is limited by the market. When a hospital has market power, it is able to set prices above marginal costs. However, when a buyer has enough patient/subscribers and a willingness to direct them to particular providers based on price considerations, hospitals have less flexibility in raising prices above costs. Thus, the extent of cost shifting is limited by the market. Cost shifting is not as easy as it may have been in the past because the nature of hospital and insurer competition has changed radically in the last decade. While hospital quality, services, and amenities still matter, some buyers are increasingly concerned about the price they pay. Evidence from studies of PPO and HMO negotiations with hospitals suggests that hospitals' market power is eroding, at least in some areas. In areas with relatively few hospital competitors and little PPO or HMO activity, Medicaid and Medicare price reductions and uncompensated care burdens will be partially absorbed by higher prices paid by private payers. In more price sensitive markets and in markets in which prices to private payers have risen to those commensurate with the market power of local hospitals, such cost shifting will not occur. A market-based approach in hospital pricing requires an explicit policy for the uninsured. In a competitive market, a hospital that traditionally cared for the uninsured by spending some of its

  11. A comparison of pay-as-bid and marginal pricing in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yongjun

    This thesis investigates the behaviour of electricity markets under marginal and pay-as-bid pricing. Marginal pricing is believed to yield the maximum social welfare and is currently implemented by most electricity markets. However, in view of recent electricity market failures, pay-as-bid has been extensively discussed as a possible alternative to marginal pricing. In this research, marginal and pay-as-bid pricing have been analyzed in electricity markets with both perfect and imperfect competition. The perfect competition case is studied under both exact and uncertain system marginal cost prediction. The comparison of the two pricing methods is conducted through two steps: (i) identify the best offer strategy of the generating companies (gencos); (ii) analyze the market performance under these optimum genco strategies. The analysis results together with numerical simulations show that pay-as-bid and marginal pricing are equivalent in a perfect market with exact system marginal cost prediction. In perfect markets with uncertain demand prediction, the two pricing methods are also equivalent but in an expected value sense. If we compare from the perspective of second order statistics, all market performance measures exhibit much lower values under pay-as-bid than under marginal pricing. The risk of deviating from the mean is therefore much higher under marginal pricing than under pay-as-bid. In an imperfect competition market with exact demand prediction, the research shows that pay-as-bid pricing yields lower consumer payments and lower genco profits. This research provides quantitative evidence that challenges some common claims about pay-as-bid pricing. One is that under pay-as-bid, participants would soon learn how to offer so as to obtain the same or higher profits than what they would have obtained under marginal pricing. This research however shows that, under pay-as-bid, participants can at best earn the same profit or expected profit as under marginal

  12. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  13. The Shuttle Cost and Price model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leary, Katherine; Stone, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Cost and Price (SCP) model was developed as a tool to assist in evaluating major aspects of Shuttle operations that have direct and indirect economic consequences. It incorporates the major aspects of NASA Pricing Policy and corresponds to the NASA definition of STS operating costs. An overview of the SCP model is presented and the cost model portion of SCP is described in detail. Selected recent applications of the SCP model to NASA Pricing Policy issues are presented.

  14. Farm-level irrigation and the marginal cost of water use: evidence from Georgia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Alvarez, Yassert; Keeler, Andrew G; Mullen, Jeffrey D

    2006-09-01

    We create a proxy for the cost of irrigation water in Georgia from a sample of Georgia irrigators by investigating the marginal cost of pumping groundwater. We then combine this proxy with agronomic and climatic variables to estimate the response of agricultural water use to differences in the marginal cost of irrigation. The results show that pumping costs are a significant determinant of water use, and imply that agricultural water use would be moderately affected by institutional changes that would explicitly price water.

  15. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically

  16. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically

  17. Mean-reversion in income over feed cost margins: evidence and implications for managing margin risk by US dairy producers.

    PubMed

    Bozic, M; Newton, J; Thraen, C S; Gould, B W

    2012-12-01

    With the increased volatility of feed prices, dairy farm managers are no longer concerned with managing only milk price volatility, but are considering the adoption of risk management programs that address income over feed cost (IOFC) margin risk. Successful margin risk management should be founded on an understanding of the behavior of IOFC margins. To that end, we have constructed forward IOFC margins using Class III milk, corn, and soybean meal futures prices. We focus on the characteristics of the term structure of forward IOFC margins, that is, the sequence of forward margins for consecutive calendar months, all observed on the same trading day. What is apparent from the shapes of these term structures is that both in times when margins were exceptionally high and in times when they were disastrously low, market participants expected that a reversal back to average margin levels would not come quickly, but rather would take up to 9 mo. Slopes of the forward margin term structure before and after most of the major swings in IOFC indicate these shocks were mostly unanticipated, whereas the time needed for recovery to normal margin levels was successfully predicted. This suggests that IOFC margins may exhibit slow mean-reverting, rather than predictable cyclical behavior, as is often suggested in the popular press. This finding can be exploited to design a successful catastrophic risk management program by initiating protection at 9 to 12 mo before futures contract maturity. As a case study, we analyzed risk management strategies for managing IOFC margins that used Livestock Gross Margin for Dairy Cattle insurance contracts and created 2 farm profiles. The first one represents dairy farms that grow most of their feed, whereas the second profile is designed to capture the risk exposure of dairy farms that purchase all their dairy herd, dry cow, and heifer feed. Our case study of this program encompasses the 2009 period, which was characterized by exceptionally

  18. Crude prices surge: Products race to keep pace. 1996 Refining margins spring forward

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-26

    As world crude prices remain relatively high, good refining margins will depend on higher product prices to continue for the near term. This report examines refining margins and looks into the market trend apparent during the recent crude and product price revivals.

  19. Avoided cost pricing: who wins

    SciTech Connect

    Einhorn, M.A.

    1985-05-30

    This article calls for a reevaluation of current Federal Energy Regulatory Commission regulations on the calculation of avoided cost rates for sales of power to utilities by small producers in the light of market conditions not contemplated at the time of the regulations' adoption. 8 references.

  20. 48 CFR 570.110 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. 570.110 Section 570.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... PROPERTY General 570.110 Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. (a)...

  1. 7 CFR 3019.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 3019.45 Section 3019.45... Standards § 3019.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  2. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210... § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  3. 34 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45 Education... Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  4. 22 CFR 518.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cost and price analysis. 518.45 Section 518.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 518.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations...

  5. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  6. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations...

  7. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations...

  8. 34 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45 Education... Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  9. 22 CFR 145.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 145.45 Section 145.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in...

  10. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  11. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis... § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  12. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210... § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  13. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office of... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  14. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  15. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  16. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210... § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  17. 22 CFR 145.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 145.45 Section 145.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in...

  18. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis... § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  19. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  20. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office of... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  1. 7 CFR 3019.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 3019.45 Section 3019.45... Standards § 3019.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  2. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  3. Cost-effectiveness as a price control.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    After a technology is developed, cost-effectiveness analysis can offer an economically sound approach to adoption decisions. Little attention has been paid, however, to the incentives these criteria induce for getting technologies to market in the first place. We argue that technology adoption procedures more fully take into account the key trade-off inherent in research and development: the decreased welfare of current patients as a result of higher prices versus the increased welfare of future patients as a result of the incentives for innovation that such prices provide. Empirical evidence from a case study of HIV/AIDS provides an illustration of our conclusions.

  4. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.994-2 Marginal costing rules. (a) In general... with Y whereby Y is granted a sales franchise with respect to exporting such product line from which...), combined taxable income under marginal costing is limited to $28.50. Since under the franchise agreement...

  5. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  6. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  7. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  8. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  9. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  10. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  11. 38 CFR 49.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  12. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  13. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  14. 38 CFR 49.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  15. 48 CFR 239.7406 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information other than cost or pricing data. 239.7406 Section 239.7406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7406 Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. (a) Common carriers are not required to submit cost or...

  16. Analysis of probabilistic short run marginal cost using Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Alcaraz, G.; Navarrete, N.; Tovar-Hernandez, J.H.; Fuerte-Esquivel, C.R.; Mota-Palomino, R.

    1999-11-01

    The structure of the Electricity Supply Industry is undergoing dramatic changes to provide new services options. The main aim of this restructuring is allowing generating units the freedom of selling electricity to anybody they wish at a price determined by market forces. Several methodologies have been proposed in order to quantify different costs associated with those new services offered by electrical utilities operating under a deregulated market. The new wave of pricing is heavily influenced by economic principles designed to price products to elastic market segments on the basis of marginal costs. Hence, spot pricing provides the economic structure for many of new services. At the same time, the pricing is influenced by uncertainties associated to the electric system state variables which defined its operating point. In this paper, nodal probabilistic short run marginal costs are calculated, considering as random variables the load, the production cost and availability of generators. The effect of the electrical network is evaluated taking into account linearized models. A thermal economic dispatch is used to simulate each operational condition generated by Monte Carlo method on small fictitious power system in order to assess the effect of the random variables on the energy trading. First, this is carry out by introducing each random variable one by one, and finally considering the random interaction of all of them.

  17. 20 CFR 435.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 435.45 Section 435... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  18. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  19. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  20. 14 CFR § 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. § 1274.506... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  1. 28 CFR 70.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 70.45 Section 70... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  2. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  3. 28 CFR 70.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 70.45 Section 70... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  4. 40 CFR 35.6585 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 35.6585... Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6585 Cost and price analysis. (a) General. The recipient must conduct and document a cost or price analysis in connection...

  5. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  6. 20 CFR 435.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 435.45 Section 435... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  7. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  8. 14 CFR 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1274.506 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  9. 14 CFR 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1274.506 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  10. 28 CFR 70.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 70.45 Section 70... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  11. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1274.506 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  13. 15 CFR 14.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 14.45 Section... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  14. 40 CFR 35.6585 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 35.6585... Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6585 Cost and price analysis. (a) General. The recipient must conduct and document a cost or price analysis in connection...

  15. 40 CFR 35.6585 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 35.6585... Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6585 Cost and price analysis. (a) General. The recipient must conduct and document a cost or price analysis in connection...

  16. 28 CFR 70.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 70.45 Section 70... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  17. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  18. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action....

  19. 22 CFR 518.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cost and price analysis. 518.45 Section 518.45... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 518.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis...

  20. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented...

  1. 2 CFR 215.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 215.45 Section 215... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER... Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in...

  2. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for experience-rated carriers includes: (1) Information such as claims data; (2) Actual or negotiated...

  3. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for experience-rated carriers includes: (1) Information such as claims data; (2) Actual or negotiated...

  4. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for experience-rated carriers includes: (1) Information such as claims data; (2) Actual or negotiated...

  5. 48 CFR 52.215-10 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... complete, accurate, and current as certified in its Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data; (2) A... complete, accurate, and current as certified in the Contractor's Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing... been modified even if accurate, complete, and current certified cost or pricing data had been...

  6. Tight margins lead hospitals to cost accounting systems.

    PubMed

    Nemes, J

    1990-12-17

    Hospital margins are getting tighter, and healthcare executives are realizing that they can't afford not to know whether payments for care are covering their costs. And they're realizing that without some type of cost accounting system, they probably don't have a true understanding of what their costs are.

  7. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including...

  8. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including...

  9. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including...

  10. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including...

  11. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data, as prescribed by FAR 15.406-2. (End of provision) Alternate I... Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-20 Section 52.215-20... Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in...

  12. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor shall submit a Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data, as prescribed by FAR 15.406-2. (End of... Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-21... Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

  13. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy... Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost...

  14. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON... of price quotations submitted, market prices and similar indicia, together with discounts....

  15. Marginal cost of natural gas in developing countries: concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mashayekhi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Many developing nations are facing complex questions regarding the best strategy for developing their domestic gas reserves. The World Bank has addressed these questions in studies on the cost and prices of gas and its optimal allocation among different markets. Based on the average incremental method, an estimate of the marginal cost of natural gas in 10 developing countries proved to be $0.61-1.79/1000 CF or $3.59-10.54/bbl of oil equivalent, far below the border prices of competing fuels in these nations. Moreover, the cost of gas is not expected to rise in these countries within the next 20 years while the reserves/production ratios remain high. The sample involves a variety of gas compositions and production conditions among the countries of Bangladesh, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Tunisia.

  16. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... income method of § 1.994-1(c)(3). At the taxpayer's option, all, a part, or none of the costs which...) At the annual option of the related supplier, the overall profit percentage for the DISC's taxable... to § 1.994-1(c)(7) used by the taxpayer for purposes of applying the intercompany pricing rules...

  17. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... income method of § 1.994-1(c)(3). At the taxpayer's option, all, a part, or none of the costs which...) At the annual option of the related supplier, the overall profit percentage for the DISC's taxable... to § 1.994-1(c)(7) used by the taxpayer for purposes of applying the intercompany pricing rules...

  18. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... income method of § 1.994-1(c)(3). At the taxpayer's option, all, a part, or none of the costs which...) At the annual option of the related supplier, the overall profit percentage for the DISC's taxable... to § 1.994-1(c)(7) used by the taxpayer for purposes of applying the intercompany pricing rules...

  19. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... income method of § 1.994-1(c)(3). At the taxpayer's option, all, a part, or none of the costs which...) At the annual option of the related supplier, the overall profit percentage for the DISC's taxable... to § 1.994-1(c)(7) used by the taxpayer for purposes of applying the intercompany pricing rules...

  20. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pricing data. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1315.204-570(b)(4), insert the following provision: Cost or Pricing... costs and the method used to compute the proposed rate or rates is required. In the case of multi-branch... criteria discussed in FAR 15.404-4. (ii) Separate percentage rates for profit are also required for...

  1. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.215-76 Cost or pricing data. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1315.204-570(b)(4), insert the following provision: Cost or Pricing... escalated, the degree (percent) and methodology must be shown. Escalation increases should reflect...

  2. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.215-76 Cost or pricing data. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1315.204-570(b)(4), insert the following provision: Cost or Pricing... escalated, the degree (percent) and methodology must be shown. Escalation increases should reflect...

  3. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pricing data. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1315.204-570(b)(4), insert the following provision: Cost or Pricing... and proposed subcontractors' fully burdened rates, including direct salary rates, overhead rates, and profit; and information regarding other direct costs. (b) Specific Requirements. (1) Direct Salary...

  4. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1602.170-5 Section 1602.170-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing...

  5. 20 CFR 435.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 435.45 Section 435... AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.45 Cost and price analysis....

  6. 48 CFR 215.403-5 - Instructions for submission of cost or pricing data or information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... submission of cost or pricing data or information other than cost or pricing data. 215.403-5 Section 215.403... Instructions for submission of cost or pricing data or information other than cost or pricing data. When the solicitation requires contractor compliance with the Contractor Cost Data Reporting System, follow...

  7. 48 CFR 239.7406 - Certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data. 239.7406 Section 239.7406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF...

  8. The economic cost of fuel price subsidies in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori, Roland Oduro

    I adapt the Harberger formula for deadweight loss to develop approximations for the deadweight loss created by multiple fuel price subsidies. I also estimate the own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel in Africa. I use data on fuel prices and sales in combination with my formulas and elasticity estimates to calculate the deadweight loss of fuel price subsidies in Ghana from 2009 to 2014. I show that the average efficiency cost of the gasoline and diesel price subsidies in Ghana is 0.8% of fuel price subsidy transfers. This result stresses the futility of basing subsidy reforms on economic efficiency losses, which are relatively small due to very inelastic energy demand, and the need for such reforms to be motivated by the poor-targeting of subsidies to low-income households and the impact of subsidies on government debt-financing.

  9. Incremental cost pricing of transmission services. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report, prepared by ICF Resources, under a sub-contract with IT Corporation, is concerned chiefly with examining the economic concepts underlying an Incremental Cost Pricing Framework (ICPF), which is defined here as a pricing regime that takes into account several factors: economic efficiency in terms of sending the correct long-term price signals to both users and owners of transmission assets; pricing of individual services in relationship to cost causation; full recovery of costs associated with transmission service; and applicability to real-world power systems without extraordinary administrative burdens. In the course of this examination, the report makes assumptions, as necessary, and assesses the extent to which they may or may not comport with real-world conditions. It also assesses the pros and cons of different approaches to pricing various components of transmission service without making a recommendation as to the superiority of one approach over another from a public policy perspective.

  10. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990’s. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services. PMID:23113171

  11. 76 FR 35218 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Cost or Pricing Data Requirements and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Cost or Pricing Data Requirements and Information Other Than Cost or... requirement concerning cost or pricing data requirements and information other than cost or pricing data... Information Collection 9000- 0013, Cost or Pricing Data Requirements and Information Other Than Cost...

  12. Area-Specific Marginal Costing for Electric Utilities: a Case Study of Transmission and Distribution Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orans, Ren

    1990-10-01

    Existing procedures used to develop marginal costs for electric utilities were not designed for applications in an increasingly competitive market for electric power. The utility's value of receiving power, or the costs of selling power, however, depend on the exact location of the buyer or seller, the magnitude of the power and the period of time over which the power is used. Yet no electric utility in the United States has disaggregate marginal costs that reflect differences in costs due to the time, size or location of the load associated with their power or energy transactions. The existing marginal costing methods used by electric utilities were developed in response to the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) in 1978. The "ratemaking standards" (Title 1) established by PURPA were primarily concerned with the appropriate segmentation of total revenues to various classes-of-service, designing time-of-use rating periods, and the promotion of efficient long-term resource planning. By design, the methods were very simple and inexpensive to implement. Now, more than a decade later, the costing issues facing electric utilities are becoming increasingly complex, and the benefits of developing more specific marginal costs will outweigh the costs of developing this information in many cases. This research develops a framework for estimating total marginal costs that vary by the size, timing, and the location of changes in loads within an electric distribution system. To complement the existing work at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) on estimating disaggregate generation and transmission capacity costs, this dissertation focuses on the estimation of distribution capacity costs. While the costing procedure is suitable for the estimation of total (generation, transmission and distribution) marginal costs, the empirical work focuses on the geographic disaggregation of marginal costs related to electric

  13. Cost of Milk and Marketing Margins in Dairy Farms of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunoz, Meral; Altintas, Gulcin; Akcay, Yasar

    The study is based on the cost of milk and marketing margins in dairy farms in Tokat-Turkey with the help of primary data collected randomly from 62 farmers. In the study it was determined that milk production in dairy farms was relatively profitable in domestic (1.34), cross-bred (1.29) and culture (1.58) dairy cattle. It was found that marketing margins of milk were 183.33% for domestic, cross-breed and culture dairy cattle. As a result, although there were some structural problems for dairy farms such as high input prices, lack of cooperation among producers and long marketing chains between producers and retailers, it can be still perceived that the dairy farming can be one of the most important income sources for the farmers of rural provinces of Tokat-Turkey. Furthermore it should be stated that current livestock policy need to be regulated.

  14. Cost accounting to determine prices: how well do prices reflect costs in the German DRG-system?

    PubMed

    Schreyögg, Jonas; Tiemann, Oliver; Busse, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    Germany has recently introduced a system of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) to engender more appropriate resource allocation. The following article describes the German DRG-system and the methodologies used to determine prices. It analyses the extent to which prices, or calculated cost weights, reflect the actual costs incurred by hospitals for their respective services. We reveal that a "compression" of DRG cost weights occurs, and that the data sample used to calculate cost weights is lacking in terms of its representativeness. Although cost data accuracy has improved over the last few years there are still a number of challenges that need to be addressed.

  15. 48 CFR 1652.215-70 - Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. 1652.215-70 Section 1652.215-70 Federal Acquisition... or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 1615.407-1, the following clause shall be... or Pricing Data (JAN 2004) (a) If any rate established in connection with this contract was...

  16. 48 CFR 1652.215-70 - Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. 1652.215-70 Section 1652.215-70 Federal Acquisition... or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 1615.407-1, the following clause shall be... or Pricing Data (JAN 2004) (a) If any rate established in connection with this contract was...

  17. 48 CFR 1652.215-70 - Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. 1652.215-70 Section 1652.215-70 Federal Acquisition... or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 1615.407-1, the following clause shall be... or Pricing Data (JAN 2004) (a) If any rate established in connection with this contract was...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1260.145 Section 1260.145 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.145 Cost...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1260.145 Section 1260.145 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.145 Cost...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Cost and price analysis. 1260.145 Section 1260.145 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.145 Cost...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1260.145 Section 1260.145 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.145 Cost...

  2. Asset Prices and Trading Volume under Fixed Transactions Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Andrew W.; Mamaysky, Harry; Wang, Jiang

    2004-01-01

    We propose a dynamic equilibrium model of asset prices and trading volume when agents face fixed transactions costs. We show that even small fixed costs can give rise to large "no-trade" regions for each agent's optimal trading policy. The inability to trade more frequently reduces the agents' asset demand and in equilibrium gives rise to a…

  3. 48 CFR 52.215-11 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subcontractor furnished certified cost or pricing data that were not complete, accurate, and current as certified in its Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data, (2) a subcontractor or prospective... current as certified in the Contractor's Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data, or (3) any of...

  4. 48 CFR 52.214-27 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... were not complete, accurate, and current as certified in its Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing... Current Cost or Pricing Data, or (3) any of these parties furnished data of any description that were not... accurate, complete, and current certified cost or pricing data had been submitted; (ii) The...

  5. Cost-effectiveness and Pricing of Antibacterial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the new antibacterial drugs were cost-effective compared to older generation drugs. Drug pricing is a complicated process, involving different stakeholders, and has a large influence on cost-effectiveness. Value-based pricing is a method to determine the price of a drug at which it can be cost-effective. It is currently unclear what the influence of value-based pricing will be on the prices of new antibacterial agents, but an important factor will be the definition of ‘value’, which as well as the impact of the drug on patient health might also include other factors such as wider social impact and the health impact of disease. PMID:25521641

  6. The cost of lithium is unlikely to upend the price of Li-ion storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciez, Rebecca E.; Whitacre, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    As lithium ion batteries become more common in electric vehicles and other storage applications, concerns about the cost of their namesake material, and its impact on the cost of these batteries, will continue. However, examining the constituent materials of these devices shows that lithium is a relatively small contributor to both the battery mass and manufacturing cost. The use of more expensive lithium precursor materials results in less than 1% increases in the cost of lithium ion cells considered. Similarly, larger fluctuations in the global lithium price (from 0 to 25/kg from a baseline of 7.50 per kg of Li2CO3) do not change the cost of lithium ion cells by more than 10%. While this small cost increase will not have a substantial impact on consumers, it could affect the manufacturers of these lithium ion cells, who already operate with small profit margins.

  7. Health care cost in Switzerland: quantity- or price-driven?

    PubMed

    Schleiniger, Reto

    2014-07-01

    In Switzerland, per capita health care costs vary substantially from canton to canton and rise considerably and steadily from year to year. Since costs are equal to the product of quantities and prices, the question arises whether regional cost variations and cost increase over time are quantity- or price-driven. Depending on the answer, the containment of health care costs must be approached differently. This article examines the cost of mandatory health insurance in Switzerland for the period from 2004 to 2010 and breaks it down into quantity and price effects. The main result of the cross-section analysis reveals that regional cost differences are mainly due to quantity differences. Similarly, the longitudinal analysis shows that the cost increase across all health care services is primarily caused by increasing per capita quantities. Any attempt to contain costs must therefore focus primarily on the extent of medical care utilization, and the key challenge to be met is how to identify medical care services which do not have a positive effect on patients' health status.

  8. PACE 2: Pricing and Cost Estimating Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.; Shepherd, T.

    1977-01-01

    An automatic data processing system to be used for the preparation of industrial engineering type manhour and material cost estimates has been established. This computer system has evolved into a highly versatile and highly flexible tool which significantly reduces computation time, eliminates computational errors, and reduces typing and reproduction time for estimators and pricers since all mathematical and clerical functions are automatic once basic inputs are derived.

  9. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1602.170-5 Section 1602.170-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of...

  10. 14 CFR § 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. § 1260.145 Section § 1260.145 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND... Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards...

  11. 24 CFR 84.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 84.45 Section 84.45 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF...

  12. 24 CFR 84.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 84.45 Section 84.45 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF...

  13. FARM LABOR COSTS AND FOOD PRICES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    TO MEASURE THE IMPACT OF THE DECLINE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL WORKER EMPLOYMENT ON FARM-LABOR COSTS, FOOD PRICES, AND RETURN TO THE FARMER, AN ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF THE 1964-65 CHANGES IN THESE FACTORS FOR SELECTED CALIFORNIA CROPS. TOMATOES, LETTUCE, STRAWBERRIES, CANTALOUPES, CELERY, LEMONS, AND ASPARAGUS, WHICH ACCOUNTED FOR 71 PERCENT OF THE…

  14. Higher U.S. Crop Prices Trigger Little Area Expansion so Marginal Land for Biofuel Crops Is Limited

    SciTech Connect

    Swinton, S.; Babcock, Bruce; James, Laura; Bandaru, Varaprasad

    2011-06-12

    By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food price increases and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states

  15. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  16. Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombella, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

  17. 48 CFR 15.407-1 - Defective certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor's or subcontractor's Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data, the Government is entitled to a..., the contractor or subcontractor did not submit a Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data relating... Current Cost or Pricing Data but were not submitted. Such offsets need not be in the same cost...

  18. 48 CFR 15.403-5 - Instructions for submission of certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... officer may require submission of certified cost or pricing data in the format indicated in Table 15-2 of... submission of certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data. 15.403-5... certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data. (a) Taking...

  19. Competitive pricing and the challenge of cost control in medicare.

    PubMed

    Coulam, Robert F; Feldman, Roger D; Dowd, Bryan E

    2011-08-01

    The Medicare program faces a serious challenge: it must find ways to control costs but must do so through a system of congressional oversight that necessarily limits its choices. We look at one approach to prudent purchasing - competitive pricing - that Medicare has attempted many times and in various ways since the beginning of the program, and in all but one case unsuccessfully due to the politics of provider opposition working through Congress and the courts. We look at some related efforts to change Medicare pricing to explore when the program has been successful in making dramatic changes in how it pays for health care. A set of recommendations emerges for ways to respond to the impediments of law and politics that have obstructed change to more efficient payment methods. Except in unusual cases, competitive pricing threatens too many stakeholders in too many ways for key political actors to support it. But an unusual case may arise in the coming Medicare fiscal crisis, a crisis related in part to the prices Medicare pays. At that point, competitive pricing may look less like a problem and more like a solution coming at a time when the system badly needs one. PMID:21730213

  20. Thermoeconomic analysis of steam turbines: An approach to marginal cost allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Royo, J.; Zaleta, A.; Valero, A.

    1996-12-31

    One of the main problems arising with the thermoeconomic optimization of energy plants, is marginal cost allocation in components containing a flow bifurcation. A typical example is a cogeneration steam turbine. The analysis of the marginal cost allocation of this type of turbine is rigorously studied in this paper. Structural Theory (Valero et al., 1992; 1993) takes under consideration that marginal cost assessment depends on the marginal consumptions of the inlet flow for each outlet energy flow. Supposing that the behavior of the turbine would not be affected by the quantity of mass flowing in the process, these marginal consumptions could easily be calculated (Royo and Valero, 1995). Nevertheless, the calculation of marginal consumptions under this supposition is only an initial approach to the problem. The accurate values of marginal consumptions (and therefore of marginal cost) may be calculated if one knows the actual behavior of the steam turbine. This is the process followed in this paper to obtain the values of the marginal consumptions of several cogeneration steam turbines. The analysis offers a complete knowledge of the marginal consumptions for different steam turbine characteristics that work under on-design and off-design conditions. The results obtained are compared with respect to the above initial approach. It is shown that the errors appearing when assessing marginal costs in this way could be relatively important. Nonetheless, a series of correction terms is proposed, by means of which it is possible to considerably decrease these errors.

  1. Costs of Building Waste Facilities; Price Per Shipment to Recoup Costs

    1993-05-14

    The Automated Pricing Schedule is a computer model for evaluating the economics of developing, operating, and closing a low-level radioactive waste disposal site. It provides pricing for individual shipments based on the characteristics of the shipment, and calculates a disposal fee to be charged for each shipment to recover the costs of the facility. It includes a sensitivity analysis module to evaluate the effect of varying the parameters of the model.

  2. 77 FR 2680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Cost or Pricing Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... text addressing the definition of cost or pricing data. The DFARS changes are necessary to ensure... definition of cost or pricing data, published at 75 FR 53135 on August 30, 2010. II. Executive Orders 12866... RIN 0750-AH49 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Cost or Pricing...

  3. 77 FR 76939 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Definition of Cost or Pricing Data (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... 0750-AH49 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Definition of Cost or Pricing Data (DFARS... consistency with FAR changes addressing the definition of cost or pricing data which clarified the distinction... as the requirements for the submission of cost or pricing data (75 FR 53135, August 30, 2010)....

  4. The Short- and Long-Run Marginal Cost Curves: An Alternative Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Laura A.; Boyd, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues related to short-run marginal cost and long-run marginal cost in economic theory. Asserts that few economics textbooks deal with important aspects of this concept. Includes four figures illustrating the approach suggested by the authors. (CFR)

  5. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  6. Cutting costs: the impact of price lists on the cost development at the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Ulf Martin

    2010-12-01

    It was shown that physicians working at the Swedish emergency department (ED) are unaware of the costs for investigations performed. This study evaluated the possible impact of price lists on the overall laboratory and radiology costs at the ED of a Swedish university hospital. Price lists including the most common laboratory analyses and radiological investigations at the ED were created. The lists were distributed to all internal medicine physicians by e-mail and exposed above their working stations continually. No lists were provided for the orthopaedic control group. The average costs for laboratory and radiological investigations during the months of June and July 2007 and 2008 were calculated. Neither clinical nor admission procedures were changed. The physicians were blinded towards the study. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test. A total of 1442 orthopaedic and 1585 medical patients were attended to in 2007. In 2008, 1467 orthopaedic and 1637 medical patients required emergency service. The average costs per patient were 980.27 SKR (98€)/999.41 SKR (100€, +1.95%) for orthopaedic and 1081.36 SKR (108€)/877.3 SKR (88€, -18.8%) for medical patients. Laboratory costs decreased by 9% in orthopaedic and 21.4% in medical patients. Radiology costs changed +5.4% in orthopaedic and -20.59% in medical patients. The distribution and promotion of price lists as a tool at the ED to heighten cost awareness resulted in a major decrease in the investigation costs. A significant decrease in radiological costs could be observed. It can be concluded that price lists are an effective tool to cut costs in public healthcare.

  7. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  8. The polypill: at what price would it become cost effective?

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Oscar H; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2006-01-01

    Introduction A promising concept in cardiovascular disease prevention (the polypill) was introduced in 2003. Although the polypill may seem as an effective intervention, data on its costs and cost effectiveness remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum price of the polypill for it to be a cost effective alternative in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Methods Data on the hypothetical effects of the polypill were taken from the literature. Using data from the Framingham heart study and the Framingham offspring study, life tables were built to model the assumed benefits of the polypill. Using a third party payer perspective and a 10 years time horizon, the authors calculated what should be the maximum drug cost of the polypill for it to be cost effective (using a €20 000/year of life saved threshold) in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease among populations at different levels of absolute risk of coronary heart disease and age. Results To be cost effective among populations at levels of 10 year coronary heart disease risk over 20% (high risk), the annual cost of medication for the polypill therapy should be no more than €302 or €410 for men at age 50 and 60 years respectively. For cost effective prevention in populations at levels of coronary heart disease risk between 10% and 20% the costs should be two to three times lower. Conclusion Although the polypill could theoretically be a highly effective intervention, the costs of the medication could be its caveat for implementation in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:16476750

  9. Fundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M. R.; Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.

    2013-07-01

    Operating reserves impose a cost on the electric power system by forcing system operators to keep partially loaded spinning generators available for responding to system contingencies variable demand. In many regions of the United States, thermal power plants provide a large fraction of the operating reserve requirement. Alternative sources of operating reserves, such as demand response and energy storage, may provide more efficient sources of these reserves. However, to estimate the potential value of these services, the cost of reserve services under various grid conditions must first be established. This analysis used a commercial grid simulation tool to evaluate the cost and price of several operating reserve services, including spinning contingency reserves and upward regulation reserves. These reserve products were evaluated in a utility system in the western United States, considering different system flexibilities, renewable energy penetration, and other sensitivities. The analysis demonstrates that the price of operating reserves depend highly on many assumptions regarding the operational flexibility of the generation fleet, including ramp rates and the fraction of fleet available to provide reserves.

