Science.gov

Sample records for marginal external costs

  1. Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated cost-of-service pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers?

  2. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.994-2 Marginal costing rules. (a) In general... with Y whereby Y is granted a sales franchise with respect to exporting such product line from which...), combined taxable income under marginal costing is limited to $28.50. Since under the franchise agreement...

  3. Marginal-cost electric rate making: some realities

    SciTech Connect

    Rothey, A.S.; Randazzo, S.C.

    1982-07-08

    This article points up a shortcoming in much of the advocacy of marginal-cost pricing of electricity, namely, a failure to analyze the institutional arrangements for the provision of electrical service that may frustrate the realization of the stated aims of such pricing. The attitude exemplified by the authors is not one of hostility to marginal-cost theory. Their purpose is to note some serious problems that most, if not all, marginal-cost pricing proponents have failed to address, such as the lower ability of utilities to cover fixed costs and the disturbing signals sent to volume customers. 8 references.

  4. Migration cost externality and interregional equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Shin, C

    1994-01-01

    "This paper will investigate the characteristics of population allocation between two regions in the presence of migration cost. It will also examine both populations and the non-migration range of the initial population in which migration does not occur, in social optimum and market equilibrium with central government intervention, to reveal migration cost externality, and to propose a remedy for it." The author finds that "migration cost gives the social planner an additional burden of population reallocation, and it has an important effect upon an individual's decisions on migration in a decentralized market mechanism."

  5. Tight margins lead hospitals to cost accounting systems.

    PubMed

    Nemes, J

    1990-12-17

    Hospital margins are getting tighter, and healthcare executives are realizing that they can't afford not to know whether payments for care are covering their costs. And they're realizing that without some type of cost accounting system, they probably don't have a true understanding of what their costs are.

  6. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically

  7. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically

  8. Area-Specific Marginal Costing for Electric Utilities: a Case Study of Transmission and Distribution Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orans, Ren

    1990-10-01

    Existing procedures used to develop marginal costs for electric utilities were not designed for applications in an increasingly competitive market for electric power. The utility's value of receiving power, or the costs of selling power, however, depend on the exact location of the buyer or seller, the magnitude of the power and the period of time over which the power is used. Yet no electric utility in the United States has disaggregate marginal costs that reflect differences in costs due to the time, size or location of the load associated with their power or energy transactions. The existing marginal costing methods used by electric utilities were developed in response to the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) in 1978. The "ratemaking standards" (Title 1) established by PURPA were primarily concerned with the appropriate segmentation of total revenues to various classes-of-service, designing time-of-use rating periods, and the promotion of efficient long-term resource planning. By design, the methods were very simple and inexpensive to implement. Now, more than a decade later, the costing issues facing electric utilities are becoming increasingly complex, and the benefits of developing more specific marginal costs will outweigh the costs of developing this information in many cases. This research develops a framework for estimating total marginal costs that vary by the size, timing, and the location of changes in loads within an electric distribution system. To complement the existing work at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) on estimating disaggregate generation and transmission capacity costs, this dissertation focuses on the estimation of distribution capacity costs. While the costing procedure is suitable for the estimation of total (generation, transmission and distribution) marginal costs, the empirical work focuses on the geographic disaggregation of marginal costs related to electric

  9. Cost of external fixation vs external fixation then nailing in bone infection

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Khaled Mohamed; Diab, Ramy Ahmed; Ghafar, Khaled Abd EL

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the cost benefit of external fixation vs external fixation then nailing in treatment of bone infection by segment transfer. METHODS: Out of 71 patients with infected nonunion tibia treated between 2003 and 2006, 50 patients fitted the inclusion criteria (26 patients were treated by external fixation only, and 24 patients were treated by external fixation early removal after segment transfer and replacement by internal fixation). Cost of inpatient treatment, total cost of inpatient and outpatient treatment till full healing, and the weeks of absence from school or work were calculated and compared between both groups. RESULTS: The cost of hospital stay and surgery in the group of external fixation only was 22.6 ± 3.3 while the cost of hospital stay and surgery in the group of early external fixation removal and replacement by intramedullary nail was 26.0 ± 3.2. The difference was statistically significant regarding the cost of hospital stay and surgery in favor of the group of external fixation only. The total cost of medical care (surgery, hospital stay, treatment outside the hospital including medications, dressing, physical therapy, outpatient laboratory work, etc.) in group of external fixation only was 63.3 ± 15.1, and total absence from work was 38.6 ± 6.6 wk. While the group of early removal of external fixation and replacement by IM nail, total cost of medical care was 38.3 ± 6.4 and total absence from work or school was 22.7 ± 4.1. The difference was statistically significant regarding the total cost and absence from work in favor of the group of early removal and replacement by IM nail. CONCLUSION: Early removal of external fixation and replacement by intramedullary nail in treatment of infected nonunion showed more cost effectiveness. Orthopaedic society needs to show the cost effectiveness of different procedures to the community, insurance, and health authorities. PMID:25621219

  10. Transaction costs, externalities and information technology in health care.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, B; Keen, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the economic issues which underpin the rationale for investment in information and communications technologies (ICTs). Information imperfections lead to significant transaction costs (search, negotiating and monitoring) which in turn confer a negative externality on parties involved in exchange. This divergence in private and social costs leads to a degree of resource misallocation (efficiency loss) which, uncorrected, results in a sub-optimal outcome. Traditional solutions to this problem are to rely upon direct government action to reduce the costs of transacting between market agents, or to employ tax/subsidy measures and other legislative action to achieve the desired market outcome. Three key policy questions are raised in the context of the NHS purchaser/provider relationship. Firstly, what is the optimum level of transaction costs; secondly, can ICTs assist in lowering the level of transaction costs to the optimum level; thirdly, who should bear the investment cost in reducing the level of transaction costs? The issue of property rights in different information systems is discussed and raises interesting policy questions about how much investment should be undertaken centrally rather than devolved to a more local level. In some ways this economic framework offers a post hoc justification of why different ICT systems have been introduced at various levels of the NHS. Essentially this reduces to the problem of externalities: providing good information confers a positive externality: not providing relevant, timely and accurate information confers a negative externality, by increasing further the level of transaction costs. The crucial role which ICT systems can play lies in attempting to reduce the level of transaction costs and driving the market towards what Dahlman has described as the transaction-cost-constrained equilibrium.

  11. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  12. The external costs of a sedentary life-style.

    PubMed

    Keeler, E B; Manning, W G; Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Wasserman, J

    1989-08-01

    Using data from the National Health Interview Survey and the RAND Health Insurance Experiment, we estimated the external costs (costs borne by others) of a sedentary life-style. External costs stem from additional payments received by sedentary individuals from collectively financed programs such as health insurance, sick-leave coverage, disability insurance, and group life insurance. Those with sedentary life-styles incur higher medical costs, but their life expectancy at age 20 is 10 months less so they collect less public and private pensions. The pension costs come late in life, as do some of the medical costs, and so the estimate of the external cost is sensitive to the discount rate used. At a 5 percent rate of discount, the lifetime subsidy from others to those with a sedentary life style is $1,900. Our estimate of the subsidy is also sensitive to the assumed effect of exercise on mortality. The subsidy is a rationale for public support of recreational facilities such as parks and swimming pools and employer support of programs to increase exercise.

  13. The external costs of a sedentary life-style.

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, E B; Manning, W G; Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Wasserman, J

    1989-01-01

    Using data from the National Health Interview Survey and the RAND Health Insurance Experiment, we estimated the external costs (costs borne by others) of a sedentary life-style. External costs stem from additional payments received by sedentary individuals from collectively financed programs such as health insurance, sick-leave coverage, disability insurance, and group life insurance. Those with sedentary life-styles incur higher medical costs, but their life expectancy at age 20 is 10 months less so they collect less public and private pensions. The pension costs come late in life, as do some of the medical costs, and so the estimate of the external cost is sensitive to the discount rate used. At a 5 percent rate of discount, the lifetime subsidy from others to those with a sedentary life style is $1,900. Our estimate of the subsidy is also sensitive to the assumed effect of exercise on mortality. The subsidy is a rationale for public support of recreational facilities such as parks and swimming pools and employer support of programs to increase exercise. PMID:2502036

  14. Mean-reversion in income over feed cost margins: evidence and implications for managing margin risk by US dairy producers.

    PubMed

    Bozic, M; Newton, J; Thraen, C S; Gould, B W

    2012-12-01

    With the increased volatility of feed prices, dairy farm managers are no longer concerned with managing only milk price volatility, but are considering the adoption of risk management programs that address income over feed cost (IOFC) margin risk. Successful margin risk management should be founded on an understanding of the behavior of IOFC margins. To that end, we have constructed forward IOFC margins using Class III milk, corn, and soybean meal futures prices. We focus on the characteristics of the term structure of forward IOFC margins, that is, the sequence of forward margins for consecutive calendar months, all observed on the same trading day. What is apparent from the shapes of these term structures is that both in times when margins were exceptionally high and in times when they were disastrously low, market participants expected that a reversal back to average margin levels would not come quickly, but rather would take up to 9 mo. Slopes of the forward margin term structure before and after most of the major swings in IOFC indicate these shocks were mostly unanticipated, whereas the time needed for recovery to normal margin levels was successfully predicted. This suggests that IOFC margins may exhibit slow mean-reverting, rather than predictable cyclical behavior, as is often suggested in the popular press. This finding can be exploited to design a successful catastrophic risk management program by initiating protection at 9 to 12 mo before futures contract maturity. As a case study, we analyzed risk management strategies for managing IOFC margins that used Livestock Gross Margin for Dairy Cattle insurance contracts and created 2 farm profiles. The first one represents dairy farms that grow most of their feed, whereas the second profile is designed to capture the risk exposure of dairy farms that purchase all their dairy herd, dry cow, and heifer feed. Our case study of this program encompasses the 2009 period, which was characterized by exceptionally

  15. Thermoeconomic analysis of steam turbines: An approach to marginal cost allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Royo, J.; Zaleta, A.; Valero, A.

    1996-12-31

    One of the main problems arising with the thermoeconomic optimization of energy plants, is marginal cost allocation in components containing a flow bifurcation. A typical example is a cogeneration steam turbine. The analysis of the marginal cost allocation of this type of turbine is rigorously studied in this paper. Structural Theory (Valero et al., 1992; 1993) takes under consideration that marginal cost assessment depends on the marginal consumptions of the inlet flow for each outlet energy flow. Supposing that the behavior of the turbine would not be affected by the quantity of mass flowing in the process, these marginal consumptions could easily be calculated (Royo and Valero, 1995). Nevertheless, the calculation of marginal consumptions under this supposition is only an initial approach to the problem. The accurate values of marginal consumptions (and therefore of marginal cost) may be calculated if one knows the actual behavior of the steam turbine. This is the process followed in this paper to obtain the values of the marginal consumptions of several cogeneration steam turbines. The analysis offers a complete knowledge of the marginal consumptions for different steam turbine characteristics that work under on-design and off-design conditions. The results obtained are compared with respect to the above initial approach. It is shown that the errors appearing when assessing marginal costs in this way could be relatively important. Nonetheless, a series of correction terms is proposed, by means of which it is possible to considerably decrease these errors.

  16. 48 CFR 231.205-70 - External restructuring costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... companies not previously under common ownership or control are combined, whether by merger, acquisition, or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External restructuring costs. 231.205-70 Section 231.205-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...

  17. Farm-level irrigation and the marginal cost of water use: evidence from Georgia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Alvarez, Yassert; Keeler, Andrew G; Mullen, Jeffrey D

    2006-09-01

    We create a proxy for the cost of irrigation water in Georgia from a sample of Georgia irrigators by investigating the marginal cost of pumping groundwater. We then combine this proxy with agronomic and climatic variables to estimate the response of agricultural water use to differences in the marginal cost of irrigation. The results show that pumping costs are a significant determinant of water use, and imply that agricultural water use would be moderately affected by institutional changes that would explicitly price water.

  18. The Short- and Long-Run Marginal Cost Curves: An Alternative Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Laura A.; Boyd, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues related to short-run marginal cost and long-run marginal cost in economic theory. Asserts that few economics textbooks deal with important aspects of this concept. Includes four figures illustrating the approach suggested by the authors. (CFR)

  19. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  20. Externalizing and internalizing problems at school as signs of health-damaging behaviour and incipient marginalization.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Eila; Shemeikka, Sirpa; Notkola, Irma-Leena; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Nissinen, Aulikki

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether behavioural or emotional problems in adolescents detected by their teachers are signs of a common psychosocial maladjustment and of the beginning of social marginalization. Altogether, 171 pupils (15 years of age) from the eastern part of Finland participated in the survey. Behavioural and emotional problems and academic achievements were assessed separately by two teachers. Pupils filled in a questionnaire about alcohol use, smoking, physical exercise and fitness, self-rated health, psychosomatic symptoms, social relationships and future educational plans. Results showed that poor success at school and the absence of or limited educational plans were associated with both externalizing and internalizing problems. Externalizing problems were associated with health-damaging behaviour and with bullying others. Internalizing problems were associated with poor perceived health and a low level of exercise, with mental symptoms, and with problems in social relationships. Thus, the pupils in both problem groups had a clustering of different risk factors. We conclude that the accumulation in adolescents of self-reported health-damaging behaviour, problems related to school, to future educational plans and to social relationships are already obvious in pupils with externalizing and/ or internalizing problems detected by their teachers at the age of 15 years. The capacity of teachers to identify pupils at risk as early as possible should therefore be utilized. The development of a vicious circle might be prevented through early intervention at school, by offering pupils guidance, counselling and treatment.

  1. Optimum alcohol taxation: balancing consumption and external costs.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J; Crowley, S

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers alternative approaches to the evaluation of the total cost of alcohol consumption in Australia. It calculates the impact of alternative tax rates on beer, wine and spirits separately and the 'consumption cost' of these taxes in terms of the distortion caused to consumption patterns. Two separate analyses are carried out. First optimal taxation is calculated which minimises the total loss from the 'consumption cost' of taxation plus the external cost of alcohol consumption. Secondly, the benefits of life are separated from other benefits and the impact of tax expressed in terms of the cost per life year gained. Conceptualised in this way, the results of this 'tax' program may be expressed in the same way as other health programs, namely as a net cost per life year gained. Alcohol taxation may then be compared with other life saving interventions. The chief conclusion reached is that in Australia there is a very compelling case for a new tax base and for a very significant increase in the rate of alcohol taxation. PMID:8044214

  2. Method for computing marginal costs associated with on-site energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, R.; Davitian, H.

    1980-08-01

    A method for calculating long-run marginal costs for an electric utility is described. The method is especially suitable for computing the marginal costs associated with the use of small on-site energy technologies, i.e., cogenerators, solar heating and hot water systems, wind generators, etc., which are interconnected with electric utilities. In particular, both the costs a utility avoids when power is delivered to it from a facility with an on-site generator and marginal cost to the utility of supplementary power sold to the facility can be calculated. A utility capacity expansion model is used to compute changes in the utility's costs when loads are modified by the use of the on-site technology. Changes in capacity-related costs and production costs are thus computed in an internally consistent manner. The variable nature of the generation/load pattern of the on-site technology is treated explicitly. The method yields several measures of utility costs that can be used to develop rates based on marginal avoided costs for on-site technologies as well as marginal cost rates for conventional utility customers.

  3. SU-F-BRD-06: Dosimetric Cost of a GTV Margin for Simultaneous Integrated Intra- Prostatic Boost Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Studenski, M; Abramowitz, M; Dogan, N; Pollack, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quantify the dosimetric cost for a margin around the MRI-defined high risk GTV for simultaneous integrated intra-prostatic boosts (SIIB) treated with RapidArc. Methods: For external beam radiotherapy of the prostate, a 3-7 mm PTV margin is typically used to account for setup and intra-fraction uncertainties after adjusting for inter-fraction motion. On the other hand, our current paradigm is to treat the MRI-defined high risk GTV with no margin. In this work, 11 patients treated SIIB (7 post-prostatectomy, 4 intact prostate) with RapidArc were re-planned with 1-5 mm margins around the GTV to quantify dosimetric effects. Two 358 degree, 10 MV RapidArcs were used to deliver 68 Gy (76.5 Gy boost) to the post-prostatectomy patients and 80 Gy (86 Gy boost) to the intact prostates. Paired, two tail t-tests were used to determine if there were any significant differences (p<0.05) in the total MUs and dosimetric parameters used to evaluate rectum, bladder, and PTV dose with and without margin. Results: The average GTV volume without margin was 8.1cc (2.8% of the PTV volume) while the average GTV volume with a 5 mm margin was 20.1cc (9.0% of the PTV volume). GTV volumes ranged from 0.2% of the PTV volume up to 33.0%. Despite these changes in volume, the only statistical difference was found for the rectal V65 Gy with a 5 mm margin (18.6% vs. 19.4%; p-value = 0.026) when all patients were considered as a single group. No difference was found when analyzed as two groups. The rectum V40Gy, bladder V40Gy and V65Gy, PTV Dmax and D95% or the total MUs did not show any significant difference for any margin. Conclusion: A 4 mm margin on the high risk GTV is possible with no statistically significant change in dosimetry or total MUs. Further work will assess the appropriate margin required for intra-prostatic boosts.

  4. Assessing Air Pollutant-Induced, Health-Related External Costs in the Context of Nonmarginal System Changes: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Till M

    2015-08-18

    Marginal analysis is the usual approach to environmental economic assessment, for instance, of health-related external costs due to energy-associated air pollutant emissions. However, nonlinearity exists in all steps of their assessment, i.e., atmospheric dispersion, impact assessment, and monetary valuation. Dedicated assessments thus appear necessary when evaluating large systems or their changes such as in green accounting or the implications of economy-wide energy transitions. Corresponding approaches are reviewed. Tools already exist that allow assessing a marginal change (e.g., one power plant's emissions) for different background emission scenarios that merely need to be defined and implemented. When assessing nonmarginal changes, the top-down approach is considered obsolete, and four variants of the bottom-up approach with different application domains were identified. Variants 1 and 2 use precalculated external cost factors with different levels of sophistication, suitable for energy systems modeling, optimizing for social (i.e., private and external) costs. Providing more reliable results due to more detailed modeling, emission sources are assessed individually or jointly in variants 3 and 4, respectively. Aiming at considering nonlinearity more fully and simultaneously following marginal analysis principles, I propose a variant 3-based approach, subdividing an aggregate (i.e., a nonmarginal change) into several smaller changes. Its strengths and drawbacks, notably the associated effort, are discussed.

  5. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... income method of § 1.994-1(c)(3). At the taxpayer's option, all, a part, or none of the costs which...) At the annual option of the related supplier, the overall profit percentage for the DISC's taxable... to § 1.994-1(c)(7) used by the taxpayer for purposes of applying the intercompany pricing rules...

  6. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... income method of § 1.994-1(c)(3). At the taxpayer's option, all, a part, or none of the costs which...) At the annual option of the related supplier, the overall profit percentage for the DISC's taxable... to § 1.994-1(c)(7) used by the taxpayer for purposes of applying the intercompany pricing rules...

  7. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... income method of § 1.994-1(c)(3). At the taxpayer's option, all, a part, or none of the costs which...) At the annual option of the related supplier, the overall profit percentage for the DISC's taxable... to § 1.994-1(c)(7) used by the taxpayer for purposes of applying the intercompany pricing rules...

  8. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... income method of § 1.994-1(c)(3). At the taxpayer's option, all, a part, or none of the costs which...) At the annual option of the related supplier, the overall profit percentage for the DISC's taxable... to § 1.994-1(c)(7) used by the taxpayer for purposes of applying the intercompany pricing rules...

  9. Marginal capacity costs of electricity distribution and demand for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Chi-Keung, Lloyd-Zanetti, D.; Orans, R.

    1995-12-31

    Marginal costs of electricity vary by time and location. Past researchers attributed these variations to factors related to electricity generation, transmission and distribution. Past authors, however, did not fully analyze the large variations in marginal distribution capacity costs (MDCC) by area and time. Thus, the objectives of this paper are as follows: (1) to show that large MDCC variations exist within a utility`s service territory; (2) to demonstrate inter-utility variations in MDCC; and (3) to demonstrate the usefulness of these costs in determining demand for distributed generation (DG). 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Asia. [Including external environmental costs

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy technology demands of the Asian Pacific Basin, including Indonesia, Thailand, and the Republic of China (ROC-Taiwan). The US Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program provides a proving ground for innovative coal-related technologies that can be applied domestically and abroad. These innovative US CCTs are expected to satisfy increasingly stringent environmental requirements while substantially improving power generation efficiencies. They should also provide distinct advantages over conventional pulverized coal-fired combustors. Finally, they are expected to be competitive with other energy options currently being considered in the region. This paper presents potential technology scenarios for Indonesia, Thailand, and the ROC-Taiwan and considers an environmental cost-benefit approach employing a newly developed method of applying environmental externalities. Results suggest that the economic benefits from increased emission control can indeed be quantified and used in cost-benefit comparisons, and that US CCTs can be very cost effective in reducing emissions.

  11. Marginal-cost contracting in the NHS: results of a preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Beddow, A J; Cohen, D R

    2001-05-01

    Market disciplines and incentives were expected to improve efficiency in the UK National Health Service following the introduction of an 'internal market' in 1991. An exploratory survey of all Health Authorities and Trusts in the UK was undertaken to investigate whether players in the NHS managed market are behaving as economic theory predicts they should. The focus was on how and to what extent marginal costing has been used in the contracting process and on whether in some instances an inappropriate use of marginal costing may be resulting in inappropriate investment decisions. Twenty of 29 responding Health Authorities (69%) and 16 of 39 Trusts (41%) stated that they had considered purchasing/providing services on a marginal-cost basis and all of these led to contracts. Marginal-cost contracting appears to be fairly commonplace and the process does not appear to be causing insurmountable conflicts between players. Most marginal-cost contracts were specifically to meet waiting-list initiative targets. Overall results suggest that economic principles are not being particularly adhered to, with expansion in output rarely being related to available capacity. As increased responsibility for commissioning passes to primary care teams and local health groups, there are lessons for those involved in this more disaggregated approach to service shaping and service delivery. PMID:11373994

  12. Geometry of the Iapetus Baltoscandian continental margin; evidence for basement highs from the external imbricate zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.

    2015-04-01

    The geometry of the Iapetus Baltoscandian continental margin prior to Scandinavian Caledonian collision is important, since only with a detailed initial input can synthetic palaeogeographic and deformation models be correctly applied. The Scandes comprise ~SE-directed nappes pierced by tectonic windows exposing basement with condensed, post-Gaskiers-glaciation (582-580Ma) cover sequences. Here, evidence, largely from the Lower Allochthon (external imbricate zone), for major displacement of these basement rocks ('Window Allochthon'), is summarized; palaeogeographically they formed a topographic-high along the Baltoscandian continental margin. In the Oslo Graben and East Finnmark areas (southernmost/northernmost Scandinavia), the transition from (par)-autochthon to allochthon is preserved (Osen-Roa Nappe Complex/Gaissa Thrust Belt; ORNC/GTB). These areas give reliable templates for other parts of the orogen, where the orogen leading edge has been extensively eroded. In the ORNC and GTB, bulk shortening was ~50%, with values rising towards the hinterland; metamorphic grades also increase towards the hinterland. Balanced-sections restore the trailing-edges of the ORNC and GTB to Norwegian coastal areas. In Finnmark, restoration places pre-Marinoan (pre~650 Ma) GTB anchizone-grade rocks above epizone-grade post-Gaskiers rocks lying unconformably on basement in the Komagfjord tectonic window. In southern Norway, restored pre-Gaskiers ORNC rocks overlie Cambro-Ordovician sediments unconformable on basement in the Atnsjøen/Spekedalen windows and WGR. Caledonian Middle Allochthon deformation in Finnmark was SE-directed and in the GTB E- to ESE-directed. In the Komagfjord window basement, Caledonian imbrication was SE-directed, but the overlying basal Middle Allochthon mylonites have an out-of-sequence E-ESE overprint. Thus the Komagfjord basement/cover lies structurally between the Middle and Lower Allochthons. In the Atnsjøen/Spekedalen windows, SE-directed Caledonian

  13. Cost-Effective Abatement of Multiple Production Externalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Perry, Gregory M.; Adams, Richard M.

    1995-07-01

    This article explores the issue of multiple externalities through a case study of irrigated agricultural production in eastern Oregon. A mathematical programming model is used to demonstrate the manner in which a policy directed at one externality (soil erosion) may influence the incidence of another externality (groundwater pollution). A key determinant of multiple externality outcomes is interdependence in the processes producing agricultural commodities and externalities. Potential benefits from coordinating a policy to address multiple environmental objectives are discussed.

  14. Price-cost margin in the pharmaceutical industry. Empirical evidence from Finland.

    PubMed

    Linnosmaa, Ismo; Hermans, Raine; Hallinen, Taru

    2004-06-01

    This contribution estimates the price-cost margin in the Finnish pharmaceutical industry. The estimation is based on the method developed by Hall who shows that under constant returns to scale total factor productivity growth depends on the growth of output-capital ratio if the market is imperfectly competitive. Measurement of the price-cost margin is based on this theoretical result. We utilize data on the Finnish pharmaceutical industry. The data cover the years 1975-1999 and include information on output, labor hours, and capital stock. The results show that the estimated price-cost margin is in the range 0.59-0.67, which is close to the estimates obtained in the United States market.

  15. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  16. Direct calculation of average and marginal costs from the productive structure of an energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzaretto, A.; Macor, A.

    1995-09-01

    Most of the thermoeconomic accounting and optimization methods for energy systems are based upon a definition of the productive purpose for each component. On the basis of this definition, a productive structure of the system can be defined in which the interactions among the components are described by their fuel product. The aim of this work is to calculate marginal and average unit costs of the exergy flows starting from their definitions by a direct inspection of the productive structure. As a main result, it is noticed that the only differences between marginal and average unit cost equations are located in the capital cost terms of input-output cost balance equations of the components. The method is illustrated using a cogenerative stream power plant and a combined gas-steam power plant.

  17. Impact of Coverage-Dependent Marginal Costs on Optimal HPV Vaccination Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ryser, Marc D.; McGoff, Kevin; Herzog, David P.; Sivakoff, David J.; Myers, Evan R.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of vaccinating males against the human papillomavirus (HPV) remains a controversial subject. Many existing studies conclude that increasing female coverage is more effective than diverting resources into male vaccination. Recently, several empirical studies on HPV immunization have been published, providing evidence of the fact that marginal vaccination costs increase with coverage. In this study, we use a stochastic agent-based modeling framework to revisit the male vaccination debate in light of these new findings. Within this framework, we assess the impact of coverage-dependent marginal costs of vaccine distribution on optimal immunization strategies against HPV. Focusing on the two scenarios of ongoing and new vaccination programs, we analyze different resource allocation policies and their effects on overall disease burden. Our results suggest that if the costs associated with vaccinating males are relatively close to those associated with vaccinating females, then coverage-dependent, increasing marginal costs may favor vaccination strategies that entail immunization of both genders. In particular, this study emphasizes the necessity for further empirical research on the nature of coverage-dependent vaccination costs. PMID:25979280

  18. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  19. 48 CFR 231.205-70 - External restructuring costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... present value basis, for DoD resulting from the restructuring will exceed either— (A) The costs allowed by... will exceed the costs allowed by a factor of at least two to one on a present value basis. (ii) The... to DoD, and the audited projected savings for DoD will exceed the costs allowed on a present...

  20. Twice-weighted multiple interval estimation of a marginal structural model to analyze cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Goldfeld, K S

    2014-03-30

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is an important tool that can be applied to the evaluation of a health treatment or policy. When the observed costs and outcomes result from a nonrandomized treatment, making causal inference about the effects of the treatment requires special care. The challenges are compounded when the observation period is truncated for some of the study subjects. This paper presents a method of unbiased estimation of cost-effectiveness using observational study data that is not fully observed. The method-twice-weighted multiple interval estimation of a marginal structural model-was developed in order to analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatment protocols for advanced dementia residents living nursing homes when they become acutely ill. A key feature of this estimation approach is that it facilitates a sensitivity analysis that identifies the potential effects of unmeasured confounding on the conclusions concerning cost-effectiveness.

  1. Estimation of the full marginal costs of port related truck traffic.

    PubMed

    Berechman, Joseph

    2009-11-01

    NY region is expected to grow by additional 1 million people by 2020, which translates into roughly 70 million more tons of goods to be delivered annually. Due to lack of rail capacity, mainly trucks will haul this volume of freight, challenging an already much constrained highway network. What are the total costs associated with this additional traffic, in particular, congestion, safety and emission? Since a major source of this expected flow is the Port of New York-New Jersey, this paper focuses on the estimation of the full marginal costs of truck traffic resulting from the further expansion of the port's activities. PMID:19796817

  2. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-01

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  3. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-01

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making. PMID:25664763

  4. Analysis of probabilistic short run marginal cost using Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Alcaraz, G.; Navarrete, N.; Tovar-Hernandez, J.H.; Fuerte-Esquivel, C.R.; Mota-Palomino, R.

    1999-11-01

    The structure of the Electricity Supply Industry is undergoing dramatic changes to provide new services options. The main aim of this restructuring is allowing generating units the freedom of selling electricity to anybody they wish at a price determined by market forces. Several methodologies have been proposed in order to quantify different costs associated with those new services offered by electrical utilities operating under a deregulated market. The new wave of pricing is heavily influenced by economic principles designed to price products to elastic market segments on the basis of marginal costs. Hence, spot pricing provides the economic structure for many of new services. At the same time, the pricing is influenced by uncertainties associated to the electric system state variables which defined its operating point. In this paper, nodal probabilistic short run marginal costs are calculated, considering as random variables the load, the production cost and availability of generators. The effect of the electrical network is evaluated taking into account linearized models. A thermal economic dispatch is used to simulate each operational condition generated by Monte Carlo method on small fictitious power system in order to assess the effect of the random variables on the energy trading. First, this is carry out by introducing each random variable one by one, and finally considering the random interaction of all of them.

  5. Comparison of Marginal Bone Changes with Internal Conus and External Hexagon Design Implant Systems: A Prospective, Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Lyndon F; Tarnow, Dennis; Froum, Stuart; Moriarty, John; De Kok, Ingeborg J

    2016-01-01

    A central dental implant success criterion is the marginal bone response as measured longitudinally. Factors that influence marginal bone changes include osseous and soft tissue architecture, occlusal loading factors, implant position, implant design, and inflammatory processes. The evolution of implant design is multifactorial and includes the implant-abutment interface geometries. The primary objective of this study was to compare the proximal marginal bone changes following placement and loading of internal conus design implants (ICI) and external hex design implants (EXI) used in the treatment of posterior partial edentulism. Among 45 enrolled participants, 39 were treated with 47 ICI or 46 EXI implants using a one-stage implant protocol. Prosthetic restoration was completed after 12 weeks using stock titanium abutments and all-ceramic crowns. Follow-up visits including clinical and radiographic examinations were performed 6 months after permanent restoration and then annually for 3 years. Marginal bone level changes, papilla index scores, condition of the peri-implant mucosa, presence of complications, and participant satisfaction were evaluated. The mean marginal bone level change from implant placement to 3 years was -0.25 ± 0.60 mm and -0.5 ± 0.93 mm for ICI and EXI implants, respectively. The change recorded from permanent restoration to 3 years was a gain of 0.31 ± 0.41 mm versus 0.04 ± 0.51 mm for ICI and EXI implants, respectively (P < .05). In the evaluation of interproximal soft tissue 3 years after permanent restoration, 80% of mandibular and 66% of maxillary interproximal ICI sites received papilla scores of 2 and 3, compared with 50% of mandibular and 60% of maxillary interproximal EXI sites. No significant differences in plaque or bleeding scores were recorded. Abutment/healing abutment complications were recorded for 11 EXI versus 1 ICI participant. The vast majority (> 90%) of participants stated they were satisfied or very satisfied with

  6. Cost of Milk and Marketing Margins in Dairy Farms of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunoz, Meral; Altintas, Gulcin; Akcay, Yasar

    The study is based on the cost of milk and marketing margins in dairy farms in Tokat-Turkey with the help of primary data collected randomly from 62 farmers. In the study it was determined that milk production in dairy farms was relatively profitable in domestic (1.34), cross-bred (1.29) and culture (1.58) dairy cattle. It was found that marketing margins of milk were 183.33% for domestic, cross-breed and culture dairy cattle. As a result, although there were some structural problems for dairy farms such as high input prices, lack of cooperation among producers and long marketing chains between producers and retailers, it can be still perceived that the dairy farming can be one of the most important income sources for the farmers of rural provinces of Tokat-Turkey. Furthermore it should be stated that current livestock policy need to be regulated.

  7. Marginal cost of natural gas in developing countries: concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mashayekhi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Many developing nations are facing complex questions regarding the best strategy for developing their domestic gas reserves. The World Bank has addressed these questions in studies on the cost and prices of gas and its optimal allocation among different markets. Based on the average incremental method, an estimate of the marginal cost of natural gas in 10 developing countries proved to be $0.61-1.79/1000 CF or $3.59-10.54/bbl of oil equivalent, far below the border prices of competing fuels in these nations. Moreover, the cost of gas is not expected to rise in these countries within the next 20 years while the reserves/production ratios remain high. The sample involves a variety of gas compositions and production conditions among the countries of Bangladesh, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Tunisia.

  8. External costs of coastal beach pollution: an hedonic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilman, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in beach recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of beach pollution costs associated with offshore oil development allows a rational judgment of whether the benefits of developing offshore oil outweigh the costs. The method is an effort to improve the economic efficiency of coastal zone management. The report concludes with a discussion of the many sources of uncertainty and suggestions for overcoming them. Five appendices present information on the models, variables, questionnaire responses, beaches, and factor patterns. 7 figures, 27 tables.

  9. Pricing landfill externalities: Emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The paper estimates landfill externalities associated with emissions, disamenities and transport. > Transport externalities vary from 24.22 to 31.42 Rands per tonne. > Costs of emissions (estimated using benefits transfer) vary from 0.07 to 28.91 Rands per tonne. > Disamenities (estimated using hedonic pricing) vary from 0.00 to 57.46 Rands per tonne. > Overall, external costs for urban landfills exceed those of a regional landfill. - Abstract: The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  10. Pricing landfill externalities: emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill. PMID:21696939

  11. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. PMID:17604888

  12. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  13. Damage costs produced by electric power plants: an externality valuation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Macías, P; Islas, J

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents an estimate of the externalities produced in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) through the impacts on health caused by secondary pollutants attributed to seven electric power plants located outside this area. An original method was developed to make possible a simplified application of the impact pathway approach to estimate the damage costs in the specified area. Our estimate shows that the annual costs attributed to secondary pollutants total 71 million USD (min/max 20/258 million USD). Finally, this paper discusses basic ideas on the implications for energy policy arising from this exercise in externality valuation.

  14. External cost in the road transport sector: A lack of consensus in monetary evaluation making internalization difficult

    SciTech Connect

    Babusiaux, D.; Chollet, P.; Furlan, S.

    1995-12-31

    In the debate on transport and environment it is often claimed that the transport sector does not pay its full social costs and that actions should be taken to insure that these full costs are paid. The suggested mean for achieving such a {open_quotes}balance{close_quotes} is an increase in the relevant transport prices through increased taxes. Furthermore, it is sometimes implicitly believed that estimation of external costs will show that the transport prices should be raised significantly. If taxation of the transport sector should be changed in direction of including all external costs, it is necessary that these external costs can be estimated. The difficulties of external cost estimation consist of two major elements. Firstly, the estimation of the damage costs itself is extremely difficult. Secondly, both damage and avoidance costs have to be estimated to determine the correct level of external costs. So far, these issues appear not to have been sufficiently appraised in literature on internalization.

  15. Transport Sector Marginal Abatement Cost Curves in Computable General Equilibrium Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippichai, Atit; Fukuda, Atsushi; Morisugi, Hisayoshi

    In the last decade, computable general equilibrium (CGE) models have emerged a standard tool for climate policy evaluation due to their abilities to prospectively elucidate the character and magnitude of the economic impacts of energy and environmental policies. Furthermore, marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves which represent GHG emissions reduction potentials and costs can be derived from these top-down economic models. However, most studies have never address MAC curves for a specific sector that have a large coverage of countries which are needed for allocation of optimal emission reductions. This paper aims to explicitly describe the meaning and character of MAC curves for transport sector in a CGE context through using the AIM/CGE Model developed by Toshihiko Masui. It found that the MAC curves derived in this study are the inverse of the general equilibrium reduction function for CO2 emissions. Moreover, the transport sector MAC curves for six regions including USA, EU-15, Japan, China, India, and Brazil, derived from this study are compared to the reduction potentials under 100 USD/tCO2 in 2020 from a bottom-up study. The results showed that the ranking of the regional reduction potentials in transport sector from this study are almost same with the bottom-up study except the ranks of the EU-15 and China. In addition, the range of the reduction potentials from this study is wider and only the USA has higher potentials than those derived from the bottom-up study.

  16. The cost of applying current helicopter external noise reduction methods while maintaining realistic vehicle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowes, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical methods were developed and/or adopted for calculating helicopter component noise, and these methods were incorporated into a unified total vehicle noise calculation model. Analytical methods were also developed for calculating the effects of noise reduction methodology on helicopter design, performance, and cost. These methods were used to calculate changes in noise, design, performance, and cost due to the incorporation of engine and main rotor noise reduction methods. All noise reduction techniques were evaluated in the context of an established mission performance criterion which included consideration of hovering ceiling, forward flight range/speed/payload, and rotor stall margin. The results indicate that small, but meaningful, reductions in helicopter noise can be obtained by treating the turbine engine exhaust duct. Furthermore, these reductions do not result in excessive life cycle cost penalties. Currently available main rotor noise reduction methodology, however, is shown to be inadequate and excessively costly.

  17. A Methodology for Evaluating Technical Performance Parameter Design Margins to Control Earth and Space Science Instrument Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones-Selden, Felicia L.

    Costs of aerospace missions have increased over the last twenty years, placing the future of the space program in jeopardy. A potential source for such growth can be attributed to the complex multidisciplinary and challenging nature of earth and space science instrument development. Design margins are additional resources carried in technical performance parameters to mitigate uncertainties throughout the product lifecycle. Margins are traditionally derived and allocated based upon historical experience intrinsic to organizations, as opposed to quantitative methods, jeopardizing the development of low-cost space-based instruments. This dissertation utilizes a methodology to evaluate the interrelationships between pre-launch and actual launch margins for the key technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate to identify the extent to which excessive or insufficient margins are used in the design of space-based instruments in an effort to control instrument cost growth. The research examined 62 space-based instruments from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Federally Funded Research and Development Centers, and universities. Statistical analysis consisting of paired t-tests and multiple linear regression were utilized to determine the degree to which space-based instruments are over or under designed by the use of excessive or insufficient design margins and to determine the effect of design margins for the technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate on the percentage instrument cost growth from the preliminary design phase to launch. Findings confirm, that in the implementation of space-based instruments, design margins are allocated to technical performance parameters above suggested government/industry standards, impacting the development of low-cost space-based instruments. The findings provide senior leadership, systems engineers, project managers, and resource managers with the ability to determine where

  18. Comparison of external costs between dry tomb and bioreactor landfills: taking intergenerational effects seriously.

    PubMed

    Méry, Jacques; Bayer, Stefan

    2005-12-01

    Dry tomb and bioreactor landfills were analyzed with respect to their external costs in an intergenerational cost-benefit analysis in a partial framework which enabled a sounder comparison to be carried out between these two technologies from a socio-economic viewpoint. Obviously, this approach was only a first step for building a comprehensive basis of any environmental as well as fiscal policy in the field of waste management. All external costs are identified and evaluated in three different scenarios, corresponding to a worst case, a best guess and a best case. Obviously, discounting is crucial with respect to an intergenerational perspective. Generation-adjusted discounting (GAD) was applied to take into account equity as well as efficiency criteria, in order to deal with three different types of uncertainties that are decisive in waste policy decisions: a physical uncertainty is captured by introducing our three different scenarios; a macroeconomic uncertainty is taken into consideration by calculating present values using different real growth rates; and a microeconomic uncertainty is taken into account by considering individual peculiarities reflected in their subjective time preference rate. The findings show, that whenever there is a low real GDP growth of less than 1%, the bioreactor is generally superior to the dry tomb (lower present values of external costs). This statement becomes more valid as the growth rate decreases. However, whenever there are high positive growth rates, it is the dry tomb technology which is superior to the bioreactor system. PMID:16379120

  19. Assessment of external costs for transport project evaluation: Guidelines in some European countries

    SciTech Connect

    Petruccelli, Umberto

    2015-09-15

    Many studies about the external costs generated by the transport system have been developed in the last twenty years. To standardize methodologies and assessment procedures to be used in the evaluation of the projects, some European countries recently have adopted specific guidelines that differ from each other in some aspects even sensibly. This paper presents a critical analysis of the British, Italian and German guidelines and is aimed at cataloguing the external cost types regarded and the assessment methods indicated as well as to highlight the differences of the results, in terms of applicability and reliability. The goal is to contribute to a European standardization process that would lead to the drafting of guidelines suited for all EU countries. - Highlights: • The analyzed guidelines agree on the methods to evaluate costs from air pollution, greenhouse gases and accidents. • They recommend respectively: dose-resp. approach; costs to reduce/permit emissions; whole direct, indirect and social costs. • For noise, DE guide indicates defensive expenditure or SP methods; IT guide, SP method; UK guide, the hedonic prices one. • For on territory impact, DE guide regards only the barrier effect; the IT one, also the soil consumption and system effects. • British guide proposes a qualitative methodology to estimate the impact on various landscapes and environments.

  20. Cost effectiveness of external hip protectors in the hospital setting: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Stollenwerk, Björn; Waldeyer, Regina; Klein-Meding, Christiane; Müller, Dirk; Stock, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Chronic illnesses, for which many patients are admitted to hospitals, substantially increase the risk of falling, and hence the likelihood of incurring a hip fracture. Hip fractures not only have devastating consequences on an individual's quality of life but may also affect a hospital's reputation in the community. In addition, hospitals may face litigation claims and increased costs for patients who fall and suffer a major injury as a consequence. External hip protectors are comparable to padded undergarments and shield the trochanter, reducing the detrimental effects and force impacting the bone during a fall. Screening for patients at high risk of falling and providing high-risk patients with hip protectors as a preventive measure to avoid hip fractures, not only improves public health, but can also save hospitals care and litigation costs. PMID:24834633

  1. Cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version for term breech presentation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background External cephalic version (ECV) is recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to convert a breech fetus to vertex position and reduce the need for cesarean delivery. The goal of this study was to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, from society's perspective, of ECV compared to scheduled cesarean for term breech presentation. Methods A computer-based decision model (TreeAge Pro 2008, Tree Age Software, Inc.) was developed for a hypothetical base case parturient presenting with a term singleton breech fetus with no contraindications for vaginal delivery. The model incorporated actual hospital costs (e.g., $8,023 for cesarean and $5,581 for vaginal delivery), utilities to quantify health-related quality of life, and probabilities based on analysis of published literature of successful ECV trial, spontaneous reversion, mode of delivery, and need for unanticipated emergency cesarean delivery. The primary endpoint was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in dollars per quality-adjusted year of life gained. A threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) was used to determine cost-effectiveness. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness of ECV, assuming a baseline 58% success rate, equaled $7,900/QALY. If the estimated probability of successful ECV is less than 32%, then ECV costs more to society and has poorer QALYs for the patient. However, as the probability of successful ECV was between 32% and 63%, ECV cost more than cesarean delivery but with greater associated QALY such that the cost-effectiveness ratio was less than $50,000/QALY. If the probability of successful ECV was greater than 63%, the computer modeling indicated that a trial of ECV is less costly and with better QALYs than a scheduled cesarean. The cost-effectiveness of a trial of ECV is most sensitive to its probability of success, and not to the probabilities of a cesarean after ECV, spontaneous reversion to breech, successful

  2. Externalities of oil imports revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.

    1980-09-01

    A re-analysis of the externalities associated with oil imports reaffirms the major findings of an earlier study: (1) The current externalities of oil imports are large even after several favorable assumptions are made, including the existence of a large buffer stock and enlightened monetary and fiscal policy. (2) The large externalities of oil imports call for increased domestic supplies, including conservation, if they are cost-effective and based on marginal social costs. (3) A corrective public policy could involve oil-import taxes and the subsidization of new domestic energy sources without large government externalities. 20 references.

  3. Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A

    2009-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Our behaviour towards other people depends not only on what they have done to us but also on what they have done to others. Indirect reciprocity works through reputation. The standard model of indirect reciprocity offers a binary choice: people can either cooperate or defect. Cooperation implies a cost for the donor and a benefit for the recipient. Defection has no cost and yields no benefit. Currently there is considerable interest in studying the effect of costly (or altruistic) punishment on human behaviour. Punishment implies a cost for the punished person. Costly punishment means that the punisher also pays a cost. It has been suggested that costly punishment between individuals can promote cooperation. Here we study the role of costly punishment in an explicit model of indirect reciprocity. We analyse all social norms, which depend on the action of the donor and the reputation of the recipient. We allow errors in assigning reputation and study gossip as a mechanism for establishing coherence. We characterize all strategies that allow the evolutionary stability of cooperation. Some of those strategies use costly punishment; others do not. We find that punishment strategies typically reduce the average payoff of the population. Consequently, there is only a small parameter region where costly punishment leads to an efficient equilibrium. In most cases the population does better by not using costly punishment. The efficient strategy for indirect reciprocity is to withhold help for defectors rather than punishing them.

