Science.gov

Sample records for marine biological stations

  1. What are undergraduates doing at biological field stations and marine laboratories?

    Treesearch

    Janet Hodder

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations and marine laboratories (FSMLs) serve as places to study the natural environment in a variety of ways, from the level of the molecule to the globe. Undergraduate opportunities at FSMLs reflect the diversity of study options -- formal courses, research and service internships, and field-trip experiences -- and students are responding to those...

  2. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  3. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  4. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  5. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service of private coast stations and marine... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  6. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service of private coast stations and marine... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for the...

  7. Human impacts in Antartic marine soft-sediment assemblages: correlations between multivariate biological patterns and environmental variables at Casey Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Jonathan S.; Riddle, Martin J.; Snape, Ian; Scouller, Rebecca C.

    2003-03-01

    Correlations between the spatial distribution of soft-sediment assemblages and environmental variables were evaluated at a number of control and potentially impacted locations (waste dumps, a sewage outfall and a wharf) at Casey Station, East Antarctica. Patterns of assemblage composition were compared with patterns of environmental variables using univariate and multivariate techniques. The utility of these methods, however, is uncertain in areas of significant habitat heterogeneity (at scales <10 m), such as at Casey Station. A number of environmental variables were measured to determine their potential influence on assemblage structure including sediment heavy metal concentrations, total organic carbon (TOC), grain size and depth. Soft-sediment assemblages clustered strongly into two groups and this pattern was found to be most highly correlated with concentrations of heavy metals of anthropogenic origin: cadmium, copper, lead, tin and zinc. The relationship, however, is complex and is likely to be further influenced by variables affecting the bioavailability of metals such as grain size, TOC and sediment anoxia. Impacted locations were characterised by fewer taxa, lower diversity and lower species richness. One of the control locations was found to have naturally high levels of cadmium, nickel and zinc and had assemblages very similar to those at the potentially impacted, polluted locations. One of the potentially impacted locations had coarse sediments and low levels of heavy metals but had assemblages very similar to other impacted locations. Problems of sampling design for human impacts detection in real world situations are discussed in relation to this study. This study provides evidence that these multivariate statistical methods are useful in heterogeneous environments and across pollution gradients where pollutants have the potential to act as a primary cause of spatial variation in assemblage structure.

  8. Marine Fisheries: A Biological Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haefner, Paul A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine science course offered to high school biology teachers. The course objectives were designed to introduce teachers to a marine science subject that could be used in the secondary science classroom and laboratory and to create an awareness of the issues surrounding the marine sciences. (DS)

  9. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  10. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  11. Central Equipment Facility for Molecular Marine Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-07

    used. Projects supported include marine symbiosis (Haygood, Felback), cell biology (Vacquier), pressure adaptation in marine bacteria (Bartlett), population genetics and evolution of marine organisms (Perrin, Newman).

  12. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  13. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  14. Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wade, C. E.; Givens, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    To meet NASA's objective of using the unique aspects of the space environment to expand fundamental knowledge in the biological sciences, the Space Station Biological Research Project at Ames Research Center is developing, or providing oversight, for two major suites of hardware which will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The first, the Gravitational Biology Facility, consists of Habitats to support plants, rodents, cells, aquatic specimens, avian and reptilian eggs, and insects and the Habitat Holding Rack in which to house them at microgravity; the second, the Centrifuge Facility, consists of a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge that will provide acceleration levels between 0.01 g and 2.0 g and a Life Sciences Glovebox. These two facilities will support the conduct of experiments to: 1) investigate the effect of microgravity on living systems; 2) what level of gravity is required to maintain normal form and function, and 3) study the use of artificial gravity as a countermeasure to the deleterious effects of microgravity observed in the crew. Upon completion, the ISS will have three complementary laboratory modules provided by NASA, the European Space Agency and the Japanese space agency, NASDA. Use of all facilities in each of the modules will be available to investigators from participating space agencies. With the advent of the ISS, space-based gravitational biology research will transition from 10-16 day short-duration Space Shuttle flights to 90-day-or-longer ISS increments.

  15. Space Station Biological Research Project.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C C; Wade, C E; Givens, J J

    1997-06-01

    To meet NASA's objective of using the unique aspects of the space environment to expand fundamental knowledge in the biological sciences, the Space Station Biological Research Project at Ames Research Center is developing, or providing oversight, for two major suites of hardware which will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The first, the Gravitational Biology Facility, consists of Habitats to support plants, rodents, cells, aquatic specimens, avian and reptilian eggs, and insects and the Habitat Holding Rack in which to house them at microgravity; the second, the Centrifuge Facility, consists of a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge that will provide acceleration levels between 0.01 g and 2.0 g and a Life Sciences Glovebox. These two facilities will support the conduct of experiments to: 1) investigate the effect of microgravity on living systems; 2) what level of gravity is required to maintain normal form and function, and 3) study the use of artificial gravity as a countermeasure to the deleterious effects of microgravity observed in the crew. Upon completion, the ISS will have three complementary laboratory modules provided by NASA, the European Space Agency and the Japanese space agency, NASDA. Use of all facilities in each of the modules will be available to investigators from participating space agencies. With the advent of the ISS, space-based gravitational biology research will transition from 10-16 day short-duration Space Shuttle flights to 90-day-or-longer ISS increments.

  16. Linking marine biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    de Nys, Rocky; Steinberg, Peter D

    2002-06-01

    Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of ultraviolet sunscreens.

  17. Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox

  18. Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox

  19. Gloucester Marine Biology Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Sonja; And Others

    Objectives and activities for a field trip study of the seacoast environment of Gloucester, Massachusetts, are outlined in this guide. One phase of a six-week tenth grade biology unit, the field trip features study of tidal pool and salt marsh ecosystems. Specific objectives of the trip relate to observation and identification of various forms of…

  20. Gloucester Marine Biology Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Sonja; And Others

    Objectives and activities for a field trip study of the seacoast environment of Gloucester, Massachusetts, are outlined in this guide. One phase of a six-week tenth grade biology unit, the field trip features study of tidal pool and salt marsh ecosystems. Specific objectives of the trip relate to observation and identification of various forms of…

  1. The Physics of Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways in which marine biology can be integrated into the physics classroom. Topics suggested for incorporation include the harmonic motion of ocean waves, ocean currents, the interaction of visible light with ocean water, pressure, light absorption, and sound transfer in water. (MDH)

  2. The Physics of Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways in which marine biology can be integrated into the physics classroom. Topics suggested for incorporation include the harmonic motion of ocean waves, ocean currents, the interaction of visible light with ocean water, pressure, light absorption, and sound transfer in water. (MDH)

  3. A North Adriatic centenarian: The marine research station at Rovinj

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodnik, D.

    1995-03-01

    The institute in Rovinj was founded in 1891 as the field station of the Berlin Aquarium. It soon gained in scientific importance. From 1911, it was governed by various scientific bodies, such as the ‘Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften’, the ‘Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano’, and the ‘Jugoslavenska Akademija znanosti i umjetnosti’. At present, it is a department of the ‘Ruđer Bo\\vsković’ Institute, called the ‘Center for Marine Research Rovinj’. In the past hundred years, the Rovinj station experienced several ascents and declines in its development: both in the First and Second World Wars the station's scientific equipment, research vessels, library and reference collections were dispersed, and from 1945 1948 the station was closed. But in “happier” periods, rich support by the state and international bodies favoured the increase in research facilities and promoted interest among visiting scientists. The station has always been involved in studies of the Adriatic Sea, especially in its northern part. It contributed much to general knowledge of oceanography, of the physics and chemistry of the sea, but its paramount contribution is to various disciplines of marine biological sciences. Applied research, however, was most oriented to fisheries biology, especially shellfish culture, to resource studies, and, recently, to toxicology, bacteriology, eutrophication and pollution monitoring. The international approach in science and applied research was always favoured. At present, the Center is well equipped for complex coastal and offshore field- and laboratory research, and maintains facilities for graduate and postgraduate teaching. Scientific dissemination is also promoted by the public aquarium and professional meetings.

  4. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  5. Biological importance of marine algae.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Ali A

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.

  6. Gravitational biology on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

  7. Gravitational biology on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

  8. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  9. From marine ecology to biological oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Eric L.

    1995-03-01

    Looking back from the 1990s it seems natural to view the work done in the Biologische Anstalt Helgoland by Friedrich Heincke and his colleagues, beginning in 1892, as marine ecology or marine biology, and that done in Kiel, under Victor Hensen and Karl Brandt, as biological oceanography. But historical analysis shows this view to be untenable. Biological oceanography, as a research category and a profession, does not appear until at least the 1950's. In the German tradition of marine research, “Ozeanographie”, originating in 19th century physical geography, did not include the biological sciences. The categories “Meereskunde” and “Meeresforschung” covered all aspects of marine research in Germany from the 1890's to the present day. “Meeresbiologie” like that of Brandt, Heincke, and other German marine scientists, fitted comfortably into these. But in North America no such satisfactory professional or definitional structure existed before the late 1950's. G. A. Riley, one of the first biological oceanographers, fought against descriptive, nonquantitative American ecology. In 1951 he described biological oceanography as the “ecology of marine populations”, linking it with quantitative population ecology in the U.S.A. By the end of the 1960's the U.S. National Science Foundation had recognized biological oceanography as a research area supported separately from marine biology. There was no need for the category “biological oceanography” in German marine science because its subject matter lay under the umbrella of “Meereskunde” or “Meeresforschung”. But in North America, biological oceanography — a fundamental fusion of physics and chemistry with marine biology — was created to give this marine science a status higher than that of the conceptually overloaded ecological sciences. The sociologists Durkheim and Mauss claimed in 1903 that, “the classification of things reproduces the classification of men”; similarly, in science, the

  10. [Biologically active metabolites of the marine actinobacteria].

    PubMed

    Sobolevskaia, M P; Kuznetsova, T A

    2010-01-01

    This review systematically data on the chemical structure and biological activity of metabolites of obligate and facultative marine actinobacteria, published from 2000 to 2007. We discuss some structural features of the five groups of metabolites related to macrolides and compounds containing lactone, quinone and diketopiperazine residues, cyclic peptides, alkaloids, and compounds of mixed biosynthesis. Survey shows a large chemical diversity of metabolites actinobacteria isolated from marine environment. It is shown that, along with metabolites, identical to previously isolated from terrestrial actinobacteria, marine actinobacteria synthesize unknown compounds not found in other natural sources, including micro organisms. Perhaps the biosynthesis of new chemotypes bioactive compounds in marine actinobacteria is one manifestation of chemical adaptation of microorganisms to environmental conditions at sea. Review stresses the importance of the chemical study of metabolites of marine actinobacteria. These studies are aimed at obtaining new data on marine microorganisms producers of biologically active compounds and chemical structure and biological activity of new low-molecular bioregulators of natural origin.

  11. Instruction at the Hopkins Marine Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-29

    Thur. 9.10 Video editing - Mark Shelly 10 Optical recording of membrane potential - Lev Ram 4 Mechanisms of Ca oscillations - Stryer Fri. 9-10...marine macrophyte Ulva fenes - Ple’.e ,address all correspondeince nd request% for rrprinits to G. trata. U. fnestrata is a benthic grecn alga possessing a...Duke, S. H.. Friedrich, 1 W. Schrader. L. E.. Koukkari. W L. (1978). Oscillations in the activities of enzymes of nitrate reduc-nitrate when light is

  12. Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Pyridoacridines are a class of strictly marine-derived alkaloids that constitute one of the largest chemical families of marine alkaloids. During the last few years, both natural pyridoacridines and their analogues have constituted excellent targets for synthetic works. They have been the subject of intense study due to their significant biological activities; cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, anti-HIV, and anti-parasitic activities. In the present review, 95 pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from marine organisms are discussed in term of their occurrence, biosynthesis, biological activities, and structural assignment.

  13. Biological methods for marine toxin detection.

    PubMed

    Vilariño, Natalia; Louzao, M Carmen; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2010-07-01

    The presence of marine toxins in seafood poses a health risk to human consumers which has prompted the regulation of the maximum content of marine toxins in seafood in the legislations of many countries. Most marine toxin groups are detected by animal bioassays worldwide. Although this method has well known ethical and technical drawbacks, it is the official detection method for all regulated phycotoxins except domoic acid. Much effort by the scientific and regulatory communities has been focused on the development of alternative techniques that enable the substitution or reduction of bioassays; some of these have recently been included in the official detection method list. During the last two decades several biological methods including use of biosensors have been adapted for detection of marine toxins. The main advances in marine toxin detection using this kind of technique are reviewed. Biological methods offer interesting possibilities for reduction of the number of biosassays and a very promising future of new developments.

  14. Biological research on a Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.; Johnson, Catherine C.

    1990-01-01

    A Space Station can provide reliable, long duration access to ug environments for basic and applied biological research. The uniqueness of access to near-weightless environments to probe fundamental questions of significance to gravitational and Space biologists can be exploited from many vantage points. Access to centrifuge facilities that can provide 1 g and hypo-g controls will permit identification of gravity-dependent or primary effects. Understanding secondary effects of the ug environment as well will allow a fuller exploitation of the Space environment.

  15. University Marine Biological Station Millport Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-31

    cutbacks in University financial support have meant that those such as Aberdeen, who have fared badly, have been forced against their will to cancel field... against the uncritical use of mean metal concentrations in assessments of heavy metal contamination using crustacean monitors. The effects of seasonal...at the International Symposium of seaweed utilization held in Santiago, Chile, in 1985. This considered the role of phytal motile macrofauna for the

  16. Field Techniques in Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is one teacher's method of teaching students to use various marine and scientific apparati while studying important relationships within the ecosystem. A data retrieval chart is included with questions and problems to ask about the data, along with information on how to interpret the data chart. (MA)

  17. Field Techniques in Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is one teacher's method of teaching students to use various marine and scientific apparati while studying important relationships within the ecosystem. A data retrieval chart is included with questions and problems to ask about the data, along with information on how to interpret the data chart. (MA)

  18. Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

  19. Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

  20. Genetic perspectives on marine biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Geller, Jonathan B; Darling, John A; Carlton, James T

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which the geographic distributions of marine organisms have been reshaped by human activities remains underappreciated, and so does, consequently, the impact of invasive species on marine ecosystems. The application of molecular genetic data in fields such as population genetics, phylogeography, and evolutionary biology have improved our ability to make inferences regarding invasion histories. Genetic methods have helped to resolve longstanding questions regarding the cryptogenic status of marine species, facilitated recognition of cryptic marine biodiversity, and provided means to determine the sources of introduced marine populations and to begin to recover the patterns of anthropogenic reshuffling of the ocean's biota. These approaches stand to aid materially in the development of effective management strategies and sustainable science-based policies. Continued advancements in the statistical analysis of genetic data promise to overcome some existing limitations of current approaches. Still other limitations will be best addressed by concerted collaborative and multidisciplinary efforts that recognize the important synergy between understanding the extent of biological invasions and coming to a more complete picture of both modern-day and historical marine biogeography.

  1. Environmental biology of the marine Roseobacter lineage.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Biebl, Hanno

    2006-01-01

    The Roseobacter lineage is a phylogenetically coherent, physiologically heterogeneous group of alpha-Proteobacteria comprising up to 25% of marine microbial communities, especially in coastal and polar oceans, and it is the only lineage in which cultivated bacteria are closely related to environmental clones. Currently 41 subclusters are described, covering all major marine ecological niches (seawater, algal blooms, microbial mats, sediments, sea ice, marine invertebrates). Members of the Roseobacter lineage play an important role for the global carbon and sulfur cycle and the climate, since they have the trait of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, oxidize the greenhouse gas carbon monoxide, and produce the climate-relevant gas dimethylsulfide through the degradation of algal osmolytes. Production of bioactive metabolites and quorum-sensing-regulated control of gene expression mediate their success in complex communities. Studies of representative isolates in culture, whole-genome sequencing, e.g., of Silicibacter pomeroyi, and the analysis of marine metagenome libraries have started to reveal the environmental biology of this important marine group.

  2. Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John D; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Goodwin, Nicholas B; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    We review interactions between extrinsic threats to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond to those threats. Information is available on the status of less than 5% of the world's approximately 15 500 marine fish species, most of which are of commercial importance. By 2001, based on data from 98 North Atlantic and northeast Pacific populations, marine fishes had declined by a median 65% in breeding biomass from known historic levels; 28 populations had declined by more than 80%. Most of these declines would be sufficient to warrant a status of threatened with extinction under international threat criteria. However, this interpretation is highly controversial, in part because of a perception that marine fishes have a suite of life history characteristics, including high fecundity and large geographical ranges, which might confer greater resilience than that shown by terrestrial vertebrates. We review 15 comparative analyses that have tested for these and other life history correlates of vulnerability in marine fishes. The empirical evidence suggests that large body size and late maturity are the best predictors of vulnerability to fishing, regardless of whether differences among taxa in fishing mortality are controlled; there is no evidence that high fecundity confers increased resilience. The evidence reviewed here is of direct relevance to the diverse criteria used at global and national levels by various bodies to assess threat status of fishes. Simple life history traits can be incorporated directly into quantitative assessment criteria, or used to modify the conclusions of quantitative assessments, or used as preliminary screening criteria for assessment of the ∼95% of marine fish species whose status has yet to be evaluated either by conservationists or fisheries scientists. PMID:16243696

  3. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them. PMID:26312188

  4. Biological and ecological traits of marine species.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark John; Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the 'status' of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them.

  5. Biological field stations: research legacies and sites for serendipity

    Treesearch

    William K. Michener; Keith L. Bildstein; Arthur McKee; Robert R. Parmenter; William W. Hargrove; Deedra McClearn; Mark. Stromberg

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only...

  6. [Book Review] Biology of marine birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Roby, Daniel D.; Antolos, Michelle; Lyons, Donald E.; Rizzolo, Daniel; Wright, Sadie K.; Anderson, Cynthia D.; Anderson, Scott K.; Nelson, S. Kim; Gall, Adrian E.; Wennerberg, Liv

    2003-01-01

    A text devoted to the biology and ecology of marine birds has not been published in the last 15 years. Although a number of more taxa-specific texts have been produced during that period, there has not been a single publication that attempted to review our knowledge of all the major seabird orders since the works of Nelson (1979), Croxall (1987), and Furness and Monaghan (1987). Following the publication of those works, a large and impressive body of literature has been produced. Given the rapid expansion of the field in the last two decades, the time was ripe for production of an extensive compendium on the biology, ecology, and conservation of the world's seabirds.E. A. Schreiber and J. Burger are editors of this CRC publication, Biology of Marine Birds. The book consists of 19 chapters that vary in length from 15 to 51 pages. There are also two extensive appendices: (1) a list of seabird species (restricted to the orders Sphenisciformes, Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Charadriiformes, the latter limited to Stercorariidae, Laridae, Rhynchopidae, and Alcidae) and their IUCN status, and (2) a very useful table of species-specific life-history traits. The 19 chapters were prepared by 26 authors, among them some of the most respected and published seabird scientists in the world. A brief preface introduces the book, its objective (to provide an examination and summary of the research on seabirds), its audience (researchers, conservationists, managers, and policy-makers), and the taxa covered. The editors coauthored the introductory chapter, Seabirds in the Marine Environment. The authors describe distinctive characteristics of seabird life-histories in comparison to other taxa, hypotheses for why those lifestyles evolved and the potential role of energy limitation in the evolution of seabird life-histories. Along with a discussion of other common seabird traits, such as a propensity for colonial breeding, the authors also suggest directions for future

  7. An Annotated List of Marine Stations Suitable for Field Courses in Carbonate Geology and Tropical Marine Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Eugene H.

    1980-01-01

    Listed are field stations in the Caribbean and Florida-Bahamas which are suitable for classes in field geology and tropical marine science. Each field station is described by listing the name of the institution, description of accommodations, library facilities, laboratory facilities, boats, classrooms, motor vehicles, study areas, scuba, and…

  8. Debaryomyces hansenii: A Model System for Marine Molecular Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-30

    System for Marine Molecular Biology PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE: June 1, 1990 to May 30, 1991 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: To establish Debaryomyces hansenii as a model...Analysis of 17s rRNA gene from the marine yeast Debaryomyces hansenii . In preparation for Current Genetics. TRAINING ACTIVITIES Two graduate students, one...Institution: University of California, Santa Barbara. Grant Title: Debaryomyces hansenii : A Model System for Marine Molecular Biology. Period of

  9. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station incident and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Zhao, Yue

    2012-05-01

    Based on the facts relating to the radioactive wastewater discharged by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station in Japan, this paper intends to explore the international legal obligations for Japan from three perspectives, namely, the immediate notification, the prevention of transboundary harm and the prevention of dumping. Furthermore, this article defines and compares two types of international legal liabilities, the traditional state responsibility and the responsibility for transboundary harm. Through comparison, the international legal liability of Japan is discussed. After detailed analysis, the conclusion is that Japan should be responsible for the obligation of immediate notification and since Japan unilaterally discharge the wastes without prior specific permits of other contracting countries, it should also be responsible for the violation of prevention of dumping. Since so far, no material injury has emerged and there would appear to be no culpability as regards the prevention of transboundary harm. Finally, this paper stresses the necessity to develop a worldwide agreement concerning the liability for transboundary harm and to establish an institutional framework for the enforcement of a state's obligations, and also the great significance of international cooperation between nations and organisations in relation to marine environmental protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using a neural network approach and time series data from an international monitoring station in the Yellow Sea for modeling marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Juncheng; Vorontsov, A M; Hou, Guangli; Nikanorova, M N; Wang, Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    The international marine ecological safety monitoring demonstration station in the Yellow Sea was developed as a collaborative project between China and Russia. It is a nonprofit technical workstation designed as a facility for marine scientific research for public welfare. By undertaking long-term monitoring of the marine environment and automatic data collection, this station will provide valuable information for marine ecological protection and disaster prevention and reduction. The results of some initial research by scientists at the research station into predictive modeling of marine ecological environments and early warning are described in this paper. Marine ecological processes are influenced by many factors including hydrological and meteorological conditions, biological factors, and human activities. Consequently, it is very difficult to incorporate all these influences and their interactions in a deterministic or analysis model. A prediction model integrating a time series prediction approach with neural network nonlinear modeling is proposed for marine ecological parameters. The model explores the natural fluctuations in marine ecological parameters by learning from the latest observed data automatically, and then predicting future values of the parameter. The model is updated in a "rolling" fashion with new observed data from the monitoring station. Prediction experiments results showed that the neural network prediction model based on time series data is effective for marine ecological prediction and can be used for the development of early warning systems.

  11. The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of space biology research to be conducted aboard the Space Station in 1990s include long-term studies of reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging in both animals and plants. They also include studies of the mechanisms by which gravitational stimuli are sensed, processed, and transmitted to a responsive site, and of the effect of microgravity on each component. The Space Station configuration will include a life sciences research facility, where experiment cyles will be on a 90-day basis (since the Space Station missions planned for the 1990s call for 90-day intervals). A modular approach is taken to accomodate animal habitats, plant growth chambers, and other specimen holding facilities; the modular habitats would be transportable between the launch systems, habitat racks, a workbench, and a variable-gravity centrifuge (included for providing artificial gravity and accurately controlled acceleration levels aboard Space Station).

  12. The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of space biology research to be conducted aboard the Space Station in 1990s include long-term studies of reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging in both animals and plants. They also include studies of the mechanisms by which gravitational stimuli are sensed, processed, and transmitted to a responsive site, and of the effect of microgravity on each component. The Space Station configuration will include a life sciences research facility, where experiment cyles will be on a 90-day basis (since the Space Station missions planned for the 1990s call for 90-day intervals). A modular approach is taken to accomodate animal habitats, plant growth chambers, and other specimen holding facilities; the modular habitats would be transportable between the launch systems, habitat racks, a workbench, and a variable-gravity centrifuge (included for providing artificial gravity and accurately controlled acceleration levels aboard Space Station).

  13. Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zissler, D.

    1995-03-01

    Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892. The picture, of which several variant poses with minor differences exist, is a photograph taken on Helgoland in September, 1865. The original is to be found in the collections of the Ernst-Haeckel-Haus in Jena. The photograph shows only a few objects and fewer persons, but they are arranged like a bouquet: in front, collecting vessels; behind, grouped around a table, five scientists, Dohrn, Greeff, Haeckel, Salverda, Marchi. They hold up their catching nets like insignia, identifying their basic activity. This photograph is a unique document for the marine biological research on Helgoland before 1892. Furthermore, it illustrates a time and place for the birth of the idea of establishing the world's most famous marine biological station, the Stazione Zoologica di Napoli.

  14. 78 FR 71576 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... contribute to the basic knowledge of marine mammal biology on NWSR. Negligible Impact and Small Numbers... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC350 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Norte County, California AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  15. Space Station Biological Research Project: Reference Experiment Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine (Editor); Wade, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP), which is the combined efforts of the Centrifuge Facility (CF) and the Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF), is responsible for the development of life sciences hardware to be used on the International Space Station to support cell, developmental, and plant biology research. The SSBRP Reference Experiment Book was developed to use as a tool for guiding this development effort. The reference experiments characterize the research interests of the international scientific community and serve to identify the hardware capabilities and support equipment needed to support such research. The reference experiments also serve as a tool for understanding the operational aspects of conducting research on board the Space Station. This material was generated by the science community by way of their responses to reference experiment solicitation packages sent to them by SSBRP scientists. The solicitation process was executed in two phases. The first phase was completed in February of 1992 and the second phase completed in November of 1995. Representing these phases, the document is subdivided into a Section 1 and a Section 2. The reference experiments contained in this document are only representative microgravity experiments. They are not intended to define actual flight experiments. Ground and flight experiments will be selected through the formal NASA Research Announcement (NRA) and Announcement of Opportunity (AO) experiment solicitation, review, and selection process.

  16. Marine biology: Polar merry-go-round

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, Marcel

    2016-12-01

    The dynamics of polar marine ecosystems are poorly understood. A laser-based space-borne sensor captures annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass in seasonally ice-free polar waters, and provides clues on how growth drives these cycles.

  17. From Darwin to the Census of Marine Life: Marine Biology as Big Science

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming ‘big science’. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international ‘Census of Marine Life’ (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration – including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication – I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different ‘collective ways of knowing’. PMID:23342119

  18. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.

  19. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  20. Gravitational Biology Facility on Space Station: Meeting the needs of space biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Katherine; Wade, Charles

    1992-01-01

    The Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF) is a set of generic laboratory equipment needed to conduct research on Space Station Freedom (SSF), focusing on Space Biology Program science (Cell and Developmental Biology and Plant Biology). The GBF will be functional from the earliest utilization flights through the permanent manned phase. Gravitational biology research will also make use of other Life Sciences equipment on the space station as well as existing equipment developed for the space shuttle. The facility equipment will be developed based on requirements derived from experiments proposed by the scientific community to address critical questions in the Space Biology Program. This requires that the facility have the ability to house a wide variety of species, various methods of observation, and numerous methods of sample collection, preservation, and storage. The selection of the equipment will be done by the members of a scientific working group (5 members representing cell biology, 6 developmental biology, and 6 plant biology) who also provide requirements to design engineers to ensure that the equipment will meet scientific needs. All equipment will undergo extensive ground based experimental validation studies by various investigators addressing a variety of experimental questions. Equipment will be designed to be adaptable to other space platforms. The theme of the Gravitational Biology Facility effort is to provide optimal and reliable equipment to answer the critical questions in Space Biology as to the effects of gravity on living systems.

  1. Laboratory Experiences in Marine Biology, Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual contains instructions for laboratory exercises using marine organisms. For each exercise a problem is defined, materials are listed, possible ways to solve the problem are suggested, questions are asked to guide the student in interpreting data, and further reading is suggested. The exercises deal with the measurement of oxygen…

  2. Two If by Sea: Marine Biological Invasions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimowitz, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses alien species on the west coast, efforts to combat invasions, methods of transport, and educational projects developed to aid prevention efforts. Includes a list of marine invaders in the Pacific Northwest, plus threats from California and the Great Lakes. (PVD)

  3. Two If by Sea: Marine Biological Invasions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimowitz, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses alien species on the west coast, efforts to combat invasions, methods of transport, and educational projects developed to aid prevention efforts. Includes a list of marine invaders in the Pacific Northwest, plus threats from California and the Great Lakes. (PVD)

  4. Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station - a new Baltic Sea ICOS-site for sea-atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Lauri; Laurila, Tuomas; Mäkelä, Timo; Hatakka, Juha; Purokoski, Tero; Hietala, Riikka; Roine, Tuomo; Jämsen, Pertti; Kielosto, Sami; Asmi, Eija; Lonka, Harry; Alenius, Pekka; Drebs, Achim; Seppälä, Jukka; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric research has developed a concept of focused, multidisciplinary, automated observation platforms with continuous high time resolution observations. This approach containing state-of-the-art equipment has enabled research on physical, chemical and biological processes and seasonal variability and showed up new, previously unknown phenomena. New technical and engineering solutions allowing, such approach is also state-of-the-art in marine research through projects like US Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (EMSO), JERICO-NEXT and Japanese DONET. At the Baltic Sea, on Island of Utö (59° 46'50N, 21° 22'23E), Finnish Meteorological Institute has observed meteorology since 1881, marine parameters since 1900 and a diversity of atmospheric chemical and physical variables since 1980. Recent years the stations has also been upgraded with aerosol observations, and together with Finnish Environment Institute, on marine observations. The current and observations under construction at Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station (en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/uto. Marine observations: surface waves, ice-cover radar, temperature and salinity and oxygen at different depths, chlorophyll, cyanobacteria, underwater flows, turbidity, pCO2 and nutrients. Atmospheric observations: T, WS, WD, visibility, cloud height, boundary layer wind profiles and turbulence, weather and underwater camera, aerosol particle size distributions, aerosol light scattering and absorption, SO2, NOx, CO, O3, CO2, CH4, sea-atmosphere CO2- and heat fluxes. In our presentation, we present for the first time some 100 years of climate relevant atmospheric and marine observations from Utö.

  5. Marine sponge lectins: actual status on properties and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Gomes Filho, Sandro Mascena; Cardoso, Juscélio Donizete; Anaya, Katya; Silva do Nascimento, Edilza; de Lacerda, José Thalles Jucelino Gomes; Mioso, Roberto; Santi Gadelha, Tatiane; de Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto

    2014-12-26

    Marine sponges are primitive metazoans that produce a wide variety of molecules that protect them against predators. In studies that search for bioactive molecules, these marine invertebrates stand out as promising sources of new biologically-active molecules, many of which are still unknown or little studied; thus being an unexplored biotechnological resource of high added value. Among these molecules, lectins are proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. In this review, various structural features and biological activities of lectins derived from marine sponges so far described in the scientific literature are discussed. From the results found in the literature, it could be concluded that lectins derived from marine sponges are structurally diverse proteins with great potential for application in the production of biopharmaceuticals, especially as antibacterial and antitumor agents.

  6. Space Station Freedom: a unique laboratory for gravitational biology research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. W.; Cowing, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The advent of Space Station Freedom (SSF) will provide a permanent laboratory in space with unparalleled opportunities to perform biological research. As with any spacecraft there will also be limitations. It is our intent to describe this space laboratory and present a picture of how scientists will conduct research in this unique environment we call space. SSF is an international venture which will continue to serve as a model for other peaceful international efforts. It is hoped that as the human race moves out from this planet back to the moon and then on to Mars that SSF can serve as a successful example of how things can and should be done.

  7. Space Station Freedom: a unique laboratory for gravitational biology research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. W.; Cowing, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The advent of Space Station Freedom (SSF) will provide a permanent laboratory in space with unparalleled opportunities to perform biological research. As with any spacecraft there will also be limitations. It is our intent to describe this space laboratory and present a picture of how scientists will conduct research in this unique environment we call space. SSF is an international venture which will continue to serve as a model for other peaceful international efforts. It is hoped that as the human race moves out from this planet back to the moon and then on to Mars that SSF can serve as a successful example of how things can and should be done.

  8. The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    The life sciences research facilities for the Space Station are being designed to accommodate both animal and plant specimens for long durations studies. This will enable research on how living systems adapt to microgravity, how gravity has shaped and affected life on earth, and further the understanding of basic biological phenomena. This would include multigeneration experiments on the effects of microgravity on the reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging of organisms. To achieve these research goals, a modular habitat system and on-board variable gravity centrifuges, capable of holding various animal, plant, cells and tissues, is proposed for the science laboratory.

  9. Hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Survey work from 1992–2001 identified 139 species of hispines at the lowland part of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The tribe Cephaloleiini was the most speciose with 58 species (41.7%) followed by the Chalepini with 55 (39.5%). The fauna is most closely related to that in South America but with some genera which are more speciose in the Nearctic Region. Plant associations are known for 88 (63.3%) of the species but many of these are merely collecting records, not host plant associations. The first plant associations are reported for Alurnus ornatus, Alurnus salvini, and Acentroptera nevermanni. PMID:22303103

  10. [Equipment for biological experiments with snails aboard piloted orbital stations].