  10. 48 CFR 15.407-1 - Defective certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Defective certified cost or pricing data. (a) If, before agreement on price, the contracting officer learns... to the price adjustment, the Government is entitled to recovery of any overpayment plus interest on... interest amount due, the contracting officer shall— (A) Determine the defective pricing amounts that...

  11. 48 CFR 215.403-3 - Requiring information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.403-3 Requiring information other than cost or pricing data... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requiring information other than cost or pricing data. 215.403-3 Section 215.403-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  12. Evidence of cost growth under cost-plus and fixed-price contracting

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Paananaen, O.H.; Redgate, T.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Jaksch, J.A.

    1998-09-01

    As defined by the US Department of Energy (DOE), privatization refers to a shifting of responsibilities for the completion of projects from a cost-plus Management and Operations (M and O) contract, to incentive-based contracts with the private sector. DOE`s new vision is to arrange cleanup work around incentives-based contracts, which are won via competitive bidding. Competition in awarding cleanup contracts can make use of market incentives to lower project costs and reduce slippage time. Fixed-price contracts encourage contractors to minimize schedule delays and cost overruns once the scope of a project has been negotiated. Conversely, cost-plus contracting offers weak incentives for contractors to select cost-minimizing production and management approaches. Because privatization explicitly allocates more risk to the contractor, it forces the government to better define its goals and methods. This study summarizes actual cost experiences with government contracts performed under cost-plus and fixed-price incentive structures at all levels of government. The first section provides some background on the problem of making contractor activity more cost-efficient. Following this are sections on the measurement of performance and the costs of projects, limitations on measurement, and findings of similar studies. The study concludes with appendices discussing the details of the performance measurement methodology and the project data sets used in the study.

  13. Method for computing marginal costs associated with on-site energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, R.; Davitian, H.

    1980-08-01

    A method for calculating long-run marginal costs for an electric utility is described. The method is especially suitable for computing the marginal costs associated with the use of small on-site energy technologies, i.e., cogenerators, solar heating and hot water systems, wind generators, etc., which are interconnected with electric utilities. In particular, both the costs a utility avoids when power is delivered to it from a facility with an on-site generator and marginal cost to the utility of supplementary power sold to the facility can be calculated. A utility capacity expansion model is used to compute changes in the utility's costs when loads are modified by the use of the on-site technology. Changes in capacity-related costs and production costs are thus computed in an internally consistent manner. The variable nature of the generation/load pattern of the on-site technology is treated explicitly. The method yields several measures of utility costs that can be used to develop rates based on marginal avoided costs for on-site technologies as well as marginal cost rates for conventional utility customers.

  14. The Basic Economics of CD-ROM Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkkila, John E.

    1991-01-01

    This explanation of how the basic economic model of pricing applies to the CD-ROM industry considers the supply and demand sides of the market and compares three distinct pricing strategies: (1) pricing to maximize profits; (2) average cost pricing; and (3) marginal cost pricing. (EAM)

  15. 42 CFR 137.336 - What is the difference between fixed-price and cost-reimbursement agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lump sums, unit cost pricing, or a combination thereof; (4) For unit cost pricing, savings may occur if... price project are considered profit, unless, at the option of the Self-Governance Tribe, such...

  16. 42 CFR 137.336 - What is the difference between fixed-price and cost-reimbursement agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lump sums, unit cost pricing, or a combination thereof; (4) For unit cost pricing, savings may occur if... price project are considered profit, unless, at the option of the Self-Governance Tribe, such...

  17. 42 CFR 137.336 - What is the difference between fixed-price and cost-reimbursement agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lump sums, unit cost pricing, or a combination thereof; (4) For unit cost pricing, savings may occur if... price project are considered profit, unless, at the option of the Self-Governance Tribe, such...

  18. 42 CFR 137.336 - What is the difference between fixed-price and cost-reimbursement agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lump sums, unit cost pricing, or a combination thereof; (4) For unit cost pricing, savings may occur if... price project are considered profit, unless, at the option of the Self-Governance Tribe, such...

  19. 48 CFR 15.406-2 - Certificate of current cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certificate of current....406-2 Certificate of current cost or pricing data. (a) When certified cost or pricing data are required, the contracting officer shall require the contractor to execute a Certificate of Current Cost...

  20. 48 CFR 15.406-2 - Certificate of current cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificate of current....406-2 Certificate of current cost or pricing data. (a) When certified cost or pricing data are required, the contracting officer shall require the contractor to execute a Certificate of Current Cost...

  1. 48 CFR 15.406-2 - Certificate of current cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certificate of current....406-2 Certificate of current cost or pricing data. (a) When certified cost or pricing data are required, the contracting officer shall require the contractor to execute a Certificate of Current Cost...

  2. 48 CFR 15.406-2 - Certificate of current cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certificate of current....406-2 Certificate of current cost or pricing data. (a) When certified cost or pricing data are required, the contracting officer shall require the contractor to execute a Certificate of Current Cost...

  3. 48 CFR 15.406-2 - Certificate of current cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certificate of current....406-2 Certificate of current cost or pricing data. (a) When certified cost or pricing data are required, the contracting officer shall require the contractor to execute a Certificate of Current Cost...

  4. Are retail prices "just" when they do not include social costs?

    PubMed

    McMahon, T F

    1999-01-01

    The price is "right" when the buyer agrees to purchase goods or service. But is it "just"? That is, does the price include social costs such as pollution and discrimination? Cost shifting is the passing down of these costs from the seller to the buyer. The amount of cost shifting depends upon the inelasticity or elasticity of supply or demands, methods of assigning social costs, means used in promotion and the role of the market price. Wal-Mart and Body Shop International exemplify the problems of social costs. Recommendations for marketing managers concludes the article. PMID:11066721

  5. Marginal capacity costs of electricity distribution and demand for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Chi-Keung, Lloyd-Zanetti, D.; Orans, R.

    1995-12-31

    Marginal costs of electricity vary by time and location. Past researchers attributed these variations to factors related to electricity generation, transmission and distribution. Past authors, however, did not fully analyze the large variations in marginal distribution capacity costs (MDCC) by area and time. Thus, the objectives of this paper are as follows: (1) to show that large MDCC variations exist within a utility`s service territory; (2) to demonstrate inter-utility variations in MDCC; and (3) to demonstrate the usefulness of these costs in determining demand for distributed generation (DG). 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Multi-period equilibrium/near-equilibrium in electricity markets based on locational marginal prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Bertrand, Raquel

    In this dissertation we propose an equilibrium procedure that coordinates the point of view of every market agent resulting in an equilibrium that simultaneously maximizes the independent objective of every market agent and satisfies network constraints. Therefore, the activities of the generating companies, consumers and an independent system operator are modeled: (1) The generating companies seek to maximize profits by specifying hourly step functions of productions and minimum selling prices, and bounds on productions. (2) The goals of the consumers are to maximize their economic utilities by specifying hourly step functions of demands and maximum buying prices, and bounds on demands. (3) The independent system operator then clears the market taking into account consistency conditions as well as capacity and line losses so as to achieve maximum social welfare. Then, we approach this equilibrium problem using complementarity theory in order to have the capability of imposing constraints on dual variables, i.e., on prices, such as minimum profit conditions for the generating units or maximum cost conditions for the consumers. In this way, given the form of the individual optimization problems, the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions for the generating companies, the consumers and the independent system operator are both necessary and sufficient. The simultaneous solution to all these conditions constitutes a mixed linear complementarity problem. We include minimum profit constraints imposed by the units in the market equilibrium model. These constraints are added as additional constraints to the equivalent quadratic programming problem of the mixed linear complementarity problem previously described. For the sake of clarity, the proposed equilibrium or near-equilibrium is first developed for the particular case considering only one time period. Afterwards, we consider an equilibrium or near-equilibrium applied to a multi-period framework. This model embodies binary

  7. Marginal-cost contracting in the NHS: results of a preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Beddow, A J; Cohen, D R

    2001-05-01

    Market disciplines and incentives were expected to improve efficiency in the UK National Health Service following the introduction of an 'internal market' in 1991. An exploratory survey of all Health Authorities and Trusts in the UK was undertaken to investigate whether players in the NHS managed market are behaving as economic theory predicts they should. The focus was on how and to what extent marginal costing has been used in the contracting process and on whether in some instances an inappropriate use of marginal costing may be resulting in inappropriate investment decisions. Twenty of 29 responding Health Authorities (69%) and 16 of 39 Trusts (41%) stated that they had considered purchasing/providing services on a marginal-cost basis and all of these led to contracts. Marginal-cost contracting appears to be fairly commonplace and the process does not appear to be causing insurmountable conflicts between players. Most marginal-cost contracts were specifically to meet waiting-list initiative targets. Overall results suggest that economic principles are not being particularly adhered to, with expansion in output rarely being related to available capacity. As increased responsibility for commissioning passes to primary care teams and local health groups, there are lessons for those involved in this more disaggregated approach to service shaping and service delivery. PMID:11373994

  8. Design the price signal mechanism of suppliers' cost in the commercial procurement process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinming, Huang; Wenjing, Li; Huazhen, Zhu

    2016-06-01

    In the process of commercial procurement, there exists information asymmetry between purchasers and suppliers in terms of commodity cost. The strike price is what purchasers care about, while the focus of suppliers is only the sales revenue. In order to achieve the relatively lower strike price, purchasers need to design a price signal mechanism, explicating the commodity cost of suppliers. In this article, we have designed a mechanism that purchasers can explicit the commodity cost price based on suppliers' choices by providing a variety of purchase contracts to suppliers.

  9. 48 CFR 239.7406 - Certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prices set by regulation within the provisions of 10 U.S.C. 2306a. This is true even if the tariff is set... considered prices set by law or regulation. (c) Contracting officers shall obtain sufficient data...

  10. 48 CFR 570.110 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... competition. For price analysis of offered rental rates, the contracting officer may use a market survey, an... comparison, or other relevant market research data. For price analysis of offered tenant improvement...

  11. 48 CFR 15.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... realism analysis; (iii) Consider whether cost data are necessary to determine a fair and reasonable price... should request data to determine the cost realism of competing offers or to evaluate competing...

  12. 43 CFR 426.6 - Leasing and full-cost pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leasing and full-cost pricing. 426.6 Section 426.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.6 Leasing and full-cost pricing....

  13. Serials vs. the Dollar Dilemma: Currency Swings and Rising Costs Play Havoc with Prices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketcham, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    This periodical price survey examines pricing trends, currency fluctuation and other predictors of 1996 serials costs. Tables are derived from analysis of three Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) databases and reflect subscription rates of large libraries. Sidebars include cost history information specific to mid-size to smaller academic…

  14. Reflections on Costing, Pricing and Income Measurement at UK Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduoza, Chike F.

    2009-01-01

    In these days of radical contraction of funding and expansion in student numbers, universities are under pressure to prioritise their resources, as well as to achieve effective costing and pricing to support judgement and decision making for funding and any external work undertaken. This study reviews costing, pricing and income measurement in…

  15. Price-Cost Ratios in Higher Education: Subsidy Structure and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of US institutions of higher education is manifested in many ways. This study looks at that diversity from the economic perspective by studying the subsidy structure through the distribution of institutional price-cost ratio (PCR), defined as the sum of net tuition price divided by total supplier cost and equals to one minus…

  16. 43 CFR 426.6 - Leasing and full-cost pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leasing and full-cost pricing. 426.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.6 Leasing and full-cost pricing. (a... exercisable options; however, for perennial crops with an average life longer than 10 years, the term may...

  17. 43 CFR 426.6 - Leasing and full-cost pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leasing and full-cost pricing. 426.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.6 Leasing and full-cost pricing. (a... exercisable options; however, for perennial crops with an average life longer than 10 years, the term may...

  18. 43 CFR 426.6 - Leasing and full-cost pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Leasing and full-cost pricing. 426.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.6 Leasing and full-cost pricing. (a... exercisable options; however, for perennial crops with an average life longer than 10 years, the term may...

  19. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  20. 48 CFR 15.403-2 - Other circumstances where certified cost or pricing data are not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... certified cost or pricing data are not required. 15.403-2 Section 15.403-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Contract Pricing 15.403-2 Other circumstances where certified cost or pricing data are not required. (a) The exercise of an option at the price established at contract award or initial negotiation does...

  1. 48 CFR 15.403-2 - Other circumstances where certified cost or pricing data are not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... certified cost or pricing data are not required. 15.403-2 Section 15.403-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Contract Pricing 15.403-2 Other circumstances where certified cost or pricing data are not required. (a) The exercise of an option at the price established at contract award or initial negotiation does...

  2. 48 CFR 15.403-2 - Other circumstances where certified cost or pricing data are not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... certified cost or pricing data are not required. 15.403-2 Section 15.403-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Contract Pricing 15.403-2 Other circumstances where certified cost or pricing data are not required. (a) The exercise of an option at the price established at contract award or initial negotiation does...

  3. 48 CFR 15.403-2 - Other circumstances where certified cost or pricing data are not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... certified cost or pricing data are not required. 15.403-2 Section 15.403-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Contract Pricing 15.403-2 Other circumstances where certified cost or pricing data are not required. (a) The exercise of an option at the price established at contract award or initial negotiation does...

  4. 48 CFR 15.403-2 - Other circumstances where certified cost or pricing data are not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... certified cost or pricing data are not required. 15.403-2 Section 15.403-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Contract Pricing 15.403-2 Other circumstances where certified cost or pricing data are not required. (a) The exercise of an option at the price established at contract award or initial negotiation does...

  5. Direct calculation of average and marginal costs from the productive structure of an energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzaretto, A.; Macor, A.

    1995-09-01

    Most of the thermoeconomic accounting and optimization methods for energy systems are based upon a definition of the productive purpose for each component. On the basis of this definition, a productive structure of the system can be defined in which the interactions among the components are described by their fuel product. The aim of this work is to calculate marginal and average unit costs of the exergy flows starting from their definitions by a direct inspection of the productive structure. As a main result, it is noticed that the only differences between marginal and average unit cost equations are located in the capital cost terms of input-output cost balance equations of the components. The method is illustrated using a cogenerative stream power plant and a combined gas-steam power plant.

  6. Increases in consumer cost sharing redirect patient volumes and reduce hospital prices for orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C; Brown, Timothy T

    2013-08-01

    Some employers are implementing reference-pricing benefit designs, which establish limits on the amount they will pay for some procedures covered by employer-sponsored insurance. Employees are required to pay the difference between the employer's contribution limit and the actual price received by the hospital. These initiatives encourage patients to select low-price facilities and indirectly encourage facilities to reduce prices to increase patient volume. We evaluated the impact of reference pricing on the use of and prices paid for knee and hip replacement surgery by members of the California Public Employees' Retirement System (CalPERS) from 2008 to 2012, using enrollees in Anthem Blue Cross as a comparison group. In the first year after implementation, surgical volumes for CalPERS members increased by 21.2 percent at low-price facilities and decreased by 34.3 percent at high-price facilities. Prices charged to CalPERS members declined by 5.6 percent at low-price facilities and by 34.3 percent at high-price facilities. Our analysis indicates that in 2011 reference pricing accounted for $2.8 million in savings for CalPERS and $0.3 million in lower cost sharing for CalPERS members.

  7. Fairness and dynamic pricing: comments

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-07-15

    In ''The Ethics of Dynamic Pricing,'' Ahmad Faruqui lays out a case for improved efficiency in using dynamic prices for retail electricity tariffs and addresses various issues about the distributional effects of alternative pricing mechanisms. The principal contrast is between flat or nearly constant energy prices and time-varying prices that reflect more closely the marginal costs of energy and capacity. The related issues of fairness criteria, contracts, risk allocation, cost allocation, means testing, real-time pricing, and ethical policies of electricity market design also must be considered. (author)

  8. Impact of Coverage-Dependent Marginal Costs on Optimal HPV Vaccination Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ryser, Marc D.; McGoff, Kevin; Herzog, David P.; Sivakoff, David J.; Myers, Evan R.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of vaccinating males against the human papillomavirus (HPV) remains a controversial subject. Many existing studies conclude that increasing female coverage is more effective than diverting resources into male vaccination. Recently, several empirical studies on HPV immunization have been published, providing evidence of the fact that marginal vaccination costs increase with coverage. In this study, we use a stochastic agent-based modeling framework to revisit the male vaccination debate in light of these new findings. Within this framework, we assess the impact of coverage-dependent marginal costs of vaccine distribution on optimal immunization strategies against HPV. Focusing on the two scenarios of ongoing and new vaccination programs, we analyze different resource allocation policies and their effects on overall disease burden. Our results suggest that if the costs associated with vaccinating males are relatively close to those associated with vaccinating females, then coverage-dependent, increasing marginal costs may favor vaccination strategies that entail immunization of both genders. In particular, this study emphasizes the necessity for further empirical research on the nature of coverage-dependent vaccination costs. PMID:25979280

  9. Proportional Transaction Costs in the Robust Control Approach to Option Pricing: The Uniqueness Theorem

    SciTech Connect

    El Farouq, Naïma; Bernhard, Pierre

    2015-10-15

    We prove the missing uniqueness theorem for the viscosity solution of a quasi-variational inequality related to a minimax impulse control problem modeling the option pricing with proportional transactions costs. This result makes our robust control approach of option pricing in the interval market model essentially complete.

  10. A Distribution-class Locational Marginal Price (DLMP) Index for Enhanced Distribution Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinbode, Oluwaseyi Wemimo

    The smart grid initiative is the impetus behind changes that are expected to culminate into an enhanced distribution system with the communication and control infrastructure to support advanced distribution system applications and resources such as distributed generation, energy storage systems, and price responsive loads. This research proposes a distribution-class analog of the transmission LMP (DLMP) as an enabler of the advanced applications of the enhanced distribution system. The DLMP is envisioned as a control signal that can incentivize distribution system resources to behave optimally in a manner that benefits economic efficiency and system reliability and that can optimally couple the transmission and the distribution systems. The DLMP is calculated from a two-stage optimization problem; a transmission system OPF and a distribution system OPF. An iterative framework that ensures accurate representation of the distribution system's price sensitive resources for the transmission system problem and vice versa is developed and its convergence problem is discussed. As part of the DLMP calculation framework, a DCOPF formulation that endogenously captures the effect of real power losses is discussed. The formulation uses piecewise linear functions to approximate losses. This thesis explores, with theoretical proofs, the breakdown of the loss approximation technique when non-positive DLMPs/LMPs occur and discusses a mixed integer linear programming formulation that corrects the breakdown. The DLMP is numerically illustrated in traditional and enhanced distribution systems and its superiority to contemporary pricing mechanisms is demonstrated using price responsive loads. Results show that the impact of the inaccuracy of contemporary pricing schemes becomes significant as flexible resources increase. At high elasticity, aggregate load consumption deviated from the optimal consumption by up to about 45 percent when using a flat or time-of-use rate. Individual load

  11. 48 CFR 1815.403-170 - Waivers of cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 1815.403-170 Waivers of cost or pricing data. (a) NASA has waived the requirement for the submission of... subcontractors to support any required proposal analysis, including a technical analysis and a cost realism... found and refunded to NASA. (b) NASA has waived the requirement for the submission of cost or...

  12. 48 CFR 1815.403-170 - Waivers of cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 1815.403-170 Waivers of cost or pricing data. (a) NASA has waived the requirement for the submission of... subcontractors to support any required proposal analysis, including a technical analysis and a cost realism... found and refunded to NASA. (b) NASA has waived the requirement for the submission of cost or...

  13. 48 CFR 1815.403-170 - Waivers of cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1815.403-170 Waivers of cost or pricing data. (a) NASA has waived the requirement for the submission of... subcontractors to support any required proposal analysis, including a technical analysis and a cost realism... found and refunded to NASA. (b) NASA has waived the requirement for the submission of cost or...

  14. 48 CFR 1815.403-170 - Waivers of cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 1815.403-170 Waivers of cost or pricing data. (a) NASA has waived the requirement for the submission of... subcontractors to support any required proposal analysis, including a technical analysis and a cost realism... found and refunded to NASA. (b) NASA has waived the requirement for the submission of cost or...

  15. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  16. Twice-weighted multiple interval estimation of a marginal structural model to analyze cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Goldfeld, K S

    2014-03-30

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is an important tool that can be applied to the evaluation of a health treatment or policy. When the observed costs and outcomes result from a nonrandomized treatment, making causal inference about the effects of the treatment requires special care. The challenges are compounded when the observation period is truncated for some of the study subjects. This paper presents a method of unbiased estimation of cost-effectiveness using observational study data that is not fully observed. The method-twice-weighted multiple interval estimation of a marginal structural model-was developed in order to analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatment protocols for advanced dementia residents living nursing homes when they become acutely ill. A key feature of this estimation approach is that it facilitates a sensitivity analysis that identifies the potential effects of unmeasured confounding on the conclusions concerning cost-effectiveness.

  17. College Costs, Prices and the Great Recession. Lumina Issue Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nate

    2014-01-01

    As states and families begin to recover from the effects of the Great Recession, some of the urgency about college affordability may start to ease. The most recent "Trends in College Pricing" report shows tuition rising more slowly than in recent years (Baum and Ma 2013). Growth in Pell grant applications is also expected to slow as…

  18. CONSUMPTION AND RESPONSE OUTPUT AS A FUNCTION OF UNIT PRICE: MANIPULATION OF COST AND BENEFIT COMPONENTS

    PubMed Central

    Delmendo, Xeres; Borrero, John C; Beauchamp, Kenneth L; Francisco, Monica T

    2009-01-01

    We conducted preference assessments with 4 typically developing children to identify potential reinforcers and assessed the reinforcing efficacy of those stimuli. Next, we tested two predictions of economic theory: that overall consumption (reinforcers obtained) would decrease as the unit price (response requirement per reinforcer) increased and that the cost and benefit components that defined unit price would not influence overall consumption considerably when unit price values were equal. We tested these predictions by arranging unit price such that the denominator was one (e.g., two responses produced one reinforcer) or two (e.g., four responses produced two reinforcers). Results showed that consumption decreased as unit price increased and that unit price values with different components produced similar consumption. PMID:20190922

  19. Consumption and response output as a function of unit price: manipulation of cost and benefit components.

    PubMed

    Delmendo, Xeres; Borrero, John C; Beauchamp, Kenneth L; Francisco, Monica T

    2009-01-01

    We conducted preference assessments with 4 typically developing children to identify potential reinforcers and assessed the reinforcing efficacy of those stimuli. Next, we tested two predictions of economic theory: that overall consumption (reinforcers obtained) would decrease as the unit price (response requirement per reinforcer) increased and that the cost and benefit components that defined unit price would not influence overall consumption considerably when unit price values were equal. We tested these predictions by arranging unit price such that the denominator was one (e.g., two responses produced one reinforcer) or two (e.g., four responses produced two reinforcers). Results showed that consumption decreased as unit price increased and that unit price values with different components produced similar consumption.

  20. Optimal pricing policies for services with consideration of facility maintenance costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Ruey Huei; Lin, Yi-Fang

    2012-06-01

    For survival and success, pricing is an essential issue for service firms. This article deals with the pricing strategies for services with substantial facility maintenance costs. For this purpose, a mathematical framework that incorporates service demand and facility deterioration is proposed to address the problem. The facility and customers constitute a service system driven by Poisson arrivals and exponential service times. A service demand with increasing price elasticity and a facility lifetime with strictly increasing failure rate are also adopted in modelling. By examining the bidirectional relationship between customer demand and facility deterioration in the profit model, the pricing policies of the service are investigated. Then analytical conditions of customer demand and facility lifetime are derived to achieve a unique optimal pricing policy. The comparative statics properties of the optimal policy are also explored. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effects of parameter variations on the optimal pricing policy.

  1. Prices, Costs, and Affordability of New Medicines for Hepatitis C in 30 Countries: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tay-Teo, Kiu; Vogler, Sabine; Beyer, Peter; Wiktor, Stefan; de Joncheere, Kees; Hill, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction New hepatitis C virus (HCV) medicines have markedly improved treatment efficacy and regimen tolerability. However, their high prices have limited access, prompting wide debate about fair and affordable prices. This study systematically compared the price and affordability of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir across 30 countries to assess affordability to health systems and patients. Methods and Findings Published 2015 ex-factory prices for a 12-wk course of treatment were provided by the Pharma Price Information (PPI) service of the Austrian public health institute Gesundheit Österreich GmbH or were obtained from national government or drug reimbursement authorities and recent press releases, where necessary. Prices in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and select low- and middle-income countries were converted to US dollars using period average exchange rates and were adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP). We analysed prices compared to national economic performance and estimated market size and the cost of these drugs in terms of countries’ annual total pharmaceutical expenditure (TPE) and in terms of the duration of time an individual would need to work to pay for treatment out of pocket. Patient affordability was calculated using 2014 OECD average annual wages, supplemented with International Labour Organization median wage data where necessary. All data were compiled between 17 July 2015 and 25 January 2016. For the base case analysis, we assumed a 23% rebate/discount on the published price in all countries, except for countries with special pricing arrangements or generic licensing agreements. The median nominal ex-factory price of a 12-wk course of sofosbuvir across 26 OECD countries was US$42,017, ranging from US$37,729 in Japan to US$64,680 in the US. Central and Eastern European countries had higher PPP-adjusted prices than other countries: prices of sofosbuvir in Poland and Turkey (PPP

  2. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditions of the subagreement, this subpart and the cost principles included in 41 CFR 1-15.2 and 1-15.4... borrowed capital and bad debts. (6) The engineer shall have an accounting system which accounts for costs... FPR cost principles (41 CFR 1-15.2 and 1-15.4) at the time of award....

  3. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions of the subagreement, this subpart and the cost principles included in 41 CFR 1-15.2 and 1-15.4... borrowed capital and bad debts. (6) The engineer shall have an accounting system which accounts for costs... FPR cost principles (41 CFR 1-15.2 and 1-15.4) at the time of award....

  4. Cost accounting models used for price-setting of health services: an international review.

    PubMed

    Raulinajtys-Grzybek, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article was to present and compare cost accounting models which are used in the area of healthcare for pricing purposes in different countries. Cost information generated by hospitals is further used by regulatory bodies for setting or updating prices of public health services. The article presents a set of examples from different countries of the European Union, Australia and the United States and concentrates on DRG-based payment systems as they primarily use cost information for pricing. Differences between countries concern the methodology used, as well as the data collection process and the scope of the regulations on cost accounting. The article indicates that the accuracy of the calculation is only one of the factors that determine the choice of the cost accounting methodology. Important aspects are also the selection of the reference hospitals, precise and detailed regulations and the existence of complex healthcare information systems in hospitals.

  5. Estimation of the full marginal costs of port related truck traffic.

    PubMed

    Berechman, Joseph

    2009-11-01

    NY region is expected to grow by additional 1 million people by 2020, which translates into roughly 70 million more tons of goods to be delivered annually. Due to lack of rail capacity, mainly trucks will haul this volume of freight, challenging an already much constrained highway network. What are the total costs associated with this additional traffic, in particular, congestion, safety and emission? Since a major source of this expected flow is the Port of New York-New Jersey, this paper focuses on the estimation of the full marginal costs of truck traffic resulting from the further expansion of the port's activities. PMID:19796817

  6. Crowdsourcing healthcare costs: Opportunities and challenges for patient centered price transparency.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Zachary F; VonHoltz, Lauren A Houdek; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-03-01

    Efforts to improve health care price transparency have garnered significant attention from patients, policy makers, and health insurers. In response to increasing consumer demand, state governments, insurance plans, and health care providers are reporting health care prices. However, such data often do not provide consumers with the most salient information: their own actual out-of-pocket cost for medical care. Although untested, crowdsourcing, a mechanism for the public to help answer complex questions, represents a potential solution to the problem of opaque hospital costs. This article explores, the challenges and potential opportunities for crowdsourcing out-of-pocket costs for healthcare consumers. PMID:27001090

  7. Fuel prices, emission standards, and generation costs for coal vs natural gas power plants.

    PubMed

    Pratson, Lincoln F; Haerer, Drew; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2013-05-01

    Low natural gas prices and stricter, federal emission regulations are promoting a shift away from coal power plants and toward natural gas plants as the lowest-cost means of generating electricity in the United States. By estimating the cost of electricity generation (COE) for 304 coal and 358 natural gas plants, we show that the economic viability of 9% of current coal capacity is challenged by low natural gas prices, while another 56% would be challenged by the stricter emission regulations. Under the current regulations, coal plants would again become the dominant least-cost generation option should the ratio of average natural gas to coal prices (NG2CP) rise to 1.8 (it was 1.42 in February 2012). If the more stringent emission standards are enforced, however, natural gas plants would remain cost competitive with a majority of coal plants for NG2CPs up to 4.3.

  8. Automobile Industry Retail Price Equivalent and Indirect Cost Multipliers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report develops a modified multiplier, referred to as an indirect cost (IC) multiplier, which specifically evaluates the components of indirect costs that are likely to be affected by vehicle modifications associated with environmental regulation. A range of IC multipliers a...

  9. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditions of the subagreement, this subpart and the cost principles included in 41 CFR 1-15.2 and 1-15.4... FPR cost principles (41 CFR 1-15.2 and 1-15.4) at the time of award. ... data the selected engineer submitted; (iii) a certification of review and acceptance of the...

  10. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  11. Pollution's Price--The Cost in Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the detrimental effects of air pollution, and especially sulfur dioxide, on human health. Any relaxation of existing national air pollution standards because of the energy crisis could be costly in terms of the nation's health. (JR)

  12. Utility cost accounting and market pricing of electricity at the Naval Postgraduate School. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Murdter, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    This thesis demonstrates that significant cost savings may be realized at the Naval Postgraduate School by accounting for utilities costs with market pricing methods instead of engineering estimates of consumption for nonmetered users and by streamlining the current invoice processing procedures. Electricity demand curves for each element of the supplier rate structure were constructed from recent consumption data and price elasticities of demand from the literature. The deadweight losses from overconsumption were calculated and compared to the costs of installing meters capable of recording time-of-use and peak demand. The current invoice processing procedures were analyzed and spreadsheet tools were developed to streamline the processes and avoid interest charges from late payment. The results of the research indicate that market pricing of electricity and accelerated invoice processing would result in significant savings to the Naval Postgraduate School. Utilities, Electricity, Deadweight loss.

  13. Scaling and long-range dependence in option pricing III: A fractional version of the Merton model with transaction costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Tian; Yan, Hai-Gang; Tang, Ming-Ming; Zhu, En-Hui

    2010-02-01

    A model for option pricing of fractional version of the Merton model with ‘Hurst exponent’ H being in [1/2,1) is established with transaction costs. In particular, for H∈(1/2,1) the minimal price Cmin(t,St) of an option under transaction costs is obtained, which displays that the timestep δt and the ‘Hurst exponent’ H play an important role in option pricing with transaction costs.

  14. Lookback Option Pricing with Fixed Proportional Transaction Costs under Fractional Brownian Motion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiao-Jiao; Zhou, Shengwu; Zhang, Yan; Han, Miao; Wang, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The pricing problem of lookback option with a fixed proportion of transaction costs is investigated when the underlying asset price follows a fractional Brownian motion process. Firstly, using Leland's hedging method a partial differential equation satisfied by the value of the lookback option is derived. Then we obtain its numerical solution by constructing a Crank-Nicolson format. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed form is verified through a numerical example. Meanwhile, the impact of transaction cost rate and volatility on lookback option value is discussed. PMID:27433525

  15. Reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai; Gong, Chengzhu; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-15

    This paper analyses the reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China based on provincial panel data for 2001-2010. Using a parameterized quadratic form for the directional output distance function, we find that if agricultural sectors in all provinces were to produce on the production frontier, China could potentially reduce agricultural emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) by 16.0%, 16.2%, and 20.4%, respectively. Additionally, our results show that the shadow price of TN increased rapidly and continuously, while that of COD and TP fluctuated for the whole period. For the whole country, the average shadow price of COD, TN, and TP are 8266 Yuan/tonne, 25,560 Yuan/tonne, and 10,160 Yuan/tonne, respectively. The regional shadow prices of agricultural pollutants are unbalanced. Furthermore, we show that the pollution costs from emissions of COD, TN, and TP are 6.09% of the annual gross output value of the agricultural sector and are highest in the Western and lowest in the Eastern provinces. Our estimates suggest that there is scope for further pollution abatement and simultaneous output expansion for China's agriculture if farmers promote greater efficiency in their production process. Policymakers are required to dynamically adjust the pollution tax rates and ascertain the initial permit price in an emission trading system. Policymakers should also consider the different pollution costs for each province when making the reduction allocations within the agricultural sector.