  4. Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A

    2009-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Our behaviour towards other people depends not only on what they have done to us but also on what they have done to others. Indirect reciprocity works through reputation. The standard model of indirect reciprocity offers a binary choice: people can either cooperate or defect. Cooperation implies a cost for the donor and a benefit for the recipient. Defection has no cost and yields no benefit. Currently there is considerable interest in studying the effect of costly (or altruistic) punishment on human behaviour. Punishment implies a cost for the punished person. Costly punishment means that the punisher also pays a cost. It has been suggested that costly punishment between individuals can promote cooperation. Here we study the role of costly punishment in an explicit model of indirect reciprocity. We analyse all social norms, which depend on the action of the donor and the reputation of the recipient. We allow errors in assigning reputation and study gossip as a mechanism for establishing coherence. We characterize all strategies that allow the evolutionary stability of cooperation. Some of those strategies use costly punishment; others do not. We find that punishment strategies typically reduce the average payoff of the population. Consequently, there is only a small parameter region where costly punishment leads to an efficient equilibrium. In most cases the population does better by not using costly punishment. The efficient strategy for indirect reciprocity is to withhold help for defectors rather than punishing them. PMID:19122640

  5. External loading does not change energy cost and mechanics of rollerski skating.

    PubMed

    Millet, G; Perrey, S; Candau, R; Belli, A; Borrani, F; Rouillon, J D

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of external loading on the energy cost and mechanics of roller ski skating. A group of 13 highly skilled male cross-country skiers roller skied at 19.0 ( SD 0.1) km x h(-1) without additional load and with loads of 6% and 12% body mass (mb). Oxygen uptake (VO2), knee and ankle joint kinematics, roller-ski electromyogram (EMG) of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles, and roller ski velocity were recorded during the last 40 s of each 4-min period of roller skiing. One-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the VO2 expressed relative to total mass (mtot), joint kinetics, eccentric-to-concentric ratio of the integrated EMG, velocity changes within a cycle, and cycle rate did not change significantly with load. The subsequent analysis of the effect of load on each resistance opposing motion suggested that the power to sustain changes in translational kinetic energy, potential energy, and overcoming rolling resistance increased proportionately with the load. The lack of a significant change in VO2/mtot with external loading was associated with a lack of marked change in external mechanical power relative to mtot. The existence of an EMG signal during the eccentric phase prior to the thrust (concentric phase), as well as the lack of significant delay between the two phases, showed that a stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) occurs in roller ski skating. Taken together, the present results would suggest that external loading up to 12% mb does not increase storage and release of elastic energy of lower limb muscles during SSC in roller ski skating.

  6. An approach to assess the marginal environmental costs for flow regulation: an example in three European rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jalon Diego, Garcia; de Jalon Silvestre, Garcia; Tanago Marta, Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades there has been a growing concern about water environmental costs. 'Polluter should pay' has been a phrase repeated in numerous policy-making processes. Water abstraction for Irrigation, Hydropower or water supply for Domestic or Industrial porpoises alters natural flow regimes impacting severely fluvial Ecosystems. The objective of this paper is to develop an evaluation of the marginal environmental costs for flow regulation. This approach is based on the idea 'who regulates flows should pay' and the amount to be paid should be proportional on the intensity, duration and frequency of the resulting regulated flows. The methodology proposed includes three separated steps: (i) estimating the natural flow regime of a river segment through studying the hydrologic conditions before the river is affected by a determined anthropogenic impact, (ii) assessing the hydrologic alteration of the river segment according to the estimated natural flow regime, and (iii) calculating marginal environmental costs of water supply. The three different case studies where the methodology was applied were the Esla River (Spain), the Upper River Tyne (England) and the Marna River (Norway).

  7. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: a policy and decision making guide for efficient water use in crop production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, Abebe; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Reducing water footprints (WF) in irrigated crop production is an essential element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, policy and decision making need to be supported with information on marginal cost curves that rank measures to reduce the WF according to their cost-effectiveness and enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a certain reasonable WF benchmark. This paper aims to develop marginal cost curves (MCC) for WF reduction. The AquaCrop model is used to explore the effect of different measures on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus WF that is used as input in the MCC. Measures relate to three dimensions of management practices: irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip); irrigation strategies (full and deficit irrigation); and mulching practices (no mulching, organic and synthetic mulching). A WF benchmark per crop is calculated as resulting from the best-available production technology. The marginal cost curve is plotted using the ratios of the marginal cost to WF reduction of the measures as ordinate, ranking with marginal costs rise with the increase of the reduction effort. For each measure, the marginal cost to reduce WF is estimated by comparing the associated WF and net present value (NPV) to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The NPV for each measure is based on its capital costs, operation and maintenances costs (O&M) and revenues. A range of cases is considered, including: different crops, soil types and different environments. Key words: marginal cost curve, water footprint benchmark, soil water balance, crop growth, AquaCrop

  8. Some Simple Arguments about Cost Externalization and its Relevance to the Price of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.; Winfree, R.

    1999-09-27

    The primary goal of fusion energy research is to develop a source of energy that is less harmful to the environment than are the present sources. A concern often expressed by critics of fusion research is that fusion energy will never be economically competitive with fossil fuels, which in 1997 provided 75% of the world's energy. And in fact, studies of projected fusion electricity generation generally project fusion costs to be higher than those of conventional methods. Yet it is widely agreed that the environmental costs of fossil fuel use are high. Because these costs aren't included in the market price, and furthermore because many governments subsidize fossil fuel production, fossil fuels seem less expensive than they really are. Here we review some simple arguments about cost externalization which provide a useful background for discussion of energy prices. The collectively self-destructive behavior that is the root of many environmental problems, including fossil fuel use, was termed ''the tragedy of the commons'' by the biologist G. Hardin. Hardin's metaphor is that of a grazing commons that is open to all. Each herdsman, in deciding whether to add a cow to his herd, compares the benefit of doing so, which accrues to him alone, to the cost, which is shared by all the herdsmen using the commons, and therefore adds his cow. In this way individually rational behavior leads to the collective destruction of the shared resource. As Hardin pointed out, pollution is one kind of tragedy of the commons. CO{sub 2} emissions and global warming are in this sense classic tragedies.

  9. Margin selection to compensate for loss of target dose coverage due to target motion during external-beam radiation therapy of the lung.

    PubMed

    Foster, W Kyle; Osei, Ernest; Barnett, Rob

    2015-01-08

    The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for the selection of external-beam radiation therapy target margins to compensate for target motion in the lung during treatment planning. A convolution model was employed to predict the effect of target motion on the delivered dose distribution. The accuracy of the model was confirmed with radiochromic film measurements in both static and dynamic phantom modes. 502 unique patient breathing traces were recorded and used to simulate the effect of target motion on a dose distribution. A 1D probability density function (PDF) representing the position of the target throughout the breathing cycle was generated from each breathing trace obtained during 4D CT. Changes in the target D95 (the minimum dose received by 95% of the treatment target) due to target motion were analyzed and shown to correlate with the standard deviation of the PDF. Furthermore, the amount of target D95 recovered per millimeter of increased field width was also shown to correlate with the standard deviation of the PDF. The sensitivity of changes in dose coverage with respect to target size was also determined. Margin selection recommendations that can be used to compensate for loss of target D95 were generated based on the simulation results. These results are discussed in the context of clinical plans. We conclude that, for PDF standard deviations less than 0.4 cm with target sizes greater than 5 cm, little or no additional margins are required. Targets which are smaller than 5 cm with PDF standard deviations larger than 0.4 cm are most susceptible to loss of coverage. The largest additional required margin in this study was determined to be 8 mm.

  10. Toward a new spacecraft optimal design lifetime? Impact of marginal cost of durability and reduced launch price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelgrove, Kailah B.; Saleh, Joseph Homer

    2016-10-01

    The average design lifetime of satellites continues to increase, in part due to the expectation that the satellite cost per operational day decreases monotonically with increased design lifetime. In this work, we challenge this expectation by revisiting the durability choice problem for spacecraft in the face of reduced launch price and under various cost of durability models. We first provide a brief overview of the economic thought on durability and highlight its limitations as they pertain to our problem (e.g., the assumption of zero marginal cost of durability). We then investigate the merging influence of spacecraft cost of durability and launch price, and we identify conditions that give rise cost-optimal design lifetimes that are shorter than the longest lifetime technically achievable. For example, we find that high costs of durability favor short design lifetimes, and that under these conditions the optimal choice is relatively robust to reduction in launch prices. By contrast, lower costs of durability favor longer design lifetimes, and the optimal choice is highly sensitive to reduction in launch price. In both cases, reduction in launch prices translates into reduction of the optimal design lifetime. Our results identify a number of situations for which satellite operators would be better served by spacecraft with shorter design lifetimes. Beyond cost issues and repeat purchases, other implications of long design lifetime include the increased risk of technological slowdown given the lower frequency of purchases and technology refresh, and the increased risk for satellite operators that the spacecraft will be technologically obsolete before the end of its life (with the corollary of loss of value and competitive advantage). We conclude with the recommendation that, should pressure to extend spacecraft design lifetime continue, satellite manufacturers should explore opportunities to lease their spacecraft to operators, or to take a stake in the ownership

  11. Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Strategies in Radiation Contaminated Areas in Fukushima in Regard to External Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, analysis of cost and effectiveness suggests that decontamination costs for agricultural areas account for approximately 80% of the total decontamination cost, of which approximately 60% is associated with storage. In addition, the costs of decontamination per person per unit area are estimated to vary greatly. Appropriate selection of decontamination methods may significantly decrease decontamination costs, allowing more meaningful decontamination in terms of the limited budget. Our analysis can help in examining the prioritization of decontamination areas from the viewpoints of cost and effectiveness in reducing the external dose. Decontamination strategies should be determined according to air dose rates and future land-use plans. PMID:24069398

  12. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal and Middle Ear: Treatment Outcomes, Marginal Misses, and Perspective on Target Delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wan-Yu; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Szu-Huai; Tsai, Chiao-Ling; Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason; Hong, Ruey-Long; Chen, Ya-Fang; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lin, Kai-Nan; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Chong, Fok-Ching; Wang, Chun-Wei

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To report outcomes of the rare disease of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) and middle ear treated with surgery and postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Failure patterns related to spatial dose distribution were also analyzed to provide insight into target delineation. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of the records of 11 consecutive patients with SCC of the EAC and middle ear who were treated with curative surgery and postoperative IMRT at one institution between January 2007 and February 2010. The prescribed IMRT dose was 60 to 66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Three patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and 1 patient received concurrent oral tegafur/uracil. The median follow-up time was 19 months (range, 6-33 months). Results: Four patients had locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year locoregional control rate of 70.7%. Among them, 1 patient had persistent disease after treatment, and 3 had marginal recurrence. Distant metastasis occurred in 1 patient after extensive locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year distant control rate of 85.7%. The estimated 2-year overall survival was 67.5%. The three cases of marginal recurrence were near the preauricular space and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, adjacent to the apex of the ear canal and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, and in the postauricular subcutaneous area and ipsilateral parotid nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Marginal misses should be recognized to improve target delineation. When treating SCC of the EAC and middle ear, care should be taken to cover the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint and periauricular soft tissue. Elective ipsilateral parotid irradiation should be considered. The treatment planning procedure should also be refined to balance subcutaneous soft-tissue dosimetry and toxicity.

  13. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  14. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Marques, G.; Mohamed, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbours at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  15. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Marques, G.; Mohamed, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins have become more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoir operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  16. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

  17. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  18. Can external lateral stabilization reduce the energy cost of walking in persons with a lower limb amputation?

    PubMed

    IJmker, T; Noten, S; Lamoth, C J; Beek, P J; van der Woude, L H V; Houdijk, H

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether impaired balance control is partly responsible for the increased energy cost of walking in persons with a lower limb amputation (LLA). Previous studies used external lateral stabilization to evaluate the energy cost for balance control; this caused a decrease in energy cost, with concomitant decreases in mean and variability of step width. Using a similar set-up, we expected larger decreases for LLA than able-bodied controls. Fifteen transtibial amputees (TT), 12 transfemoral amputees (TF), and 15 able-bodied controls (CO) walked with and without external lateral stabilization provided via spring like cords attached to the waist. Effects of this manipulation on energy cost, step parameters, and pelvic motion were evaluated between groups. TT (-5%) and CO (-3%) showed on average a small reduction in energy cost when walking with stabilization, whereas TF exhibited an increase in energy cost (+6.5%) The difference in the effect of stabilization was only significant between TT and TF. Step width, step width variability, and medio-lateral pelvic displacement decreased significantly with stabilization in all groups, especially in TT. Contrary to expectations, external lateral stabilization did not result in a larger decrease in the energy cost of walking for LLA compared to able-bodied controls, suggesting that balance control is not a major factor in the increased cost of walking in LLA. Alternatively, the increased energy cost with stabilization for TF suggests that restraining (medio-lateral) pelvic motion impeded necessary movement adaptations in LLA, and thus negated the postulated beneficial effects of stabilization on the energy cost of walking.

  19. Can external lateral stabilization reduce the energy cost of walking in persons with a lower limb amputation?

    PubMed

    IJmker, T; Noten, S; Lamoth, C J; Beek, P J; van der Woude, L H V; Houdijk, H

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether impaired balance control is partly responsible for the increased energy cost of walking in persons with a lower limb amputation (LLA). Previous studies used external lateral stabilization to evaluate the energy cost for balance control; this caused a decrease in energy cost, with concomitant decreases in mean and variability of step width. Using a similar set-up, we expected larger decreases for LLA than able-bodied controls. Fifteen transtibial amputees (TT), 12 transfemoral amputees (TF), and 15 able-bodied controls (CO) walked with and without external lateral stabilization provided via spring like cords attached to the waist. Effects of this manipulation on energy cost, step parameters, and pelvic motion were evaluated between groups. TT (-5%) and CO (-3%) showed on average a small reduction in energy cost when walking with stabilization, whereas TF exhibited an increase in energy cost (+6.5%) The difference in the effect of stabilization was only significant between TT and TF. Step width, step width variability, and medio-lateral pelvic displacement decreased significantly with stabilization in all groups, especially in TT. Contrary to expectations, external lateral stabilization did not result in a larger decrease in the energy cost of walking for LLA compared to able-bodied controls, suggesting that balance control is not a major factor in the increased cost of walking in LLA. Alternatively, the increased energy cost with stabilization for TF suggests that restraining (medio-lateral) pelvic motion impeded necessary movement adaptations in LLA, and thus negated the postulated beneficial effects of stabilization on the energy cost of walking. PMID:25108643

  20. Changes in energy cost and total external work of muscles in elite race walkers walking at different speeds.

    PubMed

    Chwała, Wiesław; Klimek, Andrzej; Mirek, Wacław

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess energy cost and total external work (total energy) depending on the speed of race walking. Another objective was to determine the contribution of external work to total energy cost of walking at technical, threshold and racing speed in elite competitive race walkers. The study involved 12 competitive race walkers aged 24.9 4.10 years with 6 to 20 years of experience, who achieved a national or international sports level. Their aerobic endurance was determined by means of a direct method involving an incremental exercise test on the treadmill. The participants performed three tests walking each time with one of the three speeds according to the same protocol: an 8-minute walk with at steady speed was followed by a recovery phase until the oxygen debt was repaid. To measure exercise energy cost, an indirect method based on the volume of oxygen uptake was employed. The gait of the participants was recorded using the 3D Vicon opto-electronic motion capture system. Values of changes in potential energy and total kinetic energy in a gate cycle were determined based on vertical displacements of the centre of mass. Changes in mechanical energy amounted to the value of total external work of muscles needed to accelerate and lift the centre of mass during a normalised gait cycle. The values of average energy cost and of total external work standardised to body mass and distance covered calculated for technical speed, threshold and racing speeds turned out to be statistically significant (p 0.001). The total energy cost ranged from 51.2 kJ.m-1 during walking at technical speed to 78.3 kJ.m-1 during walking at a racing speed. Regardless of the type of speed, the total external work of muscles accounted for around 25% of total energy cost in race walking. Total external work mainly increased because of changes in the resultant kinetic energy of the centre of mass movement.

  1. Reducing prospective memory error and costs in simulated air traffic control: External aids, extending practice, and removing perceived memory requirements.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Chapman, Melissa; Smith, Rebekah E

    2016-09-01

    In air traffic control (ATC), forgetting to perform deferred actions-prospective memory (PM) errors-can have severe consequences. PM demands can also interfere with ongoing tasks (costs). We examined the extent to which PM errors and costs were reduced in simulated ATC by providing extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. Participants accepted/handed-off aircraft and detected conflicts. For the PM task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting aircraft. In Experiment 1, when no aids were provided, PM errors and costs were not reduced by practice. When aids were provided, costs observed early in practice were eliminated with practice, but residual PM errors remained. Experiment 2 provided more limited practice with aids, but instructions that did not frame the PM task as a "memory" task led to high PM accuracy without costs. Attention-allocation policies that participants set based on expected PM demands were modified as individuals were increasingly exposed to reliable aids, or were given instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. These findings have implications for the design of aids for individuals who monitor multi-item dynamic displays. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27608067

  2. Utility planning using least-cost principles and the role of externalities - staff report on a Keystone policy dialogue

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    For over two years, The Keystone Center facilitated a two-phase dialogue on Utility Planning Using Least-Cost Principles and, in the second phase, on the role of Externalities. The intent of this report is to assist policy-makers faced with decisions about changes to traditional utility regulation and planning. This report is not a consensus document, rather it is staff written summary of two years of discussion on the issues. As a concept, least-cost planning has been discussed since the 1970`s and many states have implemented such programs since the mid-1980`s. Yet, the actual goals and objectives of least-cost planning remain a source of controversy between affected interest groups. Some industry observers believe that least-cost planning can help reconcile the often conflicting demands between increased capacity requirements and concerns about the external costs of power production. In traditional utility regulation practices, capital investments are rewarded and revenue is a direct function of sales. However, a number state public utility commissions have altered their practices to allow for returns on investments in more efficient end-use equipment (also known as ratebasing conservation) and adjusting revenues to account for sales lost due to utility conservation programs. Other states are planning these types of changes. Still others are observing the impacts of the changes before they commit.

  3. Direct Marginal Productivity of College Education in Relation to College Aptitude of Students and Production Costs of Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniere, Andre; Mechling, Jerry

    1970-01-01

    A statistical analysis of expected earnings flows and their present values considering students with different college aptitudes and institutions of different quality which provides marginal decision criteria for reallocation of resources in college education. (BC)

  4. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Steve J; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project.

  5. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Steve J; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. PMID:27419201

  6. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Steve J.; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P.; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. PMID:27419201

  7. Biogeochemistry and ecosystems of continental margins in the western North Pacific Ocean and their interactions and responses to external forcing - an overview and synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.-K.; Kang, C.-K.; Kobari, T.; Liu, H.; Rabouille, C.; Fennel, K.

    2014-07-01

    In this special issue we examine the biogeochemical conditions and marine ecosystems in the major marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean, namely, the East China Sea, the Japan/East Sea to its north and the South China Sea to its south. They are all subject to strong climate forcing as well as anthropogenic impacts. On the one hand, continental margins in this region are bordered by the world's most densely populated coastal communities and receive tremendous amounts of land derived materials. On the other hand, the Kuroshio, the strong western boundary current, which is modulated by climate oscillation, exerts strong influences over all three marginal seas. Because these continental margins sustain arguably the most productive marine ecosystems, changes in these stressed ecosystems may threaten the livelihood of a large human population. This special issue reports the latest observations of the biogeochemical conditions and ecosystem functions in the three marginal seas. The studies exemplify many faceted ecosystem functions and biogeochemical expressions, but they reveal only a few long term trends mainly due to lack of long term records. It is critical to develop and sustain time series observations in order to detect biogeochemical changes and ecosystem responses in continental margins and to attribute the causes for better management of the environment and resources in these marginal seas.

  8. Biogeochemistry and ecosystems of continental margins in the western North Pacific Ocean and their interactions and responses to external forcing - an overview and synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.-K.; Kang, C.-K.; Kobari, T.; Liu, H.; Rabouille, C.; Fennel, K.

    2014-12-01

    In this special issue we examine the biogeochemical conditions and marine ecosystems in the major marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean, namely, the East China Sea, the Japan/East Sea to its north and the South China Sea to its south. They are all subject to strong climate forcing as well as anthropogenic impacts. On the one hand, continental margins in this region are bordered by the world's most densely populated coastal communities and receive tremendous amount of land-derived materials. On the other hand, the Kuroshio, the strong western boundary current of the North Pacific Ocean, which is modulated by climate oscillation, exerts strong influences over all three marginal seas. Because these continental margins sustain arguably some of the most productive marine ecosystems in the world, changes in these stressed ecosystems may threaten the livelihood of a large population of humans. This special issue reports the latest observations of the biogeochemical conditions and ecosystem functions in the three marginal seas. The studies exemplify the many faceted ecosystem functions and biogeochemical expressions, but they reveal only a few long-term trends mainly due to lack of sufficiently long records of well-designed observations. It is critical to develop and sustain time series observations in order to detect biogeochemical changes and ecosystem responses in continental margins and to attribute the causes for better management of the environment and resources in these marginal seas.

  9. External cost internalisation of urban transport: a case study of Dublin.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, E; O'Mahony, M

    2002-04-01

    Transport users do not currently pay all costs associated with their transport activities and in particular do not pay the costs they impose on the environment. Case studies on Dublin, Amsterdam, Brussels and London have been conducted to evaluate how best to meet the requirement of the European Commission in its fair and efficient pricing aims in the transport sector, i.e. where transport users are made to pay all costs they impose. The paper presents the results of Do Nothing (DN) and Do Something (DS) scenarios for 2005 where in the latter case each transport user pays for all costs they impose including pollution, noise, accidents etc. The Dublin results, from an economics model used in the study, are examined in detail; the findings are compared with those of parallel studies conducted in the other cities to demonstrate the international relevance of this work. The comparison between the DN and DS scenarios indicates that taxes on all transport modes should be increased substantially, particularly in the morning and evening peak periods. As a result of the price increases, travel demand is reduced. A practical example where transport users could be made to pay for all their costs is road use pricing, i.e. charging individuals for the use of road space. The taxation levels suggested in the DS scenario have been used in a road use pricing trial in Dublin, the results of which were published in O'Mahony, Geraghty and Humphreys (Transportation 27, 269-283, 2000), to see if the reductions in the travel requirements of individuals proposed by the economics model are in fact true. The principles of the work presented in this paper are not only relevant to environmental impact management in the transport sector but can also be applied to other sectors.

  10. Production costs and operative margins in electric energy generation from biogas. Full-scale case studies in Italy.

    PubMed

    Riva, C; Schievano, A; D'Imporzano, G; Adani, F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the economic sustainability of three different biogas full scale plants, fed with different organic matrices: energy crops (EC), manure, agro-industrial (Plants B and C) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) (Plant A). The plants were observed for one year and total annual biomass feeding, biomass composition and biomass cost (€ Mg(-1)), initial investment cost and plant electric power production were registered. The unit costs of biogas and electric energy (€ Sm(-3)biogas, € kWh(-1)EE) were differently distributed, depending on the type of feed and plant. Plant A showed high management/maintenance cost for OFMSW treatment (0.155 € Sm(-3)biogas, 45% of total cost), Plant B suffered high cost for EC supply (0.130 € Sm(-3)biogas, 49% of total cost) and Plant C showed higher impact on the total costs because of the depreciation charge (0.146 € Sm(-3)biogas, 41% of total costs). The breakeven point for the tariff of electric energy, calculated for the different cases, resulted in the range 120-170 € MWh(-1)EE, depending on fed materials and plant scale. EC had great impact on biomass supply costs and should be reduced, in favor of organic waste and residues; plant scale still heavily influences the production costs. The EU States should drive incentives in dependence of these factors, to further develop this still promising sector.

  11. Production costs and operative margins in electric energy generation from biogas. Full-scale case studies in Italy.

    PubMed

    Riva, C; Schievano, A; D'Imporzano, G; Adani, F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the economic sustainability of three different biogas full scale plants, fed with different organic matrices: energy crops (EC), manure, agro-industrial (Plants B and C) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) (Plant A). The plants were observed for one year and total annual biomass feeding, biomass composition and biomass cost (€ Mg(-1)), initial investment cost and plant electric power production were registered. The unit costs of biogas and electric energy (€ Sm(-3)biogas, € kWh(-1)EE) were differently distributed, depending on the type of feed and plant. Plant A showed high management/maintenance cost for OFMSW treatment (0.155 € Sm(-3)biogas, 45% of total cost), Plant B suffered high cost for EC supply (0.130 € Sm(-3)biogas, 49% of total cost) and Plant C showed higher impact on the total costs because of the depreciation charge (0.146 € Sm(-3)biogas, 41% of total costs). The breakeven point for the tariff of electric energy, calculated for the different cases, resulted in the range 120-170 € MWh(-1)EE, depending on fed materials and plant scale. EC had great impact on biomass supply costs and should be reduced, in favor of organic waste and residues; plant scale still heavily influences the production costs. The EU States should drive incentives in dependence of these factors, to further develop this still promising sector. PMID:24841069

  12. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  13. Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe to the Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution using the EVA Model System - an integrated modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy D.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob H.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Hansen, Ayoe B.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hedegaard, Gitte B.; Kaas, Eigil; Frohn, Lise M.

    2013-04-01

    We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors, which can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. Central for the system is a tagging method capable of calculating the contribution from a specific emission source or sector to the overall air pollution levels, taking into account the non-linear atmospheric chemistry. The main objective of this work is to identify the anthropogenic emission sources in Europe and Denmark that contribute the most to human health impacts. In this study, we applied the EVA system to Europe and Denmark, with a detailed analysis of health-related external costs from the ten major emission sectors and their relative contributions. The paper contains a thorough description of the EVA system. The conclusions in the paper are sensitive to the toxicity of the different types of atmospheric particles, and therefore the existing knowledge of health impacts from particles is reviewed. We conclude that with our present knowledge we are not able to distinguish between the impacts from different particle types and therefore the toxicity of the particles is handled equally in the overall results. The main conclusion from the analysis of the ten major emission sectors in Europe and Denmark is that the major contributors to health-related external costs are major power production, agriculture, road traffic, and non-industrial domestic combustion, including wood combustion. The major power plants in Europe contribute with around 25% of the total health related external costs relative to all sources in Europe, while the Danish power plants only contribute with less than 10% relative to all Danish sources. Our results suggest that the agricultural sector contributes with 25% to health impacts and related external costs. We conclude

  14. Climate change mitigation in the agricultural sector- an analysis of marginal abatement costs of climate mitigation in global paddy rice agriculture based on DNDC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Li, J.; Beach, R.; Salas, W.; Ingraham, P.; Ragnauth, S.

    2012-12-01

    Authors: Jia Li1, Robert H. Beach2, Changsheng Li3, William Salas4, Pete Ingraham5, Shaun Ragnauth1 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Climate Change Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, United States. 2. RTI International, Durham, NC, United States. 3. ESRC, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States. 4. Applied Geosolutions, LLC, Newmarket, NH, United States. Global agriculture sector faces the dual challenge of climate change mitigation and providing food security for a growing population. In a new study, the U.S. EPA has developed an analysis of mitigation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases for the global agriculture sector. We estimate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice cultivation and rice yields under baseline management conditions as well as for alternative mitigation options. These biophysical effects are combined with data on input use and costs to estimate marginal abatement cost curves and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation options for global rice cropping systems. DNDC, a process-based crop model, is used to simulate crop yields, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, as well as soil carbon sequestration of the various rice cropping systems (irrigated and rainfed, and single, double, triple and mixed rotations) under local climatic and soil conditions at a 0.5 degree resolution at the global scale. We evaluate the impacts of various management alternatives (e.g., flooding methods, fertilizer applications, and crop residue management) on crop yields and GHG emissions and report the spatial and temporal distributions of the outcomes. The analysis provides important insights on the potential for closing the production efficiency gaps and the trade-offs and synergies between GHG mitigation and food security in different parts of the world.

  15. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J. D.; Christensen, J. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Bønløkke, J. H.; Sigsgaard, T.; Geels, C.; Gross, A.; Hansen, A. B.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Kaas, E.; Frohn, L. M.

    2013-03-01

    An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources), represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North Seas, since special regulatory actions on sulphur emissions, called SECA (sulphur emission control area), have been introduced in these areas,. We conclude that despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem to human health, hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe is estimated at 803 bn Euro yr-1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn Euro yr-1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr-1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulphur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in the Northern

  16. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J. D.; Christensen, J. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Bønløkke, J. H.; Sigsgaard, T.; Geels, C.; Gross, A.; Hansen, A. B.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Kaas, E.; Frohn, L. M.

    2013-08-01

    An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources), represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North seas, since special regulatory actions on sulfur emissions, called SECA (sulfur emission control area), have been introduced in these areas. We conclude that, despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem for human health. Hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe are estimated at 803 bn euros yr-1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn euros yr-1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr-1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulfur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in the Northern

  17. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution over 36 years using the integrated model system EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology, where the site-specific emissions will result, via atmospheric transport and chemistry, in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, is used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different domain and scales; the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) to calculate the air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the Urban Background Model (UBM) to further calculate the air pollution in Denmark at 1 km x 1 km resolution using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. Previous health impact assessments related to air pollution have been made on a lower resolution. In this study, the integrated model system, EVA, has been used to estimate the health impacts and related external cost for Denmark at a 1 km x 1 km resolution. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as the development of health impacts and related external costs in Europe and Denmark over a period of 36 years (1979-2014). Acknowledgements This work was funded by: DCE - National Centre for Environment and Energy. Project: "Health impacts and external costs from air pollution in Denmark over 25 years" and NordForsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare. Project: "Understanding the link between air pollution and distribution of related health impacts and welfare in the

  18. External costs of atmospheric lead emissions from a waste-to-energy plant: a follow-up assessment of indirect exposure via topsoil ingestion.

    PubMed

    Pizzol, Massimo; Møller, Flemming; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-05-30

    In this study the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA) was used to calculate the external costs associated with indirect exposure, via topsoil ingestion, to atmospheric emissions of lead (Pb) from a waste-to-energy plant in Denmark. Three metal-specific models were combined to quantify the atmospheric dispersion of lead, its deposition and accumulation in topsoil, and the increase in blood lead concentration for children resulting from lead intake via topsoil ingestion. The neurotoxic impact of lead on children was estimated using a lead-specific concentration-response function that measures impaired cognitive development in terms of IQ points lost per each incremental μg/dl of lead in blood. Since IQ loss during childhood can be associated with a percent decrease in expected lifetime earnings, the monetary value of such an impact can be quantified and the external costs per kg of lead emitted from the plant were then calculated. The costs of indirect exposure calculated over a time horizon of 100 years, for the sub-population of children of 0-3 years, and discounted at 3%, were in the range of 15-30 €/kg. Despite the continued accumulation of lead in topsoil resulting in increasing future indirect exposure, the results indicate that costs associated with this exposure pathway are of the same order of magnitude as costs associated with direct exposure via inhalation, calculated at 45-91 €/kg. Moreover, when the monetary value of future impacts is discounted to the present, the differences between the two exposure pathways are diminished. Finally, setting a short time horizon reduces the uncertainties but excludes part of the costs of indirect exposure from the assessment.

  19. Marginality principle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is a fragile resource supplying many goods and services. Given the diversity of soil across the world and within a landscape, there are many different capacities among soils to provide the basic soil functions. Marginality of soils is a difficult process to define because the metrics to define ...

  20. Development and application of performance and cost models for the externally-fired combined cycle. Task 1, Volume 2. Topical report, June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, P.; Frey, H.; Rubin, E.S.

    1995-07-01

    Increasing restrictions on emission of pollutants from conventional pulverized coal fired steam (PCFS) plant generating electrical power is raising capital and operating cost of these plants and at the same time lowering plant efficiency. This is creating a need for alternative technologies which result in lower emissions of regulated pollutants and which are thermally more efficient. Natural gas-fired combined cycle power generation systems have lower capital cost and higher efficiencies than conventional coal fired steam plants, and at this time they are the leading contender for new power plant construction in the U.S. But the intermediate and long term cost of these fuels is high and there is uncertainty regarding their long-term price and availability. Coal is a relatively low cost fuel which will be abundantly available in the long term. This has motivated the development of advanced technologies for power production from coal which will have advantages of other fuels. The Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) is one such technology. Air pollution control/hot gas cleanup issues associated with this technology are described.

  1. Safety margins in older adults increase with improved control of a dynamic object.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Christopher J; Sternad, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Older adults face decreasing motor capabilities due to pervasive neuromuscular degradations. As a consequence, errors in movement control increase. Thus, older individuals should maintain larger safety margins than younger adults. While this has been shown for object manipulation tasks, several reports on whole-body activities, such as posture and locomotion, demonstrate age-related reductions in safety margins. This is despite increased costs for control errors, such as a fall. We posit that this paradox could be explained by the dynamic challenge presented by the body or also an external object, and that age-related reductions in safety margins are in part due to a decreased ability to control dynamics. To test this conjecture we used a virtual ball-in-cup task that had challenging dynamics, yet afforded an explicit rendering of the physics and safety margin. The hypotheses were: (1) When manipulating an object with challenging dynamics, older adults have smaller safety margins than younger adults. (2) Older adults increase their safety margins with practice. Nine young and 10 healthy older adults practiced moving the virtual ball-in-cup to a target location in exactly 2 s. The accuracy and precision of the timing error quantified skill, and the ball energy relative to an escape threshold quantified the safety margin. Compared to the young adults, older adults had increased timing errors, greater variability, and decreased safety margins. With practice, both young and older adults improved their ability to control the object with decreased timing errors and variability, and increased their safety margins. These results suggest that safety margins are related to the ability to control dynamics, and may explain why in tasks with simple dynamics older adults use adequate safety margins, but in more complex tasks, safety margins may be inadequate. Further, the results indicate that task-specific training may improve safety margins in older adults.

  2. Safety margins in older adults increase with improved control of a dynamic object

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Christopher J.; Sternad, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Older adults face decreasing motor capabilities due to pervasive neuromuscular degradations. As a consequence, errors in movement control increase. Thus, older individuals should maintain larger safety margins than younger adults. While this has been shown for object manipulation tasks, several reports on whole-body activities, such as posture and locomotion, demonstrate age-related reductions in safety margins. This is despite increased costs for control errors, such as a fall. We posit that this paradox could be explained by the dynamic challenge presented by the body or also an external object, and that age-related reductions in safety margins are in part due to a decreased ability to control dynamics. To test this conjecture we used a virtual ball-in-cup task that had challenging dynamics, yet afforded an explicit rendering of the physics and safety margin. The hypotheses were: (1) When manipulating an object with challenging dynamics, older adults have smaller safety margins than younger adults. (2) Older adults increase their safety margins with practice. Nine young and 10 healthy older adults practiced moving the virtual ball-in-cup to a target location in exactly 2 s. The accuracy and precision of the timing error quantified skill, and the ball energy relative to an escape threshold quantified the safety margin. Compared to the young adults, older adults had increased timing errors, greater variability, and decreased safety margins. With practice, both young and older adults improved their ability to control the object with decreased timing errors and variability, and increased their safety margins. These results suggest that safety margins are related to the ability to control dynamics, and may explain why in tasks with simple dynamics older adults use adequate safety margins, but in more complex tasks, safety margins may be inadequate. Further, the results indicate that task-specific training may improve safety margins in older adults. PMID:25071566

  3. Bounding the marginal cost of producing potable water including the use of seawater desalinization as a backstop potable water production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2014-04-01

    The analysis presented in this technical report should allow for the creation of high, medium, and low cost potable water prices for GCAM. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) based desalinization should act as a backstop for the cost of producing potable water (i.e., the literature seems clear that SWRO should establish an upper bound for the plant gate cost of producing potable water). Transporting water over significant distances and having to lift water to higher elevations to reach end-users can also have a significant impact on the cost of producing water. The three potable fresh water scenarios describe in this technical report are: low cost water scenario ($0.10/m3); medium water cost scenario ($1.00/m3); and high water cost scenario ($2.50/m3).

  4. A Facile and Low-Cost Method to Enhance the Internal Quantum Yield and External Light-Extraction Efficiency for Flexible Light-Emitting Carbon-Dot Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z. C.; Lin, T. N.; Lin, H. T.; Talite, M. J.; Tzeng, T. T.; Hsu, C. L.; Chiu, K. P.; Lin, C. A. J.; Shen, J. L.; Yuan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed, non-toxic carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention due to their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties. They are promising emissive layers for flexible light-emitting devices. To this end, the CDs in pristine aqueous solutions need to be transferred to form solid-state thin films without sacrificing their original PL characteristics. Unfortunately, solid-state PL quenching induced by extra non-radiative (NR) energy transfer among CDs would significantly hinder their practical applications in optoelectronics. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method has been utilized to fabricate high-performance CD/polymer light-emitting flexible films with submicron-structured patterns. The patterned polymers can serve as a solid matrix to disperse and passivate CDs, thus achieving high internal quantum yields of 61%. In addition, they can act as an out-coupler to mitigate the waveguide-mode losses, approximately doubling the external light-extraction efficiency. Such CD/polymer composites also exhibit good photo-stability, and thus can be used as eco-friendly, low-cost phosphors for solid-state lighting.

  5. A Facile and Low-Cost Method to Enhance the Internal Quantum Yield and External Light-Extraction Efficiency for Flexible Light-Emitting Carbon-Dot Films

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Z. C.; Lin, T. N.; Lin, H. T.; Talite, M. J.; Tzeng, T. T.; Hsu, C. L.; Chiu, K. P.; Lin, C. A. J.; Shen, J. L.; Yuan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed, non-toxic carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention due to their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties. They are promising emissive layers for flexible light-emitting devices. To this end, the CDs in pristine aqueous solutions need to be transferred to form solid-state thin films without sacrificing their original PL characteristics. Unfortunately, solid-state PL quenching induced by extra non-radiative (NR) energy transfer among CDs would significantly hinder their practical applications in optoelectronics. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method has been utilized to fabricate high-performance CD/polymer light-emitting flexible films with submicron-structured patterns. The patterned polymers can serve as a solid matrix to disperse and passivate CDs, thus achieving high internal quantum yields of 61%. In addition, they can act as an out-coupler to mitigate the waveguide-mode losses, approximately doubling the external light-extraction efficiency. Such CD/polymer composites also exhibit good photo-stability, and thus can be used as eco-friendly, low-cost phosphors for solid-state lighting. PMID:26822337

  6. A Facile and Low-Cost Method to Enhance the Internal Quantum Yield and External Light-Extraction Efficiency for Flexible Light-Emitting Carbon-Dot Films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z C; Lin, T N; Lin, H T; Talite, M J; Tzeng, T T; Hsu, C L; Chiu, K P; Lin, C A J; Shen, J L; Yuan, C T

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed, non-toxic carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention due to their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties. They are promising emissive layers for flexible light-emitting devices. To this end, the CDs in pristine aqueous solutions need to be transferred to form solid-state thin films without sacrificing their original PL characteristics. Unfortunately, solid-state PL quenching induced by extra non-radiative (NR) energy transfer among CDs would significantly hinder their practical applications in optoelectronics. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method has been utilized to fabricate high-performance CD/polymer light-emitting flexible films with submicron-structured patterns. The patterned polymers can serve as a solid matrix to disperse and passivate CDs, thus achieving high internal quantum yields of 61%. In addition, they can act as an out-coupler to mitigate the waveguide-mode losses, approximately doubling the external light-extraction efficiency. Such CD/polymer composites also exhibit good photo-stability, and thus can be used as eco-friendly, low-cost phosphors for solid-state lighting. PMID:26822337

  7. Multiprogram Segment Margin Analysis: Concepts and Practice in Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duangploy, Orapin; Anderman, Steve

    1985-01-01

    To solve the problems of cost identification and allocation in an extended education office, a segment margin approach was used. (Segment margin is the difference between revenues and traceable direct costs.) Courses could be evaluated by segment margin rather than net income, since allocated indirect costs are not controllable by the individual…

  8. Mental Depreciation and Marginal Decision Making

    PubMed

    Heath; Fennema

    1996-11-01

    We propose that individuals practice "mental depreciation," that is, they implicitly spread the fixed costs of their expenses over time or use. Two studies explore how people spread fixed costs on durable goods. A third study shows that depreciation can lead to two distinct errors in marginal decisions: First, people sometimes invest too much effort to get their money's worth from an expense (e.g., they may use a product a lot to spread the fixed expense across more uses). Second, people sometimes invest too little effort to get their money's worth: When people add a portion of the fixed cost to the current costs, their perceived marginal (i.e., incremental) costs exceed their true marginal costs. In response, they may stop investing because their perceived costs surpass the marginal benefits they are receiving. The latter effect is supported by two field studies that explore real board plan decisions by university students.

  9. The health of safety net hospitals following Massachusetts health care reform: changes in volume, revenue, costs, and operating margins from 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arun; Grant, Jennifer; Batalden, Maren; McCormick, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Massachusetts health care reform, designed to expand coverage and access to care for vulnerable populations, serves as the model for national health reform in the United States that will be implemented in 2014. Yet, little is known about how the reform may have affected the demand for and the financial performance of safety net hospitals (SNH), the primary source of care for such populations before the reform. Using a quasi-experimental design that included all acute care hospitals in the state, we calculated changes in mean inpatient and outpatient volumes, revenue, and operating margins at SNH from the pre-reform (Fiscal Year 2006) to the post-reform (Fiscal Year 2009) period. We contrasted these changes with contemporaneous changes occurring among non-safety net hospitals (NSNH) using a difference-in-differences approach. We found that SNH in Massachusetts continue to play a disproportionately large role in caring for disadvantaged patients after reform, but that their financial performance has declined considerably compared with NSNH. Ongoing reform efforts in the United States should account for continued SNH demand among the most vulnerable patients and should be designed so as not to undermine the financial stability of SNH that meet this demand.

  10. The health of safety net hospitals following Massachusetts health care reform: changes in volume, revenue, costs, and operating margins from 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arun; Grant, Jennifer; Batalden, Maren; McCormick, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Massachusetts health care reform, designed to expand coverage and access to care for vulnerable populations, serves as the model for national health reform in the United States that will be implemented in 2014. Yet, little is known about how the reform may have affected the demand for and the financial performance of safety net hospitals (SNH), the primary source of care for such populations before the reform. Using a quasi-experimental design that included all acute care hospitals in the state, we calculated changes in mean inpatient and outpatient volumes, revenue, and operating margins at SNH from the pre-reform (Fiscal Year 2006) to the post-reform (Fiscal Year 2009) period. We contrasted these changes with contemporaneous changes occurring among non-safety net hospitals (NSNH) using a difference-in-differences approach. We found that SNH in Massachusetts continue to play a disproportionately large role in caring for disadvantaged patients after reform, but that their financial performance has declined considerably compared with NSNH. Ongoing reform efforts in the United States should account for continued SNH demand among the most vulnerable patients and should be designed so as not to undermine the financial stability of SNH that meet this demand. PMID:23821908

  11. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    PubMed

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  12. Assessment of Past, Present and Future Health-Cost Ex-ternalities of Air Pollution in Europe and the contribution from International Ship Traffic using the EVA Model System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy D.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob H.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Hansen, Ayoe B.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hedegaard, Gitte B.; Kaas, Eigil; Frohn, Lise M.