    PubMed

    Gorgiladze, G I; Korotkova, E V; Kuznetsova, E E; Mukhamedieva, L N; Begrov, V V; Pepeliaev, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    To fly biological experiments aboard piloted orbital stations, research equipment was built up of an incubation container, filter system and automatic temperature controller. Investigations included analysis of the makeup and concentrations of gases produced by animals (snails) during biocycle, and emitted after death. Filters are chemisorption active fibrous materials (AFM) with high sorption rate and water receptivity (cation exchange fiber VION-KN-1 and anion exchange fiber VION-AS-1), and water-repellent carbon adsorbent SKLTS. AFM filters were effective in air cleaning and practically excluded ingress of chemical substances from the container into cabin atmosphere over more than 100 days.

  11. The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    The life sciences research facilities for the Space Station are being designed to accommodate both animal and plant specimens for long durations studies. This will enable research on how living systems adapt to microgravity, how gravity has shaped and affected life on earth, and further the understanding of basic biological phenomena. This would include multigeneration experiments on the effects of microgravity on the reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging of organisms. To achieve these research goals, a modular habitat system and on-board variable gravity centrifuges, capable of holding various animal, plant, cells and tissues, is proposed for the science laboratory.

  12. Dark cycle monitoring of biological specimens on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mian, Arshad; Chuang, Sherry

    1992-01-01

    The operational environment for biological research on Space Station Freedom will incorporate video technology for monitoring plant and animal subjects. The video coverage must include dark-cycle monitoring because early experiments will use rodents that are nocturnal and therefore most active during the dark part of the daily cycle. Scientific requirements for monitoring during the dark cycle are exacting. Infrared (IR) or near-IR sensors are required. The trade-offs between these two types of sensors are based on engineering constraints, sensitivity spectra, and the quality of imagery possible from each type. This paper presents results of a study conducted by the Biological Flight Research Projects Office in conjunction with the Spacecraft Data Systems Branch at ARC to investigate the use of charged-coupled-device and IR cameras to meet the scientific requirements. Also examined is the effect of low levels of near-IR illumination on the circadian rhythm in rats.

  13. Fundamental Biological Research on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.; Yost, Bruce; Fletcher, L.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental Biology Program of NASA's Life Sciences Division is chartered with enabling and sponsoring research on the International Space Station (ISS) in order to understand the effects of the space flight environment, particularly microgravity, on living systems. To accomplish this goal, NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has been tasked with managing the development of a number of biological habitats, along with their support systems infrastructure. This integrated suite of habitats and support systems is being designed to support research requirements identified by the scientific community. As such, it will support investigations using cells and tissues, avian eggs, insects, plants, aquatic organisms and rodents. Studies following organisms through complete life cycles and over multiple generations will eventually be possible. As an adjunct to the development of these basic habitats, specific analytical and monitoring technologies are being targeted for maturation to complete the research cycle by transferring existing or emerging analytical techniques, sensors, and processes from the laboratory bench to the ISS research platform.

  14. Fundamental Biological Research on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.; Yost, Bruce; Fletcher, L.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental Biology Program of NASA's Life Sciences Division is chartered with enabling and sponsoring research on the International Space Station (ISS) in order to understand the effects of the space flight environment, particularly microgravity, on living systems. To accomplish this goal, NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has been tasked with managing the development of a number of biological habitats, along with their support systems infrastructure. This integrated suite of habitats and support systems is being designed to support research requirements identified by the scientific community. As such, it will support investigations using cells and tissues, avian eggs, insects, plants, aquatic organisms and rodents. Studies following organisms through complete life cycles and over multiple generations will eventually be possible. As an adjunct to the development of these basic habitats, specific analytical and monitoring technologies are being targeted for maturation to complete the research cycle by transferring existing or emerging analytical techniques, sensors, and processes from the laboratory bench to the ISS research platform.

  15. Facilities for Biological Research Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, Kenneth A.; Yost, Bruce D.; Berry, William E.; Johnson, Catherine C.

    1996-01-01

    A centrifuge designed as part of an integrated biological facility for installation onboard the International Space Station is presented. The requirements for the 2.5 m diameter centrifuge, which is designed for the support of biological experiments are discussed. The scientific objectives of the facility are to: provide a means of conducting fundamental studies in which gravitational acceleration is a controllable variable; provide a 1g control; determine the threshold acceleration for physiological response, and determine the value of centrifugation as a potential countermeasure for the biomedical problems associated with space flight. The implementation of the facility is reported on, and the following aspects of the facility are described: the host resources systems supply requirements such as power and data control; the habitat holding rack; the life sciences glove box; the centrifuge; the different habitats for cell culture, aquatic studies, plant research and insect research; the egg incubator, and the laboratory support equipment.

  16. Dark cycle monitoring of biological specimens on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mian, Arshad; Chuang, Sherry

    1992-01-01

    The operational environment for biological research on Space Station Freedom will incorporate video technology for monitoring plant and animal subjects. The video coverage must include dark-cycle monitoring because early experiments will use rodents that are nocturnal and therefore most active during the dark part of the daily cycle. Scientific requirements for monitoring during the dark cycle are exacting. Infrared (IR) or near-IR sensors are required. The trade-offs between these two types of sensors are based on engineering constraints, sensitivity spectra, and the quality of imagery possible from each type. This paper presents results of a study conducted by the Biological Flight Research Projects Office in conjunction with the Spacecraft Data Systems Branch at ARC to investigate the use of charged-coupled-device and IR cameras to meet the scientific requirements. Also examined is the effect of low levels of near-IR illumination on the circadian rhythm in rats.

  17. Facilities for Biological Research Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, Kenneth A.; Yost, Bruce D.; Berry, William E.; Johnson, Catherine C.

    1996-01-01

    A centrifuge designed as part of an integrated biological facility for installation onboard the International Space Station is presented. The requirements for the 2.5 m diameter centrifuge, which is designed for the support of biological experiments are discussed. The scientific objectives of the facility are to: provide a means of conducting fundamental studies in which gravitational acceleration is a controllable variable; provide a 1g control; determine the threshold acceleration for physiological response, and determine the value of centrifugation as a potential countermeasure for the biomedical problems associated with space flight. The implementation of the facility is reported on, and the following aspects of the facility are described: the host resources systems supply requirements such as power and data control; the habitat holding rack; the life sciences glove box; the centrifuge; the different habitats for cell culture, aquatic studies, plant research and insect research; the egg incubator, and the laboratory support equipment.

  18. Biological Potential of Chitinolytic Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Sara Skøtt; Andersen, Birgitte; Gram, Lone; Machado, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Chitinolytic microorganisms secrete a range of chitin modifying enzymes, which can be exploited for production of chitin derived products or as fungal or pest control agents. Here, we explored the potential of 11 marine bacteria (Pseudoalteromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae) for chitin degradation using in silico and phenotypic assays. Of 10 chitinolytic strains, three strains, Photobacterium galatheae S2753, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040 and S2724, produced large clearing zones on chitin plates. All strains were antifungal, but against different fungal targets. One strain, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040, had a pronounced antifungal activity against all seven fungal strains. There was no correlation between the number of chitin modifying enzymes as found by genome mining and the chitin degrading activity as measured by size of clearing zones on chitin agar. Based on in silico and in vitro analyses, we cloned and expressed two ChiA-like chitinases from the two most potent candidates to exemplify the industrial potential. PMID:27999269

  19. Natural products with health benefits from marine biological resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ocean is the cradle of lives, which provides a diverse array of intriguing natural products that has captured scientists’ attention in the past few decades due to their significant and extremely potent biological activities. In addition to being rich sources for pharmaceutical drugs, marine nat...

  20. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  1. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon. PMID:21556162

  2. Marine carotenoids: biological functions and commercial applications.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M

    2011-03-03

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon.

  3. Marine biology, intertidal ecology, and a new place for biology.

    PubMed

    Benson, Keith R

    2015-01-01

    At the present time, there is considerable interest for the physical setting of science, that is, its actual 'place' of practice. Among historians of biology, place has been considered to be a crucial component for the study of ecology. Other historians have noted the 'built' environments (laboratories) for the study of biology along the seashore, even referring to these places in terms more applicable to vacation sites. In this paper, I examine the place of intertidal ecology investigations, both in terms of the physical space and the built space. Part of the examination will investigate the aesthetic aspect of the Pacific Coast, part will evaluate the unique character of the intertidal zone, and part will consider the construction of natural laboratories and built laboratories as characteristic places for biology.

  4. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately...

  5. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately...

  6. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately...

  7. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately...

  8. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately...

  9. Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Eiji; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Harada, Naomi; Honda, Makio C; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ishida, Akio; Kishi, Michio J

    2014-05-27

    The future conditions of Arctic sea ice and marine ecosystems are of interest not only to climate scientists, but also to economic and governmental bodies. However, the lack of widespread, year-long biogeochemical observations remains an obstacle to understanding the complicated variability of the Arctic marine biological pump. Here we show an early winter maximum of sinking biogenic flux in the western Arctic Ocean and illustrate the importance of shelf-break eddies to biological pumping from wide shelves to adjacent deep basins using a combination of year-long mooring observations and three-dimensional numerical modelling. The sinking flux trapped in the present study included considerable fresh organic material with soft tissues and was an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. We predict that further reductions in sea ice will promote the entry of Pacific-origin biological species into the Arctic basin and accelerate biogeochemical cycles connecting the Arctic and subarctic oceans.

  10. Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Eiji; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Harada, Naomi; Honda, Makio C.; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ishida, Akio; Kishi, Michio J.

    2014-01-01

    The future conditions of Arctic sea ice and marine ecosystems are of interest not only to climate scientists, but also to economic and governmental bodies. However, the lack of widespread, year-long biogeochemical observations remains an obstacle to understanding the complicated variability of the Arctic marine biological pump. Here we show an early winter maximum of sinking biogenic flux in the western Arctic Ocean and illustrate the importance of shelf-break eddies to biological pumping from wide shelves to adjacent deep basins using a combination of year-long mooring observations and three-dimensional numerical modelling. The sinking flux trapped in the present study included considerable fresh organic material with soft tissues and was an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. We predict that further reductions in sea ice will promote the entry of Pacific-origin biological species into the Arctic basin and accelerate biogeochemical cycles connecting the Arctic and subarctic oceans. PMID:24862402

  11. Guidelines for Marine Biological Reference Collections. Unesco Reports in Marine Sciences, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hureau, J. C.; Rice, A. L.

    This manual provides practical advice on the appropriation, conservation, and documentation of a marine biological reference collection, in response to needs expressed by Mediterranean Arab countries. A reference collection is defined as a working museum containing a series of specimens with which biologists are able to compare their own material.…

  12. Guidelines for Marine Biological Reference Collections. Unesco Reports in Marine Sciences, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hureau, J. C.; Rice, A. L.

    This manual provides practical advice on the appropriation, conservation, and documentation of a marine biological reference collection, in response to needs expressed by Mediterranean Arab countries. A reference collection is defined as a working museum containing a series of specimens with which biologists are able to compare their own material.…

  13. A 20-KW Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) at the Marine Corps Air Station, Kaneohe, Hawaii.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    NATIONAL BURLAU OF STANDARDS I963 A TN NO: N-1655 A 20-KW WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM TITLE: (WECS) AT THE MARINE CORPS AI& STATION, KANEOHE, HAWAII...4 TITLE (o, S,,bIII1. S TYPE OF kEPORT II PERIOD COvERED A 20-KW WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM Not final;Sep 78- Dec81 (WECS) AT THE MARINE CORPS AIR...from RepO) 18 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES • -1 19 KEY WORDS eComf-Ur o, ,e . s d. it ,e f , &1d Ide-,fs by bd, umb,) Wind energy conversion systems, wind energy , wind

  14. NASA's Biological Crystal Growth Program on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Biological Crystal Growth Program (BCG) on the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of two phases. The first phase is during assembly of the ISS and will accommodate generic payloads that currently fly in the orbiter middeck. The second phase is after assembly of the ISS is complete and BCG payloads will occupy part of the Biotechnology Facility aboard the ISS. During both phases of the program, there will be two types of BCG payloads. One type will emphasize the production of crystals for structure determination back on Earth and will have high capacity for screening crystallization conditions. The second type of payload will be designed to study the crystallization process with the primary aim of developing new methods to further optimize the use of the microgravity environment. Beginning immediately, access to the BCG program for Guest Investigators is simplified. Access to all BCG hardware for Guest Investigators will be coordinated through one office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Details of how to obtain access to microgravity, the hardware available, and the operational aspects of the program will be described.

  15. Final Report Recommended Actions to Reduce Electrical Peak Loads at the Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, John C.; Brown, Daryl R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2001-05-08

    PNNL conducted a walk-through audit of Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton. The audit inspected a significant portion of the site and identified a large number of similar energy saving opportunities across all building types.

  16. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  18. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  19. Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponganis, Paul J.

    2007-02-01

    Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates had its origins in the field of bio-telemetry in the 1960s and 1970s. The development of microprocessor technology allowed its first application to bio-logging investigations of Weddell seal diving physiology in the early 1980s. Since that time, with the use of increased memory capacity, new sensor technology, and novel data processing techniques, investigators have examined heart rate, temperature, swim speed, stroke frequency, stomach function (gastric pH and motility), heat flux, muscle oxygenation, respiratory rate, diving air volume, and oxygen partial pressure (P) during diving. Swim speed, heart rate, and body temperature have been the most commonly studied parameters. Bio-logging investigation of pressure effects has only been conducted with the use of blood samplers and nitrogen analyses on animals diving at isolated dive holes. The advantages/disadvantages and limitations of recording techniques, probe placement, calibration techniques, and study conditions are reviewed.

  20. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Locomotion and the cost of hunting in large, stealthy marine carnivores. Integrative and Comparative Biology : doi:10.1093/icb/icv025. [published...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking...Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences Terrie M. Williams Center for Ocean Health- Long Marine Lab Department of

  1. Gap analysis on the biology of Mediterranean marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Dimarchopoulou, Donna; Stergiou, Konstantinos I; Tsikliras, Athanassios C

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the current level of knowledge concerning several biological characteristics of the Mediterranean marine fishes by carrying out a gap analysis based on information extracted from the literature, aiming to identify research trends and future needs in the field of Mediterranean fish biology that can be used in stock assessments, ecosystem modeling and fisheries management. Based on the datasets that emerged from the literature review, there is no information on any biological characteristic for 43% (n = 310) of the Mediterranean fish species, whereas for an additional 15% (n = 109) of them there is information about just one characteristic. The gap between current and desired knowledge (defined here as having information on most biological characteristics for at least half of the Mediterranean marine fishes) is smaller in length-weight relationships, which have been studied for 43% of the species, followed by spawning (39%), diet (29%), growth (25%), maturity (24%), lifespan (19%) and fecundity (17%). The gap is larger in natural mortality for which information is very scarce (8%). European hake (Merluccius merluccius), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), annular seabream (Diplodus annularis), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) and bogue (Boops boops) were the most studied species, while sharks and rays were among the least studied ones. Only 25 species were fully studied, i.e. there was available information on all their biological characteristics. The knowledge gaps per characteristic varied among the western, central and eastern Mediterranean subregions. The number of available records per species was positively related to total landings, while no relationship emerged with its maximum reported length, trophic level and commercial value. Future research priorities that should be focused on less studied species (e.g. sharks and rays) and mortality/fecundity instead of length

  2. Gap analysis on the biology of Mediterranean marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Dimarchopoulou, Donna; Stergiou, Konstantinos I.

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the current level of knowledge concerning several biological characteristics of the Mediterranean marine fishes by carrying out a gap analysis based on information extracted from the literature, aiming to identify research trends and future needs in the field of Mediterranean fish biology that can be used in stock assessments, ecosystem modeling and fisheries management. Based on the datasets that emerged from the literature review, there is no information on any biological characteristic for 43% (n = 310) of the Mediterranean fish species, whereas for an additional 15% (n = 109) of them there is information about just one characteristic. The gap between current and desired knowledge (defined here as having information on most biological characteristics for at least half of the Mediterranean marine fishes) is smaller in length-weight relationships, which have been studied for 43% of the species, followed by spawning (39%), diet (29%), growth (25%), maturity (24%), lifespan (19%) and fecundity (17%). The gap is larger in natural mortality for which information is very scarce (8%). European hake (Merluccius merluccius), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), annular seabream (Diplodus annularis), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) and bogue (Boops boops) were the most studied species, while sharks and rays were among the least studied ones. Only 25 species were fully studied, i.e. there was available information on all their biological characteristics. The knowledge gaps per characteristic varied among the western, central and eastern Mediterranean subregions. The number of available records per species was positively related to total landings, while no relationship emerged with its maximum reported length, trophic level and commercial value. Future research priorities that should be focused on less studied species (e.g. sharks and rays) and mortality/fecundity instead of length

  3. Biological effects and subsequent economic effects and losses from marine pollution and degradations in marine environments: Implications from the literature.

    PubMed

    Ofiara, Douglas D; Seneca, Joseph J

    2006-08-01

    This paper serves as the missing piece in a more fuller understanding about economic losses from marine pollution, and demonstrates what losses have been estimated in the literature. Biological effects from marine pollution are linked with resulting economic effects and losses. The merging of these two areas is usually absent in studies of marine pollution losses. The literature has examined several effects due to marine pollution: damages due to harvest closures-restrictions, damages from consumption of unsafe seafood, damages due to decreased recreational activity, and damages related to waterfront real estate adjacent to contaminated water. Overall, marine pollution can and has resulted in sizable economic effects and losses. On the basis of the literature there is adequate justification for public policy actions to curb marine pollution, require inspection of seafood for toxic substances, and preserve marine water quality and sensitive marine environments.

  4. Between the laboratory and the deep blue sea: space issues in the marine stations of Naples and Wimereux.

    PubMed

    de Bont, Raf

    2009-04-01

    In the 1870s, the life sciences witnessed the rise of a new site for scientific research: the marine station. This new workplace brought the laboratory of the biologist closer to the natural surroundings of the marine organisms that he/she was studying. It was therefore a site where the lab could be 'renaturalized'. In this paper, the extent of this 'renaturalization' is studied with regard to two stations. The first, Anton Dohrn's Stazione zoologica in Naples, was to become an international centre for laboratory research, while the second, Alfred Giard's marine station in Wimereux (France), turned out to be an important hub for field studies. Field-oriented animal life studies could be developed in Wimereux, whereas these were largely outshone by physiological and morphological research in Naples. I argue that differences in the physical and social organization of the two stations - or their 'ecologies' - accounted for the varying practices and types of knowledge found in Naples and Wimereux.

  5. IMOS National Reference Stations: a continental-wide physical, chemical and biological coastal observing system.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Tim P; Morello, Elisabetta B; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C

    2014-01-01

    Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology.

  6. IMOS National Reference Stations: A Continental-Wide Physical, Chemical and Biological Coastal Observing System

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Tim P.; Morello, Elisabetta B.; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J.; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R.; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F.; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology. PMID:25517905

  7. The marine biological week as an approach to science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ransdorf, Angela; Satzinger, Viktoria

    2017-04-01

    The "Wiedner Gymnasium" is an academic high school with two branches: one focusses on languages and the other one on science. In the language branch the students learn at least three languages; one of which is Latin, whereas the students of the scientific branch can learn geometrical drawing and have to attend a scientific laboratory throughout the last four upper classes. As incentive highlights the language classes have a one week's school trip to France, Italy or Spain at the beginning of their 7th form in order to attend a language school and to practice their language skills. As a counterbalance, there was introduced the "marine biological week" several years ago, in which the students of the scientific branch take part whilst their colleagues have their language trips. The marine biological week takes place in Rovinj, Croatia. A team of biologists and divers leads through a programme, by which the students get an overview of different habitats, their conditions and the different ways of adaptation organisms find. Thus, they also become acquainted with several species of animals and plants which are characteristic for this area. They become familiar with some methods of scientific work and also get to know some of the problems marine ecosystems are confronted with. They also learn a little bit if the Mediterranean history and culture. Back in school all the findings are reviewed and brought into an ecological context. The insights can be used for many other topics, too, such as e.g. evolution. This week has proved to be a good start as well for the topic of ecology as for learning to think scientifically in general. So, you can call it a pivot for the scientific branch of our school.

  8. Multiple Pb sources in marine sediments near the Australian Antarctic Station, Casey.

    PubMed

    Townsend, A T; Snape, I

    2008-01-25

    An extensive Pb isotope ratio survey of approximately 100 marine sediment samples from near Casey Station, East Antarctica has been undertaken. Sediment surface grabs and cores were collected over nine years between 1997-2006 and, following HF total digestion, were analysed by magnetic sector ICP-MS. Fifty-two reference samples ([Pb] range 5-26 mg kg(-1)) from 6 non-impacted locations displayed a broad range of Pb isotope ratios representative of the natural background geology of the region ((208)Pb/(204)Pb ratios of 37.5-40; (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratios of 17-19). Potentially impacted sediments from Brown Bay (n=27, [Pb] range 18-215 mg kg(-1)), adjacent to the current and former Australian Stations at Casey (and the associated Thala Valley tip site) showed contamination by Pb characteristic of Broken Hill and Mt Isa Australian deposits ((208)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(204)Pb values of 35.5-36 and 16.0-16.1, respectively). The nearby abandoned Wilkes Station was previously manned by both US (1957-59) and Australian (1959-69) expeditioners. Adjacent marine sediment samples (n=24, [Pb] range 13-40 mg kg(-1)) displayed Pb isotopic signatures suggesting anthropogenic input from multiple sources. On a three-isotope diagram Wilkes sediments were found to display Pb ratios lying intermediate between Missouri (US), Broken Hill/Mt Isa (Australia)/Idaho (US), and natural geogenic Pb end members. Discarded Pb batteries, paint samples and fuel spills were all considered in this work as possible point sources of Pb contamination to the local environment. Batteries are thought to be the dominant source.

  9. Biological investigations on the orbital station "Salyut-5".

    PubMed

    Vaulina, E N; Palmbakh, L R; Antipov, V V; Anikeeva, I D; Kostina, L N; Zharikova, G G; Kasatkina, T B

    1979-01-01

    Genetic and embryological investigations were continued on the orbital station Salyut-5. The effect of space flight factors on dry Crepis capillaris (L) Wallr seeds and seedlings, dry Arabidopsis thaliana (L) Heynh seeds, Polyporus brumalis Pers. ex. Fries culture as well as on spawn development and fish behaviour was studied. Space flight factors are shown to have adverse effects with respect to some characteristics in seeds and seedlings, and to change the morphology of the fungus. Fishes appear to adapt themselves to weightlessness.

  10. Laboratory Experiences in Marine Biology for Upper Elementary and Secondary School Grades, Teachers Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    Designed to assist the teacher who wishes to use marine organisms for biological laboratory investigations, this manual includes general information on maintaining marine aquaria and collecting marine organisms as well as five tested laboratory exercises. The exercises deal with the measurement of oxygen consumption (giving techniques for…

  11. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  12. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  13. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or…

  14. Music and biology at the Naples Zoological Station.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Bernardino

    2015-01-01

    Anton Dohrn projected the Stazione Zoologica as composed of two complementary halves: nature and culture. This attitude was not only expression of the general cultural background of the nineteenth century cultural elite, for Dohrn both formed a coherent and organized whole. In my essay I will analyse the different levels of the relationship between music and biology. In particular, I will demonstrate that both share similar "styles of thought". In the last part I will show that Dohrn's most important scientific contribution, the concept or "principle" of Functionswechsel, provides evidence for the link he had established between music and biology.

  15. A model for Bioinformatics training: the marine biological laboratory.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Grant; Miller, Holly; Goddard, Anthony; Norton, Cathy

    2010-11-01

    Many areas of science such as biology, medicine and oceanography are becoming increasingly data-rich and most programs that train scientists do not address informatics techniques or technologies that are necessary for managing and analysing large amounts of data. Educational resources for scientists in informatics are scarce, yet scientists need the skills and knowledge to work with informaticians and manage graduate students and post-docs in informatics projects. The Marine Biological Laboratory houses a world-renowned library and is involved in a number of informatics projects in the sciences. The MBL has been home to the National Library of Medicine's BioMedical Informatics Course for nearly two decades and is committed to educating scientists and other scholars in informatics. In an innovative, immersive learning experience, G.Y., a biologist and post-doc at Arizona State University, visited the Science Informatics Group at the MBL to learn first hand how informatics is done and how informatics teams work. Hands-on work with developers, systems administrators, librarians and other scientists provided an invaluable education in informatics and is a model for future science informatics training.

  16. Detecting regime shifts in marine systems with limited biological data: An example from southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litzow, Michael A.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Frusher, Stewart D.; Dann, Peter; Tuck, Geoffrey N.

    2016-02-01

    The ability to detect ecological regime shifts in a data-limited setting was investigated, using southeast Australian ecosystems as a model. Community variability was summarized for 1968-2008 with the first two principal components (PCs) of recruitment estimates for six fish stocks and reproductive parameters for four seabird species; regional climate was summarized for 1953-2008 with the first two PCs for three parameters (sea surface temperature [SST], sea surface salinity, surface nitrate) measured at two stations; and basin-scale climate variability was summarized for 1950-2012 with mean South Pacific SST and the first two PCs of detrended South Pacific SST. The first two biology PCs explained 45% of total community variability. The first two PCs of basin-scale SST showed abrupt shifts similar to "regime" behavior observed in other ocean basins, and the first PC of basin-scale SST showed significant covariation with the first PC of regional climate. Together, these results are consistent with the strong community variability and decadal-scale red noise climatic variability associated with Northern Hemisphere regime shifts. However, statistical model selection showed that the first two PCs of regional climate and the first PC of biology time series all exhibited linear change, rather than abrupt shifts. This result is consistent with previous studies documenting rapid linear change in the climate and biology of southeast Australian shelf ecosystems, and we conclude that there is no evidence for regime shift behavior in the region's ecology. However, analysis of a large set of previously-published biological time series from the North Pacific (n = 64) suggests that studies using fewer than ∼30 biological time series, such as this one, may be unable to detect regime shifts. Thus we conclude that the nature of ecological variability in the region cannot be determined with available data. The development of additional long-term biological observations is needed

  17. Behavioral biology of mammalian reproduction and development for a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Space Station research includes two kinds of adaption to space: somatic (the adjustments made by an organism, within its lifetime, in response to local conditions), and transgenerational adaption (continuous exposure across sequential life cycles of genetic descendents). Transgenerational effects are akin to evolutionary process. Areas of a life Sciences Program in a space station address the questions of the behavioral biology of mammalian reproduction and development, using the Norway rat as the focus of experimentation.

  18. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  19. Chiral alkynylcarbinols from marine sponges: asymmetric synthesis and biological relevance.

    PubMed

    Listunov, Dymytrii; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi; Génisson, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Covering: up to March 2014. Previous review on the topic: B. W. Gung, C. R. Chim., 2009, 12, 489-505. Chiral α-functional lipidic propargylic alcohols extracted from marine sponges, in particular of the pacific genus Petrosia, constitute a class of acetylenic natural products exhibiting remarkable in vitro biological activities, especially anti-tumoral cytotoxicity. These properties, associated to functionalities that are uncommon among natural products, have prompted recent projects on asymmetric total synthesis. On the basis of a three-sector structural typology, three main sub-types of secondary alkynylcarbinols (with either alkyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl as the second substituent) can be identified as the minimal pharmacophoric units. Selected natural products containing these functionalities have been targeted using previously known or on purpose-designed procedures, where the stereo-determining step can be: (i) a C-C bond forming reaction (e.g. the Zn-mediated addition of alkynyl nucleophiles to aldehydes in the presence of chiral aminoalcohols), (ii) a functional layout (e.g. the asymmetric organo- or metallo-catalytic reduction of ynones), or (iii) an enantiomeric resolution (e.g. a lipase-mediated kinetic resolution via acetylation). The promising medicinal importance of these targets is finally surveyed, and future investigation prospects are proposed, such as: (i) further total synthesis of known or future extraction products; (ii) the synthesis of non-natural analogues, with simpler lipophilic environments of the alkynylcarbinol-based pharmacophoric units; (iii) the variation and optimization of both the pharmacophoric units and their lipophilic environment; and (iv) investigations into the biological mode of action of these unique structures.

  20. Mussel beds are biological power stations on intertidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Friederike G.; Alegria, Javier; Andriana, Rosyta; Donadi, Serena; Gusmao, Joao B.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Matthiessen, Birte; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2017-05-01

    Intertidal flats are highly productive areas that support large numbers of invertebrates, fish, and birds. Benthic diatoms are essential for the function of tidal flats. They fuel the benthic food web by forming a thin photosynthesizing compartment in the top-layer of the sediment that stretches over the vast sediment flats during low tide. However, the abundance and function of the diatom film is not homogenously distributed. Recently, we have realized the importance of bivalve reefs for structuring intertidal ecosystems; by creating structures on the intertidal flats they provide habitat, reduce hydrodynamic stress and modify the surrounding sediment conditions, which promote the abundance of associated organisms. Accordingly, field studies show that high chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment co-vary with the presence of mussel beds. Here we present conclusive evidence by a manipulative experiment that mussels increase the local biomass of benthic microalgae; and relate this to increasing biomass of microalgae as well as productivity of the biofilm across a nearby mussel bed. Our results show that the ecosystem engineering properties of mussel beds transform them into hot spots for primary production on tidal flats, highlighting the importance of biological control of sedimentary systems.

  1. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Jennifer L. Miksis-Olds Applied Research Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University PO...signals impact marine mammal prey and resulting marine mammal habitat use. This is especially critical in areas like the Bering Sea where global climate...animal presence and habitat use. Objective 1: What effect do changing sea ice dynamics have on zooplankton populations? a) How does zooplankton

  2. Pleistocene plant fossils in and near La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    Sally P. Horn; Robert L. Sanford; David Dilcher; Terry A. Lott; Paul R. Renne; Michael C. Wiemann; Duane Cozadd; Orlando Vargas

    2003-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and 40 Ar/39Ar analysis of overlying tephra indicate that plant fossil assemblages exposed by stream erosion and well construction in and near La Selva Biological Station in eastern lowland Costa Rica are Pleistocene in age. We identified plant taxa based on wood, leaves, fruits, seeds, pollen, and spores examined from three sites at ca 30 m...

  3. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on physical factors influencing life in the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the ocean floor; (2) tides; (3) ocean waves; (4) ocean currents; (5)…

  4. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Seven and Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 7 and 8. The unit, focusing on life in the sea and the physical factors which influence that life, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the theory of plate tectonics; (2) ocean floor…

  5. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on physical factors influencing life in the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the ocean floor; (2) tides; (3) ocean waves; (4) ocean currents; (5)…

  6. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Seven and Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 7 and 8. The unit, focusing on life in the sea and the physical factors which influence that life, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the theory of plate tectonics; (2) ocean floor…

  7. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Helwig, M.; Westby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest energy consumer in the U.S. government. Present energy use impacts DoD global operations by constraining freedom of action and self-sufficiency, demanding enormous economic resources, and putting many lives at risk in logistics support for deployed environments. There are many opportunities for DoD to more effectively meet energy requirements through a combination of human actions, energy efficiency technologies, and renewable energy resources. In 2008, a joint initiative was formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address military energy use. This initiative created a task force comprised of representatives from each branch of the military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to examine the potential for ultra high efficiency military installations. This report presents an assessment of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, selected by the task force as the initial prototype installation based on its strong history of energy advocacy and extensive track record of successful energy projects.

  8. Labs in the field? Rocky mountain biological stations in the early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Biological field stations proliferated in the Rocky Mountains region of the western United States during the early decades of the twentieth century. This essay examines these Rocky Mountain field stations as hybrid lab-field sites from the perspective of the field side of the dichotomy: as field sites with raised walls rather than as laboratories whose walls with the natural world have been lowered. Not only were these field stations transformed to be more like laboratories, but they were also embedded within the particular regional environmental and institutional context of the Rocky Mountains. Using the University of Colorado's Mountain Laboratory at Tolland and other contemporaneous sites as examples, this essay analyzes key features of these sites, including their location within transportation networks, buildings, equipment, personnel, scheduling, recreational and social activities, and other material and social practices on the ground. Considering both the distinctive and shared characteristics of the Rocky Mountain field stations in comparison to other types of field stations provides a more complete picture of the diversity and range of lab-field hybrid sites in the biological sciences in the early twentieth-century United States.

  9. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  10. Biological activities and potential health benefits of bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Nghiep; Wijesekara, Isuru; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2012-11-01

    Marine organisms have been recognized as rich sources of bioactive compounds with valuable nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potentials. Recently, marine bioactive peptides have gained much attention because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Notably, these peptides exhibit various biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-proliferative, anticoagulant, calcium-binding, anti-obesity and anti-diabetic activities. This review mainly presents biological activities of peptides from marine organisms and emphasizing their potential applications in foods as well as pharmaceutical areas.

  11. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

  12. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for marine carotenoids: new opportunities and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-09-17

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.