  16. Why Do Higher-Education Costs Rise More Rapidly than Prices in General?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Robert B.; Feldman, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Why do costs in higher education rise more rapidly than prices in general? They do so due to four factors: (1) higher education is a personal-service industry; (2) higher education relies on highly educated labor; (3) because of increased capital usage (in the form of the new technologies), higher education's reliance on highly educated labor has…

  17. 48 CFR 5252.215-9000 - Submission of cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submission of cost or pricing data. 5252.215-9000 Section 5252.215-9000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions...

  18. 48 CFR 5252.215-9000 - Submission of cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Submission of cost or pricing data. 5252.215-9000 Section 5252.215-9000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions...

  19. Increasing Fuel Costs Hit Hard: Districts Change Policies to Offset Rising Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that with fuel prices soaring nationwide, reaching more than $4 for each gallon of gas or diesel, school districts are struggling to supplement transportation-budget shortfalls and find ways to offset the increasing costs as a new school year approaches. Now districts--most of whose buses run on diesel fuel--are scrambling to…

  20. 48 CFR 970.1504-3-1 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... any tier. (c) The clauses at 48 CFR 52.215-12 and 48 CFR 52.215-13 shall be included in management and... pricing data. (a) The certification requirements of 48 CFR 15.406-2 are not applied to DOE cost... negotiated subcontract or modification of a subcontract in accordance with 48 CFR 15.406-2, and...

  1. 48 CFR 970.1504-3-1 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... any tier. (c) The clauses at 48 CFR 52.215-12 and 48 CFR 52.215-13 shall be included in management and... pricing data. (a) The certification requirements of 48 CFR 15.406-2 are not applied to DOE cost... negotiated subcontract or modification of a subcontract in accordance with 48 CFR 15.406-2, and...

  2. 48 CFR 970.1504-3-1 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... any tier. (c) The clauses at 48 CFR 52.215-12 and 48 CFR 52.215-13 shall be included in management and... pricing data. (a) The certification requirements of 48 CFR 15.406-2 are not applied to DOE cost... negotiated subcontract or modification of a subcontract in accordance with 48 CFR 15.406-2, and...

  3. 48 CFR 970.1504-3-1 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... any tier. (c) The clauses at 48 CFR 52.215-12 and 48 CFR 52.215-13 shall be included in management and... pricing data. (a) The certification requirements of 48 CFR 15.406-2 are not applied to DOE cost... negotiated subcontract or modification of a subcontract in accordance with 48 CFR 15.406-2, and...

  4. 48 CFR 970.1504-3-1 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... any tier. (c) The clauses at 48 CFR 52.215-12 and 48 CFR 52.215-13 shall be included in management and... pricing data. (a) The certification requirements of 48 CFR 15.406-2 are not applied to DOE cost... negotiated subcontract or modification of a subcontract in accordance with 48 CFR 15.406-2, and...

  5. Study of College Costs and Prices: 1988-89 to 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alisa F.; Wellman, Jane V.; Clinedinst, Melissa E.; Merisotis, Jamie P.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes trends in costs paid by postsecondary institutions to provide education, prices paid by students and their families, and revenues received by institutions. Also explores relationships among these variables. Universe data are primarily from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System. (SLD)

  6. Putting a Price Tag on the Common Core: How Much Will Smart Implementation Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patrick; Regenstein, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English language arts and mathematics represent a sea change in standards-based reform and their implementation is the movement's next--and greatest--challenge. Yet, while most states have now set forth implementation plans, these tomes seldom address the crucial matter of cost. Putting a Price Tag on the…

  7. Congressionally Mandated Studies of College Costs and Prices. NCES 2003-171

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2002

    2002-01-01

    In its 1998 Amendments to the Higher Education Act, Congress directed the Commissioner of Education Statistics to conduct a study of higher education costs paid by institutions and prices paid by students and their families for a postsecondary education. (For the full law, see: http://www.ed.gov/legislation/HEA/sec101C.html). Section 131 of the…

  8. Accounting for the drug life cycle and future drug prices in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health technologies typically assume constant real drug prices and model only the cohort of patients currently eligible for treatment. It has recently been suggested that, in the UK, we should assume that real drug prices decrease at 4% per annum and, in New Zealand, that real drug prices decrease at 2% per annum and at patent expiry the drug price falls. It has also recently been suggested that we should model multiple future incident cohorts. In this article, the cost effectiveness of drugs is modelled based on these ideas. Algebraic expressions are developed to capture all costs and benefits over the entire life cycle of a new drug. The lifetime of a new drug in the UK, a key model parameter, is estimated as 33 years, based on the historical lifetime of drugs in England over the last 27 years. Under the proposed methodology, cost effectiveness is calculated for seven new drugs recently appraised in the UK. Cost effectiveness as assessed in the future is also estimated. Whilst the article is framed in mathematics, the findings and recommendations are also explained in non-mathematical language. The 'life-cycle correction factor' is introduced, which is used to convert estimates of cost effectiveness as traditionally calculated into estimates under the proposed methodology. Under the proposed methodology, all seven drugs appear far more cost effective in the UK than published. For example, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio decreases by 46%, from £61, 900 to £33, 500 per QALY, for cinacalcet versus best supportive care for end-stage renal disease, and by 45%, from £31,100 to £17,000 per QALY, for imatinib versus interferon-α for chronic myeloid leukaemia. Assuming real drug prices decrease over time, the chance that a drug is publicly funded increases over time, and is greater when modelling multiple cohorts than with a single cohort. Using the methodology (compared with traditional methodology) all drugs in the UK and New

  9. Essays on price dynamics and consumer search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew Stephen

    It has been documented that retail gasoline prices respond more quickly to increases in wholesale price than to decreases. However, there is very little theoretical or empirical evidence identifying the market characteristics responsible for this behavior. Chapter 2 presents a new theoretical model of asymmetric adjustment that empirically matches observed retail gasoline price behavior better than previously suggested explanations. I develop a "reference price" consumer search model that assumes consumers' expectations of prices are based on prices observed during previous purchases. The model predicts that consumers search less when prices are falling. This reduced search results in higher profit margins and therefore causes a slower price response to cost decreases than to cost increases. Chapter 3 discusses the robustness of some of the important assumptions of the reference price search model, and describes the effects of altering these assumptions. Chapter 4 develops testable implications that distinguish my model from two alternative explanations of asymmetric adjustment. The first is a model in which firms temporarily collude using past prices as a focal price. The second theory suggests that increases in wholesale cost volatility reduce consumer search behavior. Using a panel of gas station prices, I estimate the response pattern of prices to a change in costs. Estimates are consistent with the predictions of the reference price search model and contradict the previously suggested explanations of asymmetric price adjustment. Chapter 5 examines the empirical fact that price response varies depending on the current level of profit margins. This fact is contrasted with the common empirical observation that response differs based on the direction of the change in cost. I go on to document that this relationship between price response and margins is observed in gasoline markets across the country.

  10. Ownership, competition, and the adoption of new technologies and cost-saving practices in a fixed-price environment.

    PubMed

    Hirth, R A; Chernew, M E; Orzol, S M

    2000-01-01

    Advances in medical technology have been implicated as the primary cause of rising health care expenditures. It is not yet known whether the increasing prevalence of managed care mechanisms, particularly capitation, will change substantially incentives for acquiring and using cost-increasing innovations. We examined the decisions of dialysis units (a set of providers that has faced capitation and real decreases in payment for several decades) with respect to use of cost-increasing technologies that enhance quality of care, cost-cutting practices that reduce quality of care, and amenities desired by patients that are unrelated to quality of care. We found that the dialysis payment system does not appear to have blocked access to a number of new, quality-enhancing technologies that were developed in the 1980s. However, facilities made adjustments along other valuable margins to facilitate adoption of these technologies; use of new technologies varied with numerous facility, regulatory, and case-mix characteristics including ownership, chain membership, size, market competition, and certificate of need programs. Interestingly, the trade-offs made by for-profit and nonprofit facilities when faced with fixed prices appeared quite different. For-profits tended to deliver lower technical quality of care but more amenities, while nonprofits favored technical quality of care over amenities. Our findings may have implications for the response of other types of health care providers to capitation and increasing economic constraints. PMID:11111285

  11. Estimating the environmental and resource costs of leakage in water distribution systems: A shadow price approach.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Mocholí-Arce, Manuel; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2016-10-15

    Water scarcity is one of the main problems faced by many regions in the XXIst century. In this context, the need to reduce leakages from water distribution systems has gained almost universal acceptance. The concept of sustainable economic level of leakage (SELL) has been proposed to internalize the environmental and resource costs within economic level of leakage calculations. However, because these costs are not set by the market, they have not often been calculated. In this paper, the directional-distance function was used to estimate the shadow price of leakages as a proxy of their environmental and resource costs. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of leakage externalities. An empirical application was carried out for the main Chilean water companies. The estimated results indicated that for 2014, the average shadow price of leakages was approximately 32% of the price of the water delivered. Moreover, as a sensitivity analysis, the shadow prices of the leakages were calculated from the perspective of the water companies' managers and the regulator. The methodology and findings of this study are essential for supporting the decision process of reducing leakage, contributing to the improvement of economic, social and environmental efficiency and sustainability of urban water supplies.

  12. Estimating the environmental and resource costs of leakage in water distribution systems: A shadow price approach.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Mocholí-Arce, Manuel; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2016-10-15

    Water scarcity is one of the main problems faced by many regions in the XXIst century. In this context, the need to reduce leakages from water distribution systems has gained almost universal acceptance. The concept of sustainable economic level of leakage (SELL) has been proposed to internalize the environmental and resource costs within economic level of leakage calculations. However, because these costs are not set by the market, they have not often been calculated. In this paper, the directional-distance function was used to estimate the shadow price of leakages as a proxy of their environmental and resource costs. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of leakage externalities. An empirical application was carried out for the main Chilean water companies. The estimated results indicated that for 2014, the average shadow price of leakages was approximately 32% of the price of the water delivered. Moreover, as a sensitivity analysis, the shadow prices of the leakages were calculated from the perspective of the water companies' managers and the regulator. The methodology and findings of this study are essential for supporting the decision process of reducing leakage, contributing to the improvement of economic, social and environmental efficiency and sustainability of urban water supplies. PMID:27289397

  13. Competitive pricing of nonrenewable natural resources: cases of increasing costs and of deregulation under uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis examines the time path of the competitive price for exhaustible natural resources when the current extraction costs increase through time due to the effects of past extraction. The analysis is done within a partial-equilibrium framework. The situation of increasing costs will occur whenever the material differs in its extraction costs and there is choice as to the order in which the material is removed. This thesis also examines the behavior of an exhaustible natural resource sector that is currently under price regulation but where the industry may be deregulated. The knowledge about the possible deregulation date is contained in a general subjective density function which has a continuum of possible dates and their likelihood of being the date of deregulation. The effects on the competitive time paths in a world of certainty of different dates for the removal of price ceilings and price floors are also examined. And there is an examination of the special case where the uncertainty is described by a negative exponential distribution. All the results about regulation and deregulation differ immensely from those of a static analysis.

  14. The importance of vehicle costs, fuel prices, and fuel efficiency to HEV market success.

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D. J.; Patterson, P. D.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-12-08

    Toyota's introduction of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) named ''Prius'' in Japan and Honda's proposed introduction of an HEV in the United States have generated considerable interest in the long-term viability of such fuel-efficient vehicles. A performance and cost projection model developed entirely at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is used here to estimate costs. ANL staff developed fuel economy estimates by extending conventional vehicle (CV) modeling done primarily under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Together, these estimates are employed to analyze dollar costs vs. benefits of two of many possible HEV technologies. We project incremental costs and fuel savings for a Prius-type low-performance hybrid (14.3 seconds zero to 60 mph acceleration, 260 time) and a higher-performance ''mild'' hybrid vehicle, or MHV (11 seconds 260 time). Each HEV is compared to a U.S. Toyota Corolla with automatic transmission (11 seconds 260 time). The base incremental retail price range, projected a decade hence, is $3,200-$3,750, before considering battery replacement cost. Historical data are analyzed to evaluate the effect of fuel price on consumer preferences for vehicle fuel economy, performance, and size. The relationship between fuel price, the level of change in fuel price, and consumer attitude toward higher fuel efficiency is also evaluated. A recent survey on the value of higher fuel efficiency is presented and U.S. commercial viability of the hybrids is evaluated using discount rates of 2090 and 870. Our analysis, with our current HEV cost estimates and current fuel savings estimates, implies that the U.S. market for such HEVS would be quite limited.

  15. The definition of prices for inpatient care in Poland in the absence of cost data.

    PubMed

    Kozierkiewicz, Adam; Stamirski, Maciej; Stylo, Waldemar; Trabka, Wojciech

    2006-08-01

    The health reform of 1999 in Poland introduced market-like relations in the health care sector. The oligopsonic and the current monopsomic position of the payer makes prices for health care products purchased in this quasi-market low and does not usually take into account the costs of production. Despite a long history of cost calculation in the system, a systematic and reliable assessment of costs is still lacking which would help in setting up fair financing. At the same time providers complain about the dictatorship of the National Health Fund (NHF) yet they rarely resign from contracts with the NHF when they have the chance to conclude one.

  16. Scaling and long-range dependence in option pricing II: Pricing European option with transaction costs under the mixed Brownian-fractional Brownian model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Tian; Zhu, En-Hui; Tang, Ming-Ming; Yan, Hai-Gang

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete-time option pricing by the mixed Brownian-fractional Brownian model with transaction costs. By a mean-self-financing delta hedging argument in a discrete-time setting, a European call option pricing formula is obtained. In particular, the minimal pricing cmin(t,st) of an option under transaction costs is obtained, which shows that timestep δt and Hurst exponent H play an important role in option pricing with transaction costs. In addition, we also show that there exists fundamental difference between the continuous-time trade and discrete-time trade and that continuous-time trade assumption will result in underestimating the value of a European call option.

  17. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortgang, H. R.; Mayers, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units are presented. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1,000, 25,000, 100,000 and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It is concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  18. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Marques, G.; Mohamed, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbours at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  19. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Marques, G.; Mohamed, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins have become more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoir operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  20. Transport Sector Marginal Abatement Cost Curves in Computable General Equilibrium Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippichai, Atit; Fukuda, Atsushi; Morisugi, Hisayoshi

    In the last decade, computable general equilibrium (CGE) models have emerged a standard tool for climate policy evaluation due to their abilities to prospectively elucidate the character and magnitude of the economic impacts of energy and environmental policies. Furthermore, marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves which represent GHG emissions reduction potentials and costs can be derived from these top-down economic models. However, most studies have never address MAC curves for a specific sector that have a large coverage of countries which are needed for allocation of optimal emission reductions. This paper aims to explicitly describe the meaning and character of MAC curves for transport sector in a CGE context through using the AIM/CGE Model developed by Toshihiko Masui. It found that the MAC curves derived in this study are the inverse of the general equilibrium reduction function for CO2 emissions. Moreover, the transport sector MAC curves for six regions including USA, EU-15, Japan, China, India, and Brazil, derived from this study are compared to the reduction potentials under 100 USD/tCO2 in 2020 from a bottom-up study. The results showed that the ranking of the regional reduction potentials in transport sector from this study are almost same with the bottom-up study except the ranks of the EU-15 and China. In addition, the range of the reduction potentials from this study is wider and only the USA has higher potentials than those derived from the bottom-up study.

  1. A Methodology for Evaluating Technical Performance Parameter Design Margins to Control Earth and Space Science Instrument Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones-Selden, Felicia L.

    Costs of aerospace missions have increased over the last twenty years, placing the future of the space program in jeopardy. A potential source for such growth can be attributed to the complex multidisciplinary and challenging nature of earth and space science instrument development. Design margins are additional resources carried in technical performance parameters to mitigate uncertainties throughout the product lifecycle. Margins are traditionally derived and allocated based upon historical experience intrinsic to organizations, as opposed to quantitative methods, jeopardizing the development of low-cost space-based instruments. This dissertation utilizes a methodology to evaluate the interrelationships between pre-launch and actual launch margins for the key technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate to identify the extent to which excessive or insufficient margins are used in the design of space-based instruments in an effort to control instrument cost growth. The research examined 62 space-based instruments from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Federally Funded Research and Development Centers, and universities. Statistical analysis consisting of paired t-tests and multiple linear regression were utilized to determine the degree to which space-based instruments are over or under designed by the use of excessive or insufficient design margins and to determine the effect of design margins for the technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate on the percentage instrument cost growth from the preliminary design phase to launch. Findings confirm, that in the implementation of space-based instruments, design margins are allocated to technical performance parameters above suggested government/industry standards, impacting the development of low-cost space-based instruments. The findings provide senior leadership, systems engineers, project managers, and resource managers with the ability to determine where

  2. Cost, Price and Public Policy: Peering into the Higher Education Black Box. New Agenda Series[TM], Volume 1, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, William L.; Cunningham, Alisa F.

    This report contains a conceptual framework for analyzing costs and prices by evaluating the higher education production function and the determinants of both prices and costs. The framework can be used to strengthen understanding of costs and prices within individual institutions and to inform macro level investments at state and national levels.…

  3. Pricing landfill externalities: Emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The paper estimates landfill externalities associated with emissions, disamenities and transport. > Transport externalities vary from 24.22 to 31.42 Rands per tonne. > Costs of emissions (estimated using benefits transfer) vary from 0.07 to 28.91 Rands per tonne. > Disamenities (estimated using hedonic pricing) vary from 0.00 to 57.46 Rands per tonne. > Overall, external costs for urban landfills exceed those of a regional landfill. - Abstract: The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  4. Price-transparency and cost accounting: challenges for health care organizations in the consumer-driven era.

    PubMed

    Hilsenrath, Peter; Eakin, Cynthia; Fischer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC) to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers. PMID:25862425

  5. Price-transparency and cost accounting: challenges for health care organizations in the consumer-driven era.

    PubMed

    Hilsenrath, Peter; Eakin, Cynthia; Fischer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC) to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers.

  6. The impact of relative energy prices on industrial energy consumption in China: a consideration of inflation costs.

    PubMed

    He, Lingyun; Ding, Zhihua; Yin, Fang; Wu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Significant effort has been exerted on the study of economic variables such as absolute energy prices to understand energy consumption and economic growth. However, this approach ignores general inflation effects, whereby the prices of baskets of goods may rise or fall at different rates from those of energy prices. Thus, it may be the relative energy price, not the absolute energy price, that has most important effects on energy consumption. To test this hypothesis, we introduce a new explanatory variable, the domestic relative energy price, which we define as "the ratio of domestic energy prices to the general price level of an economy," and we test the explanatory power of this new variable. Thus, this paper explores the relationship between relative energy prices and energy consumption in China from the perspective of inflation costs over the period from 1988 to 2012. The direct, regulatory and time-varying effects are captured using methods such as ridge regression and the state-space model. The direct impacts of relative energy prices on total energy consumption and intensity are -0.337 and -0.250, respectively; the effects of comprehensive regulation on energy consumption through the economic structure and the energy structure are -0.144 and -0.148, respectively; and the depressing and upward effects of rising and falling energy prices on energy consumption are 0.3520 and 0.3564, respectively. When economic growth and the energy price level were stable, inflation persisted; thus, rising energy prices benefitted both the economy and the environment. Our analysis is important for policy makers to establish effective energy-pricing policies that ensure both energy conservation and the stability of the pricing system. PMID:27398277

  7. The impact of relative energy prices on industrial energy consumption in China: a consideration of inflation costs.

    PubMed

    He, Lingyun; Ding, Zhihua; Yin, Fang; Wu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Significant effort has been exerted on the study of economic variables such as absolute energy prices to understand energy consumption and economic growth. However, this approach ignores general inflation effects, whereby the prices of baskets of goods may rise or fall at different rates from those of energy prices. Thus, it may be the relative energy price, not the absolute energy price, that has most important effects on energy consumption. To test this hypothesis, we introduce a new explanatory variable, the domestic relative energy price, which we define as "the ratio of domestic energy prices to the general price level of an economy," and we test the explanatory power of this new variable. Thus, this paper explores the relationship between relative energy prices and energy consumption in China from the perspective of inflation costs over the period from 1988 to 2012. The direct, regulatory and time-varying effects are captured using methods such as ridge regression and the state-space model. The direct impacts of relative energy prices on total energy consumption and intensity are -0.337 and -0.250, respectively; the effects of comprehensive regulation on energy consumption through the economic structure and the energy structure are -0.144 and -0.148, respectively; and the depressing and upward effects of rising and falling energy prices on energy consumption are 0.3520 and 0.3564, respectively. When economic growth and the energy price level were stable, inflation persisted; thus, rising energy prices benefitted both the economy and the environment. Our analysis is important for policy makers to establish effective energy-pricing policies that ensure both energy conservation and the stability of the pricing system.

  8. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-21... catalog price, including how the proposed price relates to the price of recent sales in quantities similar... reference with the same force and effect as though it were inserted here in full text. The instructions...

  9. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-21... catalog price, including how the proposed price relates to the price of recent sales in quantities similar... reference with the same force and effect as though it were inserted here in full text. The instructions...

  10. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-20 Requirements for... the established catalog price, including how the proposed price relates to the price of recent sales... inserted here in full text. The instructions in Table 15-2 are incorporated as a mandatory format to...

  11. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... establishing the price offered. If the price is controlled under law by periodic rulings, reviews, or similar... pricing data, and supporting attachments in accordance with the instructions contained in Table 15-2 of... inserted here in full text. The instructions in Table 15-2 are incorporated as a mandatory format to...

  12. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... establishing the price offered. If the price is controlled under law by periodic rulings, reviews, or similar... pricing data, and supporting attachments in accordance with the instructions contained in Table 15-2 of... inserted here in full text. The instructions in Table 15-2 are incorporated as a mandatory format to...

  13. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... establishing the price offered. If the price is controlled under law by periodic rulings, reviews, or similar... pricing data, and supporting attachments in accordance with the instructions contained in Table 15-2 of... inserted here in full text. The instructions in Table 15-2 are incorporated as a mandatory format to...

  14. SU-F-BRD-06: Dosimetric Cost of a GTV Margin for Simultaneous Integrated Intra- Prostatic Boost Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Studenski, M; Abramowitz, M; Dogan, N; Pollack, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quantify the dosimetric cost for a margin around the MRI-defined high risk GTV for simultaneous integrated intra-prostatic boosts (SIIB) treated with RapidArc. Methods: For external beam radiotherapy of the prostate, a 3-7 mm PTV margin is typically used to account for setup and intra-fraction uncertainties after adjusting for inter-fraction motion. On the other hand, our current paradigm is to treat the MRI-defined high risk GTV with no margin. In this work, 11 patients treated SIIB (7 post-prostatectomy, 4 intact prostate) with RapidArc were re-planned with 1-5 mm margins around the GTV to quantify dosimetric effects. Two 358 degree, 10 MV RapidArcs were used to deliver 68 Gy (76.5 Gy boost) to the post-prostatectomy patients and 80 Gy (86 Gy boost) to the intact prostates. Paired, two tail t-tests were used to determine if there were any significant differences (p<0.05) in the total MUs and dosimetric parameters used to evaluate rectum, bladder, and PTV dose with and without margin. Results: The average GTV volume without margin was 8.1cc (2.8% of the PTV volume) while the average GTV volume with a 5 mm margin was 20.1cc (9.0% of the PTV volume). GTV volumes ranged from 0.2% of the PTV volume up to 33.0%. Despite these changes in volume, the only statistical difference was found for the rectal V65 Gy with a 5 mm margin (18.6% vs. 19.4%; p-value = 0.026) when all patients were considered as a single group. No difference was found when analyzed as two groups. The rectum V40Gy, bladder V40Gy and V65Gy, PTV Dmax and D95% or the total MUs did not show any significant difference for any margin. Conclusion: A 4 mm margin on the high risk GTV is possible with no statistically significant change in dosimetry or total MUs. Further work will assess the appropriate margin required for intra-prostatic boosts.

  15. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

  16. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  17. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

  18. Burned children pay a costly price for carelessness and wrong behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, A.A.M.; El-Hadidy, A.M.; Zeid, T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Burns are among the most devastating injuries of all and they are responsible for higher hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality rates than other injuries in children. In addition, the management of burns and their sequelae is extremely expensive. Carelessness and wrong behaviours are the main players in burn injuries, especially in children, independently of their socioeconomic level. These burned children pay a costly price. The purpose of this study is to analyse the mechanisms of burn injuries in children in order to highlight the importance of behavioural changes for the reduction of burn injuries in children. PMID:23466898

  19. Cost accounting methodologies in price setting of acute inpatient services in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Gaal, Peter; Stefka, Nóra; Nagy, Júlia

    2006-08-01

    On the basis of documentary analysis and interviews with decision makers, this paper discusses the cost accounting methodologies used for price setting of inpatient services in the Hungarian health care system focusing on sector of acute inpatient care, which is financed through the Hungarian adaptation of Diagnosis Related Groups since 1993. Hungary has a quite sophisticated DRG system, which had a deep impact on the efficiency of the acute inpatient care sector. Nevertheless, the system requires continuous maintenance, where the cooperation of hospitals, as well as the minimisation of political influence are critical success factors.

  20. Joint pricing and production management: a geometric programming approach with consideration of cubic production cost function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Hamidi Hesarsorkh, Aghil; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Bonyadi Naeini, Ali

    2014-08-01

    Coordination and harmony between different departments of a company can be an important factor in achieving competitive advantage if the company corrects alignment between strategies of different departments. This paper presents an integrated decision model based on recent advances of geometric programming technique. The demand of a product considers as a power function of factors such as product's price, marketing expenditures, and consumer service expenditures. Furthermore, production cost considers as a cubic power function of outputs. The model will be solved by recent advances in convex optimization tools. Finally, the solution procedure is illustrated by numerical example.

  1. Pricing landfill externalities: emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill. PMID:21696939

  2. Some Simple Arguments about Cost Externalization and its Relevance to the Price of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.; Winfree, R.

    1999-09-27

    The primary goal of fusion energy research is to develop a source of energy that is less harmful to the environment than are the present sources. A concern often expressed by critics of fusion research is that fusion energy will never be economically competitive with fossil fuels, which in 1997 provided 75% of the world's energy. And in fact, studies of projected fusion electricity generation generally project fusion costs to be higher than those of conventional methods. Yet it is widely agreed that the environmental costs of fossil fuel use are high. Because these costs aren't included in the market price, and furthermore because many governments subsidize fossil fuel production, fossil fuels seem less expensive than they really are. Here we review some simple arguments about cost externalization which provide a useful background for discussion of energy prices. The collectively self-destructive behavior that is the root of many environmental problems, including fossil fuel use, was termed ''the tragedy of the commons'' by the biologist G. Hardin. Hardin's metaphor is that of a grazing commons that is open to all. Each herdsman, in deciding whether to add a cow to his herd, compares the benefit of doing so, which accrues to him alone, to the cost, which is shared by all the herdsmen using the commons, and therefore adds his cow. In this way individually rational behavior leads to the collective destruction of the shared resource. As Hardin pointed out, pollution is one kind of tragedy of the commons. CO{sub 2} emissions and global warming are in this sense classic tragedies.

  3. The hidden cost of low prices: limited access to new drugs in India.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Ernst R; Cockburn, Iain M

    2014-09-01

    The pricing and accessibility of patent-protected drugs in low- and middle-income countries is a contentious issue in the global context. But questions about price have little meaning if a drug is not available for purchase, and the extent to which patent policy affects when (and if) new drugs become available in these countries has largely been overlooked. We examined data on the sales of 184 drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration between 2000 and 2009. We found that 50 percent of those 184 drugs went on sale in India only after lags of more than five years from their first worldwide introduction. More than half of the drugs that became newly available in India during the study period were produced and sold by multiple manufacturers in the country within one year of their introduction. The presence of multiple manufacturers indicates sharp competition and weak patent protection--factors that are disincentives to manufacturers to incur the costs of gaining access to the market. We conclude that modest patent and regulatory reform could bring the faster availability of a wider range of new drugs in India with limited impact on prices--a trade-off that merits greater policy attention.

  4. Activism on rifapentine pricing: removing cost barriers to improve the uptake of tuberculosis research innovations.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, A; Frick, M; Lessem, E; Kanouse, J; Wegener, D; Mingote, L Ruiz

    2014-12-21

    As recent advances have been made in developing tools to fight tuberculosis (TB), there is also a trend towards increasing advocacy by the civil society for TB research and access. One recent successful effort to increase access to treatment options for TB involved a collaborative effort to identify the need for and barriers to the use of rifapentine (RPT) use in the United States. Survey responses confirmed the under-utilization of RPT: 82% of survey respondents selected cost as a significant or potential barrier to use. Survey results provided data to support a year-long advocacy campaign urging the drug company Sanofi to lower the price of RPT. This campaign was based on a common evidence base built in part by the stakeholders themselves. After multiple engagements with communities and providers, Sanofi US announced on 12 December 2013 that they would drop the price of RPT to US$32 per blister pack of 32 tablets for US public health programs. While further work remains to secure access to RPT in the United States and worldwide, the lowering of the price of RPT reflects the positive impact that collaborative advocacy can accomplish, and sets an example for other drug companies to follow.

  5. The hidden cost of low prices: limited access to new drugs in India.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Ernst R; Cockburn, Iain M

    2014-09-01

    The pricing and accessibility of patent-protected drugs in low- and middle-income countries is a contentious issue in the global context. But questions about price have little meaning if a drug is not available for purchase, and the extent to which patent policy affects when (and if) new drugs become available in these countries has largely been overlooked. We examined data on the sales of 184 drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration between 2000 and 2009. We found that 50 percent of those 184 drugs went on sale in India only after lags of more than five years from their first worldwide introduction. More than half of the drugs that became newly available in India during the study period were produced and sold by multiple manufacturers in the country within one year of their introduction. The presence of multiple manufacturers indicates sharp competition and weak patent protection--factors that are disincentives to manufacturers to incur the costs of gaining access to the market. We conclude that modest patent and regulatory reform could bring the faster availability of a wider range of new drugs in India with limited impact on prices--a trade-off that merits greater policy attention. PMID:25201661

  6. 48 CFR 15.403-4 - Requiring certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contracting officer to determine that the price is fair and reasonable. (2) A Certificate of Current Cost or..., the cost or pricing data were accurate, complete, and current as of the date of agreement on price or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requiring certified...

  7. A Pedagogical Note on the Superiority of Price-Cap Regulation to Rate-of-Return Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currier, Kevin M.; Jackson, Brian K.

    2008-01-01

    The two forms of natural monopoly regulation that are typically discussed in intermediate microeconomics textbooks are marginal cost pricing and average cost pricing (rate-of-return regulation). However, within the last 20 years, price-cap regulation has largely replaced rate-of-return regulation because of the former's potential to generate more…

  8. 25 CFR 900.116 - Are negotiated fixed-price contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are negotiated fixed-price contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts? 900.116 Section 900.116 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts? Yes, except that in negotiated...

  9. 25 CFR 900.116 - Are negotiated fixed-price contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are negotiated fixed-price contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts? 900.116 Section 900.116 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts? Yes, except that in negotiated...

  10. 25 CFR 900.116 - Are negotiated fixed-price contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are negotiated fixed-price contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts? 900.116 Section 900.116 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts? Yes, except that in negotiated...

  11. 25 CFR 900.116 - Are negotiated fixed-price contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are negotiated fixed-price contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts? 900.116 Section 900.116 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts? Yes, except that in negotiated...

  12. 25 CFR 900.116 - Are negotiated fixed-price contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are negotiated fixed-price contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts? 900.116 Section 900.116 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... contracts treated the same as cost-reimbursable contracts? Yes, except that in negotiated...