    2013-04-01

    An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources), represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North Seas, since special regulatory actions on sulphur emissions, called SECA (sulphur emission control area), have been intro-duced in these areas,. We conclude that despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem to human health, hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe is estimated at 803 bn Euro/year for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn Euro/year in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680,000/year, decreasing to approximately 450,000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulphur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in the Northern

  13. The impact of external donor support through the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief on the cost of red cell concentrate in Namibia, 2004–2011

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, John P.; Bocking, Adele; Wilkinson, Robert; Postma, Maarten J.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Mataranyika, Mary; Marfin, Anthony A.; Lowrance, David W.; Sibinga, Cees Th. Smit

    2015-01-01

    Background External assistance can rapidly strengthen health programmes in developing countries, but such funding can also create sustainability challenges. From 2004–2011, the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) provided more than $ 8 million to the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS) for supplies, equipment, and staff salaries. This analysis describes the impact that support had on actual production costs and the unit prices charged for red cell concentrate (RCC) units issued to public sector hospitals. Material and methods A costing system developed by NAMBTS to set public sector RCC unit prices was used to describe production costs and unit prices during the period of PEPFAR scale-up (2004–2009) and the 2 years in which PEPFAR support began to decline (2010–2011). Hypothetical production costs were estimated to illustrate differences had PEPFAR support not been available. Results Between 2004–2006, NAMBTS sold 22,575 RCC units to public sector facilities. During this time, RCC unit prices exceeded per unit cost-recovery targets by between 40.3% (US$ 16.75 or N$ 109.86) and 168.3% (US$ 48.72 or N$ 333.28) per year. However, revenue surpluses dwindled between 2007 and 2011, the final year of the study period, when NAMBTS sold 20,382 RCC units to public facilities but lost US$23.31 (N$ 170.43) on each unit. Discussion PEPFAR support allowed NAMBTS to leverage domestic cost-recovery revenue to rapidly increase blood collections and the distribution of RCC. However, external support kept production costs lower than they would have been without PEPFAR. If PEPFAR funds had not been available, RCC prices would have needed to increase by 20% per year to have met annual cost-recovery targets and funded the same level of investments as were made with PEPFAR support. Tracking the subsidising influence of external support can help blood services make strategic investments and plan for unit price increases as external funds are

  14. Report on Reports: A Study of the Cost of Completing Reports for External Agencies, Fiscal Year 1975-1976. OIRA Report No. 6-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gell, Robert L.; Munson, Ann

    A survey was conducted throughout Montgomery Community College to gather information regarding the time spent by various units on the completion of reports for external agencies. Data were obtained for the actual reports filed between July 1, 1975 and April 1, 1976, and for the last three months of the fiscal year an estimate based on previous…

  15. Using the net benefit regression framework to construct cost-effectiveness acceptability curves: an example using data from a trial of external loop recorders versus Holter monitoring for ambulatory monitoring of "community acquired" syncope

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Jeffrey S; Rockx, Marie Antoinette; Krahn, Andrew D

    2006-01-01

    Background Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) describe the probability that a new treatment or intervention is cost-effective. The net benefit regression framework (NBRF) allows cost-effectiveness analysis to be done in a simple regression framework. The objective of the paper is to illustrate how net benefit regression can be used to construct a CEAC. Methods One hundred patients referred for ambulatory monitoring with syncope or presyncope were randomized to a one-month external loop recorder (n = 49) or 48-hour Holter monitor (n = 51). The primary endpoint was symptom-rhythm correlation during monitoring. Direct costs were calculated based on the 2003 Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) fee schedule combined with hospital case costing of labour, materials, service and overhead costs for diagnostic testing and related equipment. Results In the loop recorder group, 63.27% of patients (31/49) had symptom recurrence and successful activation, compared to 23.53% in the Holter group (12/51). The cost in US dollars for loop recording was $648.50 and $212.92 for Holter monitoring. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the loop recorder was $1,096 per extra successful diagnosis. The probability that the loop recorder was cost-effective compared to the Holter monitor was estimated using net benefit regression and plotted on a CEAC. In a sensitivity analysis, bootstrapping was used to examine the effect of distributional assumptions. Conclusion The NBRF is straightforward to use and interpret. The resulting uncertainty surrounding the regression coefficient relates to the CEAC. When the link from the regression's p-value to the probability of cost-effectiveness is tentative, bootstrapping may be used. PMID:16756680

  16. Continental Margins: Linking Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris; Rabalais, Nancy; Middelburg, Jack; Roy, Sylvie; Liu, Kon-Kee; Thomas, Helmuth; Zhang, Jing

    2008-02-01

    Impacts of Global, Local and Human Forcings on Biogeochemical Cycles and Ecosystems, IMBER/LOICZ Continental Margins Open Science Conference; Shanghai, China, 17-21 September 2007; More than 100 scientists from 25 countries came together to address global, regional, local, and human pressures interactively affecting continental margin biogeochemical cycles, marine food webs, and society. Continental margins cover only 12% of the global ocean area yet account for more than 30% of global oceanic primary production. In addition, continental margins are the most intensely used regions of the world's ocean for natural commodities, including productive fisheries and mineral and petroleum resources. The land adjacent to continental margins hosts about 50% of the world's population, which will bear many direct impacts of global change on coastal margins. Understanding both natural and human-influenced alterations of biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems on continental margins and the processes (including feedbacks) that threaten sustainability of these systems is therefore of global interest.

  17. The relevance of unrelated costs internal and external to the healthcare sector to the outcome of a cost-comparison analysis of secondary prevention: the case of general colorectal cancer screening in the German population.

    PubMed

    Tscheulin, Dieter K; Drevs, Florian

    2010-04-01

    The potential of secondary prevention measures, such as cancer screening, to produce cost savings in the healthcare sector is a controversial issue in healthcare economics. Potential savings are calculated by comparing treatment costs with the cost of a prevention program. When survivors' subsequent unrelated health care costs are included in the calculation, however, the overall cost of disease prevention rises. What have not been studied to date are the secondary effects of fatal disease prevention measures on social security systems. From the perspective of a policy maker responsible for a social security system budget, it is not only future healthcare costs that are relevant for budgeting, but also changes in the contributions to, and expenditures from, statutory pension insurance and health insurance systems. An examination of the effect of longer life expectancies on these insurance systems can be justified by the fact that European social security systems are regulated by the state, and there is no clear separation between the financing of individual insurance systems due to cross-subsidisation. This paper looks at how the results of cost-comparison analyses vary depending on the inclusion or exclusion of future healthcare and non-healthcare costs, using the example of colorectal cancer screening in the German general population. In contrast to previous studies, not only are future unrelated medical costs considered, but also the effects on the social security system. If a German colorectal cancer screening program were implemented, and unrelated future medical care were excluded from the cost-benefit analysis, savings of up to 548 million euros per year would be expected. The screening program would, at the same time, generate costs in the healthcare sector as well as in the social security system of 2,037 million euros per year. Because the amount of future contributions and expenditures in the social security system depends on the age and gender of the

  18. The relevance of unrelated costs internal and external to the healthcare sector to the outcome of a cost-comparison analysis of secondary prevention: the case of general colorectal cancer screening in the German population.

    PubMed

    Tscheulin, Dieter K; Drevs, Florian

    2010-04-01

    The potential of secondary prevention measures, such as cancer screening, to produce cost savings in the healthcare sector is a controversial issue in healthcare economics. Potential savings are calculated by comparing treatment costs with the cost of a prevention program. When survivors' subsequent unrelated health care costs are included in the calculation, however, the overall cost of disease prevention rises. What have not been studied to date are the secondary effects of fatal disease prevention measures on social security systems. From the perspective of a policy maker responsible for a social security system budget, it is not only future healthcare costs that are relevant for budgeting, but also changes in the contributions to, and expenditures from, statutory pension insurance and health insurance systems. An examination of the effect of longer life expectancies on these insurance systems can be justified by the fact that European social security systems are regulated by the state, and there is no clear separation between the financing of individual insurance systems due to cross-subsidisation. This paper looks at how the results of cost-comparison analyses vary depending on the inclusion or exclusion of future healthcare and non-healthcare costs, using the example of colorectal cancer screening in the German general population. In contrast to previous studies, not only are future unrelated medical costs considered, but also the effects on the social security system. If a German colorectal cancer screening program were implemented, and unrelated future medical care were excluded from the cost-benefit analysis, savings of up to 548 million euros per year would be expected. The screening program would, at the same time, generate costs in the healthcare sector as well as in the social security system of 2,037 million euros per year. Because the amount of future contributions and expenditures in the social security system depends on the age and gender of the

  19. [Marginalization and health. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Yunes, J

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between marginalization and health is clear. In Mexico, for example, life expectancy is 53 years for the poorest population sectors and 20 years more for the wealthiest. Infant mortality in poor Colombian families is twice that of wealthier families, and one-third of developing countries the rural population is only half as likely as the urban to have access to health services. Women in the Southern hemisphere are 12 times likelier than those in the Northern to die of maternal causes. The most important step in arriving at a solution to the inequity may be to analyze in depth the relationship between marginality and health. Marginality may be defined as the lack of participation of individuals or groups in certain key phases of societal life, such as production, consumption, or political decision making. Marginality came to be viewed as a social problem only with recognition of the rights of all individuals to participate in available social goods. Marginality is always relative, and marginal groups exist because central groups determine the criteria for inclusion in the marginal and central groups. Marginality thus always refers to a concrete society at a specific historical moment. Marginal groups may be of various types. At present, marginal groups include women, rural populations, people with AIDS or mental illness or certain other health conditions, refugees, ethnic or religious groups, homosexuals, and the poor, who are the largest group of marginal persons in the world. Even in developed countries, 100-200 million persons live below the poverty line. Latin America is struggling to emerge from its marginal status in the world. The economic crisis of the 1980s increased poverty in the region, and 40% are not considered impoverished. Latin America is a clear example of the relationship between marginality and health. Its epidemiologic profile is intimately related to nutrition, availability of potable water, housing, and environmental

  20. [Marginalization and health. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Yunes, J

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between marginalization and health is clear. In Mexico, for example, life expectancy is 53 years for the poorest population sectors and 20 years more for the wealthiest. Infant mortality in poor Colombian families is twice that of wealthier families, and one-third of developing countries the rural population is only half as likely as the urban to have access to health services. Women in the Southern hemisphere are 12 times likelier than those in the Northern to die of maternal causes. The most important step in arriving at a solution to the inequity may be to analyze in depth the relationship between marginality and health. Marginality may be defined as the lack of participation of individuals or groups in certain key phases of societal life, such as production, consumption, or political decision making. Marginality came to be viewed as a social problem only with recognition of the rights of all individuals to participate in available social goods. Marginality is always relative, and marginal groups exist because central groups determine the criteria for inclusion in the marginal and central groups. Marginality thus always refers to a concrete society at a specific historical moment. Marginal groups may be of various types. At present, marginal groups include women, rural populations, people with AIDS or mental illness or certain other health conditions, refugees, ethnic or religious groups, homosexuals, and the poor, who are the largest group of marginal persons in the world. Even in developed countries, 100-200 million persons live below the poverty line. Latin America is struggling to emerge from its marginal status in the world. The economic crisis of the 1980s increased poverty in the region, and 40% are not considered impoverished. Latin America is a clear example of the relationship between marginality and health. Its epidemiologic profile is intimately related to nutrition, availability of potable water, housing, and environmental

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Single Fraction of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Compared With Single Fraction of External Beam Radiation Therapy for Palliation of Vertebral Bone Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hayeon; Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Beriwal, Sushil; Huq, M. Saiful; Smith, Kenneth J.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been proposed for the palliation of painful vertebral bone metastases because higher radiation doses may result in superior and more durable pain control. A phase III clinical trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0631) comparing single fraction SBRT with single fraction external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in palliative treatment of painful vertebral bone metastases is now ongoing. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare these strategies. Methods and Materials: A Markov model, using a 1-month cycle over a lifetime horizon, was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of SBRT (16 or 18 Gy in 1 fraction) with that of 8 Gy in 1 fraction of EBRT. Transition probabilities, quality of life utilities, and costs associated with SBRT and EBRT were captured in the model. Costs were based on Medicare reimbursement in 2014. Strategies were compared using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), and effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). To account for uncertainty, 1-way, 2-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Strategies were evaluated with a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $100,000 per QALY gained. Results: Base case pain relief after the treatment was assumed as 20% higher in SBRT. Base case treatment costs for SBRT and EBRT were $9000 and $1087, respectively. In the base case analysis, SBRT resulted in an ICER of $124,552 per QALY gained. In 1-way sensitivity analyses, results were most sensitive to variation of the utility of unrelieved pain; the utility of relieved pain after initial treatment and median survival were also sensitive to variation. If median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT cost <$100,000 per QALY gained. Conclusion: SBRT for palliation of vertebral bone metastases is not cost-effective compared with EBRT at a $100,000 per QALY gained WTP threshold. However, if median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT costs ≤$100

  2. Managing margins through physician engagement.

    PubMed

    Sears, Nicholas J

    2012-07-01

    Hospitals should take the following steps as they seek to engage physicians in an enterprisewide effort to effectively manage margins: Consider physicians' daily professional practice requirements and demands for time in balancing patient care and administrative duties. Share detailed transactional supply data with physicians to give them a behind-the-scenes look at the cost of products used for procedures. Institute physician-led management and monitoring of protocol compliance and shifts in utilization to promote clinical support for change. Select a physician champion to provide the framework for managing initiatives with targeted, efficient communication. PMID:22788036

  3. [Prostate cancer external beam radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Pommier, P; Latorzeff, I; Chapet, O; Chauvet, B; Hennequin, C

    2016-09-01

    The prostate external beam radiotherapy techniques are described, when irradiating the prostate or after prostatectomy, with and without pelvic lymph nodes. The following parts are presented: indications of radiotherapy, total dose and fractionation, planning CT image acquisition, volume of interest delineation (target volumes and organs at risk) and margins, Intensity modulated radiotherapy planning and corresponding dose-volume constraints, and finally Image guided radiotherapy. PMID:27516051

  4. Ocean margins workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the refocusing of its marine research program to emphasize the study of ocean margins and their role in modulating, controlling, and driving Global Change phenomena. This is a proposal to conduct a workshop that will establish priorities and an implementation plan for a new research initiative by the Department of Energy on the ocean margins. The workshop will be attended by about 70 scientists who specialize in ocean margin research. The workshop will be held in the Norfolk, Virginia area in late June 1990.

  5. An uncertainty analysis of air pollution externalities from road transport in Belgium in 2010.

    PubMed

    Int Panis, L; De Nocker, L; Cornelis, E; Torfs, R

    2004-12-01

    Although stricter standards for vehicles will reduce emissions to air significantly by 2010, a number of problems will remain, especially related to particulate concentrations in cities, ground-level ozone, and CO(2). To evaluate the impacts of new policy measures, tools need to be available that assess the potential benefits of these measures in terms of the vehicle fleet, fuel choice, modal choice, kilometers driven, emissions, and the impacts on public health and related external costs. The ExternE accounting framework offers the most up to date and comprehensive methodology to assess marginal external costs of energy-related pollutants. It combines emission models, air dispersion models at local and regional scales with dose-response functions and valuation rules. Vito has extended this accounting framework with data and models related to the future composition of the vehicle fleet and transportation demand to evaluate the impact of new policy proposals on air quality and aggregated (total) external costs by 2010. Special attention was given to uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty for more than 100 different parameters was combined in Monte Carlo simulations to assess the range of possible outcomes and the main drivers of these results. Although the impacts from emission standards and total fleet mileage look dominant at first, a number of other factors were found to be important as well. This includes the number of diesel vehicles, inspection and maintenance (high-emitter cars), use of air conditioning, and heavy duty transit traffic.

  6. Externalities and the Coase Theorem: A Diagrammatic Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halteman, James

    2005-01-01

    In intermediate microeconomic textbooks the reciprocal nature of externalities is presented using numerical examples of costs and benefits. This treatment of the Coase theorem obscures the fact that externality costs and benefits are best understood as being on a continuum where costs vary with the degree of intensity of the externality. When…

  7. Financial incentives for marginal oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Terzian, G.A.; Enright, J.M.; Brashear, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Congress and the Administration are considering Federal tax incentives to improve the economics of marginal oil and gas wells. The effectiveness of these will depend on the specific provisions of the incentive, primarily whether they can be used by the large percentage of marginal well operators in AMT or without taxable income. Comprehensive assessment of Federal marginal well incentives requires a methodology that accounts for the diversity of marginal production operations. This paper presents a marginal well database, model, and methodology designed specifically to assess the costs and benefits of Federal tax incentives for marginal wells. Selected results are presented, along with general conclusions about Federal marginal well tax incentives based on numerous analyses.

  8. Has Clinton made externalities extraneous

    SciTech Connect

    Haites, E.

    1993-08-01

    Over the past several years state utility regulators have become increasingly concerned with the environmental externalities associated with electricity generation. Currently, 26 states have requirements in place, although these vary considerably in scope and complexity. The vast majority apply only to the selection of new resources; the most detailed specify a monetary value for each discharge to the environment. Regulatory concern with environmental externalities stems from the desire to minimize the cost of electricity service to society. Externalities requirements focus on the residual discharges after environmental regulations are complied with. Ignoring externalities leads to inefficient use of resources and environmental damage beyond with may be called a [open quotes]socially optimal[close quotes] level of pollution. Adjusting to the cost options for environmental externalities should lead utilities to select a combination of resources that is closer to the socially optimal mix. President Bill Clinton's recent announcement that the United States will limit its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) to 1990 levels by 2000 may make externalities regulation superfluous. National limits on sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]), nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]), and CO[sub 2] emissions by utilities will likely be in effect by 2000. It will not be possible to comply with emissions limits solely through changes to the mix of resource additions, even though consideration of environmental externalities in resource addition decisions can reduce incremental emissions. Other strategies to reduce the emissions of existing generating stations, as well as new sources, will be needed.

  9. Energy margins in dynamic object manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tian; Sternad, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many tasks require humans to manipulate dynamically complex objects and maintain appropriate safety margins, such as placing a cup of coffee on a coaster without spilling. This study examined how humans learn such safety margins and how they are shaped by task constraints and changing variability with improved skill. Eighteen subjects used a manipulandum to transport a shallow virtual cup containing a ball to a target without losing the ball. Half were to complete the cup transit in a comfortable target time of 2 s (a redundant task with infinitely many equivalent solutions), and the other half in minimum time (a nonredundant task with one explicit cost to optimize). The safety margin was defined as the ball energy relative to escape, i.e., as an energy margin. The first hypothesis, that subjects converge to a single strategy in the minimum-time task but choose different strategies in the less constrained target-time task, was not supported. Both groups developed individualized strategies with practice. The second hypothesis, that subjects decrease safety margins in the minimum-time task but increase them in the target-time task, was supported. The third hypothesis, that in both tasks subjects modulate energy margins according to their execution variability, was partially supported. In the target-time group, changes in energy margins correlated positively with changes in execution variability; in the minimum-time group, such a relation was observed only at the end of practice, not across practice. These results show that when learning a redundant object manipulation task, most subjects increase their safety margins and shape their movement strategies in accordance with their changing variability. PMID:22592302

  10. Predicting service life margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    Margins are developed for equipment susceptible to malfunction due to excessive time or operation cycles, and for identifying limited life equipment so monitoring and replacing is accomplished before hardware failure. Method applies to hardware where design service is established and where reasonable expected usage prediction is made.

  11. Deep continental margin reflectors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, J.; Heirtzler, J.; Purdy, M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the rarity of such observations a decade ago, seismic reflecting and refracting horizons are now being observed to Moho depths under continental shelves in a number of places. These observations provide knowledge of the entire crustal thickness from the shoreline to the oceanic crust on passive margins and supplement Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP)-type measurements on land.

  12. Volcanic passive margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoffroy, Laurent

    2005-12-01

    Compared to non-volcanic ones, volcanic passive margins mark continental break-up over a hotter mantle, probably subject to small-scale convection. They present distinctive genetic and structural features. High-rate extension of the lithosphere is associated with catastrophic mantle melting responsible for the accretion of a thick igneous crust. Distinctive structural features of volcanic margins are syn-magmatic and continentward-dipping crustal faults accommodating the seaward flexure of the igneous crust. Volcanic margins present along-axis a magmatic and tectonic segmentation with wavelength similar to adjacent slow-spreading ridges. Their 3D organisation suggests a connection between loci of mantle melting at depths and zones of strain concentration within the lithosphere. Break-up would start and propagate from localized thermally-softened lithospheric zones. These 'soft points' could be localized over small-scale convection cells found at the bottom of the lithosphere, where adiabatic mantle melting would specifically occur. The particular structure of the brittle crust at volcanic passive margins could be interpreted by active and sudden oceanward flow of both the unstable hot mantle and the ductile part of the lithosphere during the break-up stage. To cite this article: L. Geoffroy, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  13. Marginalization and School Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julia Ann

    2004-01-01

    The concept of marginalization was first analyzed by nursing researchers Hall, Stevens, and Meleis. Although nursing literature frequently refers to this concept when addressing "at risk" groups such as the homeless, gays and lesbians, and those infected with HIV/AIDS, the concept can also be applied to nursing. Analysis of current school nursing…

  14. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  15. The Brazilian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, L. R.; Coutinho, P. N.

    1981-04-01

    The Brazilian continental margin, with its interesting morphology, structure and sediments, has become better known only during the last two decades. Six physiographical provinces can be recognized at the continental margin and the adjacent coast: (1) Cabo Orange-Parnaiba delta; (2) Parnaiba delta-Cabo Sa˜o Roque; (3) Cabo Sa˜o Roque-Belmonte; (4) Belmonte-Cabo Frio; (5) Cabo Frio-Cabo Santa Marta; and (6) Cabo Santa Marta-Chui. The shelf is rather wide near the Amazon Mouth, becoming narrower eastwards, continuing very narrow along the northeastern and eastern coast, and becoming wider again in the south towards the Plate River. Prominent morphological features along the margin are the Amazon cone, the marginal plateaus off northeastern Brazil, the Sa˜o Francisco cone and canyon, the Abrolhos Bank, and the deep-sea plateaus of Pernambuco and Sa˜o Paulo. On the shelf proper a number of relief elements exist, such as sand waves east of the Amazon, submarine terraces at various places, and irregularities of structural origin. The shelf break is rather smooth in the far north and south, more abrupt in the remainder. Surface sediments of the Brazilian shelf show five distinct facies types: littoral quartz sands, mud, transition sand-mud, coralline algae, and biodetrital. The terrigenous elastic fractions dominate off the Amazon and in southern Brazil; between these areas they occupy a very narrow strip near the coast. The carbonate facies, predominantly composed of calcareous algae, is abundant between the Parnaiba delta and Cabo Frio; to the south this facies is more biodetrital and restricted to the outer shelf. Economically important on the Brazilian continental margin besides oil, are sands and gravels, carbonate deposits, evaporites and some subsurface coal. Other possible mineral resources could be phosphate, heavy minerals and clays for ceramics.

  16. 'Marginal' BY Draconis stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Bernard W.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of 52 dK-dM stars, obtained at 640-665 nm (with spectral resolution 70-90 pm) using CCD detectors on the coude-feed telescope at KPNO since 1982, are reported. Data for four stars found to have diluted absorption or weak emission above continuum at H-alpha are presented in tables and spectra and discussed in detail. These objects (Gliese numbers 256, 425A, 900, and 907.1) are shown to be 'marginal' BY Dra stars, single objects of age 2.5-3 Gyr with activity and rotational velocity (3-5 km/s) between those of normal dM stars and those of true BY Dra stars. An explanation based on evolution from the BY Dra stage through marginal BY Dra to inactive dM is proposed.

  17. [Marginality and infant mortality].

    PubMed

    Jimenez Ornelas, R

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with differentials in infant and child mortality among low-income urban groups in Mexico. Mortality differentials within and among marginal socioeconomic groups in suburbs of Mexico City and Leon are analyzed and compared using data collected in interviews in 1980 and 1983. The results indicate that the health benefits associated with modernization, such as improved sanitation, can sometimes be offset by their negative impact on mortality, such as industrial accidents and environmental pollution.

  18. On probabilistically defined margins in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papiez, Lech; Langer, Mark

    2006-08-01

    Margins about a target volume subject to external beam radiation therapy are designed to assure that the target volume of tissue to be sterilized by treatment is adequately covered by a lethal dose. Thus, margins are meant to guarantee that all potential variation in tumour position relative to beams allows the tumour to stay within the margin. Variation in tumour position can be broken into two types of dislocations, reducible and irreducible. Reducible variations in tumour position are those that can be accommodated with the use of modern image-guided techniques that derive parameters for compensating motions of patient bodies and/or motions of beams relative to patient bodies. Irreducible variations in tumour position are those random dislocations of a target that are related to errors intrinsic in the design and performance limitations of the software and hardware, as well as limitations of human perception and decision making. Thus, margins in the era of image-guided treatments will need to accommodate only random errors residual in patient setup accuracy (after image-guided setup corrections) and in the accuracy of systems designed to track moving and deforming tissues of the targeted regions of the patient's body. Therefore, construction of these margins will have to be based on purely statistical data. The characteristics of these data have to be determined through the central limit theorem and Gaussian properties of limiting error distributions. In this paper, we show how statistically determined margins are to be designed in the general case of correlated distributions of position errors in three-dimensional space. In particular, we show how the minimal margins for a given level of statistical confidence are found. Then, how they are to be used to determine geometrically minimal PTV that provides coverage of GTV at the assumed level of statistical confidence. Our results generalize earlier recommendations for statistical, central limit theorem

  19. East Africa continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bosellini, A.

    1986-01-01

    New well data from Somalia, together with the history of sea-floor spreading in the Indian Ocean derived from magnetic anomalies, show that the East African margins from latitude 15/sup 0/S into the Gulf of Aden comprise four distinct segments that formed successively by the southward drift of Madagascar from Somalia during the Middle to Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, by the northeastward drift of India along the Owen Transform during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, and by the opening of the Gulf of Aden during the Neogene.

  20. Amphetamine margin in sports

    SciTech Connect

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1981-10-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seem clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both humans and rats. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogs of such performances have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  1. Costs and cost-minimisation analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R

    1993-09-18

    Whatever kind of economic evaluation you plan to undertake, the costs must be assessed. In health care these are first of all divided into costs borne by the NHS (like drugs), by patients and their families (like travel), and by the rest of society (like health education). Next the costs have to be valued in monetary terms; direct costs, like wages, pose little problem, but indirect costs (like time spent in hospital) have to have values imputed to them. And that is not all: costs must be further subdivided into average, marginal, and joint costs, which help decisions on how much of a service should be provided. Capital costs (investments in plant, buildings, and machinery) are also important, as are discounting and inflation. In this second article in the series Ray Robinson defines the types of costs, their measurement, and how they should be valued in monetary terms. PMID:8401098

  2. Regents External Degrees. College Proficiency Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany.

    Information on both Regents External Degrees and the College Proficiency Examination Programs for the State of New York is presented in a single catalog. Part One on the Regents External Degrees covers general information on accreditation, degrees offered, enrollment, credit, grading, status reports and transcripts, costs, counseling, and the…

  3. The Regulation of a Spatially Heterogeneous Externality: Tradable Groundwater Permits to Protect Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Brozovic, N.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater pumping from aquifers can reduce the flow of surface water in nearby streams through a process known as stream depletion. In the United States, recent awareness of this externality has led to intra- and inter-state conflict and rapidly-changing water management policies and institutions. A factor that complicates the design of groundwater management policies to protect streams is the spatial heterogeneity of the stream depletion externality; the marginal damage of groundwater use on stream flows depends crucially on the location of pumping relative to streams. Under these circumstances, economic theory predicts that spatially differentiated policies can achieve an aggregate reduction in stream depletion cost effectively. However, whether spatially differentiated policies offer significant abatement cost savings and environmental improvements over simpler, alternative policies is an empirical question. In this paper, we analyze whether adopting a spatially differentiated groundwater permit system can lead to significant savings in compliance costs while meeting targets on stream protection. Using a population data set of active groundwater wells in the Nebraska portion of the Republican River Basin, we implement an optimization model of each well owner's crop choice, land use, and irrigation decisions to determine the distribution of regulatory costs. We model the externality of pumping on streams by employing an analytical solution from the hydrology literature that determines reductions in stream flow caused by groundwater pumping over space and time. The economic and hydrologic model components are then combined into one optimization framework, which allows us to measure farmer abatement costs and stream flow benefits under a constrained optimal market that features spatially differentiated, tradable groundwater permits. We compare this outcome to the efficiency of alternative second-best policies, including spatially uniform permit markets and

  4. Serpentized mantle at rifted margins: The Goban Spur example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, A. D.; Minshull, T. A.

    2002-12-01

    The crustal structure of rifted continental margins can tell us about the processes that operated from continental extension to eventual break-up and sea floor spreading. Variations between margins may record different processes operating during extension or indicate changes in the external geological controls such as mantle plume influence. Extension between Europe and North America began in the mid Cretaceous, dated at the Goban Spur-Flemish Cap rift as late Hauterivian-early Barremian (126-128 Ma) from deep sea drilling (DSDP leg 80) results on the Goban Spur margin. Marine magnetic anomaly 34 can be identified clearly on both margins and indicates that sea floor spreading began no later than 83 Ma. Syn-rift volcanism is limited to a 20 km basaltic body, with considerable lateral extent, at the foot of the continental slope, emplaced at the end of continental rifting. \

  5. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  6. Fresh look at electric-generating reserve margins

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, E.H.

    1983-04-28

    In recent years, public attention has focused on electric-generating reserve margins as barometers of electric-power cost and service reliability. This article argues that the current definition, based on peak demand, overstates actual reserve capacity and therefore contributes to the perception that reserve margins are excessive. A new definition based on available installed capacity is proposed as a more-precise representation of the system condition. 6 figures.

  7. Ivory Coast-Ghana margin: model of a transform margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mascle, J.; Blarez, E.

    1987-05-01

    The authors present a marine study of the eastern Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margins which they consider one of the most spectacular extinct transform margins. This margin has been created during Early-Lower Cretaceous time and has not been submitted to any major geodynamic reactivation since its fabric. Based on this example, they propose to consider during the evolution of the transform margin four main and successive stages. Shearing contact is first active between two probably thick continental crusts and then between progressively thinning continental crusts. This leads to the creation of specific geological structures such as pull-apart graben, elongated fault lineaments, major fault scarps, shear folds, and marginal ridges. After the final continental breakup, a hot center (the mid-oceanic ridge axis) is progressively drifting along the newly created margin. The contact between two lithospheres of different nature should necessarily induce, by thermal exchanges, vertical crustal readjustments. Finally, the transform margin remains directly adjacent to a hot but cooling oceanic lithosphere; its subsidence behavior should then progressively be comparable to the thermal subsidence of classic rifted margins.

  8. Assessing the Costs of Adequacy in California Public Schools: A Cost Function Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imazeki, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a cost function is used to estimate the costs for California districts to meet the achievement goals set out for them by the state. I calculate estimates of base costs (i.e., per pupil costs in a district with relatively low levels of student need) and marginal costs (i.e., the additional costs associated with specific student…

  9. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  10. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  11. Marginal revenue and length of stay in inpatient psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Pletscher, Mark

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the changes in marginal revenue during psychiatric inpatient stays in a large Swiss psychiatric hospital after the introduction of a mixed reimbursement system with tariff rates that vary over length of stay. A discrete time duration model with a difference-in-difference specification and time-varying coefficients is estimated to assess variations in policy effects over length of stay. Among patients whose costs are fully reimbursed by the mixed scheme, the model demonstrates a significant effect of marginal revenue on length of stay. No significant policy effects are found among patients for whom only health insurance rates are delivered as mixed tariffs and government contributions are made retrospectively. The results indicate that marginal revenue can affect length of stay in inpatient psychiatry facilities, but that the reduction in marginal revenue must be sufficiently large.

  12. Wavelet Filtering to Reduce Conservatism in Aeroservoelastic Robust Stability Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Marty; Lind, Rick

    1998-01-01

    Wavelet analysis for filtering and system identification was used to improve the estimation of aeroservoelastic stability margins. The conservatism of the robust stability margins was reduced with parametric and nonparametric time-frequency analysis of flight data in the model validation process. Nonparametric wavelet processing of data was used to reduce the effects of external desirableness and unmodeled dynamics. Parametric estimates of modal stability were also extracted using the wavelet transform. Computation of robust stability margins for stability boundary prediction depends on uncertainty descriptions derived from the data for model validation. F-18 high Alpha Research Vehicle aeroservoelastic flight test data demonstrated improved robust stability prediction by extension of the stability boundary beyond the flight regime.

  13. Marginal seas—Terminological crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarovich, A. O.

    2011-07-01

    The terms marginal sea, peripheral sea, and backarc sea are widely used in the contemporary Russian geological literature as synonyms but do not have, in my opinion, unequivocal treatment. The application of the term marginal sea is briefly discussed. The seas of the Pacific transitional zone are reviewed. It is proposed to define a marginal sea as a marine basin a few thousand kilometers in extent and connected with the open ocean. Domains underlain by crust of the continental and oceanic types must coexist therein. The domains with oceanic crust are expressed in the topography as deepwater basins (one or several), where fragments of continental crust may also occur. A marginal sea must be bounded by at least one island arc.

  14. Cost Containment in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Culyer, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Health care cost containment is not in itself a sensible policy objective, because any assessment of the appropriateness of health care expenditure in aggregate, as of that on specific programs, requires a balancing of costs and benefits at the margin. International data on expenditures can, however, provide indications of the likely impact on costs and expenditures of structural features of health care systems. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for both European countries and a wider set are reviewed, and some current policies in Europe that are directed at controlling health care costs are outlined. PMID:10313433

  15. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  16. External radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  17. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  18. The northern Egyptian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gad; Omar, Khaled; Farid, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Africa displays a variety of continental margin structures, tectonics and sedimentary records. The northern Egyptian continental margin represents the NE portion of the North African passive continental margin. Economically, this region is of great importance as a very rich and productive hydrocarbon zone in Egypt. Moreover, it is characterized by remarkable tectonic setting accompanied by active tectonic processes from the old Tethys to recent Mediterranean. In this article, seismicity of the northern Egyptian continental margin has been re-evaluated for more than 100-years and the source parameters of three recent earthquakes (October 2012, January 2013 and July 2013) have been estimated. Moment tensor inversions of 19th October 2012 and 17th January 2013 earthquakes reveal normal faulting mechanism with strike-slip component having seismic moment of 3.5E16 N m and 4.3E15 N m respectively. The operation of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) since the end of 1997 has significantly enhanced the old picture of earthquake activity across northern Egyptian continental margin whereas; the record-ability (annual rate) has changed from 2-events/year to 54-event/year before and after ENSN respectively. The spatial distribution of earthquakes foci indicated that the activity tends to cluster at three zones: Mediterranean Ridge (MR), Nile Cone (NC) and Eratosthenes Seamount (ERS). However, two seismic gaps are reported along Levant Basin (LEV) and Herodotus Basin (HER).

  19. Seismic margin assessment of evolutionary light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff`s review of the evolutionary light water reactors (ELWR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) are drawn from 10 CFR Part 52, the Commission`s Severe Reactor Accident Policy Statement regarding future designs and existing plants, the Commission`s Safety Goal Policy Statement, The Commission approved positions concerning the analyses of external and events contained in SECY-93-087, and NRC interest in the use of PRA to help improve future reactor designs. In general, these objectives have been achieved by the ELWR PRAs and the NRC staff`s review. The staff`s applicable regulation for the analysis of external events for the ELWR PRAs is as follows. The probabilistic risk assessment required by 10 CFR 52.47(a)(1)(v) must include an assessment of internal and external events. For external events, simplified probabilistic methods and margins methods may be used to assess the capacity of the standard design to withstand the effects of events such as fires and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic techniques should be used to evaluate internal floods. For earthquakes, a seismic margin analysis must consider the effects of earthquakes with accelerations approximately one and two-thirds the acceleration of the safe-shutdown earthquake (SSE).

  20. Disability and marginal utility of income: evidence from hypothetical choices.

    PubMed

    Tengstam, Sven

    2014-03-01

    It is often assumed that disability reduces the marginal utility of income. In this article, individuals' marginal utility of income in two states-(i) paralyzed in both legs from birth and (ii) not mobility impaired at all-is measured through hypothetical choices between imagined lotteries behind a so-called veil of ignorance. The outcomes of the lotteries include both income and disability status. It is found that most people have higher marginal utility when paralyzed than when not mobility impaired at all. The two marginal utilities are evaluated at the same levels of income. Having personal experience of mobility impairment and supporting the Left Party, the Social Democratic Party, the Green Party, or the Liberal Party are associated with having a higher marginal utility when paralyzed. The results suggest that more than full insurance of income losses connected to being disabled is optimal. The results further suggest that, given a utilitarian social welfare function, resources should be transferred to rather than from disabled people. Finally, if the transfers are not large enough to smooth out the marginal utilities of the disabled and the nondisabled, distributional weights based on disability status should be used in cost-benefit analysis.

  1. Marginal Cost Pricing and Efficient Provision of Public Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Steven E.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of supply and demand functions for public campground recreation indicated that the estimated equilibrium price was considerably below the current price and that social welfare can be increased by charging the equilibrium price. Shifting to the equilibrium price had significantly negative revenue effects on the recreation-providing agency.…

  2. External approach to rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  3. External Cargo Integration Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gueera, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the system integration efforts for external cargo for the International Space Station (ISS). The role and responsibility of the External Carriers Ofice is reviewed. The presentation also reviews the application of the office to the Commercial Cargo Services contract.

  4. The Equal Marginal Value Principle: A Graphical Analysis with Environmental Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Andrew J.

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that the equal marginal value principle may not be optimal in the analysis of the cost-effectiveness of policies to reduce auto emissions, the economics of garbage disposal, and the economics of pollution abatement. Argues that examining these exceptions can help students understand the equal marginal value principle. (MJP)

  5. Engine Development Design Margins Briefing Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    New engines experience durability problems after entering service. The most prevalent and costly is the hot section, particularly the high-pressure turbine. The origin of durability problems can be traced back to: 1) the basic aero-mechanical design systems, assumptions, and design margins used by the engine designers, 2) the available materials systems, and 3) to a large extent, aggressive marketing in a highly competitive environment that pushes engine components beyond the demonstrated capability of the basic technology available for the hardware designs. Unfortunately the user must operate the engine in the service environment in order to learn the actual thrust loading and the time at max effort take-off conditions used in service are needed to determine the hot section life. Several hundred thousand hours of operational service will be required before the demonstrated reliability of a fleet of engines or the design deficiencies of the engine hot section parts can be determined. Also, it may take three to four engine shop visits for heavy maintenance on the gas path hardware to establish cost effective build standards. Spare parts drive the oerator's engine maintenance costs but spare parts also makes lots of money for the engine manufacturer during the service life of an engine. Unless competition prevails for follow-on engine buys, there is really no motivation for an OEM to spend internal money to improve parts durability and reduce earnings derived from a lucrative spare parts business. If the hot section life is below design goals or promised values, the OEM migh argue that the engine is being operated beyond its basic design intent. On the other hand, the airframer and the operator will continue to remind the OEM that his engine was selected based on a lot of promises to deliver spec thrust with little impact on engine service life if higher thrust is used intermittently. In the end, a standoff prevails and nothing gets fixed. This briefing will propose

  6. 12 CFR 220.4 - Margin account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Margin account. 220.4 Section 220.4 Banks and... BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.4 Margin account. (a) Margin transactions. (1) All transactions not specifically authorized for inclusion in another account shall be recorded in the margin...

  7. 12 CFR 220.4 - Margin account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Margin account. 220.4 Section 220.4 Banks and... BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.4 Margin account. (a) Margin transactions. (1) All transactions not specifically authorized for inclusion in another account shall be recorded in the margin...

  8. Stability margins for Hurwitz polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapellat, Herve; Bhattacharyya, S. P.; Keel, L. H.

    1988-01-01

    The authors treat the robust stability issue using the characteristic polynomial, for two different cases: first in coefficient space with respect to perturbations in the coefficient of the characteristic polynomial; and then for a control system containing perturbed parameters in the transfer function description of the plant. In coefficient space, a simple expression is first given for the l-(squared) stability margin for both the monic and nonmonic cases. Following this, a method is given to find the l(infinity) margin, and the method is extended to reveal much larger stability regions. In parameter space the authors consider all single-input (multi-output) or single-output (multi-input) systems with a fixed controller and a plant described by a set of transfer functions which are ratios of polynomials with variable coefficients. A procedure is presented to calculate the radius of the largest stability ball in the space of these variable parameters. The calculation serves as a stability margin for the control system. The formulas that result are quasi-closed-form expressions for the stability margin and are computationally efficient.

  9. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  10. Estimating externalities of biomass fuel cycles, Report 7

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of the biomass fuel cycle, in which biomass is combusted to produce electricity. The major objectives of this study were: (1) to implement the methodological concepts which were developed in the Background Document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles, and by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the biomass fuel cycle; (2) to develop, given the time and resources, a range of estimates of marginal (i.e., the additional or incremental) damages and benefits associated with selected impact-pathways from a new wood-fired power plant, using a representative benchmark technology, at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information available to support energy decision making and the estimation of externalities, and by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The demonstration of methods, modeling procedures, and use of scientific information was the most important objective of this study. It provides an illustrative example for those who will, in the future, undertake studies of actual energy options and sites. As in most studies, a more comprehensive analysis could have been completed had budget constraints not been as severe. Particularly affected were the air and water transport modeling, estimation of ecological impacts, and economic valuation. However, the most important objective of the study was to demonstrate methods, as a detailed example for future studies. Thus, having severe budget constraints was appropriate from the standpoint that these studies could also face similar constraints. Consequently, an important result of this study is an indication of what can be done in such studies, rather than the specific numerical estimates themselves.

  11. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  12. Metabolic Cost of Lateral Stabilization during Walking in People with Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, J.H.; Wu, M.; Gordon, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    People with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) expend considerable energy to walk, which can lead to rapid fatigue and limit community ambulation. Selecting locomotor patterns that enhance lateral stability may contribute to this population’s elevated cost of transport. The goal of the current study was to quantify the metabolic energy demands of maintaining lateral stability during gait in people with iSCI. To quantify this metabolic cost, we observed ten individuals with iSCI walking with and without external lateral stabilization. We hypothesized that with external lateral stabilization, people with iSCI would adapt their gait by decreasing step width, which would correspond with a substantial decrease in cost of transport. Our findings support this hypothesis. Subjects significantly (p < 0.05) decreased step width by 22%, step width variability by 18%, and minimum lateral margin of stability by 25% when they walked with external lateral stabilization compared to unassisted walking. Metabolic cost of transport also decreased significantly (p < 0.05) by 10% with external lateral stabilization. These findings suggest that this population is capable of adapting their gait to meet changing demands placed on balance. The percent reduction in cost of transport when walking with external lateral stabilization was strongly correlated with functional impairment level as assessed by subjects’ scores on the Berg Balance Scale (R = 0.778) and Lower Extremity Motor Score (R = 0.728). These relationships suggest that as functional balance and strength decrease, the amount of metabolic energy used to maintain lateral stability during gait will increase. PMID:25670651

  13. Metabolic cost of lateral stabilization during walking in people with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, J H; Wu, M; Gordon, K E

    2015-02-01

    People with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) expend considerable energy to walk, which can lead to rapid fatigue and limit community ambulation. Selecting locomotor patterns that enhance lateral stability may contribute to this population's elevated cost of transport. The goal of the current study was to quantify the metabolic energy demands of maintaining lateral stability during gait in people with iSCI. To quantify this metabolic cost, we observed ten individuals with iSCI walking with and without external lateral stabilization. We hypothesized that with external lateral stabilization, people with iSCI would adapt their gait by decreasing step width, which would correspond with a substantial decrease in cost of transport. Our findings support this hypothesis. Subjects significantly (p<0.05) decreased step width by 22%, step width variability by 18%, and minimum lateral margin of stability by 25% when they walked with external lateral stabilization compared to unassisted walking. Metabolic cost of transport also decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 10% with external lateral stabilization. These findings suggest that this population is capable of adapting their gait to meet changing demands placed on balance. The percent reduction in cost of transport when walking with external lateral stabilization was strongly correlated with functional impairment level as assessed by subjects' scores on the Berg Balance Scale (r=0.778) and lower extremity motor score (r=0.728). These relationships suggest that as functional balance and strength decrease, the amount of metabolic energy used to maintain lateral stability during gait will increase.

  14. Complications of the external (combination) rhinoplasty approach.

    PubMed

    Burgess, L P; Everton, D M; Quilligan, J J; Charles, G; Lepore, M L; Van Sant, T E; Yim, D W

    1986-10-01

    More rhinoplastic surgeons are using the external (combination) rhinoplasty approach for selected patients. Although several large series report few complications, the initial experience of newcomers may be different. A series of 26 external rhinoplasty approaches was examined, representing the initial experience of supervised residents. The most common complication was incising the anterior margin of the lower lateral cartilage at the juncture of the lateral and medial crura. To prevent this problem, it is recommended that the skin be elevated off the lower lateral cartilages from both a medial direction up over the domes and a lateral direction downward. To repair this complication, a figure-of-eight suture is used to reapproximate the incision.

  15. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  16. Population growth and the benefits from optimally priced externalities.

    PubMed

    Clarke, H R; Ng Y-k

    1995-06-01

    "In this article we show that, considering only economic effects, even if population growth, by natural increase or immigration, increases congestion, pollution, and other forms of external costs, that provided pre-existing citizens own the resources giving rise to the externalities, and provided they efficiently price usage of such, that existing citizens must, in net average terms, be better off with population growth than without it. In simple terms the increased revenues they gain from efficient pricing at increased demand levels will be strictly greater than the monetary value of the increased external costs together with the higher tax costs they incur as consumers of the resources." PMID:12347617

  17. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  18. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-08-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.

  19. Structural design/margin assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    Determining structural design inputs and the structural margins following design completion is one of the major activities in space exploration. The end result is a statement of these margins as stability, safety factors on ultimate and yield stresses, fracture limits (fracture control), fatigue lifetime, reuse criteria, operational criteria and procedures, stability factors, deflections, clearance, handling criteria, etc. The process is normally called a load cycle and is time consuming, very complex, and involves much more than structures. The key to successful structural design is the proper implementation of the process. It depends on many factors: leadership and management of the process, adequate analysis and testing tools, data basing, communications, people skills, and training. This process and the various factors involved are discussed.

  20. [Marginality, ethnic groups and health].

    PubMed

    Corretger, J M; Fortuny, C; Botet, F; Valls, O

    1992-06-01

    Main marginated ethnic groups in Span are to be found among gypsies and 3rd world immigrants. The first group include about 250,000 persons and the second group more tan half a million people. Their origins and their being past of the less fortunate social layers made them a group of health risk. Pediatric pathologies are those favored by socio-economic shortcomings as well as hygienic-sanitary deficiencies. Imported pediatric pathologies have a small incident.