  13. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. While some of these technologies have been readily incorporated into the study of marine organisms as models for understanding basic biology, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology and biological oceanography has only recently begun to be appreciated. This report defines critical scientific questions in marine biology and biological oceanography, describes the molecular technologies that could be used to answer these questions, and discusses some of the implications and economic opportunities that might result from this research which could potentially improve the international competitive position of the United States in the rapidly growing area of marine biotechnology. The committee recommends that the federal government provide the infrastructure necessary to use the techniques of molecular biology in the marine sciences.

  14. Atmospheric phosphorus load to the Baltic Sea - first measurements at the Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Saarnio, Karri; Hemmilä, Marja; Knuuttila, Seppo; Makkonen, Ulla; Vuorenmaa, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    The HELCOM (Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission) Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) has the overall objective of reaching the Baltic Sea in a good environmental status by 2021. The HELCOM Contracting Parties have agreed to restrict their nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea according to the BSAP Maximum Allowable Inputs (MAI) of nitrogen and phosphorus (P), which base on the eutrophication targets. Both waterborne and airborne loads should be taken into account in the implementation of the country allocation of nutrient reductions. The waterborne P load is regularly assessed in detail, whereas for the airborne part a very preliminary estimate is available due to insufficient monitoring data. At present a fixed estimate of 5 mg m-2 of atmospheric P deposition per year is used in the BSAP implementation. Measurements of bulk deposition and particulate concentration of P have been performed at the Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research station (59° 46'50N, 21° 22'23E) at the outer edge of the Archipelago Sea. Utö is a small rocky island without any arable land, so the local anthropogenic P emissions are low. Weekly bulk deposition measurements started in February, 2013 and the weekly sampling for the PM2.5 and the daily sampling for PM10 in 2014. Based on the results of the first year of the bulk deposition measurements, the annual wet deposition of total P in precipitation was nearly 5 mg m-2. For soluble PO4-P, the wet deposition in precipitation was about 2 mg m-2. The maximum concentrations were measured in late spring and in summer during the biological growing period. The level of the soluble PO4-P concentration in the PM10 particles was lower during the winter months (median 6 ng m-3) compared to the growing season (median 10 ng m-3). In fine particles (PM2.5), the PO4-P level was lower (1-2 ng m-3) than in the PM10 samples, often under the detection level of the IC method used. Natural biogenic aerosols like pollen, algae and fragments of leaves are

  15. Geothermal potential of Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona, and the western portion of Luke-Williams gunnery range. Progress report, 1984-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, S.C.; Katzenstein, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    This report details the geothermal resource exploration program at the U. S. Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona, and vicinity, as requested by the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory (NCEL), Port Hueneme, California.

  16. End-to-End Data System Architecture for the Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mian, Arshad; Scimemi, Sam; Adeni, Kaiser; Picinich, Lou; Ramos, Rubin (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Is developing hardware referred to as the "facility" for providing life sciences research capability on the International Space Station. This hardware includes several biological specimen habitats, habitat holding racks, a centrifuge and a glovebox. An SSBRP end to end data system architecture has been developed to allow command and control of the facility from the ground, either with crew assistance or autonomously. The data system will be capable of handling commands, sensor data, and video from multiple cameras. The data will traverse through several onboard and ground networks and processing entities including the SSBRP and Space Station onboard and ground data systems. A large number of onboard and ground (,entities of the data system are being developed by the Space Station Program, other NASA centers and the International Partners. The SSBRP part of the system which includes the habitats, holding racks, and the ground operations center, User Operations Facility (UOF) will be developed by a multitude of geographically distributed development organizations. The SSBRP has the responsibility to define the end to end data and communications systems to make the interfaces manageable and verifiable with multiple contractors with widely varying development constraints and schedules. This paper provides an overview of the SSBRP end-to-end data system. Specifically, it describes the hardware, software and functional interactions of individual systems, and interface requirements among various entities of the end-to-end system.

  17. Operational and biological effects zones from base stations of cellular telephony

    SciTech Connect

    Geronikolou, St. A.; Zimeras, S.; Tsitomeneas, S. Th.

    2016-03-25

    The possible environmental impacts of cellular base stations are operational and biological. The operational effects comprise Εlectro-Μagnetic Interference (EMI), lightning alterations and aesthetic degradation. Both thermal and non-thermal biological effects depend on the absorption of UHF radiofrequencies used. We measured, calculated and estimated the impact zones. The results are: (a) The lightning lethal zone equal to the antenna height, (b) the EMI impact in a zone up to 40m and (c) the ICNIRP’s limits exceed to a zone of 8∼20m into the antenna’s radiation pattern (for 2G GSM and 3G UMTS station). Finally we conclude the adverse effects must not expected in a zone of more than 150m from the radiated antenna, whereas, there is possibility of stochastic effects in intermediate distances (20/40-150m).

  18. Biological activities and health effects of terpenoids from marine fungi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Li, Yong-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed by the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical products due to their various health beneficial effects. Hence, it can be suggested that bioactive functional ingredients from marine bioresources and their by-products are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to consumer's well-being, as a part of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Marine-derived fungi produce a vast array of secondary metabolites including terpenes, steroids, polyketides, peptides, alkaloids, and polysaccharides. These secondary metabolites serve many biopharmaceutical purposes. This chapter discusses about marine fungi-derived terpenoids and presents an overview of their beneficial health effects.

  19. Marine organic aerosol and oceanic biological activity: what we know and what we need (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, M.

    2009-12-01

    Observations carried out in the North Atlantic as well as in other marine locations evidenced a seasonal dependence of sub micron particle chemical composition on biological oceanic activity and a potentially important marine aerosol organic component from primary and/or secondary formation processes associated to marine vegetation and its seasonal cycle. Primary organics generated by bubble bursting in high biological activity periods are almost entirely water insoluble (WIOM up to 96 ± 2 % )and are constituted by aggregation of lipopolysaccharides exuded by phytoplankton with dominant surface tension character. In many marine environments the secondary organic fraction is dominated by MSA and by several oxygenated species (mainly carboxylic acids). New measurements also show the potential importance of secondary organic N species (biogenic amine salts ). However a large fraction of the secondary organic fraction (SOA) is still not characterized and the precursors are not identified. For modeling marine organics, besides reducing the uncertainty in the knowledge of the chemical composition and new precursors, it is of crucial importance to link marine aerosol organic composition to satellite products that could be better proxy for marine biological activity and of its decomposition products than chlorophyll-a.

  20. Synthesis and biology of cyclic imine toxins, an emerging class of potent, globally distributed marine toxins.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Craig E; Benoit, Evelyne; Aráoz, Rómulo; Servent, Denis; Novikov, Alexei; Molgó, Jordi; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-03-01

    From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day.

  1. The Coastal Marine Biology Program at the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastre, M.; Vélez, S.; Parrilla, D.; Ortiz, E.; Rosa, B.

    2016-02-01

    Our Marine Biology Program at the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao is one of the four BS programs available in the Department of Biology at this institution. This program started approximately thirty years ago and was the first program of this kind in Puerto Rico. The program admits every year approximatley 55 students. The retention rate of this program is approximately 35 percent. Approximately 16 students graduate every year from the program. Graduated student usually work in marine biology-related fields such as environmental law, etc.

  2. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  3. An overview of recent research in marine biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Farrah T; Briski, Elizabeta

    2017-01-01

    The Topical Collection on Invasive Species includes 50 articles addressing many tenets of marine invasion ecology. The collection covers important topics relating to propagule pressure associated with transport vectors, species characteristics, attributes of recipient ecosystems, invasion genetics, biotic interactions, testing of invasion hypotheses, invasion dynamics and spread, and impacts of nonindigenous species. This article summarizes some of the collection's highlights.

  4. Integrated payload resource requirements for NASA's Gravitational Biology Research Laboratory on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Lauren E.; Sarver, George L., Dr.; Jahns, Gary, Dr.

    2000-01-01

    The primary mission of International Space Station (ISS) is to provide a shirt-sleeve working environment within an orbiting laboratory to support a wide variety of research conducted in the micro-gravity (μ-gravity) environment of space. The laboratory being developed by the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) at the Ames Research Center (ARC) will support NASA's Gravitational Biology and Ecology (GB&E) Research Program on the influence and affects of gravity on living systems. It will support research from the building blocks of biology (cells and tissues) through complete, fully grown systems (plants, rodents, aquatics and insects) and through all phases of growth as well as multiple generations. The results will provide an in-depth understanding of the role of gravity in living systems. It should provide the information necessary to support long-term manned missions for exploration of the solar system. In addition, it is expected to provide valuable insight into how Earth-bound biological systems work. .

  5. Sedimentation: Potential Biological Effects of Dredging Operations in Estuarine and Marine Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    1999). “Impacts of sediment burial on mangroves.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 37, 420-426. Fonseca, M. S., Kenworthy, W. J., and Thayer, G W. (1998... Marine Pollution Bulletin 4, 166-169. Tomasko, D.A., Dawes, C. J., and Hall, M. O. (1996). “The effects of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment in...adjacent coral reefs,” Marine Pollution Bulletin 42, 864-872. Wilber, D. H., and Clarke, D. G. (2001). “Biological effects of suspended sediments: a

  6. A Comprehensive Web-Based Library of Marine Biological Sounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-07

    sound recordings were digitized, documented in an extensive metadata base, and made available for free online playback. Users can search the collection...staff, educators, K-12 and college students, conservation and wildlife programs, the arts, museums , zoos, and aquaria, publishers, nature outreach...6 year period. 5700 audio clips (1200 hours) of marine mammal and fish sound recordings were digitized, documented in an extensive metadata base

  7. How are climate and marine biological outbreaks functionally linked?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, M.L.; Bonaventura, J.; Mitchell, T.P.; Prospero, J.M.; Shinn, E.A.; Van Dolah, F.; Barber, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, large-scale episodic events such as disease epidemics, mass mortalities, harmful algal blooms and other population explosions have been occurring in marine environments at an historically unprecedented rate. The variety of organisms involved (host, pathogens and other opportunists) and the absolute number of episodes have also increased during this period. Are these changes coincidental? Between 1972 and 1976, a global climate regime shift took place, and it is manifest most clearly by a change in strength of the North Pacific and North Atlantic pressure systems. Consequences of this regime shift are: (1) prolonged drought conditions in the Sahel region of Africa; (2) increased dust supply to the global atmosphere, by a factor of approximately four; (3) increased easterly trade winds across the Atlantic; (4) increased eolian transport of dust to the Atlantic and Caribbean basins; and (5) increased deposition of iron-rich eolian dust to typically iron-poor marine regions. On the basis of well-documented climate and dust observations and the widely accepted increase in marine outbreak rates, this paper proposes that the increased iron supply has altered the micronutrient factors limiting growth of opportunistic organisms and virulence of pathogenic microbes, particularly in macronutrient-rich coastal systems.

  8. Zooplankton fecal pellets, marine snow, phytodetritus and the ocean's biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jefferson T.

    2015-01-01

    The 'biological pump' is the process by which photosynthetically-produced organic matter in the ocean descends from the surface layer to depth by a combination of sinking particles, advection or vertical mixing of dissolved organic matter, and transport by animals. Particulate organic matter that is exported downward from the euphotic zone is composed of combinations of fecal pellets from zooplankton and fish, organic aggregates known as 'marine snow' and phytodetritus from sinking phytoplankton. Previous reviews by Turner and Ferrante (1979) and Turner (2002) focused on publications that appeared through late 2001. Since that time, studies of the biological pump have continued, and there have been >300 papers on vertical export flux using sediment traps, large-volume filtration systems and other techniques from throughout the global ocean. This review will focus primarily on recent studies that have appeared since 2001. Major topics covered in this review are (1) an overview of the biological pump, and its efficiency and variability, and the role of dissolved organic carbon in the biological pump; (2) zooplankton fecal pellets, including the contribution of zooplankton fecal pellets to export flux, epipelagic retention of zooplankton fecal pellets due to zooplankton activities, zooplankton vertical migration and fecal pellet repackaging, microbial ecology of fecal pellets, sinking velocities of fecal pellets and aggregates, ballasting of sinking particles by mineral contents, phytoplankton cysts, intact cells and harmful algae toxins in fecal pellets, importance of fecal pellets from various types of zooplankton, and the role of zooplankton fecal pellets in picoplankton export; (3) marine snow, including the origins, abundance, and distributions of marine snow, particles and organisms associated with marine snow, consumption and fragmentation of marine snow by animals, pathogens associated with marine snow; (4) phytodetritus, including pulsed export of

  9. Evaluation of the Biolog MicroStation system for yeast identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.; Molina, T. C.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-nine isolates representing 16 genera and 53 species of yeasts were processed with the Biolog MicroStation System for yeast identification. Thirteen genera and 38 species were included in the Biolog database. For these 129 isolates, correct identifications to the species level were 13.2, 39.5 and 48.8% after 24, 48 and 72 hours incubation at 30 degrees C, respectively. Three genera and 15 species which were not included in the Biolog database were also tested. Of the 30 isolates studied, 16.7, 53.3 and 56.7% of the isolates were given incorrect names from the system's database after 24,48 and 72 h incubation at 30 degrees C, respectively. The remaining isolates of this group were not identified.

  10. Evaluation of the Biolog MicroStation system for yeast identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.; Molina, T. C.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-nine isolates representing 16 genera and 53 species of yeasts were processed with the Biolog MicroStation System for yeast identification. Thirteen genera and 38 species were included in the Biolog database. For these 129 isolates, correct identifications to the species level were 13.2, 39.5 and 48.8% after 24, 48 and 72 hours incubation at 30 degrees C, respectively. Three genera and 15 species which were not included in the Biolog database were also tested. Of the 30 isolates studied, 16.7, 53.3 and 56.7% of the isolates were given incorrect names from the system's database after 24,48 and 72 h incubation at 30 degrees C, respectively. The remaining isolates of this group were not identified.

  11. [Biocenotic dynamics of liquid sewage in the process of its biological purification at aeration stations].

    PubMed

    Kalina, G P; Vinogradova, L A; Gipp, E K

    1975-08-01

    A study was made of biological purification of sewage at the aeration stations on the quantitative composition of the main indicator microbes--of bacteria of the coliform group and of the fecal coliform bacilli, enterococci, Proteus, and also pathogenic enterobacteria. There was found a difference in the behaviour of different species of Proteus, i.e. reduction in the process of purification in the numbers of Pr. mirabilis, and a sharp elevation of Pr. morganii content. There was noted an insignificant amount of Pr. vulgaris both before and after the biological purification. It was found that dynamics of biocenosis was influenced by air temperature at the time of collection of the samples. A possibility of reproduction of coliform bacilli serving as one of the factors of autopurification of sewage during the biological purification was confirmed.

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of marine-origin matter along a transect from Zhongshan Station to Dome A, Eastern Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanjin; Xiao, Cunde; Shi, Guitao; Ding, Minghu; Qin, Dahe; Ren, Jiawen

    2016-08-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution pattern of marine-origin matter on the Antarctica ice sheet was used to study variations in the source regions, transport mechanisms and post-depositional influences. We present data on sea salt ions, sulfur components and stable isotopes from surface and snow pit samples collected along the transect route from Zhongshan Station to Dome A during the austral summer in 2012-2013. A general decreasing trend in the accumulation, sea salt ions and sulfur components occurred with increasing distance from the coast and increasing elevation. However, different sources of the marine components, transport pathways and post-depositional influences were responsible for their different spatial distribution patterns. The marine ions in the coastal snow pit varied seasonally, with higher sea salt ion concentrations in the winter and lower concentrations in the summer; the opposite pattern was found for the sulfur compounds. The sea ice area surrounding Antarctica was the main source region for the deposited sea salt and the open sea water for the sulfur compounds. No significant trends in the marine-origin components were detected during the past 3 decades. Several periods of elevated deposition of sea salt ions were associated with lower temperatures (based on δD and δ(18)O) or intensified wind fields. In comparison to the sea salt ions, the sulfur concentrations exhibited the opposite distribution patterns and were associated with changes in the surrounding sea ice extent.

  13. 76 FR 10564 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station Restoration and Maintenance at Northwest Seal Rock, Del... activities on the St. George Reef Light Station on Northwest Seal Rock (NWSR) in the northeast Pacific Ocean... National Register of Historic Places, is located on Northwest Seal Rock (NWSR) offshore of Crescent City...

  14. Evidence that Palmer Station Antarctica seasonal O2 and CO2 cycles understate regional marine boundary layer means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bent, J. D.; Stephens, B. B.; Keeling, R. F.; Morgan, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Scripps O2 Program has collected biweekly CO2 and O2 flasks samples from Palmer Station, Antarctica (PSA) since 1996. These data have served as an invaluable representation of regional carbon cycle signals, and play an essential role in evaluating how well ocean models capture Southern Ocean dynamics and surface productivity. Atmospheric CO2 data reflect interfering oceanic solubility, upwelling and productivity signals, and are buffered by carbonate chemistry. Because of this, atmospheric O2, and the related "atmospheric potential oxygen" (APO) quantity provide a much clearer representation of seasonal oceanic carbon cycle processes than CO2 alone. There is growing evidence in the oxygen measurement community, however, that Scripps Palmer Station APO data may not accurately represent a regional marine boundary layer (MBL) mean, possibly because of wind direction sampling selection criteria that tend to favor downslope flow from the glacier above the station, and mountains to the East. In-situ shipboard data taken on the ASRV Laurence M. Gould between 2012 and 2016 near Palmer Station confirm this suspicion: a comparison of two-harmonic fits to station and Gould data suggests that the flasks understate the regional mean MBL seasonal cycle by at least 15%. We present an observation- and modeling-based study of the differences in the two datasets, leveraging recent airborne data near Palmer Station from the ORCAS campaign on the NCAR Gulfstream V. We focus on addressing sampling bias, and reconciling prior measurements with current understanding so that scientists can better evaluate ocean models with representative data.

  15. What is marine biology?: Defining a science in the United States in the mid 20th century.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Marine biology and biological oceanography are two disciplinary subfields that have long struggled with their definitions. Should marine biology simply be considered a part of biology that takes place in the marine environment or is it a distinct entity, with conceptual problems and methodological approaches all its own? Similarly, biological oceanography could be seen as a necessary adjunct to physical and chemical oceanography or it could be defined more as an extension of biology into the marine realm. In the United States, these issues were directly addressed from the mid 1950s through the mid 1960s in a series of events that shed light on how marine biologists came to a working definition of their field that provided a broad methodological tent for practitioners and, at the same time, allied the field to oceanography during a period in which exploration of uncharted areas drew considerable funding from the post-WWII federal agencies charged with keeping American science at the forefront.

  16. Insights from the Sea: Structural Biology of Marine Polyketide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Akey, David L.; Gehret, Jennifer J.; Khare, Dheeraj; Smith, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a rich source of natural products with extremely interesting chemistry. Biosynthetic pathways have been worked out for a few, and the story is being enriched with crystal structures of interesting pathway enzymes. By far, the greatest number of structural insights from marine biosynthetic pathways has originated with studies of curacin A, a poster child for interesting marine chemistry with its cyclopropane and thiazoline rings, internal cis double bond, and terminal alkene. Using the curacin A pathway as a model, structural details are now available for a novel loading enzyme with remarkable dual decarboxylase and acetyltransferase activities, an Fe2+/α-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenase that dictates substrate binding order through conformational changes, a decarboxylase that establishes regiochemistry for cyclopropane formation, and a thioesterase with specificity for β-sulfated substrates that lead to terminal alkene offloading. The four curacin A pathway dehydratases reveal an intrinsic flexibility that may accommodate bulky or stiff polyketide intermediates. In the salinosporamide A pathway, active site volume determines the halide specificity of a halogenase that catalyzes for the synthesis of a halogenated building block. Structures of a number of putative polyketide cyclases may help in understanding reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities although their substrates are presently unknown. PMID:22498975

  17. Insights from the sea: structural biology of marine polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Akey, David L; Gehret, Jennifer J; Khare, Dheeraj; Smith, Janet L

    2012-10-01

    The world's oceans are a rich source of natural products with extremely interesting chemistry. Biosynthetic pathways have been worked out for a few, and the story is being enriched with crystal structures of interesting pathway enzymes. By far, the greatest number of structural insights from marine biosynthetic pathways has originated with studies of curacin A, a poster child for interesting marine chemistry with its cyclopropane and thiazoline rings, internal cis double bond, and terminal alkene. Using the curacin A pathway as a model, structural details are now available for a novel loading enzyme with remarkable dual decarboxylase and acetyltransferase activities, an Fe(2+)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenase that dictates substrate binding order through conformational changes, a decarboxylase that establishes regiochemistry for cyclopropane formation, and a thioesterase with specificity for β-sulfated substrates that lead to terminal alkene offloading. The four curacin A pathway dehydratases reveal an intrinsic flexibility that may accommodate bulky or stiff polyketide intermediates. In the salinosporamide A pathway, active site volume determines the halide specificity of a halogenase that catalyzes for the synthesis of a halogenated building block. Structures of a number of putative polyketide cyclases may help in understanding reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities although their substrates are presently unknown.

  18. 75 FR 80471 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... conducting aircraft operations, and lighthouse renovation and light maintenance activities on the St. George... harassment, of small numbers of marine mammals, incidental to aircraft operations and restoration and... SGRLPS proposes to conduct the proposed activities (aircraft operations, lighthouse restoration,...

  19. 76 FR 79157 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... conducting aircraft operations, lighthouse renovation, and light maintenance activities on the St. George... small numbers of marine mammals, incidental to aircraft operations and restoration and maintenance... to conduct the proposed activities (aircraft operations, lighthouse restoration, and...

  20. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  1. AmeriFlux US-UMB Univ. of Mich. Biological Station

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Peter; Gough, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-UMB Univ. of Mich. Biological Station. Site Description - The UMBS site is located within a protected forest owned by the University of Michigan. Arboreal composition of the forest consists of mid-aged northern hardwoods, conifer understory, aspen, and old growth hemlock. Logging of local white pines began in 1879. In successive years, several other species were harvested. Logging was discontinued in 1980 when the land became protected under the private ownership of the University of Michigan. Patchy low- to high-intensity wildfires occurred yearly from 1880 - 1920, essentially burning the entire region.

  2. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, A.; Juanes, F.; Planes, S.; Garcia-Vazquez, E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction. PMID:27609423

  3. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Ardura, A; Juanes, F; Planes, S; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-09-09

    Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction.

  4. Sequential determination of biological and pollutant elements in marine bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Zeisler, R.; Stone, S.F.; Sanders, R.W.

    1988-12-15

    A unique sequence of instrumental methods has been employed to obtain concentrations for 44 elements in marine bivalve tissue. The techniques used were (1) X-ray fluorescence, (2) prompt gamma activation analysis, and (3) neutron activation analysis. It is possible to use a single subsample and follow it nondestructively through the three instrumental analysis techniques. A final radiochemical procedure for tin was also applied after completing the instrumental analyses. Comparison of results for elements determined by more than one technique in sequence showed good agreement, as did results from certified reference material samples analyzed along with the samples. The concentrations found in the bivalve samples ranged from carbon at more than 50% dry weight down to gold at several microgram per kilogram.

  5. Dark-cycle monitoring of biological subjects on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Sherry; Mian, Arshad

    1992-01-01

    The operational environment for biological research on Space Station Freedom will incorporate video technology for monitoring plant and animal subjects. The video coverage must include dark-cycle monitoring because early experiments will use rodents that are nocturnal and therefore most active during the dark part of the daily cycle. Scientific requirements for monitoring during the dark cycle are exacting. Infrared (IR) or near-IR sensors are required. The trade-offs between these two types of sensors are based on engineering constraints, sensitivity spectra, and the quality of imagery possible from each type. This paper presents results of a study conducted by the Biological Flight Research Projects Office in conjunction with the Spacecraft Data Systems Branch at ARC to investigate the use of charged-coupled-device and IR cameras to meet the scientific requirements. Also examined is the effect of low levels of near-IR illumination on the circadian rhythm in rats.

  6. Marine-derived biological macromolecule-based biomaterials for wound healing and skin tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chandika, Pathum; Ko, Seok-Chun; Jung, Won-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex biological process that depends on the wound condition, the patient's health, and the physicochemical support given through external materials. The development of bioactive molecules and engineered tissue substitutes to provide physiochemical support to enhance the wound healing process plays a key role in advancing wound-care management. Thus, identification of ideal molecules in wound treatment is still in progress. The discovery of natural products that contain ideal molecules for skin tissue regeneration has been greatly advanced by exploration of the marine bioenvironment. Consequently, tremendously diverse marine organisms have become a great source of numerous biological macromolecules that can be used to develop tissue-engineered substitutes with wound healing properties. This review summarizes the wound healing process, the properties of macromolecules from marine organisms, and the involvement of these molecules in skin tissue regeneration applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  8. Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-08-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  9. Marine Biology: Ecology of the Sea. A Zephyr Learning Packet. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    From the smallest plankton to the most massive whales, marine biology is the study of the flora and fauna, the living creatures of the ocean. This Zephyr self-directed study unit was developed to bridge the gap between students as passive learners to students as active participants. Originally developed for gifted students, these units emphasize…

  10. Marine Biology: Ecology of the Sea. A Zephyr Learning Packet. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    From the smallest plankton to the most massive whales, marine biology is the study of the flora and fauna, the living creatures of the ocean. This Zephyr self-directed study unit was developed to bridge the gap between students as passive learners to students as active participants. Originally developed for gifted students, these units emphasize…

  11. Effectiveness of Biological Surrogates for Predicting Patterns of Marine Biodiversity: A Global Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mellin, Camille; Delean, Steve; Caley, Julian; Edgar, Graham; Meekan, Mark; Pitcher, Roland; Przeslawski, Rachel; Williams, Alan; Bradshaw, Corey

    2011-01-01

    The use of biological surrogates as proxies for biodiversity patterns is gaining popularity, particularly in marine systems where field surveys can be expensive and species richness high. Yet, uncertainty regarding their applicability remains because of inconsistency of definitions, a lack of standard methods for estimating effectiveness, and variable spatial scales considered. We present a Bayesian meta-analysis of the effectiveness of biological surrogates in marine ecosystems. Surrogate effectiveness was defined both as the proportion of surrogacy tests where predictions based on surrogates were better than random (i.e., low probability of making a Type I error; P) and as the predictability of targets using surrogates (R2). A total of 264 published surrogacy tests combined with prior probabilities elicited from eight international experts demonstrated that the habitat, spatial scale, type of surrogate and statistical method used all influenced surrogate effectiveness, at least according to either P or R2. The type of surrogate used (higher-taxa, cross-taxa or subset taxa) was the best predictor of P, with the higher-taxa surrogates outperforming all others. The marine habitat was the best predictor of R2, with particularly low predictability in tropical reefs. Surrogate effectiveness was greatest for higher-taxa surrogates at a <10-km spatial scale, in low-complexity marine habitats such as soft bottoms, and using multivariate-based methods. Comparisons with terrestrial studies in terms of the methods used to study surrogates revealed that marine applications still ignore some problems with several widely used statistical approaches to surrogacy. Our study provides a benchmark for the reliable use of biological surrogates in marine ecosystems, and highlights directions for future development of biological surrogates in predicting biodiversity. PMID:21695119

  12. Biological responses of marine flatfish exposed to municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Baker, Michael E; Hardiman, Gary; Reyes, Jesus A; Kelley, Kevin M; Schlenk, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing concern over the presence of pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, and other chemicals collectively known as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in municipal effluents, yet knowledge of potential environmental impacts related to these compounds is still limited. The present study used laboratory exposures to examine estrogenic, androgenic, and thyroid-related endocrine responses in marine hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) exposed to CECs from municipal effluents with 2 degrees of treatment. Fish were exposed for 14 d to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent (0.5%) and to a higher concentration (5%) to investigate dose responses. Plasma concentrations of estradiol (E2), vitellogenin (VTG), 11-keto testosterone, and thyroxine were measured to assess endocrine responses. Contaminants of emerging concern were analyzed to characterize the effluents. Diverse types of effluent CECs were detected. Statistically significant responses were not observed in fish exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent. Elevated plasma E2 concentrations were observed in males exposed to ammonia concentrations similar to those found in effluents. However, exposure to ammonia did not induce VTG production in male fish. The results of the present study highlight the importance of conducting research with sentinel organisms in laboratory studies to understand the environmental significance of the presence of CECs in aquatic systems.

  13. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria: A biological source of the bacteriohopanetetrol stereoisomer in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rush, Darci; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Poulton, Simon W.; Thamdrup, Bo; Garside, A. Leigh; Acuña González, Jenaro; Schouten, Stefan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Talbot, Helen M.

    2014-09-01

    Bacterially-derived bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are abundant, well preserved lipids in modern and paleo-environments. Bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) is a ubiquitously produced BHP while its less common stereoisomer (BHT isomer) has previously been associated with anoxic environments; however, its biological source remained unknown. We investigated the occurrence of BHPs in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic marine fjord-like enclosure located in Costa Rica. The distribution of BHT isomer in four sediment cores and a surface sediment transect closely followed the distribution of ladderane fatty acids, unique biomarkers for bacteria performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). This suggests that BHT isomer and ladderane lipids likely shared the same biological source in Golfo Dulce. This was supported by examining the BHP lipid compositions of two enrichment cultures of a marine anammox species ('Candidatus Scalindua profunda'), which were found to contain both BHT and BHT isomer. Remarkably, the BHT isomer was present in higher relative abundance than BHT. However, a non-marine anammox enrichment contained only BHT, which explains the infrequence of BHT isomer observations in terrestrial settings, and indicates that marine anammox bacteria are likely responsible for at least part of the environmentally-observed marine BHT isomer occurrences. Given the substantially greater residence time of BHPs in sediments, compared to ladderanes, BHT isomer is a potential biomarker for past anammox activity.

  14. Synthesis and Biology of Cyclic Imine Toxins, An Emerging Class of Potent, Globally Distributed Marine Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Stivala, Craig E.; Benoit, Evelyne; Araoz, Romulo; Servent, Denis; Novikov, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day. PMID:25338021

  15. Public health assessment for El Toro Marine Corps Air Station, Santa Ana, Orange County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CA6170023208. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-07

    El Toro Marine Corps Air Station is in Orange County, California, near the city of Irvine. The Marine Corps established El Toro in 1943, and it currently serves as the center for marine aviation operations on the Pacific Coast. El Toro Marine Corps Air Station was proposed for listing on EPA's National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989 because past operations and disposal practices contaminated local groundwater. Agricultural farm workers and well operators are exposed to contaminants in groundwater through unintentional ingestion of contaminated groundwater, dermal contact with contaminated groundwater, and inhalation of aerosolized groundwater contaminants. Future exposure could occur through two potable water wells that are located 10 miles downgradient of the contaminant plume. At the current rate of contaminant migration, those wells will be affected in one and a half to five years.

  16. Heat shock proteins as key biological targets of the marine natural cyclopeptide perthamide C.

    PubMed

    Margarucci, Luigi; Monti, Maria Chiara; Mencarelli, Andrea; Cassiano, Chiara; Fiorucci, Stefano; Riccio, Raffaele; Zampella, Angela; Casapullo, Agostino

    2012-04-01

    Linking bioactive compounds to their cellular targets is a central challenge in chemical biology. Herein we report the mode of action of perthamide C, a natural cyclopeptide isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Through an emerging mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics approach, Heat Shock Protein 90 and Glucose Regulated Protein 94 were identified as key targets of perthamide C and this evidence has been validated using surface plasmon resonance. The ability of perthamide C to influence heat shock protein-mediated cell apoptosis revealed that this marine metabolite could be a good candidate for the development of a lead compound with therapeutic applications based on apoptosis modulation.

  17. Enhancing the Value and Sustainability of Field Stations and Marine Laboratories in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, field stations have been important entryways for scientists to study and make important discoveries about the natural world. They are centers of research, conservation, education, and public outreach, often embedded in natural environments that range from remote to densely populated urban locations. Because they lack…

  18. Enhancing the Value and Sustainability of Field Stations and Marine Laboratories in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, field stations have been important entryways for scientists to study and make important discoveries about the natural world. They are centers of research, conservation, education, and public outreach, often embedded in natural environments that range from remote to densely populated urban locations. Because they lack…

  19. Marine biological controls on atmospheric CO2 and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the ocean is losing N gas faster than N is being returned to the ocean, and that replenishment of the N supply in the ocean usually occurs during ice ages. Available N from river and estruarine transport and from rainfall after formation by lightning are shown to be at a rate too low to compensate for the 10,000 yr oceanic lifetime of N. Ice sheets advance and transfer moraine N to the ocean, lower the sea levels, erode the ocean beds, promote greater biological productivity, and reduce CO2. Ice core samples have indicated a variability in the atmospheric N content that could be attributed to the ice age scenario.