  13. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... supplier's purchase price shall be taken into account. (2) Overall profit percentage limitation. Under... the following examples: Example 1. R and F are calendar year taxpayers. R, a domestic manufacturing company, owns all the stock of F, a FSC for the taxable year. During 1985, R produces and sells 100...

  14. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... supplier's purchase price shall be taken into account. (2) Overall profit percentage limitation. Under... the following examples: Example 1. R and F are calendar year taxpayers. R, a domestic manufacturing company, owns all the stock of F, a FSC for the taxable year. During 1985, R produces and sells 100...

  15. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... supplier's purchase price shall be taken into account. (2) Overall profit percentage limitation. Under... the following examples: Example 1. R and F are calendar year taxpayers. R, a domestic manufacturing company, owns all the stock of F, a FSC for the taxable year. During 1985, R produces and sells 100...

  16. Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A

    2009-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Our behaviour towards other people depends not only on what they have done to us but also on what they have done to others. Indirect reciprocity works through reputation. The standard model of indirect reciprocity offers a binary choice: people can either cooperate or defect. Cooperation implies a cost for the donor and a benefit for the recipient. Defection has no cost and yields no benefit. Currently there is considerable interest in studying the effect of costly (or altruistic) punishment on human behaviour. Punishment implies a cost for the punished person. Costly punishment means that the punisher also pays a cost. It has been suggested that costly punishment between individuals can promote cooperation. Here we study the role of costly punishment in an explicit model of indirect reciprocity. We analyse all social norms, which depend on the action of the donor and the reputation of the recipient. We allow errors in assigning reputation and study gossip as a mechanism for establishing coherence. We characterize all strategies that allow the evolutionary stability of cooperation. Some of those strategies use costly punishment; others do not. We find that punishment strategies typically reduce the average payoff of the population. Consequently, there is only a small parameter region where costly punishment leads to an efficient equilibrium. In most cases the population does better by not using costly punishment. The efficient strategy for indirect reciprocity is to withhold help for defectors rather than punishing them.

  17. Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A

    2009-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Our behaviour towards other people depends not only on what they have done to us but also on what they have done to others. Indirect reciprocity works through reputation. The standard model of indirect reciprocity offers a binary choice: people can either cooperate or defect. Cooperation implies a cost for the donor and a benefit for the recipient. Defection has no cost and yields no benefit. Currently there is considerable interest in studying the effect of costly (or altruistic) punishment on human behaviour. Punishment implies a cost for the punished person. Costly punishment means that the punisher also pays a cost. It has been suggested that costly punishment between individuals can promote cooperation. Here we study the role of costly punishment in an explicit model of indirect reciprocity. We analyse all social norms, which depend on the action of the donor and the reputation of the recipient. We allow errors in assigning reputation and study gossip as a mechanism for establishing coherence. We characterize all strategies that allow the evolutionary stability of cooperation. Some of those strategies use costly punishment; others do not. We find that punishment strategies typically reduce the average payoff of the population. Consequently, there is only a small parameter region where costly punishment leads to an efficient equilibrium. In most cases the population does better by not using costly punishment. The efficient strategy for indirect reciprocity is to withhold help for defectors rather than punishing them. PMID:19122640

  18. Nonrenewable resource extraction under discontinuous price policy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalt, J.P.; Otten, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Temporal discontinuities in public policy with respect to nonrenewable resource pricing can have significant impacts on the time patterns of resource extraction. These impacts arise from the effect of price discontinuities on the relative values of Hotelling rents across time periods. Whether faced with intertemporal price continuity or price discontinuity, the planning task of the wealth-maximizing producer is to equate the present value of each period's marginal contribution to the stream of net revenues from production across time. This rule for extraction provides the key to understanding the response to a price jump such as occurs upon the removal of price controls. The rational producer holds back at least some output until the price jump occurs. At the moment, the producer pushes output up sharply, raising marginal extraction cost by the absolute amount of the price jump and, thereby, maintaining the value of the Hotelling rent given by the gap between price and marginal extraction cost. US natural gas policy options, as well as plausible alternatives, are simulated to illustrate the effects of discontinuous regulatory regimes. 15 references, 1 table.

  19. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  20. The UNESCO Bioethics Declaration 'social responsibility' principle and cost-effectiveness price evaluations for essential medicines.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas Alured

    2005-07-01

    The United Nations Scientific, Education and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has commenced drafting a Universal Bioethics Declaration. Some in the relevant UNESCO drafting committee have previously desired to restrict its content to general principles concerning the application (but not necessarily the goals) of science and technology. As potentially a crucial agenda-setting statement of global bioethics, however, it is arguable important the Universal Bioethics Declaration transparently address major bioethical dilemmas in the field of public health, such as universal access to affordable, essential medicines. Article 13 (Social Responsibility) of the Preliminary Draft Universal Bioethics Declaration states: 'Any decision or practice shall ensure that progress in science and technology contributes, wherever possible, to the common good, including the achievement of goals such as: (i) access to quality health care and essential medicines, including for reproductive health and health of children.' Cost effectiveness pricing systems, such as that most notably used in Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), arguably represent one of the most scientifically effective mechanisms whereby public monies may be utilised to assist in the provision of medicines for the common good. They contain two essential elements: first, a process of scientific evaluation of objectively demonstrated therapeutic significance, and then, a fiscal lever (the government reimbursement price) attached to that evaluation. It is now well established that the US Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers Association (Pharma), through the assistance of the US Trade Representative (USTR), saw the Australia United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) as an opportunity to fulfill a legislative mandate to 'eliminate' the cost-effectiveness pricing system in Australia's PBS. One of the most remarkable features of the arguments raised against the PBS in this context was the fact that they made

  1. The UNESCO Bioethics Declaration 'social responsibility' principle and cost-effectiveness price evaluations for essential medicines.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas Alured

    2005-07-01

    The United Nations Scientific, Education and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has commenced drafting a Universal Bioethics Declaration. Some in the relevant UNESCO drafting committee have previously desired to restrict its content to general principles concerning the application (but not necessarily the goals) of science and technology. As potentially a crucial agenda-setting statement of global bioethics, however, it is arguable important the Universal Bioethics Declaration transparently address major bioethical dilemmas in the field of public health, such as universal access to affordable, essential medicines. Article 13 (Social Responsibility) of the Preliminary Draft Universal Bioethics Declaration states: 'Any decision or practice shall ensure that progress in science and technology contributes, wherever possible, to the common good, including the achievement of goals such as: (i) access to quality health care and essential medicines, including for reproductive health and health of children.' Cost effectiveness pricing systems, such as that most notably used in Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), arguably represent one of the most scientifically effective mechanisms whereby public monies may be utilised to assist in the provision of medicines for the common good. They contain two essential elements: first, a process of scientific evaluation of objectively demonstrated therapeutic significance, and then, a fiscal lever (the government reimbursement price) attached to that evaluation. It is now well established that the US Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers Association (Pharma), through the assistance of the US Trade Representative (USTR), saw the Australia United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) as an opportunity to fulfill a legislative mandate to 'eliminate' the cost-effectiveness pricing system in Australia's PBS. One of the most remarkable features of the arguments raised against the PBS in this context was the fact that they made

  2. An approach to assess the marginal environmental costs for flow regulation: an example in three European rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jalon Diego, Garcia; de Jalon Silvestre, Garcia; Tanago Marta, Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades there has been a growing concern about water environmental costs. 'Polluter should pay' has been a phrase repeated in numerous policy-making processes. Water abstraction for Irrigation, Hydropower or water supply for Domestic or Industrial porpoises alters natural flow regimes impacting severely fluvial Ecosystems. The objective of this paper is to develop an evaluation of the marginal environmental costs for flow regulation. This approach is based on the idea 'who regulates flows should pay' and the amount to be paid should be proportional on the intensity, duration and frequency of the resulting regulated flows. The methodology proposed includes three separated steps: (i) estimating the natural flow regime of a river segment through studying the hydrologic conditions before the river is affected by a determined anthropogenic impact, (ii) assessing the hydrologic alteration of the river segment according to the estimated natural flow regime, and (iii) calculating marginal environmental costs of water supply. The three different case studies where the methodology was applied were the Esla River (Spain), the Upper River Tyne (England) and the Marna River (Norway).

  3. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: a policy and decision making guide for efficient water use in crop production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, Abebe; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Reducing water footprints (WF) in irrigated crop production is an essential element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, policy and decision making need to be supported with information on marginal cost curves that rank measures to reduce the WF according to their cost-effectiveness and enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a certain reasonable WF benchmark. This paper aims to develop marginal cost curves (MCC) for WF reduction. The AquaCrop model is used to explore the effect of different measures on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus WF that is used as input in the MCC. Measures relate to three dimensions of management practices: irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip); irrigation strategies (full and deficit irrigation); and mulching practices (no mulching, organic and synthetic mulching). A WF benchmark per crop is calculated as resulting from the best-available production technology. The marginal cost curve is plotted using the ratios of the marginal cost to WF reduction of the measures as ordinate, ranking with marginal costs rise with the increase of the reduction effort. For each measure, the marginal cost to reduce WF is estimated by comparing the associated WF and net present value (NPV) to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The NPV for each measure is based on its capital costs, operation and maintenances costs (O&M) and revenues. A range of cases is considered, including: different crops, soil types and different environments. Key words: marginal cost curve, water footprint benchmark, soil water balance, crop growth, AquaCrop

  4. Dual pricing algorithm in ISO markets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    O'Neill, Richard P.; Castillo, Anya; Eldridge, Brent; Hytowitz, Robin Broder

    2016-10-10

    The challenge to create efficient market clearing prices in centralized day-ahead electricity markets arises from inherent non-convexities in unit commitment problems. When this aspect is ignored, marginal prices may result in economic losses to market participants who are part of the welfare maximizing solution. In this essay, we present an axiomatic approach to efficient prices and cost allocation for a revenue neutral and non-confiscatory day-ahead market. Current cost allocation practices do not adequately attribute costs based on transparent cost causation criteria. Instead we propose an ex post multi-part pricing scheme, which we refer to as the Dual Pricing Algorithm. Lastly,more » our approach can be incorporated into current dayahead markets without altering the market equilibrium.« less

  5. An Economic Analysis of Textbook Pricing and Textbook Markets. ACSFA College Textbook Cost Study Plan Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1986 and 2004, textbook prices rose 186 percent in the United States, or slightly more than six percent per year. Meanwhile, other prices rose only about three percent per year. This paper examines the economic reasons why textbook prices have escalated so briskly and what reasonable alternatives are available that might slow down these…

  6. Technology choice in a least-cost expansion analysis framework: Effects of gas price, planning period, and system characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Guziel, K.A.; South, D.W.; Bhatarakamol, S.; Poch, L.A.

    1990-04-01

    The current outlook for new capacity additions by electric utilities is uncertain and tenuous. The fundamental question about the additional capacity requirements center on technology choice and the factors influencing the decision process. Instead of building capital-intensive power plants, utilities have begun relying on natural gas technologies, which permit rapid construction and deployment and low capital investment. Of concern to policymakers and utility planners are the following questions: (1) What is the impact of alternative gas price projections on technology choice (2) What influence does the planning horizon have on technology choice (3) How important are existing system characteristics on technology choice (4) What effect does capital cost, when combined with other technology characteristics in a capacity expansion framework, have on technology choice In this study Argonne National Laboratory examined the impact of these concerns on technology choices in 10 representative power pools with a dynamic optimization expansion model, the Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP). At least-cost expansion plan was determined for each power pool with three candidate technologies--natural gas combustion turbine technology (GT), natural gas combined-cycle technology (NGCC), and integrated gasification combined-cycle technology (IGCC)--three alternative fuel price tracks, and two planning periods (10-yr versus 30-yr optimization) between the years 1995 and 2025. The three fuel price tracks represented scenarios for low, medium, and high gas prices. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on IGCC capital cost and unserved energy costs. 21 refs., 79 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. 48 CFR 1615.406-2 - Certificates of accurate cost or pricing data for community rated carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION... knowledge and belief: (1) The cost or pricing data submitted (or, if not submitted, maintained and... with the requirements of 48 CFR Chapter 16 and the FEHB Program contract and are accurate,...

  8. 48 CFR 1615.406-2 - Certificates of accurate cost or pricing data for community rated carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION... certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief: (1) The cost or pricing data submitted (or, if not... were developed in accordance with the requirements of 48 CFR Chapter 16 and the FEHB Program...

  9. 75 FR 13414 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-012, Clarification of Submission of Cost or Pricing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... INFORMATION: A. Background DoD, GSA, and NASA published an interim rule in the Federal Register at 74 FR 11826... published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 11826 on March 19, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the... items with the Truth In Negotiation Act (TINA) threshold for cost or pricing data. DATES: Effective...

  10. Comparison of Nutrient Content and Cost of Home-Packed Lunches to Reimbursable School Lunch Nutrient Standards and Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cara M.; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee; Gustof, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient content and cost of home-packed lunches to nutrient standards and prices for reimbursable school lunches. Methods: Researchers observed food and beverage contents of 333 home packed lunches at four north Texas elementary schools. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze lunches for calories,…

  11. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... price is controlled under law by periodic rulings, reviews, or similar actions of a governmental body... in accordance with the instructions contained in Table 15-2 of FAR 15.408, which is incorporated by... Table 15-2 are incorporated as a mandatory format to be used in this contract, unless the...

  12. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... price is controlled under law by periodic rulings, reviews, or similar actions of a governmental body... in accordance with the instructions contained in Table 15-2 of FAR 15.408, which is incorporated by... Table 15-2 are incorporated as a mandatory format to be used in this contract, unless the...

  13. Contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic disparities in diet quality and health: a systematic review and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Context: It is well established in the literature that healthier diets cost more than unhealthy diets. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine the contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality. Data Sources: A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases was performed. Study Selection: Publications linking food prices, dietary quality, and socioeconomic status were selected. Data Extraction: Where possible, review conclusions were illustrated using a French national database of commonly consumed foods and their mean retail prices. Data Synthesis: Foods of lower nutritional value and lower-quality diets generally cost less per calorie and tended to be selected by groups of lower socioeconomic status. A number of nutrient-dense foods were available at low cost but were not always palatable or culturally acceptable to the low-income consumer. Acceptable healthier diets were uniformly associated with higher costs. Food budgets in poverty were insufficient to ensure optimum diets. Conclusions: Socioeconomic disparities in diet quality may be explained by the higher cost of healthy diets. Identifying food patterns that are nutrient rich, affordable, and appealing should be a priority to fight social inequalities in nutrition and health. PMID:26307238

  14. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Design Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. Setting England 2014-15. Population Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Interventions Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45p, and 50p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Main outcome measures Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers’ expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. Results The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers’ mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health—saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23 700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. Conclusions The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at

  15. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  16. Price pressure. As the number of costly specialty drugs grows, insurers and providers push for more reasonable alternatives.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2013-01-28

    Faced with a rising tide of specialty drugs with eyebrow-raising prices, hospitals and insurers are pushing back. That means looking for less-costly alternatives, though options are limited. "Our goal is, as more patients come along, we get them on Elelyso and not on more expensive Cerezyme," says Eric Cannon, chief of pharmacy for insurer SelectHealth. Elelyso entered the market in 2012 and costs about $150,000 per year for a patient, versus the more costly rival drug Cerezyme. PMID:23488108

  17. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Davidson, Carolyn; Fu, Ran; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scale systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.

  18. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  19. Natural gas price uncertainty and the cost-effectiveness of hedging against low hydropower revenues caused by drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Jordan D.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Foster, Benjamin T.

    2015-04-01

    Prolonged periods of low reservoir inflows (droughts) significantly reduce a hydropower producer's ability to generate both electricity and revenues. Given the capital intensive nature of the electric power industry, this can impact hydropower producers' ability to pay down outstanding debt, leading to credit rating downgrades, higher interests rates on new debt, and ultimately, greater infrastructure costs. One potential tool for reducing the financial exposure of hydropower producers to drought is hydrologic index insurance, in particular, contracts structured to payout when streamflows drop below a specified level. An ongoing challenge in developing this type of insurance, however, is minimizing contracts' "basis risk," that is, the degree to which contract payouts deviate in timing and/or amount from actual damages experienced by policyholders. In this paper, we show that consideration of year-to-year changes in the value of hydropower (i.e., the cost of replacing it with an alternative energy source during droughts) is critical to reducing contract basis risk. In particular, we find that volatility in the price of natural gas, a key driver of peak electricity prices, can significantly degrade the performance of index insurance unless contracts are designed to explicitly consider natural gas prices when determining payouts. Results show that a combined index whose value is derived from both seasonal streamflows and the spot price of natural gas yields contracts that exhibit both lower basis risk and greater effectiveness in terms of reducing financial exposure.

  20. Pharmaceutical price controls and patient welfare.

    PubMed

    Calfee, J E

    2001-06-01

    Price controls could have a substantial negative effect on pharmaceutical research and development. Extensive research is required before the development costs of a new drug or its benefits are known; most new drug development projects fail, sometimes after substantial financial and time costs. These conditions pose intractable practical problems for the operation of price controls, which cannot rest on objective, predictable standards such as the benefits or costs of individual drugs. In the absence of objective standards, pressure from health care providers and others would create powerful incentives for price regulators to decrease drug prices toward marginal costs of production and distribution, well below levels sufficient to reward innovative research. This downwardly biased price-setting mechanism would apply with particular force to the few successful projects that yield innovative drugs, whose prices would not be set by regulatory authorities until after research expenditures have been incurred and the new drugs are ready to enter the market. Manufacturers will expect price controls to reduce the potential payoffs from breakthrough drugs. This expectation would substantially reduce the incentives to pursue innovative research, as is evident in advanced economies in which price controls are now in force. Once established, price controls for pharmaceuticals, like those for medical services in the Medicare system, would also tend toward complexity and entrenchment of vested interests and could easily become permanent regardless of the harm they cause to patients. PMID:11388819

  1. Cost-effectiveness of tenofovir gel in urban South Africa: model projections of HIV impact and threshold product prices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is urgent need for effective HIV prevention methods that women can initiate. The CAPRISA 004 trial showed that a tenofovir-based vaginal microbicide had significant impact on HIV incidence among women. This study uses the trial findings to estimate the population-level impact of the gel on HIV and HSV-2 transmission, and price thresholds at which widespread product introduction would be as cost-effective as male circumcision in urban South Africa. Methods The estimated ‘per sex-act’ HIV and HSV-2 efficacies were imputed from CAPRISA 004. A dynamic HIV/STI transmission model, parameterised and fitted to Gauteng (HIV prevalence of 16.9% in 2008), South Africa, was used to estimate the impact of gel use over 15 years. Uptake was assumed to increase linearly to 30% over 10 years, with gel use in 72% of sex-acts. Full economic programme and averted HIV treatment costs were modelled. Cost per DALY averted is estimated and a microbicide price that equalises its cost-effectiveness to that of male circumcision is estimated. Results Using plausible assumptions about product introduction, we predict that tenofovir gel use could lead to a 12.5% and 4.9% reduction in HIV and HSV-2 incidence respectively, by year 15. Microbicide introduction is predicted to be highly cost-effective (under $300 per DALY averted), though the dose price would need to be just $0.12 to be equally cost-effective as male circumcision. A single dose or highly effective (83% HIV efficacy per sex-act) regimen would allow for more realistic threshold prices ($0.25 and $0.33 per dose, respectively). Conclusions These findings show that an effective coitally-dependent microbicide could reduce HIV incidence by 12.5% in this setting, if current condom use is maintained. For microbicides to be in the range of the most cost-effective HIV prevention interventions, product costs will need to decrease substantially. PMID:24405719

  2. Estimating the cost of improving service quality in water supply: A shadow price approach for England and wales.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Maziotis, Alexandros; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Service quality to customers is an aspect that cannot be ignored in the performance assessment of water companies. Nowadays water regulators introduce awards or penalties to incentivize companies to improve service quality to customers when setting prices. In this study, the directional distance function is employed to estimate the shadow prices of variables indicating the lack of service quality to customers in the water industry i.e., written complaints, unplanned interruptions and properties below the reference level. To calculate the shadow price of each undesirable output for each water company, it is needed to ascribe a reference price for the desirable output which is the volume of water delivered. An empirical application is carried out for water companies in England and Wales. Hence, the shadow price of each undesirable output is expressed both as a percentage of the price of the desirable output and in pence per cubic meter of water delivered The estimated results indicate that on average, each additional written complaint that needs to be dealt with by the water company includes a service quality cost of 0.399p/m(3). As expected, when looking at the other service quality variables which involve network repair or replacement, these values are considerably higher. On average, the water company must spend an extra 0.622p/m(3) to prevent one unplanned interruption and 0.702p/m(3) to avoid one water pressure below the reference level. The findings of this study are of great importance for regulated companies and regulators as it has been illustrated that improvements in the service quality in terms of customer service could be challenging and therefore ongoing investments will be required to address these issues.

  3. Estimating the cost of improving service quality in water supply: A shadow price approach for England and wales.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Maziotis, Alexandros; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Service quality to customers is an aspect that cannot be ignored in the performance assessment of water companies. Nowadays water regulators introduce awards or penalties to incentivize companies to improve service quality to customers when setting prices. In this study, the directional distance function is employed to estimate the shadow prices of variables indicating the lack of service quality to customers in the water industry i.e., written complaints, unplanned interruptions and properties below the reference level. To calculate the shadow price of each undesirable output for each water company, it is needed to ascribe a reference price for the desirable output which is the volume of water delivered. An empirical application is carried out for water companies in England and Wales. Hence, the shadow price of each undesirable output is expressed both as a percentage of the price of the desirable output and in pence per cubic meter of water delivered The estimated results indicate that on average, each additional written complaint that needs to be dealt with by the water company includes a service quality cost of 0.399p/m(3). As expected, when looking at the other service quality variables which involve network repair or replacement, these values are considerably higher. On average, the water company must spend an extra 0.622p/m(3) to prevent one unplanned interruption and 0.702p/m(3) to avoid one water pressure below the reference level. The findings of this study are of great importance for regulated companies and regulators as it has been illustrated that improvements in the service quality in terms of customer service could be challenging and therefore ongoing investments will be required to address these issues. PMID:26379261

  4. Pricing products: juxtaposing affordability with quality appeal.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Choosing appropriate product prices is 1 of the most crucial steps in creating an effective contraceptive social marketing (CSM) sales campaign. The Social Marketing Forum conducted an informal survey of social marketing project managers, international contractors, and marketing consultants to determine how CSM programs cope with pricing problems and ways to circumvent some obstacles. According to Diana Altman, a family planning consultant, low prices that make products available to needy individuals are more important than the program's self sufficiency, yet if prices are too low, consumers think the products were unusable in the US and thus were dumped on local markets. Other key factors include commercial competition, spiraling inflation rates, and problems with rising prices and retailer/distributor margins. A sampling of per capita gross national products indicates the poverty level of most CSM projects' target market. Consequently, CSM projects must set low pices, regardless of program operating costs. The goal often is to increase the demand and availability for contraceptives. The fact that social marketing products must pass through retail networks to reach consumers complicates the pricing equation. To deal with the problem, India's Nirodh program gives a 25% margin to distributors/wholesalers, compared to 6% offered on most other goods. Retailers also receive a 25% margin, more than double the commercial rate. Once prices are set, increases pose hazards. Local government approval often is a prerequisite and can require lengthy negotiations. Market studies remain a valuable approach to effective pricing, according to PNA's Mallamad and other research consultants. They cite such effective research strategies as test marketing products and asking consumers how prices affect buying habits. Further, CSM projects can jump over some pricing hurdles through creative marketing. An effective pricing strategy alone cannot produce a successful CSM program. Pricing

  5. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Market Price Forecast Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    This chapter presents BPA's market price forecasts, which are based on AURORA modeling. AURORA calculates the variable cost of the marginal resource in a competitively priced energy market. In competitive market pricing, the marginal cost of production is equivalent to the market-clearing price. Market-clearing prices are important factors for informing BPA's rates. AURORA is used as the primary tool for (a) calculation of the demand rate, (b) shaping the PF rate, (c) estimating the forward price for the IOU REP settlement benefits calculation for fiscal years 2008 and 2009, (d) estimating the uncertainty surrounding DSI payments, (e) informing the secondary revenue forecast and (f) providing a price input used for the risk analysis.

  6. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Market Price Forecast Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    This study presents BPA's market price forecasts for the Final Proposal, which are based on AURORA modeling. AURORA calculates the variable cost of the marginal resource in a competitively priced energy market. In competitive market pricing, the marginal cost of production is equivalent to the market-clearing price. Market-clearing prices are important factors for informing BPA's power rates. AURORA was used as the primary tool for (a) estimating the forward price for the IOU REP Settlement benefits calculation for fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2009, (b) estimating the uncertainty surrounding DSI payments and IOU REP Settlements benefits, (c) informing the secondary revenue forecast and (d) providing a price input used for the risk analysis. For information about the calculation of the secondary revenues, uncertainty regarding the IOU REP Settlement benefits and DSI payment uncertainty, and the risk run, see Risk Analysis Study WP-07-FS-BPA-04.

  7. 48 CFR 15.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a cost realism analysis; (iii) Consider whether cost data are necessary to determine a fair and... should request data to determine the cost realism of competing offers or to evaluate competing...

  8. 48 CFR 15.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a cost realism analysis; (iii) Consider whether cost data are necessary to determine a fair and... should request data to determine the cost realism of competing offers or to evaluate competing...

  9. 48 CFR 15.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a cost realism analysis; (iii) Consider whether cost data are necessary to determine a fair and... should request data to determine the cost realism of competing offers or to evaluate competing...

  10. 48 CFR 15.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a cost realism analysis; (iii) Consider whether cost data are necessary to determine a fair and... should request data to determine the cost realism of competing offers or to evaluate competing...

  11. Automatic control of electric thermal storage (heat) under real-time pricing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Daryanian, B.; Tabors, R.D.; Bohn, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Real-time pricing (RTP) can be used by electric utilities as a control signal for responsive demand-side management (DSM) programs. Electric thermal storage (ETS) systems in buildings provide the inherent flexibility needed to take advantage of variations in prices. Under RTP, optimal performance for ETS operations is achieved under market conditions where reductions in customers` costs coincide with the lowering of the cost of service for electric utilities. The RTP signal conveys the time-varying actual marginal cost of the electric service to customers. The RTP rate is a combination of various cost components, including marginal generation fuel and maintenance costs, marginal costs of transmission and distribution losses, and marginal quality of supply and transmission costs. This report describes the results of an experiment in automatic control of heat storage systems under RTP during the winter seasons of 1989--90 and 1990--91.

  12. Bounding the marginal cost of producing potable water including the use of seawater desalinization as a backstop potable water production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2014-04-01

    The analysis presented in this technical report should allow for the creation of high, medium, and low cost potable water prices for GCAM. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) based desalinization should act as a backstop for the cost of producing potable water (i.e., the literature seems clear that SWRO should establish an upper bound for the plant gate cost of producing potable water). Transporting water over significant distances and having to lift water to higher elevations to reach end-users can also have a significant impact on the cost of producing water. The three potable fresh water scenarios describe in this technical report are: low cost water scenario ($0.10/m3); medium water cost scenario ($1.00/m3); and high water cost scenario ($2.50/m3).

  13. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  14. Consumption and Response Output as a Function of Unit Price: Manipulation of Cost and Benefit Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delmendo, Xeres; Borrero, John C.; Beauchamp, Kenneth L.; Francisco, Monica T.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted preference assessments with 4 typically developing children to identify potential reinforcers and assessed the reinforcing efficacy of those stimuli. Next, we tested two predictions of economic theory: that overall consumption (reinforcers obtained) would decrease as the unit price (response requirement per reinforcer) increased and…

  15. Substitution and price elasticity estimates using inter-countrypooled data in a translog cost model

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Joyashree; Sanstad, Alan H.; Sathaye, Jayant A.; Khaddaria,Raman

    2006-06-01

    Pooled data across several developing countries and the U.S. were used to estimate long-run substitution and price elasticities ina translog framework for the paper, iron and steel, and aggregatemanufacturing industries. While the quality of the estimates variesacross the several industry-specific models, the results suggest highervalues for these elasticities than appear commonly used in integratedassessment models. Estimates of own-price elasticities of energy rangefrom - 0.80 to - 1.76 and are comparable to estimates from previouseconometric studies in the context of developed countries (- 0.77 to -0.87). Substitution elasticities show wider variation across countriesand industries. For energy and capital they range from -1.96 to 9.80, forlabor and energy from 2.61 to 7.11, and for energy and material from -0.26 to 2.07.

  16. 48 CFR 15.403-1 - Prohibition on obtaining certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements. The contracting officer shall not require certified cost or pricing data to support any action... as defined in FAR 2.101 to support a determination of a fair and reasonable price or cost realism... price is unreasonable must be supported by a statement of the facts and approved at a level above...

  17. How Much Does It Cost Institutions to Produce Stem Degrees? Data Brief. The Price and Cost of Science Degrees Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Cost Project at American Institutes for Research, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This AIR Data Brief breaks down the "cost per degree" estimates for 28 disciplines, including those in the STEM fields, which among the most expensive degrees to produce. The brief points to ways colleges can change their tuition structure to finance STEM degrees more affordably. This data brief is the fourth of four in the series. (See…

  18. Innovation in Nuclear Technology for the Least Product Price and Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, Romney

    2003-09-01

    In energy markets, costs dominate for all new technology introductions (pressure valves, gas turbines, reactors) both now and far into the future. Technology improves, and costs are reduced as markets are penetrated with the trend following a learning/experience curve (MCE) based on classic economic forces. The curve followed is governed by development costs and market targets, and nuclear systems follow such a curve in order to compete with other technologies and projected future cost for alternate energy initiatives. Funding impacts directly on market penetration and on the ''learning rate.'' The CANDU/AECL development path (experience curve) is a chosen balance between evolution and revolution for a competitive advantage.

  19. Direct Marginal Productivity of College Education in Relation to College Aptitude of Students and Production Costs of Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniere, Andre; Mechling, Jerry

    1970-01-01

    A statistical analysis of expected earnings flows and their present values considering students with different college aptitudes and institutions of different quality which provides marginal decision criteria for reallocation of resources in college education. (BC)

  20. The True Cost of College: The Price Students Pay for Further Education. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Fletcher, Mick; Munoz, Silvia; Whittaker, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the full cost to individuals of participating in further education in England and Wales--the nature and level of cost that individuals incur when they participate and the impact student financial support has on an individual's learning experience. Under taken jointly by the Learning and Skills Network and the National Union of…

  1. Optimal pricing and investment in the electricity sector in Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Ranganath Srinivas

    2001-07-01

    Faulty pricing policies and inadequate investment in the power sector are responsible for the chronic power shortages that plague Tamil Nadu and the rest of India. Formulae for optimal pricing rules are derived for a social welfare maximizing Electricity Board which sells electricity that is used both as an intermediate, and as a final good. Because of distributional constraints, the optimal prices deviate systematically from marginal costs. Optimal relative price-marginal cost differentials are computed for Tamil Nadu, and are found to indicate a lower degree of subsidization than the prevailing prices. The rationalization of electricity tariffs would very likely increase the Board's revenues. The cost-effectiveness of nuclear power in India is examined by comparing actual data for the Madras Atomic Power Project and the Singrauli coal-fired thermal power station. The conventional (non-environmental) costs of power generation are compared at both market prices and shadow prices, calculated according to the UNIDO guidelines for project evaluation. Despite favorable assumptions for the costs of the nuclear plant, coal had a decided edge over nuclear in Tamil Nadu. Remarkably, the edge varied little when market prices are replaced by shadow prices in the computations. With regard to the environmental costs, far too much remains unknown. More research is therefore needed on the environmental impacts of both types of power generation before a final choice can be made.