  1. Tectonic heritage and intra-crustal decoupling: consequences for inversion of a passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, E. B.; Duretz, T.; Bellahsen, N.; Le Pourhiet, L.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the consequences of tectonic heritage and rheological structure on the style and evolution of collision process resulting from inversion of rifted margins. Recent studies of structure and evolution of passive margins have led to significant reconsideration of conceptual models of margin evolution, specifically regarding the concepts of proximal inversion during the post-rift collision. For example, for a number of margins, it has been shown that the crust very locally thins in the vicinity of the continent-ocean transition, from about 30 km to a few km in thickness, along a very short distance. This observation has been interpreted as the result of large crustal detachments that result in thinning of the medium and lower crusts, or as the result of a particular sequence of activity of steep faults. This localization of deformation occurs after a period of distributed rifting during which forms the proximal margin, and follows a phase of exhumation of the mantle to the surface. It seems clear that the burial (during the collision) of such complex margins must necessarily differ from that of margins which structure would be more continuous. We implement a parametric thermo-mechanical numerical study of the role of geometry and of the inherited structure of the inverted margins in the subduction-collision transition. In the experiments, we first form a margin by applying passive extension to continental lithosphere of different structure. After the margin is formed, we apply compression allowing for different periods of relaxation. The experiments demonstrate strong dependence of the developing collision style on the initial thermo-rheological structure and geometry of the margin and on the delay between the extension and compression phase. The resulting collision modes vary from subduction of the continental margin to pure shear thickening and, in some cases, to obduction of the oceanized lithosphere. Our experiments also treated as a particular case

  2. Tectonic heritage and intra-crustal decoupling: consequences for inversion of a passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Evgueni; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Mezri, Leila; Duretz, Thibault; Bellahsen, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the consequences of tectonic heritage and rheological structure on the style and evolution of collision process resulting from inversion of rifted margins. Recent studies of structure and evolution of passive margins have led to significant reconsideration of conceptual models of margin evolution, specifically regarding the concepts of proximal inversion during the post-rift collision. For example, for a number of margins, it has been shown that the crust very locally thins in the vicinity of the continent-ocean transition, from about 30 km to a few km in thickness, along a very short distance. This observation has been interpreted as the result of large crustal detachments that result in thinning of the medium and lower crusts, or as the result of a particular sequence of activity of steep faults. This localization of deformation occurs after a period of distributed rifting during which forms the proximal margin, and follows a phase of exhumation of the mantle to the surface. It seems clear that the burial (during the collision) of such complex margins must necessarily differ from that of margins which structure would be more continuous. We implement a parametric thermo-mechanical numerical study of the role of geometry and of the inherited structure of the inverted margins in the subduction-collision transition. In the experiments, we first form a margin by applying passive extension to continental lithosphere of different structure. After the margin is formed, we apply compression allowing for different periods of relaxation. The experiments demonstrate strong dependence of the developing collision style on the initial thermo-rheological structure and geometry of the margin and on the delay between the extension and compression phase. The resulting collision modes vary from subduction of the continental margin to pure shear thickening and, in some cases, to obduction of the oceanized lithosphere. Our experiments also treated as a particular case

  3. The Role of Advocacy Organizations in Reducing Negative Externalities

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An externality is a cost that a corporation’s actions impose on society. For example, a power plant may emit mercury, but might not pay for the cost of that pollution to the people living near the plant. It is possible to analyze a diverse range of problems of society in these terms, including the health effects of corporate practices, the unsustainability of manufacturing processes, and marketing of products contributing to environmental damage, and economic policies that maintain high levels of poverty due to effective lobbying by the business community. This paper examines the problem of externalities in terms of metacontingencies. Externalities continue precisely because there is no cost to the organizations for practices that impose these costs on third parties. The paper describes the cultural practices needed to influence governments are motivated to make corporations bear the true costs of their practices—costs that are currently imposed on others. PMID:20011073

  4. Implications of environmental externalities assessments for solar thermal powerplants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, A. D.; Baechler, M. C.

    1991-03-01

    Externalities are those impacts of one activity on other activities that are not priced in the marketplace. An externality is said to exist when two conditions hold: (1) the utility or operations of one economic agent, A, include nonmonetary variables whose values are chosen by another economic agent, B, without regard to the effects on A, and (2) B does not pay A compensation equal to the incremental costs inflicted on A. Electricity generation involves a wide range of potential and actual environmental impacts. Legislative, permitting, and regulatory requirements directly or indirectly control certain environmental impacts, implicitly causing them to become internalized in the cost of electricity generation. Electricity generation, however, often produces residual environmental impacts that meet the definition of an externality. Mechanisms have been developed by several states to include the costs associated with externalities in the cost-effectiveness analyses of new powerplants. This paper examines these costs for solar thermal plants and applies two states' scoring methodologies to estimate how including externalities would affect the levelized costs of power from a solar plant in the Pacific Northwest. It concludes that including externalities in the economics can reduce the difference between the levelized cost of a coal and solar plant by between 0.74 and 2.42 cents/kWh.

  5. Transition from a passive continental margin to an active margin documented by time-facies profiles and geohistory diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Kenter, J.A.M.; Reymer, J.J.G.; van der Straaten, H.C.

    1988-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous to Neogene sediments in the northern part of the external zone of the Betic Cordilleras (southeast Spain) reflect the evolution of a passive continental margin into an active margin. Time-facies profiles and geohistory diagrams were constructed to identify and date tectonic events and sea level changes in the sedimentary record. During Late Cretaceous to middle Eocene time, parallel-trending shallow marine facies belts at the edge of a slowly subsiding basin evidence a passive continental margin setting. The period from middle Eocene to early Miocene is rather poorly documented. After initial shallowing the whole area emerged and continental conditions prevailed from the late Eocene to early Miocene. The subareal exposure may have been caused by the compound effect of the worldwide Oligocene sea level drop and overall tectonic uplift. Miocene sediments reflect the compressional tectonic regime of an active margin. The parallel facies belts were disrupted and the area was segmented into several tectonic blocks, each displaying an individual sedimentary record due to differential vertical movement. During middle to late Miocene time a major compressional phase generated northeast-trending folds and activated strike-slip and thrust faults. This tectonic phase led to a highly differentiated topography, resulting in the development of local depocenters - each with a unique tectonic and depositional record.

  6. Metasurface external cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luyao; Curwen, Christopher A.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Itoh, Tatsuo; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2015-11-01

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  7. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  8. Health insurance and the obesity externality.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Sood, Neeraj

    2007-01-01

    If rational individuals pay the full costs of their decisions about food intake and exercise, economists, policy makers, and public health officials should treat the obesity epidemic as a matter of indifference. In this paper, we show that, as long as insurance premiums are not risk rated for obesity, health insurance coverage systematically shields those covered from the full costs of physical inactivity and overeating. Since the obese consume significantly more medical resources than the non-obese, but pay the same health insurance premiums, they impose a negative externality on normal weight individuals in their insurance pool. To estimate the size of this externality, we develop a model of weight loss and health insurance under two regimes--(1) underwriting on weight is allowed and (2) underwriting on weight is not allowed. We show that under regime (1), there is no obesity externality. Under regime (2), where there is an obesity externality, all plan participants face inefficient incentives to undertake unpleasant dieting and exercise. These reduced incentives lead to inefficient increases in bodyweight, and reduced social welfare. Using data on medical expenditures and bodyweight from the National Health and Interview Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we estimate that, in a health plan with a coinsurance rate of 17.5%, the obesity externality imposes a welfare cost of about $150 per capita. Our results also indicate that the welfare loss can be reduced by technological change that lowers the pecuniary and non-pecuniary costs of losing weight, and also by increasing the coinsurance rate.

  9. Effective cost modeling for service line planning.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michael; Stephen, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Healthcare executives have struggled to have accurate, timely information about cost and resources to model and monitor service line performance. Process-based cost modeling has been used successfully in other industries, but is relatively new in health care. Understanding costs and resources at process and patient levels can make the difference between a service line having a positive or negative margin. PMID:20446426

  10. Silenced, Silence, Silent: Motherhood in the Margins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Lorelei; Austin, Helena

    2007-01-01

    This project explores the experiences of women who mother children with ADHD. The authors use the metaphor of the text and the margin. The text is the "motherhood myth" that describes a particular sort of "good" mothering. The margin is the space beyond that text. This marginal space is inhabited by some or all of the mothers they spoke with, some…

  11. 12 CFR 220.4 - Margin account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Margin account. 220.4 Section 220.4 Banks and...) CREDIT BY BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.4 Margin account. (a) Margin transactions. (1) All transactions not specifically authorized for inclusion in another account shall be recorded in the...

  12. 12 CFR 220.4 - Margin account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Margin account. 220.4 Section 220.4 Banks and...) CREDIT BY BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.4 Margin account. (a) Margin transactions. (1) All transactions not specifically authorized for inclusion in another account shall be recorded in the...

  13. Diminishing Marginal Utility in Economics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmer, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Many introductory microeconomics textbook authors derive the law of demand from the assumption of diminishing marginal utility. Authors of intermediate and graduate textbooks derive demand from diminishing marginal rate of substitution and ordinal preferences. These approaches are not interchangeable; diminishing marginal utility for all goods is…

  14. Literature: External Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by understanding its recurring external forms or genres, and includes (1) an overview describing the four literary genres of drama, narrative poetry, narrative fiction, and lyric poetry…

  15. External Environmental Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Joel D.

    Representing current viewpoints of academics, futures experts, and social observers, this external environmental forecast presents projections and information of particular relevance to the future of Catonsville Community College. The following topics are examined: (1) population changes and implications for higher education; (2) state and local…

  16. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drops, keeping water out of the ear, and pain relievers are the most common forms of treatment. External otitis may involve the entire canal, as ... does not allow fungus to grow as well. Treatment of boils depends on ... relievers, such as oxycodone with acetaminophen , can be given ...

  17. Determination of pyrotechnic functional margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1993-01-01

    Following the failure of a previously qualified pyrotechnically actuated pin puller design, an investigation led to a redesign and requalification. The emphasis of the second qualification was placed on determining the functional margin of the pin puller by comparing the energy deliverable by the pyrotechnic cartridge to the energy required to accomplish the function. Also determined were the effects of functional variables. This paper describes the failure investigation, the test methods employed and the results of the evaluation, and provides a recommended approach to assure the successful functioning of pyrotechnic devices.

  18. Three-dimensional marginal separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    The three dimensional marginal separation of a boundary layer along a line of symmetry is considered. The key equation governing the displacement function is derived, and found to be a nonlinear integral equation in two space variables. This is solved iteratively using a pseudo-spectral approach, based partly in double Fourier space, and partly in physical space. Qualitatively, the results are similar to previously reported two dimensional results (which are also computed to test the accuracy of the numerical scheme); however quantitatively the three dimensional results are much different.

  19. Continental margin tectonics - Forearc processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, N.; Reed, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies of convergent plate margins and the structural development of forearc terranes are summarized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the geometry of accretionary prisms (Coulomb wedge taper and vertical motion in response to tectonic processes), offscraping vs underplating or subduction, the response to oblique convergence, fluids in forearc settings, the thermal framework and the effects of fluid advection, and serpentinite seamounts. Also included is a comprehensive bibliography for the period.

  20. The importance of accurate experimental data to marginal field development

    SciTech Connect

    Overa, S.J.; Lingelem, M.N.

    1997-12-31

    Since exploration started in the Norwegian North Sea in 1965 a total of 196 fields have been discovered. Less than one-third of these fields have been developed. The marginal fields can not be developed economically with current technology even though some of those fields have significant reserves. The total cost to develop one of those large installations is estimated to be 2--5 billion US dollars. Therefore new technology is needed to lower the designed and installed costs of each unit. The need for new physical property data is shown. The value of valid operating data from present units is also pointed out.

  1. Costs and cost-effectiveness of periviable care.

    PubMed

    Caughey, Aaron B; Burchfield, David J

    2014-02-01

    With increasing concerns regarding rapidly expanding healthcare costs, cost-effectiveness analysis allows assessment of whether marginal gains from new technology are worth the increased costs. Particular methodologic issues related to cost and cost-effectiveness analysis in the area of neonatal and periviable care include how costs are estimated, such as the use of charges and whether long-term costs are included; the challenges of measuring utilities; and whether to use a maternal, neonatal, or dual perspective in such analyses. A number of studies over the past three decades have examined the costs and the cost-effectiveness of neonatal and periviable care. Broadly, while neonatal care is costly, it is also cost effective as it produces both life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). However, as the gestational age of the neonate decreases, the costs increase and the cost-effectiveness threshold is harder to achieve. In the periviable range of gestational age (22-24 weeks of gestation), whether the care is cost effective is questionable and is dependent on the perspective. Understanding the methodology and salient issues of cost-effectiveness analysis is critical for researchers, editors, and clinicians to accurately interpret results of the growing body of cost-effectiveness studies related to the care of periviable pregnancies and neonates.

  2. Estimating the Cost of Standardized Student Testing in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes and contrasts different methods of estimating costs of standardized testing. Using a cost-accounting approach, compares gross and marginal costs and considers testing objects (test materials and services, personnel and student time, and administrative/building overhead). Social marginal costs of replacing existing tests with a national…

  3. Dynamics of the continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    On 18--20 June 1990, over 70 oceanographers conducting research in the ocean margins of North America attended a workshop in Virginia Beach, Virginia. The purpose of the workshop was to provide the Department of Energy with recommendations for future research on the exchange of energy-related materials between the coastal and interior ocean and the relationship between the ocean margins and global change. The workshop was designed to optimize the interaction of scientists from specific research disciplines (biology, chemistry, physics and geology) as they developed hypotheses, research questions and topics and implementation plans. The participants were given few restraints on the research they proposed other than realistic time and monetary limits. The interdisciplinary structure of the meeting promoted lively discussion and creative research plans. The meeting was divided into four working groups based on lateral, vertical, air/sea and sediment/water processes. Working papers were prepared and distributed before the meeting. During the meeting the groups revised the papers and added recommendations that appear in this report, which was reviewed by an Executive Committee.

  4. Westward intensification in marginal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengxin; Xue, Huijie

    2014-03-01

    An idealized model was used to examine why the strong western boundary current (WBC) is observed in the South China Sea (SCS) but not in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and Japan/East Sea (JES). Results suggested that the stronger WBC in the SCS is mainly attributed to the direct contribution of the inflow and the strong monsoon. Although the Gulf Stream transports a large amount of water into the GOM, the passage in the southeast corner guides the inflow out of the gulf and inhibits the inflow from intensifying the WBC. Meanwhile, the wind stress in the GOM is weakest among the three marginal seas. The meridional ocean ridge and the particular layout of the continental slope of JES prevent the whole basin from participating in the westward intensification. Besides, the throughflow has adverse effects on the formulation of WBC in JES. The variation of Coriolis parameter with latitude leads to the westward intensification in marginal seas. However, a strong WBC cannot be observed in the absence of reasonable collocation of wind, inflow, and topography.

  5. Control of External Kink Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, Gerald

    2004-11-01

    A fundamental pressure and current limiting phenomenon in magnetically confined plasmas for fusion energy is the long wavelength ideal-MHD kink mode. These modes have been extensively studied in tokamak and reversed field pinch (RFP) devices. They are characterized by significant amplitude on the boundary of the confined plasma and can therefore be controlled by manipulation of the external boundary conditions. In the past ten years, the theoretically predicted stabilizing effect of a nearby conducting wall has been documented in experiments, which opens the possibility of a significant increase in maximum stable plasma pressure. While these modes are predicted to remain unstable when the stabilizing wall is resistive, their growth rates are greatly reduced from the hydrodynamic time scale to the time scale of magnetic diffusion through the resistive wall. These resistive wall slowed kink modes have been identified as limiting phenomena in tokamak (DIII-D, PBX-M, HBT-EP, JT-60U, JET, NSTX) and RFP (HBTX, Extrap, T2R) devices. The theoretical prediction of stabilization to nearly the ideal wall pressure limit by toroidal plasma rotation and/or active feedback control using coils has recently been realized experimentally. Sustained, stable operation at double the no-wall pressure limit has been achieved. Discovery of the phenomenon of resonant field amplification by marginally stable kink modes and its role in the momentum balance of rotationally stabilized plasmas has emerged as a key feature. A theoretical framework, based on an extension of the very successful treatment of the n=0 axisymmetric mode developed in the early 1990's, to understand the stabilization mechanisms and model the performance of active feedback control systems is now established. This allows design of kink control systems for burning plasma experiments like ITER.

  6. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  7. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  8. Externally triggered microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  9. Organizational Costs of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, David E.

    1986-01-01

    Working women were surveyed regarding their probable initial reactions to different forms of sexual harassment. Many indicated they would either quit their jobs or report sexual harassment to external authorities. Discusses organizational costs of sexual harassment, ways of preventing such costs, and implications for employment counselors.…

  10. Offshore Benin, a classic passive margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mathalone, J.M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    Offshore Benin comprises a narrow east-west continental shelf, some 30 km wide. A sharp shelf break running parallel to the coast borders the shelf, whereupon water depths rapidly increase to over 7000 ft. The area lies within the Dahomey Embayment, one of a series of Cretaceous and younger basins lining the coast of Africa that owe their inception to the Late Mesozoic break-up of the Gondwanaland Continent. The basin extends some 100 km inland, but sedimentary section is thin onshore compared to a maximum of 20,000 ft of sediment offshore. Initial sedimentation in this basin was of Neocomian alluvial and lacustrine clastics. These were deposited in east-west-trending narrow half-grabens associated with the initial break up of the South American and African continents. They are covered unconformably by more extensive Albian and Cenomanian transgressive clastics and shallow marine Turonian sandstones which are the main reservoir at Seme, Benin's only oilfield. The Senonian section offshore comprises passive margin deep sea clastic sediments prograding southwards. Very large proximal deep sea channels up to 2500 ft thick are developed in this interval. These channels are associated with excellent petroleum source rocks, averaging 4-5% oil-prone organic carbon, and form the main exploration target in the area when configured in a trap morphology. Seismic data quality is excellent in the region allowing detailed examination of the relationships between the rifted section and later units. In addition, these data illustrate clearly both internal and external morphology of the Senonian proximal deep sea channels.

  11. The path to cost transformation.

    PubMed

    Hill-Mischel, Jody; Morrissey, Walter W; Neese, Kimberly; Shoger, Timothy R

    2016-06-01

    A healthcare organization's efforts to strategically transform its cost structure in preparation for value-based payment invariably must begin with a systemwide assessment of cost and quality. Such an assessment should focus on three categories of performance improvement activities: margin improvement, business restructuring, and clinical transformation. A work-team approach is recommended, where teams with multidisciplinary representation assume responsibility for assessing specific areas (e.g., acute care enterprise, physician enterprise, business restructuring). PMID:27451567

  12. The Role of Advocacy Organizations in Reducing Negative Externalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglan, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An externality is a cost that a corporation's actions impose on society. For example, a power plant may emit mercury but might not pay for the cost of that pollution to the people living near the plant. It is possible to analyze a diverse range of problems of society in these terms, including the health effects of corporate practices, the…

  13. Inventory-driven costs.

    PubMed

    Callioni, Gianpaolo; de Montgros, Xavier; Slagmulder, Regine; Van Wassenhove, Luk N; Wright, Linda

    2005-03-01

    In the 199os, Hewlett-Packard's PC business was struggling to turn a dollar, despite the company's success in winning market share. By 1997, margins on its PCs were as thin as a silicon wafer, and some product lines hadn't turned a profit since 1993. The problem had everything to do with the PC industry's notoriously short product cycles and brutal product and component price deflation. A common rule of thumb was that the value of a fully assembled PC decreased 1% a week. In such an environment, inventory costs become critical. But not just the inventory costs companies traditionally track, HP found, after a thorough review of the problem. The standard "holding cost of inventory"--the capital and physical costs of inventory--accounted for only about 10% of HP's inventory costs. The greater risks, it turned out, resided in four other, essentially hidden costs, which stemmed from mismatches between demand and supply: Component devaluation costs for components still held in production; Price protection costs incurred when product prices drop on the goods distributors still have on their shelves; Product return costs that have to be absorbed when distributors return and receive refunds on overstock items, and; Obsolescence costs for products still unsold when new models are introduced. By developing metrics to track those costs in a consistent way throughout the PC division, HP has found it can manage its supply chains with much more sophistication. Gone are the days of across-the-board measures such as,"Everyone must cut inventories by 20% by the end of the year," which usually resulted in a flurry of cookie-cutter lean production and just-in-time initiatives. Now, each product group is free to choose the supply chain configuration that best suits its needs. Other companies can follow HP's example.

  14. Margins for cervical and vulvar cancer.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Namita; Rauh, Lisa A; Lachiewicz, Mark P; Horowitz, Ira R

    2016-03-01

    Surgery is the primary treatment for vulvar cancer as well as early-stage carcinoma of the cervix. This article reviews the significance of margin status after surgery on overall survival, need for further surgical intervention, and role for possible adjuvant therapy. It summarizes the abundant literature on margin status in vulvar cancer and highlights the need for further investigation on the prognostic significance of margins in cervical cancer. In addition, it reviews other important operative considerations.

  15. External split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  16. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  17. On the Marginal Stability of Glassy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Le; Baity-Jesi, Marco; Müller, Markus; Wyart, Matthieu

    2015-03-01

    In various glassy systems that are out of equilibrium, like spin glasses and granular packings, the dynamics appears to be critical: avalanches involving almost the whole system could happen. A recent conceptual breakthrough argues that such glassy systems sample the ensemble of marginal stable states, which inevitably results into critical dynamics. However, it is unclear how the marginal stability is dynamically guaranteed. We investigate this marginal stability assumption by studying specifically the critical athermal dynamics of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model. We discuss how a pseudo-gap in the density distribution of local fields characterizing the marginal stability arises dynamically.

  18. [Resection margins in conservative breast cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Medina Fernández, Francisco Javier; Ayllón Terán, María Dolores; Lombardo Galera, María Sagrario; Rioja Torres, Pilar; Bascuñana Estudillo, Guillermo; Rufián Peña, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    Conservative breast cancer surgery is facing a new problem: the potential tumour involvement of resection margins. This eventuality has been closely and negatively associated with disease-free survival. Various factors may influence the likelihood of margins being affected, mostly related to the characteristics of the tumour, patient or surgical technique. In the last decade, many studies have attempted to find predictive factors for margin involvement. However, it is currently the new techniques used in the study of margins and tumour localisation that are significantly reducing reoperations in conservative breast cancer surgery.

  19. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Ultralow noise miniature external cavity semiconductor laser

    PubMed Central

    Liang, W.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Eliyahu, D.; Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced applications in optical metrology demand improved lasers with high spectral purity, in form factors that are small and insensitive to environmental perturbations. While laboratory-scale lasers with extraordinarily high stability and low noise have been reported, all-integrated chip-scale devices with sub-100 Hz linewidth have not been previously demonstrated. Lasers integrated with optical microresonators as external cavities have the potential for substantial reduction of noise. However, stability and spectral purity improvements of these lasers have only been validated with rack-mounted support equipment, assembled with fibre lasers to marginally improve their noise performance. In this work we report on a realization of a heterogeneously integrated, chip-scale semiconductor laser featuring 30-Hz integral linewidth as well as sub-Hz instantaneous linewidth. PMID:26104321

  1. Ultralow noise miniature external cavity semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Eliyahu, D.; Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    2015-06-01

    Advanced applications in optical metrology demand improved lasers with high spectral purity, in form factors that are small and insensitive to environmental perturbations. While laboratory-scale lasers with extraordinarily high stability and low noise have been reported, all-integrated chip-scale devices with sub-100 Hz linewidth have not been previously demonstrated. Lasers integrated with optical microresonators as external cavities have the potential for substantial reduction of noise. However, stability and spectral purity improvements of these lasers have only been validated with rack-mounted support equipment, assembled with fibre lasers to marginally improve their noise performance. In this work we report on a realization of a heterogeneously integrated, chip-scale semiconductor laser featuring 30-Hz integral linewidth as well as sub-Hz instantaneous linewidth.

  2. Anti-angiogenic agent ramucirumab: meaningful or marginal?

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Roopma; Elimova, Elena; Shiozaki, Hironori; Sudo, Kazuki; Blum, Mariela A; Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Chen, Qiongrong; Song, Shumei; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2014-04-01

    Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B) targets VEGFR-2. Ramucirumab is being investigated in many malignancies including gastric cancer. The Phase III trial in patients with advanced breast cancer failed to improve the primary end point The REGARD trial, a Phase III study, in patients with advanced gastric cancer in the second line setting, had a marginal improvement in overall survival but did not achieve the expected hazard ratio target (of 0.69) and the median duration of therapy with ramucirumab was meager 8 weeks (only 2 weeks longer than the placebo's). Other notable agents in the second line setting are docetaxel and irinotecan. Preliminary results of the RAINBOW trial suggest that ramucirumab may be providing more than marginal advantage. In this review, we briefly summarize the process of angiogenesis and address the emerging cost-benefit issues that surround all newly developed agents including ramucirumab.

  3. Subduction-Driven Recycling of Continental Margin Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, Alan; Bezada, Maximiliano; Niu, Fenglin; Palomeras, Imma; Humphreys, Eugene; Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Schmitz, Michael; Miller, Meghan

    2016-04-01

    Subduction recycling of oceanic lithosphere, a central theme of plate tectonics, is relatively well understood. Recycling continental lithosphere is more difficult to recognize, can take a number of different forms, and appears to require an external trigger for initiation. Delamination and localized convective downwelling are two processes invoked to explain the removal of lithospheric mantle under or adjacent to orogenic belts. We describe a related process that can lead to the loss of continental lithosphere adjacent to a subduction zone: Subducting oceanic plates can entrain and recycle lithospheric mantle from an adjacent continent and disrupt the continental lithosphere far inland from the subduction zone. Body wave tomograms from dense broadband seismograph arrays in northeastern South America (SA) and the western Mediterranean show larger than expected volumes of positive velocity anomalies which we identify as the subducted Atlantic slab under northeastern SA, and the Alboran slab beneath the Gibraltar arc (GA). The positive anomalies lie under and are aligned with the continental margins at sublithospheric depths. The continental margins along which the subduction zones have traversed, i.e. the northeastern SA plate boundary and east of GA, have significantly thinner lithosphere than expected. The thinner than expected lithosphere extends inland as far as the edges of nearby cratons as determined from receiver function images and surface wave tomography. These observations suggest that subducting oceanic plates viscously entrain and remove continental mantle lithosphere from beneath adjacent continental margins, modulating the surface tectonics and pre-conditioning the margins for further deformation. The latter can include delamination of the entire lithospheric mantle and include the lower crust, as around GA, inferred by results from active and passive seismic experiments. Viscous removal of continental margin lithosphere creates LAB topography leading

  4. Membranebioreactor with external membranes.

    PubMed

    Jonkers, C; Carrette, R; De Lathouwer, J; Thoeye, C

    2001-01-01

    The recent development of less expensive and more performant ultrafiltration membranes has generated a new concept in biological treatment known as membrane bioreactors (MBR). In the field of wastewater treatment, the MBR process is used as a modification of the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process, where the clarifier is replaced by a membrane module for the separation of the solid and the liquid phase. Membrane technology can, amongst others, be applied for the fast retrofit of relatively high loaded activated sludge systems to nutrient removal. In the last year Aquafin has built up extensive experience with submerged membrane systems. The research presented here was aimed at evaluating a particular external tubular membrane unit for MBR. More specifically it was evaluated whether higher stable flux levels could compensate the higher energy consumption, typical for external membrane systems. Both (1) treatment performance and (2) possible operational drawbacks were tested on a 5 m3/h activated sludge pilot-scale. The membrane bioreactor was tested in parallel with a conventional activated sludge system.

  5. Storm tracks near marginal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaum, Maarten; Novak, Lenka

    2015-04-01

    The variance of atmospheric storm tracks is characterised by intermittent bursts of activity interspersed with relatively quiescent periods. Most of the poleward heat transport by storm tracks is due to a limited number of strong heat flux events, which occur in a quasi-periodic fashion. This behaviour is in contradiction with the usual conceptual model of the storm tracks, which relies on high growth rate background flows which then spawn weather systems that grow in an exponential or non-normal fashion. Here we present a different conceptual model of the atmospheric storm tracks which is built on the observation that, when including diabatic and other dissipative effects, the storm track region is in fact most of the time marginally stable. The ensuing model is a nonlinear oscillator, very similar to Volterra-Lotka predator-prey models. We demonstrate the extensions of this model to a stochastically driven nonlinear oscillator. The model produces quasi-periodic behaviour dominated by intermittent heat flux events. Perhaps most surprisingly, we will show strong evidence from re-analysis data for our conceptual model: the re-analysis data produces a phase-space plot that is very similar indeed to the phase-space plot for our nonlinear oscillator model.

  6. External tank gamma ray imaging telescope study. Final review, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Potential scientific uses of the external tanks were examined. An onorbit conversion of the external tank to a gamma ray telescope/spacecraft is feasible. The development time and cost are acceptable. The specific engineering research and development requirements are listed. Concepts for onorbit utilization of external tanks were developed. The tasks for phase three were summarized.

  7. 48 CFR 231.205-70 - External restructuring costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... performance period; (iv) Whether the contracting parties are able to make a reasonable estimate of the impact... productive facilities or workforce (e.g., normal plant rearrangement or employee relocation), nor do they... incurred (e.g., planning and analysis, contract administration and oversight, or recurring financial...

  8. 48 CFR 231.205-70 - External restructuring costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... performance period; (iv) Whether the contracting parties are able to make a reasonable estimate of the impact... productive facilities or workforce (e.g., normal plant rearrangement or employee relocation), nor do they... incurred (e.g., planning and analysis, contract administration and oversight, or recurring financial...

  9. 48 CFR 231.205-70 - External restructuring costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... performance period; (iv) Whether the contracting parties are able to make a reasonable estimate of the impact... productive facilities or workforce (e.g., normal plant rearrangement or employee relocation), nor do they... incurred (e.g., planning and analysis, contract administration and oversight, or recurring financial...

  10. Blood Lifestyle: Externalizing the Cost of Human Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Model, David

    2012-01-01

    To build postsecondary institutions that educate responsible citizens as well as competent employees and consumers, it is important that people must teach and learn themselves about the context--domestic and global--in which work is to be done, and the purposes which economic and technological development serve. One aspect of that context is the…

  11. 17 CFR 242.403 - Required margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required margin. 242.403 Section 242.403 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer...

  12. Marginal Utility and Convex Indifference Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews discussion of the relationship between marginal utility and indifference curves which has been presented in recent issues of "Economics." Concludes that indifference analysis does not embody the assumptions of marginal utility theory and that there is no simple relationship between these concepts that does not entail unacceptable…

  13. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....18 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of a margin deficiency without effecting personal contact with the leverage customer. If a...

  14. Marginality Theory and the African American Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, G. Kathleen; Breese, Jeffrey R.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a study of African-American college students at a state university in the Midwest. The study examined the effects of marginality on their college experience and performance. Identifies six reactions to marginality and provides case study examples of each. Includes extensive references and verbatim comments from the students. (MJP)

  15. Dependency and Marginality in Kingston, Jamaica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Colin G.

    1983-01-01

    Kingston, capital of Jamaica, has been molded by three institutions: colonialism, the sugar plantation, and slavery. It has an enormous marginal population living in permanent poverty and not absorbable into the labor force. This marginality, fundamentally related to dependent capitalism, sustains itself by keeping wages low. (CS)

  16. [Immigration and political marginality in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Forte, R

    1996-01-01

    The author analyzes immigration in Argentina, with a focus on the extent to which the political system has contributed to the social and economic marginalization of migrants since the mid-nineteenth century. Sociocultural characteristics of migrants are examined. Patterns of land distribution and ownership are discussed, and the impact on movements of migrants within the country and on urban marginality is investigated.

  17. Marginal Teachers: Their Perceptions of Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    For over a decade, parents whose children are in the public education system have expressed concerns regarding the quality of teaching in their schools; yet little energy and study have been devoted to the topic of incompetent or marginal teacher improvement. To describe how marginal teachers perceived their improvement to be related to a staff…

  18. Tumor margin detection using optical biopsy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Li, Jiyou; Li, Zhongwu; Zhou, Lixin; Chen, Ke; Pu, Yang; He, Yong; Zhu, Ke; Li, Qingbo; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to use the Resonance Raman (RR) and fluorescence spectroscopic technique for tumor margin detection with high accuracy based on native molecular fingerprints of breast and gastrointestinal (GI) tissues. This tumor margins detection method utilizes advantages of RR spectroscopic technique in situ and in real-time to diagnose tumor changes providing powerful tools for clinical guiding intraoperative margin assessments and postoperative treatments. The tumor margin detection procedures by RR spectroscopy were taken by scanning lesion from center or around tumor region in ex-vivo to find the changes in cancerous tissues with the rim of normal tissues using the native molecular fingerprints. The specimens used to analyze tumor margins include breast and GI carcinoma and normal tissues. The sharp margin of the tumor was found by the changes of RR spectral peaks within 2 mm distance. The result was verified using fluorescence spectra with 300 nm, 320 nm and 340 nm excitation, in a typical specimen of gastric cancerous tissue within a positive margin in comparison with normal gastric tissues. This study demonstrates the potential of RR and fluorescence spectroscopy as new approaches with labeling free to determine the intraoperative margin assessment.

  19. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    PubMed

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion. PMID:17119229

  20. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    PubMed

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion.

  1. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  2. External Tank Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph shows the liquid hydrogen tank and liquid oxygen tank for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) being assembled in the weld assembly area of the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first eight 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  3. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs).

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    Automated external defibrillators, or AEDs, will automatically analyze a patient's ECG and, if needed, deliver a defibrillating shock to the heart. We sometimes refer to these devices as AED-only devices or stand-alone AEDs. The basic function of AEDs is similar to that of defibrillator/monitors, but AEDs lack their advanced capabilities and generally don't allow manual defibrillation. A device that functions strictly as an AED is intended to be used by basic users only. Such devices are often referred to as public access defibrillators. In this Evaluation, we present our findings for a newly evaluated model, the Zoll AED Plus. We also summarize our findings for the previously evaluated model that is still on the market and describe other AEDs that are also available but that we haven't evaluated. We rate the models collectively for first-responder use and public access defibrillation (PAD) applications.

  4. External Measures of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cairό, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex, and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind. PMID:22065955

  5. [Management of soft tissues sarcoma of the limbs by external beam radiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Moureau-Zabotto, L; Delannes, M; Le Péchoux, C; Sunyach, M P; Kantor, G; Sargos, P; Thariat, J; Llacer-Moscardo, C

    2016-04-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare tumours. Conservative surgery followed by postoperative radiation therapy represents the gold standard in the majority of cases. Postoperative radiotherapy improves local control without affecting survival. Besides the quality of surgical excision, which remains the major prognostic factor, the importance of the irradiation volume and particularly margins used in external beam radiotherapy were also found to influence local control of the disease. In this study, we propose to conduct a literature review on the present state of our knowledge on this subject in the form of an articulated controversy: in favour or opposed to large margins in external radiotherapy.

  6. External Community Review Committee:

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice.

  7. Determination of critical parameters in platelet margination.

    PubMed

    Reasor, Daniel A; Mehrabadi, Marmar; Ku, David N; Aidun, Cyrus K

    2013-02-01

    An investigation of margination dependence on hematocrit, platelet shape, and viscosity ratio of plasma to cytoplasm is presented. Whole blood is modeled as a suspension of deformable red blood cells (RBCs) and rigid platelets in a viscous liquid. The fluid phase is simulated using the lattice-Boltzmann method, the RBC membranes are modeled with a coarse-grained spectrin-link method, and the dynamics of rigid particles are updated using Newton's equations of motion for axisymmetric shapes. The results emphasize that an increase in hematocrit increases the rate of margination. The viscosity ratio between the interior cytoplasm and suspending fluid can considerably alter the rate of margination. The aspect ratio of surrogate platelet particles influences the rate of margination as well. Spherical particles tend to migrate more quickly than disks. Highly viscous or rigid RBCs slow down margination.

  8. The Yale Cost Model and cost centres: servant or master?

    PubMed

    Rigby, E

    1993-01-01

    Cost accounting describes that aspect of accounting which collects, allocates and controls the cost of producing a service. Costing information is primarily reported to management to enable control of costs and to ensure the financial viability of units, departments and divisions. As costing studies continue to produce estimates of Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) costs in New South Wales hospitals, as well as in other states, costs for different hospitals are being externally compared, using a tool which is usually related to internal management and reporting. Comparability of costs is assumed even though accounting systems differ. This paper examines the cost centre structures at five major teaching hospitals in Sydney. It describes the similarities and differences in how the cost centres were constituted, and then details the line items of expenditure that are charged to each cost centre. The results of a comparative study of a medical specialty are included as evidence of different costing methodologies in the hospitals. The picture that emerged from the study is that the hospitals are constituting their cost centres to meet their internal management needs, that is, to know the cost of running a ward or nursing unit, a medical specialty, department and so on. The rationale for the particular cost centre construction was that cost centre managers could manage and control costs and assign responsibility. There are variations in procedures for assigning costs to cost centres, and the question is asked 'Do these variations in procedures make a material difference to our ability to compare costs per Diagnosis Related Group at the various hospitals?' It is contended that the accounting information, which is produced as a result of different practices, is primarily for internal management, not external comparison. It would be better for hospitals to compare their estimated costs per Diagnosis Related Group to an internal standard cost rather than the costs from other

  9. Data Resources for Accessing MARGINS, Ridge 2000 and ODP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwillie, A.; Carbotte, S.; Arko, R.; O'Hara, S.; Ryan, W.; Melkonian, A.; Ferrini, V.; Weissel, R.; Bonczkowski, J.

    2007-12-01

    Web-based digital databases are being developed by a number of academic and governmental groups to improve the ability of researchers and students to access geoscience data in a convenient and user-friendly manner. With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS) (http://www.marine-geo.org/) serves as the data portal for the NSF MARGINS program, providing free public access and preservation to a wide variety of marine and terrestrial data collected during MARGINS projects. The broad suite of integrated database holdings includes rock, fluid, biology and sediment samples information and station details, multibeam bathymetry and underway geophysical data, multi-channel seismics, and water column data. Seamless links point to external repositories for geodetic data (UNAVCO), and land seismic campaign data (IRIS). GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org/), an MGDS data visualization tool, supports map-based dynamic exploration of data using a multi-resolution global digital elevation model. Built-in land and marine data sets include EarthChem geochemistry, plate boundaries, DSDP/ODP core logs, earthquake events, seafloor photos, and submersible dive tracks. Users can also access land and marine data sets through OGC-compliant Web Services provided by external repositories including PetDB, UNAVCO, IRIS and NGDC. Users can generate custom maps and grids and import their own data sets and grids. A set of short, video-style online tutorials familiarises users step-by-step with GeoMapApp functionality (http://www.geomapapp.org/tutorials/). GeoMapApp is used in a number of undergraduate mini-lessons created during the MARGINS EPO workshop (April, 2007) and is the basis for two education modules hosted at SERC-Carlton (http://www.marine- geo.org/Education.html). MGDS data portal resources make available a wide variety of real scientific data from large NSF-supported research programs. Examples of accessing and manipulating a range

  10. Advantages and disadvantages of pinless external fixation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S R; Giele, H; Simpson, A H

    2000-12-01

    The AO pinless external fixator (PEF) uses trocar tipped clamps to grip the outer tibial cortex rather than pins to transfix it. Its main advantage is to avoid further contamination of the medullary canal in open tibial fractures where a nail may subsequently be used. We tested the anatomical safety of this device and its effect on plastic surgical procedures compared with a standard unilateral external fixator (UEF).The PEF and UEF were placed on two amputated limbs which were then dissected. Structures at risk were traced on ten cadaver limbs. We found that important anatomical structures were endangered by the PEF and that safe zones could not always be defined. The UEF avoided these structures. Plastic surgical approaches were made more difficult by the PEF which imposed limitations on local flap design and endangered the arterial perforators which supply them. We conclude that safety is compromised by the PEF because margins for error are small. It poses additional problems in soft tissue reconstruction and highlights the need for co-operation between plastic surgical and orthopaedic teams in choice of fixation device.

  11. System Guidelines for EMC Safety-Critical Circuits: Design, Selection, and Margin Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Demonstration of safety margins for critical points (circuits) has traditionally been required since it first became a part of systems-level Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements of MIL-E-6051C. The goal of this document is to present cost-effective guidelines for ensuring adequate Electromagnetic Effects (EME) safety margins on spacecraft critical circuits. It is for the use of NASA and other government agencies and their contractors to prevent loss of life, loss of spacecraft, or unacceptable degradation. This document provides practical definition and treatment guidance to contain costs within affordable limits.

  12. No mission<-->no margin: it's that simple.

    PubMed

    Meliones, J N; Ballard, R; Liekweg, R; Burton, W

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe their experience in developing a strategy-focused organization using the balanced scorecard methodology. They achieved this at Duke Children's Hospital by aligning the clinicians and administrators around a single integrated platform that linked improving business processes with achieving quality clinical outcomes. By organizing in this manner, they reduced cost by dollars 30 million and increased net margin by dollars 15 million while improving outcomes and staff satisfaction. This article describes a methodology to achieve strategic control of the organization, increase the knowledge of key stakeholders, and transform the organization to optimize the organization's performance. PMID:14680030

  13. Educational Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert

    Problems in educational cost accounting and a new cost accounting approach are described in this paper. The limitations of the individualized cost (student units) approach and the comparative cost approach (in the form of fund-function-object) are illustrated. A new strategy, an activity-based system of accounting, is advocated. Borrowed from…

  14. Financing solar repowering and the quantification of external benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Kamin, J.H.; Ellis, J.C.

    1982-04-01

    A simulation model for quantifying utility energy costs is applied to determine cost and performance data for the proposed Saguaro power plant repowering project of the Arizona Public Service Company. The capitalized economic resource cost of this project is also computed with a national cost-benefit analysis. One application uses a projection of the world price of crude oil to obtain the average cost of displaced fuel. A second application derives the marginal cost of displaced fuel from a monopsony model of US petroleum supply. The evaluation approach is equally applicable to any imported-petroleum-displacing energy project, such as the use of methanol to fire turbines or boilers in peak- or intermediate-load generators, with the methanol derived from domestic coal, biomass, or foreign natural gas imported as methanol. 18 references, 2 figures.

  15. Staged Columnar Fixation of Bicondylar Tibial Plateaus: A Cheaper Alternative to External Fixation.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Aaron; Greenberg, Sarah E; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Thakore, Rachel V; Mir, Hassan R; Obremskey, William T; Sethi, Manish K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare complication rates and costs of staged columnar fixation (SCF) to external fixation for bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Patients who received SCF or temporary external fixation across a 3-year period at a major level I trauma center underwent a retrospective chart review for associated complications. Fisher's exact analysis was used to determine any statistical difference in complication rates between both groups. However, there was no significant difference in complication rates between the SCF and external fixator groups. Average medial plate costs for SCF were $2131 compared with an average external fixator cost of $4070 (p < .0001). Given that all patients with external fixation undergo eventual medial and lateral plating, savings with SCF include $4070 plus operative costs for removing the fixator. As our health care system focuses on cost-cutting efforts, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must explore cheaper and equally effective treatment alternatives. PMID:27082883

  16. Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general methodology.

  17. Marginal and happy? The need for uniqueness predicts the adjustment of marginal immigrants.

    PubMed

    Debrosse, Régine; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Rossignac-Milon, Maya

    2015-12-01

    Marginalization is often presented as the strategy associated with the worst adjustment for immigrants. This study identifies a critical variable that buffers marginal immigrants from the negative effects of marginalization on adjustment: The need for uniqueness. In three studies, we surveyed immigrants recruited on university campuses (n = 119, n = 116) and in the field (n = 61). Among marginal immigrants, a higher need for uniqueness predicted higher self-esteem (Study 1), affect (Study 2), and life satisfaction (Study 3), and marginally higher happiness (Study 2) and self-esteem (Study 3). No relationship between the need for uniqueness and adjustment was found among non-marginal immigrants. The adaptive value of the need for uniqueness for marginal immigrants is discussed. PMID:25903084

  18. Marginal and happy? The need for uniqueness predicts the adjustment of marginal immigrants.

    PubMed

    Debrosse, Régine; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Rossignac-Milon, Maya

    2015-12-01

    Marginalization is often presented as the strategy associated with the worst adjustment for immigrants. This study identifies a critical variable that buffers marginal immigrants from the negative effects of marginalization on adjustment: The need for uniqueness. In three studies, we surveyed immigrants recruited on university campuses (n = 119, n = 116) and in the field (n = 61). Among marginal immigrants, a higher need for uniqueness predicted higher self-esteem (Study 1), affect (Study 2), and life satisfaction (Study 3), and marginally higher happiness (Study 2) and self-esteem (Study 3). No relationship between the need for uniqueness and adjustment was found among non-marginal immigrants. The adaptive value of the need for uniqueness for marginal immigrants is discussed.

  19. Cenozoic ice volume and margin erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.C.; Fairbanks, R.G.; Mountain, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Cenozoic benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopic data indicates that the world was glaciated in the early Oligocene, middle Oligocene, latest Oligocene, and middle Miocene to Recent, but are insufficient to resolve if the world was ice free at other times. The authors relate Oligocene and younger intervals of ice growth to continental margin erosional events. Relationships between eustasy and continental margin sedimentation are controversial. Coastal onlap is indirectly linked with rising sea level, occurring either when subsidence exceeds the rate of sea level fall or during sea-level rise. Although chronostratigraphic breaks are often local in origin, inter-regional unconformities result from eustatic lowerings. Strong evidence for eustatic lowerings is provided by the incision of canyons on margins. Chronostratigraphic breaks and canyons have noted on the US and Irish margins near the lower/upper Oligocene and middle/upper Miocene boundaries. These periods of margin erosion are temporally linked with oxygen isotopic evidence for ice growth, with erosion correlating with the greatest rate of ice growth. If the Eocene was ice free, there may have been mechanistic differences between Eocene erosion and Oligocene to Recent glacio-eustatic erosion. The authors present seismic stratigraphic evidence from the New Jersey margin that indicates contrasting styles of margin erosion between the Lower Tertiary and Upper Tertiary.