  20. Matching biological traits to environmental conditions in marine benthic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremner, J.; Rogers, S. I.; Frid, C. L. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of variability in environmental conditions on species composition in benthic ecosystems are well established, but relatively little is known about how environmental variability relates to ecosystem functioning. Benthic invertebrate assemblages are heavily involved in the maintenance of ecological processes and investigation of the biological characteristics (traits) expressed in these assemblages can provide information about some aspects of functioning. The aim of this study was to establish and explore relationships between environmental variability and biological traits expressed in megafauna assemblages in two UK regions. Patterns of trait composition were matched to environmental conditions and subsets of variables best describing these patterns determined. The nature of the relationships were subsequently examined at two separate scales, both between and within the regions studied. Over the whole area, some traits related to size, longevity, reproduction, mobility, flexibility, feeding method, sociability and living habit were negatively correlated with salinity, sea surface temperature, annual temperature range and the level of fishing effort, and positively associated with fish taxon richness and shell content of the substratum. Between the two regions, reductions in temperature range and shell content were associated with infrequent relative occurrences of short-lived, moderately mobile, flexible, solitary, opportunistic, permanent-burrow dwelling fauna and those exhibiting reproductive strategies based on benthic development. Relationships between some traits and environmental conditions diverged within the two regions, with increases in fishing effort and shell content of the substratum being associated with low frequencies of occurrence of moderately mobile and moderately to highly flexible fauna within one region, but high frequencies in the other. These changes in trait composition have implications for ecosystem processes, with, for

  1. New Directions in NASA's Biological Crystal Growth Program on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Biological Crystal Growth Program (BCG) on the International Space Station (ISS) is changing direction from the study of crystallization to an emphasis on producing crystals for structure determination in leading problems in structural biology. The program will consist of two phases. The first phase is during assembly of the ISS and will primarily utilize payloads that currently fly in the orbiter middeck but can be adapted for ISS. The second phase begins after assembly of the ISS is complete and BCG payloads will occupy part of the Biotechnology Facility aboard the ISS. Two types of BCG payloads will be flown. One will emphasize the production of crystals for structure determination back on Earth. These types of payloads will allow hundreds of crystallization conditions to be tested. The second type of payload will be designed to study the crystallization process with the primary aim of assisting the structural biology efforts. Access to these facilities will be through the NASA BCG Guest Investigators program, the NASA Research Announcement, and other opportunities currently being formulated. Details of the crystallization hardware, the application procedures, and the operational aspects of the program will be described.

  2. The Influence of the Biological Pump on Marine Redox Conditions During Earth History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. M.; Ridgwell, A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence for bottom-water anoxia on the continental shelves waned over the course of the Phanerozoic, which may be influenced by secular changes in the biological pump that led to weaker positive feedbacks within the oceans. The biological pump describes the transfer of carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean, which creates vertical gradients in nutrients and oxygen, both important influences in the structure of marine ecosystems. We used the cGENIE Earth system model to quantitatively test the hypothesis that reductions in the efficiency of the nutrient recycling loop of the biological pump during the past 550 Ma reduced the extent of anoxia on the shelves and acted as an important control on marine animal ecosystems. When the modeled remineralization depth is shallow relative to the modern ocean, anoxia tends to be more widespread at continental shelf depths. As the modeled remineralization depth increases toward modern conditions, anoxia is less prevalent and occurs at depths below the continental shelves. Reduced marine productivity in the closed system configuration of cGENIE cannot produce the frequent bottom-water anoxia conditions envisioned for the Paleozoic. We hypothesize that evidence for greater animal abundance and metabolic demand during the Phanerozoic was driven by progressive oxygenation of shelf environments related to changes in the biological pump rather than greater food availability. In general, these model simulations suggest changes in the depth distribution of organic carbon remineralization may have controlled observed shifts in ocean chemistry, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem structure during the Phanerozoic.

  3. Performance of a digital video camcorder for the Autonomous Biological System experiment onboard Space Station Mir.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, M; Sasada, M; Sugiura, K; Ishikawa, Y; Kobayashi, K; Mizutani, H; Kawasaki, Y; Koike, J; Ijiri, K; Poynter, J; MacCallum, T; Anderson, G

    1998-12-01

    A video imaging and recording system was utilized in the Autonomous Biological System experiment onboard the space station Mir. Video image of the mini-ecological system was successfully recorded. The whole system was retrieved to the ground after its operation in orbit for four months. Performance of the video system is summarized here together with technical problems encountered. Defects of pixel had been developed in the imaging device. Cause of these defects could be attributed to its exposure against space radiation. Auto white balance was another function of the camcorder that was deviated from normal range of its performance once in orbit but recovered to normal after a while. Possible use of imaging devices for dosimetry is proposed to record space radiation environment at the site close to the experiment.

  4. Marine protected communities against biological invasions: A case study from an offshore island.

    PubMed

    Gestoso, I; Ramalhosa, P; Oliveira, P; Canning-Clode, J

    2017-03-21

    Biological invasions are a major threat to the world's biota and are considered a major cause of biodiversity loss. Therefore, world marine policy has recognized the need for more marine protected areas (MPAs) as a major tool for biodiversity conservation. The present work experimentally evaluated how protected communities from an offshore island can face the settlement and/or expansion of nonindigenous species (NIS). First, NIS colonization success in marine protected and marina communities was compared by deploying PVC settling plates at the Garajau MPA and Funchal marina (SW Madeira Island). Then, the settling plates from the MPA were transferred to Funchal marina to test their resistance to NIS invasion under high levels of NIS pressure. Results indicated that the structure and composition of fouling communities from the MPA differed from those collected in the marina. Interestingly, communities from the protected area showed lower NIS colonization success, suggesting some degree of biotic resistance against NIS invasion.

  5. Glycosaminoglycans analogs from marine invertebrates: structure, biological effects, and potential as new therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pavão, Mauro S G

    2014-01-01

    In this review, several glycosaminoglycan analogs obtained from different marine invertebrate are reported. The structure, biological activity and mechanism of action of these unique molecules are detailed reviewed and exemplified by experiments in vitro and in vivo. Among the glycans studied are low-sulfated heparin-like polymers from ascidians, containing significant anticoagulant activity and no bleeding effect; dermatan sulfates with significant neurite outgrowth promoting activity and anti-P-selectin from ascidians, and a unique fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumbers, possessing anticoagulant activity after oral administration and high anti P- and L-selectin activities. The therapeutic value and safety of these invertebrate glycans have been extensively proved by several experimental animal models of diseases, including thrombosis, inflammation and metastasis. These invertebrate glycans can be obtained in high concentrations from marine organisms that have been used as a food source for decades, and usually obtained from marine farms in sufficient quantities to be used as starting material for new therapeutics.

  6. Dispersal of marine organisms and the grand challenges in biology: an introduction to the symposium.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Sara M

    2012-10-01

    Understanding dispersal and its complex variables is critical to understanding the ecology and evolution of life histories of species, but research on dispersal tends to reflect or emphasize particular disciplines, such as population genetics, functional morphology, evolutionary and developmental biology, physiology, and biophysics, or to emphasize a particular clade or functional group (e.g., fish, planktotrophs or lecithotrophs, pelagic or benthic organisms) in marine ecosystems. The symposium on "Dispersal of Marine Organisms" assembled an interdisciplinary group of outstanding young and established speakers to address dispersal in marine organisms in order to foster integration and cross-talk among different disciplines and to identify gaps in our knowledge and suggest areas for future research.

  7. NREL Furthers U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Miramar's Move Toward Net Zero Energy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    A 2008 report from the Defense Science Board concluded that critical missions at military bases are facing unacceptable risks from extended power losses. A first step in addressing this concern is to establish military bases that can produce as much energy as they use over the course of a year, a concept known as a "net zero energy installation" (NZEI). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has helped the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, located north of San Diego, California, as it strives to achieve its NZE goal. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), NREL partnered with MCAS Miramar to standardize processes and create an NZEI template for widespread replication across the military.

  8. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): Yuma Marine Corps Air Station, Operable Unit 2, Yuma, AZ, December 2, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) for Operable Unit (OU2) documents the remedial action plan for OU2 at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), Yuma, Arizona. On the basis of the data collected at the OU2 sites, no further action is necessary for 12 of the 18 CAOCs included in OU2, because these sites do not pose a threat to human health or the environment. However, remedial action is required to protect human health and comply with regulatory requirements at three of the CAOCs in OU2 because of the presence of ACM. Under this alternative, ACM fragment visible on soil surfaces would be collected manually. Collection would include removing approximately the upper inch of soil beneath the ACM to reduce the potential for asbestos fibers remaining behind in the soil. The ACM and soils would be stockpiled, manifested, loaded, transported, and disposed of at a permitted facility.

  9. Main results of biological experiments on Russian orbital stations and its contribution in future life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    Biological experiments in a field of space biology have been started before the first satellite flight. These experiments were devoted to an estimation of space radiation factors on living organisms and carried out in mountains. The systematic biological experiments in space have been started in 1971 with orbital station Salyut. In total more than 1000 experiments have been installed in space flights: fundamental investigations (panspermia theory, gravity biology, complex factors of space environment on biological objects) and applications focused on future biological life support systems. The investigations were directed to some tasks: influence of complex factors of space flight on living organisms at different stages of the evolution scale; investigations of proteins and DNA, cell, tissue, organism and assembled organisms under space flight factors with separation of individual factors, for example, microgravity and space radiation. The aim was to understand the organism reactions on different levels, to get complete ontogenesis cycle in space flight and to find adaption ability of organisms to extreme factors of the space flight. In course of investigations, the unique experimental equipment for orbital biological experiments has been designed; new methods for organism protection against the negative factors of space flight were found; developed new biotechnological products and processes; developed recommendations for space station interior with biological objects for psychological comfort of crew. The results showed a possibility and ways to include different organisms into biotechnological life support systems for future space stations and interplanet spaceships.

  10. Physical and biological organ dosimetry analysis for international space station astronauts.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Willingham, Veronica; George, Kerry A

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the biological and physical organ dose equivalents for International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. Individual physical dosimetry is difficult in space due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which consists of protons, heavy ions and secondary neutrons, and the modification of these radiation types in tissue as well as limitations in dosimeter devices that can be worn for several months in outer space. Astronauts returning from missions to the ISS undergo biodosimetry assessment of chromosomal damage in lymphocyte cells using the multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Individual-based pre-flight dose responses for lymphocyte exposure in vitro to gamma rays were compared to those exposed to space radiation in vivo to determine an equivalent biological dose. We compared the ISS biodosimetry results, NASA's space radiation transport models of organ dose equivalents, and results from ISS and space shuttle phantom torso experiments. Physical and biological doses for 19 ISS astronauts yielded average effective doses and individual or population-based biological doses for the approximately 6-month missions of 72 mSv and 85 or 81 mGy-Eq, respectively. Analyses showed that 80% or more of organ dose equivalents on the ISS are from galactic cosmic rays and only a small contribution is from trapped protons and that GCR doses were decreased by the high level of solar activity in recent years. Comparisons of models to data showed that space radiation effective doses can be predicted to within about a +/-10% accuracy by space radiation transport models. Finally, effective dose estimates for all previous NASA missions are summarized.

  11. Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

    2014-01-01

    As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ground truthing at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously.

  13. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.

  14. Ideas and perspectives: climate-relevant marine biologically driven mechanisms in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hense, Inga; Stemmler, Irene; Sonntag, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The current generation of marine biogeochemical modules in Earth system models (ESMs) considers mainly the effect of marine biota on the carbon cycle. We propose to also implement other biologically driven mechanisms in ESMs so that more climate-relevant feedbacks are captured. We classify these mechanisms in three categories according to their functional role in the Earth system: (1) biogeochemical pumps, which affect the carbon cycling; (2) biological gas and particle shuttles, which affect the atmospheric composition; and (3) biogeophysical mechanisms, which affect the thermal, optical, and mechanical properties of the ocean. To resolve mechanisms from all three classes, we find it sufficient to include five functional groups: bulk phyto- and zooplankton, calcifiers, and coastal gas and surface mat producers. We strongly suggest to account for a larger mechanism diversity in ESMs in the future to improve the quality of climate projections.

  15. Biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification for Aquatic Habitat in International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemoto, H.; Shoji, T.; Uchida, S.

    2014-04-01

    The biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was constructed for aquatic animal experiments in the International Space Station (ISS). The biological filter will be used to remove harmful ammonia excreted from aquatic animals in a closed water circulation system (Aquatic Habitat). The biological filter is a cylindrical tank packed with porous glass beads for nitrification and dual plastic bags for denitrification. The porous beads are supporting media for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi. The N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells on the porous beads, oxidize the excreted ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. On the other hand, the dual bag is composed of an outer non-woven fabric bag and an inner non-porous polyethylene film bag. The outer bag is supporting media for Paracoccus pantotrophus. The inner bag, in which 99.5% ethanol is packed, releases the ethanol slowly, since ethanol can permeate through the non-porous polyethylene film. The P. pantotrophus cells on the outer bag reduce the produced nitrate to nitrogen gas by using the released ethanol as an electron donor for denitrification. The biological filter constructed in this study consequently removed the ammonia without accumulating nitrate. Most of the excess ethanol was consumed and did not affect the nitrification activity of the N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells severely. In accordance with the aquatic animal experiments in the ISS, small freshwater fish had been bred in the closed water circulation system equipped with the biological filter for 90 days. Ammonia concentration daily excreted from fish is assumed to be 1.7 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Under such conditions, the harmful ammonia and nitrite concentrations were kept below 0.1 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Nitrate and total organic carbon concentrations in the recirculation water were kept below 5 mg-N/L and 3 mg-C/L, respectively. All breeding fish were alive and ate

  16. Biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification for Aquatic Habitat in International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, H; Shoji, T; Uchida, S

    2014-04-01

    The biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was constructed for aquatic animal experiments in the International Space Station (ISS). The biological filter will be used to remove harmful ammonia excreted from aquatic animals in a closed water circulation system (Aquatic Habitat). The biological filter is a cylindrical tank packed with porous glass beads for nitrification and dual plastic bags for denitrification. The porous beads are supporting media for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi. The N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells on the porous beads, oxidize the excreted ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. On the other hand, the dual bag is composed of an outer non-woven fabric bag and an inner non-porous polyethylene film bag. The outer bag is supporting media for Paracoccus pantotrophus. The inner bag, in which 99.5% ethanol is packed, releases the ethanol slowly, since ethanol can permeate through the non-porous polyethylene film. The P. pantotrophus cells on the outer bag reduce the produced nitrate to nitrogen gas by using the released ethanol as an electron donor for denitrification. The biological filter constructed in this study consequently removed the ammonia without accumulating nitrate. Most of the excess ethanol was consumed and did not affect the nitrification activity of the N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells severely. In accordance with the aquatic animal experiments in the ISS, small freshwater fish had been bred in the closed water circulation system equipped with the biological filter for 90 days. Ammonia concentration daily excreted from fish is assumed to be 1.7 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Under such conditions, the harmful ammonia and nitrite concentrations were kept below 0.1 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Nitrate and total organic carbon concentrations in the recirculation water were kept below 5 mg-N/L and 3 mg-C/L, respectively. All breeding fish were alive and ate

  17. Observations of marine decoupled boundary layer during the ICOS campaign at the GAW Mace Head station, Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, Conor; Martucci, Giovanni; O'Dowd, Colin

    2010-05-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) top height detections have been retrieved by two ceilometers (Vaisala CL31 and Jenoptik CHM15K) and a microwave radiometer (RPG-HATPRO) based at the Mace Head Research station, Ireland, from the 8th to the 28th of June 2009 during the ICOS Mace Head campaign. Characteristic of this region, with warm waters, the marine boundary layer is typically 2-layered with a surface mixed layer (SML) and a decoupled residual or convective layer (DRCL), above which is the free troposphere (Kunz et al. 2002). The PBL data have been analyzed using a newly developed Temporal Height-Tracking (THT) algorithm (Martucci et al., 2010) for automatic detection of the independent SML and DRCL tops. Daily and weekly averages of the PBL data have been performed to smooth out the short term variability and assess the dependence of the PBL depth on different air masses advected over the Mace Head station. Moreover, a qualitative comparison between the ceilometer and radiometer PBL top detected values has been done to assess their consistency.

  18. Detecting climate rationality and homogeneities of sea surface temperature data in Longkou marine station using surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Li, Huan; Wang, Qingyuan; Wang, Guosong; Fan, Wenjing

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a systematic evaluation of the climate rationality and homogeneity of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) in Longkou marine station from 1960 to 2011. The reference series are developed using adjacent surface air temperature (SAT) on a monthly timescale. The results suggest SAT as a viable option for use in evaluating climate rationality and homogeneity in the SST data on the coastal China Seas. According to the large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns and SAT of the adjacent meteorological stations, we confirm that there is no climate shift in 1972/1973 and then the climate shift in 1972/1973 is corrected. Besides, the SST time series has serious problems of inhomogeneity. Three documented break points have been checked using penalized maximum T (PMT) test and metadata. The changes in observation instruments and observation system are the main causes of the break points. For the monthly SST time series, the negative adjustments may be greatly due to the SST decreasing after automation. It is found that the increasing trend of annual mean SST after adjustment is higher than before, about 0.24 °C/10 yr.

  19. U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy to Award - Marine Corps Air Station Miramar for Energy Conservation, Tour state-of-the-art green facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LOS ANGELES - On Wednesday, May 20th U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar officials to present the 2015 EPA Federal Green Challenge award for Energy. The base is being recognized for having the great

  20. Natural Proline-Rich Cyclopolypeptides from Marine Organisms: Chemistry, Synthetic Methodologies and Biological Status

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wan-Yin; Dahiya, Rajiv; Qin, Hua-Li; Mourya, Rita; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Peptides have gained increased interest as therapeutics during recent years. More than 60 peptide drugs have reached the market for the benefit of patients and several hundreds of novel therapeutic peptides are in preclinical and clinical development. The key contributor to this success is the potent and specific, yet safe, mode of action of peptides. Among the wide range of biologically-active peptides, naturally-occurring marine-derived cyclopolypeptides exhibit a broad range of unusual and potent pharmacological activities. Because of their size and complexity, proline-rich cyclic peptides (PRCPs) occupy a crucial chemical space in drug discovery that may provide useful scaffolds for modulating more challenging biological targets, such as protein-protein interactions and allosteric binding sites. Diverse pharmacological activities of natural cyclic peptides from marine sponges, tunicates and cyanobacteria have encouraged efforts to develop cyclic peptides with well-known synthetic methods, including solid-phase and solution-phase techniques of peptide synthesis. The present review highlights the natural resources, unique structural features and the most relevant biological properties of proline-rich peptides of marine-origin, focusing on the potential therapeutic role that the PRCPs may play as a promising source of new peptide-based novel drugs. PMID:27792168

  1. Natural Proline-Rich Cyclopolypeptides from Marine Organisms: Chemistry, Synthetic Methodologies and Biological Status.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wan-Yin; Dahiya, Rajiv; Qin, Hua-Li; Mourya, Rita; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2016-10-26

    Peptides have gained increased interest as therapeutics during recent years. More than 60 peptide drugs have reached the market for the benefit of patients and several hundreds of novel therapeutic peptides are in preclinical and clinical development. The key contributor to this success is the potent and specific, yet safe, mode of action of peptides. Among the wide range of biologically-active peptides, naturally-occurring marine-derived cyclopolypeptides exhibit a broad range of unusual and potent pharmacological activities. Because of their size and complexity, proline-rich cyclic peptides (PRCPs) occupy a crucial chemical space in drug discovery that may provide useful scaffolds for modulating more challenging biological targets, such as protein-protein interactions and allosteric binding sites. Diverse pharmacological activities of natural cyclic peptides from marine sponges, tunicates and cyanobacteria have encouraged efforts to develop cyclic peptides with well-known synthetic methods, including solid-phase and solution-phase techniques of peptide synthesis. The present review highlights the natural resources, unique structural features and the most relevant biological properties of proline-rich peptides of marine-origin, focusing on the potential therapeutic role that the PRCPs may play as a promising source of new peptide-based novel drugs.

  2. Results of efforts by the Convention on Biological Diversity to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas.

    PubMed

    Bax, Nicholas J; Cleary, Jesse; Donnelly, Ben; Dunn, Daniel C; Dunstan, Piers K; Fuller, Mike; Halpin, Patrick N

    2016-06-01

    In 2004, Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) addressed a United Nations (UN) call for area-based planning, including for marine-protected areas that resulted in a global effort to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas (EBSAs). We summarized the results, assessed their consistency, and evaluated the process developed by the Secretariat of the CBD to engage countries and experts in 9 regional workshops held from 2011 to 2014. Experts from 92 countries and 79 regional or international bodies participated. They considered 250 million km(2) of the world's ocean area (two-thirds of the total). The 204 areas they examined in detail differed widely in area (from 5.5 km(2) to 11.1 million km(2) ). Despite the initial focus of the CBD process on areas outside national jurisdiction, only 31 of the areas examined were solely outside national jurisdiction. Thirty-five extended into national jurisdictions, 137 were solely within national jurisdictions, and 28 included the jurisdictions of more than 1 country (1 area lacked precise boundaries). Data were sufficient to rank 88-99% of the areas relative to each of the 7 criteria for EBSAs agreed to previously by Parties to the CBD. The naturalness criterion ranked high for a smaller percentage of the EBSAs (31%) than other criteria (51-70%), indicating the difficulty in finding relatively undisturbed areas in the ocean. The highly participatory nature of the workshops, including easy and consistent access to the relevant information facilitated by 2 technical teams, contributed to the workshop participants success in identifying areas that could be ranked relative to most criteria and areas that extend across jurisdictional boundaries. The formal recognition of workshop results by the Conference of Parties to the CBD resulted in these 204 areas being identified as EBSAs by the 196 Parties. They represent the only suite of marine areas recognized by the international community for their

  3. Polar marine biology science in Portugal and Spain: Recent advances and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, José C.; Barbosa, Andrés; Agustí, Susana; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Alvito, Pedro; Ameneiro, Julia; Ávila, Conxita; Baeta, Alexandra; Canário, João; Carmona, Raquel; Catry, Paulo; Ceia, Filipe; Clark, Melody S.; Cristobo, Francisco J.; Cruz, Bruno; Duarte, Carlos M.; Figuerola, Blanca; Gili, Josep-Maria; Gonçalves, Ana R.; Gordillo, Francisco J. L.; Granadeiro, José P.; Guerreiro, Miguel; Isla, Enrique; Jiménez, Carlos; López-González, Pablo J.; Lourenço, Sílvia; Marques, João C.; Moreira, Elena; Mota, Ana M.; Nogueira, Marta; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Orejas, Covadonga; Paiva, Vitor H.; Palanques, Albert; Pearson, Gareth A.; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Peña Cantero, Álvaro L.; Power, Deborah M.; Ramos, Jaime A.; Rossi, Sergi; Seco, José; Sañé, Elisabet; Serrão, Ester A.; Taboada, Sergi; Tavares, Sílvia; Teixidó, Núria; Vaqué, Dolors; Valente, Tiago; Vázquez, Elsa; Vieira, Rui P.; Viñegla, Benjamin

    2013-10-01

    Polar marine ecosystems have global ecological and economic importance because of their unique biodiversity and their major role in climate processes and commercial fisheries, among others. Portugal and Spain have been highly active in a wide range of disciplines in marine biology of the Antarctic and the Arctic. The main aim of this paper is to provide a synopsis of some of the results and initiatives undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish polar teams within the field of marine sciences, particularly on benthic and pelagic biodiversity (species diversity and abundance, including microbial, molecular, physiological and chemical mechanisms in polar organisms), conservation and ecology of top predators (particularly penguins, albatrosses and seals), and pollutants and evolution of marine organisms associated with major issues such as climate change, ocean acidification and UV radiation effects. Both countries have focused their polar research more in the Antarctic than in the Arctic. Portugal and Spain should encourage research groups to continue increasing their collaborations with other countries and develop multi-disciplinary research projects, as well as to maintain highly active memberships within major organizations, such as the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the International Arctic Science Council (IASC) and the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), and in international research projects.

  4. Emerging Concepts Promising New Horizons for Marine Biodiscovery and Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Reen, F. Jerry; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Adams, Claire; O’Gara, Fergal

    2015-01-01

    The vast oceans of the world, which comprise a huge variety of unique ecosystems, are emerging as a rich and relatively untapped source of novel bioactive compounds with invaluable biotechnological and pharmaceutical potential. Evidence accumulated over the last decade has revealed that the diversity of marine microorganisms is enormous with many thousands of bacterial species detected that were previously unknown. Associated with this diversity is the production of diverse repertoires of bioactive compounds ranging from peptides and enzymes to more complex secondary metabolites that have significant bioactivity and thus the potential to be exploited for innovative biotechnology. Here we review the discovery and functional potential of marine bioactive peptides such as lantibiotics, nanoantibiotics and peptidomimetics, which have received particular attention in recent years in light of their broad spectrum of bioactivity. The significance of marine peptides in cell-to-cell communication and how this may be exploited in the discovery of novel bioactivity is also explored. Finally, with the recent advances in bioinformatics and synthetic biology, it is becoming clear that the integration of these disciplines with genetic and biochemical characterization of the novel marine peptides, offers the most potential in the development of the next generation of societal solutions. PMID:25984990

  5. Emerging concepts promising new horizons for marine biodiscovery and synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Reen, F Jerry; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; Dobson, Alan D W; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2015-05-13

    The vast oceans of the world, which comprise a huge variety of unique ecosystems, are emerging as a rich and relatively untapped source of novel bioactive compounds with invaluable biotechnological and pharmaceutical potential. Evidence accumulated over the last decade has revealed that the diversity of marine microorganisms is enormous with many thousands of bacterial species detected that were previously unknown. Associated with this diversity is the production of diverse repertoires of bioactive compounds ranging from peptides and enzymes to more complex secondary metabolites that have significant bioactivity and thus the potential to be exploited for innovative biotechnology. Here we review the discovery and functional potential of marine bioactive peptides such as lantibiotics, nanoantibiotics and peptidomimetics, which have received particular attention in recent years in light of their broad spectrum of bioactivity. The significance of marine peptides in cell-to-cell communication and how this may be exploited in the discovery of novel bioactivity is also explored. Finally, with the recent advances in bioinformatics and synthetic biology, it is becoming clear that the integration of these disciplines with genetic and biochemical characterization of the novel marine peptides, offers the most potential in the development of the next generation of societal solutions.

  6. Commission on Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences Newsletter, Volume 7 Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences, Washington, DC.

    Three articles in this newsletter describe investigative laboratory programs; two in marine or coastal biology (Hopkins Marine Station and the Bahamas field station of Earlham College), and the other a botany course at Colorado College. In all cases undergraduate students are expected to plan and conduct biological research, after being presented…

  7. Pyridinoacridine alkaloids of marine origin: NMR and MS spectral data, synthesis, biosynthesis and biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Biavatti, Maique W

    2015-01-01

    Summary This review focuses on pyridoacridine-related metabolites as one biologically interesting group of alkaloids identified from marine sources. They are produced by marine sponges, ascidians and tunicates, and they are structurally comprised of four to eight fused rings including heterocycles. Acridine, acridone, dihydroacridine, and quinolone cores are features regularly found in these alkaloid skeletons. The lack of hydrogen atoms next to quaternary carbon atoms for two or three rings makes the chemical shift assignment a difficult task. In this regard, one of the aims of this review is the compilation of previously reported, pyridoacridine 13C NMR data. Observations have been made on the delocalization of electrons and the presence of some functional groups that lead to changes in the chemical shift of some carbon resonances. The lack of mass spectra information for these alkaloids due to the compactness of their structures is further discussed. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways of some of these metabolites have been shown since they could inspire biomimetic synthesis. The synthesis routes used to prepare members of these marine alkaloids (as well as their analogues), which are synthesized for biological purposes are also discussed. Pyridoacridines were found to have a large spectrum of bioactivity and this review highlights and compares the pharmacophores that are responsible for the observed bioactivity. PMID:26664587

  8. Biological dosimetry in the ENEIDE Mission on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertucci, A.; Durante, M.; Gialanella, G.; Grossi, G.; Manti, L.; Pugliese, M.; Scampoli, P.

    2007-09-01

    Space radiation represents one of the major health hazards to crews of interplanetary missions. As the duration of space flight increases, according to International Space Station (ISS) and Mars mission programs, the risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation also increases. Although physical dosimetry is routinely performed in manned space missions, it is generally accepted that direct measurement of biological endpoints (biological dosimetry) is necessary for a precise assessment of radiation risk in extraterrestrial activities. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) are particularly suitable to this purpose, as they can provide estimates of both equivalent radiation dose and risk. In this study, cytogenetic analysis was performed on PBL chromosomes of an Italian astronaut involved in two different 10-day missions on the ISS (Marco Polo, April 2002, and ENEIDE, May 2005). Blood samples were collected before and after flights. CAs were evaluated in either mitotic spreads or in prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH). In addition, blood samples were exposed to graded doses of X-rays in vitro before and after the flight and cytogenetic damage evaluated to investigate whether the space environment alters the sensitivity of human cells to ionizing radiation. The yield of baseline chromosomal aberrations was not modified following Marco Polo and ENEIDE mission. This is consistent with the low dose absorbed in these short-term space missions. Preliminary results from Marco Polo mission suggested a significant increase in intrinsic radiosensitivity of lymphocytes after landing compared to pre-flight and follow-up (6 months after landing) samples. However, this effect was not observed during the ENEIDE mission. The results suggest that intra-indi-vidual variations in radiosensitivity are significant, but they cannot be related to the space flight.

  9. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in marine ecosystems as both a carbon source for the microbial food web (and thus a source of CO2 to the atmosphere) and as a light inhibitor in marine environments. The presence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM; the optically active portion of total DOM) can have significant controlling effects on transmittance of sunlight through the water column and therefore on primary production as well as the heat balance of the upper ocean. However, CDOM is also susceptible to photochemical degradation, which decreases the flux of solar radiation that is absorbed. Knowledge of the current spatial and temporal distribution of CDOM in marine environments is thus critical for understanding how ongoing and future changes in climate may impact these biological, biogeochemical, and physical processes. We describe the quantity and quality of CDOM along five key productive transects across a developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) in the Pacific Arctic region. The samples were collected onboard the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in July 2013 and 2014. Monitoring of the variability of CDOM along transects of high productivity can provide important insights into biological and biogeochemical cycling across the region. Our analyses include overall concentrations of CDOM, as well as proxy information such as molecular weight, lability, and source (i.e., autochthonous vs. allochthonous) of organic matter. We utilize these field observations to compare with satellite-derived CDOM concentrations determined from the Aqua MODIS satellite platform, which ultimately provides a spatially and temporally continuous synoptic view of CDOM concentrations throughout the region. Examining the current relationships among CDOM, sea ice variability, biological productivity, and biogeochemical cycling in the Pacific Arctic region will likely provide key insights for how ecosystems throughout the region will respond in future

  10. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) predation on primates in Caratinga Biological Station, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Rita De Cassia; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2007-10-01

    This study demonstrates that ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) extensively use primates as a food resource at the Caratinga Biological Station (CBS) in Southeast Brazil. Analysis of 60 fecal samples collected over 4 years revealed predation upon the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba), the muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), and the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). The most frequent items found in the fecal samples analyzed were Calomys (n=16) and non-identified Aves (n=15), followed by A. guariba (n=12). Although Rodentia was the most common group consumed (n=52) Primates were found in 27% of total fecal samples and were the third most consumed group in relation to the total items. Particularly, predation of A. guariba by ocelots (20% of the total fecal samples) was not an isolated event; our results showed that this species was preyed on across several months. Predation on primates was far higher at CBS than at other sites where comparable studies have been carried out. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Chemical mixing model of streamflow generation at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genereux, David; Pringle, Catherine

    1997-12-01

    La Selva Biological Station occupies an area of lowland tropical rainforest in central Costa Rica. Sodium and chloride data were used to quantify the mixing proportions of local runoff and geothermal groundwater at several sites throughout the stream channel system in late April, at the end of the dry season. The fraction of streamflow accounted for by geothermal groundwater varied spatially between 0 and 0.85, indicating a significant contribution to streamflow and to stream solute loads from geothermal groundwater at some sites. In general, higher inputs of geothermal groundwater were found at lower elevations. Over half the flow from one basin (the Salto) was due to geothermal groundwater, suggesting a minimum annual runoff of about 0.7 m of geothermal groundwater from this basin. A plot of {Na}/{Cl} vs. fraction of geothermal groundwater revealed watershed-scale chemical differences between the two major drainage systems (the Sura and the Salto), differences that were not apparent from a traditional two-solute plot of Cl vs. Na concentration. A small (21 mm) storm produced relatively little change in mixing proportions, as most throughfall was apparently retained in the relatively dry soils.

  12. Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

    2011-12-01

    Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stow, Craig A.; Jolliff, Jason; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Doney, Scott C.; Allen, J. Icarus; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Wallhead, Philip

    2009-02-01

    Coupled biological/physical models of marine systems serve many purposes including the synthesis of information, hypothesis generation, and as a tool for numerical experimentation. However, marine system models are increasingly used for prediction to support high-stakes decision-making. In such applications it is imperative that a rigorous model skill assessment is conducted so that the model's capabilities are tested and understood. Herein, we review several metrics and approaches useful to evaluate model skill. The definition of skill and the determination of the skill level necessary for a given application is context specific and no single metric is likely to reveal all aspects of model skill. Thus, we recommend the use of several metrics, in concert, to provide a more thorough appraisal. The routine application and presentation of rigorous skill assessment metrics will also serve the broader interests of the modeling community, ultimately resulting in improved forecasting abilities as well as helping us recognize our limitations.