  2. Coal-fired power-plant-capital-cost estimates. Final report. [Mid-1978 price level; 13 different sites

    SciTech Connect

    Holstein, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    Conceptual designs and order-of-magnitude capital cost estimates have been prepared for typical 1000-MW coal-fired power plants. These subcritical plants will provide high efficiency in base load operation without excessive efficiency loss in cycling operation. In addition, an alternative supercritical design and a cost estimate were developed for each of the plants for maximum efficiency at 80 to 100% of design capacity. The power plants will be located in 13 representative regions of the United States and will be fueled by coal typically available in each region. In two locations, alternate coals are available and plants have been designed and estimated for both coals resulting in a total of 15 power plants. The capital cost estimates are at mid-1978 price level with no escalation and are based on the contractor's current construction projects. Conservative estimating parameters have been used to ensure their suitability as planning tools for utility companies. A flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been included for each plant to reflect the requirements of the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions. The estimated costs of the FGD facilities range from 74 to 169 $/kW depending on the coal characteristics and the location of the plant. The estimated total capital requirements for twin 500-MW units vary from 8088 $/kW for a southeastern plant burning bituminous Kentucky coal to 990 $/kW for a remote western plant burning subbituminous Wyoming coal.

  3. Higher prices in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1982-03-01

    Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion

  4. Price Estimation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.; Firnett, P. J.; Miller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG4, program provides comparatively simple, yet relatively accurate estimate of price of manufactured product. IPEG4 processes user supplied input data to determine estimate of price per unit of production. Input data include equipment cost, space required, labor cost, materials and supplies cost, utility expenses, and production volume on industry wide or process wide basis.

  5. Value of crops: Quantity, quality and cost price. [algae as a nutritional supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    1979-01-01

    Possibilities of using algae as a nutritional supplement are examined. The nutritional value and protein content of spirulines of blue algae are discussed. A cost analysis of growing them artificially is presented.

  6. Paying the price: the cost and consequences of emergency obstetric care in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Storeng, Katerini Tagmatarchi; Baggaley, Rebecca F; Ganaba, Rasmané; Ouattara, Fatoumata; Akoum, Mélanie S; Filippi, Véronique

    2008-02-01

    Substantial healthcare expenses can impoverish households or push them further into poverty. In this paper, we examine the cost of obstetric care and the social and economic consequences associated with exposure to economic shocks up to a year following the end of pregnancy in Burkina Faso. Burkina Faso is a low-income country with poor health outcomes and a poorly functioning health system. We present an inter-disciplinary analysis of an ethnographic study of 82 women nested in a prospective cohort study of 1013 women. We compare the experiences of women who survived life-threatening obstetric complications ('near-miss' events) with women who delivered without complications in hospitals. The cost of emergency obstetric care was significantly higher than the cost of care for uncomplicated delivery. Compared with women who had uncomplicated deliveries, women who survived near-miss events experienced substantial difficulties meeting the costs of care, reflecting the high cost of emergency obstetric care and the low socioeconomic status of their households. They reported more frequent sale of assets, borrowing and slower repayment of debt in the year following the expenditure. Healthcare costs consumed a large part of households' resources and women who survived near-miss events continued to spend significantly more on healthcare in the year following the event, while at the same time experiencing continued cost barriers to accessing healthcare. In-depth interviews confirm that the economic burden of emergency obstetric care contributed to severe and long-lasting consequences for women and their households. The necessity of meeting unexpectedly high costs challenged social expectations and patterns of reciprocity between husbands, wives and wider social networks, placed enormous strain on everyday survival and shaped physical, social and economic well-being in the year that followed the event. In conclusion, we consider the implications of our findings for financing

  7. The price of safety: costs for mitigating and coping with Alpine hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfurtscheller, C.; Thieken, A. H.

    2013-10-01

    Due to limited public budgets and the need to economize, the analysis of costs of hazard mitigation and emergency management of natural hazards becomes increasingly important for public natural hazard and risk management. In recent years there has been a growing body of literature on the estimation of losses which supported to help to determine benefits of measures in terms of prevented losses. On the contrary, the costs of mitigation are hardly addressed. This paper thus aims to shed some light on expenses for mitigation and emergency services. For this, we analysed the annual costs of mitigation efforts in four regions/countries of the Alpine Arc: Bavaria (Germany), Tyrol (Austria), South Tyrol (Italy) and Switzerland. On the basis of PPP values (purchasing power parities), annual expenses on public safety ranged from EUR 44 per capita in the Free State of Bavaria to EUR 216 in the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol. To analyse the (variable) costs for emergency services in case of an event, we used detailed data from the 2005 floods in the Federal State of Tyrol (Austria) as well as aggregated data from the 2002 floods in Germany. The analysis revealed that multi-hazards, the occurrence and intermixture of different natural hazard processes, contribute to increasing emergency costs. Based on these findings, research gaps and recommendations for costing Alpine natural hazards are discussed.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Price Subsidies on Fortified Packaged Infant Cereals in Reducing Iron Deficiency Anemia in 6-23-Month-Old-Children in Urban India

    PubMed Central

    Plessow, Rafael; Arora, Narendra Kumar; Brunner, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major public health problem in India and especially harmful in early childhood due to its impact on cognitive development and increased all-cause mortality. We estimate the cost-effectiveness of price subsidies on fortified packaged infant cereals (F-PICs) in reducing IDA in 6-23-monthold children in urban India. Materials and Methods Cost-effectiveness is estimated by comparing the net social cost of price subsidies with the disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted with price subsidies. The net social costs correspond to the cost of the subsidy minus the monetary costs saved by reducing IDA. The estimation proceeds in three steps: 1) the current lifetime costs of IDA are assessed with a health economic model combining the prevalence of anemia, derived from a large population survey, with information on the health consequences of IDA and their costs in terms of mortality, morbidity, and DALYs. 2) The effects of price subsidies on the demand for F-PICs are assessed with a market survey among 4801 households in 12 large Indian cities. 3) The cost-effectiveness is calculated by combining the findings of the first two steps with the results of a systematic review on the effectiveness of F-PICs in reducing IDA. We compare the cost-effectiveness of interventions that differ in the level of the subsidy and in the socio-economic strata (SES) eligible for the subsidy. Results The lifetime social costs of IDA in 6-23-month-old children in large Indian cities amount to production losses of 3222 USD and to 726,000 DALYs. Poor households incur the highest costs, yet even wealthier households suffer substantial losses. The market survey reveals that few households currently buy F-PICs, with the share ranging from 14% to 36%. Wealthier households are generally more likely to buy FPICs. The costs of the subsidies per DALY averted range from 909 to 3649 USD. Interventions targeted at poorer households are most effective. Almost

  9. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  10. The Price: A Study of the Costs of Racism in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    America cannot afford to continue to pay the sociopsychological, sociopolitical, and economic costs of racism. The economic and psychosocial benefits of racism to the majority population during the slavery era are obvious. Similar interests motivated the discriminatory treatment of African Americans during the Jim Crow period, when Whites still…

  11. 48 CFR 2152.216-70 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-risk charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-risk charge. 2152.216-70 Section 2152.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  12. 48 CFR 2152.216-70 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-risk charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-risk charge. 2152.216-70 Section 2152.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  13. 48 CFR 2152.216-70 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-risk charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-risk charge. 2152.216-70 Section 2152.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  14. 48 CFR 2152.216-71 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-service charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-service charge. 2152.216-71 Section 2152.216-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  15. 48 CFR 2152.216-71 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-service charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-service charge. 2152.216-71 Section 2152.216-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  16. 48 CFR 2152.216-70 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-risk charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-risk charge. 2152.216-70 Section 2152.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  17. 48 CFR 2152.216-71 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-service charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-service charge. 2152.216-71 Section 2152.216-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  18. 48 CFR 2152.216-71 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-service charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-service charge. 2152.216-71 Section 2152.216-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  19. Utility-Scale Solar 2014. An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Seel, Joachim

    2015-09-01

    Other than the nine Solar Energy Generation Systems (“SEGS”) parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or “utility-scale” solar projects – defined here to include any groundmounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar thermal power (“CSP”) project larger than 5 MWAC – existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in both 2013 and 2014 and that is expected to continue for at least the next few years. Over this same short period, CSP also experienced a bit of a renaissance in the United States, with a number of large new parabolic trough and power tower systems – some including thermal storage – achieving commercial operation. With this critical mass of new utility-scale projects now online and in some cases having operated for a number of years (generating not only electricity, but also empirical data that can be mined), the rapidly growing utility-scale sector is ripe for analysis. This report, the third edition in an ongoing annual series, meets this need through in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of not just installed project costs or prices – i.e., the traditional realm of solar economics analyses – but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects in the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are presented where appropriate.

  20. Enhancing the comparability of costing methods: cross-country variability in the prices of non-traded inputs to health programmes

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Benjamin; Adam, Taghreed; Evans, David B

    2006-01-01

    Background National and international policy makers have been increasing their focus on developing strategies to enable poor countries achieve the millennium development goals. This requires information on the costs of different types of health interventions and the resources needed to scale them up, either singly or in combinations. Cost data also guides decisions about the most appropriate mix of interventions in different settings, in view of the increasing, but still limited, resources available to improve health. Many cost and cost-effectiveness studies include only the costs incurred at the point of delivery to beneficiaries, omitting those incurred at other levels of the system such as administration, media, training and overall management. The few studies that have measured them directly suggest that they can sometimes account for a substantial proportion of total costs, so that their omission can result in biased estimates of the resources needed to run a programme or the relative cost-effectiveness of different choices. However, prices of different inputs used in the production of health interventions can vary substantially within a country. Basing cost estimates on a single price observation runs the risk that the results are based on an outlier observation rather than the typical costs of the input. Methods We first explore the determinants of the observed variation in the prices of selected "non-traded" intermediate inputs to health programmes – printed matter and media advertising, and water and electricity – accounting for variation within and across countries. We then use the estimated relationship to impute average prices for countries where limited data are available with uncertainty intervals. Results Prices vary across countries with GDP per capita and a number of determinants of supply and demand. Media and printing were inelastic with respect to GDP per capita, with a positive correlation, while the utilities had a surprisingly negative

  1. The price of peace: the personal and financial cost of paramilitary punishments in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Nolan, P C; McPherson, J; McKeown, R; Diaz, H; Wilson, D

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the injuries sustained during paramilitary punishments both before and after the onset of "peace" in Northern Ireland. A retrospective chart review was performed looking at age, injuries, treatments instituted, theatre time, length of hospital stay and overall cost of care. In the 10-month period before the ceasefire, 31 patients were treated after sustaining paramilitary punishment shootings. Mean age was 25.2 years. All patients had small entrance and exit wounds with minimal soft tissue disruption. A total of 18 fractures were recorded in 15 patients and 14 arteries required repair. Mean operative time was 2.6 h, mean hospital stay 7.61 days and mean cost per patient 3102 Pounds. In the following 10-month period 28 patients were admitted after punishments, only one of whom had been shot, all others had been beaten with sticks and clubs. Mean age was 27.4 years. In 52 limbs, 64 fractures were recorded and 44% of these were open; 15 of the fractures were Gustilo and Anderson Grade III or greater and 11 of the fractures were intra-articular. There were no arterial injuries. Mean operative time was 2.6 h, mean hospital stay 12.4 h and mean cost per patient 3849 Pounds.

  2. Production costs and operative margins in electric energy generation from biogas. Full-scale case studies in Italy.

    PubMed

    Riva, C; Schievano, A; D'Imporzano, G; Adani, F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the economic sustainability of three different biogas full scale plants, fed with different organic matrices: energy crops (EC), manure, agro-industrial (Plants B and C) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) (Plant A). The plants were observed for one year and total annual biomass feeding, biomass composition and biomass cost (€ Mg(-1)), initial investment cost and plant electric power production were registered. The unit costs of biogas and electric energy (€ Sm(-3)biogas, € kWh(-1)EE) were differently distributed, depending on the type of feed and plant. Plant A showed high management/maintenance cost for OFMSW treatment (0.155 € Sm(-3)biogas, 45% of total cost), Plant B suffered high cost for EC supply (0.130 € Sm(-3)biogas, 49% of total cost) and Plant C showed higher impact on the total costs because of the depreciation charge (0.146 € Sm(-3)biogas, 41% of total costs). The breakeven point for the tariff of electric energy, calculated for the different cases, resulted in the range 120-170 € MWh(-1)EE, depending on fed materials and plant scale. EC had great impact on biomass supply costs and should be reduced, in favor of organic waste and residues; plant scale still heavily influences the production costs. The EU States should drive incentives in dependence of these factors, to further develop this still promising sector.

  3. Production costs and operative margins in electric energy generation from biogas. Full-scale case studies in Italy.

    PubMed

    Riva, C; Schievano, A; D'Imporzano, G; Adani, F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the economic sustainability of three different biogas full scale plants, fed with different organic matrices: energy crops (EC), manure, agro-industrial (Plants B and C) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) (Plant A). The plants were observed for one year and total annual biomass feeding, biomass composition and biomass cost (€ Mg(-1)), initial investment cost and plant electric power production were registered. The unit costs of biogas and electric energy (€ Sm(-3)biogas, € kWh(-1)EE) were differently distributed, depending on the type of feed and plant. Plant A showed high management/maintenance cost for OFMSW treatment (0.155 € Sm(-3)biogas, 45% of total cost), Plant B suffered high cost for EC supply (0.130 € Sm(-3)biogas, 49% of total cost) and Plant C showed higher impact on the total costs because of the depreciation charge (0.146 € Sm(-3)biogas, 41% of total costs). The breakeven point for the tariff of electric energy, calculated for the different cases, resulted in the range 120-170 € MWh(-1)EE, depending on fed materials and plant scale. EC had great impact on biomass supply costs and should be reduced, in favor of organic waste and residues; plant scale still heavily influences the production costs. The EU States should drive incentives in dependence of these factors, to further develop this still promising sector. PMID:24841069

  4. Unit pricing of household garbage in Melbourne: improving welfare, reducing garbage, or neither?

    PubMed

    Pickin, Joe

    2008-12-01

    Charging for household garbage collection per unit of waste is becoming more popular. Discussions in the practical literature focus on unit pricing as a way to encourage diversion to recycling and reduction in waste, but the economics literature emphasizes welfare maximization through charging at the marginal social cost. In the present study unit pricing was examined from both perspectives through a case study on unit pricing by volume in Melbourne, Australia, using longitudinal data. The marginal social cost per unit weight was estimated using a custom costing model and a valuation of environmental externalities. This cost was applied to a derived regression equation for change in waste quantities with unit price. The results suggest a very weak link between marginal pricing and change in garbage quantities, with an arc elasticity of demand at the margin of -0.02. Small reductions in garbage may have been achieved by local governments that overtly used pricing systems to this end. Enforced reduction of standard bin sizes had much more impact on waste quantities and did not lead to any significant management or political problems.

  5. Unit pricing of household garbage in Melbourne: improving welfare, reducing garbage, or neither?

    PubMed

    Pickin, Joe

    2008-12-01

    Charging for household garbage collection per unit of waste is becoming more popular. Discussions in the practical literature focus on unit pricing as a way to encourage diversion to recycling and reduction in waste, but the economics literature emphasizes welfare maximization through charging at the marginal social cost. In the present study unit pricing was examined from both perspectives through a case study on unit pricing by volume in Melbourne, Australia, using longitudinal data. The marginal social cost per unit weight was estimated using a custom costing model and a valuation of environmental externalities. This cost was applied to a derived regression equation for change in waste quantities with unit price. The results suggest a very weak link between marginal pricing and change in garbage quantities, with an arc elasticity of demand at the margin of -0.02. Small reductions in garbage may have been achieved by local governments that overtly used pricing systems to this end. Enforced reduction of standard bin sizes had much more impact on waste quantities and did not lead to any significant management or political problems. PMID:19039066

  6. Learning monopolies with delayed feedback on price expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2015-11-01

    We call the intercept of the price function with the vertical axis the maximum price and the slope of the price function the marginal price. In this paper it is assumed that a monopolistic firm has full information about the marginal price and its own cost function but is uncertain on the maximum price. However, by repeated interaction with the market, the obtained price observations give a basis for an adaptive learning process of the maximum price. It is also assumed that the price observations have fixed delays, so the learning process can be described by a delayed differential equation. In the cases of one or two delays, the asymptotic behavior of the resulting dynamic process is examined, stability conditions are derived. Three main results are demonstrated in the two delay learning processes. First, it is possible to stabilize the equilibrium which is unstable in the one delay model. Second, complex dynamics involving chaos, which is impossible in the one delay model, can emerge. Third, alternations of stability and instability (i.e., stability switches) occur repeatedly.

  7. The Frozen Price Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Lori

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…

  8. Study of College Costs and Prices, 1988-89 to 1997-98. Volume 1. Statistical Analysis Report. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alisa F.; Wellman, Jane V.; Clinedinst, Melissa E.; Merisotis, Jamie P.

    In the 1998 Amendments to the Higher Education Act, Congress directed the National Center for Education Statistics to conduct a new study of higher education costs paid by institutions and prices paid by students and their families. This report is the final product of phase 1 of that study, which relied primarily on existing national data and…

  9. Assessing the environmental costs and benefits of plantations under future carbon pricing scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.; Barrett, D. J.; Farley, K.; Guenther, A.; Jobbágy, E. G.; Murray, B. C.; McCarl, B. A.; Schlesinger, W. H.

    2004-12-01

    Carbon sequestration programs are gaining attention globally as a means to offset increasing fossil fuel emissions and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We are examining scenarios of C sequestration in four regions of the world: the U.S., South America, China, and Australia. The analysis uses economic models to predict where the plantations will be grown and then categorizes the other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. The goals of the project include: 1) Evaluating the assumptions behind C sequestration programs for plantations, including the importance of rotation rates, a full accounting of carbon costs (e.g., planting and site preparation), and how the C would be stored and safeguarded. 2) Examining the scale of the process needed to make a substantial contribution to offset fossil fuel emissions (see below). The scenario we have chosen to evaluate is one that addresses the consequences of storing 1 PgC yr-1 for 50 years. 3) Determining and summarizing the evidence for other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. Some of the factors to be evaluated include soil acidification, changes in water fluxes and water-table dynamics, nutrient losses, changes in soil fauna and biodiversity, volatile organic carbon emissions, and erosion. 4) A final goal of the project is to make concrete recommendations for where plantations may be the most beneficial in terms of C storage and other environmental benefits, such as the amelioration of salinity and groundwater upwelling in Australia.

  10. Price controls and international petroleum product prices

    SciTech Connect

    Deacon, R.T.; Mead, W.J.; Agarwal, V.B.

    1980-02-01

    The effects of Federal refined-product price controls upon the price of motor gasoline in the United States through 1977 are examined. A comparison of domestic and foreign gasoline prices is made, based on the prices of products actually moving in international trade. There is also an effort to ascribe US/foreign market price differentials to identifiable cost factors. Primary emphasis is on price comparisons at the wholesale level, although some retail comparisons are presented. The study also examines the extent to which product price controls are binding, and attempts to estimate what the price of motor gasoline would have been in the absence of controls. The time period under consideration is from 1969 through 1977, with primary focus on price relationships in 1970-1971 (just before US controls) and 1976-1977. The foreign-domestic comparisons are made with respect to four major US cities, namely, Boston, New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles. 20 figures, 14 tables.

  11. Technology choice in a least-cost expansion analysis framework: The impact of gas prices, planning horizon, and system characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Guziel, K.A.; South, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The current outlook for new capacity addition by electric utilities is uncertain and tenuous. Regardless of the amount, it is inevitable that new capacity will be needed in the 1990s and beyond. The fundamental question about the addition capacity requirements centers on technology choice and the factors influencing the decision process. We examined technology choices in 10 representative power pools with a dynamic optimization expansion model, the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. These 10 power pools were determined to be representative on the basis of a cluster analysis conducted on all 26 power pools in the United States. A least-cost expansion plan was determined for each power pool with three candidate technologies--natural gas combustion turbine (CT), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)--three alternative gas price tracks, and two planning horizons between the years 1995 and 2020. This paper summarizes the analysis framework and presents results for Power Pool 1, the American Electric Power (AEP) service territory. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007). Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with < US $25,000 due to governmental resource-sharing. The network operated at break-even profit, leaving little room to lower medicine prices and mark-ups. Medicine mark-ups needed for sustainability were greater than originally envisioned by network administration. In 2005, 55%, 35%, and 10% of the network's top 50 products revealed mark-ups of < 50%, 50-99% and > 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of < 50% and 50-99%, respectively; while 35% of products revealed mark-ups > 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using

  13. Electricity market pricing, risk hedging and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xu

    In this dissertation, we investigate the pricing, price risk hedging/arbitrage, and simplified system modeling for a centralized LMP-based electricity market. In an LMP-based market model, the full AC power flow model and the DC power flow model are most widely used to represent the transmission system. We investigate the differences of dispatching results, congestion pattern, and LMPs for the two power flow models. An appropriate LMP decomposition scheme to quantify the marginal costs of the congestion and real power losses is critical for the implementation of financial risk hedging markets. However, the traditional LMP decomposition heavily depends on the slack bus selection. In this dissertation we propose a slack-independent scheme to break LMP down into energy, congestion, and marginal loss components by analyzing the actual marginal cost of each bus at the optimal solution point. The physical and economic meanings of the marginal effect at each bus provide accurate price information for both congestion and losses, and thus the slack-dependency of the traditional scheme is eliminated. With electricity priced at the margin instead of the average value, the market operator typically collects more revenue from power sellers than that paid to power buyers. According to the LMP decomposition results, the revenue surplus is then divided into two parts: congestion charge surplus and marginal loss revenue surplus. We apply the LMP decomposition results to the financial tools, such as financial transmission right (FTR) and loss hedging right (LHR), which have been introduced to hedge against price risks associated to congestion and losses, to construct a full price risk hedging portfolio. The two-settlement market structure and the introduction of financial tools inevitably create market manipulation opportunities. We investigate several possible market manipulation behaviors by virtual bidding and propose a market monitor approach to identify and quantify such

  14. Joint optimisation of price, warranty and recovery planning in remanufacturing of used products under linear and non-linear demand, return and cost functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdian, Seyed Ahmad; Shahanaghi, Kamran; Makui, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    We investigate joint optimisation of remanufacturing, pricing and warranty decision-making for end-of-life products. A novel mathematical-statistical model is proposed where decisions involve pricing of returned used products (cores), degree of their remanufacturing, selling price and the warranty period for the final remanufactured products. The virtual age reliability improvement approach is chosen to model the upgrading of the cores to higher quality levels. We consider price- and warranty-dependent demand, price- and age-dependent return, and age-dependent remanufacturing cost in the model development. Both linear and non-linear forms of these functions are investigated. First, under some restrictive conditions of upgrade level and age distribution of received cores, special cases of the problem, which can be solved using a recently developed non-linear optimisation solver, are presented. We also implement a particle swarm optimisation algorithm for the solution of the original problem when all the restrictive assumptions are dropped. Finally, numerical experiments and sensitivity analysis are presented to address different aspects of the model and the solution approaches.

  15. Essays on pricing dynamics, price dispersion, and nested logit modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinda, Jeremy Alan

    The body of this dissertation comprises three standalone essays, presented in three respective chapters. Chapter One explores the possibility that local market power contributes to the asymmetric relationship observed between wholesale costs and retail prices in gasoline markets. I exploit an original data set of weekly gas station prices in Southern California from September 2002 to May 2003, and take advantage of highly detailed station and local market-level characteristics to determine the extent to which spatial differentiation influences price-response asymmetry. I find that brand identity, proximity to rival stations, bundling and advertising, operation type, and local market features and demographics each influence a station's predicted asymmetric relationship between prices and wholesale costs. Chapter Two extends the existing literature on the effect of market structure on price dispersion in airline fares by modeling the effect at the disaggregate ticket level. Whereas past studies rely on aggregate measures of price dispersion such as the Gini coefficient or the standard deviation of fares, this paper estimates the entire empirical distribution of airline fares and documents how the shape of the distribution is determined by market structure. Specifically, I find that monopoly markets favor a wider distribution of fares with more mass in the tails while duopoly and competitive markets exhibit a tighter fare distribution. These findings indicate that the dispersion of airline fares may result from the efforts of airlines to practice second-degree price discrimination. Chapter Three adopts a Bayesian approach to the problem of tree structure specification in nested logit modelling, which requires a heavy computational burden in calculating marginal likelihoods. I compare two different techniques for estimating marginal likelihoods: (1) the Laplace approximation, and (2) reversible jump MCMC. I apply the techniques to both a simulated and a travel mode

  16. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  17. Airport Pricing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  18. Periodicals Price Survey 2002: Doing the Digital Flip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Presents the annual periodicals price study. Highlights include average prices; cost histories; cost projections for future budgeting; electronic journal issues; flip pricing, defined as online access at the core of pricing negotiations; various pricing models; purchasing print at deeply discounted prices; and current trends in pricing and in the…

  19. Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd

    2007-04-01

    For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

  20. Climate change mitigation in the agricultural sector- an analysis of marginal abatement costs of climate mitigation in global paddy rice agriculture based on DNDC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Li, J.; Beach, R.; Salas, W.; Ingraham, P.; Ragnauth, S.

    2012-12-01

    Authors: Jia Li1, Robert H. Beach2, Changsheng Li3, William Salas4, Pete Ingraham5, Shaun Ragnauth1 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Climate Change Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, United States. 2. RTI International, Durham, NC, United States. 3. ESRC, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States. 4. Applied Geosolutions, LLC, Newmarket, NH, United States. Global agriculture sector faces the dual challenge of climate change mitigation and providing food security for a growing population. In a new study, the U.S. EPA has developed an analysis of mitigation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases for the global agriculture sector. We estimate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice cultivation and rice yields under baseline management conditions as well as for alternative mitigation options. These biophysical effects are combined with data on input use and costs to estimate marginal abatement cost curves and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation options for global rice cropping systems. DNDC, a process-based crop model, is used to simulate crop yields, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, as well as soil carbon sequestration of the various rice cropping systems (irrigated and rainfed, and single, double, triple and mixed rotations) under local climatic and soil conditions at a 0.5 degree resolution at the global scale. We evaluate the impacts of various management alternatives (e.g., flooding methods, fertilizer applications, and crop residue management) on crop yields and GHG emissions and report the spatial and temporal distributions of the outcomes. The analysis provides important insights on the potential for closing the production efficiency gaps and the trade-offs and synergies between GHG mitigation and food security in different parts of the world.

  1. The ethics of dynamic pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic pricing has garnered much interest among regulators and utilities, since it has the potential for lowering energy costs for society. But the deployment of dynamic pricing has been remarkably tepid. The underlying premise is that dynamic pricing is unfair. But the presumption of unfairness in dynamic pricing rests on an assumption of fairness in today's tariffs. (author)

  2. The Tuition Puzzle: Putting the Pieces Together. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing, and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    This report reviews two decades of trends in college tuition, the effects on student access and college choice, and how governments and institutions have responded. Among major findings are: (1) overall, average tuition and fees have increased almost five-fold over the last two decades; (2) a major cause of higher prices has been the declining…

  3. Inventory-driven costs.

    PubMed

    Callioni, Gianpaolo; de Montgros, Xavier; Slagmulder, Regine; Van Wassenhove, Luk N; Wright, Linda

    2005-03-01

    In the 199os, Hewlett-Packard's PC business was struggling to turn a dollar, despite the company's success in winning market share. By 1997, margins on its PCs were as thin as a silicon wafer, and some product lines hadn't turned a profit since 1993. The problem had everything to do with the PC industry's notoriously short product cycles and brutal product and component price deflation. A common rule of thumb was that the value of a fully assembled PC decreased 1% a week. In such an environment, inventory costs become critical. But not just the inventory costs companies traditionally track, HP found, after a thorough review of the problem. The standard "holding cost of inventory"--the capital and physical costs of inventory--accounted for only about 10% of HP's inventory costs. The greater risks, it turned out, resided in four other, essentially hidden costs, which stemmed from mismatches between demand and supply: Component devaluation costs for components still held in production; Price protection costs incurred when product prices drop on the goods distributors still have on their shelves; Product return costs that have to be absorbed when distributors return and receive refunds on overstock items, and; Obsolescence costs for products still unsold when new models are introduced. By developing metrics to track those costs in a consistent way throughout the PC division, HP has found it can manage its supply chains with much more sophistication. Gone are the days of across-the-board measures such as,"Everyone must cut inventories by 20% by the end of the year," which usually resulted in a flurry of cookie-cutter lean production and just-in-time initiatives. Now, each product group is free to choose the supply chain configuration that best suits its needs. Other companies can follow HP's example.

  4. Consumer Choice of E85 Denatured Ethanol Fuel Blend: Price Sensitivity and Cost of Limited Fuel Availability

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David

    2014-12-01

    The promotion of greater use of E85, a fuel blend of 85% denatured ethanol, by flex-fuel vehicle owners is an important means of complying with the Renewable Fuel Standard 2. A good understanding of factors affecting E85 demand is necessary for effective policies that promote E85 and for developing models that forecast E85 sales in the United States. In this paper, the sensitivity of aggregate E85 demand to E85 and gasoline prices is estimated, as is the relative availability of E85 versus gasoline. The econometric analysis uses recent data from Minnesota, North Dakota, and Iowa. The more recent data allowmore » a better estimate of nonfleet demand and indicate that the market price elasticity of E85 choice is substantially higher than previously estimated.« less

  5. Consumer Choice of E85 Denatured Ethanol Fuel Blend: Price Sensitivity and Cost of Limited Fuel Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David

    2014-12-01

    The promotion of greater use of E85, a fuel blend of 85% denatured ethanol, by flex-fuel vehicle owners is an important means of complying with the Renewable Fuel Standard 2. A good understanding of factors affecting E85 demand is necessary for effective policies that promote E85 and for developing models that forecast E85 sales in the United States. In this paper, the sensitivity of aggregate E85 demand to E85 and gasoline prices is estimated, as is the relative availability of E85 versus gasoline. The econometric analysis uses recent data from Minnesota, North Dakota, and Iowa. The more recent data allow a better estimate of nonfleet demand and indicate that the market price elasticity of E85 choice is substantially higher than previously estimated.

  6. Target prices for mass production of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for global cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Andrew; Gotham, Dzintars; Fortunak, Joseph; Meldrum, Jonathan; Erbacher, Isabelle; Martin, Manuel; Shoman, Haitham; Levi, Jacob; Powderly, William G; Bower, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective To calculate sustainable generic prices for 4 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Background TKIs have proven survival benefits in the treatment of several cancers, including chronic myeloid leukaemia, breast, liver, renal and lung cancer. However, current high prices are a barrier to treatment. Mass production of low-cost generic antiretrovirals has led to over 13 million people being on HIV/AIDS treatment worldwide. This analysis estimates target prices for generic TKIs, assuming similar methods of mass production. Methods Four TKIs with patent expiry dates in the next 5 years were selected for analysis: imatinib, erlotinib, lapatinib and sorafenib. Chemistry, dosing, published data on per-kilogram pricing for commercial transactions of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and quotes from manufacturers were used to estimate costs of production. Analysis included costs of excipients, formulation, packaging, shipping and a 50% profit margin. Target prices were compared with current prices. Global numbers of patients eligible for treatment with each TKI were estimated. Results API costs per kg were $347–$746 for imatinib, $2470 for erlotinib, $4671 for lapatinib, and $3000 for sorafenib. Basing on annual dose requirements, costs of formulation/packaging and a 50% profit margin, target generic prices per person-year were $128–$216 for imatinib, $240 for erlotinib, $1450 for sorafenib, and $4020 for lapatinib. Over 1 million people would be newly eligible to start treatment with these TKIs annually. Conclusions Mass generic production of several TKIs could achieve treatment prices in the range of $128–$4020 per person-year, versus current US prices of $75161–$139 138. Generic TKIs could allow significant savings and scaling-up of treatment globally, for over 1 million eligible patients. PMID:26817636

  7. Competitive electricity markets, prices and generator entry and exit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ethier, Robert George

    The electric power industry in the United States is quickly being deregulated and restructured. In the past, new electric generation capacity was added by regulated utilities to meet forecasted demand levels and maintain reserve margins. With competitive wholesale generation, investment will be the responsibility of independent private investors. Electricity prices will assume the coordinating function which has until recently been the responsibility of regulatory agencies. Competitive prices will provide the entry and exit signals for generators in the future. Competitive electricity markets have a distinctive price formation process, and thus require a specialized price model. A mean-reverting price process with stochastic jumps is proposed as an appropriate long-run price process for annual electricity prices. This price process is used to develop an analytic real options model for private investment decisions. The required recursive infinite series solutions have not been widely used for real option models. Entry thresholds and asset values for competitive wholesale electricity markets, and exit decisions for plants with significant retirement costs (i.e. nuclear power plants), are examined. The proposed model results in significantly lower trigger prices for both entry and exit decisions, and higher asset values, when compared with other standard models. The model is used to show that the incentives for retiring a nuclear plant are very sensitive to the treatment of decommissioning costs (e.g. if plant owners do not face full decommissioning costs, retirement decisions may be economically premature.) An econometric model of short-run price behavior is estimated by the method of maximum likelihood using daily electricity prices from markets in the USA and Australia. The model specifies two mean reverting price processes with stochastic Markov switching between the regimes, which allows discontinuous jumps in electricity prices. Econometric tests show that a two

  8. Lower Costs, Higher Returns: UNCF HBCUs in a High-Priced College Environment. Financing African American College Aspirations Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, David A. R.