  20. External auditory osteoma.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Peter N; Nelson, Brenda L

    2012-06-01

    External auditory canal (EAC) osteomas are rare, benign bony neoplasms that occur in wide range of patients. While chronic irritation and inflammation have been suggested as causal factors in several cases, significant data is lacking to support these suspicions. Symptoms are rare and can include hearing loss, vertigo, pain and tinnitus. Diagnosis is made based on a combination of clinical history and examination, radiographic imaging, and histopathology. Osteomas of the EAC are usually found incidentally and are unilateral and solitary. Computed tomography reveals a hyperdense, pedunculated mass arising from the tympanosquamous suture and lateral of the isthmus. Histopathologically, EAC osteomas are covered with periosteum and squamous epithelium, and consist of lamalleted bone surrounding fibrovascular channels with minimal osteocysts. Osteomas have historically been compared and contrasted with exostoses of the EAC. While they share similarities, more often than not it is possible to distinguish the two bony neoplasms based on clinical history and radiographic studies. Debate remains in the medical literature as to whether basic histopathology can distinguish osteomas of the EAC from exostoses. Surgical excision is the standard treatment for EAC osteomas, however close observation is considered acceptable in asymptomatic patients.

  1. Racing to define pharmaceutical R&D external innovation models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangsu; Plump, Andrew; Ringel, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The pharmaceutical industry continues to face fundamental challenges because of issues with research and development (R&D) productivity and rising customer expectations. To lower R&D costs, move beyond me-too therapies, and create more transformative portfolios, pharmaceutical companies are actively capitalizing on external innovation through precompetitive collaboration with academia, cultivation of biotech start-ups, and proactive licensing and acquisitions. Here, we review the varying innovation strategies used by pharmaceutical companies, compare and contrast these models, and identify the trends in external innovation. We also discuss factors that influence these external innovation models and propose a preliminary set of metrics that could be used as leading indicators of success.

  2. Explorer sharpness as related to margin evaluations.

    PubMed

    Rappold, A P; Ripps, A H; Ireland, E J

    1992-01-01

    Nine experienced operative dentistry faculty each used six different explorers of varying degrees of sharpness ranging from new to well-used to evaluate marginal acceptability on a device used to simulate gradations of vertical opening. In this study, the standard for the sharpest explorer point was determined to be 68 microns in diameter measured 40 microns from the tip. There was a positive correlation between the diameter of the explorer tip at 40 microns and the mean amount of opening that could be detected until the margin was declared unacceptable. Increased explorer dullness significantly handicapped even experienced graders when the explorer alone was used to evaluate visually inaccessible margins.

  3. The Mechanics of External Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Rozbruch, S. Robert

    2006-01-01

    External fixation has evolved from being used primarily as a last resort fixation method to becoming a main stream technique used to treat a myriad of bone and soft tissue pathologies. Techniques in limb reconstruction continue to advance largely as a result of the use of these external devices. A thorough understanding of the biomechanical principles of external fixation is useful for all orthopedic surgeons as most will have to occasionally mount a fixator throughout their career. In this review, various types of external fixators and their common clinical applications are described with a focus on unilateral and circular frames. The biomechanical principles that govern bony and fixator stability are reviewed as well as the recommended techniques for applying external fixators to maximize stability. Additionally, we have illustrated methods for managing patients while they are in the external frames to facilitate function and shorten treatment duration. PMID:18751766

  4. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  5. Unsteady three-dimensional marginal separation, including breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    A situation involving a three-dimensional marginal separation is considered, where a (steady) boundary layer flow is on the verge of separating at a point (located along a line of symmetry/centerline). At this point, a triple-deck is included, thereby permitting a small amount of interaction to occur. Unsteadiness is included within this interaction region through some external means. It is shown that the problem reduces to the solution of a nonlinear, unsteady, partial-integro system, which is solved numerically by means of time-marching together with a pseudo-spectral method spatially. A number of solutions to this system are presented which strongly suggest a breakdown of this system may occur, at a finite spatial position, at a finite time. The structure and details of this breakdown are then described.

  6. Mesozoic carbonate-siliciclastic platform to basin systems of a South Tethyan margin (Egypt, East Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassy, Aurélie; Crouzy, Emmanuel; Gorini, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2015-04-01

    The Mesozoïc Egyptian margin is the south margin of a remnant of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, at the African northern plate boundary. East Mediterranean basin developed during the late Triassic-Early Jurassic rifting with a NW-SE opening direction (Frizon de Lamotte et al., 2011). During Mesozoïc, Egypt margin was a transform margin with a NW-SE orientation of transform faults. In the Eastern Mediterranean basin, Mesozoïc margins are characterized by mixed carbonate-siliciclastics platforms where subsidence and eustacy are the main parameters controlling the facies distribution and geometries of the platform-to-basin transition. Geometries and facies on the platform-slope-basin system, today well constrained on the Levant area, where still poorly known on the Egyptian margin. Geometries and stratigraphic architecture of the Egyptian margin are revealed, thanks to a regional seismic and well data-base provided by an industrial-academic group (GRI, Total). The objective is to understand the sismostratigraphic architecture of the platform-slope-basin system in a key area from Western Desert to Nile delta and Levant margin. Mapping of the top Jurassic and top Cretaceous show seismic geomorphology of the margin, with the cartography of the hinge line from Western Desert to Sinaï. During the Jurassic, carbonate platform show a prograding profile and a distally thickening of the external platform, non-abrupt slope profiles, and palaeovalleys incisions. Since the Cretaceous, the aggrading and retrograding mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform show an alternation of steep NW-SE oblique segments and distally steepened segments. These structures of the platform edge are strongly controlled by the inherited tethyan transform directions. Along the hinge line, embayments are interpreted as megaslides. The basin infilling is characterised by an alternation of chaotic seismic facies and high amplitude reflectors onlaping the paleoslopes. MTC deposits can mobilize thick sedimentary

  7. A comparison of pay-as-bid and marginal pricing in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yongjun

    This thesis investigates the behaviour of electricity markets under marginal and pay-as-bid pricing. Marginal pricing is believed to yield the maximum social welfare and is currently implemented by most electricity markets. However, in view of recent electricity market failures, pay-as-bid has been extensively discussed as a possible alternative to marginal pricing. In this research, marginal and pay-as-bid pricing have been analyzed in electricity markets with both perfect and imperfect competition. The perfect competition case is studied under both exact and uncertain system marginal cost prediction. The comparison of the two pricing methods is conducted through two steps: (i) identify the best offer strategy of the generating companies (gencos); (ii) analyze the market performance under these optimum genco strategies. The analysis results together with numerical simulations show that pay-as-bid and marginal pricing are equivalent in a perfect market with exact system marginal cost prediction. In perfect markets with uncertain demand prediction, the two pricing methods are also equivalent but in an expected value sense. If we compare from the perspective of second order statistics, all market performance measures exhibit much lower values under pay-as-bid than under marginal pricing. The risk of deviating from the mean is therefore much higher under marginal pricing than under pay-as-bid. In an imperfect competition market with exact demand prediction, the research shows that pay-as-bid pricing yields lower consumer payments and lower genco profits. This research provides quantitative evidence that challenges some common claims about pay-as-bid pricing. One is that under pay-as-bid, participants would soon learn how to offer so as to obtain the same or higher profits than what they would have obtained under marginal pricing. This research however shows that, under pay-as-bid, participants can at best earn the same profit or expected profit as under marginal

  8. Interaction of 2-Gy Equivalent Dose and Margin Status in Perioperative High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Moreno, Marta; Gaztanaga, Miren; San Julian, Mikel; Alcalde, Juan; Jurado, Matias

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To determine patient, tumor, and treatment factors predictive of local control (LC) in a series of patients treated with either perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy (PHDRB) alone (Group 1) or with PHDRB combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (Group 2). Patient and Methods: Patients (n = 312) enrolled in several PHDRB prospective Phase I-II studies conducted at the Clinica Universidad de Navarra were analyzed. Treatment with PHDRB alone, mainly because of prior irradiation, was used in 126 patients to total doses of 32 Gy/8 b.i.d. or 40 Gy/10 b.i.d. treatments after R0 or R1 resections. Treatment with PHDRB plus EBRT was used in 186 patients to total doses of 16 Gy/4 b.i.d. or 24 Gy/6 b.i.d. treatments after R0 or R1 resections along with 45 Gy of EBRT with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Results: No dose-margin interaction was observed in Group 1 patients. In Group 2 patients there was a significant interaction between margin status and 2-Gy equivalent (Eq2Gy) dose (p = 0.002): (1) patients with negative margins had 9-year LC of 95.7% at Eq2Gy = 62.9Gy; (2) patients with close margins of >1 mm had 9-year LC of 92.4% at Eq2Gy = 72.2Gy, and (3) patients with positive/close <1-mm margins had 9-year LC of 68.0% at Eq2Gy = 72.2Gy. Conclusions: Two-gray equivalent doses {>=}70 Gy may compensate the effect of close margins {>=}1 mm but do not counterbalance the detrimental effect of unfavorable (positive/close <1 mm) resection margins. No dose-margin interaction is observed in patients treated at lower Eq2Gy doses {<=}50 Gy with PHDRB alone.

  9. Hydrocarbon traps within passive-margin evolution of Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Lavoie, D. ); Lowrie, A.

    1993-09-01

    The evolutionary dynamics of the Louisiana continental margin as applied to the Neogene to present are sufficiently well understood that we present a preliminary model. The external components influencing the geologic evolution are sediment input (amount, type, and transport mechanisms) and sea level oscillations (periodicity and range). The internal dynamics are subsidence (rate, total amount, and location), salt tectonics (type and rate of motion), and sediment deposition (amount, type and mechanisms). The model presented is restricted geographically to the offshore region, from the shelf to the Sigsbee Escarpment, and temporally during the Neogene, the past 20 m.y. The notion that tectonic periodicity controls the evolutionary dynamics is integral to the model. The general loci of maximal deposition and tectonics are dictated by Milankovitch fourth-order cycles ranging from 1 x 10[sup 4] to 1 x 10 [sup 5] yr. superimposed on third-order cycles of up to 1 to 2 x 10[sup 6]yr. This model suggests a highly energetic phase in overall continental margin evolution during which the Sigsbee salt wedge migrated past an arbitrary fixed reference point, changing the physiography from lower slope to shelf. The energetic phase, which lasts between 2 and 4 m.y., separated two much longer phases are the drift phase, characterized by sedimentation along lower continental rises and abyssal plains, and a depositional phase, generally minor, and erosion along the shelf, coastal plain, and interior basins. This latter phase is characterized by regional subsidence and [open quotes]catch-up[close quotes] deposition as equilibrium along the continent is maintained. We also discuss hydrocarbon traps and their ephemeral nature with the overall continental margin.

  10. Inside the gynoecium: at the carpel margin.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Olalde, J Irepan; Zuñiga-Mayo, Victor M; Chávez Montes, Ricardo A; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; de Folter, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    The gynoecium, which is produced at the center of most flowers, is the female reproductive organ and consists of one or more carpels. The Arabidopsis gynoecium consists of two fused carpels. Its inner tissues possess meristematic characteristics and are called the carpel margin meristem (CMM), because they are located at the margins of the carpels and generate the 'marginal' tissues of the gynoecium (placenta, ovules, septum, transmitting tract, style, and stigma). A key question is which factors are guiding the correct development of all these tissues, many of which are essential for reproduction. Besides regulatory genes, hormones play an important part in the development of the marginal tissues, and recent reports have highlighted the role of cytokinins, as discussed in this review. PMID:24008116

  11. Importance of surgical margins in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mukkai Krishnamurty, Devi; Wise, Paul E

    2016-03-01

    Distal resection margin (DRM) and circumferential resection margin (CRM) are two important considerations in rectal cancer management. Although guidelines recommend a 2 cm DRM, studies have shown that a shorter DRM is adequate, especially in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Standardization of total mesorectal excision has greatly improved quality of CRM. Although more patients are undergoing sphincter-saving procedures, abdominoperineal resection is indicated for very distal tumors, and pelvic exenteration is often necessary for tumors involving pelvic organs. PMID:27094456

  12. Statistical Analysis of Thermal Analysis Margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center requires that each project demonstrate a minimum of 5 C margin between temperature predictions and hot and cold flight operational limits. The bounding temperature predictions include worst-case environment and thermal optical properties. The purpose of this work is to: assess how current missions are performing against their pre-launch bounding temperature predictions and suggest any possible changes to the thermal analysis margin rules

  13. The Continental Margins Program in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cocker, M.D.; Shapiro, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    From 1984 to 1993, the Georgia Geologic Survey (GGS) participated in the Minerals Management Service-funded Continental Margins Program. Geological and geophysical data acquisition focused on offshore stratigraphic framework studies, phosphate-bearing Miocene-age strata, distribution of heavy minerals, near-surface alternative sources of groundwater, and development of a PC-based Coastal Geographic Information System (GIS). Seven GGS publications document results of those investigations. In addition to those publications, direct benefits of the GGS's participation include an impetus to the GGS's investigations of economic minerals on the Georgia coast, establishment of a GIS that includes computer hardware and software, and seeds for additional investigations through the information and training acquired as a result of the Continental Margins Program. These addtional investigations are quite varied in scope, and many were made possible because of GIS expertise gained as a result of the Continental Margins Program. Future investigations will also reap the benefits of the Continental Margins Program.From 1984 to 1993, the Georgia Geologic Survey (GGS) participated in the Minerals Management Service-funded Continental Margins Program. Geological and geophysical data acquisition focused on offshore stratigraphic framework studies, phosphate-bearing Miocene-age strata, distribution of heavy minerals, near-surface alternative sources of groundwater, and development of a PC-based Coastal Geographic Information System (GIS). Seven GGS publications document results of those investigations. In addition to those publications, direct benefits of the GGS's participation include an impetus to the GGS's investigations of economic minerals on the Georgia coast, establishment of a GIS that includes computer hardware and software, and seeds for additional investigations through the information and training acquired as a result of the Continental Margins Program. These additional

  14. Cost of gentamicin assays carried out by microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed Central

    Vacani, P F; Malek, M M; Davey, P G

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To assess the current range of prices charged for gentamicin assays in United Kingdom laboratories; and to examine the laboratories' likely response to increases or decreases in the demand for the service. METHODS--A postal survey of the 420 members of the Association of Medical Microbiologists was used to establish the range of prices charged for aminoglycoside assays. Additionally, eight private institutions were contacted to determine what the private sector was charging for aminoglycoside assays. Reagent costs in the NHS laboratories were calculated by dividing the total cost of all aminoglycoside assay kits by the number of samples analysed. RESULTS--The NHS and the private institutions both showed a wide price variation. Prices charged to an in-hospital requester for a peak and trough assay ranged from 5.00 pounds to 68.20 pounds (n = 44), and to an external private hospital, under a bulk service contract, from 5.00 pounds to 96.00 pounds (n = 47). Prices charged by private laboratories ranged from 49.00 pounds to 84.00 pounds (n = 8). There was a log linear correlation in the NHS laboratories between the reagent costs per assay and the number of assays performed per year, and most laboratories thought that their price per assay would be sensitive to increases or decreases in demand. Laboratories which had purchased their assay machines had lower reagent costs per assay but higher repair and maintenance costs. Overall, number of assays performed and method of payment for assay machinery only accounted for 44.8% of the observed variation in assay kit costs. CONCLUSIONS--The price range for gentamicin assays in the United Kingdom is wide and is only partially explained by the number of assays performed. Most laboratories believe that they would experience a reduction in unit cost as output increases. The currently offered range of prices is, in part, due to variation in the laboratories' approach to costing the service provided and some laboratories

  15. How Big is Too Big for Hubs: Marginal Profitability in Hub-and-Spoke Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Leola B.; Schmidt, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing the scale of hub operations at major airports has led to concerns about congestion at excessively large hubs. In this paper, we estimate the marginal cost of adding spokes to an existing hub network. We observe entry/non-entry decisions on potential spokes from existing hubs, and estimate both a variable profit function for providing service in markets using that spoke as well as the fixed costs of providing service to the spoke. We let the fixed costs depend upon the scale of operations at the hub, and find the hub size at which spoke service costs are minimized.

  16. The basins on the Argentine continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Urien, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    After the stabilization of the central Gondwana Craton, orogenic belts were accreted, as a result of convergence events and an extensive passive margin developed in southwestern Gondwana. Thermal subsidence in Parana, Karoo-Ventania basins and the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic rifts, were modified by the Gondwana breakup and the South Atlantic opening. Early Paleozoic marine transgressions deposited the Table Mountain Group in Ventania. In southwestern Patagonia foreland clastics were deposited. Magmatic arcs and marine units indicate a tectonic trough was formed, alternating with continental sequences, over Late Paleozoic metamorphics and intrusives, resulting from plastered terrains along the Gondwana margin. In Patagonia, Permo-Carboniferous continental and glacio marine clastics infill the basins, while in Ventania, paralic sequences, grade from neritic to continental to the northeast, extending beneath the continental margin. The Triassic-Jurassic rift basins progressed onto regional widespread acid lavas and were infilled by lagoonal organic-rich sequences. Early drift phase built basins transverse to the margin, with fluvio-lacustrine sequences: Salado, Colorado, Valdes-Rawson, San Julian and North Malvinas intracratonic basins, which underwent transtensional faulting. Post-Oxfordian to Neocomian brackish sequences, onlapped the conjugate basins during the margin`s drift, with petroleum systems, as in Austral and Malvinas. In the Valanginian, basic extrusions commenced to form on the continental border, heralding the oceanic phase. Due to thermal subsidence, offlaping sediments prograded onto the remaining half-grabens. Several petroleum systems, proven and hypothetical, are identified in this region.

  17. Progress for the Industry Application External Hazard Analyses Early Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis L.; Prescott, Steven; Coleman, Justin; Ryan, Emerald; Bhandari, Bishwo; Sludern, Daniel; Pope, Chad; Sampath, Ram

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current progress and status related to the Industry Application #2 focusing on External Hazards. For this industry application within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) R&D Pathway, we will create the Risk-Informed Margin Management (RIMM) approach to represent meaningful (i.e., realistic facility representation) event scenarios and consequences by using an advanced 3D facility representation that will evaluate external hazards such as flooding and earthquakes in order to identify, model and analyze the appropriate physics that needs to be included to determine plant vulnerabilities related to external events; manage the communication and interactions between different physics modeling and analysis technologies; and develop the computational infrastructure through tools related to plant representation, scenario depiction, and physics prediction. One of the unique aspects of the RISMC approach is how it couples probabilistic approaches (the scenario) with mechanistic phenomena representation (the physics) through simulation. This simulation-based modeling allows decision makers to focus on a variety of safety, performance, or economic metrics. In this report, we describe the evaluation of various physics toolkits related to flooding representation. Ultimately, we will be coupling the flooding representation with other events such as earthquakes in order to provide coupled physics analysis for scenarios where interactions exist.

  18. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  19. Anthropogenic impacts on continental margins: New frontiers and engagement arena for global sustainability research and action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. K.; Glavovic, B.; Limburg, K.; Emeis, K. C.; Thomas, H.; Kremer, H.; Avril, B.; Zhang, J.; Mulholland, M. R.; Glaser, M.; Swaney, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    and use of resources; (3) to design governance regimes to stem unsustainable practices; (4) to investigate how to enable equitable sharing of costs and benefits from sustainable use of resources; and (5) to evaluate alternative research approaches and partnerships that address the challenges faced on the Margin.

  20. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  1. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  2. Changing Systems of External Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensaker, Bjorn; Brandt, Ellen; Solum, Nils Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and identify changes in systems of external examinations in Denmark, the UK and Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Comparative analysis of studies, reviews and documents concerning the purpose and functioning of systems of external examination in three selected countries. Findings: The paper…

  3. Choosing a Truly External Evaluator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    This scenario discusses a situation in which a proposal has been published by a consortium of foundations for an "external" evaluator to evaluate a replication at two new sites of a program they have been funding for many years. A proposal is received from Dr. Porto-Novo, who has been the external evaluator of the initial program for about 10…

  4. Leiomyoma of External Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    George, M V; Puthiyapurayil, Jamsheeda

    2016-09-01

    This article reports a case of piloleiomyoma of external auditory canal, which is the 7th case of leiomyoma of the external auditory canal being reported and the 2nd case of leiomyoma arising from arrectores pilorum muscles, all the other five cases were angioleiomyomas, arising from blood vessels. A 52 years old male presented with a mass in the right external auditory canal and decreased hearing of 6 months duration. Tumor excision done by end aural approach. Histopathological examination report was leiomyoma. It is extremely rare for leiomyoma to occur in the external auditory canal because of the non-availability of smooth muscles in the external canal. So it should be considered as a very rare differential diagnosis for any tumor or polyp in the ear canal. PMID:27508144

  5. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  6. The geodynamics of the Levant margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Avraham, Z.

    2006-12-01

    The Levant continental margin, offshore Israel, Lebanon and Syria, is usually defined as a passive margin that was formed through rifting processes. During the formation two major continental fragments are assumed to separate from the northern edge of the Afro-Arabian plate to form the Levant basin: the Tauride and Eratosthenes blocks. Today an oceanic crust and, in places, a very thin continental crust are present between the Levant margin and Eratosthenes seamount. The margin can be divided into two distinct provinces that are separated by the Carmel Structure, which extends from seawards to the northwest across the continental shelf and slope. The preservation of segmentation, both in the shallow and in the deep structure, insinuates that the two segments were formed through different continental breakup processes, which continue to dictate the style of sediment accumulation. The nature and development of the continental margin offshore Israel were the subject of numerous studies, which suggest that the southern Levant segment (south of the Carmel Structure) was formed through continental rifting processes. In contrast, the northern segment, from the Carmel structure northwards and offshore southern Lebanon, was hardly studied before. Recent studies however indicate that the northern segment shows a strong similarity to classical transform margins in the world. In view of the new classification of the northern Levant margin a modified scenario is suggested for: (a) the initial stages in which the Levant margin was formed; and (b) the present day structural differences between the two segments of the margin. At present, the northern Levant continental margin is being reactivated by transpressional faulting of the marine continuation of the Carmel fault which bends northward at the base of the continental slope due to the rheological discontinuity in this region. This fault system coincides with the sharp continental-oceanic crustal transition, and acts as an

  7. The magmatic budget of Atlantic type rifted margins: is it related to inheritance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manatschal, Gianreto; Tugend, Julia; Picazo, Suzanne; Müntener, Othmar

    2016-04-01

    are: 1) whether decompression melting is the driving force, or rather the consequence of extension, 2) how far the magmatic budget is controlled by inherited mantle composition and how important magma storage is during initial stages of rifting, and 3) to what extend the evolution of margins reflect the interplay between inheritance (innate/"genetic code") and the actual physical processes (acquired/external factors).

  8. Flight Testing and Real-Time System Identification Analysis of a UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter with an Instrumented External Sling Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCoy, Allen H.

    1998-01-01

    Helicopter external air transportation plays an important role in today's world. For both military and civilian helicopters, external sling load operations offer an efficient and expedient method of handling heavy, oversized cargo. With the ability to reach areas otherwise inaccessible by ground transportation, helicopter external load operations are conducted in industries such as logging, construction, and fire fighting, as well as in support of military tactical transport missions. Historically, helicopter and load combinations have been qualified through flight testing, requiring considerable time and cost. With advancements in simulation and flight test techniques there is potential to substantially reduce costs and increase the safety of helicopter sling load certification. Validated simulation tools make possible accurate prediction of operational flight characteristics before initial flight tests. Real time analysis of test data improves the safety and efficiency of the testing programs. To advance these concepts, the U.S. Army and NASA, in cooperation with the Israeli Air Force and Technion, under a Memorandum of Agreement, seek to develop and validate a numerical model of the UH-60 with sling load and demonstrate a method of near real time flight test analysis. This thesis presents results from flight tests of a U.S. Army Black Hawk helicopter with various external loads. Tests were conducted as the U.S. first phase of this MOA task. The primary load was a container express box (CONEX) which contained a compact instrumentation package. The flights covered the airspeed range from hover to 70 knots. Primary maneuvers were pitch and roll frequency sweeps, steps, and doublets. Results of the test determined the effect of the suspended load on both the aircraft's handling qualities and its control system's stability margins. Included were calculations of the stability characteristics of the load's pendular motion. Utilizing CIFER(R) software, a method for near

  9. Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, S. Fred

    1977-01-01

    Discusses how to set the ambient standards for water and air based on cost-benefit analysis. Describes marginal analysis, the basis of cost-benefit analysis and how dynamic cost-benefit analysis is carried out with application to the automobile pollution problem. (HM)

  10. Regulatory cost-risk study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs. (JDB)

  11. Unintended Consequences of Cost Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercey, David

    2010-01-01

    An Alberta school district that used a cost-recovery model to finance school services for 20 years is finding that the model produces unintended negative results. Some schools didn't spend this money on services but used it for other school operations. Some spent the money on external consultants. Professional relationships were damaged, and…

  12. Reconstructing Rodinia by Fitting Neoproterozoic Continental Margins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Reconstructions of Phanerozoic tectonic plates can be closely constrained by lithologic correlations across conjugate margins by paleontologic information, by correlation of orogenic belts, by paleomagnetic location of continents, and by ocean floor magmatic stripes. In contrast, Proterozoic reconstructions are hindered by the lack of some of these tools or the lack of their precision. To overcome some of these difficulties, this report focuses on a different method of reconstruction, namely the use of the shape of continents to assemble the supercontinent of Rodinia, much like a jigsaw puzzle. Compared to the vast amount of information available for Phanerozoic systems, such a limited approach for Proterozoic rocks, may seem suspect. However, using the assembly of the southern continents (South America, Africa, India, Arabia, Antarctica, and Australia) as an example, a very tight fit of the continents is apparent and illustrates the power of the jigsaw puzzle method. This report focuses on Neoproterozoic rocks, which are shown on two new detailed geologic maps that constitute the backbone of the study. The report also describes the Neoproterozoic, but younger or older rocks are not discussed or not discussed in detail. The Neoproterozoic continents and continental margins are identified based on the distribution of continental-margin sedimentary and magmatic rocks that define the break-up margins of Rodinia. These Neoproterozoic continental exposures, as well as critical Neo- and Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonic features shown on the two new map compilations, are used to reconstruct the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia. This approach differs from the common approach of using fold belts to define structural features deemed important in the Rodinian reconstruction. Fold belts are difficult to date, and many are significantly younger than the time frame considered here (1,200 to 850 Ma). Identifying Neoproterozoic continental margins, which are primarily

  13. Crustal structure of the Nova Scotia margin and implications for the Moroccan margin conjugate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Louden, K. E.; Jackson, R.; Dehler, S.; Funck, T.

    2003-04-01

    The Nova Scotia margin is located at a transition from volcanic margins in the south to non-volcanic margins in the north along the Eastern Atlantic continental margin system. South of the Nova Scotia margin, seaward dipping reflections (SDR) and a high-velocity lower crustal layer are observed across the ocean-continent transition (OCT), indicative of volcanic margins. North of the Nova Scotia margin, no SDR is observed and thin crust overlies serpentinized mantle across the OCT. Along the Nova Scotia margin, an SDR sequence is observed but only on the southern-most part neighboring Georges Bank. The East Coast Magnetic Anomaly, possibly related to an igneous wedge, extends further to the north but disappears south of the Scotian Basin. In order to understand the crustal structure of this transition from volcanic to non-volcanic margin, three wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction (WAR/R) profiles were acquired across the full width of the Nova Scotia margin in 2001, to delineate the crustal features from continental crust to oceanic crust. The northern profile (Line 1) crosses the Scotian Basin and coincides with existing multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) profile 89-1; the middle profile (Line 2) crosses the Lahave Platform and coincides with MCS profiles 88-1 and 88-1a; and the southern profile (Line 3) crosses the southwestern part of the margin. Preliminary results for the middle WAR/R profile indicate that serpentinized mantle is observed below the OCT, possibly overlain by thin oceanic crust. Oceanic crust is about 6 km thick, 1-2 km thicker than that of the northern profile. This indicates increasing volcanism and magma generation from the northern to the southern parts of the margin. WAR/R profiles were collected across the conjugate NW-Moroccan margin in 2001, one of which is 60 km to the north of Line 1 in the plate reconstruction at the time of rifting. Similar amounts of crustal extension and widths of transitional crust are shown along these

  14. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E.; Butterworth, Nathaniel P.; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-08-01

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth’s major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength–velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  15. Ferritin associates with marginal band microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Infante, Anthony A.; Infante, Dzintra; Chan, M.-C.; How, P.-C.; Kutschera, Waltraud; Linhartova, Irena; Muellner, Ernst W.; Wiche, Gerhard; Propst, Friedrich . E-mail: friedrich.propst@univie.ac.at

    2007-05-01

    We characterized chicken erythrocyte and human platelet ferritin by biochemical studies and immunofluorescence. Erythrocyte ferritin was found to be a homopolymer of H-ferritin subunits, resistant to proteinase K digestion, heat stable, and contained iron. In mature chicken erythrocytes and human platelets, ferritin was localized at the marginal band, a ring-shaped peripheral microtubule bundle, and displayed properties of bona fide microtubule-associated proteins such as tau. Red blood cell ferritin association with the marginal band was confirmed by temperature-induced disassembly-reassembly of microtubules. During erythrocyte differentiation, ferritin co-localized with coalescing microtubules during marginal band formation. In addition, ferritin was found in the nuclei of mature erythrocytes, but was not detectable in those of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors. These results suggest that ferritin has a function in marginal band formation and possibly in protection of the marginal band from damaging effects of reactive oxygen species by sequestering iron in the mature erythrocyte. Moreover, our data suggest that ferritin and syncolin, a previously identified erythrocyte microtubule-associated protein, are identical. Nuclear ferritin might contribute to transcriptional silencing or, alternatively, constitute a ferritin reservoir.

  16. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins.

    PubMed

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E; Butterworth, Nathaniel P; Müller, R Dietmar

    2016-08-11

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth's major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength--velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  17. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins.

    PubMed

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E; Butterworth, Nathaniel P; Müller, R Dietmar

    2016-08-11

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth's major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength--velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time. PMID:27437571

  18. Expanding sisterhood: Jewish lesbians and externalizations of Jewishness.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Amy K

    2014-01-01

    The body is a canvas that can be used to express a kaleidoscope of identities. For Jewish lesbians, who experience marginalization at the hands of both secular and religious society, externalizations of Jewishness can be empowering. For some women, this embodied Jewishness makes a political statement; for others, it gives voice to their Jewish spirituality. In both cases, this ethnographic study probes the ways in which Jewish lesbians experience queerness and Jewishness and how overlaps of these identities manifest in hair styling, yarmulkes, and the wearing of prayer shawls. PMID:25298102

  19. Expanding sisterhood: Jewish lesbians and externalizations of Jewishness.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Amy K

    2014-01-01

    The body is a canvas that can be used to express a kaleidoscope of identities. For Jewish lesbians, who experience marginalization at the hands of both secular and religious society, externalizations of Jewishness can be empowering. For some women, this embodied Jewishness makes a political statement; for others, it gives voice to their Jewish spirituality. In both cases, this ethnographic study probes the ways in which Jewish lesbians experience queerness and Jewishness and how overlaps of these identities manifest in hair styling, yarmulkes, and the wearing of prayer shawls.

  20. The correlation between internal and external markers for abdominal tumors: Implications for respiratory gating

    SciTech Connect

    Gierga, David P. . E-mail: dgierga@partners.org; Brewer, Johanna; Sharp, Gregory C.; Betke, Margrit; Willett, Christopher G.; Chen, George T.Y.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: The correlation of the respiratory motion of external patient markers and abdominal tumors was examined. Data of this type are important for image-guided therapy techniques, such as respiratory gating, that monitor the movement of external fiducials. Methods and Materials: Fluoroscopy sessions for 4 patients with internal, radiopaque tumor fiducial clips were analyzed by computer vision techniques. The motion of the internal clips and the external markers placed on the patient's abdominal skin surface were quantified and correlated. Results: In general, the motion of the tumor and external markers were well correlated. The maximum amount of peak-to-peak craniocaudal tumor motion was 2.5 cm. The ratio of tumor motion to external-marker motion ranged from 0.85 to 7.1. The variation in tumor position for a given external-marker position ranged from 2 to 9 mm. The period of the breathing cycle ranged from 2.7 to 4.5 seconds, and the frequency patterns for both the tumor and the external markers were similar. Conclusions: Although tumor motion generally correlated well with external fiducial marker motion, relatively large underlying tumor motion can occur compared with external-marker motion and variations in the tumor position for a given marker position. Treatment margins should be determined on the basis of a detailed understanding of tumor motion, as opposed to relying only on external-marker information.

  1. External marketing. How it can build a dental practice.

    PubMed

    Ascher, S

    1988-01-01

    This article gives a general introduction to external marketing as it befits the image of the dental professional. Research and various media opportunities are discussed, highlighting their advantages and pointing out the pros and cons of each. The latest trends in advertising philosophy are intertwined with concrete advice regarding cost effectiveness. This article is helpful to solo as well as group practitioners. PMID:3422203

  2. The cost of cataract surgery in a public health eye care program in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Marseille, E; Gilbert, S

    1996-02-01

    Using data from the Lumbini Zonal Eye Care Program in Nepal, the authors estimated marginal costs, capital costs, and average recurring costs for a public health cataract program with and without donor agency overhead expenditures. Each estimate is useful for guiding decisions under certain conditions. Marginal costs are appropriate for short-term planning. Average in-country recurring cost figures are needed to project budgets for longer term program costs or major program expansion. A portion of donor agency overhead costs should be included if expansion requires more donor agency contributions. Marginal costs are estimated at US$3.01 per case. In country recurring costs are about $13.91. Capital costs excluding hospital construction are an additional $2.42. Seva's USA administrative expenditures in support of the cataract component of the program add about another $5.38. Total costs were about $21.71 per case.

  3. Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

  4. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  5. Subglacial hydrology and ice stream margin locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perol, Thibaut; Rice, James R.; Platt, John D.; Suckale, Jenny

    2015-07-01

    Fast-flowing ice streams in West Antarctica are separated from the nearly stagnant ice in the adjacent ridge by zones of highly localized deformation known as shear margins. It is presently uncertain what mechanisms control the location of shear margins and possibly allow them to migrate. In this paper we show how subglacial hydrological processes can select the shear margin location, leading to a smooth transition from a slipping to a locked bed at the base of an ice stream. Our study uses a two-dimensional thermomechanical model in a cross section perpendicular to the direction of flow. We confirm that the intense straining at the shear margins can generate large temperate regions within the deforming ice. Assuming that the melt generated in the temperate ice collects in a drainage channel at the base of the margin, we show that a channel locally decreases the pore pressure in the subglacial till. Therefore, the basal shear strength just outside the channel, assuming a Coulomb-plastic rheology, can be substantially higher than that inferred under the majority of the stream. Results show that the additional basal resistance produced by the channel lowers the stress concentrated on the locked portion of the bed. Matching the model to surface velocity data, we find that shear margins are stable when the slipping-to-locked bed transition occurs less than 500 m away from a channel operating at an effective pressure of 200 kPa and for a hydraulic transmissivity equivalent to a basal water film of order 0.2 mm thickness.

  6. Risk Informed Margins Management as part of Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith

    2014-06-01

    The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about Light Water Reactor (LWR) design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as risk informed margins management (RIMM) strategies.

  7. Externality and burnout among dentists.

    PubMed

    St-Yves, A; Freeston, M H; Godbout, F; Poulin, L; St-Amand, C; Verret, M

    1989-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and locus of control as measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control (ANS-IE) for 82 dentists. Significant Pearson correlations between two Maslach subscales and locus of control show Personal Accomplishment to be negatively associated -.31 and Emotional Exhaustion to be positively correlated .21 to externality.

  8. [Contact sensitization to external agents].

    PubMed

    Erdmann, S M; Merk, H-F

    2003-04-01

    The following review describes contact sensitization to topically applied medications--especially topical dermatological agents--and to external agents in the broadest sense. Particularly skin care products constitute a special source for sensitization due to their widespread use. Especially fragrances and preservatives in cosmetics play an important global role in eliciting contact allergies. Because of the extremely broad spectrum covered by the active and adjuvant ingredients contained in external agents, the following discussion focuses on specific substance groups.

  9. External dacryocystorhinostomy: Tips and tricks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N.; Honavar, Santosh G.

    2012-01-01

    Dacryocystorhinostomy or DCR is one of the most common oculoplastics surgery performed. It is a bypass procedure that creates an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the nasal mucosa via a bony ostium. It may be performed through an external skin incision or intranasally with or without endoscopic visualization. This article will discuss the indications, goals, and simple techniques for a successful outcome of an external DCR. PMID:23440476

  10. Algorithms for computing the multivariable stability margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tekawy, Jonathan A.; Safonov, Michael G.; Chiang, Richard Y.

    1989-01-01

    Stability margin for multiloop flight control systems has become a critical issue, especially in highly maneuverable aircraft designs where there are inherent strong cross-couplings between the various feedback control loops. To cope with this issue, we have developed computer algorithms based on non-differentiable optimization theory. These algorithms have been developed for computing the Multivariable Stability Margin (MSM). The MSM of a dynamical system is the size of the smallest structured perturbation in component dynamics that will destabilize the system. These algorithms have been coded and appear to be reliable. As illustrated by examples, they provide the basis for evaluating the robustness and performance of flight control systems.

  11. Normal lid margin after eyelid reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cies, W A; Baylis, H I

    1977-04-01

    To prevent corneal damage, the central lid margin must have a normal skin-conjunctiva interface following the lid reconstruction. A two-step procedure may be employed: In the lower lid an initial Hughes reconstruction should be tried. If this is unacceptable, a subsequent block excision of the segment is performed. The important step in both phases is a thorough lateral cantholysis. In the upper lid, the central defect is immediately reconstructed by sliding the lateral lid remnant to the medial remnant. The resulting lateral defect is reconstructed with a Hughes procedure. In both cases, a physiologic lid margin is insured, because normal lid is sutured to normal lid.

  12. On the Evolution of Glaciated Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverre Laberg, Jan; Rydningen, Tom Arne; Safronova, Polina A.; Forwick, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Glaciated continental margins, continental margins where a grounded ice sheet repeatedly has been at or near the shelf break, are found at both northern and southern high-latitudes. Their evolution are in several aspects different from their low-latitude counterparts where eustatic sea-level variations possess a fundamental control on their evolution and where fluvial systems provide the main sediment input. From studies of the Norwegian - Barents Sea - Svalbard and NE Greenland continental margins we propose the following factors as the main control on the evolution of glaciated continental margins: 1) Pre-glacial relief controlling the accommodation space, 2) Ice sheet glaciology including the location of fast-flowing ice streams where source area morphology exerts a fundamental control, 3) Composition of the glacigenic sediments where the clay content in previous studies have been found to be important, and 4) Sea-level controlled both by eustacy and isostacy. From three case studies, 1) the western Barents Sea, 2) part of the North Norwegian (Troms), and 3) the Mid-Norwegian margin, the influence on these factors for the sea-floor morphology, sedimentary processes of the continental slope - deep sea and continental margin architecture are discussed. The pre-glacial relief of the mid-Norwegian and Troms margins relates to the onset of rifting and plate break-up from the early Cenozoic while for the SW Barents Sea, plate shear was followed by rifting. A wide zone of extended continental crust occurs offshore mid-Norway while this zone is much narrower offshore Troms leading to a more pronounced pre-glacial relief. Regarding sediment delivery and ice sheet glaciology the western Barents Sea exemplifies very high sediment input corresponding to an estimated average erosion of the source area of ~0.4 mm/yr (SW Barents Sea), much of which is related to subglacial erosion of Mesozoic - Cenozoic sedimentary rocks from large paleo-ice streams. The mid-Norwegian margin

  13. Capital Costs: A Conceptual Framework for Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Samuel G.

    2004-01-01

    The increased attention to costs in recent years at colleges and universities draws attention to the matter of whether all costs are reflected and accounted for in the institution's internal and external financial reports. One category--capital costs--is thought by some to be overlooked at times. The possible neglect of capital costs in…

  14. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  15. Vital truths about managing your costs.

    PubMed

    Ames, B C; Hlavacek, J D

    1990-01-01

    Four truths apply to every business situation: 1. It is essential to be a lower cost supplier. 2. To stay competitive, inflation-adjusted costs of producing and supplying products and services must trend downward. 3. The true cost and profit pictures for each product/market segment must always be known, and traditional accounting practices must not obscure them. 4. A business must concentrate as much on cash flow and balance-sheet strengths as it does on profits. In order to ascertain exactly what your costs are, you must carefully isolate and assign various costs to specific products, accounts, or markets. Managers often do this badly, working on the basis of "average" costs. This ignores important differences among products and the fact that different products, different markets, and different customers incur different overhead costs. Most manufacturing companies' most important expense categories are R&D, sales, and general and administrative costs, but surprisingly, they generally don't get the attention they should. Neither do two crucial ratios-gross margin and the percent of assets employed per dollar of sales. Gross margins should usually not be less than 40%, and for most manufacturing companies, assets should not be over 60% of annual sales. Wrong deviation from these ratios will undermine profit targets. Once your costs are known and clearly assigned to product lines, markets, and key customers, they should be widely shared in the organization so that everyone will feel committed to cost management and know when deviations occur. PMID:10103812

  16. Vital truths about managing your costs.

    PubMed

    Ames, B C; Hlavacek, J D

    1990-01-01

    Four truths apply to every business situation: 1. It is essential to be a lower cost supplier. 2. To stay competitive, inflation-adjusted costs of producing and supplying products and services must trend downward. 3. The true cost and profit pictures for each product/market segment must always be known, and traditional accounting practices must not obscure them. 4. A business must concentrate as much on cash flow and balance-sheet strengths as it does on profits. In order to ascertain exactly what your costs are, you must carefully isolate and assign various costs to specific products, accounts, or markets. Managers often do this badly, working on the basis of "average" costs. This ignores important differences among products and the fact that different products, different markets, and different customers incur different overhead costs. Most manufacturing companies' most important expense categories are R&D, sales, and general and administrative costs, but surprisingly, they generally don't get the attention they should. Neither do two crucial ratios-gross margin and the percent of assets employed per dollar of sales. Gross margins should usually not be less than 40%, and for most manufacturing companies, assets should not be over 60% of annual sales. Wrong deviation from these ratios will undermine profit targets. Once your costs are known and clearly assigned to product lines, markets, and key customers, they should be widely shared in the organization so that everyone will feel committed to cost management and know when deviations occur.

  17. Marginally hydrophobic transmembrane α-helices shaping membrane protein folding

    PubMed Central

    De Marothy, Minttu T; Elofsson, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Cells have developed an incredible machinery to facilitate the insertion of membrane proteins into the membrane. While we have a fairly good understanding of the mechanism and determinants of membrane integration, more data is needed to understand the insertion of membrane proteins with more complex insertion and folding pathways. This review will focus on marginally hydrophobic transmembrane helices and their influence on membrane protein folding. These weakly hydrophobic transmembrane segments are by themselves not recognized by the translocon and therefore rely on local sequence context for membrane integration. How can such segments reside within the membrane? We will discuss this in the light of features found in the protein itself as well as the environment it resides in. Several characteristics in proteins have been described to influence the insertion of marginally hydrophobic helices. Additionally, the influence of biological membranes is significant. To begin with, the actual cost for having polar groups within the membrane may not be as high as expected; the presence of proteins in the membrane as well as characteristics of some amino acids may enable a transmembrane helix to harbor a charged residue. The lipid environment has also been shown to directly influence the topology as well as membrane boundaries of transmembrane helices—implying a dynamic relationship between membrane proteins and their environment. PMID:25970811

  18. SRWC bioenergy productivity and economic feasibility on marginal lands.

    PubMed

    Ghezehei, Solomon B; Shifflett, Shawn D; Hazel, Dennis W; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2015-09-01

    Evolving bioenergy markets necessitate consideration of marginal lands for woody biomass production worldwide particularly the southeastern U.S., a prominent wood pellet exporter to Europe. Growing short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) on marginal lands minimizes concerns about using croplands for bioenergy production and reinforces sustainability of wood supply to existing and growing global biomass markets. We estimated mean annual aboveground green biomass increments (MAIs) and assessed economic feasibility of various operationally established (0.5 ha-109 ha) SRWC stands on lands used to mitigate environmental liabilities of municipal wastewater, livestock wastewater and sludge, and subsurface contamination by petroleum and pesticides. MAIs (Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) had no consistent relationship with stand density or age. Non-irrigated Populus, Plantanus occidentalis L. and Pinus taeda L. stands produced 2.4-12.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). Older, irrigated Taxodium distchum L., Fraxinus pennsylvanica L., and coppiced P. occidentalis stands had higher MAIs (10.6-21.3 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) than irrigated Liquidambar styraciflua L. and non-coppiced, irrigated P. occidentalis (8-18 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Natural hardwood MAIs at 20-60 years were less than hardwood and P. taeda productivities at 5-20 years. Unlike weed control, irrigation and coppicing improved managed hardwood productivity. Rotation length affected economic outcomes although the returns were poor due to high establishment and maintenance costs, low productivities and low current stumpage values, which are expected to quickly change with development of robust global markets. PMID:26087365

  19. SRWC bioenergy productivity and economic feasibility on marginal lands.

    PubMed

    Ghezehei, Solomon B; Shifflett, Shawn D; Hazel, Dennis W; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2015-09-01

    Evolving bioenergy markets necessitate consideration of marginal lands for woody biomass production worldwide particularly the southeastern U.S., a prominent wood pellet exporter to Europe. Growing short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) on marginal lands minimizes concerns about using croplands for bioenergy production and reinforces sustainability of wood supply to existing and growing global biomass markets. We estimated mean annual aboveground green biomass increments (MAIs) and assessed economic feasibility of various operationally established (0.5 ha-109 ha) SRWC stands on lands used to mitigate environmental liabilities of municipal wastewater, livestock wastewater and sludge, and subsurface contamination by petroleum and pesticides. MAIs (Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) had no consistent relationship with stand density or age. Non-irrigated Populus, Plantanus occidentalis L. and Pinus taeda L. stands produced 2.4-12.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). Older, irrigated Taxodium distchum L., Fraxinus pennsylvanica L., and coppiced P. occidentalis stands had higher MAIs (10.6-21.3 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) than irrigated Liquidambar styraciflua L. and non-coppiced, irrigated P. occidentalis (8-18 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Natural hardwood MAIs at 20-60 years were less than hardwood and P. taeda productivities at 5-20 years. Unlike weed control, irrigation and coppicing improved managed hardwood productivity. Rotation length affected economic outcomes although the returns were poor due to high establishment and maintenance costs, low productivities and low current stumpage values, which are expected to quickly change with development of robust global markets.