  14. Skill Assessment for Coupled Biological/Physical Models of Marine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jolliff, Jason; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Doney, Scott C.; Allen, J. Icarus; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Wallhead, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Coupled biological/physical models of marine systems serve many purposes including the synthesis of information, hypothesis generation, and as a tool for numerical experimentation. However, marine system models are increasingly used for prediction to support high-stakes decision-making. In such applications it is imperative that a rigorous model skill assessment is conducted so that the model’s capabilities are tested and understood. Herein, we review several metrics and approaches useful to evaluate model skill. The definition of skill and the determination of the skill level necessary for a given application is context specific and no single metric is likely to reveal all aspects of model skill. Thus, we recommend the use of several metrics, in concert, to provide a more thorough appraisal. The routine application and presentation of rigorous skill assessment metrics will also serve the broader interests of the modeling community, ultimately resulting in improved forecasting abilities as well as helping us recognize our limitations. PMID:28366997

  15. Distribution of Clostridium perfringens and fecal sterols in a benthic coastal marine environment influenced by the sewage outfall from McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D D; McFeters, G A; Venkatesan, M I

    1998-07-01

    The spatial distribution, movement, and impact of the untreated wastewater outfall from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, were investigated under early austral summer conditions. The benthic environment was examined to determine the distribution of Clostridium perfringens in sediment cores and the intestinal contents of native invertebrates and fish along a transect of stations. These stations extended ca. 411 m south of the outfall. The findings revealed that the concentration of C. perfringens decreased with depth in the sediment and distance from the outfall. High percentages of tunicates and sea urchins were colonized with this bacterium along the transect. Coprostanol concentrations were also measured in sediment samples taken from each of the transect stations, and a similar trend was observed. These results are in agreement with the findings of previous studies performed with the water column and collectively provide evidence that the disposal of domestic wastes deserves special consideration in polar marine environments.

  16. Marine parasites as biological tags in South American Atlantic waters, current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cantatore, D M P; Timi, J T

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fisheries in South American Atlantic coasts (SAAC) are threatened by overfishing and under serious risk of collapsing. The SAAC comprises a diversity of environments, possesses a complex oceanography and harbours a vast biodiversity that provide an enormous potential for using parasites as biological tags for fish stock delineation, a prerequisite for the implementation of control and management plans. Here, their use in the SAAC is reviewed. Main evidence is derived from northern Argentine waters, where fish parasite assemblages are dominated by larval helminth species that share a low specificity, long persistence and trophic transmission, parasitizing almost indiscriminately all available fish species. The advantages and constraints of such a combination of characteristics are analysed and recommendations are given for future research. Shifting the focus from fish/parasite populations to communities allows expanding the concept of biological tags from local to regional scales, providing essential information to delineate ecosystem boundaries for host communities. This new concept arose as a powerful tool to help the implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, the new paradigm for fisheries science. Holistic approaches, including parasites as biological tags for stock delineation will render valuable information to help insure fisheries and marine ecosystems against further depletion and collapse.

  17. Biological Targets and Mechanisms of Action of Natural Products from Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Reyes, Lilibeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine cyanobacteria are an ancient group of organisms and prolific producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. These compounds are presumably optimized by evolution over billions of years to exert high affinity for their intended biological target in the ecologically relevant organism but likely also possess activity in different biological contexts such as human cells. Screening of marine cyanobacterial extracts for bioactive natural products has largely focused on cancer cell viability; however, diversification of the screening platform led to the characterization of many new bioactive compounds. Targets of compounds have oftentimes been elusive if the compounds were discovered through phenotypic assays. Over the past few years, technology has advanced to determine mechanism of action (MOA) and targets through reverse chemical genetic and proteomic approaches, which has been applied to certain cyanobacterial compounds and will be discussed in this review. Some cyanobacterial molecules are the most-potent-in-class inhibitors and therefore may become valuable tools for chemical biology to probe protein function but also be templates for novel drugs, assuming in vitro potency translates into cellular and in vivo activity. Our review will focus on compounds for which the direct targets have been deciphered or which were found to target a novel pathway, and link them to disease states where target modulation may be beneficial. PMID:25571978

  18. Syntheses and biological studies of marine terpenoids derived from inorganic cyanide.

    PubMed

    Schnermann, Martin J; Shenvi, Ryan A

    2015-04-01

    Isocyanoterpenes (ICTs) are marine natural products biosynthesized through an unusual pathway that adorns terpene scaffolds with nitrogenous functionality derived from cyanide. The appendage of nitrogen functional groups - isonitriles in particular - onto stereochemically-rich carbocyclic ring systems provides enigmatic, bioactive molecules that have required innovative chemical syntheses. This review discusses the challenges inherent to the synthesis of this diverse family and details the development of the field. We also present recent progress in isolation and discuss key aspects of the remarkable biological activity of these compounds.

  19. Determination of trace metals in marine biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; McLaren, J.W.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of two marine biological reference materials (dogfish liver tissue (DOLT-1) and dogfish muscle tissue (DORM-1)). The materials were put into solution by digestion in a nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Thirteen elements (Na, Mg, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were then determined. Accurate results were obtained by standard additions or isotope dilution techniques for all of these elements in DORM-1 and for all but Cr in DOLT-1.

  20. Syntheses and Biological Studies of Marine Terpenoids Derived from Inorganic Cyanide

    PubMed Central

    Schnermann, Martin J.; Shenvi, Ryan A.

    2015-01-01

    Isocyanoterpenes (ICTs) are marine natural products biosynthesized through an unusual pathway that adorns terpene scaffolds with nitrogenous functionality derived from cyanide. The appendage of nitrogen functional groups–isonitriles in particular–onto stereochemically-rich carbocyclic ring systems provides enigmatic, bioactive molecules that have required innovative chemical syntheses. This review discusses the challenges inherent to the synthesis of this diverse family and details the development of the field. We also present recent progress in isolation and discuss key aspects of the remarkable biological activity of these compounds. PMID:25514696

  1. Biological effects: Marine mammals and sea turtles (chapter 14). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Haebler, R.

    1994-01-01

    All spills are different, varying in type and amount of oil spilled, species exposed, and geographic and atmospheric conditions. It is important to understand as much as possible about both the natural history and characteristics of various species and the specific effects oil has on wildlife. Doing so improves the ability to extrapolate from one spill to another and improves prediction of types and severity of effects to wildlife. This chapter presents an overview of the biological effects of oil on marine mammals and sea turtles.

  2. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  3. Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca variations in environmental and biological sources: A survey of marine and terrestrial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, Stephanie; Clementz, Mark T.

    2012-10-01

    The relative concentrations of strontium to calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium to calcium (Ba/Ca) in mammalian bioapatite are common biogeochemical indicators for trophic level and/or dietary preferences in terrestrial foodwebs; however, similar research in marine foodwebs is lacking. This study combined environmental and biological Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca data from both terrestrial and marine settings from 62 published books, reports, and studies along with original data collected from 149 marine mammals (30 species) and 83 prey items (18 species) and found that variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of biological and environmental samples are appreciably different in terrestrial and marine systems. In terrestrial systems, environmental sources account for most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios. In contrast, environmental sources in marine systems (i.e., seawater) are comparatively invariant, meaning most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios originate from biological processes. Marine consumers, particularly non-mammalian and mammalian vertebrates, show evidence of biopurification of Ca relative to Sr and Ba, similar to what is observed in terrestrial systems; however, unlike terrestrial systems, variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of environmental sources are overprinted by bioaccumulation of Sr and Ba at the base of marine foodwebs. This demonstrates that in marine systems, spatial or temporal differences may have little to no effect on Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of marine vertebrates, making Sr/Ca, and to a lesser extent Ba/Ca, potentially useful global proxies for trophic level and dietary preferences of marine vertebrates.

  4. Fisheries research and monitoring activities of the Lake Erie Biological Station, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodamer Scarbro, Betsy L.; Edwards, W.H.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Rogers, M. R.; Schoonyan, A. L.; Stewart, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS) successfully completed large vessel surveys in all three of Lake Erie’s basins. Lake Erie Biological Station’s primary vessel surveys included the Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and East Harbor Fish Community Assessment as well as contributing to the cooperative multi-agency Central Basin Hydroacoustics Assessment, the Eastern Basin Coldwater Community Assessment, and Lower Trophic Level Assessment (see Forage and Coldwater Task Group reports). In 2015, LEBS also initiated a Lake Erie Central Basin Trawling survey in response to the need for forage fish data from Management Unit 3 (as defined by the Yellow Perch Task Group). Results from these surveys contribute to Lake Erie Committee Fish Community Goals and Objectives. Our 2015 vessel operations were initiated in early April and continued into late November. During this time, crews of the R/V Muskie and R/V Bowfin deployed 121 bottom trawls covering 83.2 ha of lake-bottom and catching 105,600 fish totaling 4,065 kg during four separate trawl surveys in the western and central basins of Lake Erie. We deployed and lifted 9.5 km of gillnet, which caught an additional 805 fish, 100 (337 kg) of which were the native coldwater predators Lake Trout, Burbot, and Lake Whitefish (these data are reported in the 2016 Coldwater Task Group report). We also conducted 317 km of hydroacoustic survey transects (reported in the 2016 Forage Task Group report), collected 114 lower trophic (i.e. zooplankton and benthos) samples, and obtained 216 water quality observations (e.g., temperature profiles, and water samples). The LEBS also assisted CLC member agencies with the maintenance and expansion of GLATOS throughout all three Lake Erie sub-basins. Within the following report sections, we describe results from three trawl surveys – the spring and autumn Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and the East Harbor Forage Fish Assessment – and

  5. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments.

    PubMed

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Searby, Nancy D

    2004-03-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  6. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; hide

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  7. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Searby, Nancy D.

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  8. Effects of a spill of bunker oil on the marine biological communities in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, P.K. )

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a recent bunker oil spill on the marine environment were assessed through investigation of the rocky shore fauna, phytoplankton population and macrobenthic communities over a study period of 150 days. In addition, toxicity experiments were carried out in the laboratory to ascertain the toxic effects of the oil-plus-dispersant on selected test organisms. The impacts of the spill on the marine fauna were minimal with no visible reduction in species and individual numbers. Possible reasons were the small amount of oil spilled, the rapid containment and dispersion in the clean-up operations, and the less toxic effects of the heavy bunker oil. On Hong Kong shores, the limpets can be identified as indicator species to oil pollution. A quick survey of the limpet fauna on the rocky shores immediately after a spill provides an initial assessment of the impacts on the shoreline. However, faunal recovery over a long-term period may be difficult to assess in view of the lack of baseline data on most of the marine biological communities in Hong Kong waters.

  9. Investigation of Marine-Derived Fungal Diversity and Their Exploitable Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Jang, Seokyoon; Heo, Young Mok; Min, Mihee; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hanbyul; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-06-30

    Marine fungi are potential producers of bioactive compounds that may have pharmacological and medicinal applications. Fungi were cultured from marine brown algae and identified using multiple target genes to confirm phylogenetic placement. These target genes included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the nuclear large subunit (LSU), and the β-tubulin region. Various biological activities of marine-derived fungi were evaluated, including their antifungal, antioxidant and cellulolytic enzyme activities. As a result, a total of 50 fungi was isolated from the brown algae Sargassum sp. Among the 50 isolated fungi, Corollospora angusta was the dominant species in this study. The genus Arthrinium showed a relatively strong antifungal activity to all of the target plant pathogenic fungi. In particular, Arthrinium saccharicola KUC21221 showed high radical scavenging activity and the highest activities in terms of filter paper units (0.39 U/mL), endoglucanase activity (0.38 U/mL), and β-glucosidase activity (1.04 U/mL).

  10. High throughput extraction of plant, marine and fungal specimens for preservation of biologically active molecules.

    PubMed

    McCloud, Thomas G

    2010-06-24

    The Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP) of the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI), at its NCI-Frederick facility, has built perhaps the largest and most diverse natural products screening library in the world for drug discovery. Composed of plant, marine organism and microbial extracts, it currently contains in excess of 230,000 unique materials. From the inception of this program to identify new anticancer chemotherapeutics from natural products sources in 1987, two extracts have been sequentially prepared from each specimen: one produced by organic solvent extraction, which yields a complex material that contains non- to moderately polar small molecules, and a water-soluble extract, a milieu largely unexplored for useful drugs in earlier years, which contains polar small to medium-sized molecules. Plant specimens and microbial ferments are extracted by modified traditional methods, while the method developed to produce extracts from marine organisms is unique and very different from that used by marine natural products chemists previously, but again yields both an organic solvent soluble and a water soluble material for inclusion into the screening library. Details of high throughput extract production for preservation of biologically active molecules are presented.

  11. Investigation of Marine-Derived Fungal Diversity and Their Exploitable Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Jang, Seokyoon; Heo, Young Mok; Min, Mihee; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hanbyul; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Marine fungi are potential producers of bioactive compounds that may have pharmacological and medicinal applications. Fungi were cultured from marine brown algae and identified using multiple target genes to confirm phylogenetic placement. These target genes included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the nuclear large subunit (LSU), and the β-tubulin region. Various biological activities of marine-derived fungi were evaluated, including their antifungal, antioxidant and cellulolytic enzyme activities. As a result, a total of 50 fungi was isolated from the brown algae Sargassum sp. Among the 50 isolated fungi, Corollospora angusta was the dominant species in this study. The genus Arthrinium showed a relatively strong antifungal activity to all of the target plant pathogenic fungi. In particular, Arthrinium saccharicola KUC21221 showed high radical scavenging activity and the highest activities in terms of filter paper units (0.39 U/mL), endoglucanase activity (0.38 U/mL), and β-glucosidase activity (1.04 U/mL). PMID:26133554

  12. Biological invasions as a component of global change in stressed marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A; Savini, D

    2003-05-01

    Biological invasions in marine environment are the lesser known aspect of global change. However, recent events which occurred in the Mediterranean Sea demonstrate that they represent a serious ecological and economical menace leading to biodiversity loss, ecosystem unbalancing, fishery and tourism impairment. In this paper we review marine bioinvasions using examples taken from the Mediterranean/Black Sea region. Particular attention is given to the environmental status of the receiving area as a fundamental pre-requisite for the colonisation success of alien species. The spread of the tropical algae belonging to the genus Caulerpa in the northwestern basin of the Mediterranean Sea has been facilitated by pre-existing conditions of instability of the Posidonia oceanica endemic ecosystem in relation to stress of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Human interventions caused long-term modification in the Black Sea environment, preparing a fertile ground for mass bioinvasion of aquatic nuisance species which, in some cases, altered the original equilibrium of the entire basin. Finally, the Venice lagoon is presented as the third example of an environment subjected to high propagule pressure and anthropogenic forcing and bearing the higher "diversity" of non-indigenous species compared to the other Mediterranean lagoons. Stressed environments are easily colonised by alien species; understanding the links between human and natural disturbance and massive development of non-indigenous species will help prevent marine bioinvasions, that are already favoured by global oceanic trade.

  13. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a) Stations must identify transmissions by announcing in the English language the station's assigned call sign...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  14. Determination of Iodine-129 in fish samples as new tracer of marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuno, Haruka; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2014-05-01

    Most of Iodine-129 in the surface environment is the anthropogenic origin, i.e., the result of the human nuclear activities. In the marine environment, like Pacific ocean, I-129 is transferred from atmosphere and slowly diffuses into deeper layer so that there is steep gradient of I-129 concentration, i.e., the surface layer has high I-129 concentration and it suddenly decreases going deeper. This peculiar depth profile is thus reflected by the isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) profile because stable iodine (I-127) concentration is almost uniform in the seawater (ca. 60 ppb). Iodine isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) of marine lives like fish should be determined by their habitats and the ways exchanging iodine with seawater. This means that the iodine isotopic ratio is potential indicator of marine biology. However there have been only few studies using I-129 for marine biology. This is because I-129 is so rare in the marine lives that ordinary analytical techniques cannot detect. Recently, the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry has been developed and demonstrates excellent sensitivity to detect I-129/I-127 ratio as low as 1E-14. However it requires typically 1 mg AgI sample. To obtain such amount of iodine several hundreds gram should be treated in the case of typical fish. In this study "carrier method" was adopted to overcome this difficulty. Our procedure is following: A fish sample was first dried completely then homogenized well. Iodine was extracted into an alkaline solution by the thermal hydrolysis from 0.1 to 0.5g of dried sample. An aliquot of this solution was taken for ICP-MS analysis to determine the stable iodine concentration. The remaining was, added with carrier iodine (about 1 mg), purified by solvent extraction and collected as AgI precipitation. I-129/I-127 ratio of obtained AgI was determined by AMS. From the AMS result and the stable iodine concentration, the isotopic ratio of the fish samples themselves can be calculated. The result of fish

  15. Isolation and biological characteristics of aerobic marine magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Pan, Hongmiao; Yue, Haidong; Song, Tao; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Guanjun; Wu, Longfei; Xiao, Tian

    2006-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have become a hot spot of research in microbiology attracting intensive interest of researchers in multiple disciplinary fields. However, the studies were limited in few fastidious bacteria. The objective of this study aims at isolating new marine magnetic bacteria and better comprehension of magnetotactic bacteria. In this study, an aerobic magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1 was isolated from sediments in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). In TEM, magnetic cells have one or several circular magnetosomes in diameter of 100nm, and consist of Fe and Co shown on energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The biological and physiological characteristics of this bacterium were also described. The colour of YSC-1 colony is white in small rod. The gram stain is negative. Results showed that Strain YSC-1 differs from microaerophile magnetotactic bacteria MS-1 and WD-1 in biology.

  16. Synthesis of marine guanidine alkaloids and their application as chemical/biological tools.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Yuichi

    2003-01-01

    Ptilomycalin A and crambescidins, novel marine guanidine alkaloids, have a unique pentacyclic guanidine structure, and exhibit a considerable array of biological activities. The first method developed for the synthesis of the pentacyclic guanidine core structure involved successive 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions and resulted in the first total synthesis of crambescidin 359. The synthesis of other pentacyclic guanidine derivatives has been based on this methodology and applied as tools for studying biological activities, and as chemical reaction catalysts. Copyright 2003 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Chem Rec 3: 201-211; 2003: Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI 10.1002/tcr.10064

  17. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas.

    PubMed

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E; Vethaak, A Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and endpoints (chemical analyses, biological effects). ICON has demonstrated the use of a framework for integrated contaminant assessment on European coastal and offshore areas. The assessment showed that chemical contamination did not always correspond with biological effects, indicating that both are required. The framework can be used to develop assessments for EU directives. If a 95% target were to be used as a regional indicator of MSFD GES, Iceland and offshore North Sea would achieve the target using the ICON dataset, but inshore North Sea, Baltic and Spanish Mediterranean regions would fail.

  18. Biological dosimetry to determine the UV radiation climate inside the MIR station and its role in vitamin D biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Zittermann, A.; Heer, M.

    1998-11-01

    The vitamin D synthesis in the human skin, is absolutely dependent on UVB radiation. Natural UVB from sunlight is normally absent in the closed environment of a space station like MIR. Therefore it was necessary to investigate the UV radiation climate inside the station resulting from different lamps as well as from occasional solar irradiation behind a UV-transparent quartz window. Biofilms, biologically weighting and integrating UV dosimeters successfully applied on Earth (e.g. in Antarctica) and in space (D-2, Biopan I) were used to determine the biological effectiveness of the UV radiation climate at different locations in the space station. Biofilms were also used to determine the personal UV dose of an individual cosmonaut. These UV data were correlated with the concentration of vitamin D in the cosmonaut's blood and the dietary vitamin D intake. The results showed that the UV radiation climate inside the Mir station is not sufficient for an adequate supply of vitamin D, which should therefore be secured either by vitamin D supplementat and/or by the regular exposure to special UV lamps like those in sun-beds. The use of natural solar UV radiation through the quartz window for `sunbathing' is dangerous and should be avoided even for short exposure periods.

  19. Cost-efficient methods for marine pollution monitoring at Casey Station, East Antarctica: the choice of sieve mesh-size and taxonomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Belinda W; Riddle, Martin J; Stark, Jonathan S

    2003-02-01

    Contaminants from sewage discharge and abandoned waste tips enter the marine environment adjacent to Australia's Casey Station, East Antarctica. To establish cost-efficient methods for benthic pollution monitoring the effects of sieve mesh-size (0.5 and 1.0 mm) and taxonomic aggregation (family, order and class) on the description of infaunal assemblages were determined. The abundance and taxonomy of fauna retained on a 0.5 mm sieve after passing through a 1.0 mm sieve were examined in this study. The 1.0 mm sieve fraction [Human impacts and assemblages in marine soft-sediments at Casey Station, Antarctica, Ph.D. thesis, University of New England, 2001] contained 70% of individuals and 94% of taxa when compared to combined abundances on the 1.0 and 0.5 mm sieves. Furthermore, the addition of 0.5 mm data did not increase sampling precision or the statistical power to detect differences between locations. Differences between locations were detected when species were aggregated to the family level however, further aggregation to order and class levels altered the perceived pattern of differences. Marine pollution monitoring of the soft-bottom benthos at Casey Station is most cost-effective when using a 1.0 mm sieve and identifying fauna to the family level. This is the first reported comparison of sampling techniques using Antarctic benthos.

  20. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-03-25

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi's productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances.

  1. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances. PMID:27023571

  2. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Cristina Facchini, Maria; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray’s water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts.

  3. Parasites as biological tags in marine fisheries research: European Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, K; Hemmingsen, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the use of parasites as biological tags for stock identification and to follow migrations of marine fish, mammals and invertebrates in European Atlantic waters are critically reviewed and evaluated. The region covered includes the North, Baltic, Barents and White Seas plus Icelandic waters, but excludes the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Each fish species or ecological group of species is treated separately. More parasite tag studies have been carried out on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus than on any other species, while cod Gadus morhua have also been the subject of many studies. Other species that have been the subjects of more than one study are: blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarkii, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus and mackerel Scomber scombrus. Other species are dealt with under the general headings redfishes, flatfish, tunas, anadromous fish, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and invertebrates. A final section highlights how parasites can be, and have been, misused as biological tags, and how this can be avoided. It also reviews recent developments in methodology and parasite genetics, considers the potential effects of climate change on the distributions of both hosts and parasites, and suggests host-parasite systems that should reward further research.

  4. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via microscale biological processes: phytoplancton demise and viral infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, C.; O'Dowd, C. D. D.; Danovaro, R.

    2015-12-01

    The processes that link phytoplankton biomass and productivity to the organic matter enrichment in sea spray aerosol are far from being elucidated and modelling predictions remain highly uncertain at the moment. While some studies have asserted that the enrichment of OM in sea spray aerosol is independent on marine productivity, others, have shown significant correlation with phytoplankton biomass and productivity (Chl-a retrieved by satellites). We present here new results illustrating a clear link between OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) and both phytoplankton-biomass and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). We suggest that the OM enrichment of sea spray through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), which determine the release of celldebris, exudates and other colloidal material. This OM, through processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-drive plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spraymodification with potentially significant climate impacts.

  5. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-10-14

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray's water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts.

  6. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    PubMed Central

    O’Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Cristina Facchini, Maria; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell’Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray’s water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts. PMID:26464099

  7. Parasites as biological tags for stock discrimination in marine fish from South American Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Timi, Juan T

    2007-06-01

    The use of parasites as biological tags in population studies of marine fish in the south-western Atlantic has proved to be a successful tool for discriminating stocks for all species to which it has been applied, namely: Scomber japonicus, Engraulis anchoita, Merluccius hubbsi and Cynoscion guatucupa, the latter studied on a broader geographic scale, including samples from Uruguayan and Brazilian waters. The distribution patterns of marine parasites are determined mainly by temperature-salinity profiles and by their association with specific masses of water. Analyses of distribution patterns of some parasite species in relation to gradients in environmental (oceanographic) conditions showed that latitudinal gradients in parasite distribution are common in the study area, and are probably directly related to water temperature. Indeed, temperature, which is a good predictor of latitudinal gradients of richness and diversity of species, shows a latitudinal pattern in south-western Atlantic coasts, decreasing southwards, due to the influence of subtropical and subantarctic marine currents flowing along the edge of the continental slope. This pattern also determines the distribution of zooplankton, with a characteristic specific composition in different water masses. The gradient in the distribution of parasites determines differential compositions of their communities at different latitudes, which makes possible the identification of different stocks of their fish hosts. Other features of the host-parasite systems contributing to the success of the parasitological method are: (1) parasites identified as good biological tags (i.e. anisakids) are widely distributed in the local fauna; (2) many of these species show low specificity and use paratenic hosts; and (3) the structure of parasite communities are, to a certain degree, predictable in time and space.

  8. (Visit to the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica): Foreign trip report, February 28--March 5, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Reichle, D.E.

    1988-03-17

    The traveler attended the quarterly meeting of the National Board of Governors of The Nature Conservancy held in Costa Rica to highlight their international program in Central America. The traveler used this opportunity to visit the La Selva Biological Station of the Organization for Tropical Studies and to examine their ecosystem research project on wet lowland tropical forests. Discussions were held with the co-directors, faculty, students, and visiting scientists from the United States.

  9. A Camera and Multi-Sensor Automated Station Design for Polar Physical and Biological Systems Monitoring: AMIGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlander, J. A.; Ross, R.; Scambos, T.; Haran, T. M.; Bauer, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Automated Meteorology - Ice/Indigenous species - Geophysics Observation System (AMIGOS) consists of a set of measurement instruments and camera(s) controlled by a single-board computer with a simplified Linux operating system and an Iridium satellite modem supporting two-way communication. Primary features of the system relevant to polar operations are low power requirements, daily data uploading, reprogramming, tolerance for low temperatures, and various approaches for automatic resets and recovery from low power or cold shut-down. Instruments include a compact weather station, C/A or dual-frequency GPS, solar flux and reflectivity sensors, sonic snow gages, simplified radio-echo-sounder, and resistance thermometer string in the firn column. In the current state of development, there are two basic designs. One is intended for in situ observations of glacier conditions. The other design supports a high-resolution camera for monitoring biological or geophysical systems from short distances (100 m to 20 km). The stations have been successfully used in several locations for operational support, monitoring rapid ice changes in response to climate change or iceberg drift, and monitoring penguin colony activity. As of June, 2012, there are 9 AMIGOS systems installed, all on the Antarctic continent. The stations are a working prototype for a planned series of upgraded stations, currently termed 'Sentinels'. These stations would carry further instrumentation, communications, and processing capability to investigate ice - ocean interaction from ice tongue, ice shelf, or fjord coastline areas.

  10. p53 Superfamily proteins in marine bivalve cancer and stress biology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Charles W; Van Beneden, Rebecca J; Muttray, Annette F; Böttger, S Anne; Kelley, Melissa L; Tucker, Abraham E; Thomas, W Kelley

    2011-01-01

    The human p53 tumour suppressor protein is inactivated in many cancers and is also a major player in apoptotic responses to cellular stress. The p53 protein and the two other members of this protein family (p63, p73) are encoded by distinct genes and their functions have been extensively documented for humans and some other vertebrates. The structure and relative expression levels for members of the p53 superfamily have also been reported for most major invertebrate taxa. The functions of homologous proteins have been investigated for only a few invertebrates (specifically, p53 in flies, nematodes and recently a sea anemone). These studies of classical model organisms all suggest that the gene family originally evolved to mediate apoptosis of damaged germ cells or to protect germ cells from genotoxic stress. Here, we have correlated data from a number of molluscan and other invertebrate sequencing projects to provide a framework for understanding p53 signalling pathways in marine bivalve cancer and stress biology. These data suggest that (a) the two identified p53 and p63/73-like proteins in soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Northern European squid (Loligo forbesi) have identical core sequences and may be splice variants of a single gene, while some molluscs and most other invertebrates have two or more distinct genes expressing different p53 family members; (b) transcriptional activation domains (TADs) in bivalve p53 and p63/73-like protein sequences are 67-69% conserved with human p53, while those in ecdysozoan, cnidarian, placozoan and choanozoan eukaryotes are ≤33% conserved; (c) the Mdm2 binding site in the transcriptional activation domain is 100% conserved in all sequenced bivalve p53 proteins (e.g. Mya, Mytilus, Crassostrea and Spisula) but is not present in other non-deuterostome invertebrates; (d) an Mdm2 homologue has been cloned for Mytilus trossulus; (e) homologues for both human p53 upstream regulatory and

  11. Wood retention and transport in tropical, headwater streams, La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadol, Daniel; Wohl, Ellen

    2010-11-01

    Wood in tropical streams has the potential to be more mobile than wood in otherwise similar temperate streams because of the warm and humid conditions that promote decay and the more frequent and flashier floods of the tropics. To test this hypothesis, we monitored all large wood pieces for 2.3 years in 10 50-m-long reaches of old-growth headwater streams in La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Annual wood retention rates for pieces ranged from 0.55 to 0.91 among the sites, and retention rates by volume ranged from 0.67 to 0.99. Assuming steady state wood load, which is reasonable for La Selva, these rates are equivalent to mean residence times of 2.2-10.6 years for pieces, and 3.0-83.2 years for a volume of wood. Calculating mean residence time from the weighted average of retention rates gives an average residence time of 4.9 years for a piece of wood and 6.9 years for a volume of wood. These values are less than those reported for old-growth temperate forests, supporting our hypothesis. Mobility of individual pieces was best predicted by piece length relative to stream width ( lr, higher lr led to lower mobility), channel gradient ( s, higher s led to higher mobility), and piece integration into the channel (unattached pieces were 2.6 times more mobile than attached, ramp, or bridge pieces). Temporal variation in retention rates was well explained by variation in peak flow. All four of these factors have also been observed to influence mobility in the temperate zone. The higher mobility of wood in our study site relative to the temperate rainforest of the Pacific Northwest may be explained by the flashy and frequent floods, the high decay rate, or the branching morphology of the native trees; but differentiating the role of these factors, particularly flow and decay, will be complicated by their covariation across climates.

  12. Application of geophysical methods to the delineation of paleochannels and missing confining units above the Castle Hayne Aquifer at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C. C.; Miller, R.D.; Wrege, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, is underlain by four freshwater-bearing aquifers--the surficial, Yorktown, and upper and lower Castle Hayne. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the principal supply of freshwater for the Air Station. The potential for movement of contaminated water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. Missing confining units may indicate the presence of paleochannels filled with permeable material. Seismic-reflection techniques were successful in delinea- ting paleochannels of Quaternary and Tertiary age within unconsoli- dated sediments less than 180 feet deep at several locations. Continuous single-channel marine seismic-reflection profiling in the Neuse River was effective in delineating a large paleochannel complex consisting of at least two superimposed paleochannels within hydrogeologic units overlying the upper Castle Hayne aquifer. The complex was found immediately north of the Air Station and is thought to continue south beneath the Air Station. Shallow high-resolution land seismic-reflection techniques were used at the Air Station to delineate structures and correlate strati- graphy between the limestone of the upper Castle Hayne aquifer and the Yorktown confining unit. Three different land seismic-reflection techniques proved effective for the horizontal extrapolation of geo- logic features and identification of paleochannels at several locations. The northeastern margin of a large paleochannel was identified beneath the southern part of the Air Station. This feature strikes northwest to southeast and cuts through the Yorktown and upper Castle Hayne aquifer confining units.

  13. Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben P; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moore, Pippa J

    2013-04-01

    Ocean acidification and warming are considered two of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, yet the combined effect of these stressors on marine organisms remains largely unclear. Using a meta-analytical approach, we assessed the biological responses of marine organisms to the effects of ocean acidification and warming in isolation and combination. As expected biological responses varied across taxonomic groups, life-history stages, and trophic levels, but importantly, combining stressors generally exhibited a stronger biological (either positive or negative) effect. Using a subset of orthogonal studies, we show that four of five of the biological responses measured (calcification, photosynthesis, reproduction, and survival, but not growth) interacted synergistically when warming and acidification were combined. The observed synergisms between interacting stressors suggest that care must be made in making inferences from single-stressor studies. Our findings clearly have implications for the development of adaptive management strategies particularly given that the frequency of stressors interacting in marine systems will be likely to intensify in the future. There is now an urgent need to move toward more robust, holistic, and ecologically realistic climate change experiments that incorporate interactions. Without them accurate predictions about the likely deleterious impacts to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over the next century will not be possible.

  14. Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ben P; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moore, Pippa J

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming are considered two of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, yet the combined effect of these stressors on marine organisms remains largely unclear. Using a meta-analytical approach, we assessed the biological responses of marine organisms to the effects of ocean acidification and warming in isolation and combination. As expected biological responses varied across taxonomic groups, life-history stages, and trophic levels, but importantly, combining stressors generally exhibited a stronger biological (either positive or negative) effect. Using a subset of orthogonal studies, we show that four of five of the biological responses measured (calcification, photosynthesis, reproduction, and survival, but not growth) interacted synergistically when warming and acidification were combined. The observed synergisms between interacting stressors suggest that care must be made in making inferences from single-stressor studies. Our findings clearly have implications for the development of adaptive management strategies particularly given that the frequency of stressors interacting in marine systems will be likely to intensify in the future. There is now an urgent need to move toward more robust, holistic, and ecologically realistic climate change experiments that incorporate interactions. Without them accurate predictions about the likely deleterious impacts to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over the next century will not be possible. PMID:23610641

  15. Data from stratigraphic test holes drilled at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, 1994-2001, and periodic water levels, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrege, Beth M.; Jen, Philip S.