    2014-01-01

    While research consistently shows the earning power of college degrees, those returns are best weighed against the cost of attending post-secondary institutions, historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) included. This study is an update of "Affordability of UNCF-Member Institutions" (2009), and compares the average costs at…

  9. STS pricing policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  10. Calculating proper transfer prices

    SciTech Connect

    Dorkey, F.C. ); Jarrell, G.A. )

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  11. Concept of Price in a Library Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talaga, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses pricing problems of public library service. The meaning of price in a library context is examined, including amount charged and patron's cost; components of price setting are described, including the impact of demand, cost, and competition; and library pricing strategies are suggested that should help achieve the library's goals. (13…

  12. 48 CFR 215.403-1 - Prohibition on obtaining cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. chapter 35).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements—(1) Adequate price competition. For acquisitions under dual or multiple source programs: (A) The... analysis. (B) Adequate price competition normally exists when— (i) Prices are solicited across a full range... clearly established on the basis of price analysis (see FAR 15.404-1(b)). (3) Commercial items. (A)...

  13. 48 CFR 215.403-1 - Prohibition on obtaining cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements—(1) Adequate price competition. For acquisitions under dual or multiple source programs: (A) The... analysis. (B) Adequate price competition normally exists when— (i) Prices are solicited across a full range... clearly established on the basis of price analysis (see FAR 15.404-1(b)). (3) Commercial items. (A)...

  14. Tobacco use and asking prices of used cars: prevalence, costs, and new opportunities for changing smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Matt, Georg E; Romero, Romina; Ma, Debbie S; Quintana, Penelope JE; Hovell, Melbourne F; Donohue, Michael; Messer, Karen; Salem, Simon; Aguilar, Mauricio; Boland, Justin; Cullimore, Jennifer; Crane, Marissa; Junker, Jonathan; Tassinario, Peter; Timmermann, Vera; Wong, Kristen; Chatfield, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and disease in children and adults, and the scientific evidence indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to SHS. Smoking tobacco in a car can pollute the microenvironment of the car with residual SHS, leaving telltale signs to potential buyers (e.g., odor, used ash tray). This study examined (a) the proportion of used cars sold in the private party market that may be polluted with tobacco smoke and (b) whether asking prices of smoker and nonsmoker cars differed for cars of otherwise equivalent value. A random sample of 1,642 private party sellers were interviewed by telephone, and content analyses of print advertisements were conducted. Findings indicate that 22% of used cars were advertised by smokers or had been smoked in during the previous year. Among nonsmokers, 94% did not allow smoking in their car during the past year. Only 33% of smokers had the same restrictions. The smoking status of the seller and tobacco use in the car were significantly (p < .01) associated with the asking price independent of a car's Kelley Blue Book value (KBB). Used nonsmoker cars were offered at a considerable premium above their KBB value (>11%) and above comparable smoker cars (7–9%). These findings suggest that community preferences are affecting the value of smoke-free cars. New directions for research, tobacco control policies, and health education are discussed to further reduce smoking behavior, to help consumers make informed purchasing decisions, and to protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure. PMID:18822157

  15. Tobacco use and asking prices of used cars: prevalence, costs, and new opportunities for changing smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Matt, Georg E; Romero, Romina; Ma, Debbie S; Quintana, Penelope Je; Hovell, Melbourne F; Donohue, Michael; Messer, Karen; Salem, Simon; Aguilar, Mauricio; Boland, Justin; Cullimore, Jennifer; Crane, Marissa; Junker, Jonathan; Tassinario, Peter; Timmermann, Vera; Wong, Kristen; Chatfield, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and disease in children and adults, and the scientific evidence indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to SHS. Smoking tobacco in a car can pollute the microenvironment of the car with residual SHS, leaving telltale signs to potential buyers (e.g., odor, used ash tray). This study examined (a) the proportion of used cars sold in the private party market that may be polluted with tobacco smoke and (b) whether asking prices of smoker and nonsmoker cars differed for cars of otherwise equivalent value. A random sample of 1,642 private party sellers were interviewed by telephone, and content analyses of print advertisements were conducted. Findings indicate that 22% of used cars were advertised by smokers or had been smoked in during the previous year. Among nonsmokers, 94% did not allow smoking in their car during the past year. Only 33% of smokers had the same restrictions. The smoking status of the seller and tobacco use in the car were significantly (p < .01) associated with the asking price independent of a car's Kelley Blue Book value (KBB). Used nonsmoker cars were offered at a considerable premium above their KBB value (>11%) and above comparable smoker cars (7-9%). These findings suggest that community preferences are affecting the value of smoke-free cars. New directions for research, tobacco control policies, and health education are discussed to further reduce smoking behavior, to help consumers make informed purchasing decisions, and to protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure.

  16. Marginality principle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is a fragile resource supplying many goods and services. Given the diversity of soil across the world and within a landscape, there are many different capacities among soils to provide the basic soil functions. Marginality of soils is a difficult process to define because the metrics to define ...

  17. Three essays on pricing and risk management in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsan, Serhiy

    2005-07-01

    A set of three papers forms this dissertation. In the first paper I analyze an electricity market that does not clear. The system operator satisfies fixed demand at a fixed price, and attempts to minimize "cost" as indicated by independent generators' supply bids. No equilibrium exists in this situation, and the operator lacks information sufficient to minimize actual cost. As a remedy, we propose a simple efficient tax mechanism. With the tax, Nash equilibrium bids still diverge from marginal cost but nonetheless provide sufficient information to minimize actual cost, regardless of the tax rate or number of generators. The second paper examines a price mechanism with one price assigned for each level of bundled real and reactive power. Equilibrium allocation under this pricing approach raises system efficiency via better allocation of the reactive power reserves, neglected in the traditional pricing approach. Pricing reactive power should be considered in the bundle with real power since its cost is highly dependent on real power output. The efficiency of pricing approach is shown in the general case, and tested on the 30-bus IEEE network with piecewise linear cost functions of the generators. Finally the third paper addresses the problem of optimal investment in generation based on mean-variance portfolio analysis. It is assumed the investor can freely create a portfolio of shares in generation located on buses of the electrical network. Investors are risk averse, and seek to minimize the variance of the weighted average Locational Marginal Price (LMP) in their portfolio, and to maximize its expected value. I conduct simulations using a standard IEEE 68-bus network that resembles the New York - New England system and calculate LMPs in accordance with the PJM methodology for a fully optimal AC power flow solution. Results indicate that the network topology is a crucial determinant of the investment decision as line congestion makes it difficult to deliver power to

  18. 48 CFR 1615.406-2 - Certificate of accurate cost or pricing data for community-rated carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION... Community-Rated Carriers This is to certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief: (1) The cost or... the ____* FEHB Program rates were developed in accordance with the requirements of 48 CFR Chapter...

  19. How Much Debt Do Science Bachelor's Degree Recipients Accrue? Data Brief. The Price and Cost of Science Degrees Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Cost Project at American Institutes for Research, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Concerns over college costs and student debt are at an all-time high. This AIR Data Brief looks into the impact that certain types of institutes, and degree programs (STEM or SBE sciences) can have on a student's potential debt load, particularly among students who are underrepresented in the STEM fields. This data brief is the second of four in…

  20. Is the Price Right? University Network Publishing's Plan to Produce 34 "No Cost" University Periodicals Draws Mixed Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anne Lowrey

    1983-01-01

    The University Network Publishing Corporation (UNP), a new company that promises to print alumni magazines at "no cost" to the parent institution, is discussed. UNP will furnish a magazine shell with national advertising and the participating institution will fill in with its own material. (MLW)

  1. Paying the price: the pressing need for quality, cost, and outcomes data to improve correctional health care for older prisoners.

    PubMed

    Ahalt, Cyrus; Trestman, Robert L; Rich, Josiah D; Greifinger, Robert B; Williams, Brie A

    2013-11-01

    Despite a recent decline in the U.S. prison population, the older prisoner population is growing rapidly. U.S. prisons are constitutionally required to provide health care to prisoners. As the population ages, healthcare costs rise, states are forced to cut spending, and many correctional agencies struggle to meet this legal standard of care. Failure to meet the healthcare needs of older prisoners, who now account for nearly 10% of the prison population, can cause avoidable suffering in a medically vulnerable population and violation of the constitutional mandate for timely access to an appropriate level of care while incarcerated. Older prisoners who cannot access adequate health care in prison also affect community healthcare systems because more than 95% of prisoners are eventually released, many to urban communities where healthcare disparities are common and acute healthcare resources are overused. A lack of uniform quality and cost data has significantly hampered innovations in policy and practice to improve value in correctional health care (achieving desired health outcomes at sustainable costs). With their unique knowledge of complex chronic disease management, experts in geriatrics are positioned to help address the aging crisis in correctional health care. This article delineates the basic health, cost, and outcomes data that geriatricians and gerontologists need to respond to this crisis, identifies gaps in the available data, and anticipates barriers to data collection that, if addressed, could enable clinicians and policy-makers to evaluate and improve the value of geriatric prison health care. PMID:24219203

  2. Getting the Price Right: Costing and Charging Commercial Provision in Centres of Vocational Excellence (CoVEs). Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, Liz; Chadwick, Arthur; Hughes, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Centres of Vocational Excellence (CoVEs) were established in 2001, intended to be a key driver in enhancing the contribution of the further education (FE) sector to meeting skills needs. Current government policy expects employers and individuals to pay a greater share of the costs of training, particularly at Level 3, which is the CoVE priority…

  3. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Vered, Oded; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Yagupsky, Pablo; Malul, Miki; Cicurel, Assi; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU). Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS) enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010–2012 period (n = 470). Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410). HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391). Before diagnosis (baseline), the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, P<0.05), however, no significant differences were found at baseline in the predominant components of HCU, i.e. hospitalizations, diagnostic procedures, and medications. At the year following diagnosis, the average total annual HCU costs of brucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, P<0.001). Most of the difference stems from 7.9 times higher hospitalization costs (p<0.001). Additional elevated costs were 3.6 times higher laboratory tests (P<0.001), 2.8 times higher emergency room visits (P<0.001), 1.8 times higher medication (P<0.001) and 1.3 times higher diagnostic procedures (P<0.001). We conclude that human brucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these

  4. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Vered, Oded; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Yagupsky, Pablo; Malul, Miki; Cicurel, Assi; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU). Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS) enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010-2012 period (n = 470). Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410). HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391). Before diagnosis (baseline), the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, P<0.05), however, no significant differences were found at baseline in the predominant components of HCU, i.e. hospitalizations, diagnostic procedures, and medications. At the year following diagnosis, the average total annual HCU costs of brucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, P<0.001). Most of the difference stems from 7.9 times higher hospitalization costs (p<0.001). Additional elevated costs were 3.6 times higher laboratory tests (P<0.001), 2.8 times higher emergency room visits (P<0.001), 1.8 times higher medication (P<0.001) and 1.3 times higher diagnostic procedures (P<0.001). We conclude that human brucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these

  5. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Vered, Oded; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Yagupsky, Pablo; Malul, Miki; Cicurel, Assi; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU). Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS) enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010-2012 period (n = 470). Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410). HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391). Before diagnosis (baseline), the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, P<0.05), however, no significant differences were found at baseline in the predominant components of HCU, i.e. hospitalizations, diagnostic procedures, and medications. At the year following diagnosis, the average total annual HCU costs of brucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, P<0.001). Most of the difference stems from 7.9 times higher hospitalization costs (p<0.001). Additional elevated costs were 3.6 times higher laboratory tests (P<0.001), 2.8 times higher emergency room visits (P<0.001), 1.8 times higher medication (P<0.001) and 1.3 times higher diagnostic procedures (P<0.001). We conclude that human brucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these

  6. Price of pain: population-based cohort burden of disease analysis of medication cost of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Kevin J; Falk, Jamie; Alessi-Severini, Silvia; Chateau, Dan; Bugden, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Background Pain is a main symptom of herpes zoster (HZ), and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a frequent complication occurring in 5% to 15% of cases, causing moderate to severe neuropathic pain. A population-based observational study was conducted to evaluate the treatment patterns and economic burden of prescription drug treatment of HZ and PHN pain in the province of Manitoba (Canada) over a period of 15 years. Methods Administrative health care data, including medical and hospital separation records, were examined to identify episodes of HZ using International Classification of Diseases-9/10 codes between April 1, 1997 and March 31, 2014. Episodes of PHN were identified using medical and prescription claims. Incident use of analgesic, antidepressant, or anticonvulsant drugs was used to determine prescription pain costs. Results The age-adjusted incidence of HZ increased from 4.7 episodes/1,000 person-years in 1997/98 to 5.7/1,000 person-years in 2013/14. PHN occurred in 9.2% of HZ cases, a rate that did not change over the study period (P=0.57). The annual cost to treat HZ pain rose by 174% from 1997/98, reaching CAD $332,981 in 2011/12, 82.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 81.2%, 84.3%) of which was related to PHN. The per episode cost of HZ rose by 111% from $31.59 (95% CI $25.35, $37.84) to $66.81 (95% CI $56.84, $76.78) and by 94% for PHN from $292 (95% CI $225, $358) to $566 (95% CI $478, $655). These increases were driven by increasing use of anticonvulsants, primarily gabapentin, which accounted for 57% of the increase in cost. Conclusion There has been an increase in the incidence of HZ and PHN and in the average cost associated with the prescription treatment of their resultant neuropathic pain. The primary driver of the increased episodic cost is the increased use of gabapentin. These changes have resulted in a substantial increase in the economic burden associated with HZ and PHN. PMID:27536159

  7. Paying the price works: increasing goal-state access cost improves problem solving and mitigates the effect of interruption.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Phillip L; Patrick, John

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate whether it was possible to induce more internal planning in the four-disk Tower of Hanoi (ToH) in order not only to produce more efficient problem solving but also to make it more resistant to the negative effect of interruption. The theoretical frameworks of soft constraints and the memory for goals model underpinned Experiments 1 and 2. In both experiments, three goal-state access cost conditions were used: high (mouse movements and 2.5-s delay), medium (mouse movements) and low (goal state always available). In Experiment 1, more memory-based planning was induced by the high cost condition, which resulted in fewer moves to solution and the gradual development of an efficient subgoaling strategy, resulting in more perfect solutions. In Experiment 2, the same condition protected performance against a 10-s interruption irrespective of the interrupting task (blank screen, mental arithmetic, or three-disk ToH). The more memory-based planning strategy, induced by high access cost, presumably strengthened participants' goals during planning and problem solving, making them less susceptible to decay and interference from interruption. These novel results are discussed in the context of other recent studies. PMID:22928975

  8. Estimation of own and cross price elasticities of alcohol demand in the UK--A pseudo-panel approach using the Living Costs and Food Survey 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yang; Brennan, Alan; Purshouse, Robin; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Angus, Colin; Holmes, John; Meier, Petra Sylvia

    2014-03-01

    The estimation of price elasticities of alcohol demand is valuable for the appraisal of price-based policy interventions such as minimum unit pricing and taxation. This study applies a pseudo-panel approach to the cross-sectional Living Cost and Food Survey 2001/2-2009 to estimate the own- and cross-price elasticities of off- and on-trade beer, cider, wine, spirits and ready-to-drinks in the UK. A pseudo-panel with 72 subgroups defined by birth year, gender and socioeconomic status is constructed. Estimated own-price elasticities from the base case fixed effect models are all negative and mostly statically significant (p<0.05). Off-trade cider and beer are most elastic (-1.27 and -0.98) and off-trade spirits and on-trade ready-to-drinks are least elastic (-0.08 and -0.19). Estimated cross-price elasticities are smaller in magnitude with a mix of positive and negative signs. The results appear plausible and robust and could be used for appraising the estimated impact of price-based interventions in the UK.

  9. 48 CFR 1415.406-70 - Department of the Interior price negotiation memorandum (PNM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... award and any subsequent modifications affecting price, cost or fee, including revisions to the prices... FAR 15.308. (5) If cost or pricing data were not required, the cost or price analysis performed in accordance with FAR 15.404-1. (6) If cost or pricing data were required, the cost analysis (FAR...

  10. Translating PrEP effectiveness into public health impact: key considerations for decision-makers on cost-effectiveness, price, regulatory issues, distributive justice and advocacy for access

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, Catherine; Macklin, Ruth; Warren, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The extraordinary feat of proving the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical trials in different populations in a variety of settings may prove to have been easier than ensuring it is used well. Decision-makers must make difficult choices to realize the promise of antiretroviral prophylaxis for their countries. This paper outlines key economic, regulatory and distributive justice issues that must be addressed for effective and acceptable PrEP implementation. Discussion In considering the role that PrEP can play in combination prevention programmes, decision-makers must determine who can benefit most from PrEP, how PrEP can be provided safely and efficiently, and what kind of health system support will ensure successful implementation. To do this, they need contextualized information on disease burden by population, analyses of how PrEP services might best be delivered, and projections of the human resource and infrastructure requirements for each potential delivery model. There are cost considerations, varying cost-effectiveness results and regulatory challenges. The principles of ethics can inform thorny discussions about who should be prioritized for oral PrEP and how best to introduce it fairly. We describe the cost-effectiveness of PrEP in different populations at higher risk of HIV exposure, its price in low- and middle-income countries, and the current regulatory situation. We explore the principles of ethics that can inform resource allocation decision-making about PrEP anchored in distributive justice, at a time when universal access to antiretroviral treatment remains to be assured. We then highlight the role of advocacy in moving the PrEP agenda forward. Conclusions The time is ripe now for decisions about whether, how and for whom PrEP should be introduced into a country's HIV response. It has the potential to contribute significantly to high impact HIV prevention if it is tailored to those who can most benefit

  11. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  12. 48 CFR 15.403-1 - Prohibition on obtaining certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the contracting activity (HCA) may, without power of delegation, waive the requirement for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition on obtaining certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b). 15.403-1 Section 15.403-1...

  13. 48 CFR 15.403-1 - Prohibition on obtaining certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. chapter 35).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the contracting activity (HCA) may, without power of delegation, waive the requirement for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition on obtaining certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. chapter 35). 15.403-1 Section 15.403-1...

  14. 48 CFR 15.405 - Price negotiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price negotiation. 15.405... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.405 Price negotiation. (a) The purpose of performing cost or price analysis is to develop a negotiation position that permits...

  15. Multiprogram Segment Margin Analysis: Concepts and Practice in Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duangploy, Orapin; Anderman, Steve

    1985-01-01

    To solve the problems of cost identification and allocation in an extended education office, a segment margin approach was used. (Segment margin is the difference between revenues and traceable direct costs.) Courses could be evaluated by segment margin rather than net income, since allocated indirect costs are not controllable by the individual…

  16. Essays on microgrids, asymmetric pricing and market power in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Prete, Chiara

    This dissertation presents four studies of the electricity industry. The first and second essays use economic-engineering models to assess different aspects of microgrid penetration in regional electricity markets, while the last two studies contain empirical analyses aimed at evaluating the performance of wholesale electricity markets. Chapter 2 develops a framework to quantify economic, environmental, efficiency and reliability impacts of different power production scenarios in a regional system, focusing on the interaction of microgrids with the existing transmission and distribution grid. The setting is the regional network formed by Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands. The study presents simulations of power market outcomes under various policies and levels of microgrid penetration, and evaluates them using a diverse set of metrics. Chapter 3 studies the interaction between a microgrid and a regulated electric utility in a regional electricity market. I consider the interaction among the utility, the microgrid developer and consumers in the framework of cooperative game theory (assuming exchangeable utility), and use regional market models to simulate scenarios in which microgrid introduction may or may not be socially beneficial. Under the assumptions of this chapter, customer participation is essential to the development of socially beneficial microgrids, while the utility has little or no gain from it. Discussed incentives to avoid that utilities block microgrid entry include additional revenue drivers related to microgrid connection, decoupling and performance-based mechanisms targeted at service quality. When prices are below marginal costs of utility provided power, microgrid development may be socially beneficial, but unprofitable for microgrid customers and its developer. By imposing lower charges and higher remuneration for its services, the regulator could ensure that microgrid value is positive, without adversely impacting the utility

  17. Palbociclib as a first-line treatment in oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer not cost-effective with current pricing: a health economic analysis of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK).

    PubMed

    Matter-Walstra, K; Ruhstaller, T; Klingbiel, D; Schwenkglenks, M; Dedes, K J

    2016-07-01

    Endocrine therapy continues to be the optimal systemic treatment for metastatic ER(+)HER2(-) breast cancer. The CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib combined with letrozole has recently been shown to significantly improve progression-free survival. Here we examined the cost-effectiveness of this regimen for the Swiss healthcare system. A Markov cohort simulation based on the PALOMA-1 trial (Finn et al. in Lancet Oncol 16:25-35, 2015) was used as the clinical course. Input parameters were based on summary trial data. Costs were assessed from the Swiss healthcare system perspective. Adding palbociclib to letrozole (PALLET) compared to letrozole monotherapy was estimated to cost an additional CHF342,440 and gain 1.14 quality-adjusted life years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CHF301,227/QALY gained. In univariate sensitivity analyses, no tested variation in key parameters resulted in an ICER below a willingness-to-pay threshold of CHF100,000/QALY. PALLET had a 0 % probability of being cost-effective in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Lowering PALLET's price by 75 % resulted in an ICER of CHF73,995/QALY and a 73 % probability of being cost-effective. At current prices, PALLET would cost the Swiss healthcare system an additional CHF155 million/year. Palbociclib plus letrozole cannot be considered cost-effective for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer in the Swiss healthcare system. PMID:27277747

  18. Palbociclib as a first-line treatment in oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer not cost-effective with current pricing: a health economic analysis of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK).

    PubMed

    Matter-Walstra, K; Ruhstaller, T; Klingbiel, D; Schwenkglenks, M; Dedes, K J

    2016-07-01

    Endocrine therapy continues to be the optimal systemic treatment for metastatic ER(+)HER2(-) breast cancer. The CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib combined with letrozole has recently been shown to significantly improve progression-free survival. Here we examined the cost-effectiveness of this regimen for the Swiss healthcare system. A Markov cohort simulation based on the PALOMA-1 trial (Finn et al. in Lancet Oncol 16:25-35, 2015) was used as the clinical course. Input parameters were based on summary trial data. Costs were assessed from the Swiss healthcare system perspective. Adding palbociclib to letrozole (PALLET) compared to letrozole monotherapy was estimated to cost an additional CHF342,440 and gain 1.14 quality-adjusted life years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CHF301,227/QALY gained. In univariate sensitivity analyses, no tested variation in key parameters resulted in an ICER below a willingness-to-pay threshold of CHF100,000/QALY. PALLET had a 0 % probability of being cost-effective in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Lowering PALLET's price by 75 % resulted in an ICER of CHF73,995/QALY and a 73 % probability of being cost-effective. At current prices, PALLET would cost the Swiss healthcare system an additional CHF155 million/year. Palbociclib plus letrozole cannot be considered cost-effective for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer in the Swiss healthcare system.

  19. Assessing the impact on chronic disease of incorporating the societal cost of greenhouse gases into the price of food: an econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Garnett, Tara; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To model the impact on chronic disease of a tax on UK food and drink that internalises the wider costs to society of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to estimate the potential revenue. Design An econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. Setting The UK. Participants The UK adult population. Interventions Two tax scenarios are modelled: (A) a tax of £2.72/tonne carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product applied to all food and drink groups with above average GHG emissions. (B) As with scenario (A) but food groups with emissions below average are subsidised to create a tax neutral scenario. Outcome measures Primary outcomes are change in UK population mortality from chronic diseases following the implementation of each taxation strategy, the change in the UK GHG emissions and the predicted revenue. Secondary outcomes are the changes to the micronutrient composition of the UK diet. Results Scenario (A) results in 7770 (95% credible intervals 7150 to 8390) deaths averted and a reduction in GHG emissions of 18 683 (14 665to 22 889) ktCO2e/year. Estimated annual revenue is £2.02 (£1.98 to £2.06) billion. Scenario (B) results in 2685 (1966 to 3402) extra deaths and a reduction in GHG emissions of 15 228 (11 245to 19 492) ktCO2e/year. Conclusions Incorporating the societal cost of GHG into the price of foods could save 7770 lives in the UK each year, reduce food-related GHG emissions and generate substantial tax revenue. The revenue neutral scenario (B) demonstrates that sustainability and health goals are not always aligned. Future work should focus on investigating the health impact by population subgroup and on designing fiscal strategies to promote both sustainable and healthy diets. PMID:24154517

  20. Abatement costs of soil conservation in China's Loess Plateau: balancing income with conservation in an agricultural system.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lingling; Hoag, Dana L K; Keske, Catherine M H

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of marginal abatement cost curves to calculate environmental damages of agricultural systems in China's Loess Plateau. Total system costs and revenues, management characteristics and pollution attributes are imputed into a directional output distance function, which is then used to determine shadow prices and abatement cost curves for soil and nitrogen loss. Marginal abatement costs curves are an effective way to compare economic and conservation tradeoffs when field-specific data are scarce. The results show that sustainable agricultural practices can balance soil conservation and agricultural production; land need not be retired, as is current policy.

  1. Natural-gas price puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.

    1983-02-01

    Rectifying natural-gas underpricing and distortions in production has benefited the overall economy, but transition costs are large, and problems and strains continue. The natural-gas price story began with the 1954 price controls that developed into a wasteful, inefficient, and unfair system of too-low gas prices that resulted in the 1978 Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA). While meeting a number of goals, NGPA has also led to current large increases in gas prices, ironically at a time when producers complain of more gas than they can sell. This glut, however, may be a surplus of short-run deliverability rather than an increase in supply. Prices have not fallen even temporarily because long-term contracts common between pipelines and producers typically prevent downward adjustment of prices to meet demand fluctuations, and the economy (hence the consumer) cannot escape the costof sustaining capacity through up-and-down demand. Transportation and delivery costs that, while getting smaller in relation to wellhead prices, are rising, and inflation, higher interest rates, and costs of uncollectables add to the price. In addition, while a straightforward supply, demand, and cost explanation of the price picture is accurate enough on a national basis, the average cost of gas as it enters a particular pipeline is affected by such complexities as historical accident, location, timing, bargaining power, and management decisions.

  2. Higher Education Cost Measurement: Public Policy Issues, Options, and Strategies. A Compilation of Background Papers Prepared for a Seminar on Cost Measurement and Management. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing, and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane, Comp.; O'Brien, Colleen, Comp.

    This collection of papers is the result of a project by the Institute for Higher Education Policy designed to explore the public policy aspects of higher education cost measurement (expenditure analysis). Papers come from a 1-day seminar in 1999 that brought together individuals knowledgeable about cost measurement with institutional leaders and…

  3. Mental Depreciation and Marginal Decision Making

    PubMed

    Heath; Fennema

    1996-11-01

    We propose that individuals practice "mental depreciation," that is, they implicitly spread the fixed costs of their expenses over time or use. Two studies explore how people spread fixed costs on durable goods. A third study shows that depreciation can lead to two distinct errors in marginal decisions: First, people sometimes invest too much effort to get their money's worth from an expense (e.g., they may use a product a lot to spread the fixed expense across more uses). Second, people sometimes invest too little effort to get their money's worth: When people add a portion of the fixed cost to the current costs, their perceived marginal (i.e., incremental) costs exceed their true marginal costs. In response, they may stop investing because their perceived costs surpass the marginal benefits they are receiving. The latter effect is supported by two field studies that explore real board plan decisions by university students.

  4. The 1990 Clean Air Act and the implicit price of sulfur in coal - article no. 41

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, I.; Bellas, A.S.

    2007-07-01

    Prior to implementation of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), many estimates of the marginal cost of SO{sub 2} abatement were provided to guide policy makers. Numerous studies estimated the marginal cost of abatement to be between $250 and $760 per ton, though permits initially traded well below $200 and remained below $220 until 2004. We use a fixed effects estimator and a hedonic price model of coal purchases in order to determine the implicit price of sulfur. Data on contract coal purchases are divided into regulatory regimes based on when the contract was signed or re-negotiated. We find that purchases by Phase I plants made under contracts signed or re-negotiated after the passage of the 1990 CAAA show an implicit price of SO{sub 2} of approximately $50 per ton, an amount much closer to the eventual permit price. The implicit market price of sulfur seems to have revealed better information than did the calculations of industry experts.

  5. Price transparency: building community trust.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    With the push from policymakers, payers, and consumers for hospitals to make their prices public, healthcare executives need to recognize two central issues related to price transparency: 1) meaningful price transparency involves helping patients and consumers understand their financial obligation for an episode of care, and 2) price transparency is key to the most critical success strategy for healthcare providers: building trust. This article reviews the history of pricing and billing practices and explores why price transparency is not easily achieved in today's environment. Pricing is a mystery even to those of us who work in the field, yet despite its complexity, the call for price transparency is not going to go away. For transparency, the goal should be to establish a rational pricing system that is easily explainable and justified to all stakeholders. Healthcare executives must make pricing a priority, understand cost, develop a pricing philosophy, understand the overall revenue requirements, examine market conditions and prices, and set up systems for review. A rational process of price setting should enhance community trust. In this matter there is nothing less at stake than the hearts of our community members. PMID:17405387

  6. Price-based vs. quantity-based environmental regulation under Knightian uncertainty: an info-gap robust satisficing perspective.

    PubMed

    Stranlund, John K; Ben-Haim, Yakov

    2008-05-01

    Conventional wisdom among environmental economists is that the relative slopes of the marginal social benefit and marginal social cost functions determine whether a price-based or quantity-based environmental regulation leads to higher expected social welfare. We revisit the choice between price-based vs. quantity-based environmental regulation under Knightian uncertainty; that is, when uncertainty cannot be modeled with known moments of probability distributions. Under these circumstances, the policy objective cannot be to maximize the expected net benefits of emissions control. Instead, we evaluate an emissions tax and an aggregate abatement standard in terms of maximizing the range of uncertainty under which the welfare loss from error in the estimates of the marginal benefits and costs of emissions control can be limited. The main result of our work is that the same criterion involving the relative slopes of the marginal benefit and cost functions determines whether price-based or quantity-based control is more robust to unstructured uncertainty. Hence, not only does the relative slopes criterion lead to the policy that maximizes the expected net benefits of control under structured uncertainty, it also leads to the policy that maximizes robustness to unstructured uncertainty.