  20. Negative Stress Margins - Are They Real?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Lee, Darlene S.; Mohaghegh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Advances in modeling and simulation, new finite element software, modeling engines and powerful computers are providing opportunities to interrogate designs in a very different manner and in a more detailed approach than ever before. Margins of safety are also often evaluated using local stresses for various design concepts and design parameters quickly once analysis models are defined and developed. This paper suggests that not all the negative margins of safety evaluated are real. The structural areas where negative margins are frequently encountered are often near stress concentrations, point loads and load discontinuities, near locations of stress singularities, in areas having large gradients but with insufficient mesh density, in areas with modeling issues and modeling errors, and in areas with connections and interfaces, in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transitions, bolts and bolt modeling, and boundary conditions. Now, more than ever, structural analysts need to examine and interrogate their analysis results and perform basic sanity checks to determine if these negative margins are real.

  1. Test-Factor Standardization and Marginal Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kent W.

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses M. Rosenberg's Test-Factor Standardization as a type of marginal standardization. To illustrate this relation, the author utilizes a table on abortion attitudes formerly published by K.W. Smith in his commentary on Rosenberg's work. (Author/GC)

  2. Polar continental margins: Studies off East Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienert, J.; Thiede, J.; Kenyon, N. H.; Hollender, F.-J.

    The passive continental margin off east Greenland has been shaped by tectonic and sedimentary processes, and typical physiographic patterns have evolved over the past few million years under the influence of the late Cenozoic Northern Hemisphere glaciations. The Greenland ice shield has been particularly affected.GLORIA (Geological Long Range Inclined Asdic), the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences' (IOS) long-range, side-scan sonar, was used on a 1992 RV Livonia cruise to map large-scale changes in sedimentary patterns along the east Greenland continental margin. The overall objective of this research program was to determine the variety of large-scale seafloor processes to improve our understanding of the interaction between ice sheets, current regimes, and sedimentary processes. In cooperation with IOS and the RV Livonia, a high-quality set of seafloor data has been produced. GLORIA'S first survey of east Greenland's continental margin covered several 1000- × 50-km-wide swaths (Figure 1) and yielded an impressive sidescan sonar image of the complete Greenland Basin and margin (about 250,000 km2). A mosaic of the data was made at a scale of 1:375,000. The base map was prepared with a polar stereographic projection having a standard parallel of 71°.

  3. Japan's Winning Margins. Management, Training, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorriman, John; Kenjo, Takashi

    This book explains the fundamental reasons for Japan's astonishing commercial success in relation to its Western competitors. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 discusses implications of Japanese history for education, training, and management. Chapter 3 looks at the first winning margin--education. It covers the following: Japan's long…

  4. 5TH BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OCEAN MARGINS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    DR. ARTURO MASSOL, PROGRAM CHAIR; DR. ROSA BUXEDA, PROGRAM CO-CHAIR

    2004-01-08

    BI-OMP supports DOE's mission in Climate Change Research. The program provides the fundamental understanding of the linkages between carbon and nitrogen cycles in ocean margins. Researchers are providing a mechanistic understanding of these cycles, using the tools of modern molecular biology. The models that will allow policy makers to determine safe levels of greenhouse gases for the Earth System.

  5. Marginal Entropion: A Frequently Overlooked Eyelid Malposition

    PubMed Central

    Erdoğan, Mustafa; Karadeniz Uğurlu, Şeyda

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical findings and outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with marginal entropion. Materials and Methods: Patients with impairment of the natural square-shaped eyelid margin morphology, anterior migration of mucocutaneous junction and mild lid inversion toward the ocular surface were diagnosed as having marginal entropion. Patients with shortened fornices, cicatricial changes or subconjunctival fibrosis were excluded. Demographic characteristics, ophthalmologic examination findings, surgical procedures and follow-up data were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Twelve eyes of 11 patients were included in the study. Median age was 73 years (range, 49-84 years). All cases presented with signs of meibomianitis and were treated preoperatively with oral doxycycline and topical corticosteroids. Tarsal fracture procedure was performed for correction of lid malposition. In all patients, lid malposition was corrected and ocular irritation findings had regressed. No recurrences were observed in the follow-up period of mean 10 months (range, 5-16 months). Conclusion: Marginal entropion is a common malposition that is frequently misdiagnosed as trichiasis and is overlooked. Complications secondary to misdiagnosis can be avoided and a normal lid position achieved when the correct diagnosis is made. PMID:27800233

  6. Keeping Academically Marginal Youth in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Geoffrey; Dunham, Roger

    1986-01-01

    From among factors theoretically considered relevant to preventing school dropouts, empirical procedures identified five variables that predicted most of the variance among marginal youth: (1) extent of misbehavior in school; (2) belief in school's relevance to employment; (3) feelings of success in school; (4) parental monitoring of behavior; (5)…

  7. 12 CFR 349.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... depository institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail...

  8. 12 CFR 48.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for all other currency...

  9. 12 CFR 48.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for all other currency...

  10. 12 CFR 349.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... depository institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail...

  11. 12 CFR 349.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... depository institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail...

  12. 12 CFR 240.9 - Margin requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... required. A banking institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value...

  13. 12 CFR 48.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for all other currency...

  14. RISK-INFORMED SAFETY MARGIN CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nam Dinh; Ronaldo Szilard

    2009-07-01

    The concept of safety margins has served as a fundamental principle in the design and operation of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). Defined as the minimum distance between a system’s “loading” and its “capacity”, plant design and operation is predicated on ensuring an adequate safety margin for safety-significant parameters (e.g., fuel cladding temperature, containment pressure, etc.) is provided over the spectrum of anticipated plant operating, transient and accident conditions. To meet the anticipated challenges associated with extending the operational lifetimes of the current fleet of operating NPPs, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have developed a collaboration to conduct coordinated research to identify and address the technological challenges and opportunities that likely would affect the safe and economic operation of the existing NPP fleet over the postulated long-term time horizons. In this paper we describe a framework for developing and implementing a Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach to evaluate and manage changes in plant safety margins over long time horizons.

  15. Female Special Education Directors: Doubly Marginalized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Charlotte Hendrick; Parmley, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative study of five Texas female special education directors found that although participants achieved an administrative position, they were marginalized due to their leadership style, gender discrimination, and socialization. Participants also indicated a negative connection between being in special education administration and top-level…

  16. Confronting the Marginalization of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeter, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, over the last two decades, attention to culturally responsive, multicultural approaches to teaching have largely been supplanted by standardized curricula and pedagogy that derive from neoliberal business models of school reform. In this essay, I discuss three factors that contribute to the marginalization of culturally responsive…

  17. Costs and financial feasibility of malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    Sabot, Oliver; Cohen, Justin M; Hsiang, Michelle S; Kahn, James G; Basu, Suprotik; Tang, Linhua; Zheng, Bin; Gao, Qi; Zou, Linda; Tatarsky, Allison; Aboobakar, Shahina; Usas, Jennifer; Barrett, Scott; Cohen, Jessica L; Jamison, Dean T; Feachem, Richard GA

    2010-01-01

    Summary The marginal costs and benefits of converting malaria programmes from a control to an elimination goal are central to strategic decisions, but empirical evidence is scarce. We present a conceptual framework to assess the economics of elimination and analyse a central component of that framework—potential short-term to medium-term financial savings. After a review that showed a dearth of existing evidence, the net present value of elimination in five sites was calculated and compared with effective control. The probability that elimination would be cost-saving over 50 years ranged from 0% to 42%, with only one site achieving cost-savings in the base case. These findings show that financial savings should not be a primary rationale for elimination, but that elimination might still be a worthy investment if total benefits are sufficient to outweigh marginal costs. Robust research into these elimination benefits is urgently needed. PMID:21035839

  18. 28 CFR 100.15 - Disallowed costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limited to: (1) Accounting and Finance, External Relations, Human Resources, Information Management, Legal...) costs are disallowed. G&A costs include, but are not limited to, any management, financial, and other... include, but are not limited to, any Marketing, Sales, Product Management, and Advertising expenses....

  19. Cost Analysis of Selected Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Betty

    Part of a government report on "Efficiency in Higher Education," this study dealt with the cost of existing or proposed external degree or non-traditional programs in adult higher education, an area which is lacking in substantive cost data. Twenty-seven institutions were contacted because they were believed to have non-traditional programs; high…

  20. 28 CFR 100.15 - Disallowed costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limited to: (1) Accounting and Finance, External Relations, Human Resources, Information Management, Legal...) costs are disallowed. G&A costs include, but are not limited to, any management, financial, and other... include, but are not limited to, any Marketing, Sales, Product Management, and Advertising expenses....

  1. 28 CFR 100.15 - Disallowed costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limited to: (1) Accounting and Finance, External Relations, Human Resources, Information Management, Legal...) costs are disallowed. G&A costs include, but are not limited to, any management, financial, and other... include, but are not limited to, any Marketing, Sales, Product Management, and Advertising expenses....

  2. 28 CFR 100.15 - Disallowed costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limited to: (1) Accounting and Finance, External Relations, Human Resources, Information Management, Legal...) costs are disallowed. G&A costs include, but are not limited to, any management, financial, and other... include, but are not limited to, any Marketing, Sales, Product Management, and Advertising expenses....

  3. 28 CFR 100.15 - Disallowed costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limited to: (1) Accounting and Finance, External Relations, Human Resources, Information Management, Legal...) costs are disallowed. G&A costs include, but are not limited to, any management, financial, and other... include, but are not limited to, any Marketing, Sales, Product Management, and Advertising expenses....

  4. Evolution of Northeast Atlantic magmatic continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Richard; Cornwell, David; Ramsden, Alice

    2014-05-01

    One of the major problems interpreting the evolution of magmatic continental margins such as those which dominate the Irish, UK and Norwegian margins of the NE Atlantic is that the structure which should record the pre-magmatic evolution of the rift and which potentially influences the character of the rifting process is partially or completely obscured by thick basalt lava flows and sills. A limited number of deep reflection seismic profiles acquired with tuned seismic sources have penetrated the basalts and provide an image of the pre-magmatic structure, otherwise the principle data are lower resolution wide-angle/refraction profiles and potential field models which have greater uncertainties associated with them. In order to sidestep the imaging contraints we have examined the Ethiopian ñ Afar rift system to try to understand the rifting process. This magmatic rift system provides, along its length, a series of ësnapshotsí into the possible tectonic evolution of a magmatic continental margin which are associated with different amounts of extension. The Main Ethiopian rift contains an embryonic magmatic passive margin dominated by faulting at the margins of the rift and en-echlon magmatic zones at the centre. Further north toward Afar the rift becomes infilled with extensive lava flows fed from fissure systems in the widening rift zone. Deep seismic profiles crossing the NE Atlantic margins reveal ocean dipping reflector sequences (ODRS) of basaltic lavas overlying extended crust and lower crustal sill complexes of intruded igneous rock, often referred to as underplate, which extend back beneath the continental margin. The ODRS show a variety of morphologies and settings but frequently occur in fault bounded rift structures along the margins. We suggest, by analogy to the observations that can be made in the Ethiopia Afar rift that these fault bounded basins largely form at the embryonic rift stage and are then partially or completely filled with lavas fed

  5. Gas hydrates of outer continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances in which a rigid framework of water molecules traps molecules of gas, mainly methane. Gas-hydrate deposits are common in continental margin sediment in all major oceans at water depths greater than about 300 m. Thirty-three localities with evidence for gas-hydrate occurrence have been described worldwide. The presence of these gas hydrates has been inferred mainly from anomalous lacoustic reflectors seen on marine seismic records. Naturally occurring marine gas hydrates have been sampled and analyzed at about tensites in several regions including continental slope and rise sediment of the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Except for some Gulf of Mexico gas hydrate occurrences, the analyzed gas hydrates are composed almost exclusively of microbial methane. Evidence for the microbial origin of methane in gas hydrates includes (1) the inverse relation between methane occurence and sulfate concentration in the sediment, (2) the subparallel depth trends in carbon isotopic compositions of methane and bicarbonate in the interstitial water, and (3) the general range of {sup 13}C depletion ({delta}{sub PDB}{sup 13}C = {minus}90 to {minus}60 {per thousand}) in the methane. Analyses of gas hydrates from the Peruvian outer continental margin in particular illustrate this evidence for microbially generated methane. The total amount of methane in gas hydrates of continental margins is not known, but estimates of about 10{sup 16} m{sup 3} seem reasonable. Although this amount of methane is large, it is not yet clear whether methane hydrates of outer continental margins will ever be a significant energy resource; however, these gas hydrates will probably constitute a drilling hazard when outer continental margins are explored in the future.

  6. Projected Future Costs of AB123.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gil

    A projection is provided of the Rancho Santiago Community College District's estimated future marginal costs of classroom teachers who, pursuant to California Assembly Bill 123, may retire using their highest 12 consecutive months' salary rather than the average of the 3 highest consecutive years as their final compensation. The projection was…

  7. Sustainable bioenergy production from marginal lands in the US Midwest.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Ilya; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, R César; Gross, Katherine L; Robertson, G Philip

    2013-01-24

    Legislation on biofuels production in the USA and Europe is directing food crops towards the production of grain-based ethanol, which can have detrimental consequences for soil carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions, nitrate pollution, biodiversity and human health. An alternative is to grow lignocellulosic (cellulosic) crops on 'marginal' lands. Cellulosic feedstocks can have positive environmental outcomes and could make up a substantial proportion of future energy portfolios. However, the availability of marginal lands for cellulosic feedstock production, and the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, remains uncertain. Here we evaluate the potential for marginal lands in ten Midwestern US states to produce sizeable amounts of biomass and concurrently mitigate GHG emissions. In a comparative assessment of six alternative cropping systems over 20 years, we found that successional herbaceous vegetation, once well established, has a direct GHG emissions mitigation capacity that rivals that of purpose-grown crops (-851 ± 46 grams of CO(2) equivalent emissions per square metre per year (gCO(2)e m(-2) yr(-1))). If fertilized, these communities have the capacity to produce about 63 ± 5 gigajoules of ethanol energy per hectare per year. By contrast, an adjacent, no-till corn-soybean-wheat rotation produces on average 41 ± 1 gigajoules of biofuel energy per hectare per year and has a net direct mitigation capacity of -397 ± 32 gCO(2)e m(-2) yr(-1); a continuous corn rotation would probably produce about 62 ± 7 gigajoules of biofuel energy per hectare per year, with 13% less mitigation. We also perform quantitative modelling of successional vegetation on marginal lands in the region at a resolution of 0.4 hectares, constrained by the requirement that each modelled location be within 80 kilometres of a potential biorefinery. Our results suggest that such vegetation could produce about 21 gigalitres of ethanol per year from

  8. Sustainable bioenergy production from marginal lands in the US Midwest.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Ilya; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, R César; Gross, Katherine L; Robertson, G Philip

    2013-01-24

    Legislation on biofuels production in the USA and Europe is directing food crops towards the production of grain-based ethanol, which can have detrimental consequences for soil carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions, nitrate pollution, biodiversity and human health. An alternative is to grow lignocellulosic (cellulosic) crops on 'marginal' lands. Cellulosic feedstocks can have positive environmental outcomes and could make up a substantial proportion of future energy portfolios. However, the availability of marginal lands for cellulosic feedstock production, and the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, remains uncertain. Here we evaluate the potential for marginal lands in ten Midwestern US states to produce sizeable amounts of biomass and concurrently mitigate GHG emissions. In a comparative assessment of six alternative cropping systems over 20 years, we found that successional herbaceous vegetation, once well established, has a direct GHG emissions mitigation capacity that rivals that of purpose-grown crops (-851 ± 46 grams of CO(2) equivalent emissions per square metre per year (gCO(2)e m(-2) yr(-1))). If fertilized, these communities have the capacity to produce about 63 ± 5 gigajoules of ethanol energy per hectare per year. By contrast, an adjacent, no-till corn-soybean-wheat rotation produces on average 41 ± 1 gigajoules of biofuel energy per hectare per year and has a net direct mitigation capacity of -397 ± 32 gCO(2)e m(-2) yr(-1); a continuous corn rotation would probably produce about 62 ± 7 gigajoules of biofuel energy per hectare per year, with 13% less mitigation. We also perform quantitative modelling of successional vegetation on marginal lands in the region at a resolution of 0.4 hectares, constrained by the requirement that each modelled location be within 80 kilometres of a potential biorefinery. Our results suggest that such vegetation could produce about 21 gigalitres of ethanol per year from

  9. Pentagon chain in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, György; Gulácsi, Zsolt

    2015-11-01

    We consider a pentagon chain described by a Hubbard type of model considered under periodic boundary conditions. The system (i) is placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the cells, and (ii) is in a site-selective manner under the action of an external electric potential. In these conditions, we show in an exact manner that the physical properties of the system can be qualitatively changed. The changes cause first strong modifications of the band structure of the system created by the one-particle part of the Hamiltonian, and second, produce marked changes of the phase diagram. We exemplify this by deducing ferromagnetic ground states in the presence of external fields in two different domains of the parameter space.

  10. System Guidelines for EMC Safety-Critical Circuits: Design, Selection, and Margin Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Demonstration of required safety margins on critical electrical/electronic circuits in large complex systems has become an implementation and cost problem. These margins are the difference between the activation level of the circuit and the electrical noise on the circuit in the actual operating environment. This document discusses the origin of the requirement and gives a detailed process flow for the identification of the system electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) critical circuit list. The process flow discusses the roles of engineering disciplines such as systems engineering, safety, and EMC. Design and analysis guidelines are provided to assist the designer in assuring the system design has a high probability of meeting the margin requirements. Examples of approaches used on actual programs (Skylab and Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster) are provided to show how variations of the approach can be used successfully.

  11. An Investigation of Rotorcraft Stability-Phase Margin Requirements in Hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanken, Chris L.; Lusardi, Jeff A.; Ivler, Christina M.; Tischler, Mark B.; Hoefinger, Marc T.; Decker, William A.; Malpica, Carlos A.; Berger, Tom; Tucker, George E.

    2009-01-01

    A cooperative study was performed to investigate the handling quality effects from reduced flight control system stability margins, and the trade-offs with higher disturbance rejection bandwidth (DRB). The piloted simulation study, perform on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, included three classes of rotorcraft in four configurations: a utility-class helicopter; a medium-lift helicopter evaluated with and without an external slung load; and a large (heavy-lift) civil tiltrotor aircraft. This large aircraft also allowed an initial assessment of ADS-33 handling quality requirements for an aircraft of this size. Ten experimental test pilots representing the U.S. Army, Marine Corps, NASA, rotorcraft industry, and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), evaluated the four aircraft configurations, for a range of flight control stability-margins and turbulence levels, while primarily performing the ADS-33 Hover and Lateral Reposition MTEs. Pilot comments and aircraft-task performance data were analyzed. The preliminary stability margin results suggest higher DRB and less phase margin cases are preferred as the aircraft increases in size. Extra care will need to be taken to assess the influence of variability when nominal flight control gains start with reduced margins. Phase margins as low as 20-23 degrees resulted in low disturbance-response damping ratios, objectionable oscillations, PIO tendencies, and a perception of an incipient handling qualities cliff. Pilot comments on the disturbance response of the aircraft correlated well to the DRB guidelines provided in the ADS-33 Test Guide. The A D-3S3 mid-term response-to-control damping ratio metrics can be measured and applied to the disturbance-response damping ratio. An initial assessment of LCTR yaw bandwidth shows the current Level 1 boundary needs to be relaxed to help account for a large pilot off-set from the c.g. Future efforts should continue to investigate the applicability/refinement of the current ADS-33

  12. Dependence of the safe rectum dose on the CTV–PTV margin size and treatment technique

    PubMed Central

    Kukołowicz, Pawel; Kukołowicz, Helena; Tyburska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Background Late rectal injury is a common side effect of external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate what total dose may be safely delivered for prostate patients for 3DCRT and IMRT techniques and the CTV–PTV margin. Materials and methods 3DCRT and IMRT plans were prepared for 12 patients. For each patient PTV was defined with CTV–PTV margins of 0.4, 0.6, …, 1.0 cm, and total doses of 70, 72, …, 80 Gy, with 2 Gy dose fraction. NTCP values for the rectum were calculated using the Lyman model. Both techniques were compared in terms of population mean DVH. Results Significantly smaller NTCPs for IMRT were obtained. For both techniques diminishing the margin CTV–PTV of 2 mm leads to decreasing the NTCP of about 0.03. For total dose of 80 Gy the NTCP was smaller than 10% for the 4 mm margin only. The QUANTEC dose volume constraints were more frequently fulfilled for the IMRT technique than for the 3DCRT technique. Conclusions The IMRT technique is safer for prostate patients than the 3DCRT. If very high total doses are applied the CTV–PTV margin of 0.4 cm and the IMRT technique should be used. If the CTV–PTV margin of 0.6 cm is applied, the NTCP is smaller than 10% for the 3DCRT and IMRT techniques for the total doses smaller than 74 Gy and 78 Gy, respectively. PMID:25949223

  13. Space station neutral external environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  14. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-07-01

    Externalizing problems are multidetermined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who are at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research have established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. This article presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as 2 adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  15. Do Medicare Advantage plans select enrollees in higher margin clinical categories?

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Joseph P; McWilliams, J Michael; Price, Mary; Huang, Jie; Fireman, Bruce; Hsu, John

    2013-12-01

    The CMS-HCC risk adjustment system for Medicare Advantage (MA) plans calculates weights, which are effectively relative prices, for beneficiaries with different observable characteristics. To do so it uses the relative amounts spent per beneficiary with those characteristics in Traditional Medicare (TM). For multiple reasons one might expect relative amounts in MA to differ from TM, thereby making some beneficiaries more profitable to treat than others. Much of the difference comes from differences in how TM and MA treat different diseases or diagnoses. Using data on actual medical spending from two MA-HMO plans, we show that the weights calculated from MA costs do indeed differ from those calculated using TM spending. One of the two plans (Plan 1) is more typical of MA-HMO plans in that it contracts with independent community providers, while the other (Plan 2) is vertically integrated with care delivery. We calculate margins, or average revenue/average cost, for Medicare beneficiaries in the two plans who have one of 48 different combinations of medical conditions. The two plans' margins for these 48 conditions are correlated (r=0.39, p<0.01). Both plans have margins that are more positive for persons with conditions that are managed by primary care physicians and where medical management can be effective. Conversely they have lower margins for persons with conditions that tend to be treated by specialists with greater market power than primary care physicians and for acute conditions where little medical management is possible. The two plan's margins among beneficiaries with different observable characteristics vary over a range of 160 and 98 percentage points, respectively, and thus would appear to offer substantial incentive for selection by HCC. Nonetheless, we find no evidence of overrepresentation of beneficiaries in high margin HCC's in either plan. Nor, using the margins from Plan 1, the more typical plan, do we find evidence of overrepresentation of high

  16. Do Medicare Advantage Plans Select Enrollees in Higher Margin Clinical Categories?

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; McWilliams, J. Michael; Price, Mary; Huang, Jie; Fireman, Bruce; Hsu, John

    2013-01-01

    The CMS-HCC risk adjustment system for Medicare Advantage (MA) plans calculates weights, which are effectively relative prices, for beneficiaries with different observable characteristics. To do so it uses the relative amounts spent per beneficiary with those characteristics in Traditional Medicare (TM). For multiple reasons one might expect relative amounts in MA to differ from TM, thereby making some beneficiaries more profitable to treat than others. Much of the difference comes from differences in how TM and MA treat different diseases or diagnoses. Using data on actual medical spending from two MA-HMO plans, we show that the weights calculated from MA costs do indeed differ from those calculated using TM spending. One of the two plans (Plan 1) is more typical of MA-HMO plans in that it contracts with independent community providers, while the other (Plan 2) is vertically integrated with care delivery. We calculate margins, or Average Revenue/Average Cost, for Medicare beneficiaries in the two plans who have one of 48 different combinations of medical conditions. The two plans’ margins for these 48 conditions are correlated (r=0.39, p<0.01). Both plans have margins that are more positive for persons with conditions that are managed by primary care physicians and where medical management can be effective. Conversely they have lower margins for persons with conditions that tend to be treated by specialists with greater market power than primary care physicians and for acute conditions where little medical management is possible. The two plan’s margins among beneficiaries with different observable characteristics vary over a range of 160 and 98 percentage points, respectively, and thus would appear to offer substantial incentive for selection by HCC. Nonetheless, we find no evidence of overrepresentation of beneficiaries in high margin HCC’s in either plan. Nor, using the margins from Plan 1, the more typical plan, do we find evidence of overrepresentation

  17. Do Medicare Advantage plans select enrollees in higher margin clinical categories?

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Joseph P; McWilliams, J Michael; Price, Mary; Huang, Jie; Fireman, Bruce; Hsu, John

    2013-12-01

    The CMS-HCC risk adjustment system for Medicare Advantage (MA) plans calculates weights, which are effectively relative prices, for beneficiaries with different observable characteristics. To do so it uses the relative amounts spent per beneficiary with those characteristics in Traditional Medicare (TM). For multiple reasons one might expect relative amounts in MA to differ from TM, thereby making some beneficiaries more profitable to treat than others. Much of the difference comes from differences in how TM and MA treat different diseases or diagnoses. Using data on actual medical spending from two MA-HMO plans, we show that the weights calculated from MA costs do indeed differ from those calculated using TM spending. One of the two plans (Plan 1) is more typical of MA-HMO plans in that it contracts with independent community providers, while the other (Plan 2) is vertically integrated with care delivery. We calculate margins, or average revenue/average cost, for Medicare beneficiaries in the two plans who have one of 48 different combinations of medical conditions. The two plans' margins for these 48 conditions are correlated (r=0.39, p<0.01). Both plans have margins that are more positive for persons with conditions that are managed by primary care physicians and where medical management can be effective. Conversely they have lower margins for persons with conditions that tend to be treated by specialists with greater market power than primary care physicians and for acute conditions where little medical management is possible. The two plan's margins among beneficiaries with different observable characteristics vary over a range of 160 and 98 percentage points, respectively, and thus would appear to offer substantial incentive for selection by HCC. Nonetheless, we find no evidence of overrepresentation of beneficiaries in high margin HCC's in either plan. Nor, using the margins from Plan 1, the more typical plan, do we find evidence of overrepresentation of high

  18. The marginal band system in nymphalid butterfly wings.

    PubMed

    Taira, Wataru; Kinjo, Seira; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns are highly complex and diverse, but they are believed to be derived from the nymphalid groundplan, which is composed of several color pattern systems. Among these pattern systems, the marginal band system, including marginal and submarginal bands, has rarely been studied. Here, we examined the color pattern diversity of the marginal band system among nymphalid butterflies. Marginal and submarginal bands are usually expressed as a pair of linear bands aligned with the wing margin. However, a submarginal band can be expressed as a broken band, an elongated oval, or a single dot. The marginal focus, usually a white dot at the middle of a wing compartment along the wing edge, corresponds to the pupal edge spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots that signify the locations of color pattern organizing centers. A marginal band can be expressed as a semicircle, an elongated oval, or a pair of eyespot-like structures, which suggest the organizing activity of the marginal focus. Physical damage at the pupal edge spot leads to distal dislocation of the submarginal band in Junonia almana and in Vanessa indica, suggesting that the marginal focus functions as an organizing center for the marginal band system. Taken together, we conclude that the marginal band system is developmentally equivalent to other symmetry systems. Additionally, the marginal band is likely a core element and the submarginal band a paracore element of the marginal band system, and both bands are primarily specified by the marginal focus organizing center.

  19. Estimating Externalities of Hydro Fuel Cycles, Report 6

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-12-01

    There are three major objectives of this hydropower study: (1) to implement the methodological concepts that were developed in the background document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles and, by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the hydroelectric fuel cycle (different fuel cycles have unique characteristics that need to be addressed in different ways); (2) to develop, given the time and resources, the best range of estimates of externalities associated with hydroelectric projects, using two benchmark projects at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information that is available to support the estimation of externalities associated with the hydroelectric fuel cycle and, by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities and a better method for estimating them. As set forth in the agreement between the US and the EC, the study is explicitly and intentionally not directed at any one audience. This study is about a methodology for estimating externalities. It is not about how to use estimates of externalities in a particular policy context.

  20. Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins

    SciTech Connect

    Gregersen, S. ); Basham, P.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The main focus of this volume is the earthquakes that occur at and near the continental margins on both sides of the North Atlantic. The book, which contains the proceedings of the NATO workshop on Causes and Effects of Earthquakes at Passive Margins and in Areas of Postglacial Rebound on Both Sides of the North Atlantic, draws together the fields of geophysics, geology and geodesy to address the stress and strain in the Earth's crust. The resulting earthquakes produced on ancient geological fault zones and the associated seismic hazards these pose to man are also addressed. Postglacial rebound in North America and Fennoscandia is a minor source of earthquakes today, during the interglacial period, but evidence is presented to suggest that the ice sheets suppressed earthquake strain while they were in place, and released this strain as a pulse of significant earthquakes after the ice melted about 9000 years ago.

  1. The health bus: healthcare for marginalized populations.

    PubMed

    Daiski, Isolde

    2005-02-01

    The Health Bus, an innovative outreach program, serves the marginalized population of a large Canadian city. In this article, a needs assessment/evaluation study of its services is discussed. Barriers to mainstream healthcare and solutions are examined. This study was qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory and surveyed 58 client volunteers of the program through semistructured interviews and focus groups. Thematic analysis of data was carried out. The Health Bus was found to provide basic healthcare and supplies effectively. Clients value respectful treatment, competency of healthcare professionals, and accessibility, whereas disrespectful treatments and lack of transportation are barriers to mainstream healthcare. A conclusion of this study is that Health Bus services should be expanded with clients' input. Mainstream institutions need flexibility and a change in attitudes toward the marginalized.

  2. Numerical simulation of platelet margination in microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong; Shaqfeh, Eric

    2009-11-01

    The adhesion of platelets to vascular walls is the first step in clotting. This process critically depends on the preferential concentration of platelets near walls. The presence of red blood cells, which are the predominant blood constituents, is known to affect the steady state platelet concentration and the dynamic platelet margination, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood to-day. We use a direct numerical simulation to study the platelet margination process, with particular emphasis on the Stokesian hydrodynamic interactions among red cells, platelets, and vessel walls. Well-known mechanical models are used for the shearing and bending stiffness of red cell membranes, and the stiffer platelets are modeled as rigid discoids. A boundary integral formulation is used to solve the flow field, where the numerical solution procedure is accelerated by a parallel O(N N) smooth particle-mesh Ewald method. The effects of red cell hematocrit and deformability will be discussed.

  3. [Stereotactic body radiation therapy: uncertainties and margins].

    PubMed

    Lacornerie, T; Marchesi, V; Reynaert, N

    2014-01-01

    The principles governing stereotactic body radiation therapy are tight margins and large dose gradients around targets. Every step of treatment preparation and delivery must be evaluated before applying this technique in the clinic. Uncertainties remain in each of these steps: delineation, prescription with the biological equivalent dose, treatment planning, patient set-up taking into account movements, the machine accuracy. The calculation of margins to take into account uncertainties differs from conventional radiotherapy because of the delivery of few fractions and large dose gradients around the target. The quest of high accuracy is complicated by the difficulty to reach it and the lack of consensus regarding the prescription. Many schemes dose/number of fractions are described in clinical studies and there are differences in the way describing the delivered doses. While waiting for the ICRU report dedicated to this technique, it seems desirable to use the quantities proposed in ICRU Report 83 (IMRT) to report the dose distribution. PMID:25023588

  4. Focused fluid flow in passive continental margins.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Christian

    2005-12-15

    Passive continental margins such as the Atlantic seaboard of Europe are important for society as they contain large energy resources, and they sustain ecosystems that are the basis for the commercial fish stock. The margin sediments are very dynamic environments. Fluids are expelled from compacting sediments, bottom water temperature changes cause gas hydrate systems to change their locations and occasionally large magmatic intrusions boil the pore water within the sedimentary basins, which is then expelled to the surface. The fluids that seep through the seabed at the tops of focused fluid flow systems have a crucial role for seabed ecology, and study of such fluid flow systems can also help in predicting the distribution of hydrocarbons in the subsurface and deciphering the climate record. Therefore, the study of focused fluid flow will become one of the most important fields in marine geology in the future.

  5. Systematic mapping of the Spanish continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Juan; Muñoz, Araceli; Uchupi, Elazar

    2012-07-01

    For economic, environmental, recreational, military, and political reasons it is critical for coastal states to have up-to-date information on their marine margins. Spain began to acquire such data 17 years ago. From 1995 to the present, the Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO), a research organization of the state, has carried out a systematic geological and geophysical study of the Spanish margins. Among these projects are (1) the hydrographic and oceanographic study of the Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that was implemented by the Navy Hydrographic Institute (IHM); (2) the Espace Project, a study of the Spanish continental shelf; and (3) the Capesme Project, which created fisheries maps of the Mediterranean Sea. The latter two projects were carried out in collaboration with the Secretariat General of the Sea (SGM).

  6. Energy transport in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Tony W.; Squire, Vernon A.

    2001-09-01

    A novel approach to modeling ocean wave scattering in the marginal ice zone that uses the coherent potential approximation to compute the energy transport velocity is reported. The necessary theory is developed by considering sea ice floes to be thin elastic beams governed by the Euler-Bernoulli equation, with the open water surrounding each floe subject to the same equation with its material coefficients set to be very small quantities. This mathematical stratagem facilitates the solution of the problem and yields interesting results about the speed at which wave energy propagates through a marginal ice zone, the dispersion relation for a random mixture of ice floes and water, and the mean free path or attenuation coefficient. Results from the model are compared with data reported by Wadhams et al. [1988].

  7. Marginal breaking of conformal SUSY QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Kevin F.; Terning, John

    2016-07-01

    We provide an example of a 4D theory that exhibits the Contino-Pomarol-Rattazzi mechanism, where breaking conformal symmetry by an almost marginal operator leads to a light pseudo-Goldstone boson, the dilaton, and a parametrically suppressed contribution to vacuum energy. We consider SUSY QCD at the edge of the conformal window and break conformal symmetry by weakly gauging a subgroup of the flavor symmetry. Using Seiberg duality we show that for a range of parameters the singlet meson in the dual theory reaches the unitarity bound, however, this theory does not have a stable vacuum. We stabilize the vacuum with soft breaking terms, compute the mass of the dilaton, and determine the range of parameters where the leading contribution to the dilaton mass is from the almost marginal coupling.

  8. The initiation of orogenic margin reverse faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, R. C.

    2002-04-01

    Laboratory values of rock friction coefficients suggest that reverse faulting should be very difficult to initiate by simple horizontal compression of the crust. Values of stresses required by Andersonian faulting may be an order of magnitude higher than those actually present in orogenic margins. A simple stress balance calculation shows that the effect of the excess lithostatic pressure under an elevated orogen, if transmitted laterally through a crustal ductile layer to the orogenic margin, is to provide sufficient hydraulic lift under the orogen flanks to initiate reverse faulting by direct lift, even with rock friction coefficients of order 0.8. The required orogenic elevation above surrounding ``normal'' lithosphere is about one fifth of the thickness of the brittle crust of the orogen. This elevation may be as small as 2 km in tectonically active regions. The mechanism works even in the absence of regional lithospheric compressive stresses.

  9. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  10. Internal to external wavelength calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kailash C.

    1999-01-01

    The spectra of Hen 1357 (the Stingray nebula) were used to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the STIS first order CCD modes. The radial velocity of the Stingray nebula is known to high accuracy (< 1 km/sec) and the line with of the nebular line is very narrow (< 8 km/sec for the integrated nebula). Thus the observations of the Stingray nebula are ideal to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the first order modes. The observations were taken in G430L and G750M modes using a 52 x 0.05 arcsec slit covering the wavelength range 2900 to 5700 A and 6295 to 6867 A, respectively. The observed wavelength range includes many nebular emission lines. The wavelengths of the nebular lines derived using the pipeline internal wavelength calibration were compared with the wavelengths derived from other ground based observations. In all cases, the wavelength match between the two is of the same order as the accuracy to which the line center can be measured. These results imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibrations for these modes. The HDF-S QSO observations were also used for this test both for the first order and the Echelle modes. The results of the HDF-S QSO observations further confirm the above finding for the first order modes, and imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibration for the Echelle modes.

  11. Surgical margins in breast-conserving therapy: current trends and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Lucchini, Roberta; Santoprete, Stefano; Bistoni, Giovanni; Avenia, Stefano; Triola, Roberto; Avenia, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate surgical margins represent a high risk for adverse clinical outcome in breast-conserving therapy (BCT) for early-stage breast cancer. The majority of studies report positive resection margins in 20% to 40% of the patients who underwent BCT. This may result in an increased local recurrence (LR) rate or additional surgery and, consequently, adverse effects on cosmesis, psychological distress, and health costs. In the literature, various risk factors are reported to be associated with positive margin status after lumpectomy, which may allow the surgeon to distinguish those patients with a higher “a priori” risk for re-excision. However, most risk factors are related to tumor biology and patient characteristics, which cannot be modified as such. Therefore, efforts to reduce the number of positive margins should focus on optimizing the surgical procedure itself, because the surgeon lacks real time intraoperative information on the presence of positive resection margins during breast-conserving surgery. This review presents the status of pre- and intraoperative modalities currently used in BCT. Furthermore, innovative intraoperative approaches, such as positron emission tomography, radio-guided occult lesion localization, and near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging, are addressed, which have to prove their potential value in improving surgical outcome and reducing the need for re-excision in BCT.

  12. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Souza, Lena S. B.; Prado, Renato; Elis, Vagner R.

    2012-08-01

    An increasing volume of publications has addressed the role of tectonics in inland areas of northern Brazil during the Neogene and Quaternary, despite its location in a passive margin. Hence, northern South America plate in this time interval might have not been as passive as usually regarded. This proposal needs further support, particularly including field data. In this work, we applied an integrated approach to reveal tectonic structures in Miocene and late Quaternary strata in a coastal area of the Amazonas lowland. The investigation, undertaken in Marajó Island, mouth of the Amazonas River, consisted of shallow sub-surface geophysical data including vertical electric sounding and ground penetrating radar. These methods were combined with morphostructural analysis and sedimentological/stratigraphic data from shallow cores and a few outcrops. The results revealed two stratigraphic units, a lower one with Miocene age, and an upper one of Late Pleistocene-Holocene age. An abundance of faults and folds were recorded in the Miocene deposits and, to a minor extent, in overlying Late Pleistocene-Holocene strata. In addition to characterize these structures, we discuss their origin, considering three potential mechanisms: Andean tectonics, gravity tectonics related to sediment loading in the Amazon Fan, and rifting at the continental margin. Amongst these hypotheses, the most likely is that the faults and folds recorded in Marajó Island reflect tectonics associated with the history of continental rifting that gave rise to the South Atlantic Ocean. This study supports sediment deposition influenced by transpression and transtension associated with strike-slip divergence along the northern Equatorial Brazilian margin in the Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene. This work records tectonic evidence only for the uppermost few ten of meters of this sedimentary succession. However, available geological data indicate a thickness of up to 6 km, which is remarkably thick for

  13. Magnitude of Interfractional Vaginal Cuff Movement: Implications for External Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Daniel J.; Michaletz-Lorenz, Martha; Goddu, S. Murty; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the extent of interfractional vaginal cuff movement in patients receiving postoperative irradiation for cervical or endometrial cancer in the absence of bowel/bladder instruction. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients with cervical or endometrial cancer underwent placement of three gold seed fiducial markers in the vaginal cuff apex as part of standard of care before simulation. Patients subsequently underwent external irradiation and brachytherapy treatment based on institutional guidelines. Daily megavoltage CT imaging was performed during each external radiation treatment fraction. The daily positions of the vaginal apex fiducial markers were subsequently compared with the original position of the fiducial markers on the simulation CT. Composite dose-volume histograms were also created by summing daily target positions. Results: The average ({+-} standard deviation) vaginal cuff movement throughout daily pelvic external radiotherapy when referenced to the simulation position was 16.2 {+-} 8.3 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff movement for any patient during treatment was 34.5 mm. In the axial plane the mean vaginal cuff movement was 12.9 {+-} 6.7 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff axial movement was 30.7 mm. In the craniocaudal axis the mean movement was 10.3 {+-} 7.6 mm, with a maximum movement of 27.0 mm. Probability of cuff excursion outside of the clinical target volume steadily dropped as margin size increased (53%, 26%, 4.2%, and 1.4% for 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm, respectively.) However, rectal and bladder doses steadily increased with larger margin sizes. Conclusions: The magnitude of vaginal cuff movement is highly patient specific and can impact target coverage in patients without bowel/bladder instructions at simulation. The use of vaginal cuff fiducials can help identify patients at risk for target volume excursion.

  14. Origin and dynamics of depositionary subduction margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannucchi, Paola; Morgan, Jason P.; Silver, Eli A.; Kluesner, Jared W.

    2016-06-01

    Here we propose a new framework for forearc evolution that focuses on the potential feedbacks between subduction tectonics, sedimentation, and geomorphology that take place during an extreme event of subduction erosion. These feedbacks can lead to the creation of a "depositionary forearc," a forearc structure that extends the traditional division of forearcs into accretionary or erosive subduction margins by demonstrating a mode of rapid basin accretion during an erosive event at a subduction margin. A depositionary mode of forearc evolution occurs when terrigenous sediments are deposited directly on the forearc while it is being removed from below by subduction erosion. In the most extreme case, an entire forearc can be removed by a single subduction erosion event followed by depositionary replacement without involving transfer of sediments from the incoming plate. We need to further recognize that subduction forearcs are often shaped by interactions between slow, long-term processes, and sudden extreme events reflecting the sudden influences of large-scale morphological variations in the incoming plate. Both types of processes contribute to the large-scale architecture of the forearc, with extreme events associated with a replacive depositionary mode that rapidly creates sections of a typical forearc margin. The persistent upward diversion of the megathrust is likely to affect its geometry, frictional nature, and hydrogeology. Therefore, the stresses along the fault and individual earthquake rupture characteristics are also expected to be more variable in these erosive systems than in systems with long-lived megathrust surfaces.

  15. Ocean Margins Programs, Phase I research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, P.

    1994-08-01

    During FY 1992, the DOE restructured its regional coastal-ocean programs into a new Ocean Margins Program (OMP), to: Quantify the ecological and biogeochemical processes and mechanisms that affect the cycling, flux, and storage of carbon and other biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface; Define ocean-margin sources and sinks in global biogeochemical cycles, and; Determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or export to the interior ocean. Currently, the DOE Ocean Margins Program supports more than 70 principal and co-principal investigators, spanning more than 30 academic institutions. Research funded by the OMP amounted to about $6.9M in FY 1994. This document is a collection of abstracts summarizing the component projects of Phase I of the OMP. This phase included both research and technology development, and comprised projects of both two and three years duration. The attached abstracts describe the goals, methods, measurement scales, strengths and limitations, and status of each project, and level of support. Keywords are provided to index the various projects. The names, addresses, affiliations, and major areas of expertise of the investigators are provided in appendices.

  16. Marginal tissue reactions at osseointegrated titanium fixtures.

    PubMed

    Adell, R; Lekholm, U; Brånemark, P I; Lindhe, J; Rockler, B; Eriksson, B; Lindvall, A M; Yoneyama, T; Sbordone, L

    1985-01-01

    A longitudinal prospective and a cross-sectional retrospective study were undertaken in order to investigate the marginal tissue reactions at osseointegrated titanium fixtures and their abutments, supporting fixed bridges. Conventional clinical periodontal examination methods were combined with a serial-identical radiography. At the termination of the studies samples were taken for microbiological and histological analyses. Altogether the reactions at 220 fixtures in 40 jaws were explored. The clinical parameters were not found correlated with the other examination methods. Only 0.9 mm marginal bone was lost as a mean during the first year and then not more than 0.05-0.07 mm as a mean annually for the follow-up years. A stress-related remodelling of the perifixtural bone was observed radiographically. The microbiotia in the gingival pockets was dominated by cocci and non-motile rods (94%), indicating a favourable composition if similar findings had been observed at teeth. Half the number of the biopsies had no inflammatory infiltrates and a further third had the lowest inflammatory score in a 3-grade scale. The results indicate that the soft tissue surrounding the gingival part of osseointegrated fixtures remains remarkably healthy, which, in combination with the annual minor loss of marginal bone, is an indication of good long-term clinical prognosis.