    2004-01-01

    Nine stratigraphic test holes, from 158 to 305 feet deep, were drilled at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station at Cherry Point, North Carolina, between 1994 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey. These test holes and subsequent wells provide information about the lithology, stratigraphy, and geology at the Marine Corps Air Station. In addition, ground-water-level data were collected at the Air Station through 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey also conducted high-resolution marine and land seismic surveys during this investigation. The ground-water-level data and locations of the seismic survey lines are included in this report. The stratigraphic data combined with the seismic data provide a basis for the delineation of paleochannels beneath the Air Station as well as information for the management of water resources at the Air Station.

  16. 75 FR 5290 - Notice of the Record of Decision for the United States Marine Corps Grow the Force at Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, Marine Corps Air Station New River, and Marine Corps Air Station Cherry... Corps Base (MCB) Camp Lejeune, Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) New River, and MCAS Cherry Point, North...

  17. Exposure to BTEX and Ethers in Petrol Station Attendants and Proposal of Biological Exposure Equivalents for Urinary Benzene and MTBE.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Rossella, Federica; Mercadante, Rosa; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    To assess exposure to benzene (BEN) and other aromatic compounds (toluene, ethylbenzene, m+p-xylene, o-xylene) (BTEX), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) in petrol station workers using air sampling and biological monitoring and to propose biological equivalents to occupational limit values. Eighty-nine petrol station workers and 90 control subjects were investigated. Personal exposure to airborne BTEX and ethers was assessed during a mid-week shift; urine samples were collected at the beginning of the work week, prior to and at the end of air sampling. Petrol station workers had median airborne exposures to benzene and MTBE of 59 and 408 µg m(-3), respectively, with urinary benzene (BEN-U) and MTBE (MTBE-U) of 339 and 780 ng l(-1), respectively. Concentrations in petrol station workers were higher than in control subjects. There were significant positive correlations between airborne exposure and the corresponding biological marker, with Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) values of 0.437 and 0.865 for benzene and MTBE, respectively. There was also a strong correlation between airborne benzene and urinary MTBE (r = 0.835). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the urinary levels of benzene were influenced by personal airborne exposure, urinary creatinine, and tobacco smoking [determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.572], while MTBE-U was influenced only by personal exposure (R(2) = 0.741). BEN-U and MTBE-U are sensitive and specific biomarkers of low occupational exposures. We propose using BEN-U as biomarker of exposure to benzene in nonsmokers and suggest 1457 ng l(-1) in end shift urine samples as biological exposure equivalent to the EU occupational limit value of 1 p.p.m.; for both smokers and nonsmokers, MTBE-U may be proposed as a surrogate biomarker of benzene exposure, with a biological exposure equivalent of 22 µg l(-1) in end shift samples. For MTBE exposure, we suggest the use of MTBE-U with a biological exposure

  18. Exposure to BTEX and Ethers in Petrol Station Attendants and Proposal of Biological Exposure Equivalents for Urinary Benzene and MTBE

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Laura; Rossella, Federica; Mercadante, Rosa; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess exposure to benzene (BEN) and other aromatic compounds (toluene, ethylbenzene, m+p-xylene, o-xylene) (BTEX), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) in petrol station workers using air sampling and biological monitoring and to propose biological equivalents to occupational limit values. Methods: Eighty-nine petrol station workers and 90 control subjects were investigated. Personal exposure to airborne BTEX and ethers was assessed during a mid-week shift; urine samples were collected at the beginning of the work week, prior to and at the end of air sampling. Results: Petrol station workers had median airborne exposures to benzene and MTBE of 59 and 408 µg m−3, respectively, with urinary benzene (BEN-U) and MTBE (MTBE-U) of 339 and 780ng l−1, respectively. Concentrations in petrol station workers were higher than in control subjects. There were significant positive correlations between airborne exposure and the corresponding biological marker, with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) values of 0.437 and 0.865 for benzene and MTBE, respectively. There was also a strong correlation between airborne benzene and urinary MTBE (r = 0.835). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the urinary levels of benzene were influenced by personal airborne exposure, urinary creatinine, and tobacco smoking [determination coefficient (R 2) 0.572], while MTBE-U was influenced only by personal exposure (R 2 = 0.741). Conclusions: BEN-U and MTBE-U are sensitive and specific biomarkers of low occupational exposures. We propose using BEN-U as biomarker of exposure to benzene in nonsmokers and suggest 1457ng l−1 in end shift urine samples as biological exposure equivalent to the EU occupational limit value of 1 p.p.m.; for both smokers and nonsmokers, MTBE-U may be proposed as a surrogate biomarker of benzene exposure, with a biological exposure equivalent of 22 µg l−1 in end shift samples. For MTBE exposure, we suggest the

  19. Biological activities of ethanolic extracts from deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Turk, Tom; Ambrožič Avguštin, Jerneja; Batista, Urška; Strugar, Gašper; Kosmina, Rok; Čivović, Sandra; Janussen, Dorte; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Sepčić, Kristina

    2013-04-02

    We report on the screening of ethanolic extracts from 33 deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges for different biological activities. We monitored hemolysis, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity towards normal and transformed cells and growth inhibition of laboratory, commensal and clinically and ecologically relevant bacteria. The most prominent activities were associated with the extracts from sponges belonging to the genus Latrunculia, which show all of these activities. While most of these activities are associated to already known secondary metabolites, the extremely strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential appears to be related to a compound unknown to date. Extracts from Tetilla leptoderma, Bathydorus cf. spinosus, Xestospongia sp., Rossella sp., Rossella cf. racovitzae and Halichondria osculum were hemolytic, with the last two also showing moderate cytotoxic potential. The antibacterial tests showed significantly greater activities of the extracts of these Antarctic sponges towards ecologically relevant bacteria from sea water and from Arctic ice. This indicates their ecological relevance for inhibition of bacterial microfouling.

  20. Marine biological metapopulation with coupled logistic growth functions: The MSY and quasi MSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husniah, H.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we develop a mathematical model for a harvested marine biological stock. The stock consists of two discretely separated sub-stocks which are connected by the dispersal of individuals, and hence forms a metapopulation structure. The model assumes that the production function of each stock follows a logistic equation, hence the full system of the stocks governed by a couple of logistic equations. We find the formula of the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) for each sub-stock, which is extendable to a metapopulation with several discretely separated sub-populations. We also give a numerical simulation to illustrate the application of the formula for two-patch case, based on the quasi maximum sustainable yield. The simulation shows that ignoring the existence of the coupling of the system resulting in a lower total harvest from the population. This indicates a financial lost potential arising from an inappropriate recognition of a metapopulation structure in a fishery industry.

  1. Barcodes of marine invertebrates from north Iberian ports: Native diversity and resistance to biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Miralles, L; Ardura, A; Arias, A; Borrell, Y J; Clusa, L; Dopico, E; de Rojas, A Hernandez; Lopez, B; Muñoz-Colmenero, M; Roca, A; Valiente, A G; Zaiko, A; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-11-15

    Ports are gateways for many marine organisms transported by ships worldwide, especially non-indigenous species (NIS). In this study carried out in North Iberian ports (Cantabrian Sea, Bay of Biscay) we have observed 38% of exotic macroinvertebrates. Four species, namely the barnacle Austrominius modestus, the tubeworm Ficopomatus enigmaticus, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the pygmy mussel Xenostrobus securis, exhibited clear signs of invasiveness. A total of 671 barcode (cytochrome oxidase subunit I or 18S rRNA) genes were obtained and confirmed the species status of some cryptic NIS. Negative and significant correlation between diversity estimators of native biota and proportion of NIS suggests biotic resistance in ports. This could be applied to management of port biota for contributing to prevent the settlement of biopollutants in these areas which are very sensitive to biological invasions.

  2. Biological Activities of Ethanolic Extracts from Deep-Sea Antarctic Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Tom; Ambrožič Avguštin, Jerneja; Batista, Urška; Strugar, Gašper; Kosmina, Rok; Čivović, Sandra; Janussen, Dorte; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Sepčić, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    We report on the screening of ethanolic extracts from 33 deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges for different biological activities. We monitored hemolysis, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity towards normal and transformed cells and growth inhibition of laboratory, commensal and clinically and ecologically relevant bacteria. The most prominent activities were associated with the extracts from sponges belonging to the genus Latrunculia, which show all of these activities. While most of these activities are associated to already known secondary metabolites, the extremely strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential appears to be related to a compound unknown to date. Extracts from Tetilla leptoderma, Bathydorus cf. spinosus, Xestospongia sp., Rossella sp., Rossella cf. racovitzae and Halichondria osculum were hemolytic, with the last two also showing moderate cytotoxic potential. The antibacterial tests showed significantly greater activities of the extracts of these Antarctic sponges towards ecologically relevant bacteria from sea water and from Arctic ice. This indicates their ecological relevance for inhibition of bacterial microfouling. PMID:23549284

  3. Investigating on the Correlation Between Some Biological Activities of Marine Sponge-Associated Bacteria Extracts and Isolated Diketopiperazines.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hady, Faten K; Fayad, Walid; Iodice, Carmine; El-Shahid, Zeinab A; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S; Crudele, Egle; Tommonaro, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Marine organisms have been considered as the richest sources of novel bioactive metabolites, which can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. In the last years, the interest for marine microorganisms has grown for their enormous biodiversity and for the evidence that many novel compounds isolated from marine invertebrates are really synthesized by their associated bacteria. Nevertheless, the discovery of a chemical communication Quorum sensing (QS) between bacterial cells and between bacteria and host has gained the researchers to expand the aim of their study toward the role of bacteria associated with marine invertebrates, such as marine sponge. In the present paper, we report the evaluation of biological activities of different extracts of bacteria Vibrio sp. and Bacillus sp. associated with marine sponges Dysidea avara and Ircinia variabilis, respectively. Moreover, we evaluated the biological activities of some diketopiperazines (DKPs), previously isolated, and able to activate QS mechanism. The results showed that all extracts, fractions, and DKPs showed low scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide anion, low cytotoxic and anti-tyrosinase activities, but no antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. One DKP [cyclo-(trans-4-hydroxy-L-prolyl-L-leucine)] has the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity even than the standard acarbose.

  4. Biology of the Marine Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiling; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrophic dinoflagellates are prevalent protists in marine environments, which play an important role in the carbon cycling and energy flow in the marine planktonic community. Oxyrrhis marina (Dinophyceae), a widespread heterotrophic dinoflagellate, is a model species used for a broad range of ecological, biogeographic, and evolutionary studies. Despite the increasing research effort on this species, there lacks a synthesis of the existing data and a coherent picture of this organism. Here we reviewed the literature to provide an overview of what is known regarding the biology of O. marina, and identify areas where further studies are needed. As an early branch of the dinoflagellate lineage, O. marina shares similarity with typical dinoflagellates in permanent condensed chromosomes, less abundant nucleosome proteins compared to other eukaryotes, multiple gene copies, the occurrence of trans-splicing in nucleus-encoded mRNAs, highly fragmented mitochondrial genome, and disuse of ATG as a start codon for mitochondrial genes. On the other hand, O. marina also exhibits some distinct cytological features (e.g., different flagellar structure, absence of girdle and sulcus or pustules, use of intranuclear spindle in mitosis, presence of nuclear plaque, and absence of birefringent periodic banded chromosomal structure) and genetic features (e.g., a single histone-like DNA-associated protein, cob-cox3 gene fusion, 5′ oligo-U cap in the mitochondrial transcripts of protein-coding genes, the absence of mRNA editing, the presence of stop codon in the fused cob-cox3 mRNA produced by post-transcriptional oligoadenylation, and vestigial plastid genes). The best-studied biology of this dinoflagellate is probably the prey and predators types, which include a wide range of organisms. On the other hand, the abundance of this species in the natural waters and its controlling factors, genome organization and gene expression regulation that underlie the unusual cytological and

  5. Biology of the Marine Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina: Current Status and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiling; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2013-10-21

    Heterotrophic dinoflagellates are prevalent protists in marine environments, which play an important role in the carbon cycling and energy flow in the marine planktonic community. Oxyrrhismarina (Dinophyceae), a widespread heterotrophic dinoflagellate, is a model species used for a broad range of ecological, biogeographic, and evolutionary studies. Despite the increasing research effort on this species, there lacks a synthesis of the existing data and a coherent picture of this organism. Here we reviewed the literature to provide an overview of what is known regarding the biology of O. marina, and identify areas where further studies are needed. As an early branch of the dinoflagellate lineage, O. marina shares similarity with typical dinoflagellates in permanent condensed chromosomes, less abundant nucleosome proteins compared to other eukaryotes, multiple gene copies, the occurrence of trans-splicing in nucleus-encoded mRNAs, highly fragmented mitochondrial genome, and disuse of ATG as a start codon for mitochondrial genes. On the other hand, O. marina also exhibits some distinct cytological features (e.g., different flagellar structure, absence of girdle and sulcus or pustules, use of intranuclear spindle in mitosis, presence of nuclear plaque, and absence of birefringent periodic banded chromosomal structure) and genetic features (e.g., a single histone-like DNA-associated protein, cob-cox3 gene fusion, 5' oligo-U cap in the mitochondrial transcripts of protein-coding genes, the absence of mRNA editing, the presence of stop codon in the fused cob-cox3 mRNA produced by post-transcriptional oligoadenylation, and vestigial plastid genes). The best-studied biology of this dinoflagellate is probably the prey and predators types, which include a wide range of organisms. On the other hand, the abundance of this species in the natural waters and its controlling factors, genome organization and gene expression regulation that underlie the unusual cytological and

  6. Marine biotechnologies and synthetic biology, new issues for a fair and equitable profit-sharing commercial use.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jean-François; Tardieu-Guigues, Elisabeth

    2014-10-01

    The sea will be a source of economic development in the next years. Today the research works in marine biotechnologies supply new products and processes. The introduction in the laboratories of a new technology, synthesis biology, is going to increase the possibilities of creation of new products. Exploitation of product stemming from marine biodiversity has to be made with regard to various rights among which industrial property law, maritime law and the Convention on BioDiversity. All participants involved in the promotion of research in marine biotechnology must address the fair and equitable sharing of any commercial exploitation. Carrying out work involving synthetic biology has increased the number of unanswered questions about how operators should manage in order to avoid any threat of being sued for infringements of IP rights or for alleged bio-piracy. This paper, by no means exhaustive in the field, analyzes some of the issues raised on the modification to the landscape in marine biotechnology by the advent of synthetic biology. Such issues indicate how important the collaboration between researchers, industrialists, lawyers is for allowing proper use of marine biotech.

  7. Propagation of climatic events on ocean stratification, marine biology, and CO2: Case studies over the 1979-1999 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le QuéRé, Corinne; Aumont, Olivier; Monfray, Patrick; Orr, James

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the propagation of climatic events on ocean stratification, marine biology, and CO2 using a large-scale ocean general circulation model coupled to a simple biogeochemical model of plankton dynamics and the carbon cycle. The model was forced with satellite and reanalysis fields during 1979-1999. We focus on three climatic events: (1) the North Atlantic Oscillation, (2) El Niño events, and (3) the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Such climatic events caused variability in ocean stratification, approximated by the mixing depth (MD), from ±20 m in the subtropics to ±100 s of meters at high latitudes. In the subtropics, deepening of the MD resupplied nutrient-impoverished surface waters and increased marine biomass by 20-100%. In contrast, at high latitudes, shoaling of the MD lengthened the growing season (i.e., the length of time that light is available for plankton growth) and increased marine biomass by 10-20%. Variability in marine biology reached global peak-to-peak values of ±0.01 mg m-3 for surface chl a, ±3.4 Pg C yr-1 for primary production, and ±0.3 Pg C yr-1 for export production and its contribution to CO2 fluxes. Our model results suggest that changes in ocean stratification driven by short-term climatic events could be used to understand and quantify the feedbacks from marine biology to CO2 and climate.

  8. Indicators of Physical and Biological Trends around the McMurdo Station, Antarctica: A Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    12 2.5 Glacier ice...3.4 Glacier ice ..................................................................................................................... 19 3.5...precipitation, wind speed, glacier ice, sea level, permafrost, and biology

  9. Marine Biology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for the gifted student, these reproducible marine biology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of marine biology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and…

  10. Marine Biology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for the gifted student, these reproducible marine biology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of marine biology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and…

  11. Learning about Marine Biology. Superific Science Book VI. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based on the assumption that most students have a natural curiosity about the plant and animal life residing in the oceans, this document provides students in grades five through eight with activities in marine biology. The book provides illustrated information and learning activities dealing with: (1) diatoms; (2) the life cycle of the jellyfish;…

  12. Learning about Marine Biology. Superific Science Book VI. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based on the assumption that most students have a natural curiosity about the plant and animal life residing in the oceans, this document provides students in grades five through eight with activities in marine biology. The book provides illustrated information and learning activities dealing with: (1) diatoms; (2) the life cycle of the jellyfish;…

  13. Investigation of biological activity of fine fraction of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kustov, V. V.; Ostapenko, O. F.; Petrukhin, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The biological action of a sample of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station from a new region of the mare surface on male white mice was studied. The condition and behavior of the animals were observed; the intensity of their oxygen consumption was recorded, and motor activity of the muscles, leucocyte and erythrocytes counts in the peripheral blood, and the activity of whole blood chloinesterase were determined. Experimental results showed that the tested doses of the fine fraction of the lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility were virtually innocuous for white mice.

  14. Recent trends in biological extraction of chitin from marine shell wastes: a review.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Surinder; Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh

    2015-03-01

    The natural biopolymer chitin and its deacetylated product chitosan are widely used in innumerable applications ranging from biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, food, agriculture and personal care products to environmental sector. The abundant and renewable marine processing wastes are commercially exploited for the extraction of chitin. However, the traditional chitin extraction processes employ harsh chemicals at elevated temperatures for a prolonged time which can harm its physico-chemical properties and are also held responsible for the deterioration of environmental health. In view of this, green extraction methods are increasingly gaining popularity due to their environmentally friendly nature. The bioextraction of chitin from crustacean shell wastes has been increasingly researched at the laboratory scale. However, the bioextraction of chitin is not currently exploited to its maximum potential on the commercial level. Bioextraction of chitin is emerging as a green, cleaner, eco-friendly and economical process. Specifically in the chitin extraction, microorganisms-mediated fermentation processes are highly desirable due to easy handling, simplicity, rapidity, controllability through optimization of process parameters, ambient temperature and negligible solvent consumption, thus reducing environmental impact and costs. Although, chitin production from crustacean shell waste through biological means is still at its early stage of development, it is undergoing rapid progress in recent years and showing a promising prospect. Driven by reduced energy, wastewater or solvent, advances in biological extraction of chitin along with valuable by-products will have high economic and environmental impact.

  15. Numerical and experimental hydrodynamic analysis of suction cup bio-logging tag designs for marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Mark; Shorter, Alex; Howle, Laurens; Johnson, Mark; Moore, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The improvement and miniaturization of sensing technologies has made bio-logging tags, utilized for the study of marine mammal behavior, more practical. These sophisticated sensing packages require a housing which protects the electronics from the environment and provides a means of attachment to the animal. The hydrodynamic forces on these housings can inadvertently remove the tag or adversely affect the behavior or energetics of the animal. A modification to the original design of a suction cup bio-logging tag housing was desired to minimize the adverse forces. In this work, hydrodynamic loading of two suction cup tag designs, original and modified designs, were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and validated experimentally. Overall, the simulation and experimental results demonstrated that a tag housing that minimized geometric disruptions to the flow reduced drag forces, and that a tag housing with a small frontal cross-sectional area close to the attachment surface reduced lift forces. Preliminary results from experimental work with a common dolphin cadaver indicates that the suction cups used to attach the tags to the animal provide sufficient attachment force to resist failure at predicted drag and lift forces in 10 m/s flow.

  16. Reproductive biology of two marine catfishes (Siluriformes, Ariidae) in the Sepetiba Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Iracema David; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2004-03-01

    Marine catfish are abundant in the Sepetiba Bay, a 305 km2 area in Southeast Brazilian coast (Lat. 22 degrees 54' - 23 degrees 04' S: Long. 43 degrees 44' - 44 degrees 10' W), but the knowledge on their biology is still scanty. The reproductive biology of Sciadeichthys luniscutis (Valenciennes 1840) and Genidens genidens (Valenciennes 1839) was studied through monthly sampling, from October 1998 to September 1999. Fishes were caught with a standardized otter trawl, in the interior of Sepetiba Bay, and near to the confluence with a major freshwater contributor. Six gonadal stages were described, based on macroscopic observations of gonad form, size, weight, color and oocyte diameter, and microscopic observations of differences in size and staining in the nucleus and cytoplasm structures, as viewed through a light microscope. Changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and in stages of gonadal development showed what S. luniscutis spawned in Spring, while G. genidens spawned in Summer. Total spawning was shown for both species as indicated by high concentration of post-ovulatory follicles in spent stages. Fecundity was low (14-38 vitellogenic oocytes for S. luniscutis and 6-24 for G. genidens). when compared with other teleosts. Low fecundity and separation in spawning period suggest that both species are k-strategist, able to avoid interspecific competition in early stages of life cycle to optimize the use of the available niche.

  17. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 6: Space Station Freedom/spacelab modules compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Blacknall, Carolyn; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The differences in rack requirements for Spacelab, the Shuttle Orbiter, and the United States (U.S.) laboratory module, European Space Agency (ESA) Columbus module, and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of Space Station Freedom are identified. The feasibility of designing standardized mechanical, structural, electrical, data, video, thermal, and fluid interfaces to allow space flight hardware designed for use in the U.S. laboratory module to be used in other locations is assessed.

  18. Trace elements at the intersection of marine biological and geochemical evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Leslie J.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Partin, Camille A.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Kendall, Brian; Scott, Clinton T.; Hardisty, Dalton S.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Alessi, Daniel S.; Dupont, Christopher L.; Saito, Mak A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Poulton, Simon W.; Bekker, Andrey; Lyons, Timothy W.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2016-01-01

    Life requires a wide variety of bioessential trace elements to act as structural components and reactive centers in metalloenzymes. These requirements differ between organisms and have evolved over geological time, likely guided in some part by environmental conditions. Until recently, most of what was understood regarding trace element concentrations in the Precambrian oceans was inferred by extrapolation, geochemical modeling, and/or genomic studies. However, in the past decade, the increasing availability of trace element and isotopic data for sedimentary rocks of all ages has yielded new, and potentially more direct, insights into secular changes in seawater composition – and ultimately the evolution of the marine biosphere. Compiled records of many bioessential trace elements (including Ni, Mo, P, Zn, Co, Cr, Se, and I) provide new insight into how trace element abundance in Earth's ancient oceans may have been linked to biological evolution. Several of these trace elements display redox-sensitive behavior, while others are redox-sensitive but not bioessential (e.g., Cr, U). Their temporal trends in sedimentary archives provide useful constraints on changes in atmosphere-ocean redox conditions that are linked to biological evolution, for example, the activity of oxygen-producing, photosynthetic cyanobacteria. In this review, we summarize available Precambrian trace element proxy data, and discuss how temporal trends in the seawater concentrations of specific trace elements may be linked to the evolution of both simple and complex life. We also examine several biologically relevant and/or redox-sensitive trace elements that have yet to be fully examined in the sedimentary rock record (e.g., Cu, Cd, W) and suggest several directions for future studies.

  19. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  20. Overview on biological activities and molecular characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from marine green algae in recent years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-09-25

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.

  1. The influence of the biological pump on ocean chemistry: implications for long-term trends in marine redox chemistry, the global carbon cycle, and marine animal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K M; Ridgwell, A; Payne, J L

    2016-05-01

    The net export of organic matter from the surface ocean and its respiration at depth create vertical gradients in nutrient and oxygen availability that play a primary role in structuring marine ecosystems. Changes in the properties of this 'biological pump' have been hypothesized to account for important shifts in marine ecosystem structure, including the Cambrian explosion. However, the influence of variation in the behavior of the biological pump on ocean biogeochemistry remains poorly quantified, preventing any detailed exploration of how changes in the biological pump over geological time may have shaped long-term shifts in ocean chemistry, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem structure. Here, we use a 3-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity to quantitatively explore the effects of the biological pump on marine chemistry. We find that when respiration of sinking organic matter is efficient, due to slower sinking or higher respiration rates, anoxia tends to be more prevalent and to occur in shallower waters. Consequently, the Phanerozoic trend toward less bottom-water anoxia in continental shelf settings can potentially be explained by a change in the spatial dynamics of nutrient cycling rather than by any change in the ocean phosphate inventory. The model results further suggest that the Phanerozoic decline in the prevalence ocean anoxia is, in part, a consequence of the evolution of larger phytoplankton, many of which produce mineralized tests. We hypothesize that the Phanerozoic trend toward greater animal abundance and metabolic demand was driven more by increased oxygen concentrations in shelf environments than by greater food (nutrient) availability. In fact, a lower-than-modern ocean phosphate inventory in our closed system model is unable to account for the Paleozoic prevalence of bottom-water anoxia. Overall, these model simulations suggest that the changing spatial distribution of photosynthesis and respiration in the oceans has

  2. Development of Marine Sciences in Arab Universities. Meeting of Experts Held at the Marine Science Station (Aqaba, Jordan, December 1-5, 1985). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    The "Unesco Reports in Marine Science" are designed to serve as a complement to the "Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science." This report focuses on the current situation in marine sciences in Arab universities. A special meeting was convened in Jordan during December, 1985, to discuss the objectives of teaching and research…

  3. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    improving the protection of marine mammals during naval operations. OBJECTIVES We are testing the hypothesis that extreme behaviors requiring...arrhythmias and physiological instability in diving marine mammals . Specifically, we will determine which factors or combination of factors act as the primary...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals : Linking

  4. Viability and Biological Properties of Barley Seeds Expose to Outside of International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Novikova, Nataliya; Grigoriev, Anatoly

    Plants play an important role in supplying nutrients and oxygen to human under material recycle system in space as well as on earth, therefore, seed storage in space should be necessary to self-supply foods when number of astronauts would stay and investigate for a long-term habitation of orbit and the bases of the Moon and Mars. In order to understand the effect of real space environment on the preservation of seeds, the seeds of malting barley, Haruna Nijo, were exposed to outside of the Pier docking station of International Space Station in the framework of the Biorisk-MSN program. After exposure to outside of International Space Station for 13 months, the seeds (SP) were transported to Earth, soaked in water, and germinated on the filter paper filled with water. The germination ratio of SP was 82%, while that of the ground control was 96%, showing that the barley seeds survived cosmic radiation, vacuum, and temperature excursion in space. The germinated seeds of SP and ground control were transplanted to the Wagner pots filled with soil and grown for 5 months in the greenhouse. The agronomic character, such as number of main stem leaf and ear, straw weight, culm length, ear length, thousand kernel weight, and percentage of ripening, were not different significantly between SP and ground control. The germination ratio of the harvested SP was 96% as same as that of the harvested ground control. Genomic DNA and protein were extracted from leaves of the barleys and analyzed by AFLP and 2-DE, respectively. The results demonstrated no significant difference in genetic polymorphism and protein production in these barleys. From our results, barley seeds could survive real space environment for the long-term habitation without phenotypic and genotypic damages.

  5. Biological effects of galactic radiation HZE particles in experiments on the orbital station Salyut 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. T.; Nevzgodina, L. V.

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds were flown on-board the orbital station Salyut 7 for 66-457 days. It was found that a single heavy charged particle (HZE) hitting a seed only slightly affects the subsequent plant growth. However, morphological anomalies of varying type in primordial leaves and roots were observed that show good correlation with the location of the particle track. The most severe damage detected by light and an electron microscopy were ``channels'' in dry and soaked seeds. The appearance of ``channels'' seems to be related to the LET of the incident particle. This finding is of considerable importance for assessment of space flight radiation hazard.

  6. Biological induced corrosion of materials II: New test methods and experiences from mir station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klintworth, R.; Reher, H. J.; Viktorov, A. N.; Bohle, D.

    1999-09-01

    During previous long-term manned missions, more than 100 species of microorganisms have been identified on surfaces of materials (bacteria and fungi). Among them were potentially pathogenic ones (saprophytes) which are capable of active growth on artificial substrates, as well as technophilic bacteria and fungi causing damages (destruction and degradation) to various materials (metals and polymers), resulting in failures and disruptions in the functioning of equipment and hardware. Aboard a space vehicle some microclimatic parameters are optimal for microorganism growth: the atmospheric fluid condensate with its specific composition, chemical and/or antropogenic contaminants (human metobolic products, etc.) all are stimulating factors for the development of bacteria and mould fungi on materials of the interior and equipment of an orbital station during its operational phase(s). Especially Russian long-term missions (SALJUT, MIR) have demonstrated that uncontrolled interactions of microorganisms with materials will ultimately lead to the appearence of technological and medical risks, significantly influencing safety and reliability characteristics of individual as well as whole systems and/ or subsystems. For a first conclusion, it could be summarized, that countermeasures and anti-strategies focussing on Microbial Contamination Management (MCM) for the International Space Station (ISS, next long-term manned mission) at least require a new materials test approach. Our respective concept includes a combined age-ing/biocorrosion test sequence. It is represented here, as well as current status of MCM program, e.g. continuous monitoring (microbiological analyses), long-term disinfection, frequent cleaning methods, mathematical modeling of ISS, etc.

  7. The identification of a new Giardia duodenalis assemblage in marine vertebrates and a preliminary analysis of G. duodenalis population biology in marine systems.

    PubMed

    Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Welch, David Mark; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2010-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite of many vertebrates. The presence of G. duodenalis in the marine environment due to anthropogenic and wildlife activity is well documented, including the contributions from untreated sewage and storm water, agricultural run-off and droppings from terrestrial animals. Recently, studies have detected this protistan parasite in the faeces of marine vertebrates such as whales, dolphins, seals and shore birds. To explore the population biology of G. duodenalis in marine life, we determined the prevalence of G. duodenalis in two species of seal (Halichoerus grypus, Phoca vitulina vitulina and Phoca vitulina richardsi) from the east and west coasts of the USA, sequenced two loci from G. duodenalis-positive samples to assess molecular diversity and examined G. duodenalis distribution amongst these seals and other marine vertebrates along the east coast. We found a significant difference in the presence of G. duodenalis between east and west coast seal species. Only the zoonotic lineages of G. duodenalis, Assemblages A and B and a novel lineage, which we designated as Assemblage H, were identified in marine vertebrates. Assemblages A and B are broadly distributed geographically and show a lack of host specificity. Only grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) samples and one gull sample (Larus argentatus) from a northern location of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, showed the presence of Assemblage H haplotypes; only one other study of harbour seals from the Puget Sound region of Washington, USA previously recorded the presence of an Assemblage H haplotype. Assemblage H sequences form a monophyletic clade that appears as divergent from the other seven Assemblages of G. duodenalis as these assemblages are from each other. The discovery of a previously uncharacterised lineage of G. duodenalis suggests that this parasite has more genetic diversity and perhaps a larger host range than previously believed.

  8. Human pharmaceuticals in the marine environment: Focus on exposure and biological effects in animal species.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Elena; Franzellitti, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Marine waters have been poorly investigated for the occurrence of pharmaceutical contamination. Recent data confirm that pharmaceuticals occur widely in marine and coastal environments; therefore, assessment of potential risk to marine species needs further efforts. The present study represents the first extensive review of pharmaceutical contamination in marine environments addressing the effects on the marine biota analyzed at the molecular, cellular, and individual levels. Because pharmaceuticals differ from conventional pollutants, being designed to interact with specific physiological pathways at low doses, the most recent evidence on modes of action and physiological alterations on marine animal species are discussed. Data on spatial distributions of pharmaceuticals in waters and sediments, as well as bioaccumulation rates, are also presented. The present review also seeks to expand knowledge of how the quality of coastal and marine environments could be efficiently monitored to anticipate possible health and environmental risks. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Sponsorship of the Society for Marine Mammalogy’s 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing...and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information...Number: N00014110559 http://www.marinemammalscience.org/ LONG-TERM GOALS The Society for Marine Mammalogy ( SMM ), the world’s premier

  10. Integrating Distributed Physical and Biological Marine data using OGC Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmell, A. L.; Blower, J. D.; Haines, K.; Price, M.; Millard, K.; Harpham, Q.