  7. Online Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, Nancy; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The first of four articles describes the move by the European Space Agency to eliminate connect time charges on its online retrieval system. The remaining articles describe the pricing structure of DIALOG, compare the two pricing schemes, and discuss online pricing from the user's point of view. (CLB)

  8. Six Sigma pricing.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, ManMohan S; Sodhi, Navdeep S

    2005-05-01

    Many companies are now good at managing costs and wringing out manufacturing efficiencies. The TQM movement and the disciplines of Six Sigma have seen to that. But the discipline so often brought to the cost side of the business equation is found far less commonly on the revenue side. The authors describe how a global manufacturer of industrial equipment, which they call Acme Incorporated, recently applied Six Sigma to one major revenue related activity--the price-setting process. It seemed to Acme's executives that pricing closely resembled many manufacturing processes. So, with the help of a Six Sigma black belt from manufacturing, a manager from Acme's pricing division recruited a team to carry out the five Six Sigma steps: Define what constitutes a defect. At Acme, a defect was an item sold at an unauthorized price. Gather data and prepare it for analysis. That involved mapping out the existing pricing-agreement process. Analyze the data. The team identified the ways in which people failed to carry out or assert effective control at each stage. Recommend modifications to the existing process. The team sought to decrease the number of unapproved prices without creating an onerous approval apparatus. Create controls. This step enabled Acme to sustain and extend the improvements in its pricing procedures. As a result of the changes, Acme earned dollar 6 million in additional revenue on one product line alone in the six months following implementation--money that went straight to the bottom line. At the same time, the company removed much of the organizational friction that had long bedeviled its pricing process. Other companies can benefit from Acme's experience as they look for ways to exercise price control without alienating customers. PMID:15929409

  9. Six Sigma pricing.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, ManMohan S; Sodhi, Navdeep S

    2005-05-01

    Many companies are now good at managing costs and wringing out manufacturing efficiencies. The TQM movement and the disciplines of Six Sigma have seen to that. But the discipline so often brought to the cost side of the business equation is found far less commonly on the revenue side. The authors describe how a global manufacturer of industrial equipment, which they call Acme Incorporated, recently applied Six Sigma to one major revenue related activity--the price-setting process. It seemed to Acme's executives that pricing closely resembled many manufacturing processes. So, with the help of a Six Sigma black belt from manufacturing, a manager from Acme's pricing division recruited a team to carry out the five Six Sigma steps: Define what constitutes a defect. At Acme, a defect was an item sold at an unauthorized price. Gather data and prepare it for analysis. That involved mapping out the existing pricing-agreement process. Analyze the data. The team identified the ways in which people failed to carry out or assert effective control at each stage. Recommend modifications to the existing process. The team sought to decrease the number of unapproved prices without creating an onerous approval apparatus. Create controls. This step enabled Acme to sustain and extend the improvements in its pricing procedures. As a result of the changes, Acme earned dollar 6 million in additional revenue on one product line alone in the six months following implementation--money that went straight to the bottom line. At the same time, the company removed much of the organizational friction that had long bedeviled its pricing process. Other companies can benefit from Acme's experience as they look for ways to exercise price control without alienating customers.

  10. An annual quasidifference approach to water price elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, David R.; Griffin, Ronald C.

    2008-08-01

    The preferred price specification for retail water demand estimation has not been fully settled by prior literature. Empirical consistency of price indices is necessary to enable testing of competing specifications. Available methods of unbiasing the price index are summarized here. Using original rate information from several hundred Texas utilities, new indices of marginal and average price change are constructed. Marginal water price change is shown to explain consumption variation better than average water price change, based on standard information criteria. Annual change in quantity consumed per month is estimated with differences in climate variables and the new quasidifference marginal price index. As expected, the annual price elasticity of demand is found to vary with daily high and low temperatures and the frequency of precipitation.

  11. 48 CFR 1615.402 - Pricing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pricing policy. 1615.402... Contract Pricing 1615.402 Pricing policy. Pricing of FEHB contracts is governed by 5 U.S.C. 8902(i), 5 U.S....403-4(a)(1), OPM will not require the carrier to provide cost or pricing data in the rate proposal...

  12. 48 CFR 1615.402 - Pricing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pricing policy. 1615.402... Contract Pricing 1615.402 Pricing policy. Pricing of FEHB contracts is governed by 5 U.S.C. 8902(i), 5 U.S....403-4(a)(1), OPM will not require the carrier to provide cost or pricing data in the rate proposal...

  13. 48 CFR 1615.402 - Pricing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pricing policy. 1615.402... Contract Pricing 1615.402 Pricing policy. Pricing of FEHB contracts is governed by 5 U.S.C. 8902(i), 5 U.S....403-4(a)(1), OPM will not require the carrier to provide cost or pricing data in the rate proposal...

  14. Forward and Spot Prices in Multi-Settlement Wholesale Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrieu, Jeremy

    In organized wholesale electricity markets, power is sold competitively in a multi-unit multi-settlement single-price auction comprised of a forward and a spot market. This dissertation attempts to understand the structure of the forward premium in these markets, and to identify the factors that may lead forward and spot prices to converge or diverge. These markets are unique in that the forward demand is price-sensitive, while spot residual demand is perfectly inelastic and must be met in full, a crucial design feature the literature often glosses over. An important contribution of this dissertation is the explicit modeling of each market separately in order to understand how generation and load choose to act in each one, and the consequences of these actions on equilibrium prices and quantities given that firms maximize joint profits over both markets. In the first essay, I construct a two-settlement model of electricity prices in which firms that own asymmetric capacity-constrained units facing convex costs compete to meet demand from consumers, first in quantities, then in prices. I show that the forward premium depends on the costliness of spot production relative to firms' ability to exercise market power by setting quantities in the forward market. In the second essay, I test the model from the first essay with unit-level capacity and marginal cost data from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). I show that the model closely replicates observed price formation in the CAISO. In the third essay, I estimate a time series model of the CAISO forward premium in order to measure the impact that virtual bidding has had on forward and spot price convergence in California between April 2009 and March 2014. I find virtual bidding to have caused forward and spot prices to diverge due to the large number of market participants looking to hedge against - or speculate on - the occurrence of infrequent but large spot price spikes by placing virtual demand bids.

  15. Changes in Pricing Behavior during the 1980s: An Analysis of Selected Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on changes in pricing decisions at public and private colleges in a low-cost and a high-cost state in the 1980s. Five liberal arts colleges studied used several pricing strategies: "elite" pricing strategy; "prestige" pricing strategy; and price reduction strategy. Study found multiple causes for price increases, more sophisticated pricing…

  16. Patents and profits: A disparity of manufacturing margins in the tenofovir value chain.

    PubMed

    Walwyn, David

    2013-03-01

    Registered in 2001, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has quickly become a mainstay of first line regimens for the treatment of HIV. Initially only available in developed countries at a cost of US$5 000 per person per year (ppy), Gilead's Access Programme (GAP) has extended the use of the product to 2.4 million patients in low and middle income countries. The programme has two components: distribution of the branded product at reduced prices and licensing partnerships with generic manufacturers. The licensing partnerships now supply 75% of the market by volume, at a treatment cost of US$57 ppy (1% of the branded cost). From Gilead's perspective, GAP must be considered a huge success. It has enabled the company to maintain high prices in developed countries whilst reducing its input costs and deflecting criticism of its failure to provide essential medicines for the poor, hence risking the possibility of compulsory licensing. Over the period 2001 to 2011, TDF in its various forms has generated for Gilead more than US$31 billion revenue at a gross margin of 80%, equivalent to a gross profit of US$25 billion. Analysis of the TDF value chain, from preparation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to sale of the formulated product, shows that manufacturing margins are highly skewed in favour of the originator, with the latter's profit being US$3.2 billion vs. US$4 million for API manufacturers and US$39 million for formulators (2011). The data argues for a more rational approach to drug pricing including possible regulation in developed countries and more sustainable margins for the generic producers. PMID:25871307

  17. Mind your pricing cues.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eric; Simester, Duncan

    2003-09-01

    For most of the items they buy, consumers don't have an accurate sense of what the price should be. Ask them to guess how much a four-pack of 35-mm film costs, and you'll get a variety of wrong answers: Most people will underestimate; many will only shrug. Research shows that consumers' knowledge of the market is so far from perfect that it hardly deserves to be called knowledge at all. Yet people happily buy film and other products every day. Is this because they don't care what kind of deal they're getting? No. Remarkably, it's because they rely on retailers to tell them whether they're getting a good price. In subtle and not-so-subtle ways, retailers send signals to customers, telling them whether a given price is relatively high or low. In this article, the authors review several common pricing cues retailers use--"sale" signs, prices that end in 9, signpost items, and price-matching guarantees. They also offer some surprising facts about how--and how well--those cues work. For instance, the authors' tests with several mail-order catalogs reveal that including the word "sale" beside a price can increase demand by more than 50%. The practice of using a 9 at the end of a price to denote a bargain is so common, you'd think customers would be numb to it. Yet in a study the authors did involving a women's clothing catalog, they increased demand by a third just by changing the price of a dress from $34 to $39. Pricing cues are powerful tools for guiding customers' purchasing decisions, but they must be applied judiciously. Used inappropriately, the cues may breach customers' trust, reduce brand equity, and give rise to lawsuits. PMID:12964397

  18. Pricing of new vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  19. Prices paid for adult and paediatric antiretroviral treatment by low- and middle-income countries in 2012: high, low or just right?

    PubMed

    Perriëns, Joseph H; Habiyambere, Vincent; Dongmo-Nguimfack, Boniface; Hirnschall, Gottfried

    2014-01-01

    A viable market for antiretroviral drugs in low- and middle-income countries is key to the continued scale-up of antiretroviral treatment. We describe the price paid by low- and middle-income countries for 10 first- and 7 second-line adult and paediatric treatment regimens from 2003 to 2012, and compare the price of their finished formulations with the price of their active pharmaceutical ingredients in 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2012. Between 2003 and 2012 the median price of adult first-line treatment regimens per treatment-year decreased from USD499 to USD122, and that of second-line regimens from USD2,934 to USD497. In 2005 adult formulations were sold for a price 170% higher than the cost of their active pharmaceutical ingredients. This margin had decreased to 28% in 2012. Between 2004 and 2013, the price of paediatric treatment per treatment-year decreased from USD585 to USD147 for first-line and from USD763 to USD288 for second-line treatment. In 2005, paediatric treatment regimens were sold at a price 231% higher than the cost of their active pharmaceutical ingredients. This margin remained high and was 195% in 2012. The prices paid for antiretroviral drugs by low- and middle-income countries decreased between 2003 and 2012. Although the margins on their sale decreased, there is likely still space for price reduction, especially for the more recent World Health Organization recommended adult first-line regimens and for paediatric treatment.

  20. Prices paid for adult and paediatric antiretroviral treatment by low- and middle-income countries in 2012: high, low or just right?

    PubMed

    Perriëns, Joseph H; Habiyambere, Vincent; Dongmo-Nguimfack, Boniface; Hirnschall, Gottfried

    2014-01-01

    A viable market for antiretroviral drugs in low- and middle-income countries is key to the continued scale-up of antiretroviral treatment. We describe the price paid by low- and middle-income countries for 10 first- and 7 second-line adult and paediatric treatment regimens from 2003 to 2012, and compare the price of their finished formulations with the price of their active pharmaceutical ingredients in 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2012. Between 2003 and 2012 the median price of adult first-line treatment regimens per treatment-year decreased from USD499 to USD122, and that of second-line regimens from USD2,934 to USD497. In 2005 adult formulations were sold for a price 170% higher than the cost of their active pharmaceutical ingredients. This margin had decreased to 28% in 2012. Between 2004 and 2013, the price of paediatric treatment per treatment-year decreased from USD585 to USD147 for first-line and from USD763 to USD288 for second-line treatment. In 2005, paediatric treatment regimens were sold at a price 231% higher than the cost of their active pharmaceutical ingredients. This margin remained high and was 195% in 2012. The prices paid for antiretroviral drugs by low- and middle-income countries decreased between 2003 and 2012. Although the margins on their sale decreased, there is likely still space for price reduction, especially for the more recent World Health Organization recommended adult first-line regimens and for paediatric treatment. PMID:25310645

  1. The health of safety net hospitals following Massachusetts health care reform: changes in volume, revenue, costs, and operating margins from 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arun; Grant, Jennifer; Batalden, Maren; McCormick, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Massachusetts health care reform, designed to expand coverage and access to care for vulnerable populations, serves as the model for national health reform in the United States that will be implemented in 2014. Yet, little is known about how the reform may have affected the demand for and the financial performance of safety net hospitals (SNH), the primary source of care for such populations before the reform. Using a quasi-experimental design that included all acute care hospitals in the state, we calculated changes in mean inpatient and outpatient volumes, revenue, and operating margins at SNH from the pre-reform (Fiscal Year 2006) to the post-reform (Fiscal Year 2009) period. We contrasted these changes with contemporaneous changes occurring among non-safety net hospitals (NSNH) using a difference-in-differences approach. We found that SNH in Massachusetts continue to play a disproportionately large role in caring for disadvantaged patients after reform, but that their financial performance has declined considerably compared with NSNH. Ongoing reform efforts in the United States should account for continued SNH demand among the most vulnerable patients and should be designed so as not to undermine the financial stability of SNH that meet this demand.

  2. The health of safety net hospitals following Massachusetts health care reform: changes in volume, revenue, costs, and operating margins from 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arun; Grant, Jennifer; Batalden, Maren; McCormick, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Massachusetts health care reform, designed to expand coverage and access to care for vulnerable populations, serves as the model for national health reform in the United States that will be implemented in 2014. Yet, little is known about how the reform may have affected the demand for and the financial performance of safety net hospitals (SNH), the primary source of care for such populations before the reform. Using a quasi-experimental design that included all acute care hospitals in the state, we calculated changes in mean inpatient and outpatient volumes, revenue, and operating margins at SNH from the pre-reform (Fiscal Year 2006) to the post-reform (Fiscal Year 2009) period. We contrasted these changes with contemporaneous changes occurring among non-safety net hospitals (NSNH) using a difference-in-differences approach. We found that SNH in Massachusetts continue to play a disproportionately large role in caring for disadvantaged patients after reform, but that their financial performance has declined considerably compared with NSNH. Ongoing reform efforts in the United States should account for continued SNH demand among the most vulnerable patients and should be designed so as not to undermine the financial stability of SNH that meet this demand. PMID:23821908

  3. Unsettled Times, Unsettled Prices: Periodical Price Survey 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketcham, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of the thirty-seventh annual periodical price survey conducted by "Library Journal". Highlights include canceling print subscriptions and electronic journals, cost trends by subject and by countries, prices for public and school libraries and for college and medium-sized university libraries, and budgeting for 1988. (LRW)

  4. 76 FR 53533 - Notification of New Pricing Methodology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Mint is implementing a new pricing methodology for its commemorative gold coins to mitigate the effect that fluctuating gold commodity costs has on the pricing of these products. The new pricing methodology... previous Thursday A.M. Fix through the Wednesday A.M. Fix) gold prices, which reflect the cost of the...

  5. Cost of gentamicin assays carried out by microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed Central

    Vacani, P F; Malek, M M; Davey, P G

    1993-01-01

    charge prices which do not even cover the cost of assay kits. Overall, we believe that prices charged should be as close as possible to the marginal cost of the tests performed. PMID:8227402

  6. Pricing Films, Filmstrips and Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1984-01-01

    Examines pricing practices of major producers of educational materials: Weston Woods, Listening Library, Random House Educational Media, Live Oak Media, S&S Communications Group, Phoenix/BFA, Benchmark, and Churchill Films. Royalties, production and manufacturing costs, list prices, recoveries to producers, and marketing are noted. (EJS)

  7. Coinsurance effects on dental prices.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Conrad, D A

    1986-01-01

    For many Americans the cost of dental services represents a barrier to receiving regular dental care and maintaining proper oral health. The recent growth of the dental insurance industry, however, may partly offset this price barrier among insureds. Our purpose is to examine the relationship between coinsurance and dental prices for 16 dental services among a sample of Pennsylvania Blue Shield (PBS) adult insureds. The dependent price measure is the annual average gross price paid for 16 specific preventive, restorative, periodontic, endodontic, prosthodontic, and surgical dental services. Independent variables in the price model include the insured's age, education, coinsurance rates, time costs, market area, non-wage income, oral health status, area dentist-population ratio and usual source of care. Data sources are 1980 PBS claims and coinsurance rate data and a mail survey of sampled insureds. OLS regression analysis reveals that the model's independent variables explain little dental price variation. No variable is consistently significant across services, but market area, coinsurance rates, and time costs alternately dominate across equations. These results suggest that, among adult insureds, coinsurance and time costs influence dental fees in a minority of dental services. Insurance reduces the patient's sensitivity to money price, and non-price factors correspondingly seem to become more important in patient search.

  8. Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model – A User’s Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William R.; Shehabi, Arman; Smith, Sarah Josephine

    2015-08-01

    The Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model is a cost-performance techno-economic model that estimates total large-scale manufacturing costs for necessary to produce a given product. It is designed to provide production cost estimates for technology researchers to help guide technology research and development towards an eventual cost-effective product. The model presented in this user’s guide is generic and can be tailored to the manufacturing of any product, including the generation of electricity (as a product). This flexibility, however, requires the user to develop the processes and process efficiencies that represents a full-scale manufacturing facility. The generic model is comprised of several modules that estimate variable costs (material, labor, and operating), fixed costs (capital & maintenance), financing structures (debt and equity financing), and tax implications (taxable income after equipment and building depreciation, debt interest payments, and expenses) of a notional manufacturing plant. A cash-flow method is used to estimate a selling price necessary for the manufacturing plant to recover its total cost of production. A levelized unit sales price ($ per unit of product) is determined by dividing the net-present value of the manufacturing plant’s expenses ($) by the net present value of its product output. A user defined production schedule drives the cash-flow method that determines the levelized unit price. In addition, an analyst can increase the levelized unit price to include a gross profit margin to estimate a product sales price. This model allows an analyst to understand the effect that any input variables could have on the cost of manufacturing a product. In addition, the tool is able to perform sensitivity analysis, which can be used to identify the key variables and assumptions that have the greatest influence on the levelized costs. This component is intended to help technology researchers focus their research attention on tasks

  9. Economic analysis of the water demand in the hotels and restaurants sector: Shadow prices and elasticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, Ana; Atwi, Majed; Barberán, Ramón; Mur, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Despite the growing economic importance of tourism, and its impact on relative water shortage, little is known about the role that water plays in the productive process of hotels and restaurants and, therefore, the possible implications of water demand management policy for this sector. This study aims to fill this gap. It is based on the microdata of 676 firms in the sector, operating in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) for a 12 year period. Based on the Translog cost function, we estimate the shadow price of water in the short run and, from a long-run perspective, its direct price elasticity, its cross elasticities relative to labor, capital, and supplies, and its elasticity with respect to the level of output. The results obtained show that water provides sector firms returns that are on average higher than its price, although in the case of hotels the margin is really narrow. This situation provides policy makers with a margin for applying price increases without affecting the sector's viability, with some caution in the case of hotels. Water demand elasticity equals -0.38 in the case of hotels, but it is not significant in the case of restaurants and bar-cafes; hence, only in hotels is there potential for influencing water use patterns, encouraging the resource's conservation through pricing policy. Moreover, capital is a substitutive factor of water, and the elasticity of water with respect to output is 0.40, all of which should also be considered by policy makers in water resource management.

  10. Rising Food Prices: Who's Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1973-01-01

    Rise in food prices can be partially attributed to the high food consumption level throughout Europe and North America, coupled with failure to evolve systems for more production of cattle, soybeans, and fisheries at lower cost. (PS)

  11. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  12. 48 CFR 15.404-3 - Subcontract pricing considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., including subcontractor's certified cost or pricing data. (b) The prime contractor or subcontractor shall... paragraph (c) of this subsection, submit subcontractor certified cost or pricing data to the Government as part of its own certified cost or pricing data. (c) Any contractor or subcontractor that is required...

  13. 48 CFR 15.404-3 - Subcontract pricing considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... solicitation. (4) Subcontractor certified cost or pricing data shall be current, accurate, and complete as of... specified on the contractor's Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data. The contractor shall update... reasonable price for the prime contract, including subcontracting costs. The contracting officer...

  14. 48 CFR 15.407-3 - Forward pricing rate agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... initial contract or for a contract modification. (See the Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data at... rate agreements. (a) When certified cost or pricing data are required, offerors are required to... apply and to identify the latest cost or pricing data already submitted in accordance with the FPRA....

  15. Pricing effects on food choices.

    PubMed

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations. PMID:12612165

  16. Definition of scarcity-based water pricing policies through hydro-economic stochastic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest current issues in integrated water resources management is to find and apply efficient and flexible management policies. Efficient management is needed to deal with increased water scarcity and river basin closure. Flexible policies are required to handle the stochastic nature of the water cycle. Scarcity-based pricing policies are one of the most promising alternatives, which deal not only with the supply costs, but also consider the opportunity costs associated with the allocation of water. The opportunity cost of water, which varies dynamically with space and time according to the imbalances between supply and demand, can be assessed using hydro-economic models. This contribution presents a procedure to design a pricing policy based on hydro-economic modelling and on the assessment of the Marginal Resource Opportunity Cost (MROC). Firstly, MROC time series associated to the optimal operation of the system are derived from a stochastic hydro-economic model. Secondly, these MROC time series must be post-processed in order to combine the different space-and-time MROC values into a single generalized indicator of the marginal opportunity cost of water. Finally, step scarcity-based pricing policies are determined after establishing a relationship between the MROC and the corresponding state of the system at the beginning of the time period (month). The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIVth century) rights. A hydro-economic model of the system has been built using stochastic dynamic programming. A reoptimization procedure is then implemented using SDP-derived benefit-to-go functions and historical flows to produce the time series of MROC values. MROC values are then aggregated and a statistical analysis is carried out to define (i) pricing policies and (ii) the relationship between MROC and

  17. Pricing Mechanism Design for Centralized Pollutant Treatment with SME Alliances.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Tao, Fengming

    2016-06-22

    In this paper, we assume that a professional pollutant treatment enterprise treats all of the pollutants emitted by multiple small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In order to determine the treatment price, SMEs can bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, or through forming alliances. We propose a bargaining game model of centralized pollutant treatment to study how the pollutant treatment price is determined through negotiation. Then, we consider that there is a moral hazard from SMEs in centralized pollutant treatment; in other words, they may break their agreement concerning their quantities of production and pollutant emissions with the pollutant treatment enterprise. We study how the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent this by pricing mechanism design. It is found that the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent SMEs' moral hazard through tiered pricing. If the marginal treatment cost of the pollutant treatment enterprise is a constant, SMEs could bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, otherwise, they should form a grand alliance to bargain with it as a whole.

  18. Pricing Mechanism Design for Centralized Pollutant Treatment with SME Alliances

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Tao, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we assume that a professional pollutant treatment enterprise treats all of the pollutants emitted by multiple small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In order to determine the treatment price, SMEs can bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, or through forming alliances. We propose a bargaining game model of centralized pollutant treatment to study how the pollutant treatment price is determined through negotiation. Then, we consider that there is a moral hazard from SMEs in centralized pollutant treatment; in other words, they may break their agreement concerning their quantities of production and pollutant emissions with the pollutant treatment enterprise. We study how the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent this by pricing mechanism design. It is found that the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent SMEs’ moral hazard through tiered pricing. If the marginal treatment cost of the pollutant treatment enterprise is a constant, SMEs could bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, otherwise, they should form a grand alliance to bargain with it as a whole. PMID:27338440

  19. Pricing Mechanism Design for Centralized Pollutant Treatment with SME Alliances.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Tao, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we assume that a professional pollutant treatment enterprise treats all of the pollutants emitted by multiple small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In order to determine the treatment price, SMEs can bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, or through forming alliances. We propose a bargaining game model of centralized pollutant treatment to study how the pollutant treatment price is determined through negotiation. Then, we consider that there is a moral hazard from SMEs in centralized pollutant treatment; in other words, they may break their agreement concerning their quantities of production and pollutant emissions with the pollutant treatment enterprise. We study how the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent this by pricing mechanism design. It is found that the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent SMEs' moral hazard through tiered pricing. If the marginal treatment cost of the pollutant treatment enterprise is a constant, SMEs could bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, otherwise, they should form a grand alliance to bargain with it as a whole. PMID:27338440

  20. Pricing, profits and pharmacoeconomics--for whose benefit?

    PubMed

    Adams, J R; Ali, S; Bennett, C L

    2001-03-01

    In today's troubled healthcare climate, it is not uncommon to run across headlines like: 'Health insurance premiums increasing by 10 percent to 30 percent across the country.' This particular New York Times article went on to explain that this premium price hike, the third consecutive double digit increase in 3 years, is driven largely by escalating pharmaceutical costs. The pharmaceutical industry has largely been vilified in the media and in the recent presidential debates, for fueling healthcare inflation and setting what many perceive to be 'unfair' prices in light of the profit margins on their life-saving products. A report released by the Congressional Research Service found that after tax, profits for the pharmaceutical industry averaged 17% of sales, compared with 5% for all other industries. The White House has added its voice to the popular discontent with notices such as this one reported in the New York Times: 'There is a rising tide politically in this country of strong antagonism against the pharmaceutical industry on the dimension of prices. (Without expanded access to insurance) price controls are an inevitable outcome.' Although the prospect of price control remains dubious in America's entrenched laissez-faire economy, David Kessler, former head of the FDA and the Dean of the Yale School of Medicine, described the situation as a 'powder keg,' stating 'the current system is simply not sustainable'. Although there does not appear to be an immediate solution to this escalating crisis, this editorial will examine pharmaceutical pricing, industry profits and the role of pharmacoeconomic analyses amidst the chaos.

  1. 48 CFR 1415.406-70 - Department of the Interior price negotiation memorandum (PNM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contract Pricing 1415.406-70 Department of the Interior price negotiation memorandum (PNM). (a) Policy. In... modifications such as exercising fixed price options or issuing change orders. The memorandum is required for... FAR 15.308. (5) If cost or pricing data were not required, the cost or price analysis performed...

  2. 48 CFR 1415.406-70 - Department of the Interior price negotiation memorandum (PNM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Contract Pricing 1415.406-70 Department of the Interior price negotiation memorandum (PNM). (a) Policy. In... modifications such as exercising fixed price options or issuing change orders. The memorandum is required for... FAR 15.308. (5) If cost or pricing data were not required, the cost or price analysis performed...

  3. [Pharmaceutical reference pricing in Germany: definition of therapeutic groups, price setting through regression procedure and effects].

    PubMed

    Stargardt, T; Schreyögg, J; Busse, R

    2005-07-01

    The German reference pricing system defines a reimbursement threshold for groups of pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceuticals are grouped according to certain criteria by the Federal Joint Committee. To make different active ingredients comparable, so called reference values are defined. Subsequently, the federal association of sickness funds sets reference prices using a regression procedure. However, the impact of the reference price system is limited. On the one hand there is a strong incentive for pharmaceutical companies to decrease prices to the reference price. On the other hand there is no incentive for further price reductions. Additionally, only one part of the pharmaceutical market is affected by reference pricing. Therefore the instrument has only managed to lower pharmaceutical expenditure in the short run. For sustainable long-term cost containment the use of other regulatory instruments is necessary. Nevertheless, compared to other instruments of price-regulation, reference pricing seems to be a good alternative to control pharmaceutical prices, since rationing is kept as little as possible.

  4. Enhancing medicine price transparency through price information mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medicine price information mechanisms provide an essential tool to countries that seek a better understanding of product availability, market prices and price compositions of individual medicines. To be effective and contribute to cost savings, these mechanisms need to consider prices in their particular contexts when comparing between countries. This article discusses in what ways medicine price information mechanisms can contribute to increased price transparency and how this may affect access to medicines for developing countries. Methods We used data collected during the course of a WHO project focusing on the development of a vaccine price and procurement information mechanism. The project collected information from six medicine price information mechanisms and interviewed data managers and technical experts on key aspects as well as observed market effects of these mechanisms. The reviewed mechanisms were broken down into categories including objective and target audience, as well as the sources, types and volumes of data included. Information provided by the mechanisms was reviewed according to data available on medicine prices, product characteristics, and procurement modalities. Results We found indications of positive effects on access to medicines resulting from the utilization of the reviewed mechanisms. These include the uptake of higher quality medicines, more favorable results from contract negotiations, changes in national pricing policies, and the decrease of prices in certain segments for countries participating in or deriving data from the various mechanisms. Conclusion The reviewed mechanisms avoid the methodological challenges observed for medicine price comparisons that only use national price databases. They work with high quality data and display prices in the appropriate context of procurement modalities as well as the peculiarities of purchasing countries. Medicine price information mechanisms respond to the need for increased

  5. Trends in College Pricing, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents data on college costs from the Annual Survey of Colleges for the 1998-99 academic year, as well as trends in costs over the past 25 years and analyses of college prices in relation to family income and available financial aid. Ten tables and seven figures present such data as average fixed charges for undergraduates, sample…

  6. 48 CFR 31.102 - Fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts. 31... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Applicability 31.102 Fixed-price contracts. The applicable subparts of part 31 shall be used in the pricing of fixed-price contracts,...

  7. 48 CFR 31.102 - Fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts. 31... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Applicability 31.102 Fixed-price contracts. The applicable subparts of part 31 shall be used in the pricing of fixed-price contracts,...

  8. 48 CFR 31.102 - Fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts. 31... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Applicability 31.102 Fixed-price contracts. The applicable subparts of part 31 shall be used in the pricing of fixed-price contracts,...

  9. 48 CFR 31.102 - Fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts. 31... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Applicability 31.102 Fixed-price contracts. The applicable subparts of part 31 shall be used in the pricing of fixed-price contracts,...

  10. 48 CFR 31.102 - Fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts. 31... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Applicability 31.102 Fixed-price contracts. The applicable subparts of part 31 shall be used in the pricing of fixed-price contracts,...

  11. 48 CFR 36.214 - Special procedures for price negotiation in construction contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data and shall compare them to the Government estimate. (1) When submission of certified cost or pricing data is not required (see 15... developed and used, such as cost per cubic foot for structures, cost per linear foot for utilities, and...

  12. Continental Margins: Linking Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris; Rabalais, Nancy; Middelburg, Jack; Roy, Sylvie; Liu, Kon-Kee; Thomas, Helmuth; Zhang, Jing

    2008-02-01

    Impacts of Global, Local and Human Forcings on Biogeochemical Cycles and Ecosystems, IMBER/LOICZ Continental Margins Open Science Conference; Shanghai, China, 17-21 September 2007; More than 100 scientists from 25 countries came together to address global, regional, local, and human pressures interactively affecting continental margin biogeochemical cycles, marine food webs, and society. Continental margins cover only 12% of the global ocean area yet account for more than 30% of global oceanic primary production. In addition, continental margins are the most intensely used regions of the world's ocean for natural commodities, including productive fisheries and mineral and petroleum resources. The land adjacent to continental margins hosts about 50% of the world's population, which will bear many direct impacts of global change on coastal margins. Understanding both natural and human-influenced alterations of biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems on continental margins and the processes (including feedbacks) that threaten sustainability of these systems is therefore of global interest.

  13. Costing and competition.

    PubMed

    Bates, K; Brignall, S

    1994-01-01

    Working for patients established a new system of contracts between providers and purchasers of healthcare, with prices based on full costs, avoiding cross-subsidization. The new regime necessitates greatly improved costing systems, to improve the efficiency of service provision by creating price competition between providers. Ken Bates and Stan Brignall argue that non-price competition also occurs, with providers 'differentiating' on quality of service/product, flexibility or innovation. PMID:10136091

  14. Pricing strategies in inelastic energy markets: can we use less if we can't extract more?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voinov, Alexey; Filatova, Tatiana

    2014-03-01

    Limited supply of nonrenewable energy resources under growing energy demand creates a situation when a marginal change in the quantity supplied or demanded causes non-marginal swings in price levels. The situation is worsened by the fact that we are currently running out of cheap energy resources at the global scale while adaptation to climate change requires extra energy costs. It is often argued that technology and alternative energy will be a solution. However, alternative energy infrastructure also requires additional energy investments, which can further increase the gap between energy demand and supply. This paper presents an explorative model that demonstrates that a smooth transition from an oil-based economy to alternative energy sources is possible only if it is started well in advance while fossil resources are still abundant. Later the transition looks much more dramatic and it becomes risky to rely entirely on technological solutions. It becomes increasingly likely that in addition to technological solutions that can increase supply we will need to find ways to decrease demand and consumption. We further argue that market mechanisms can be just as powerful tools to curb demand as they have traditionally been for stimulating consumption. We observe that individuals who consume more energy resources benefit at the expense of those who consume less, effectively imposing price externalities on the latters. We suggest two transparent and flexible methods of pricing that attempt to eliminate price externalities on energy resources. Such pricing schemes stimulate less consumption and can smooth the transition to renewable energy.

  15. A New Thermostat for Real-Time Price Demand Response: Cost, Comfort and Energy Impacts of Discrete-Time Control without Deadband

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Agathoklis, Pan; Djilali, Ned

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a residential thermostat design that enables accurate aggregate load control systems for electricity demand response. The thermostat features a control strategy that can be modeled as a linear time-invariant system for short- term demand response signals from the utility. This control design maintains the same comfort and demand response characteristics of existing real-time price- responsive thermostats but gives rise to linear time-invariant models of aggregate load control and demand response, which facilitates the design of highly accurate load-based regulation services for electricity interconnections.