  17. Origin and dynamics of depositionary subduction margins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vannucchi, Paola; Morgan, Jason P.; Silver, Eli; Kluesner, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Here we propose a new framework for forearc evolution that focuses on the potential feedbacks between subduction tectonics, sedimentation, and geomorphology that take place during an extreme event of subduction erosion. These feedbacks can lead to the creation of a “depositionary forearc,” a forearc structure that extends the traditional division of forearcs into accretionary or erosive subduction margins by demonstrating a mode of rapid basin accretion during an erosive event at a subduction margin. A depositionary mode of forearc evolution occurs when terrigenous sediments are deposited directly on the forearc while it is being removed from below by subduction erosion. In the most extreme case, an entire forearc can be removed by a single subduction erosion event followed by depositionary replacement without involving transfer of sediments from the incoming plate. We need to further recognize that subduction forearcs are often shaped by interactions between slow, long-term processes, and sudden extreme events reflecting the sudden influences of large-scale morphological variations in the incoming plate. Both types of processes contribute to the large-scale architecture of the forearc, with extreme events associated with a replacive depositionary mode that rapidly creates sections of a typical forearc margin. The persistent upward diversion of the megathrust is likely to affect its geometry, frictional nature, and hydrogeology. Therefore, the stresses along the fault and individual earthquake rupture characteristics are also expected to be more variable in these erosive systems than in systems with long-lived megathrust surfaces.

  18. Project appraisal and planning for overdeveloped countries: I. The costing of nonrenewable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Colin

    1984-05-01

    In cost-benefit analysis, natural resources, like other factors of production, should be costed as a mixture of marginal social cost of exploiting additional resources and lost marginal social benefit of forgone alternative uses, according to the way in which extra resources are made available to a project. For a nonrenewable resource, changes in future marginal social cost and marginal social benefit are likely to add significantly to the immediate elements of cost, as successively less tractable resource stocks are exploited. Of the several reasons given for ignoring these future costs, the most plausible is that technological advance justifies a heavy discount on the future. However, neither historical nor logical arguments demonstrate the inevitability of efficacious technological advance.

  19. Antarctic glacial history from numerical models and continental margin sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, P.F.; Barrett, P.J.; Cooper, A. K.; Huybrechts, P.

    1999-01-01

    The climate record of glacially transported sediments in prograded wedges around the Antarctic outer continental shelf, and their derivatives in continental rise drifts, may be combined to produce an Antarctic ice sheet history, using numerical models of ice sheet response to temperature and sea-level change. Examination of published models suggests several preliminary conclusions about ice sheet history. The ice sheet's present high sensitivity to sea-level change at short (orbital) periods was developed gradually as its size increased, replacing a declining sensitivity to temperature. Models suggest that the ice sheet grew abruptly to 40% (or possibly more) of its present size at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, mainly as a result of its own temperature sensitivity. A large but more gradual middle Miocene change was externally driven, probably by development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and Polar Front, provided that a few million years' delay can be explained. The Oligocene ice sheet varied considerably in size and areal extent, but the late Miocene ice sheet was more stable, though significantly warmer than today's. This difference probably relates to the confining effect of the Antarctic continental margin. Present-day numerical models of ice sheet development are sufficient to guide current sampling plans, but sea-ice formation, polar wander, basal topography and ice streaming can be identified as factors meriting additional modelling effort in the future.

  20. Racing to define pharmaceutical R&D external innovation models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangsu; Plump, Andrew; Ringel, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The pharmaceutical industry continues to face fundamental challenges because of issues with research and development (R&D) productivity and rising customer expectations. To lower R&D costs, move beyond me-too therapies, and create more transformative portfolios, pharmaceutical companies are actively capitalizing on external innovation through precompetitive collaboration with academia, cultivation of biotech start-ups, and proactive licensing and acquisitions. Here, we review the varying innovation strategies used by pharmaceutical companies, compare and contrast these models, and identify the trends in external innovation. We also discuss factors that influence these external innovation models and propose a preliminary set of metrics that could be used as leading indicators of success. PMID:25448753

  1. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    PubMed

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  2. Evaluation of Margins of Safety in Brazed Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Wang, Len; Powell, Mollie M.; Soffa, Matthew A.; Rommel, Monica L.

    2009-01-01

    One of the essential steps in assuring reliable performance of high cost critical brazed structures is the assessment of the Margin of Safety (MS) of the brazed joints. In many cases the experimental determination of the failure loads by destructive testing of the brazed assembly is not practical and cost prohibitive. In such cases the evaluation of the MS is performed analytically by comparing the maximum design loads with the allowable ones and incorporating various safety or knock down factors imposed by the customer. Unfortunately, an industry standard methodology for the design and analysis of brazed joints has not been developed. This paper provides an example of an approach that was used to analyze an AlBeMet 162 (38%Be-62%Al) structure brazed with the AWS BAlSi-4 (Al-12%Si) filler metal. A practical and conservative interaction equation combining shear and tensile allowables was developed and validated to evaluate an acceptable (safe) combination of tensile and shear stresses acting in the brazed joint. These allowables are obtained from testing of standard tensile and lap shear brazed specimens. The proposed equation enables the assessment of the load carrying capability of complex brazed joints subjected to multi-axial loading.

  3. Robust Flutter Margin Analysis that Incorporates Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick; Brenner, Martin J.

    1998-01-01

    An approach for computing worst-case flutter margins has been formulated in a robust stability framework. Uncertainty operators are included with a linear model to describe modeling errors and flight variations. The structured singular value, mu, computes a stability margin that directly accounts for these uncertainties. This approach introduces a new method of computing flutter margins and an associated new parameter for describing these margins. The mu margins are robust margins that indicate worst-case stability estimates with respect to the defined uncertainty. Worst-case flutter margins are computed for the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft using uncertainty sets generated by flight data analysis. The robust margins demonstrate flight conditions for flutter may lie closer to the flight envelope than previously estimated by p-k analysis.

  4. Surgical resection margins after breast-conserving surgery: Senonetwork recommendations.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Viviana; Taffurelli, Mario; Leonardi, Maria Cristina; Aristei, Cynthia; Trentin, Chiara; Cassano, Enrico; Pietribiasi, Francesca; Corso, Giovanni; Munzone, Elisabetta; Tondini, Carlo; Frigerio, Alfonso; Cataliotti, Luigi; Santini, Donatella

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports findings of the "Focus on Controversial Areas" Working Party of the Italian Senonetwork, which was set up to improve the care of breast cancer patients. After reviewing articles in English on the MEDLINE system on breast conserving surgery for invasive carcinoma, the Working Party presents their recommendations for identifying risk factors for positive margins, suggests how to manage them so as to achieve the highest possible percentage of negative margins, and proposes standards for investigating resection margins and therapeutic approaches according to margin status. When margins are positive, approaches include re-excision, mastectomy, or, as second-line treatment, radiotherapy with a high boost dose. When margins are negative, boost administration and its dose depend on the risk of local recurrence, which is linked to biopathological tumor features and surgical margin width. Although margin status does not affect the choice of systemic therapy, it may delay the start of chemotherapy when further surgery is required. PMID:27103209

  5. High-Speed Machining (HSM) of Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The External Fuel Tank (ET) of the Space Shuttle is not recovered after launch and a new one must be provided for each launch. Currently, the external ""skin'' panels of the tank are produced by machining from solid wrought 2219-T87 aluminum plate stock approximately 1-3/4 inch thick. The reduction of costs in producing External Fuel Tank panels is obviously of increasing production rates and decreasing costs of the panels through the application of high-speed machining (HSM) techniques was conducted.

  6. Cost Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Education administrators involved in construction initiatives unanimously agree that when it comes to change orders, less is more. Change orders have a negative rippling effect of driving up building costs and producing expensive project delays that often interfere with school operations and schedules. Some change orders are initiated by schools…

  7. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model

    2003-04-25

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GENSIM) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration ofmore » a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emission trade-offs. The base case results using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax

  8. Offshore Adriatic marginal gas fields: An approach to the technique of reservoir development

    SciTech Connect

    Montanari, A.; Bolelli, V.; Piccoli, G.

    1986-01-01

    The application of accelerated gas blowdown and wire line techniques in reservoir development and exploitation is presented for an off-shore Adriatic marginal gas field. The approach discussed in this paper utilizes selective completion, very low reserves/production ratio, sequential production, Through Tubing Bridge Plug and Through Tubing Perforation techniques to avoid the use of costly workover rigs and to allow economically convenient exploitation of a structure which otherwise would have been abandoned.

  9. Carbonate comparison of west Florida continental margin with margins of eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    Temperate carbonate margins may have as many similarities to clastic margins as to other carbonate systems. An example is the west Florida continental margin north of Florida Bay, a vast area of more than 150,000 km/sup 2/. The facies of this area differ from those of other Holocene carbonates, such as the Bahama Banks, the Great Barrier Reef, and the Caribbean and Pacific bioherms. The west Florida margin is analogous to the predominantly clastic southeastern US in both physiology and sedimentary processes. The shelf facies is a veneer of carbonate sand, primarily molluscan shell fragments, with low sedimentation rates. It is similar to the southeastern US sand veneer with the clastic component removed. Like the US system, the west Florida shelf has a ridge and swale topography replete with sedimentary structures, such as sand waves, with a series of drainage systems incised into its surface at lower stands of sea level. On the outer edge, it is commonly bounded by outcrops with considerable positive relief. The upper slope of the west Florida margin is a calcilutite, a Holocene chalk deposit accumulating at rates of tens of centimeters/1000 years, comparable to the clastic lutite depositional rates of the eastern US continental slope, and two orders of magnitude higher than deep-sea oozes of similar composition. These relatively high rates are probably caused by fines pumped from and across the coarser shelf-sand sheets in both systems.

  10. Transient analysis for thermal margin with COASISO during a severe accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chan S.; Chu, Ho S.; Suh, Kune Y.; Park, Goon C.; Lee, Un C.; Yoon, Ho J.

    2002-07-01

    As an IVR-EVC (in-vessel retention through external vessel cooling) design concept, external cooling of the reactor vessel was suggested to protect the lower head from being overheated due to relocated material from the core during a severe accident. The COASISO (Corium Attack Syndrome Immunization Structure Outside the vessel) adopts an external vessel cooling strategy of flooding the reactor vessel inside the thermal insulator. Its advantage is the quick response time so that the initial heat removal mechanism of the EVC is nucleate boiling from the downward-facing lower head. The efficiency of the COASISO may be estimated by the thermal margin defined as the ratio of the actual heat flux from the reactor vessel to the critical heat flux (CHF). In this study the thermal margin for the large power reactor as the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) was determined by means of transient analysis for the local condition of the coolant and temperature distributions within the reactor vessel. The heat split fraction in the oxide pool and the metal layer focusing effect were considered during calculation of the angular thermal load at the inner wall of the lower head. The temperature distributions in the reactor vessel resulted in the actual heat flux on the outer wall. The local quality was obtained by solving the simplified transient energy equation. The unheated section of the reactor vessel decreases the thermal margin by mean of the two-dimensional conduction heat transfer. The peak temperature of the reactor vessel was estimated in the film boiling region as the thermal margin was equal to unity. Sensitivity analyses were performed for the time of corium relocation after the reactor trip, the coolant flow rate, and the initial subcooled condition of the coolant. There is no vessel failure predicted at the worst EVC condition when the stratification is not taken into account between the metal layer and the oxidic pool. The present predictive tool may be

  11. External Fixation: Principles and Applications.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jesse E; Mir, Hassan R

    2015-11-01

    The modularity and ease of application of modern external fixation has expanded its potential use in the management of fractures and other musculoskeletal conditions. In fracture care, it can be used for provisional and definitive fixation. Short-term provisional applications include "damage control" and periarticular fracture fixation. The risk:benefit ratio of added stability needs to be assessed with each fixator. Soft-tissue management is critical during pin insertion to lessen the risk of loosening and infection. Although provisional fixation is safe for early conversion to definitive fixation, several factors affect the timing of definitive surgery, including the initial injury, external fixator stability, infection, and the physiologic state of the patient. PMID:26306568

  12. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  13. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Externalizing problems are multi-determined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who were at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research has established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. Further, research points to the importance of maintaining high treatment fidelity through systematic quality assurance procedures to replicate positive clinical outcomes. This paper presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as two adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  14. 46 CFR 171.015 - Location of margin line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of margin line. 171.015 Section 171.015... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS General § 171.015 Location of margin line. (a) A vessel with a... (FP) and the after perpendicular (AP) is at least 12 inches (30.5 cm), the margin line must be...

  15. Principals' Perceived Supervisory Behaviors Regarding Marginal Teachers in Two States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Bret; Hewitt, Paul; Young, Suzie

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study used an online survey to determine how principals in two states viewed the supervision of marginal teachers. Principals ranked their own evaluation of the teacher as the most important factor when identifying marginal teachers and relied on informal methods to diagnose marginal teaching. Female principals rated a majority of…

  16. 17 CFR 23.703 - Investment of segregated margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Investment of segregated... Transactions § 23.703 Investment of segregated margin. (a) Margin that is segregated pursuant to an election... commercial arrangement, in writing, regarding the investment of such Margin, and the related allocation...

  17. Discovery External Tank Connection Check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Vehicle Assembly Building, Ken Strite, NASA Quality Control, inspects the connection between Space Shuttle Discovery and the external tank that will be used to launch mission STS-103 in early December. This 10 day mission is designed to replace aging parts on the nine year old Hubble Space Telescope and to upgrade some of its functioning systems. During the flight, the astronaut crew will replace all six of the observatory's gyroscopes, a fine guidance sensor, its main computer, and other equipment.

  18. A Study of Training Program Characteristics and Training Program Effectiveness among Organizations Receiving Training Services from External Training Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Jeeyon; Hawley, Joshua D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of training program characteristics on training effectiveness among organizations receiving training services from external training providers. Two surveys were sent to HRD managers and senior managers per company. The results showed that the operational margin of the programs where private…

  19. An in-depth probabilistic study of external tank attach ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzano, Frank; Putcha, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with conducting a probabilistic study of the external tank attach ring (ETA) used as an interface between the external tank attach struts and the solid rocket booster. The ideas were to use probabilistic distributions for material, geometric, and load properties; to calculate probabilistic margins of safety; and then to compare results against the deterministic factors of safety that were used in the actual design process. The report describes how this was done and discusses some of the road blocks and data problems that were encountered during the study and provides some conclusions. A further refinement of this study is being considered for future work which would make more direct use of finite element analysis data coupled with Monte Carlo simulation. The basic conclusion herein indicates that the probabilistic margins of safety for the cases analyzed (by use of existing data) appear to support deterministic results and actually indicate higher reliabilities.

  20. Marginal Expense Oil Well Wireless Surveillance (MEOWWS)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Donald G.

    2002-03-11

    The objective of this study was to identify and field test a new, low cost, wireless oil well surveillance system. A variety of suppliers and technologies were considered. One supplier and system was chosen that was low cost, new to the oil field, and successfully field tested.

  1. Contributions of marginal offspring to reproductive success of Nazca booby (Sula granti) parents: tests of multiple hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Courtney A; Arevalo, V Danilo; Fischer, Karen N; Anderson, David J

    2006-03-01

    While obligate siblicide is a phylogenetically widespread behavior, known from plants, insects, birds, and other taxa, with important implications for life history evolution, comprehensive evaluations of its costs and benefits to parents are rare. We used 12 years of breeding and band resight data to evaluate the importance of several potential benefits that marginal offspring (the usual victims of obligate siblicide) could provide to parent Nazca boobies (Sula granti), a seabird. We found no evidence for the resource-tracking hypothesis: 99.95% of two-chick broods were reduced to one chick before fledging, and the single exceptional brood probably lost one chick between fledging and independence. Behavioral observations indicated that siblicidal aggression caused most mortality of marginal chicks, and at least contributed to the remainder. We also found no evidence that marginal offspring provide a food resource for other family members. Marginal chicks benefit parents via adoption into other families, and possibly also in the context of progeny choice, but these benefits are minor compared to the insurance that marginal chicks provide against early failure of core (first-hatched) offspring. Further evaluation of the Insurance Egg Hypothesis showed that marginal and core offspring are functionally equivalent in the absence of sibling interactions, and that core offspring incur no detectable costs from behaving siblicidally. Nazca boobies are truly obligate brood reducers, with parents receiving principally insurance benefits from marginal offspring, but many birds and other taxa exhibiting persistent, unconditional sibling aggression do not exhibit universal brood reduction. Insurance is only one of several potential benefits that marginal offspring can confer on parents, and a multi-hypothesis approach to decompose the different types of benefits is required to understand the evolution of clutch size in other obligately siblicidal species.

  2. Contributions of marginal offspring to reproductive success of Nazca booby (Sula granti) parents: tests of multiple hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Courtney A; Arevalo, V Danilo; Fischer, Karen N; Anderson, David J

    2006-03-01

    While obligate siblicide is a phylogenetically widespread behavior, known from plants, insects, birds, and other taxa, with important implications for life history evolution, comprehensive evaluations of its costs and benefits to parents are rare. We used 12 years of breeding and band resight data to evaluate the importance of several potential benefits that marginal offspring (the usual victims of obligate siblicide) could provide to parent Nazca boobies (Sula granti), a seabird. We found no evidence for the resource-tracking hypothesis: 99.95% of two-chick broods were reduced to one chick before fledging, and the single exceptional brood probably lost one chick between fledging and independence. Behavioral observations indicated that siblicidal aggression caused most mortality of marginal chicks, and at least contributed to the remainder. We also found no evidence that marginal offspring provide a food resource for other family members. Marginal chicks benefit parents via adoption into other families, and possibly also in the context of progeny choice, but these benefits are minor compared to the insurance that marginal chicks provide against early failure of core (first-hatched) offspring. Further evaluation of the Insurance Egg Hypothesis showed that marginal and core offspring are functionally equivalent in the absence of sibling interactions, and that core offspring incur no detectable costs from behaving siblicidally. Nazca boobies are truly obligate brood reducers, with parents receiving principally insurance benefits from marginal offspring, but many birds and other taxa exhibiting persistent, unconditional sibling aggression do not exhibit universal brood reduction. Insurance is only one of several potential benefits that marginal offspring can confer on parents, and a multi-hypothesis approach to decompose the different types of benefits is required to understand the evolution of clutch size in other obligately siblicidal species. PMID:16208491

  3. The destabilizing effect of external damping: Singular flutter boundary for the Pflüger column with vanishing external dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasini, Mirko; Kirillov, Oleg N.; Misseroni, Diego; Bigoni, Davide

    2016-06-01

    Elastic structures loaded by non-conservative positional forces are prone to instabilities induced by dissipation: it is well-known that internal viscous damping destabilizes the marginally stable Ziegler's pendulum and Pflüger column (of which the Beck's column is a special case), two structures loaded by a tangential follower force. The result is the so-called 'destabilization paradox', where the critical force for flutter instability decreases by an order of magnitude when the coefficient of internal damping becomes infinitesimally small. Until now external damping, such as that related to air drag, is believed to provide only a stabilizing effect, as one would intuitively expect. Contrary to this belief, it will be shown that the effect of external damping is qualitatively the same as the effect of internal damping, yielding a pronounced destabilization paradox. Previous results relative to destabilization by external damping of the Ziegler's and Pflüger's elastic structures are corrected in a definitive way leading to a new understanding of the destabilizating role played by viscous terms.

  4. Passive margin formation, Timor Sea, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hillis, R.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Recent ODP data show that sea-floor spreading began in the Argo Abyssal Plain in the earliest Cretaceous, and not the Callovian-Oxfordian as had previously been believed. These data are now consistent with the Callovian-Valanginian rifting observed on seismic records over the adjacent continental shelf (Vulcan subbasin, western Timor Sea). Tectonic subsidence plots have been constructed for well, extrapolated well, and significant off-well (seismically based) locations in the Vulcan subbasin and adjacent highs. The fully corrected plots show relatively little tectonic subsidence during the Callovian-Valanginian rift phase, even in the depocenter of the Swan Graben, where the Callovian-Valanginian interval reaches its maximum thickness. This is atypical for a passive margin basin. Assuming an extensional origin for the margin, the absence of tectonic subsidence is considered to indicate that continental rifting in the area was wet (accompanied by major volcanic activity). Recent studies have shown that extensive volcanism may occur where rift zones cut through regions of anomalously hot mantle (100-200{degree}C above normal). The addition to the crust of igneous material, the density of which has been modified by adiabatic decompression, inhibits syn-rift subsidence. A wet rifting model also has implications for the origin of the nearby marginal plateaux such as the Scott Plateau. Their relatively thick crust and lack of subsidence may be due to igneous underplating associated with wet rifting. As such the plateaux may be regarded as transitional between oceanic and continental crust. The post-Valanginian Cretaceous subsidence of the Vulcan subbasin and adjacent areas is consistent with typical post-rift thermal subsidence, the predicted exponentially decaying subsidence history for a wet rift being indistinguishable from that of a dry rift.

  5. Structural style and tectonic evolution of the easternmost Gulf of Aden conjugate margins (Socotra - Southern Oman)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonn, Chloe; Leroy, Sylvie; Castilla, Raymi; de Clarens, Philippe; Lescanne, Marc

    2016-04-01

    domains, syn-tectonic structures and oblique accommodation zones to highlighted asymmetrical margins, characterized by strong lateral variability of crustal domains along and across strike. From external to internal domains of the margins and in between SHFZ and EGAFZ (first-order segment), this study details sharp necking domain and complex transition from hyperextended to oceanic crust characterized by: (i) hyperextended crust affected by volcanic extrusions; (ii) detachment faulting in the distal part of the margins allowing exhumation; (iii) volcanic constructions in the exhumation domain; (iv) a complex proto-oceanic crust. We highlight a significant second-order segmentation characterized by six N20°E trending transfer zones, limiting seven 25 - 60 km length segments and affecting necking domain as well as the ocean-continent transition. Based on interpretative cross-sections and detailed stratigraphic analysis, we discuss the complex temporal and spatial evolution of conjugate margins: (i) the margins segmentation and the relationship with structural inheritance (ii) the set-up of a long-offset detachment fault and the nature of the exhumed basement (iv) the origin and timing of magmatic events and the onset of proto-oceanic crust.

  6. Unitary-process discrimination with error margin

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, T.; Hayashi, A.; Horibe, M.; Hayashi, M.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate a discrimination scheme between unitary processes. By introducing a margin for the probability of an erroneous guess, this scheme interpolates the two standard discrimination schemes: minimum-error and unambiguous discrimination. We present solutions for two cases. One is the case of two unitary processes with general prior probabilities. The other is the case with a group symmetry: The processes comprise a projective representation of a finite group. In the latter case, we found that unambiguous discrimination is a kind of 'all or nothing': The maximum success probability is either 0 or 1. We also thoroughly analyze how entanglement with an auxiliary system improves discrimination performance.

  7. Proliferative response of human marginal gingiva to phlogistic process and titanium implant.

    PubMed

    Bianconi, R; Cetrullo, N; Vallania, G; Baratta, B; Galanzi, A; Rizzoli, R; Savelli, V; Mazzotti, G

    1993-12-01

    In order to detect proliferative processes in human marginal gingiva in pathological conditions and after externalization of titanium implants, we have attempted BrdU incorporation after "in vitro" incubation of tissue fragments. In comparison with healthy controls, immunocytochemical detection of samples from patients affected by hypertrophic gengivitis shows a good number of proliferating cells in the basal layer of the epithelium, while only in one case can positiveness be detected after externalization of titanium implants. Since after reduction of inflammation by hygienic treatment a low number of proliferating cells can be observed only in the regions where pathological alterations are also present, we suggest that the increase in tissue proliferation may be closely dependent on the intensity of the inflammatory process. All these data demonstrate that in vitro BrdU incubation of tissue fragments represents a suitable method to evaluate cell proliferation in human tissue.

  8. On weighing gains and investments at the margin of risk regulation.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, T; Kemp, R; Purdue, H M

    1987-09-01

    Analysts have long noted an apparent discrepancy in the level of investment seemingly necessary to meet "acceptable" levels of public safety. At the margin of risk regulation, i.e., where safety determination is judged acceptable, the traditional cost-benefit calculus appears to contribute obvious rationale to the final political decision. Efforts are now being made to introduce a measure of consistency into the application of risk-cost benefit analysis to radiological protection. This paper reviews these efforts from a UK perspective. It also looks at how the issue was treated in a public setting through the Sizewell B Public Inquiry. PMID:3120261

  9. Positive Surgical Margins in Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treated With Preoperative Radiation: Is a Postoperative Boost Necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Al Yami, Ali; Griffin, Anthony M.; Ferguson, Peter C.; Catton, Charles N.; Chung, Peter W.M.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: For patients with an extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS) treated with preoperative radiotherapy and surgically excised with positive margins, we retrospectively reviewed whether a postoperative radiation boost reduced the risk of local recurrence (LR). Methods and Materials: A total of 216 patients with positive margins after resection of an extremity STS treated between 1986 and 2003 were identified from our institution's prospectively collected database. Patient demographics, radiation therapy parameters including timing and dose, classification of positive margin status, reasons for not administering a postoperative boost, and oncologic outcome were collected and evaluated. Results: Of the 216 patients with a positive surgical margin, 52 patients were treated with preoperative radiation therapy alone (50 Gy), whereas 41 received preoperative radiation therapy plus a postoperative boost (80% received 16 Gy postoperatively for a total of 66 Gy). There was no difference in baseline tumor characteristics between the two groups. Six of 52 patients in the group receiving preoperative radiation alone developed a LR compared with 9 of 41 in the boost group. Five-year estimated LR-free survivals were 90.4% and 73.8%, respectively (p = 0.13). Conclusions: We found that including the postoperative radiation boost after preoperative radiation and a margin-positive excision did not provide an advantage in preventing LR for patients treated with external beam radiotherapy. Given that higher radiation doses placed patients at greater risk for late complications such as fracture, fibrosis, edema, and joint stiffness, judicious avoidance of the postoperative boost while maintaining an equivalent rate of local control can reduce the risk of these difficult-to-treat morbidities.

  10. Consortium Purchases: Case Study for a Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scigliano, Marisa

    2002-01-01

    Discusses library cooperation and academic library consortia and presents a case study of a Canadian consortia that conducted a cost-benefit analysis for purchasing an electronic resource. Reports on member library subscription costs, external economic factors, value of patron time saved, costs and benefits for patrons, and net savings. (LRW)

  11. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  12. Characterizing entanglement with global and marginal entropic measures

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio; De Siena, Silvio

    2003-12-01

    We qualify the entanglement of arbitrary mixed states of bipartite quantum systems by comparing global and marginal mixednesses quantified by different entropic measures. For systems of two qubits we discriminate the class of maximally entangled states with fixed marginal mixednesses, and determine an analytical upper bound relating the entanglement of formation to the marginal linear entropies. This result partially generalizes to mixed states the quantification of entanglement with marginal mixednesses holding for pure states. We identify a class of entangled states that, for fixed marginals, are globally more mixed than product states when measured by the linear entropy. Such states cannot be discriminated by the majorization criterion.

  13. 77 FR 18477 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... External Power Supplies: Small Business Consumer Subgroup Table V-10 Battery Chargers: Small Business... Table VI-1 Estimated Capital Conservation Costs for a Typical Small Business (2010$ million) Table VI-2 Estimated Product Conversion Costs for a Typical Small Business (2010$ million) Table VI-3 Estimated...

  14. International Space Station External Contamination Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    PResentation slides examine external contamination requirements; International Space Station (ISS) external contamination sources; ISS external contamination sensitive surfaces; external contamination control; external contamination control for pre-launch verification; flight experiments and observations; the Space Shuttle Orbiter waste water dump, materials outgassing, active vacuum vents; example of molecular column density profile, modeling and analysis tools; sources of outgassing induced contamination analyzed to date, quiescent sources, observations on optical degradation due to induced external contamination in LEO; examples of typical contaminant and depth profiles; and status of the ISS system, material outgassing, thruster plumes, and optical degradation.

  15. Review and Assessment of JPL's Thermal Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebes, G.; Kingery, C.; Farguson, C.; White, M.; Blakely, M.; Nunes, J.; Avila, A.; Man, K.; Hoffman, A.; Forgrave, J.

    2012-01-01

    JPL has captured its experience from over four decades of robotic space exploration into a set of design rules. These rules have gradually changed into explicit requirements and are now formally implemented and verified. Over an extended period of time, the initial understanding of intent and rationale for these rules has faded and rules are now frequently applied without further consideration. In the meantime, mission classes and their associated risk postures have evolved, coupled with resource constraints and growing design diversity, bringing into question the current "one size fits all" thermal margin approach. This paper offers a systematic review of the heat flow path from an electronic junction to the eventual heat rejection to space. This includes the identification of different regimes along this path and the associated requirements. The work resulted in a renewed understanding of the intent behind JPL requirements for hot thermal margins and a framework for relevant considerations, which in turn enables better decision making when a deviation to these requirements is considered.

  16. Maximum neighborhood margin criterion in face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Pang Ying; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin

    2009-04-01

    Feature extraction is a data analysis technique devoted to removing redundancy and extracting the most discriminative information. In face recognition, feature extractors are normally plagued with small sample size problems, in which the total number of training images is much smaller than the image dimensionality. Recently, an optimized facial feature extractor, maximum marginal criterion (MMC), was proposed. MMC computes an optimized projection by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem in a standard form that is free from inverse matrix operation, and thus it does not suffer from the small sample size problem. However, MMC is essentially a linear projection technique that relies on facial image pixel intensity to compute within- and between-class scatters. The nonlinear nature of faces restricts the discrimination of MMC. Hence, we propose an improved MMC, namely maximum neighborhood margin criterion (MNMC). Unlike MMC, which preserves global geometric structures that do not perfectly describe the underlying face manifold, MNMC seeks a projection that preserves local geometric structures via neighborhood preservation. This objective function leads to the enhancement of classification capability, and this is testified by experimental results. MNMC shows its performance superiority compared to MMC, especially in pose, illumination, and expression (PIE) and face recognition grand challenge (FRGC) databases.

  17. Iatrogenic corneal perforation in Terrien Marginal Degeneration.

    PubMed

    M R, Kursiah

    2013-04-01

    This case report is about a rare disease with unusual presentation. Failure to recognise atypical presentation may lead to error in managing the patient and cause disastrous complications. Here we highlight a case of Terrien Marginal Degeneration in both eyes with atypical presentation; namely pseudopterygium. A 22 year old man was referred to our centre for iatrogenic right eye corneal perforation after having an atypical pterygium removed at another hospital. On arrival, his vision was 1/60 in both eyes with bilateral cornea Terrien Marginal Degeneration. His right eye anterior chamber was deep with a conjunctival flap covering the perforation site which was located from the 2.30 - 3.30 clock position nasally with no aqueous leak. However after a day his right eye anterior chamber became flat and there was fast aqueous leak from the perforation site. An emergency C shaped peripheral corneal lamellar keratoplasty was performed to seal the perforation. Post operatively his right eye improved to 6/24.

  18. The genetics of nodal marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Spina, Valeria; Khiabanian, Hossein; Messina, Monica; Monti, Sara; Cascione, Luciano; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Spaccarotella, Elisa; Holmes, Antony B; Arcaini, Luca; Lucioni, Marco; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Zairis, Sakellarios; Diop, Fary; Cerri, Michaela; Chiaretti, Sabina; Marasca, Roberto; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Deaglio, Silvia; Ramponi, Antonio; Tiacci, Enrico; Pasqualucci, Laura; Paulli, Marco; Falini, Brunangelo; Inghirami, Giorgio; Bertoni, Francesco; Foà, Robin; Rabadan, Raul; Gaidano, Gianluca; Rossi, Davide

    2016-09-01

    Nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) is a rare, indolent B-cell tumor that is distinguished from splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) by the different pattern of dissemination. NMZL still lacks distinct markers and remains orphan of specific cancer gene lesions. By combining whole-exome sequencing, targeted sequencing of tumor-related genes, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis, we aimed at disclosing the pathways that are molecularly deregulated in NMZL and we compare the molecular profile of NMZL with that of SMZL. These analyses identified a distinctive pattern of nonsilent somatic lesions in NMZL. In 35 NMZL patients, 41 genes were found recurrently affected in ≥3 (9%) cases, including highly prevalent molecular lesions of MLL2 (also known as KMT2D; 34%), PTPRD (20%), NOTCH2 (20%), and KLF2 (17%). Mutations of PTPRD, a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase regulating cell growth, were enriched in NMZL across mature B-cell tumors, functionally caused the loss of the phosphatase activity of PTPRD, and were associated with cell-cycle transcriptional program deregulation and increased proliferation index in NMZL. Although NMZL shared with SMZL a common mutation profile, NMZL harbored PTPRD lesions that were otherwise absent in SMZL. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the genetics of NMZL, identify PTPRD lesions as a novel marker for this lymphoma across mature B-cell tumors, and support the distinction of NMZL as an independent clinicopathologic entity within the current lymphoma classification.

  19. On recent developments in marginal separation theory

    PubMed Central

    Braun, S.; Scheichl, S.

    2014-01-01

    Thin aerofoils are prone to localized flow separation at their leading edge if subjected to moderate angles of attack α. Although ‘laminar separation bubbles’ at first do not significantly alter the aerofoil performance, they tend to ‘burst’ if α is increased further or if perturbations acting upon the flow reach a certain intensity. This then either leads to global flow separation (stall) or triggers the laminar–turbulent transition process within the boundary layer flow. This paper addresses the asymptotic analysis of the early stages of the latter phenomenon in the limit as the characteristic Reynolds number , commonly referred to as marginal separation theory. A new approach based on the adjoint operator method is presented that enables the fundamental similarity laws of marginal separation theory to be derived and the analysis to be extended to higher order. Special emphasis is placed on the breakdown of the flow description, i.e. the formation of finite-time singularities (a manifestation of the bursting process), and on its resolution being based on asymptotic arguments. The passage to the subsequent triple-deck stage is described in detail, which is a prerequisite for carrying out a future numerical treatment of this stage in a proper way. Moreover, a composite asymptotic model is developed in order for the inherent ill-posedness of the Cauchy problems associated with the current flow description to be resolved. PMID:24936013

  20. The genetics of nodal marginal zone lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Spina, Valeria; Khiabanian, Hossein; Messina, Monica; Monti, Sara; Cascione, Luciano; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Spaccarotella, Elisa; Holmes, Antony B.; Arcaini, Luca; Lucioni, Marco; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Zairis, Sakellarios; Diop, Fary; Cerri, Michaela; Chiaretti, Sabina; Marasca, Roberto; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Deaglio, Silvia; Ramponi, Antonio; Tiacci, Enrico; Pasqualucci, Laura; Paulli, Marco; Falini, Brunangelo; Inghirami, Giorgio; Bertoni, Francesco; Foà, Robin; Rabadan, Raul; Gaidano, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) is a rare, indolent B-cell tumor that is distinguished from splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) by the different pattern of dissemination. NMZL still lacks distinct markers and remains orphan of specific cancer gene lesions. By combining whole-exome sequencing, targeted sequencing of tumor-related genes, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis, we aimed at disclosing the pathways that are molecularly deregulated in NMZL and we compare the molecular profile of NMZL with that of SMZL. These analyses identified a distinctive pattern of nonsilent somatic lesions in NMZL. In 35 NMZL patients, 41 genes were found recurrently affected in ≥3 (9%) cases, including highly prevalent molecular lesions of MLL2 (also known as KMT2D; 34%), PTPRD (20%), NOTCH2 (20%), and KLF2 (17%). Mutations of PTPRD, a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase regulating cell growth, were enriched in NMZL across mature B-cell tumors, functionally caused the loss of the phosphatase activity of PTPRD, and were associated with cell-cycle transcriptional program deregulation and increased proliferation index in NMZL. Although NMZL shared with SMZL a common mutation profile, NMZL harbored PTPRD lesions that were otherwise absent in SMZL. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the genetics of NMZL, identify PTPRD lesions as a novel marker for this lymphoma across mature B-cell tumors, and support the distinction of NMZL as an independent clinicopathologic entity within the current lymphoma classification. PMID:27335277

  1. The genetics of nodal marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Spina, Valeria; Khiabanian, Hossein; Messina, Monica; Monti, Sara; Cascione, Luciano; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Spaccarotella, Elisa; Holmes, Antony B; Arcaini, Luca; Lucioni, Marco; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Zairis, Sakellarios; Diop, Fary; Cerri, Michaela; Chiaretti, Sabina; Marasca, Roberto; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Deaglio, Silvia; Ramponi, Antonio; Tiacci, Enrico; Pasqualucci, Laura; Paulli, Marco; Falini, Brunangelo; Inghirami, Giorgio; Bertoni, Francesco; Foà, Robin; Rabadan, Raul; Gaidano, Gianluca; Rossi, Davide

    2016-09-01

    Nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) is a rare, indolent B-cell tumor that is distinguished from splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) by the different pattern of dissemination. NMZL still lacks distinct markers and remains orphan of specific cancer gene lesions. By combining whole-exome sequencing, targeted sequencing of tumor-related genes, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis, we aimed at disclosing the pathways that are molecularly deregulated in NMZL and we compare the molecular profile of NMZL with that of SMZL. These analyses identified a distinctive pattern of nonsilent somatic lesions in NMZL. In 35 NMZL patients, 41 genes were found recurrently affected in ≥3 (9%) cases, including highly prevalent molecular lesions of MLL2 (also known as KMT2D; 34%), PTPRD (20%), NOTCH2 (20%), and KLF2 (17%). Mutations of PTPRD, a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase regulating cell growth, were enriched in NMZL across mature B-cell tumors, functionally caused the loss of the phosphatase activity of PTPRD, and were associated with cell-cycle transcriptional program deregulation and increased proliferation index in NMZL. Although NMZL shared with SMZL a common mutation profile, NMZL harbored PTPRD lesions that were otherwise absent in SMZL. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the genetics of NMZL, identify PTPRD lesions as a novel marker for this lymphoma across mature B-cell tumors, and support the distinction of NMZL as an independent clinicopathologic entity within the current lymphoma classification. PMID:27335277

  2. Error margin analysis for feature gene extraction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Feature gene extraction is a fundamental issue in microarray-based biomarker discovery. It is normally treated as an optimization problem of finding the best predictive feature genes that can effectively and stably discriminate distinct types of disease conditions, e.g. tumors and normals. Since gene microarray data normally involves thousands of genes at, tens or hundreds of samples, the gene extraction process may fall into local optimums if the gene set is optimized according to the maximization of classification accuracy of the classifier built from it. Results In this paper, we propose a novel gene extraction method of error margin analysis to optimize the feature genes. The proposed algorithm has been tested upon one synthetic dataset and two real microarray datasets. Meanwhile, it has been compared with five existing gene extraction algorithms on each dataset. On the synthetic dataset, the results show that the feature set extracted by our algorithm is the closest to the actual gene set. For the two real datasets, our algorithm is superior in terms of balancing the size and the validation accuracy of the resultant gene set when comparing to other algorithms. Conclusion Because of its distinct features, error margin analysis method can stably extract the relevant feature genes from microarray data for high-performance classification. PMID:20459827

  3. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.

  4. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade. PMID:18684162

  5. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade.

  6. Transform continental margins - part 1: Concepts and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the geodynamic concepts and models related to transform continental margins, and their implications on the structure of these margins. Simple kinematic models of transform faulting associated with continental rifting and oceanic accretion allow to define three successive stages of evolution, including intra-continental transform faulting, active transform margin, and passive transform margin. Each part of the transform margin experiences these three stages, but the evolution is diachronous along the margin. Both the duration of each stage and the cumulated strike-slip deformation increase from one extremity of the margin (inner corner) to the other (outer corner). Initiation of transform faulting is related to the obliquity between the trend of the lithospheric deformed zone and the relative displacement of the lithospheric plates involved in divergence. In this oblique setting, alternating transform and divergent plate boundaries correspond to spatial partitioning of the deformation. Both obliquity and the timing of partitioning influence the shape of transform margins. Oblique margin can be defined when oblique rifting is followed by oblique oceanic accretion. In this case, no transform margin should exist in the prolongation of the oceanic fracture zones. Vertical displacements along transform margins were mainly studied to explain the formation of marginal ridges. Numerous models were proposed, one of the most used is being based on thermal exchanges between the oceanic and the continental lithospheres across the transform fault. But this model is compatible neither with numerical computation including flexural behavior of the lithosphere nor with timing of vertical displacements and the lack of heating related to the passing of the oceanic accretion axis as recorded by the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana marginal ridge. Enhanced models are still needed. They should better take into account the erosion on the continental slope, and the level of coupling

  7. Estimating Location without External Cues

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system. PMID:25356642

  8. Heat regenerative external combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1993-10-01

    A heat regenerative external combustion engine is disclosed. The engine includes fuel inlet means which extends along the exhaust passage and/or combustion chamber in order to preheat the fuel, To provide for preheating by gases in both the combustion chamber and the exhaust passage, the combustion chamber is arranged annularly around the drive shaft and between the cylinders. This configuration also is advantageous in that it reduces the noise of combustion. The engine of the invention is particularly well-suited for use in a torpedo.

  9. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  10. Singular perturbation margin and generalised gain margin for nonlinear time-invariant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Zhu, J. Jim

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, singular perturbation margin (SPM) and generalised gain margin (GGM) are proposed as the classical phase margin and gain margin like stability metrics for nonlinear systems established from the view of the singular perturbation and the regular perturbation, respectively. The problem of SPM and GGM assessment of a nonlinear nominal system is formulated. The SPM and GGM formulations are provided as the functions of radius of attraction (ROA), which is introduced as a conservative measure of the domain of attraction (DOA). Furthermore, the ROA constrained SPM and GGM analysis are processed through two stages: (1) the SPM and GGM assessment for nonlinear systems at the equilibrium point, based on the SPM and GGM equilibrium theorems, including time-invariant and time-varying cases (Theorem 5.3, Theorem 5.2, Theorem 5.4 and Theorem 5.5); (2) the establishment of the relationship between the SPM or GGM and the ROA for nonlinear time-invariant systems through the construction of the Lyapunov function for the singularly perturbed model (Theorem 6.1 and Section 6.2.3).

  11. Investigating Continental Margins: An Activity to Help Students Better Understand the Continental Margins of North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Maria-Serena; Capodivacca, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Continental margins are an important part of the ocean floor. They separate the land above sea level from the deep ocean basins below and occupy about 11% of Earth's surface. They are also economically important, as they harbor both mineral resources and some of the most valuable fisheries in the world. In this article students investigate North…

  12. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  13. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  14. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  15. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  16. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  17. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a lightweight, portable device ... AED? Non-medical personnel such as police, fire service personnel, flight attendants, security guards and other lay ...

  18. Remobilization of barium in continental margin sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, James; Berelson, William M.; Klinkhammer, Gary P.; Kilgore, Tammy E.; Hammond, Douglas E.

    1994-11-01

    The rate of Ba release from California continental margin sediments has been measured, using an in situ benthic flux chamber, and the range of values (25-50 nmol cm -2 y -1) is larger than any previously published benthic flux estimate for this element. The magnitude of the Ba flux suggests that a significant fraction of the Ba raining from the euphotic zone is recycled at the seafloor. Ba:Si regeneration ratios from these margin sediments increase with depth, demonstrating that Ba is decoupled from Si during the earliest stages of diagenesis. On the other hand, Ba regeneration rates and CaCO 3 dissolution rates covary; the coupling between these two constituents is supported by the observation that the Ba: CaCO 3 dissolution flux ratio (1.7 ± 0.4 × 10 -3) is independent of bottomwater depth—even in sediments underlying the oxygen minimum zone along the continental margin. Furthermore, this flux ratio is consistent with both the water column Ba:alkalinity ratio for the world's ocean, as well as the Ba:CaCO 3 ratio in sediment-trap solid phases from the Equatorial Pacific (1.1-2.2 × 10 -3). However, the constancy of the Ba:alkalinity ratio over geologic time remains in question, because the mechanism that controls this relationship remains a mystery. Our flux measurements suggest that diagenesis does not significantly influence the Ba:Ca ratio in the upper 0.5 mm of Pacific sediments, thereby supporting the idea of using the Ba concentration in surface-dwelling benthic forams as a proxy for deep-water chemical conditions ( LEA and BOYLE, 1989, 1990). On the other hand, we predict that if a foraminifer lives 0.5 mm or more below this interface, then diagenetic effects could influence the Ba:Ca ratio that foram species would record. The carrier phase of the particulate Ba reactive during early diagenesis does not appear to be organic matter, oxyhydroxides, or calcium carbonate, but rather a mineral phase related to marine barite or perhaps celestite.