    2008-12-01

    Earth scientists use highly diverse sources of data, including in-situ measurements, remotely-sensed information and the results of numerical simulations. The ability to access, visualize, combine and compare these datasets is at the core of scientific investigation, but such tasks have hitherto been very difficult or impossible due to a fundamental lack of harmonization of data products. As a result, much valuable data remains underused. We present a web portal that visualizes and compares physical and biological marine data from both numerical models and in-situ observations. The model data are obtained via an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)-compatible Web Map Service (WMS), and the observed data are obtained via an OGC Web Feature Service (WFS). The physical model WMS, the biological model WMS and the WFS are located at three different institutes. This ability to display in-situ point observations alongside model data facilitates much valuable work on model validation. As models become increasingly complex, and sources of observed data become more numerous, it is important to be able to access and compare this growing amount of data efficiently, to ensure cross-checking and consistency between models and observations. The web portal is being applied in a large European operational oceanography project (ECOOP), where it is used to provide support to ecosystem modellers, and specifically to aid detection of potentially harmful algal blooms in coastal areas. The development of this system has been enabled by the conceptual framework of the Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML), which provides a common view onto all these datasets, independent of their storage format or physical location. CSML is based upon emerging international standards, enabling interoperability with other standards-based infrastructures. By creating a reusable Java library that embodies the CSML concepts we are able to apply these techniques to a number of other projects.

  11. Biological N2O Fixation in the Eastern South Pacific Ocean and Marine Cyanobacterial Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Farías, Laura; Faúndez, Juan; Fernández, Camila; Cornejo, Marcela; Sanhueza, Sandra; Carrasco, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the global radiative balance and atmospheric ozone chemistry, its sources and sinks within the Earth’s system are still poorly understood. In the ocean, N2O is produced by microbiological processes such as nitrification and partial denitrification, which account for about a third of global emissions. Conversely, complete denitrification (the dissimilative reduction of N2O to N2) under suboxic/anoxic conditions is the only known pathway accountable for N2O consumption in the ocean. In this work, it is demonstrated that the biological assimilation of N2O could be a significant pathway capable of directly transforming this gas into particulate organic nitrogen (PON). N2O is shown to be biologically fixed within the subtropical and tropical waters of the eastern South Pacific Ocean, under a wide range of oceanographic conditions and at rates ranging from 2 pmol N L−1 d− to 14.8 nmol N L−1 d−1 (mean ± SE of 0.522±1.06 nmol N L−1 d−1, n = 93). Additional assays revealed that cultured cyanobacterial strains of Trichodesmium (H-9 and IMS 101), and Crocosphaera (W-8501) have the capacity to directly fix N2O under laboratory conditions; suggesting that marine photoautotrophic diazotrophs could be using N2O as a substrate. This metabolic capacity however was absent in Synechococcus (RCC 1029). The findings presented here indicate that assimilative N2O fixation takes place under extreme environmental conditions (i.e., light, nutrient, oxygen) where both autotrophic (including cyanobacteria) and heterotrophic microbes appear to be involved. This process could provide a globally significant sink for atmospheric N2O which in turn affects the oceanic N2O inventory and may also represent a yet unexplored global oceanic source of fixed N. PMID:23717516

  12. Lessons from the past and charting the future of marine natural products drug discovery and chemical biology

    PubMed Central

    Gerwick, William H.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Marine life forms are an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites, several of which have inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. These success stories have had to overcome difficulties inherent to natural products-derived drugs, such as adequate sourcing of the agent and issues related to structural complexity. Nevertheless, several marine-derived agents are now approved, most as `first-in-class' drugs, with 5 of 7 appearing in the past few years. Additionally, there is a rich pipeline of clinical and pre-clinical marine compounds to suggest their continued application in human medicine. Understanding of how these agents are biosynthetically assembled has accelerated in recent years, especially through interdisciplinary approaches, and innovative manipulations and re-engineering of some of these gene clusters are yielding novel agents of enhanced pharmaceutical properties compared with the natural product. PMID:22284357

  13. Structures, biological activities and phylogenetic relationships of terpenoids from marine ciliates of the genus Euplotes.

    PubMed

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-07-08

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported.

  14. Estimation of biologically damaging UV levels in marine surface waters with DNA and viral dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Steven W; Jeffrey, Wade H; Suttle, Curtis A; Mitchell, David L

    2002-09-01

    We have surveyed the biologically harmful radiation penetrating the water column along a transect in the western Gulf of Mexico using dosimeters consisting of intact viruses or naked calf-thymus DNA (ctDNA). The indigenous marine bacteriophage PWH3a-P1, which lytically infects the heterotrophic bacterium Vibrio natriegens (strain PWH3a), displayed decay rates for infectivity approaching 1.0 h(-1) in surface waters when deployed in a seawater-based dosimeter. The accumulation of pyrimidine dimers in ctDNA dosimeters provided a strong correlation to these results, with pyrimidine dimers representing more than 0.3% (up to ca 3800 dimers Mb(-1) DNA) of the total DNA in dosimeters exposed to sea surface levels of solar radiation. The results demonstrate a strong correlation between the dimer formation in the DNA dosimeters, the decay rates of viral infectivity and the penetration of UVB radiation into the water column. The decay of viral infectivity attenuated with depth in a manner similar to the decay of solar radiation and was still significant at 10 m in offshore oligotrophic water and at dimer frequencies less than 0.1% (ca 200-300 dimers Mb(-1) DNA).

  15. Chemical synthesis and biological activities of 3-alkyl pyridinium polymeric analogues of marine toxins

    PubMed Central

    Houssen, Wael E.; Lu, Zhibao; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Chatzi, Christina; Tucker, Steven J.; Sepčić, Kristina; Turk, Tom; Zovko, Ana; Shen, Sanbing

    2010-01-01

    Two new large poly-1,3-dodecylpyridinium salts, APS12 and APS12-2 of 12.5- and 14.7-kDa size, respectively, were synthesised and tested for their pore-forming and transfection capabilities in HEK 293 and undifferentiated mouse ES cells using patch-clamp recording, Ca2+ imaging and flow cytometry. Polymerisation reactions were enhanced by microwaves, and the product sizes were controlled by altering the irradiation time. This method can also be applied to obtain polymers with variable linking chains as shown by the preparation of poly-(1,3-octylpyridinium) salt of 11.9-kDa size. Molecular weights of the final products were determined using ESIMS analysis, which also indicated the products to be amongst the largest macro-cycles ever recorded, up to a 900-membered ring. Anti-bacterial, haemolytic and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities were also reported for the two dodecyl pyridinium polymers. These biological activities are characteristic to the structurally related marine toxin, poly-APS. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12154-010-0036-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21326630

  16. Seawater Incursion Events in a Cretaceous Paleo-lake Revealed by Specific Marine Biological Markers

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J. F.; Peng, P. A.; Liu, M. Y.; Xi, D. P.; Song, J. Z.; Wan, X. Q.; Wang, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Many large paleo-lakes in North China were formed after the Triassic Era. Seawater incursion events (SWIEs) in these lakes have been extensively discussed in the literature, yet lack reliable methodology and solid evidence, which are essential for reconstructing and confirming SWIEs. The present study employs specific marine biological markers (24-n-propyl and 24-isopropyl cholestanes) to trace SWIEs in a dated core taken from the Songliao Basin (SLB). Two SWIEs were identified. The first SWIE from 91.37 to 89.00 Ma, was continuous and variable but not strong, while the second SWIE from 84.72 to 83.72 Ma was episodic and strong. SWIEs caused high total organic carbon (TOC) and negative δ13Corg values in the sediments, which were interpreted as an indication of high productivity in the lake, due to the enhancement of nutrient supplies as well as high levels of aqueous CO2, due to the mixing of alkaline seawater and acidic lake water. The SWIEs in SLB were controlled by regional tectonic activity and eustatic variation. Movement direction changes of the Izanagi/Kula Plate in 90 Ma and 84 Ma created faults and triggered SWIEs. A high sea level, from 90 to 84 Ma, also facilitated the occurrence of SWIEs in SLB. PMID:25946976

  17. Structures, Biological Activities and Phylogenetic Relationships of Terpenoids from Marine Ciliates of the Genus Euplotes

    PubMed Central

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported. PMID:20714425

  18. Biological induced corrosion of materials II: new test methods and experiences from MIR station.

    PubMed

    Klintworth, R; Reher, H J; Viktorov, A N; Bohle, D

    1999-01-01

    During previous long-term manned missions, more than 100 species of microorganisms have been identified on surfaces of materials (bacteria and fungi). Among them were potentially pathogenic ones (saprophytes) which are capable of active growth on artificial substrates, as well as technophilic bacteria and fungi causing damages (destruction and degradation) to various materials (metals and polymers), resulting in failures and disruptions in the functioning of equipment and hardware. Aboard a space vehicle some microclimatic parameters are optimal for microorganism growth: the atmospheric fluid condensate with its specific composition, chemical and/or anthropogenic contaminants (human metabolic products, etc.) all are stimulating factors for the development of bacteria and mould fungi on materials of the interior and equipment of an orbital station during its operational phase(s). Especially Russian long-term missions (SALYUT, MIR) [correction of SALJUT] have demonstrated that uncontrolled interactions of microorganisms with materials will ultimately lead to the appearance of technological and medical risks, significantly influencing safety and reliability characteristics of individual as well as whole systems and/or subsystems. For a first conclusion, it could be summarized, that countermeasures and anti-strategies focusing on Microbial Contamination Management (MCM) for the International Space Station (ISS, next long-term manned mission) at least require a new materials test approach. Our respective concept includes a combined aging/biocorrosion test sequence. It is represented here, as well as current status of MCM program, e.g. continuous monitoring (microbiological analyses), long-term disinfection, frequent cleaning methods, mathematical modeling of ISS, etc.

  19. 1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  20. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinell, Alex P.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  1. Fatty acids from lipids of marine organisms: molecular biodiversity, roles as biomarkers, biologically active compounds, and economical aspects.

    PubMed

    Bergé, Jean-Pascal; Barnathan, Gilles

    2005-01-01

    Because of their characteristic living environments, marine organisms produce a variety of lipids. Fatty acids constitute the essential part of triglycerides and wax esters, which are the major components of fats and oils. Nevertheless, phospholipids and glycolipids have considerable importance and will be taken into account, especially the latter compounds that excite increasing interest regarding their promising biological activities. Thus, in addition to the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, a great number of various fatty acids occur in marine organisms, e.g. saturated, mono- and diunsaturated, branched, halogenated, hydroxylated, methoxylated, non-methylene-interrupted. Various unprecedented chemical structures of fatty acids, and lipid-containing fatty acids, have recently been discovered, especially from the most primitive animals such as sponges and gorgonians. This review of marine lipidology deals with recent advances in the field of fatty acids since the end of the 1990s. Different approaches will be followed, mainly developing biomarkers of trophic chains in marine ecosystems and of chemotaxonomic interest, reporting new structures, especially those with biological activities or biosynthetic interest. An important part of this review will be devoted to the major PUFA, their relevance to health and nutrition, their biosynthesis, their sources (usual and promising) and market.

  2. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    beluga whales at the Barren Islands, Alaska, the Bering Sea Acoustic Report, Marine Mammal Monitoring for NW Fisheries, and Monitoring killer whale ...distribution, physical oceanographic process, and sound levels to marine mammal habitat use on the eastern Bering Sea shelf. Integrated data such...individual parameters. 3) A mixed-model analysis will be performed to identify relationships between marine mammal presence and environmental sound

  3. Quantifying Stress in Marine Mammals: Measuring Biologically Active Cortisol in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Quantifying Stress in Marine Mammals: Measuring...boonstra/ LONG-TERM GOALS This research will improve our ability to measure stress in marine mammals. Stress hormones (glucocorticoids...are best estimated by measuring “free glucocorticoid” levels (i.e. that hormone not bound by CBG). This project will improve the capacity of marine

  4. The Brachyura and Anomura fauna (Decapoda; Crustacea) in the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve on the southern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Bouzon, J L; Freire, A S

    2007-05-01

    Eight species of Brachyura and two species of Anomura were registered for the first time on the Santa Catarina coast, in the waters around the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve. The animals were collected by scuba divers, between 3 and 22 meters depth, from September 2001 to February 2003. A total of 31 decapod species were collected, and most of the new occurrences had already been registered in the adjacent northern waters.

  5. Herpetofauna of the Beni Biological Station Biosphere Reserve, Amazonian Bolivia: Additional information, and current knowledge in context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middendorf, G.; Reynolds, R.; Herrera-MacBryde, Olga; Dallmeier, Francisco; MacBryde, Bruce; Cominskey, James A.; Miranda, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    Previous collections in the Departamento del Beni in tropical Bolivia only hinted at high levels of herpetological biodiversity (Fugler 1986, 1988; de la Riva 1990a; Fugler and de la Riva 1990). Fieldwork (totaling 48 days) in July-August 1988 and September 1987 (dry seasons) and November-December 1990 (wet season) has resulted in collection and identification of 401 amphibian and reptilian specimens from the general area of the Beni Biological Station's (EBB) headquarters at El Porvenir. These collections represent 33 amphibian and 17 reptilian species in 29 genera (14 amphibian, 15 reptilian). The inventory of herpetofauna scientifically documented to occur in the Departamento del Beni is considered to have been increased by 6 amphibian and 10 reptilian species. Specimens that could not be definitively identified (reflecting taxonomic uncertainty and/or probably species new to science) include 3 amphibian species (anurans) and 2 reptilian species (snakes). The EBB harbors the richest savanna for anuran species known in South America.

  6. Biological Significance of Marine Actinobacteria of East Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Alapati; Savithri, Handanahal S

    2017-01-01

    An attempt was made to identify actinobacterial strains present in the marine soil of East Coast regions viz., Chirala, Bapatla, and Peddaganjam, Andhra Pradesh; Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu and Goa, Goa along with the study of their antimicrobial potential. Eight out of 73 actinobacterial strains isolated from these regions showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Molecular identification (16S rRNA analysis) of the eight strains revealed that they belong to Dietzia sp., Kocuria sp., Nocardiopsis sp., and Streptomyces spp. ISP (International Streptomyces project) -1, ISP-2 and starch casein media supported high antimicrobial potential after 5-6 days of growth. Production of antimicrobials by the strains varied significantly with different carbon and nitrogen sources. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of volatile compounds produced by the strains illustrated an array of antimicrobial compounds such as 1, 2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, 2-piperidinone, pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dion, phenyl ethyl alcohol, 3-phenyl propionic acid etc. Ours is the first report on the study and detection of above mentioned antimicrobial metabolites from Dietzia sp. (A3), Kocuria sp. (A5), and Nocardiopsis sp. (A7). By sequence based analysis for secondary metabolites, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster was noticed in six strains (A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, and A8) and none of them had polyketide synthase (PKS) system. The present study intimates the biological potentiality of the actinobacterial strains isolated from East Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India which reveals further scope to investigate new bioactive compounds from them by employing both natural product chemistry and modern biotechnological aspects.

  7. Satellite Tracking of Sympatric Marine Megafauna Can Inform the Biological Basis for Species Co-Management

    PubMed Central

    Gredzens, Christian; Marsh, Helene; Fuentes, Mariana M. P. B.; Limpus, Colin J.; Shimada, Takahiro; Hamann, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Context Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. Methodology/Results Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. Conclusions/Significance: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co-management possible, but

  8. Biological Significance of Marine Actinobacteria of East Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Alapati; Savithri, Handanahal S.

    2017-01-01

    An attempt was made to identify actinobacterial strains present in the marine soil of East Coast regions viz., Chirala, Bapatla, and Peddaganjam, Andhra Pradesh; Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu and Goa, Goa along with the study of their antimicrobial potential. Eight out of 73 actinobacterial strains isolated from these regions showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Molecular identification (16S rRNA analysis) of the eight strains revealed that they belong to Dietzia sp., Kocuria sp., Nocardiopsis sp., and Streptomyces spp. ISP (International Streptomyces project) -1, ISP-2 and starch casein media supported high antimicrobial potential after 5–6 days of growth. Production of antimicrobials by the strains varied significantly with different carbon and nitrogen sources. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of volatile compounds produced by the strains illustrated an array of antimicrobial compounds such as 1, 2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, 2-piperidinone, pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dion, phenyl ethyl alcohol, 3-phenyl propionic acid etc. Ours is the first report on the study and detection of above mentioned antimicrobial metabolites from Dietzia sp. (A3), Kocuria sp. (A5), and Nocardiopsis sp. (A7). By sequence based analysis for secondary metabolites, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster was noticed in six strains (A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, and A8) and none of them had polyketide synthase (PKS) system. The present study intimates the biological potentiality of the actinobacterial strains isolated from East Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India which reveals further scope to investigate new bioactive compounds from them by employing both natural product chemistry and modern biotechnological aspects. PMID:28729856

  9. Satellite tracking of sympatric marine megafauna can inform the biological basis for species co-management.

    PubMed

    Gredzens, Christian; Marsh, Helene; Fuentes, Mariana M P B; Limpus, Colin J; Shimada, Takahiro; Hamann, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co-management possible, but important differences exist between locations making it

  10. Enriching a cellulose hydrogel with a biologically active marine exopolysaccharide for cell-based cartilage engineering.

    PubMed

    Rederstorff, E; Rethore, G; Weiss, P; Sourice, S; Beck-Cormier, S; Mathieu, E; Maillasson, M; Jacques, Y; Colliec-Jouault, S; Fellah, B H; Guicheux, J; Vinatier, C

    2017-04-01

    The development of biologically and mechanically competent hydrogels is a prerequisite in cartilage engineering. We recently demonstrated that a marine exopolysaccharide, GY785, stimulates the in vitro chondrogenesis of adipose stromal cells. In the present study, we thus hypothesized that enriching our silated hydroxypropyl methylcellulose hydrogel (Si-HPMC) with GY785 might offer new prospects in the development of scaffolds for cartilage regeneration. The interaction properties of GY785 with growth factors was tested by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The biocompatibility of Si-HPMC/GY785 towards rabbit articular chondrocytes (RACs) and its ability to maintain and recover a chondrocytic phenotype were then evaluated in vitro by MTS assay, cell counting and qRT-PCR. Finally, we evaluated the potential of Si-HPMC/GY785 associated with RACs to form cartilaginous tissue in vivo by transplantation into the subcutis of nude mice for 3 weeks. Our SPR data indicated that GY785 was able to physically interact with BMP-2 and TGFβ. Our analyses also showed that three-dimensionally (3D)-cultured RACs into Si-HPMC/GY785 strongly expressed type II collagen (COL2) and aggrecan transcripts when compared to Si-HPMC alone. In addition, RACs also produced large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) containing glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and COL2. When dedifferentiated RACs were replaced in 3D in Si-HPMC/GY785, the expressions of COL2 and aggrecan transcripts were recovered and that of type I collagen decreased. Immunohistological analyses of Si-HPMC/GY785 constructs transplanted into nude mice revealed the production of a cartilage-like extracellular matrix (ECM) containing high amounts of GAG and COL2. These results indicate that GY785-enriched Si-HPMC appears to be a promising hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  12. Functional genomics to assess biological responses to marine pollution at physiological and evolutionary timescales: toward a vision of predictive ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Reid, Noah M; Whitehead, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Marine pollution is ubiquitous, and is one of the key factors influencing contemporary marine biodiversity worldwide. To protect marine biodiversity, how do we surveil, document and predict the short- and long-term impacts of pollutants on at-risk species? Modern genomics tools offer high-throughput, information-rich and increasingly cost-effective approaches for characterizing biological responses to environmental stress, and are important tools within an increasing sophisticated kit for surveiling and assessing impacts of pollutants on marine species. Through the lens of recent research in marine killifish, we illustrate how genomics tools may be useful for screening chemicals and pollutants for biological activity and to reveal specific mechanisms of action. The high dimensionality of transcriptomic responses enables their usage as highly specific fingerprints of exposure, and these fingerprints can be used to diagnose environmental problems. We also emphasize that molecular pathways recruited to respond at physiological timescales are the same pathways that may be targets for natural selection during chronic exposure to pollutants. Gene complement and sequence variation in those pathways can be related to variation in sensitivity to environmental pollutants within and among species. Furthermore, allelic variation associated with evolved tolerance in those pathways could be tracked to estimate the pace of environmental health decline and recovery. We finish by integrating these paradigms into a vision of how genomics approaches could anchor a modernized framework for advancing the predictive capacity of environmental and ecotoxicological science. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Impact of geoengineering with olivine dissolution on the carbon cycle and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, P.; Abrams, J.; Völker, C.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.; Hartmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the potential of a specific geoengineering technique: the carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification. If details of the marine chemistry are taken into consideration, a new mass ratio of CO2 sequestration per olivine dissolution of about 1 is achieved, 20% smaller than previously assumed. We calculate that this approach has the potential to sequestrate up to 1 Pg of C per year directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics, but this rate is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. These upper limit sequestration rates come at the environmental cost of pH values in the rivers rising to 8.2 in examples for the rivers Amazon and Congo (Köhler et al., 2010). The secondary effects of the input of silicic acid connected with this approach leads in an ecosystem model (ReCOM2.0 in MITgcm) to species shifts aways from the calcifying species towards diatoms, thus altering the biological carbon pumps. Open ocean dissolution of olivine would sequestrate about 1 Pg CO2 per Pg olivine from which about 8% are caused by changes in the biological pumps (increase export of organic matter, decreased export of CaCO3). The chemical impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine (the increased alkalinity input) is therefore less efficient than dissolution on land, but leads due to different chemical impacts to a higher surface ocean pH enhancement to counteract ocean acidification. We finally investigate open ocean dissolution rates of up to 10 Pg olivine per year corresponding to geoengineering rates which might be of interest in the light of expected future emission (e.g. A2 scenario with emissions rising to 30 PgC/yr in 2100 AD). Those rates would still sequestrate only less than 20% of the emission until 2100, but would require that the nowadays available

  14. Size distributions of organic nitrogen and carbon in remote marine aerosols: Evidence of marine biological origin based on their isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yuzo; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Sawano, Maki

    2010-03-01

    Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected over the western North Pacific in summer 2008 for the measurements of organic nitrogen (ON) and organic carbon (OC). ON and OC showed bimodal size distributions. Their concentrations showed positive correlation with those of biogenic tracers, methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and azelaic acid (C9). We found that average ON and OC concentrations were twice greater in aerosols collected in the oceanic region with higher biological productivity than in the regions with lower productivity. The average ON/OC ratios are higher (0.49 ± 0.11) in more biologically influenced aerosols than those (0.35 ± 0.10) in less influenced aerosols. Stable carbon isotopic analysis indicates that marine-derived carbon accounted for ˜46-72% of total carbon in more biologically influenced aerosols. These results provide evidence that organic aerosols in this region are enriched in ON that is linked to oceanic biological activity and the subsequent emissions to the atmosphere.

  15. It is an Experience, Not a Lesson: The Nature of High School Students' Experiences at a Biological Field Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, Marc E.

    The purpose of this case study was to describe the nature of high school students' experiences in the immersive four-day field experience at Stone Laboratory Biological Field Station including excursions to Kelley's Island and South Bass Island. Six tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students participated through interviews, photovoice, observations, and a survey. Pretrip semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand each participant student's relationship with science. Participants were given cameras to record their field trip experiences to relate what they found interesting, important, and exciting. Back at school after the field trip, the participants were asked to choose their five most meaningful photographs, and write a short essay to describe the significance of each image. A posttrip semi-structured interview explored each participant's experiences during the field trip. An unstructured interview was conducted to discuss each participant's full photograph gallery from the field trip. Interview transcripts were member checked with one minor wording change. Analysis consisted of open coding using apriori codes derived from the ecological framework and emergent codes derived from the data. Coding was duplicated through multiple readers. Significant findings included: 1) Prior experience, prior knowledge, and funds of knowledge added relevance and value to an experience, facilitating interest development; 2) Experiences appeared to be more meaningful when all the senses were stimulated; 3) Friends and peers were an essential part of a quality experience; 4) Quality experiences included a wow factor, or sudden awareness; 5) Teachers needed to be within the experience, not the focus of the experience, and needed to be available to answer questions, be enthusiastic when a discovery was made, and promote student reflection concerning their perceptions and discoveries; 6) A quality informal learning situation incorporated the cognitive/affective, physical

  16. Bacterial Exopolysaccharides from Extreme Marine Habitats: Production, Characterization and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Annarita; Anzelmo, Gianluca; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. Marine EPS-producing microorganisms have been also isolated from several extreme niches such as the cold marine environments typically of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, characterized by low temperature and low nutrient concentration, and the hypersaline marine environment found in a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems such as salt lakes and salterns. Most of their EPSs are heteropolysaccharides containing three or four different monosaccharides arranged in groups of 10 or less to form the repeating units. These polymers are often linear with an average molecular weight ranging from 1 × 105 to 3 × 105 Da. Some EPS are neutral macromolecules, but the majority of them are polyanionic for the presence of uronic acids or ketal-linked pyruvate or inorganic residues such as phosphate or sulfate. EPSs, forming a layer surrounding the cell, provide an effective protection against high or low temperature and salinity, or against possible predators. By examining their structure and chemical-physical characteristics it is possible to gain insight into their commercial application, and they are employed in several industries. Indeed EPSs produced by microorganisms from extreme habitats show biotechnological promise ranging from pharmaceutical industries, for their immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, bone regeneration and cicatrizing capacity, to food-processing industries for their peculiar gelling and thickening properties. Moreover, some EPSs are employed as biosurfactants and in detoxification mechanisms of petrochemical oil-polluted areas. The aim of this paper is to give

  17. Bacterial exopolysaccharides from extreme marine habitats: production, characterization and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Poli, Annarita; Anzelmo, Gianluca; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2010-06-03

    Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. Marine EPS-producing microorganisms have been also isolated from several extreme niches such as the cold marine environments typically of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, characterized by low temperature and low nutrient concentration, and the hypersaline marine environment found in a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems such as salt lakes and salterns. Most of their EPSs are heteropolysaccharides containing three or four different monosaccharides arranged in groups of 10 or less to form the repeating units. These polymers are often linear with an average molecular weight ranging from 1 x 10(5) to 3 x 10(5) Da. Some EPS are neutral macromolecules, but the majority of them are polyanionic for the presence of uronic acids or ketal-linked pyruvate or inorganic residues such as phosphate or sulfate. EPSs, forming a layer surrounding the cell, provide an effective protection against high or low temperature and salinity, or against possible predators. By examining their structure and chemical-physical characteristics it is possible to gain insight into their commercial application, and they are employed in several industries. Indeed EPSs produced by microorganisms from extreme habitats show biotechnological promise ranging from pharmaceutical industries, for their immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, bone regeneration and cicatrizing capacity, to food-processing industries for their peculiar gelling and thickening properties. Moreover, some EPSs are employed as biosurfactants and in detoxification mechanisms of petrochemical oil-polluted areas. The aim of this paper is to

  18. Analysis of the Screening and Selection Process for U.S. Marine Corps Recruiting Station Commanding Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    RECRUITING STATION COMMANDING OFFICERS by Manuel F. Munoz March 2005 Thesis Advisor: Mark J. Eitelberg Associate Advisors: Cary Simon Bill Hatch...TYPE AND DATES COVERED I March 2005 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Analysis of the Screening and Selection 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Process for U.S...POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 2005 Author: Manuel F. Munoz Approved by: Mark J. Eitelberg Thesis Advisor Cary Simon Associate Advisor Bill Hatch Associate Advisor

  19. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions.

  20. Relationships between ocean anoxia, the biological pump, and marine animal life during the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. M.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean anoxia/euxinia and carbon cycle instability have long been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and the Early Triassic interval of delayed or interrupted biotic recovery. Many hypotheses to explain this extinction event invoke the release of greenhouse gases during the emplacement of the Siberian Traps, which likely triggered abrupt changes in marine biogeochemical cycling, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. However, the precise ways in which volcanism and these perturbations are linked and how they governed the tempo and mode of biotic recovery remain poorly understood. Here we highlight new C, Ca, and Sr isotopic data that serve to link volcanic CO2 inputs to changes in marine biogeochemistry and environmental change. We then examine the relationship between ocean biogeochemistry, the biological pump, and marine animal ecosystems during the end-Permian mass extinction and Early Triassic recovery. Finally, we use numerical simulations to probe whether these relationships also explain broad Phanerozoic trends in ocean nutrient status, anoxia, and productivity of marine ecosystems.

  1. Ocean cleaning stations under a changing climate: biological responses of tropical and temperate fish-cleaner shrimp to global warming.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rui; Lopes, Ana Rita; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Trübenbach, Katja; Narciso, Luis; Dionísio, Gisela; Pegado, Maria Rita; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário

    2014-10-01

    Cleaning symbioses play an important role in the health of certain coastal marine communities. These interspecific associations often occur at specific sites (cleaning stations) where a cleaner organism (commonly a fish or shrimp) removes ectoparasites/damaged tissue from a 'client' (a larger cooperating fish). At present, the potential impact of climate change on the fitness of cleaner organisms remains unknown. This study investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of tropical (Lysmata amboinensis) and temperate (L. seticaudata) cleaner shrimp to global warming. Specifically, thermal limits (CTMax), metabolic rates, thermal sensitivity, heat shock response (HSR), lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration], lactate levels, antioxidant (GST, SOD and catalase) and digestive enzyme activities (trypsin and alkaline phosphatase) at current and warming (+3 °C) temperature conditions. In contrast to the temperate species, CTMax values decreased significantly from current (24-27 °C) to warming temperature conditions (30 °C) for the tropical shrimp, where metabolic thermal sensitivity was affected and the HSR was significantly reduced. MDA levels in tropical shrimp increased dramatically, indicating extreme cellular lipid peroxidation, which was not observed in the temperate shrimp. Lactate levels, GST and SOD activities were significantly enhanced within the muscle tissue of the tropical species. Digestive enzyme activities in the hepatopancreas of both species were significantly decreased by warmer temperatures. Our data suggest that the tropical cleaner shrimp will be more vulnerable to global warming than the temperate Lysmata seticaudata; the latter evolved in a relatively unstable environment with seasonal thermal variations that may have conferred greater adaptive plasticity. Thus, tropical cleaning symbioses may be challenged at a greater degree by warming-related anthropogenic forcing, with potential cascading effects on the health

  2. Hydrogeologic setting, water levels, and quality of water from supply wells at the US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lloyd, O.B.; Daniel, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Marine Corps Air Station is located in the Coastal Plain province of North Carolina. Four freshwater aquifers of sand and limestone underlie the area to a depth of about 500 feet. Saline water occurs below this depth. The aquifers are separated by three confining units that are thin and discontinuous in the southern part. Water supply is obtained from 195- to 330 feet wells in the Castle Hayne aquifer. Many wells are near landfills that have received hazardous wastes. Groundwater withdrawals have reduced hydraulic heads in the Castle Hayne some 20 feet around active production wells, creating potential for downward movement of contaminated water from the surface and for upward movement of saline water that occurs at depth. Chemical analyses of water from the Castle Hayne aquifer indicate median concentrations of iron and manganese are 0.78 and 0.08 milligrams per liter, respectively, and lead and (or) nickel exceed drinking water standards in three wells. Chloride increased from 10 to more than 40 milligrams per liter in the deepest operating well over a 45-year period. Benzene concentrations range from 0.5 to 1.9 milligrams per liter in the southern part of the Air Station but were below the 5 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for drinking water. Fatty acids were found in concentrations as much as 28 micrograms per liter in water from wells in an area centered around the intersection of Roosevelt Boulevard and Slocum Road. Resampling is needed to verify all constituents that indicate contamination.

  3. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-28

    seasonal breakup of the ice has begun. The bowhead whales detections finally disappear as these mammals begin their annual migration to the Arctic Ocean...signals impact marine mammal habitat use. This is especially critical in areas like the Bering Sea where global climate change can lead to rapid changes...identify and make synoptic measurements of the physical environment that the marine mammals ( whales and seals) are using. Attention to the physical

  4. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, J.L.; Daniel, C. C.; Coble, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical and lithologic well-log data from 30 wells and chloride data, and water-level data from oil-test wells, supply wells, and observation wells were evaluated to define the hydrogeologic framework at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina. Elements of the hydrogeologic framework important to this study include six aquifers and their respective confining units. In descending order, these aquifers are the surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, upper and lower Castle Hayne, and Beaufort. The upper and lower Castle Hayne and Beaufort aquifers and related confining units are relatively continuous throughout the study area. The surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, and upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers contain freshwater. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the Air Station?s principal supply of freshwater. However, the lower Castle Hayne aquifer contains brackish water near its base and there is potential for upward movement of this water to supply wells completed in this aquifer. The potential for brackish-water encroachment is greatest if wells are screened too deep in the lower Castle Hayne aquifer or if pumping rates are too high. Lateral movement of brackish water into aquifers incised by estuarine streams is also possible if ground-water flow gradients toward these bodies are reversed by pumping. The potential for the reversed movement of water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. These missing clay units could indicate the presence of a paleochannel of the Neuse River. A quasi three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was constructed and calibrated to simulate conditions at and in the vicinity of the Air Station for the period of 1987-90. Comparisons of 94 observed and computed heads were made, and the average difference between them is -0.2 feet with a root mean square error of 5.7 feet. An analysis was made to

  5. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

    2013-09-30

    Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent

  6. Study of surface ozone at Port Blair, India, a remote marine station in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, T. K.; Peshin, S. K.; Sharma, C.; Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Raj, Rachit; Sharma, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents seasonal variation of surface ozone monitored continuously at site of the meteorological observatory at Port Blair, a maritime site of the Bay of Bengal for the period of August, 2005-March, 2007. Present observation depicts the characteristics of surface ozone at the remote marine site and the long range transport of pollutants from three different sides i.e., Indian Subcontinent, South East Asia and Indian Ocean. Very high ozone mixing ratio (~70-80 ppbv) is occasionally observed during March and November at this site. A campaign mode of observation of trace gases (surface ozone, CO, NOx, CO2), aerosol concentration and its size, UV radiation at Port Blair was made to understand the role of transport on pollutants during March 16-26, 2002. During this period of observation, a near zero surface ozone of different time scales (~few hours) has been observed several times during the period of midnight to early morning. Simultaneously NOx (NO+NO2) (~40 ppbv) and carbon monoxide was observed very high (300-600 ppbv) during this period. Source of this high pollutant are not expected at this remote marine sites although wind patterns, 7-days isentropic back Trajectory analysis and MATCH Model output suggest that polluted air mass has come from eastern side of Indian subcontinent.