  16. Variation in Hospital Costs, Payments, and Profitabilty for Cardiac Valve Replacement Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, James C

    2011-01-01

    Objective Examine the variation for Medicare and privately insured patients in hospital costs, payments, and contribution margins and their association with characteristics of the patients, hospitals, and hospital markets. Data Sources Administrative records for 1,858 patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement surgery were obtained from 37 hospitals in 7 states for 2008. Study Design Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses of costs, payments, and profitability (contribution margin) for Medicare and privately insured patients, adjusting for patient, hospital, and market characteristics. Data Collection Integrated Health Care Association, Aspen Health Metrics, American Hospital Association Annual Survey of Hospitals. Principal Findings Cardiac valve replacement surgery is an expensive but profitable procedure, with average cost and contribution margin per case of U.S.$38,667 and U.S.$21,967, respectively. Average costs per case for Medicare patients are 16.1 percent higher in concentrated than in competitive local markets after adjusting for patient comorbidities, complications, and other relevant factors (p<.01). Payments per case were 33.2 percent (p<.01) lower from Medicare than from private insurers. The average contribution margin earned by hospitals from Medicare was U.S.$30,986 lower than the margin earned from private insurers (p<.01), after adjusting for patient, hospital, and market characteristics. Conclusions Hospitals charge significantly higher prices and earn significantly higher contribution margins from private insurers than from Medicare for patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement. PMID:21762141

  17. Do Medicare Advantage plans select enrollees in higher margin clinical categories?

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Joseph P; McWilliams, J Michael; Price, Mary; Huang, Jie; Fireman, Bruce; Hsu, John

    2013-12-01

    The CMS-HCC risk adjustment system for Medicare Advantage (MA) plans calculates weights, which are effectively relative prices, for beneficiaries with different observable characteristics. To do so it uses the relative amounts spent per beneficiary with those characteristics in Traditional Medicare (TM). For multiple reasons one might expect relative amounts in MA to differ from TM, thereby making some beneficiaries more profitable to treat than others. Much of the difference comes from differences in how TM and MA treat different diseases or diagnoses. Using data on actual medical spending from two MA-HMO plans, we show that the weights calculated from MA costs do indeed differ from those calculated using TM spending. One of the two plans (Plan 1) is more typical of MA-HMO plans in that it contracts with independent community providers, while the other (Plan 2) is vertically integrated with care delivery. We calculate margins, or average revenue/average cost, for Medicare beneficiaries in the two plans who have one of 48 different combinations of medical conditions. The two plans' margins for these 48 conditions are correlated (r=0.39, p<0.01). Both plans have margins that are more positive for persons with conditions that are managed by primary care physicians and where medical management can be effective. Conversely they have lower margins for persons with conditions that tend to be treated by specialists with greater market power than primary care physicians and for acute conditions where little medical management is possible. The two plan's margins among beneficiaries with different observable characteristics vary over a range of 160 and 98 percentage points, respectively, and thus would appear to offer substantial incentive for selection by HCC. Nonetheless, we find no evidence of overrepresentation of beneficiaries in high margin HCC's in either plan. Nor, using the margins from Plan 1, the more typical plan, do we find evidence of overrepresentation of high

  18. Do Medicare Advantage Plans Select Enrollees in Higher Margin Clinical Categories?

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; McWilliams, J. Michael; Price, Mary; Huang, Jie; Fireman, Bruce; Hsu, John

    2013-01-01

    The CMS-HCC risk adjustment system for Medicare Advantage (MA) plans calculates weights, which are effectively relative prices, for beneficiaries with different observable characteristics. To do so it uses the relative amounts spent per beneficiary with those characteristics in Traditional Medicare (TM). For multiple reasons one might expect relative amounts in MA to differ from TM, thereby making some beneficiaries more profitable to treat than others. Much of the difference comes from differences in how TM and MA treat different diseases or diagnoses. Using data on actual medical spending from two MA-HMO plans, we show that the weights calculated from MA costs do indeed differ from those calculated using TM spending. One of the two plans (Plan 1) is more typical of MA-HMO plans in that it contracts with independent community providers, while the other (Plan 2) is vertically integrated with care delivery. We calculate margins, or Average Revenue/Average Cost, for Medicare beneficiaries in the two plans who have one of 48 different combinations of medical conditions. The two plans’ margins for these 48 conditions are correlated (r=0.39, p<0.01). Both plans have margins that are more positive for persons with conditions that are managed by primary care physicians and where medical management can be effective. Conversely they have lower margins for persons with conditions that tend to be treated by specialists with greater market power than primary care physicians and for acute conditions where little medical management is possible. The two plan’s margins among beneficiaries with different observable characteristics vary over a range of 160 and 98 percentage points, respectively, and thus would appear to offer substantial incentive for selection by HCC. Nonetheless, we find no evidence of overrepresentation of beneficiaries in high margin HCC’s in either plan. Nor, using the margins from Plan 1, the more typical plan, do we find evidence of overrepresentation

  19. Do Medicare Advantage plans select enrollees in higher margin clinical categories?

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Joseph P; McWilliams, J Michael; Price, Mary; Huang, Jie; Fireman, Bruce; Hsu, John

    2013-12-01

    The CMS-HCC risk adjustment system for Medicare Advantage (MA) plans calculates weights, which are effectively relative prices, for beneficiaries with different observable characteristics. To do so it uses the relative amounts spent per beneficiary with those characteristics in Traditional Medicare (TM). For multiple reasons one might expect relative amounts in MA to differ from TM, thereby making some beneficiaries more profitable to treat than others. Much of the difference comes from differences in how TM and MA treat different diseases or diagnoses. Using data on actual medical spending from two MA-HMO plans, we show that the weights calculated from MA costs do indeed differ from those calculated using TM spending. One of the two plans (Plan 1) is more typical of MA-HMO plans in that it contracts with independent community providers, while the other (Plan 2) is vertically integrated with care delivery. We calculate margins, or average revenue/average cost, for Medicare beneficiaries in the two plans who have one of 48 different combinations of medical conditions. The two plans' margins for these 48 conditions are correlated (r=0.39, p<0.01). Both plans have margins that are more positive for persons with conditions that are managed by primary care physicians and where medical management can be effective. Conversely they have lower margins for persons with conditions that tend to be treated by specialists with greater market power than primary care physicians and for acute conditions where little medical management is possible. The two plan's margins among beneficiaries with different observable characteristics vary over a range of 160 and 98 percentage points, respectively, and thus would appear to offer substantial incentive for selection by HCC. Nonetheless, we find no evidence of overrepresentation of beneficiaries in high margin HCC's in either plan. Nor, using the margins from Plan 1, the more typical plan, do we find evidence of overrepresentation of high

  20. 48 CFR 15.404-3 - Subcontract pricing considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reasonable price for the prime contract, including subcontracting costs. The contracting officer should... negotiation of the prime contract, in determining the reasonableness of the prime contract price. This does..., including subcontractor's certified cost or pricing data. (b) The prime contractor or subcontractor...

  1. Development of the household sample for furnace and boilerlife-cycle cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, Jim

    2005-05-31

    Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated. The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

  2. Regulation of pharmaceutical prices: evidence from a reference price reform in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J; Rønde, Thomas; Ullrich, Hannes

    2014-07-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs constitute widely adopted cost containment tools. Under these regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between a drug's pharmacy retail price and a reference price that is set by the government. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. We study the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005. We find that the reform led to substantial reductions in retail prices, reference prices and patient co-payments as well as to sizable decreases in overall producer revenues and health care expenditures. The reform induced consumers to substitute away from branded drugs for which we estimate strong preferences. The increase in consumer welfare due to the reform therefore depends on whether or not we take perceived quality differences into account in its calculation. PMID:24879578

  3. Regulation of pharmaceutical prices: evidence from a reference price reform in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J; Rønde, Thomas; Ullrich, Hannes

    2014-07-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs constitute widely adopted cost containment tools. Under these regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between a drug's pharmacy retail price and a reference price that is set by the government. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. We study the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005. We find that the reform led to substantial reductions in retail prices, reference prices and patient co-payments as well as to sizable decreases in overall producer revenues and health care expenditures. The reform induced consumers to substitute away from branded drugs for which we estimate strong preferences. The increase in consumer welfare due to the reform therefore depends on whether or not we take perceived quality differences into account in its calculation.

  4. 48 CFR 215.403-1 - Prohibition on obtaining certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. chapter 35).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acquisitions under dual or multiple source programs— (1) The determination of adequate price competition must... be appropriate to obtain additional data to assist in price analysis; and (2) Adequate price... price analysis (see FAR 15.404-1(b)). (B) If only one offer is received in response to a...

  5. 48 CFR 15.403-1 - Prohibition on obtaining certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on obtaining... determines that prices agreed upon are based on prices set by law or regulation (see standards in paragraph... and conditions under contracts that resulted from adequate price competition. (2) Prices set by law...

  6. [Marginalization and health. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Yunes, J

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between marginalization and health is clear. In Mexico, for example, life expectancy is 53 years for the poorest population sectors and 20 years more for the wealthiest. Infant mortality in poor Colombian families is twice that of wealthier families, and one-third of developing countries the rural population is only half as likely as the urban to have access to health services. Women in the Southern hemisphere are 12 times likelier than those in the Northern to die of maternal causes. The most important step in arriving at a solution to the inequity may be to analyze in depth the relationship between marginality and health. Marginality may be defined as the lack of participation of individuals or groups in certain key phases of societal life, such as production, consumption, or political decision making. Marginality came to be viewed as a social problem only with recognition of the rights of all individuals to participate in available social goods. Marginality is always relative, and marginal groups exist because central groups determine the criteria for inclusion in the marginal and central groups. Marginality thus always refers to a concrete society at a specific historical moment. Marginal groups may be of various types. At present, marginal groups include women, rural populations, people with AIDS or mental illness or certain other health conditions, refugees, ethnic or religious groups, homosexuals, and the poor, who are the largest group of marginal persons in the world. Even in developed countries, 100-200 million persons live below the poverty line. Latin America is struggling to emerge from its marginal status in the world. The economic crisis of the 1980s increased poverty in the region, and 40% are not considered impoverished. Latin America is a clear example of the relationship between marginality and health. Its epidemiologic profile is intimately related to nutrition, availability of potable water, housing, and environmental

  7. [Marginalization and health. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Yunes, J

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between marginalization and health is clear. In Mexico, for example, life expectancy is 53 years for the poorest population sectors and 20 years more for the wealthiest. Infant mortality in poor Colombian families is twice that of wealthier families, and one-third of developing countries the rural population is only half as likely as the urban to have access to health services. Women in the Southern hemisphere are 12 times likelier than those in the Northern to die of maternal causes. The most important step in arriving at a solution to the inequity may be to analyze in depth the relationship between marginality and health. Marginality may be defined as the lack of participation of individuals or groups in certain key phases of societal life, such as production, consumption, or political decision making. Marginality came to be viewed as a social problem only with recognition of the rights of all individuals to participate in available social goods. Marginality is always relative, and marginal groups exist because central groups determine the criteria for inclusion in the marginal and central groups. Marginality thus always refers to a concrete society at a specific historical moment. Marginal groups may be of various types. At present, marginal groups include women, rural populations, people with AIDS or mental illness or certain other health conditions, refugees, ethnic or religious groups, homosexuals, and the poor, who are the largest group of marginal persons in the world. Even in developed countries, 100-200 million persons live below the poverty line. Latin America is struggling to emerge from its marginal status in the world. The economic crisis of the 1980s increased poverty in the region, and 40% are not considered impoverished. Latin America is a clear example of the relationship between marginality and health. Its epidemiologic profile is intimately related to nutrition, availability of potable water, housing, and environmental

  8. Rack gasoline and refining margins - wanted: a summer romance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-13

    For the first time since late 1987, apparent refining margins on the US benchmark crude oil (based on spot purchase prices) are virtually zero. This felicitous bit of news comes loaded with possibilities of positive (maybe even good.) margins in coming months, if the differential between crude buying prices and the value of the refined barrel continues to improve. What refiners in the US market are watching most closely right now are motorists. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and Western Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore, prices for early April 1988; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, April 1988 edition. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Updated Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    16-page report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, the Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction Price Book for preparing conceptual, budget, funding, cost-estimating, and preliminary cost-engineering reports. Updated annually from 1974 through 1985 with actual bid prices and government estimates. Includes labor and material quantities and prices with contractor and subcontractor markups for buildings, facilities, and systems at Kennedy Space Center. While data pertains to aerospace facilities, format and cost-estimating techniques guide estimation of costs in other construction applications.

  10. [Is prescription of a therapy costing 150,000 CHF reasonable?].

    PubMed

    Peters, Solange; von Moos, Roger; Thurlimann, Beat

    2015-10-21

    The costs of medicinal products have increased substantially in the last decade. Access to medical innovations for all patients is in acute danger. This situation requires a political commitment by the wider community of caregivers, healthcare providers and industry. New pricing models are inevitable to garantee access to medical innovation for all people in our society. Further, we must require companies to be more transparent when setting drug prices and require an attitude of consensus on prices between these industries - financially sound. Finally, our health insurance system must accept some state control to avoid patient selection, but also know the precise margin of manoeuvre over time in terms of cost expenditures assigned to oncology. PMID:26672265

  11. [Is prescription of a therapy costing 150,000 CHF reasonable?].

    PubMed

    Peters, Solange; von Moos, Roger; Thurlimann, Beat

    2015-10-21

    The costs of medicinal products have increased substantially in the last decade. Access to medical innovations for all patients is in acute danger. This situation requires a political commitment by the wider community of caregivers, healthcare providers and industry. New pricing models are inevitable to garantee access to medical innovation for all people in our society. Further, we must require companies to be more transparent when setting drug prices and require an attitude of consensus on prices between these industries - financially sound. Finally, our health insurance system must accept some state control to avoid patient selection, but also know the precise margin of manoeuvre over time in terms of cost expenditures assigned to oncology.

  12. The financial implications of endovascular aneurysm repair in the cost containment era

    PubMed Central

    Stone, David H.; Horvath, Alexander J.; Goodney, Philip P.; Rzucidlo, Eva M.; Nolan, Brian W.; Walsh, Daniel B.; Zwolak, Robert M.; Powell, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is associated with significant direct device costs. Such costs place EVAR at odds with efforts to constrain healthcare expenditures. This study examines the procedure-associated costs and operating margins associated with EVAR at a tertiary care academic medical center. Methods All infrarenal EVARs performed from April 2011 to March 2012 were identified (n = 127). Among this cohort, 49 patients met standard commercial instruction for use guidelines, were treated using a single manufacturer device, and billed to Medicare diagnosis-related group (DRG) 238. Of these 49 patients, net technical operating margins (technical revenue minus technical cost) were calculated in conjunction with the hospital finance department. EVAR implant costs were determined for each procedure. DRG 238-associated costs and length of stay were benchmarked against other academic medical centers using University Health System Consortium 2012 data. Results Among the studied EVAR cohort (age 75, 82% male, mean length of stay, 1.7 days), mean technical costs totaled $31,672. Graft implants accounted for 52% of the allocated technical costs. Institutional overhead was 17% ($5495) of total technical costs. Net mean total technical EVAR-associated operating margins were —$4015 per procedure. Our institutional costs and length of stay, when benchmarked against comparable centers, remained in the lowest quartile nationally using University Health System Consortium costs for DRG 238. Stent graft price did not correlate with total EVAR. market share. Conclusions EVAR is currently associated with significant negative operating margins among Medicare beneficiaries. Currently, device costs account for over 50% of EVAR-associated technical costs and did not impact EVAR market share, reflecting an unawareness of cost differential among surgeons. These data indicate that EVAR must undergo dramatic care delivery redesign for this practice to remain sustainable

  13. Determining Price Reasonableness in Federal ESPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, J.A.

    2005-03-08

    This document reports the findings and implementation recommendations of the Price Reasonableness Working Group to the Federal ESPC Steering Committee. The working group was formed to address concerns of agencies and oversight organizations related to pricing and fair and reasonable price determination in federal energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs). This report comprises the working group's recommendations and is the proposed draft of a training curriculum on fair and reasonable price determination for users of federal ESPCs. The report includes: (1) A review of federal regulations applicable to determining price reasonableness of federal ESPCs (section 2), (2) Brief descriptions of the techniques described in Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) 15.404-1 and their applicability to ESPCs (section 3), and (3) Recommended strategies and procedures for cost-effectively completing price reasonableness determinations (sections 4). Agencies have struggled with fair and reasonable price determinations in their ESPCs primarily because this alternative financing vehicle is relatively new and relatively rare in the federal sector. The methods of determining price reasonableness most familiar to federal contracting officers (price competition based on the government's design and specifications, in particular) are generally not applicable to ESPCs. The regulatory requirements for determining price reasonableness in federal ESPCs have also been misunderstood, as federal procurement professionals who are inexperienced with ESPCs are further confused by multiple directives, including Executive Order 13123, which stresses life-cycle cost-effectiveness. Uncertainty about applicable regulations and inconsistent practice and documentation among agencies have fueled claims that price reasonableness determinations have not been sufficiently rigorous in federal ESPCs or that the prices paid in ESPCs are generally higher than the prices paid for similar goods and services

  14. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum-rich byproduct of flue gas desulfurization - A prefeasibility cost estimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Achorn, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Costs for constructing and operating a conceptual plant based on a proposed process that converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer has been calculated and used to estimate a market price for the product. The average market price of granular ammonium sulfate ($138/ton) exceeds the rough estimated cost of ammonium sulfate from the proposed process ($111/ ton), by 25 percent, if granular size ammonium sulfate crystals of 1.2 to 3.3 millimeters in diameters can be produced by the proposed process. However, there was at least ??30% margin in the cost estimate calculations. The additional costs for compaction, if needed to create granules of the required size, would make the process uneconomical unless considerable efficiency gains are achieved to balance the additional costs. This study suggests the need both to refine the crystallization process and to find potential markets for the calcium carbonate produced by the process.

  15. Managing margins through physician engagement.

    PubMed

    Sears, Nicholas J

    2012-07-01

    Hospitals should take the following steps as they seek to engage physicians in an enterprisewide effort to effectively manage margins: Consider physicians' daily professional practice requirements and demands for time in balancing patient care and administrative duties. Share detailed transactional supply data with physicians to give them a behind-the-scenes look at the cost of products used for procedures. Institute physician-led management and monitoring of protocol compliance and shifts in utilization to promote clinical support for change. Select a physician champion to provide the framework for managing initiatives with targeted, efficient communication. PMID:22788036

  16. Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Generation on the Electricity Market Prices and on the Profitability of New Wind Investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, A. J.; Saraiva, J. T.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a Dynamic Model of the electricity sector that can be used to simulate the evolution of some key variables on the long term, namely the evolution of the electricity price, of the demand and of the capacity factors of the technologies in the generation mix. This model can be used in different ways and by several agents, for instance to estimate the impact on the electricity price of the increasing presence of renewable power stations, namely using wind power and PV systems. In several countries these stations are paid feed-in tariffs with a fixed price but in some cases this scheme is under discussion and there are opinions that payments determined by the market price are more adequate and would bring fewer costs to final consumers. Such a change has to be carefully evaluated given that the presence of renewable stations bidding at an infra marginal price will affect the price itself. The model described in this paper can be used in a profitable way both by governmental agencies when preparing or studying alternative remuneration schemes to renewable stations or by promoters themselves to get more insight to the profitability of their investments, namely if the fixed feed-in tariffs in force in several countries are changed.

  17. Value-based differential pricing: efficient prices for drugs in a global context.

    PubMed

    Danzon, Patricia; Towse, Adrian; Mestre-Ferrandiz, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyzes pharmaceutical pricing between and within countries to achieve second-best static and dynamic efficiency. We distinguish countries with and without universal insurance, because insurance undermines patients' price sensitivity, potentially leading to prices above second-best efficient levels. In countries with universal insurance, if each payer unilaterally sets an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) threshold based on its citizens' willingness-to-pay for health; manufacturers price to that ICER threshold; and payers limit reimbursement to patients for whom a drug is cost-effective at that price and ICER, then the resulting price levels and use within each country and price differentials across countries are roughly consistent with second-best static and dynamic efficiency. These value-based prices are expected to differ cross-nationally with per capita income and be broadly consistent with Ramsey optimal prices. Countries without comprehensive insurance avoid its distorting effects on prices but also lack financial protection and affordability for the poor. Improving pricing efficiency in these self-pay countries includes improving regulation and consumer information about product quality and enabling firms to price discriminate within and between countries.

  18. 17 CFR 242.201 - Price test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Price test. 242.201 Section 242.201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation...

  19. [Drug prices: how they are established and existing price control systems].

    PubMed

    Rovira Forns, Joan

    2015-03-01

    Price is one of the main barriers of access to medicines. It is therefore important to understand how prices are formed and what factors determine the amount, as well as what interventions and regulations are the most appropriate considering their effects on access, innovation, local production and other potential objectives of drug policy. Economic analysis has developed a set of market models that can explain the behavior of prices, although actual markets diverge substantially from the theoretical models. Price regulation is justified by the so-called "market failures." Price regulation based on the cost of production, the most traditional form of price control, has fallen into disuse in favor of systems of international reference pricing and value-based pricing.

  20. Price transparency.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Lola

    2014-06-01

    Payers and patients want to know up front the cost of the care they're paying for, and to be able to compare providers on value. Hospitals are using a variety of strategies to be more transparent on cost and quality.

  1. Ocean margins workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the refocusing of its marine research program to emphasize the study of ocean margins and their role in modulating, controlling, and driving Global Change phenomena. This is a proposal to conduct a workshop that will establish priorities and an implementation plan for a new research initiative by the Department of Energy on the ocean margins. The workshop will be attended by about 70 scientists who specialize in ocean margin research. The workshop will be held in the Norfolk, Virginia area in late June 1990.

  2. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  3. The Physics of Traffic Congestion and Road Pricing in Transportation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, David

    2010-03-01

    This presentation develops congestion theory and congestion pricing theory from its micro- foundations, the interaction of two or more vehicles. Using game theory, with a two- player game it is shown that the emergence of congestion depends on the players' relative valuations of early arrival, late arrival, and journey delay. Congestion pricing can be used as a cooperation mechanism to minimize total costs (if returned to the players). The analysis is then extended to the case of the three- player game, which illustrates congestion as a negative externality imposed on players who do not themselves contribute to it. A multi-agent model of travelers competing to utilize a roadway in time and space is presented. To realize the spillover effect among travelers, N-player games are constructed in which the strategy set includes N+1 strategies. We solve the N-player game (for N = 7) and find Nash equilibria if they exist. This model is compared to the bottleneck model. The results of numerical simulation show that the two models yield identical results in terms of lowest total costs and marginal costs when a social optimum exists. Moving from temporal dynamics to spatial complexity, using consistent agent- based techniques, we model the decision-making processes of users and infrastructure owner/operators to explore the welfare consequence of price competition, capacity choice, and product differentiation on congested transportation networks. Component models include: (1) An agent-based travel demand model wherein each traveler has learning capabilities and unique characteristics (e.g. value of time); (2) Econometric facility provision cost models; and (3) Representations of road authorities making pricing and capacity decisions. Different from small-network equilibrium models in prior literature, this agent- based model is applicable to pricing and investment analyses on large complex networks. The subsequent economic analysis focuses on the source, evolution

  4. Effective Determination of Overhead Rates for Pricing Goods and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.

    This publication presents a system of gathering overhead data and describes several methods for assigning overhead costs to specific contract prices. It is intended to provide facility production supervisors with a means of ensuring adequate cost recovery in bid prices and gaining a measure of overhead cost control. The seven steps in the overhead…

  5. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P

    2011-08-01

    The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input-output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  6. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management

    PubMed Central

    WILSON, P.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input–output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  7. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P

    2011-08-01

    The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input-output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  8. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  9. 48 CFR 215.403-1 - Prohibition on obtaining certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. chapter 35).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... under dual or multiple source programs— (1) The determination of adequate price competition must be made... appropriate to obtain additional information to assist in price analysis. (2) Adequate price competition... analysis (see FAR 15.404-1(b)). (B) If only one offer is received in response to a competitive...

  10. 48 CFR 215.403-1 - Prohibition on obtaining certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. chapter 35).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acquisitions under dual or multiple source programs— (1) The determination of adequate price competition must... be appropriate to obtain additional data to assist in price analysis. (2) Adequate price competition... analysis (see FAR 15.404-1(b)). (B) If only one offer is received in response to a competitive...

  11. Oil prices in a new light

    SciTech Connect

    Fesharaki, F. )

    1994-05-01

    For a clear picture of how oil prices develop, the author steps away from the price levels to which the world is accustomed, and evaluates scientifically. What makes prices jump from one notch to another The move results from a political or economic shock or the perception of a particular position by the futures market and the media. The shock could range from a war or an assassination to a promise of cooperation among OPEC members (when believed by the market) or to speculation about another failure at an OPEC meeting. In the oil market, only a couple of factual figures can provide a floor to the price of oil. The cost of production of oil in the Gulf is around $2 to $3/bbl, and the cost of production of oil (capital and operating costs) in key non-OPEC areas is well under $10/bbl. With some adjustments for transport and quality, a price range of $13/bbl to $16/bbl would correspond to a reasonable sustainable floor price. The reason for prices above the floor price has been a continuous fear of oil supply interruptions. That fear kept prices above the floor price for many years. The fear factor has now almost fully disappeared. The market has gone through the drama of the Iranian Revolution, the Iran-Iraq war, the tanker war, the invasion of Kuwait, and the expulsions of the Iraqis. And still the oil flowed -- all the time. It has become abundantly clear that fears above the oil market were unjustified. Everyone needs to export oil, and oil will flow under the worst circumstances. The demise of the fear factor means that oil prices tend toward the floor price for a prolonged period.

  12. An analysis of the impact of Renewable Portfolio Standards on residential electricity prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Andrew James

    A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular policy for states seeking to increase the amount of renewable energy generated for consumers of electricity. The success of these state programs has prompted debate about the viability of a national RPS. The impact that these state level policies have had on the price consumers pay for electricity is the subject of some debate. Several federal organizations have conducted studies of the impact that a national RPS would have on electricity prices paid by consumers. NREL and US EIA utilize models that analyze the inputs in electricity generation to examine the future price impact of changes to electricity generation and show marginal increases in prices paid by end users. Other empirical research has produced similar results, showing that the existence of an RPS increases the price of electricity. These studies miss important aspects of RPS policies that may change how we view these price increases from RPS policies. By examining the previous empirical research on RPS policies, this study seeks to identify the controls necessary to build an effective model. These controls are utilized in a fixed effects model that seeks to show how the controls and variables of interest impact electricity prices paid by residential consumers of electricity. This study utilizes a panel data set from 1990 to 2014 to analyze the impact of these policies controlling for generating capacity, the regulatory status of utilities in each state, demographic characteristics of the states, and fuel prices. The results of the regressions indicate that prices are likely to be higher in states that have an RPS compared to states that do not have such a policy. Several of the characteristics mentioned above have price impacts, and so discussing RPS policies in the context of other factors that contribute to electricity prices is essential. In particular, the regulatory status of utilities in each state is an important determinate of price as

  13. Understanding Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Public discussion of higher education costs frequently confuses price with expenditure. This article examines factors associated with increases in the sticker price of a college education and the expenditures incurred by institutions in delivering that education. The discussion suggests that while growth in college tuition is real, access to…

  14. Financial incentives for marginal oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Terzian, G.A.; Enright, J.M.; Brashear, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Congress and the Administration are considering Federal tax incentives to improve the economics of marginal oil and gas wells. The effectiveness of these will depend on the specific provisions of the incentive, primarily whether they can be used by the large percentage of marginal well operators in AMT or without taxable income. Comprehensive assessment of Federal marginal well incentives requires a methodology that accounts for the diversity of marginal production operations. This paper presents a marginal well database, model, and methodology designed specifically to assess the costs and benefits of Federal tax incentives for marginal wells. Selected results are presented, along with general conclusions about Federal marginal well tax incentives based on numerous analyses.

  15. The Pricing of British Journals for the North American Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Marcia

    1986-01-01

    Presents an informal report of seminar entitled "Learned Journals: The Problem of Pricing and Buying Round," held in London on March 22, 1985, in attempt to answer charges of discriminatory pricing. Price differential of British scholarly journals, costs, marketing, and role of subscription agent are discussed. Seven sources are given. (EJS)

  16. 48 CFR 52.216-5 - Price Redetermination-Prospective.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed any ceiling price included in the contract. (b) Definition. Costs, as used in this clause, means... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price Redetermination....216-5 Price Redetermination—Prospective. As prescribed in 16.205-4, insert the following clause:...

  17. Unit Pricing and Alternatives: Developing an Individualized Shopping Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cude, Brenda; Walker, Rosemary

    1985-01-01

    This article offers a new perspective on the teaching of unit pricing in consumer economics classes by identifying ways to teach the costs as well as the benefits of unit pricing and realistic guidelines for suggesting situations in which it is most appropriate. Alternatives to unit pricing will also be explored. (CT)

  18. Stop Misusing Higher Education-Specific Price Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Andrew; Robe, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the price of things over time, it is necessary to use a price index to adjust for inflation. The Higher Education Price Index (HEPI) and the Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA) were designed to more accurately account for the spending patterns of colleges and universities. However, there are some methodological problems…

  19. A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Pricing in China: Setting the Price for Off-Patent Originators.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shanlian; Zhang, Yabing; He, Jiangjiang; Du, Lixia; Xu, Mingfei; Xie, Chunyan; Peng, Ying; Wang, Linan

    2015-08-01

    This article aims to define a value-based approach to pricing and reimbursement for off-patent originators using a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach centered on a systematic analysis of current pricing and reimbursement policies in China. A drug price policy review was combined with a quantitative analysis of China's drug purchasing database. Policy preferences were identified through a MCDA performed by interviewing well-known academic experts and industry stakeholders. The study findings indicate that the current Chinese price policy includes cost-based pricing and the establishment of maximum retail prices and premiums for off-patent originators, whereas reference pricing may be adopted in the future. The literature review revealed significant differences in the dissolution profiles between originators and generics; therefore, dissolution profiles need to be improved. Market data analysis showed that the overall price ratio of generics and off-patent originators was around 0.54-0.59 in 2002-2011, with a 40% price difference, on average. Ten differentiating value attributes were identified and MCDA was applied to test the impact of three pricing policy scenarios. With the condition of implementing quality consistency regulations and controls, a reduction in the price gap between high-quality off-patent products (including originator and generics) seemed to be the preferred policy. Patents of many drugs will expire within the next 10 years; thus, pricing will be an issue of importance for off-patent originators and generic alternatives. PMID:26091710

  20. A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Pricing in China: Setting the Price for Off-Patent Originators.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shanlian; Zhang, Yabing; He, Jiangjiang; Du, Lixia; Xu, Mingfei; Xie, Chunyan; Peng, Ying; Wang, Linan

    2015-08-01

    This article aims to define a value-based approach to pricing and reimbursement for off-patent originators using a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach centered on a systematic analysis of current pricing and reimbursement policies in China. A drug price policy review was combined with a quantitative analysis of China's drug purchasing database. Policy preferences were identified through a MCDA performed by interviewing well-known academic experts and industry stakeholders. The study findings indicate that the current Chinese price policy includes cost-based pricing and the establishment of maximum retail prices and premiums for off-patent originators, whereas reference pricing may be adopted in the future. The literature review revealed significant differences in the dissolution profiles between originators and generics; therefore, dissolution profiles need to be improved. Market data analysis showed that the overall price ratio of generics and off-patent originators was around 0.54-0.59 in 2002-2011, with a 40% price difference, on average. Ten differentiating value attributes were identified and MCDA was applied to test the impact of three pricing policy scenarios. With the condition of implementing quality consistency regulations and controls, a reduction in the price gap between high-quality off-patent products (including originator and generics) seemed to be the preferred policy. Patents of many drugs will expire within the next 10 years; thus, pricing will be an issue of importance for off-patent originators and generic alternatives.