  19. Biofuel production system with operation flexibility: Evaluation of economic and environmental performance under external disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Nannan

    Biomass derived liquid hydrocarbon fuel (biofuel) has been accepted as an effective way to mitigate the reliance on petroleum and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. An increasing demand for second generation biofuels, produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstock and compatible with current infrastructure and vehicle technologies, addresses two major challenges faced by the current US transportation sector: energy security and global warming. However, biofuel production is subject to internal disturbances (feedstock supply and commodity market) and external factors (energy market). The biofuel industry has also heavily relied on government subsidy during the early development stages. In this dissertation, I investigate how to improve the economic and environmental performance of biorefineries (and biofuel plant), as well as enhance its survivability under the external disturbances. Three types of disturbance are considered: (1) energy market fluctuation, (2) subsidy policy uncertainty, and (3) extreme weather conditions. All three factors are basically volatile, dynamic, and even unpredictable, which makes them difficult to model and have been largely ignored to date. Instead, biofuel industry and biofuel research are intensively focused on improving feedstock conversion efficiency and capital cost efficiency while assuming these advancements alone will successfully generate higher profit and thus foster the biofuel industry. The collapse of the largest corn ethanol biofuel company, Verasun Energy, in 2008 calls into question this efficiency-driven approach. A detailed analysis has revealed that although the corn ethanol plants operated by Verasun adopted the more efficient (i.e. higher ethanol yield per bushel of corn and lower capital cost) dry-mill technology, they could not maintain a fair profit margin under fluctuating market condition which made ethanol production unprofitable. This is because dry-mill plant converts a single type of biomass feedstock (corn

  20. Planning Target Margin Calculations for Prostate Radiotherapy Based on Intrafraction and Interfraction Motion Using Four Localization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran, Chris Herman, Michael G.; Davis, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine planning target volume (PTV) margins for prostate radiotherapy based on the internal margin (IM) (intrafractional motion) and the setup margin (SM) (interfractional motion) for four daily localization methods: skin marks (tattoo), pelvic bony anatomy (bone), intraprostatic gold seeds using a 5-mm action threshold, and using no threshold. Methods and Materials: Forty prostate cancer patients were treated with external radiotherapy according to an online localization protocol using four intraprostatic gold seeds and electronic portal images (EPIs). Daily localization and treatment EPIs were obtained. These data allowed inter- and intrafractional analysis of prostate motion. The SM for the four daily localization methods and the IM were determined. Results: A total of 1532 fractions were analyzed. Tattoo localization requires a SM of 6.8 mm left-right (LR), 7.2 mm inferior-superior (IS), and 9.8 mm anterior-posterior (AP). Bone localization requires 3.1, 8.9, and 10.7 mm, respectively. The 5-mm threshold localization requires 4.0, 3.9, and 3.7 mm. No threshold localization requires 3.4, 3.2, and 3.2 mm. The intrafractional prostate motion requires an IM of 2.4 mm LR, 3.4 mm IS and AP. The PTV margin using the 5-mm threshold, including interobserver uncertainty, IM, and SM, is 4.8 mm LR, 5.4 mm IS, and 5.2 mm AP. Conclusions: Localization based on EPI with implanted gold seeds allows a large PTV margin reduction when compared with tattoo localization. Except for the LR direction, bony anatomy localization does not decrease the margins compared with tattoo localization. Intrafractional prostate motion is a limiting factor on margin reduction.

  1. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  2. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  3. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  4. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  5. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  6. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  7. Your College Degree: The External Degree Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haponski, William C.; And Others

    Information on undertaking an external degree program to obtain a college education is presented. An external degree program is one that has no, or minimal requirements for residence (on-campus attendance). Most often it can be entered at any time of the year and usually grants credit for documented learning already acquired. An external degree…

  8. Teaching Externally: Lecturers' Viewpoints. Occasional Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, David, Ed.

    Perspectives of academic staff who have been involved in teaching externally are presented in three papers. In "Teaching Students Externally: The First Twelve Years," Frank Molloy examines three aspects of teaching by the external mode: preparing materials, making assignments, and providing educational experiences for students at the residential…

  9. Costs and cost-effectiveness of a universal, school-based hepatitis B vaccination program.

    PubMed Central

    Krahn, M; Guasparini, R; Sherman, M; Detsky, A S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of a school-based grade 6 universal vaccination program against hepatitis B. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cost study and cost-effectiveness analysis of British Columbia's vaccination program for 1994 and 1995. Since 1992, public health nurses have administered hepatitis B vaccine to grade 6 students in schools. We measured costs of vaccine, vaccine administration, and net program costs and used a validated Markov model to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the program. RESULTS: Vaccinating each student cost $44, $24 of which was the cost of vaccine administration. The net cost was $9 per person; considering productivity costs, net savings were $75 per person. Marginal cost per life year gained was $2100. Universal adolescent vaccination is also economically attractive in the United States but less attractive in regions with incidence rates below 3 cases per 100,000 per year. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis B vaccine can be delivered in North American schools at a reasonable cost. Adolescent vaccination is economically attractive in North American regions of high and average incidence rates. Our analysis supports vaccination in adolescents who remain at risk for hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:9807529

  10. Understanding Continental Margin Biodiversity: A New Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Sibuet, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the deep continental margins (200-4,000 m) were perceived as monotonous mud slopes of limited ecological or environmental concern. Progress in seafloor mapping and direct observation now reveals unexpected heterogeneity, with a mosaic of habitats and ecosystems linked to geomorphological, geochemical, and hydrographic features that influence biotic diversity. Interactions among water masses, terrestrial inputs, sediment diagenesis, and tectonic activity create a multitude of ecological settings supporting distinct communities that populate canyons and seamounts, high-stress oxygen minimum zones, and methane seeps, as well as vast reefs of cold corals and sponges. This high regional biodiversity is fundamental to the production of valuable fisheries, energy, and mineral resources, and performs critical ecological services (nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, nursery and habitat support). It is under significant threat from climate change and human resource extraction activities. Serious actions are required to preserve the functions and services provided by the deep-sea settings we are just now getting to know.

  11. Down and out: social marginality and homelessness.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, P

    1992-01-01

    In the last ten years the problem of homelessness has been on the increase. Compared to the situation about sixty years ago the homeless of today congregate more in the centres of the big cities, adhere to a different lifestyle and are socially, culturally and ethnically more diverse. Some indications of the scale of the problem in the Netherlands are given, but the focus of the paper is on the role of psychiatry: on the one hand, in providing services to the mentally ill among the homeless and, on the other hand, in protecting communities against people who are considered bothersome or unfit for civil life. The development of systems of comprehensive care for different categories of socially marginal people is discussed.

  12. Understanding continental margin biodiversity: a new imperative.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lisa A; Sibuet, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the deep continental margins (200-4,000 m) were perceived as monotonous mud slopes of limited ecological or environmental concern. Progress in seafloor mapping and direct observation now reveals unexpected heterogeneity, with a mosaic of habitats and ecosystems linked to geomorphological, geochemical, and hydrographic features that influence biotic diversity. Interactions among water masses, terrestrial inputs, sediment diagenesis, and tectonic activity create a multitude of ecological settings supporting distinct communities that populate canyons and seamounts, high-stress oxygen minimum zones, and methane seeps, as well as vast reefs of cold corals and sponges. This high regional biodiversity is fundamental to the production of valuable fisheries, energy, and mineral resources, and performs critical ecological services (nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, nursery and habitat support). It is under significant threat from climate change and human resource extraction activities. Serious actions are required to preserve the functions and services provided by the deep-sea settings we are just now getting to know.

  13. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  14. Two algorithms for fitting constrained marginal models

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R.J.; Forcina, A.

    2013-01-01

    The two main algorithms that have been considered for fitting constrained marginal models to discrete data, one based on Lagrange multipliers and the other on a regression model, are studied in detail. It is shown that the updates produced by the two methods are identical, but that the Lagrangian method is more efficient in the case of identically distributed observations. A generalization is given of the regression algorithm for modelling the effect of exogenous individual-level covariates, a context in which the use of the Lagrangian algorithm would be infeasible for even moderate sample sizes. An extension of the method to likelihood-based estimation under L1-penalties is also considered. PMID:23794772

  15. [Clinical to target volume margins determination in radiotherapy for anal cancers].

    PubMed

    Libois, V; Mahé, M-A; Rio, E; Maingon, P

    2016-10-01

    There are very few data on the expansion from the clinical target volume (CTV) to the planning target volume (PTV) in the anal cancer treatment. This article aims to collect the different elements needed for the construction of a PTV from scientific data based on a literature analysis. We reviewed the articles published in the medical literature from the last 20years. They concerned setup errors and internal organ mobility of the different volumes of patients treated by conformational radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (anal canal, meso-rectum, common, intern and extern, inguinal and pre-sacral lymph nodes). CTV to PTV margins admitted in the guidelines and atlas of consensus groups (SFRO, RTOG, AGITG) are from 0.7 to 1cm in all directions, based on expert's opinions but not on scientific data. There are no specific studies on the canal anal mobility. Most of the data are from other pelvis cancers (gynecologic, rectum and prostate). Setup errors can be reduced by daily imaging. Patient repositioning and immobilization modalities are mostly local habits rather than scientific consensus. A three-dimensional 1cm margin is generally admitted. Margins reduction must be careful and has to be assessed. PMID:27614499

  16. Marginally Relevant Topics in Conformal Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Kevin Francis

    We consider a set of topics in conformal field theory. We provide an example of a 4D theory that exhibits the Contino-Pomarol-Rattazzi mechanism, where breaking conformal symmetry by an almost marginal operator leads to a light pseudo-Goldstone boson, the dilaton, and a parametrically suppressed contribution to vacuum energy. We consider SUSY QCD at the edge of the conformal window and break conformal symmetry by weakly gauging a subgroup of the flavor symmetry. Using Seiberg duality we show that for a range of parameters the singlet meson in the dual theory reaches the unitarity bound, however, this theory does not have a stable vacuum. We stabilize the vacuum with soft breaking terms, compute the mass of the dilaton, and determine the range of parameters where the leading contribution to the dilaton mass is from the almost marginal coupling. We also weigh in on a widely held belief that increasing bounds on the gluino mass, which feeds down to the stop mass through renormalization group running, are making a light stop increasingly unlikely. Here we present a counter-example. We examine the case of the Minimal Composite Supersymmetric Standard Model which has a light composite stop. The large anomalous dimension of the stop from strong dynamics pushes the stop mass toward a quasi-fixed point in the infrared, which is smaller than standard estimates by a factor of a large logarithm. The gluino can be about three times heavier than the stop, which is comparable to hierarchy achieved with supersoft Dirac gluino masses. Thus, in this class of models, a heavy gluino is not necessarily indicative of a heavy stop.

  17. The social costs of nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, Bonnie L.; Gourevitch, Jesse D.; Polasky, Stephen; Isbell, Forest; Tessum, Chris W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of the negative externalities associated with reactive nitrogen (N), the damage costs of N to air, water, and climate remain largely unquantified. We propose a comprehensive approach for estimating the social cost of nitrogen (SCN), defined as the present value of the monetary damages caused by an incremental increase in N. This framework advances N accounting by considering how each form of N causes damages at specific locations as it cascades through the environment. We apply the approach to an empirical example that estimates the SCN for N applied as fertilizer. We track impacts of N through its transformation into atmospheric and aquatic pools and estimate the distribution of associated costs to affected populations. Our results confirm that there is no uniform SCN. Instead, changes in N management will result in different N-related costs depending on where N moves and the location, vulnerability, and preferences of populations affected by N. For example, we found that the SCN per kilogram of N fertilizer applied in Minnesota ranges over several orders of magnitude, from less than $0.001/kg N to greater than $10/kg N, illustrating the importance of considering the site, the form of N, and end points of interest rather than assuming a uniform cost for damages. Our approach for estimating the SCN demonstrates the potential of integrated biophysical and economic models to illuminate the costs and benefits of N and inform more strategic and efficient N management. PMID:27713926

  18. Formation and evolution of magma-poor margins, an example of the West Iberia margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Andres-Martinez, Miguel; Morgan, Jason P.; Ranero, Cesar R.; Reston, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The West Iberia-Newfoundland (WIM-NF) conjugate margins have been geophysically and geologically surveyed for the last 30 years and have arguably become a paradigm for magma-poor extensional margins. Here we present a coherent picture of the WIM-NF rift to drift evolution that emerges from these observations and numerical modeling, and point out important differences that may exist with other magma-poor margins world-wide. The WIM-NF is characterized by a continental crust that thins asymmetrically and a wide and symmetric continent-ocean transition (COT) interpreted to consist of exhumed and serpentinised mantle with magmatic products increasing oceanward. The architectural evolution of these margins is mainly dominated by cooling under very slow extension velocities (<~6 mm/yr half-rate) and a lower crust that most probably was not extremely weak at the start of rifting. These conditions lead to a system where initially deformation is distributed over a broad area and the upper, lower crust and lithosphere are decoupled. As extension progresses upper, lower, crust and mantle become tightly coupled and deformation localizes due to strengthening and cooling during rifting. Coupling leads to asymmetric asthenospheric uplift and weakening of the hanginwall of the active fault, where a new fault forms. This continued process leads to the formation of an array of sequential faults that dip and become younger oceanward. Here we show that these processes acting in concert: 1) reproduce the margin asymmetry observed at the WIM-NF, 2) explain the fault geometry evolution from planar, to listric to detachment like by having one common Andersonian framework, 3) lead to the symmetric exhumation of mantle with little magmatism, and 4) explain the younging of the syn-rift towards the basin centre and imply that unconformities separating syn- and post-rift may be diachronous and younger towards the ocean. Finally, we show that different lower crustal rheologies lead to different

  19. External Pulsed Plasma Propulsion (EPPP) Analysis Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joesph A.; Morton, P. Jeff; Schmidt, George R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    External Pulsed Plasma Propulsion (EPPP) systems are at the stage of engineering infancy with evolving paradigms for application. performance and general characteristics. Recent efforts have focused on an approach that employs existing technologies with near term EPPP development for usage in interplanetary exploration and asteroid/comet deflection. if mandated. The inherent advantages of EPPP are discussed and its application to a variety of propulsion concepts is explored. These include, but are not limited to, utilizing energy sources such as fission. fusion and antimatter, as well as, improved chemical explosives. A mars mission scenario is presented as a demonstration of its capability using existing technologies. A suggested alternate means to improve EPPP efficiencies could also lead to a heavy lift (non-nuclear) launch vehicle capability. Conceivably, true low-cost, access to space is possible using advanced explosive propellants and/or coupling the EPPP vehicle to a "beam propellant" concept. EPPP systems appear to offer an approach that can potentially cover ETO through interstellar transportation capability. A technology roadmap is presented that shows mutual benefits pertaining to a substantial number of existing space propulsion and research areas.

  20. Subsea electrical power for marginal-well systems

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Many remaining offshore oil and gas fields are too small, remote or deep to be exploited economically using existing technology. But economics would be more attractive if electrical power could be made available on the ocean floor. Hence, step-out distances and access to marginal wells in both shallow and deep water, should markedly increase with the advent of subsea electrical power. Distribution will be easier and costs lower, by comparison with existing systems, because it will be possible to site transformers, switchgear and variable-speed controllers near wellheads to drive equipment such as pumps and valves. In a project run by GEC Alsthom Engineering Systems Ltd., testing of underwater power-distribution equipment started in fall 1996, and submerged trials will begin at the end of the year. The project is sponsored by Amerada Hess, BP, Shell, Texaco, GEC Alsthom and the UK Department of Trade and Industry. It will address problems such as siting equipment at various depths and heat removal through waterproof enclosures.

  1. Nonbridging external fixation of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Matthew D; Shin, Eon K

    2010-08-01

    Surgical management of distal radius fractures continues to evolve because of their high incidence in an increasingly active elderly population. Traditional radiocarpal external fixation relies on ligamentotaxis for fracture reduction but has several drawbacks. Nonbridging external fixation has evolved to provide early wrist mobility in the setting of anatomic fracture reduction. Several studies of the nonbridging technique have demonstrated satisfactory results in isolated nonbridging external fixation series and in comparison with traditional spanning external fixation. Nonbridging external fixation for surgical treatment of distal radius fractures can be technically demanding and requires at least 1 cm of intact volar cortex in the distal fracture fragment for successful implementation.

  2. Upper mantle viscosity and dynamic subsidence of curved continental margins.

    PubMed

    Sacek, Victor; Ussami, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Continental rifting does not always follow a straight line. Nevertheless, little attention has been given to the influence of rifting curvature in the evolution of extended margins. Here, using a three-dimensional model to simulate mantle dynamics, we demonstrate that the curvature of rifting along a margin also controls post-rift basin subsidence. Our results indicate that a concave-oceanward margin subsides faster than a convex margin does during the post-rift phase. This dynamic subsidence of curved margins is a result of lateral thermal conduction and mantle convection. Furthermore, the differential subsidence is strongly dependent on the viscosity structure. As a natural example, we analyse the post-rift stratigraphic evolution of the Santos Basin, southeastern Brazil. The differential dynamic subsidence of this margin is only possible if the viscosity of the upper mantle is >2-3 × 10(19) Pa s.

  3. [Clinical to planning target volume margins in prostate cancer radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ramiandrisoa, F; Duvergé, L; Castelli, J; Nguyen, T D; Servagi-Vernat, S; de Crevoisier, R

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge of inter- and intrafraction motion and deformations of the intrapelvic target volumes (prostate, seminal vesicles, prostatectomy bed and lymph nodes) as well as the main organs at risk (bladder and rectum) allow to define rational clinical to planning target volume margins, depending on the different radiotherapy techniques and their uncertainties. In case of image-guided radiotherapy, prostate margins and seminal vesicles margins can be between 5 and 10mm. The margins around the prostatectomy bed vary from 10 to 15mm and those around the lymph node clinical target volume between 7 and 10mm. Stereotactic body radiotherapy allows lower margins, which are 3 to 5mm around the prostate. Image-guided and stereotactic body radiotherapy with adequate margins allow finally moderate or extreme hypofractionation. PMID:27614515

  4. Continental transform margins : state of art and future milestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Transform faults were defined 45 years ago as ‘a new class of fault' (Wilson, 1965), and transform margins were consequently individualized as a new class of continental margins. While transform margins represent 20 to 25 % of the total length of continent-ocean transitions, they were poorly studied, especially when compared with the amount of data, interpretations, models and conceptual progress accumulated on divergent or convergent continental margins. The best studied examples of transform margins are located in the northern part of Norway, south of South Africa, in the gulf of California and on both sides of the Equatorial Atlantic. Here is located the Côte d'Ivoire - Ghana margin, where the more complete data set was acquired, based on numerous geological and geophysical cruises, including ODP Leg 159. The first models that encompassed the structure and evolution of transform margins were mainly driven by plate kinematic reconstructions, and evidenced the diachronic end of tectonic activity and the non-cylindrical character of these margins, with a decreasing strike-slip deformation from the convex to the concave divergent-transform intersections. Further thermo-mechanical models were more specifically designed to explain the vertical displacements along transform margins, and especially the occurrence of high-standing marginal ridges. These thermo-mechanical models involved either heat transfer from oceanic to continental lithospheres across the transform faults or tectonically- or gravity-driven mass transfer in the upper crust. These models were far from fully fit observations, and were frequently dedicated to specific example, and not easily generalizable. Future work on transform continental margins may be expected to fill some scientific gaps, and the definition of working directions can benefit from the studies dedicated to other types of margins. At regional scale the structural and sedimentological variability of transform continental margins has

  5. An external drag measuring element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringel, Mordechai; Levin, Daniel; Seginer, Arnan

    The accurate measurement of the axial-force component acting on small wind-tunnel models has traditionally made use of integral string balances, which eliminated many accuracy problems, such as friction and hysteresis, but also introduced interactions between the various force and moment sensing elements due to nonlinear elastic phenomena. The reduction of these interactions usually calls for complicated designs, expensive manufacturing, hard-to-handle calibration processes, and cumbersome data reduction programs. An approach is presented that is based on an external axial-force-measuring element and avoids the ill-conditioned design problems of integral balances. Other difficulties that are encountered, such as friction, misalignment, and relative motion between metric elements are considered, and their solution is examined. Calibration and test results show that the new approach duplicates and surpasses the results of much more complicated and expensive integral balances.

  6. External Versus Endoscopic Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Grob, Seanna R; Campbell, Ashley; Lefebvre, Daniel R; Yoon, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    DCR is the treatment of choice for NLDO. External DCR has remained the standard approach since the 1890s. With advances in technique and technology, and more otolaryngologists and ophthalmologists performing endoscopic DCR, more studies have been conducted, some with equivalent success rates between the 2 approaches. Endoscopic endonasal DCR offers the advantages of avoiding a skin incision with similar success rates with experienced surgeons. However, the technique necessitates more surgical equipment, and has a steep learning curve. Both approaches have low complication rates and serious complications are very rare. The decision for the type of approach to use depends on the surgeon’s experience, the patient’s preference or concerns, and the resources available within a particular health system.

  7. Bounded Linear Stability Margin Analysis of Nonlinear Hybrid Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Boskovic, Jovan D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a bounded linear stability analysis for a hybrid adaptive control that blends both direct and indirect adaptive control. Stability and convergence of nonlinear adaptive control are analyzed using an approximate linear equivalent system. A stability margin analysis shows that a large adaptive gain can lead to a reduced phase margin. This method can enable metrics-driven adaptive control whereby the adaptive gain is adjusted to meet stability margin requirements.

  8. Fractal geometry of some Martian lava flow margins: Alba Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauhanen, K.

    1993-01-01

    Fractal dimension for a few lava flow margins on the gently sloping flanks of Alba Patera were measured using the structured walk method. Fractal behavior was observed at scales ranging from 20 to 100 pixels. The upper limit of the linear part of log(margin length) vs. log(scale) profile correlated well to the margin length. The lower limit depended on resolution and flow properties.

  9. Patents and profits: A disparity of manufacturing margins in the tenofovir value chain.

    PubMed

    Walwyn, David

    2013-03-01

    Registered in 2001, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has quickly become a mainstay of first line regimens for the treatment of HIV. Initially only available in developed countries at a cost of US$5 000 per person per year (ppy), Gilead's Access Programme (GAP) has extended the use of the product to 2.4 million patients in low and middle income countries. The programme has two components: distribution of the branded product at reduced prices and licensing partnerships with generic manufacturers. The licensing partnerships now supply 75% of the market by volume, at a treatment cost of US$57 ppy (1% of the branded cost). From Gilead's perspective, GAP must be considered a huge success. It has enabled the company to maintain high prices in developed countries whilst reducing its input costs and deflecting criticism of its failure to provide essential medicines for the poor, hence risking the possibility of compulsory licensing. Over the period 2001 to 2011, TDF in its various forms has generated for Gilead more than US$31 billion revenue at a gross margin of 80%, equivalent to a gross profit of US$25 billion. Analysis of the TDF value chain, from preparation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to sale of the formulated product, shows that manufacturing margins are highly skewed in favour of the originator, with the latter's profit being US$3.2 billion vs. US$4 million for API manufacturers and US$39 million for formulators (2011). The data argues for a more rational approach to drug pricing including possible regulation in developed countries and more sustainable margins for the generic producers. PMID:25871307

  10. Economic and humanistic burden of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Raymakers, Adam J N; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Marra, Fawziah; Marra, Carlo A

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts (EGW) are a sexually transmitted infection caused by various strains of human papillomavirus (HPV). Several studies have described the direct and indirect costs of EGW, while others have reported on the burden of EGW in terms of the impact on the quality of life (QOL) of patients. The arrival of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine that protects against both cervical cancer and EGW requires a proper understanding of the impact of vaccines on costs and QOL. Using pre-defined search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria, we performed a systematic review of the economic and humanistic burden of EGW. The focus of our review was on literature describing the direct and indirect costs of EGW per episode of care (EoC) or per year, as well as the impact of EGW on disease-specific, generic, or preference-based QOL measures. We also reviewed the literature on the national economic burden of EGW from the perspectives of different countries. Other aspects of EGW management that can inform economic modelling studies, such as length of EoC, number of physician visits and indirect costs, were also explored. Our review sheds light on the high economic and humanistic burden of EGW and important differences in the costs between men and women, as well as the differences in health resource utilization and costs across countries. Our study also highlights the dearth of information on the impact of EGW on the QOL and productivity of patients.

  11. Linking margin morphology to sedimentary processes along the US East Coast passive continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, D. S.; ten Brink, U. S.; Andrews, B.; Twichell, D.

    2010-12-01

    The morphology of the US East Coast continental slope and rise has a surprising amount of along-margin variation. Multibeam bathymetry datasets that cover the slope and rise from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank provide a unique opportunity to analyze both first-order and higher-order morphologies, including submarine canyons, landslides, slumps and sedimentary bedforms. Using the morphological characterization coupled with seismic and core data, we hope to better understand how ancient and modern sedimentary processes control the shape of the margin. As a first step, the margin bathymetry was subdivided into 20 shelf-perpendicular regions from which several statistical parameters were analyzed. Within each region, the slope gradient was computed separately for down-slope and across-slope aspect directions. Distribution curves in each region for down- and across-slope gradients and seafloor roughness as functions of depth were grouped according to their statistical similarities. Four basic groups emerge and each approximately corresponds to known regions of Quaternary glacial, fluvial, current-controlled and gravity-driven sedimentary transport. In the second part of the study, published lithologic and chronostratigraphic frameworks of this margin were used to examine the relationship between seafloor morphology and the underlying geology. Along the upper continental rise, thick Quaternary deposits appear to have a strong influence on the short- and long-wavelength variation in rise topography, revealing a complex interplay between down-slope and along-slope sediment transport. Despite the close correlation between continental slope morphology and Quaternary environmental conditions, initial results suggest that the underlying, older, stratigraphy also plays a primary role. Along the continental slope, Quaternary processes appear to control the relief of slope-confined canyons and other short-wavelength (<5 km) topography, but the first order morphology of the slope

  12. Plate tectonic evolution of circum-Antarctic passive margins

    SciTech Connect

    Scotese, C.R.; Lawver, L.A.; Sclater, J.G.; Mayes, C.L.; Norton, I.; Royer, J.

    1987-05-01

    Passive margins that formed during the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous account for approximately 80% of the 15,000-km circumference of Antarctica. There are no passive margins younger than Late Cretaceous. Approximately 28% of these margins are Late Jurassic in age, 24% are Early Cretaceous in age, and the remaining 48% formed during the Late Cretaceous. The tectonic style of the rifting events that formed these margins varies considerably along the perimeter of Antarctica. In several areas the initiation of sea-floor spreading was preceded by a long period of extension and predrift stretching (Wilkes Land). Along other portions of the margin, rifting proceeded rapidly with little evidence for a lengthy phase of pre-drift extension (Queen Maud Land). Though extension is the dominant tectonic style, there is evidence for large-scale strike-slip movement associated with the early phases of continental breakup along the coasts of Crown Princess Martha Land and Victoria Land. Except for a short segment of the margin between the West Antarctic peninsula and Marie Byrdland, the Antarctic passive margins have not been affected by subsequent subduction-related compressive deformation. This presentation will review the plate tectonic evolution of the Circum-Antarctic passive margins during five time intervals: Early Jurassic, Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, mid-Cretaceous, and latest Cretaceous. A map illustrating the relative amounts of extension along the margin of Antarctica will be presented, and a computer animation illustrating the breakup of Gondwana from an Antarctic perspective will be shown.

  13. Comparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Breitburg, Denise L.; Cloern, James; Deutsch, Curtis; Giani, Michele; Goffart, Anne; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Lachkar, Zouhair; Limburg, Karin; Liu, Su-Mei; Montes, Enrique; Naqvi, Wajih; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rabouille, Christophe; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Swaney, Dennis P.; Wassman, Paul; Wishner, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services including primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins.

  14. EU Project on Development of the Glaciated European Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Dan

    A new 3-year project that began work in March 2000 is the first to study the stratigraphical development of the European glaciated margin by taking a regional approach.The project, Stratigraphical Development of the Glaciated European Margin (STRATAGEM), is studying the relatively shallow mid-Cenozoic to recent geology of the European Atlantic margin from Ireland to Norway (Figure 1). Seismic techniques are being principally employed, but studies will also be carried out on cores from the Ocean Drilling Project and IMAGES long piston cores. Post-rift backstripping modeling will be carried out on transects, along the length of the margin and will be calibrated with dated drill information.

  15. Comparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Breitburg, Denise L.; Cloern, James; Deutsch, Curtis; Giani, Michele; Goffart, Anne; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Lachkar, Zouhair; Limburg, Karin; Liu, Su-Mei; Montes, Enrique; Naqvi, Wajih; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rabouille, Christophe; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Swaney, Dennis P.; Wassman, Paul; Wishner, Karen F.

    2015-01-01

    The oceans' continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins, (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services. These include primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins.

  16. The Misdiagnosis of Special Education Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Sheldon H.; Urion, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Massachusetts study finds that increases in district's special-education costs are not due to district policies and practices, but to three external factors: medical advances that have increased the survivability of children born with disabilities, the deinstitutionalization of special-needs children, and the higher percentage of children living…

  17. 47 CFR 27.1238 - Eligible costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Transition Plan creation and support; (2) Project management (may be sourced external); (3) Filing fees; (4... change may be necessary); and (ii) Electrical; and mechanical (4) Project management (third party or... Interference Analysis. (8) Equipment disposal/shipping (9) Program Management (third party or internal costs...

  18. 47 CFR 27.1238 - Eligible costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Transition Plan creation and support; (2) Project management (may be sourced external); (3) Filing fees; (4... change may be necessary); and (ii) Electrical; and mechanical (4) Project management (third party or... Interference Analysis. (8) Equipment disposal/shipping (9) Program Management (third party or internal costs...

  19. 47 CFR 27.1238 - Eligible costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Transition Plan creation and support; (2) Project management (may be sourced external); (3) Filing fees; (4... change may be necessary); and (ii) Electrical; and mechanical (4) Project management (third party or... Interference Analysis. (8) Equipment disposal/shipping (9) Program Management (third party or internal costs...

  20. 47 CFR 27.1238 - Eligible costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Transition Plan creation and support; (2) Project management (may be sourced external); (3) Filing fees; (4... change may be necessary); and (ii) Electrical; and mechanical (4) Project management (third party or... Interference Analysis. (8) Equipment disposal/shipping (9) Program Management (third party or internal costs...

  1. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-30

    The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  2. The intensive margin of technology adoption--Experimental evidence on improved cooking stoves in rural Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bensch, Gunther; Peters, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    Today, almost 3 billion people in developing countries rely on biomass as primary cooking fuel, with profound negative implications for their well-being. Improved biomass cooking stoves are alleged to counteract these adverse effects. This paper evaluates take-up and impacts of low-cost improved stoves through a randomized controlled trial. The randomized stove is primarily designed to curb firewood consumption, but not smoke emissions. Nonetheless, we find considerable effects not only on firewood consumption, but also on smoke exposure and, consequently, smoke-related disease symptoms. The reduced smoke exposure results from behavioural changes in terms of increased outside cooking and a reduction in cooking time. We conclude that in order to assess the effectiveness of a technology-oriented intervention, it is critical to not only account for the incidence of technology adoption - the extensive margin - but also for the way the new technology is used - the intensive margin.

  3. Controls on hydrocarbon generation and leakage in South Atlantic conjugate margins: A comparative approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcano, Gabriela; Anka, Zahie; di Primio, Rolando

    2013-04-01

    We present a regional comparative analysis of the possible first-order internal and external factors controlling source rock (SR) maturation and hydrocarbon (HC) generation and leakage in two pairs of conjugate margins across the South Atlantic: the Brazil (Campos Basin)-Angola (Lower Congo Basin) margins located in the "central segment", and the Argentina (Colorado Basin)-South Africa (Orange Basin) in the "southern segment". Our approach is based on the analysis and integration of borehole data, numerical modeling, 2D seismic reflection data, and published reports. Coupling of modeling results, sedimentation rate calculation and seal-bypass system analysis reveals that: (1) oil window is reached by syn-rift SRs in the southern segment during the Early to Late Cretaceous when thermal subsidence is still active, whilst in the central segment they reach it in Late-Cretaceous- Neogene during a salt remobilization phase, and (2) early HC generation from post-rift SRs in the southern segment and from all SRs in the central segment appears controlled mainly by episodes of increased sedimentation rates. These latter seem associated to the Andes uplift history for the western South Atlantic basins (Campos and Colorado) and to a possibly climate-driven response for the eastern South Atlantic basins (Orange and Lower Congo). Interestingly, Paleogene leakage indicators, which were identified in the Argentina-South Africa conjugate margins, occur contemporaneously to low sedimentation rates periods. Nonetheless, present-day leakage indicators, which were also identified in both pair of conjugate margins, might be related to seal failure events associated to eustatic sea-level drops.

  4. An Analysis of Wilson Cycle Plate Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, S.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Wilson Cycle theory that oceans close and open along the same suture is a powerful concept in analyses of ancient plate tectonics. It implies that collision zones are structures that are able to localize extensional deformation for long times after the collision has waned. However, some sutures are seemingly never reactivated and already Tuzo Wilson recognized that Atlantic break-up did not follow the precise line of previous junction. We have reviewed margin pairs around the Atlantic and Indian Oceans with the aim to evaluate the extent to which oceanic opening used former sutures, summarize delay times between collision and break-up, and analyze the role of mantle plumes in continental break-up. We aid our analyses with plate tectonic reconstructions using GPlates (www.gplates.org). Although at first sight opening of the North Atlantic Ocean largely seems to follow the Iapetus and Rheic sutures, a closer look reveals deviations. For example, Atlantic opening did not utilize the Iapetus suture in Great Britain and rather than opening along the younger Rheic suture north of Florida, break-up occurred along the older Pan-African structures south of Florida. We find that today's oceanic Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone, between Ireland and Newfoundland, is aligned with the Iapetus suture. We speculate therefore that in this region the Iapetus suture was reactivated as a transform fault. As others before us, we find no correlation of suture and break-up age. Often continental break-up occurs some hundreds of Myrs after collision, but it may also take over 1000 Myr, as for example for Australia - Antarctica and Congo - São Francisco. This places serious constraints on potential collision zone weakening mechanisms. Several studies have pointed to a link between continental break-up and large-scale mantle upwellings. It is, however, much debated whether plumes use existing rifts as a pathway, or whether plumes play an active role in causing rifting. We find a positive

  5. New Exploration of Kerguelen Plateau Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vially, R.; Roest, W. R.; Loubrieu, B.; Courreges, E.; Lecomte, J.; Patriat, M.; Pierre, D.; Schaming, M.; Schmitz, J.

    2008-12-01

    France ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1996, and has since undertaken an ambitious program of bathymetric and seismic data acquisition (EXTRAPLAC Program) to support claims for the extension of the legal continental shelf, in accordance with Article 76 of this convention. For this purpose, three oceanographic surveys took place on board of the R/V Marion Dufresne II on the Kerguelen Plateau, in Southern Indian Ocean: MD137-Kergueplac1 (February 2004), MD150-Kergueplac2 (October 2005) and MD165-Kergueplac3 (January 2008), operated by the French Polar Institute. Thus, more than 20 000 km of multibeam bathymetric, magnetic and gravimetric profiles, and almost 6 000 km of seismic profiles where acquired during a total of 62 days of survey in the study area. Ifremer's "rapid seismic" system was used, comprised of 4 guns and a 24 trace digital streamer, operated at speeds up to 10 knots. In addition to its use for the Extraplac Program, the data set issued from these surveys gives the opportunity to improve our knowledge of the structure of the Kerguelen Plateau and more particularly of its complex margins. In this poster, we will show the high resolution bathymetry (200 m) data set, that allows us to specify the irregular morphology of the sea floor in the north Kerguelen Plateau, characterised by ridges and volcanoes chains, radial to the plateau, that intersect the oceanic basin on the NE edge of the Kerguelen Plateau. We will also show magnetic and gravity data, which help us to understand the setting up of the oceanic plateau and the kinematics reconstructions. The seismic profiles show that the acoustic basement of the plateau is not much tectonised, and displays a very smooth texture, clearly contrasting it from typical oceanic basement. Both along the edge of the plateau as in the abyssal plain, sediments have variable thicknesses. The sediments on the margin of the plateau are up to 1200 meters thick and display irregular

  6. The case for implementing activity based costing.

    PubMed

    Monge, Paul H; Bolinger-Perez, Nicole; Boysen, Kent

    2012-01-01

    ABC identifies profitable volumes to give managers information to better manage volumes. Managers must balance the demand for service while maintaining a reasonable profit margin. Disparate systems work extremely well for their intended purposes, but they do not communicate with one another. The strength of the data they hold individually may be leveraged when implementing ABC methodology. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota implemented a pilot of ABC to evaluate CT services where there is a high volume, multiple service location for cost comparison, variety of patient acuity and service mix, and large capital investments.The goal was to reveal the actual cost of CT services at the procedural level.

  7. The case for implementing activity based costing.

    PubMed

    Monge, Paul H; Bolinger-Perez, Nicole; Boysen, Kent

    2012-01-01

    ABC identifies profitable volumes to give managers information to better manage volumes. Managers must balance the demand for service while maintaining a reasonable profit margin. Disparate systems work extremely well for their intended purposes, but they do not communicate with one another. The strength of the data they hold individually may be leveraged when implementing ABC methodology. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota implemented a pilot of ABC to evaluate CT services where there is a high volume, multiple service location for cost comparison, variety of patient acuity and service mix, and large capital investments.The goal was to reveal the actual cost of CT services at the procedural level. PMID:23270120

  8. Impact of externally attached loggers on the diving behaviour of the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Ropert-Coudert, Y; Bost, C A; Handrich, Y; Bevan, R M; Butler, P J; Woakes, A J; Le Maho, Y

    2000-01-01

    The impact of relatively small externally attached time series recorders on some foraging parameters of seabirds was investigated during the austral summer of 1995 by monitoring the diving behaviour of 10 free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) over one foraging trip. Time-depth recorders were implanted in the abdominal cavities of the birds, and half of the animals also had dummy loggers attached on their backs. Although most of the diving behaviour was not significantly affected by the external loggers (P>0.05), the birds with externally attached loggers performed almost twice as many shallow dives, between 0 and 10 m depth, as the birds without external loggers. These shallow dives interrupted more frequently the deep-diving sequences in the case of birds with external loggers (percentage of deep dives followed by deep dives: 46% for birds with implants only vs. 26% for birds with an external attachment). Finally, the distribution pattern of the postdive durations plotted against the hour of the day was more heterogeneous for the birds with an external package. In addition, these penguins had extended surfacing times between two deep dives compared to birds without external attachments (P<0.0001). These results suggest the existence of an extra energy cost induced by externally attached loggers. PMID:11009397

  9. Modeling Wave-Ice Interactions in the Marginal Ice Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzech, Mark; Shi, Fengyan; Bateman, Sam; Veeramony, Jay; Calantoni, Joe

    2015-04-01

    The small-scale (O(m)) interactions between waves and ice floes in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) are investigated with a coupled model system. Waves are simulated with the non-hydrostatic finite-volume model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012) and ice floes are represented as bonded collections of smaller particles with the discrete element system LIGGGHTS (Kloss et al., 2012). The physics of fluid and ice are recreated as authentically as possible, to allow the coupled system to supplement and/or substitute for more costly and demanding field experiments. The presentation will first describe the development and validation of the coupled system, then discuss the results of a series of virtual experiments in which ice floe and wave characteristics are varied to examine their effects on energy dissipation, MIZ floe size distribution, and ice pack retreat rates. Although Wadhams et al. (1986) suggest that only a small portion (roughly 10%) of wave energy entering the MIZ is reflected, dissipation mechanisms for the remaining energy have yet to be delineated or measured. The virtual experiments are designed to focus on specific properties and processes - such as floe size and shape, collision and fracturing events, and variations in wave climate - and measure their relative roles the transfer of energy and momentum from waves to ice. Questions to be examined include: How is energy dissipated by ice floe collisions, fracturing, and drag, and how significant is the wave attenuation associated with each process? Do specific wave/floe length scale ratios cause greater wave attenuation? How does ice material strength affect the rate of wave energy loss? The coupled system will ultimately be used to test and improve upon wave-ice parameterizations for large-scale climate models. References: >Kloss, C., C. Goniva, A. Hager, S. Amberger, and S. Pirker (2012). Models, algorithms and validation for opensource DEM and CFD-DEM. Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics 12(2/3), 140-152. >Ma, G

  10. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  11. Geodynamic models of convergent margin tectonics: transition from rifted margin to overthrust belt and consequences for foreland-basin development

    SciTech Connect

    Stockmal, G.S.; Beaumont, C.; Boutilier, R.

    1986-02-01

    A quantitative geodynamic model for overthrusting of a passive continental margin during attempted continental subduction demonstrates the mechanical and thermal coupling between overthrust loads, the lithosphere, and the associated foreland basin. The model treated the lithosphere as a two-dimensional nonuniform elastic plate whose strength is controlled thermally. The thermal and flexural evolution of a margin is followed from initial rifting and passive-margin development, through overthrusting and foreland-basin deposition, to postdeformational erosion.

  12. Thermal design of the Space Shuttle External Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warmbrod, J. D.; Vaniman, J. L.; Elam, B. F.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the engineering and manufacturing requirements leading to the final Thermal Protection System (TPS) for the External Tank (ET) is presented. The thermal design for the ET must be optimized, based on considerations of cost, weight, and application of the TPS. The significant thermal requirements include the structural and component temperature limits, the propellant quality, the minimization of ice and frost, no air liquefaction, and no film boiling. The TPS materials selected to meet the requirements are a low density closed cell foam (CPR-488) and two light-weight ablators (SLA-56 and MA-25s). The first four flights of the Space Shuttle (1981) will measure and evaluate external environmental, structural, propulsion, electrical, and engine performance data. The ET will be instrumented to measure acoustics, pressures, heat transfer, vibration, temperatures, and structural strains. TPS weight reductions are planned for future ETs through the use of a comprehensive thermal instrumentation system.

  13. Parametric Cost Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1995-01-01

    Parametric cost analysis is a mathematical approach to estimating cost. Parametric cost analysis uses non-cost parameters, such as quality characteristics, to estimate the cost to bring forth, sustain, and retire a product. This paper reviews parametric cost analysis and shows how it can be used within the cost deployment process.

  14. Geology of New England passive margin

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.A. Jr.; Uchupi, E.; Shaughnessy, D.R. III; Ballard, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The New England continental margin began to develop in the Middle Triassic, when rifting of Precambrian/Paleozoic terrane produced a complex arrangement of horsts and grabens. During the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, these grabens were filled with terrigenous clastics, volcanics, and evaporites. When plate separation took place and seafloor spreading began approximately 195 to 190 m.y.B.P., the newly formed continental edge was uplifted and eroded, truncating preexisting rift structures. As North America began to drift away from Africa, subsidence occurred along a series of normal faults now beneath the outer continental shelf. This hinge zone may represent the boundary between continental crust and a transitional zone of continental and oceanic crustal fragments. Atop the faulted and subsiding crustal platform, thick sediments were deposited. The lower part of the drift sequence is an evaporite-carbonate unit of Early-Middle Jurassic age, and the upper part is a clastic wedge of Middle Jurassic to Cenozoic age. More than 80% of these sediments are Jurassic. Their total thickness may be as much as 13 km beneath the southeastern part of Georges Bank.

  15. Understanding continental margin biodiversity: a new imperative.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lisa A; Sibuet, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the deep continental margins (200-4,000 m) were perceived as monotonous mud slopes of limited ecological or environmental concern. Progress in seafloor mapping and direct observation now reveals unexpected heterogeneity, with a mosaic of habitats and ecosystems linked to geomorphological, geochemical, and hydrographic features that influence biotic diversity. Interactions among water masses, terrestrial inputs, sediment diagenesis, and tectonic activity create a multitude of ecological settings supporting distinct communities that populate canyons and seamounts, high-stress oxygen minimum zones, and methane seeps, as well as vast reefs of cold corals and sponges. This high regional biodiversity is fundamental to the production of valuable fisheries, energy, and mineral resources, and performs critical ecological services (nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, nursery and habitat support). It is under significant threat from climate change and human resource extraction activities. Serious actions are required to preserve the functions and services provided by the deep-sea settings we are just now getting to know. PMID:22457970

  16. Multicategory Large-Margin Unified Machines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong; Liu, Yufeng

    2013-05-01

    Hard and soft classifiers are two important groups of techniques for classification problems. Logistic regression and Support Vector Machines are typical examples of soft and hard classifiers respectively. The essential difference between these two groups is whether one needs to estimate the class conditional probability for the classification task or not. In particular, soft classifiers predict the label based on the obtained class conditional probabilities, while hard classifiers bypass the estimation of probabilities and focus on the decision boundary. In practice, for the goal of accurate classification, it is unclear which one to use in a given situation. To tackle this problem, the Large-margin Unified Machine (LUM) was recently proposed as a unified family to embrace both groups. The LUM family enables one to study the behavior change from soft to hard binary classifiers. For multicategory cases, however, the concept of soft and hard classification becomes less clear. In that case, class probability estimation becomes more involved as it requires estimation of a probability vector. In this paper, we propose a new Multicategory LUM (MLUM) framework to investigate the behavior of soft versus hard classification under multicategory settings. Our theoretical and numerical results help to shed some light on the nature of multicategory classification and its transition behavior from soft to hard classifiers. The numerical results suggest that the proposed tuned MLUM yields very competitive performance.

  17. To the Margins and Back: The High Cost of Being Latina in "America"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Myriam N.

    2004-01-01

    This "critical personal narrative" is aimed at deconstructing the imposed definition of Hispanic-Latino(a) identity to unveil its typecasting and stereotypes, although reconstructing it based on shared language, values, and experiences despite our pan-ethnic characteristics. Based on a deep and systematic reflection on my own experience as…

  18. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under the combined taxable income method” limitation for the 1.83% of gross receipts test of section 925... apply to sales of export property which in the hands of a purchaser related under section 954(d)(3) to... behalf of F the functions and activities of section 924 (c), (d) and (e), of $50. R incurred direct...

  19. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... test of section 925(d) has been met. For FSC taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, if the... rules do not apply to sales of export property which in the hands of a purchaser related under section... behalf of F the functions and activities of section 924 (c), (d) and (e), of $50. R incurred direct...

  20. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... supplier's purchase price shall be taken into account. (2) Overall profit percentage limitation. Under... the following examples: Example 1. R and F are calendar year taxpayers. R, a domestic manufacturing company, owns all the stock of F, a FSC for the taxable year. During 1985, R produces and sells 100...