  7. Fisheries research and monitoring activities of the Lake Erie Biological Station, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodamer Scarbro, Betsy L.; Edwards, William; Gawne, Carrie; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Rogers, Mark W.; Stewart, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the USGS LEBS successfully completed large vessel surveys in all three of Lake Erie’s basins. Lake Erie Biological Station’s primary vessel surveys included the Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and East Harbor Forage Fish Assessment as well as contributing to the cooperative multi-agency Central Basin Hydroacoustics Assessment, the Eastern Basin Coldwater Community Assessment, and LTLA (see FTG, CWTG, and FTG reports, respectively). Results from the surveys contribute to Lake Erie Committee Task Group data needs and analyses of trends in Lake Erie’s fish communities. The cruise survey schedule in 2014 was greatly increased by LEBS’s participation in the Lake Erie CSMI, which consisted of up-to two weeks of additional sampling per month from April to October. CSMI is a bi-national effort that occurs at Lake Erie every five years with the purpose of addressing data and knowledge gaps necessary to management agencies and the Lake Erie LaMP. LEBS deepwater science capabilities also provided a platform for data collection by Lake Erie investigators from multiple agencies and universities including: the USGS GLSC, ODW, KSU, OSU, UM, PU, UT, and the USNRL. Samples from this survey are being processed and a separate report of the findings will be made available in a separate document. Our 2014 vessel operations were initiated in mid-April, as soon after ice-out as possible, and continued into early December. During this time, crews of the R/V Muskie and R/V Bowfin deployed 196 bottom trawls covering 48.5 km of lake-bottom, nearly 6 km of gillnet, collected data from 60 hydroacoustics transects, 285 lower trophic (i.e., zooplankton and benthos) samples, and 330 water quality measures (e.g., temperature profiles, water samples). Thus, 2014 was an intensive year of field activity. Our June and September bottom trawl surveys in the Western Basin were numerically dominated by Emerald Shiner, White Perch, and Yellow Perch; however, Freshwater Drum were

  8. A new species and new distribution records for Braconidae from Mountain Lake Biological Station in southwestern Virginia and a redescription of Pentapleura foveolata Viereck

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One new species of Alysiinae, Coelinius wrayi Kula, is described. Pentapleura foveolata Viereck, also in Alysiinae and previously known only from a male collected at the type locality in Connecticut, is redescribed based on six females and two males collected at Mountain Lake Biological Station (MLB...

  9. The Virtual Field Station (VFS): Using A Virtual Reality Environment for Ecological Fieldwork in A-Level Biological Studies--Case Study 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poland, Roger; La Velle, Linda Baggott; Nichol, Jon

    2003-01-01

    Describes a teacher-generated case study on the effectiveness of a Virtual Field Station for teaching an A Level biology topic. Argues that a Virtual Field Centre is an effective substitute for actuality in terms of the development of student knowledge and understanding for examination purposes. Discuses how science education is rapidly developing…

  10. Marine biological controls on climate via the carbon and sulphur geochemical cycles

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    We review aspects of the influence of the marine biota on climate, focusing particularly on their role in mediating surface temperatures via their influence on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations. Variation in natural CO2 concentrations occurring over 103 to 105 years are set by oceanic processes, and in particular by conditions in the Southern Ocean, so it is to this region that we must look to understand the glacial-interglacial changes in CO2 concentrations. It seems likely that marine productivity in the Southern Ocean is limited by a combination of restricted iron supply to the region and insufficient light. Plankton-produced DMS is thought to influence climate by changing the numbers of cloud condensation nuclei available in remote regions; the efficiency of this mechanism is still unknown, but calculations suggest it may be a powerful influence on climate. It has a much shorter time-scale than the CO2 effect, and as a consequence may well be a player on the 'global change' timescale. The direction of both the CO2 and the DMS mechanisms is such that more marine productivity would lead to lower global temperatures, and we speculate that the overall effect of the marine biota today is to cool the planet by ca. 6°C as a result of these two mechanisms, with one-third of this figure being due to CO2 effects and two-thirds due to DMS. While the marine biota influence climate, climate also influences the marine biota, chiefly via changing atmospheric circulation. This in turn alters ocean circulation patterns, responsible for mixing up sub-surface nutrients, and also influences the transport of nutrients, such as iron, in atmospheric dust. A more vigorous atmospheric circulation would be expected to increase the productivity of the marine biota on both counts. Thus during glacial time, the colder and drier climate might be expected to stimulate greater marine productivity than occurs today. Since more production leads to

  11. Response of the bacterial community in oil-contaminated marine water to the addition of chemical and biological dispersants.

    PubMed

    Couto, Camila Rattes de Almeida; Jurelevicius, Diogo de Azevedo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    2016-12-15

    The use of dispersants in different stages of the oil production chain and for the remediation of water and soil is a well established practice. However, the choice for a chemical or biological dispersant is still a controversial subject. Chemical surfactants that persist long in the environment may pose problems of toxicity themselves; therefore, biosurfactants are considered to constitute an environmentally friendly and effective alternative. Nevertheless, the putative effects of such agents on the microbiomes of oil-contaminated and uncontaminated marine environments have not been sufficiently evaluated. Here, we studied the effects of the surfactant Ultrasperse II(®) and the surfactin (biosurfactant) produced by Bacillus sp. H2O-1 on the bacterial communities of marine water. Specifically, we used quantitative PCR and genetic fingerprint analyses to study the abundance and structure of the bacterial communities in marine water collected from two regions with contrasting climatic conditions. The addition of either chemical surfactant or biosurfactant influenced the structure and abundance of total and oil-degrading bacterial communities of oil-contaminated and uncontaminated marine waters. Remarkably, the bacterial communities responded similarly to the addition of oil and/or either the surfactant or the biosurfactant in both set of microcosms. After 30 days of incubation, the addition of surfactin enhanced the oil-degrading bacteria more than the chemical surfactant. However, no increase of hydrocarbon biodegradation values was observed, irrespective of the dispersant used. These data contribute to an increased understanding of the impact of novel dispersants on marine bacteriomes before commercial release into the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F.; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.

    2013-03-01

    Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ˜30%.

  13. Uranium from Seawater Marine Testing Program at the University of Miami’s Broad Key Island Research Station

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Wood, Jordana R.; Schlafer, Nicholas J.; D'Alessandro, Evan

    2016-09-30

    Marine testing at Broad Key Island (BKI), Florida was conducted to validate adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics results obtained for several formulations of the ORNL amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents in Sequim Bay, Washington in another location with different oceanographic and water quality conditions (e.g. temperature, dissolved organic carbon, salinity and trace element content). Broad Key is a small island off the southeast coast of Florida at the southern end of Biscayne Bay. Flow-through column and recirculating flume experiments were conducted at BKI using ambient filtered seawater and identical exposure systems as were used at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Marine Sciences laboratory (MSL). Testing was conducted in two periods in FY 2015 and FY 2016 with five different amidoxime-based adsorbent materials, four produced by ORNL (AF1, AI8, AF8, and AF1-DMSO) and one by LCW technologies (LCW-10). All exposures were conducted at ambient seawater temperatures, with moderate temperature control on the ambient seawater to mitigate large daily swings in the seawater temperature. The ORNL adsorbents AF1, AI8 and AF1-AO-DMSO all had fairly similar adsorption capacities (6.0 to 6.6 g U/ kg adsorbent) after 56 days of exposure at ambient temperature (26 to 31 °C) and salinity (35.7 to 37.4), but the AF8 adsorbent was considerably lower at 4.4 g U/kg adsorbent. All the adsorbents tested at BKI had higher capacities than was observed at PNNL, with the higher temperatures likely a major factor contributing to this difference. In general, the elemental distribution (expressed as a relative percentage) on all the adsorbents agreed well, including good agreement with the elemental distribution pattern for AF1 adsorbent exposed at PNNL. The most notable exception to a uniform elemental distributional pattern across the various adsorbents occurs with vanadium. The relative mass percentage for vanadium retained by the adsorbents ranged from a

  14. Methods to examine reproductive biology in free-ranging, fully-marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, Janet M; Burgess, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Historical overexploitation of marine mammals, combined with present-day pressures, has resulted in severely depleted populations, with many species listed as threatened or endangered. Understanding breeding patterns of threatened marine mammals is crucial to assessing population viability, potential recovery and conservation actions. However, determining reproductive parameters of wild fully-marine mammals (cetaceans and sirenians) is challenging due to their wide distributions, high mobility, inaccessible habitats, cryptic lifestyles and in many cases, large body size and intractability. Consequently, reproductive biologists employ an innovative suite of methods to collect useful information from these species. This chapter reviews historic, recent and state-of-the-art methods to examine diverse aspects of reproduction in fully-aquatic mammals.

  15. Marine Natural Product Bis-indole Alkaloid Caulerpin: Chemistry and Biology.

    PubMed

    Lunagariya, Jignesh; Bhadja, Poonam; Zhong, Shenghui; Vekariya, Rohit; Xu, Shihai

    2017-09-27

    Marine bis-indole alkaloids comprise a large and increasingly growing class of secondary metabolites, and continue to deliver a great variety of structural templates. The alkaloids derived from marine resources play a crucial role in medicinal chemistry and as chemical agents. In particular, bis-indole alkaloid caulerpin isolated from marine green algae Caulerpa and a red algae Chondria armata at various places around the world, and tested against several therapeutic areas such as anti-diabetic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-larvicidal, anti-herpes, anti-tubercular, anti-microbial and immunostimulating activity as well as means of other chemical agents. Herein, we summarized discovery of caulerpin, and its potential medicinal and chemical applications in chronological order with various aspects. Additionally, synthesis of caulerpin, its functional analogues, and structural isomer have also been reviewed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-01-01

    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  17. Optimization of microwave digestion for mercury determination in marine biological samples by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cardellicchio, Nicola; Di Leo, Antonella; Giandomenico, Santina; Santoro, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    Optimization of acid digestion method for mercury determination in marine biological samples (dolphin liver, fish and mussel tissues) using a closed vessel microwave sample preparation is presented. Five digestion procedures with different acid mixtures were investigated: the best results were obtained when the microwave-assisted digestion was based on sample dissolution with HNO3-H2SO4-K2Cr2O7 mixture. A comparison between microwave digestion and conventional reflux digestion shows there are considerable losses of mercury in the open digestion system. The microwave digestion method has been tested satisfactorily using two certified reference materials. Analytical results show a good agreement with certified values. The microwave digestion proved to be a reliable and rapid method for decomposition of biological samples in mercury determination.

  18. Biological conservation through marine protected areas in the presence of alternative stable states.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Bapan; Pal, Debprasad; Kar, T K; Valverde, Jose C

    2017-04-01

    This article addresses how depleted stock can be restored by creation of marine reserve and species mobility when alternative stable states persist in a marine ecosystem. To understand the role of a marine protected area, we develop a two-patch version of an originally single-patch model. In the two-patch model, we prove that some of the locally stable equilibria are not stable equilibria from an ecological viewpoint. Similarly, some unstable equilibria determined classically from the mathematical model are no longer equilibria. It is shown that increasing reserve size may produce three alternative stable states in the presence of harvesting. Dynamic solutions have a tendency to reach an upper stable state from a lower stable state when reserve size is increased, but the opposite phenomenon (i.e., shifting to a lower stable state from an upper one) never occurs. This suggests that MPAs always have a positive effect in stock conservation even when alternative stable states inherently persist in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    arrhythmias from ECGs recorded continuously during vertical sprints by bottlenose dolphins. Comparable tests conducted on trained dolphins in pools and...physiological and environmental factors leading to cardiac arrhythmias and physiological instability in diving marine mammals. Specifically, we will determine...and kinematic responses. We will identify, 1) the incidence of arrhythmias , 2) triggers for cardiac anomalies, and 3) the segments of dives

  20. Biodiversity's Big Wet Secret: The Global Distribution of Marine Biological Records Reveals Chronic Under-Exploration of the Deep Pelagic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Thomas J.; Vanden Berghe, Edward; O'Dor, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the distribution of marine biodiversity is a crucial first step towards the effective and sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Recent efforts to collate location records from marine surveys enable us to assemble a global picture of recorded marine biodiversity. They also effectively highlight gaps in our knowledge of particular marine regions. In particular, the deep pelagic ocean – the largest biome on Earth – is chronically under-represented in global databases of marine biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings We use data from the Ocean Biogeographic Information System to plot the position in the water column of ca 7 million records of marine species occurrences. Records from relatively shallow waters dominate this global picture of recorded marine biodiversity. In addition, standardising the number of records from regions of the ocean differing in depth reveals that regardless of ocean depth, most records come either from surface waters or the sea bed. Midwater biodiversity is drastically under-represented. Conclusions/Significance The deep pelagic ocean is the largest habitat by volume on Earth, yet it remains biodiversity's big wet secret, as it is hugely under-represented in global databases of marine biological records. Given both its value in the provision of a range of ecosystem services, and its vulnerability to threats including overfishing and climate change, there is a pressing need to increase our knowledge of Earth's largest ecosystem. PMID:20689845

  1. Biodiversity's big wet secret: the global distribution of marine biological records reveals chronic under-exploration of the deep pelagic ocean.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J; Vanden Berghe, Edward; O'Dor, Ron

    2010-08-02

    Understanding the distribution of marine biodiversity is a crucial first step towards the effective and sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Recent efforts to collate location records from marine surveys enable us to assemble a global picture of recorded marine biodiversity. They also effectively highlight gaps in our knowledge of particular marine regions. In particular, the deep pelagic ocean--the largest biome on Earth--is chronically under-represented in global databases of marine biodiversity. We use data from the Ocean Biogeographic Information System to plot the position in the water column of ca 7 million records of marine species occurrences. Records from relatively shallow waters dominate this global picture of recorded marine biodiversity. In addition, standardising the number of records from regions of the ocean differing in depth reveals that regardless of ocean depth, most records come either from surface waters or the sea bed. Midwater biodiversity is drastically under-represented. The deep pelagic ocean is the largest habitat by volume on Earth, yet it remains biodiversity's big wet secret, as it is hugely under-represented in global databases of marine biological records. Given both its value in the provision of a range of ecosystem services, and its vulnerability to threats including overfishing and climate change, there is a pressing need to increase our knowledge of Earth's largest ecosystem.

  2. Effects of gill-net fishing on marine birds in a biological hotspot in the northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Davoren, Gail K

    2007-08-01

    Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland during July and August 2000-2003. By examining the distributional patterns of top predators through ship-based surveys at multiple spatial and temporal scales, I found that the biomasses of birds-dominated by Common Murres (Uria aalge)-and mammals-dominated by whale species-were concentrated along the coast, with a biological hotspot forming near two persistent spawning sites of capelin in all years. The formation of this hotspot was well defined in space and time from middle of July to middle of August, likely coinciding with the spawning chronology of capelin. Within this hotspot, there was a high spatial and temporal overlap of Common Murres and gill nets set to capture Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). This resulted in breeding murres becoming entangled in gill nets while feeding on spawning capelin. Despite an acknowledged uncertainty of bycatch mortality, estimates for the larger regional-scale area (1936-4973 murres/year; 0.2-0.6% of the breeding population) underestimated mortality relative to estimates within the hotspot (3053-14054 murres/year; 0.4-1.7%). Although fishing effort for Atlantic cod has declined substantially since the groundfish moratorium in 1992, chronic, unnatural, and additive mortality through bycatch continues in coastal Newfoundland. Restricted use of gill nets within this and other biological hotspots during the capelin spawning period appears to be a straightforward application of the "ecological and biologically significant area" management framework in Canada's Oceans Act. This protection would minimize murre bycatch and maintain ecosystem

  3. Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of actinobacteria isolated from the Chukchi Shelf marine sediments in the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Meng; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Dong, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-03-06

    Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis.

  4. Phylogenetic Diversity and Biological Activity of Actinobacteria Isolated from the Chukchi Shelf Marine Sediments in the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Meng; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Dong, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:24663116

  5. Limitations of an optimum sustainable population or potential biological removal approach for conserving marine mammals: Pacific walrus case study.

    PubMed

    Robards, Martin D; Burns, John J; Meek, Chanda L; Watson, Annette

    2009-10-01

    Decision rules are the agreed-upon points at which specific management interventions are initiated. For marine mammal management under the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), decision rules are usually based on either a numeric population or biological-removal approach. However, for walrus and other ice-associated pinnipeds, the inability to reliably assess population numbers or biological removals highlights a significant gap in the MMPA, particularly when the Arctic environment is rapidly changing. We describe the MMPA's ecosystem-based management goals, and why managers have bypassed these goals in favor of an approach that depends upon numerical population assessment. We then revisit the statute's primary goals in light of current knowledge about the Pacific walrus ecosystem and new developments in environmental governance. We argue that to monitor and respond to changes in the walrus ecosystem, decision rules should be based on scientific criteria that depend less on the currently-impractical goal of accurately enumerating population size and trends, or removals from that population. Rather, managers should base decisions on ecological needs and observed ecological changes. To implement this approach would require an amendment to the MMPA that supports filling the gap in management with achievable decision rules. Alternatively, walrus and other ice-associated pinnipeds will remain largely unmanaged during a period of profound environmental change.

  6. The uptake of iron-55 by marine sediment, macroalgae, and biota following discharge from a nuclear power station.

    PubMed

    Warwick, P E; Cundy, A B; Croudace, I W; Bains, M E; Dale, A A

    2001-06-01

    Significant quantities of 55Fe, an activation product of stable iron, have been released into the environment following the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons (mainly in the 1950s and 1960s) as well as through authorized discharges of radioactivity from nuclear power and reprocessing sites. Although some studies have been performed on the behavior of weapons' fallout-derived 55Fe in the environment and subsequent impact on humans, little has been published on the behavior of 55Fe released as a point source discharge from nuclear sites. This study presents data on the concentration and temporal variation of 55Fe in fucoid seaweeds, shellfish, crab, and lobster collected from Weymouth Bay and adjacent coastal areas, southern England. These areas have received authorized discharges of radionuclides originating from the operation of a now-decommissioned steam-generating, heavy water-type reactor at AEE Winfrith. The highest activities of 55Fe are found associated with marine sediments collected near the discharge pipeline and a rapid decline occurs away from the pipeline. This is consistent with rapid sorption of 55Fe by the sediment, and the data show there is only limited reworking and remobilization. Activities of 55Fe in biota generally decreased over time, due to a reduction in the amount of 55Fe discharged. The variation of 55Fe activity, revealed from the monthly sampling of seaweed, does not reflect the short-term fluctuations seen in the patterns of discharged 55Fe activity. Although discharges of 55Fe from AEE Winfrith exceeded other radionuclides, the radiological impact on local seafood consumers is considerably less than for other key radionuclides such as 60Co and 65Zn but of comparable magnitude to the global average population dose arising from fallout-derived 55Fe.

  7. Ecological and Environmental Controls over Fifteen-Year Forest Net Ecosystem Production at the University of Michigan Biological Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, C. M.; Cheng, S. J.; Hardiman, B. S.; Curtis, P.; Bohrer, G.; Vogel, C. S.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Morin, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Forests in the US upper Midwest and northeast are broadly undergoing a gradual ecological transition in which short-lived tree species decline and give way to longer-lived species. Environmental changes are paralleling these ecological shifts with potential consequences for the region's carbon (C) sink status. Long-term C flux measurements from the University of Michigan Biological Station Ameriflux core site meteorological tower (UMB) are demonstrating how changes in forest structure and composition, and the environment combine to constrain net ecosystem production (NEP) over decadal timescales. Annual NEP of the UMB forest increased by nearly 1 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 from 1999 through 2013, while leaf area index (LAI) declined by a half unit. The UMB NEP time-series is characterized by several years of relative stability followed by a variable upward trend beginning in 2007. While growing season photosynthetic active radiation explains a majority of the interannual variation in NEP, the recent rise in production coincides with an abrupt decline in the LAI of early successional aspen (Populus spp.) and birch (Betula papyrifera), and a reciprocal rapid increase in the LAI of later successional and longer lived red oak (Quercus rubra) and red maple (Acer Rubrum). The product of apparent quantum yield, a metric of light-use efficiency, of the canopy and maximum NEP increased as LAI declined with the senescence of aspen and birch, suggesting that shifts in canopy composition improved how efficiently light is used to drive forest C uptake. We conclude that an upward trend in NEP at the UMB site is jointly caused by environmental and ecological change, the latter of which is progressively altering the physiology of the canopy.

  8. Marine biological production from in situ oxygen measurements on a profiling float in the subarctic Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushinsky, Seth M.; Emerson, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Evaluating the organic carbon flux from the surface ocean to the interior (the marine biological pump) is essential for predictions of ocean carbon cycle feedback to climate change. One approach for determining these fluxes is to measure the concentration of oxygen in the upper ocean over a seasonal cycle, calculate the net O2 flux using an upper ocean model, and then use a stoichiometric relationship between oxygen evolved and organic carbon produced. Applying this tracer in a variety of ocean areas over seasonal cycles requires accurate O2 measurements on autonomous vehicles. Here we demonstrate this approach using an O2 sensor on a profiling float that is periodically calibrated against atmospheric pO2. Using accurate data and a model that includes all physical and biological processes influencing oxygen, we determine an annual net community production of 0.7 ± 0.5 mol C m-2 yr-1 in the northeast Pacific Ocean (50°N, 145°W) from June 2012 to June 2013. There is a strong seasonal cycle in net biological oxygen production with wintertime fluxes caused by bubble processes critical to determining the annual flux. Approximately 50% of net autotrophic production during summer months is consumed by net respiration during the winter. The result is a biological pump in the subarctic Pacific Ocean that is less than that determined by similar methods in the subtropics to the south. This estimate is significantly lower than that predicted by satellite remote sensing and global circulation models.

  9. Turritella attenuata (Kasinathan): as biological indicator of marine pollution--a trace metal analytical study.

    PubMed

    Paul, V I; Radhakrishnan, M V; Hemalatha, S

    1999-11-01

    A study to monitor marine pollution with reference to trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) on T. attenuata, commonly called as screw shell over a period of one year on the whole body and various organs, viz. digestive diverticula, foot, mantle and ovary was conducted from the sandy beach of Porto Novo Coast (Lat 11 degrees 29' N Long: 79 degrees 46' E) of Peninsular India using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Higher concentration of all the four trace metals analysed were recorded in the digestive diverticula, whereas lower concentration of zinc and manganese were recorded in the ovary during the monsoon period. The higher level of trace metal concentration in the monsoon period may be due to the presence of these pollutants in large amounts in water. The accumulation of selected trace metals varies in different seasons according to the extent of pollution load in the marine environment.

  10. Corrosion Susceptibility of AA5083-H116 in Biologically Active Atmospheric Marine Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    with potato dextrose agar (PDA), a fungal growth media; the remaining coupon areas were left bare and fully exposed to the marine atmosphere. Fungal...fungi. AA5083-H116 coupons were half covered with potato dextrose agar (PDA), a ftingal growth media; the remaining coupon areas were left bare and...containers, lids and two coupons per container were washed with iso-propyl alcohol and air-dried. Difco™ potato dextrose agar (PDA) was prepared

  11. Biological and Behavioral Response Studies of Marine Mammals in Southern California, 2011 (SOCAL-11)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Brian Bloodworth   National Marine Fisheries Service  Silver Spring, MD     Antoinette  M. Gorgone   NOAA Southeast Fisheries Science Center   Beaufort, NC     1          1          1        1       

  12. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    This is an illustration of the Space Base concept. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial-gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  13. Arsenic species extraction of biological marine samples (Periwinkles, Littorina littorea) from a highly contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Whaley-Martin, K J; Koch, I; Reimer, K J

    2012-01-15

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the tissues of marine organisms and in uncontaminated environments it is dominantly present as the highly soluble and easily extractable non-toxic arsenical, arsenobetaine. However in contaminated environments, higher proportions of inorganic arsenic, which is much less soluble, are accumulated into the tissues of marine organisms, resulting in lower extraction efficiencies (defined as the percent extracted arsenic of the total arsenic). This study carried out a comparative analysis between three different two-step arsenic extraction methods based on Foster et al. [27] from highly contaminated tissue of the marine periwinkle, Littorina littorea. The first extraction step used 100% water, 1:1 methanol-water, or a 9:1 methanol-water as the extraction solvent and the second step consisted of a gently heated dilute nitric acid extraction. The optimized two step extraction method was 1:1 methanol-water extraction followed by a 2% HNO(3) extraction, based on maximum amounts of extracted species, including organoarsenic species.

  14. Effect of stratospheric ozone depletion and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on marine bacteria at Palmer Station, Antarctica in the early austral spring.

    PubMed

    Pakulski, J Dean; Kase, Jason P; Meador, Jarah A; Jeffrey, Wade H

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the interactions between ozone-depleted air masses and subsequent changes in UVB on marine bacterial abundance and production at Palmer Station, Antarctica from September to November 1999. During periods of low total column ozone (TCO), bacterial cell concentrations declined by 57%. Photoinhibition of bacterial [(3)H]-leucine (Leu) and [(3)H]-thymidine (TdR) incorporation due to UVB was greatest during periods of low TCO in September and early October. During diel ( approximately 28 h) exposure experiments, light treatment samples exhibited >75-100% inhibition of TdR incorporation by mid-afternoon. Leu incorporation exhibited maximum inhibition (50-100%) at sunset and early evening hours. Leu and TdR incorporation in light treatment samples did not exhibit recovery during subsequent periods of darkness. Bacterial Leu and TdR incorporation rates were inversely related to Setlow Dose during a period of recovery from low TCO. These data further suggested a threshold exposure below which bacterial Leu and TdR incorporation recovered rapidly. Recovery of bacterial production after acute Setlow Dose exposures lagged recovery of TCO and was linearly related to TCO measured 2 days previously. This lag in recovery may have resulted from the energetically expensive repair of UVR-induced DNA damage acquired during periods of low TCO.

  15. Multi-parameter instrumentation to understand interactions of physical, biological and chemical processes in marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorgeville, E.; Tengberg, A.; Kamenos, N.; Burdett, H.; Mao, J.; Tholo, H.

    2016-02-01

    Developments in electronics, telecommunication, optics and acoustics measuring techniques have opened new possibilities for long-term monitoring of the marine environment. The intention of this conference presentation is to describe the use of a new type of compact instrument in some coastal projects and its benefits in climate change studies and carbonate system studies in natural environments. The combination of current profiles, pH and pCO2 (based on optode technology), oxygen, conductivity, temperature, pressure, wave and tide is crucial for understanding the ongoing processes and for cross quality control.

  16. Making United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) inclusive of marine biological resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moustahfid, H.; Potemra, J.; Goldstein, P.; Mendelssohn, R.; Desrochers, A.

    2011-01-01

    An important Data Management and Communication (DMAC) goal is to enable a multi-disciplinary view of the ocean environment by facilitating discovery and integration of data from various sources, projects and scientific domains. United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) DMAC functional requirements are based upon guidelines for standardized data access services, data formats, metadata, controlled vocabularies, and other conventions. So far, the data integration effort has focused on geophysical U.S. IOOS core variables such as temperature, salinity, ocean currents, etc. The IOOS Biological Observations Project is addressing the DMAC requirements that pertain to biological observations standards and interoperability applicable to U.S. IOOS and to various observing systems. Biological observations are highly heterogeneous and the variety of formats, logical structures, and sampling methods create significant challenges. Here we describe an informatics framework for biological observing data (e.g. species presence/absence and abundance data) that will expand information content and reconcile standards for the representation and integration of these biological observations for users to maximize the value of these observing data. We further propose that the approach described can be applied to other datasets generated in scientific observing surveys and will provide a vehicle for wider dissemination of biological observing data. We propose to employ data definition conventions that are well understood in U.S. IOOS and to combine these with ratified terminologies, policies and guidelines. ?? 2011 MTS.

  17. A new mechanochemical model: coupled Ginzburg-Landau and Swift-Hohenberg equations in biological patterns of marine animals.

    PubMed

    Morales, M A; Rojas, J F; Oliveros, J; Hernández S, A A

    2015-03-07

    In this work the skin coating of some vertebrate marine animals is modeled considering only dermis, epidermis and basal layers. The biological process takes into account: cellular diffusion of the epidermis, diffusion inhibition and long-range spatial interaction (nonlocal effect on diffusive dispersal) for cells of dermal tissue. The chemical and physical interactions between dermis and epidermis are represented by coupling quadratic terms and nonlinear terms additional. The model presents an interesting property associated with their gradient form: a connection between some physical, chemical and biological systems. The model equations proposed are solved with numerical methods to study the spatially stable emergent configurations. The spatiotemporal dynamic obtained of the numerical solution of these equations, present similarity with biological behaviors that have been found recently in the cellular movement of chromatophores (as contact-dependent depolarization and repulsion movement between melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores). The numerical solution of the model shows a great variety of beautiful patterns that are robust to changes of boundary condition. The resultant patterns are very similar to the pigmentation of some fish.

  18. Marine Isolates of Trichoderma spp. as Potential Halotolerant Agents of Biological Control for Arid-Zone Agriculture ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-01-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030

  19. Assessing potential effects of incinerating organic wastes at sea: Development and field testing of the Marine Incineration Biological Assessment Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Werme, C.; Boehm, P.; Cooke, M.; Oberacker, D.; Jackson, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and field-testing of the Marine Incineration Biological Assessment Sampler (MIBAS), used to assess potential effects of incinerating hazardous wastes at sea. In 1985, the U.S. EPA developed a strategy for the research necessary for measuring environmental and public health effects of incinerating hazardous wastes at sea. One area of the strategy addressed developing a way to sample incinerator emissions and introduce them into seawater for use as test media in toxicity tests. Responding to the strategy, EPA developed the MIBAS system, a system that samples incineration flue gas, cools the emissions, and collects them in seawater-filled impingers. Particulate matter and both semi-volatile and nonvolatile organic species are collected by the train. The system uses no materials that could in themselves prove toxic to marine organisms. A recent modification of the train permits collecting emissions in the first impinger without bubbling, mimicking the situation in nature, where emissions would settle onto the ocean surface. MIBAS tests have included spike recovery, using a gas-phase spiking system to spike compounds into the emissions and then measuring them in the components of the MIBAS train.

  20. Marine isolates of Trichoderma spp. as potential halotolerant agents of biological control for arid-zone agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-08-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents.

  1. HPLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS Analysis and Biological Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from the Colombian Marine Sponge Ectyoplasia ferox

    PubMed Central

    Colorado-Ríos, Jhonny; Muñoz, Diana; Montoya, Guillermo; Márquez, Diana; Márquez, Maria-Elena; López, Juan; Martínez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox produces antipredatory and allelopathic triterpenoid glycosides as part of its chemical defense repertoire against predators, competitors, and fouling organisms. These molecules are responsible for the pharmacological potential found in the glycosides present in this species. In order to observe the glycochemical diversity present in E. ferox, a liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometry approach to analyse a complex polar fraction of this marine sponge was performed. This gave valuable information for about twenty-five compounds three of which have been previously reported and another three which were found to be composed of known aglycones. Furthermore, a group of four urabosides, sharing two uncommon substitutions with carboxyl groups at C-4 on the terpenoid core, were identified by a characteristic fragmentation pattern. The oxidized aglycones present in this group of saponins can promote instability, making the purification process difficult. Cytotoxicity, cell cycle modulation, a cell cloning efficiency assay, as well as its hemolytic activity were evaluated. The cytotoxic activity was about IC50 40 µg/mL on Jurkat and CHO-k1 cell lines without exhibiting hemolysis. Discussion on this bioactivity suggests the scanning of other biological models would be worthwhile. PMID:24317472

  2. Accessing Novel Conoidean Venoms: Biodiverse Lumun-lumun Marine Communities, An Untapped Biological and Toxinological Resource

    PubMed Central

    Seronay, Romell A.; Fedosov, Alexander E.; Astilla, Mary Anne; Watkins, Maren; Saguil, Noel; Heralde, Francisco M.; Tagaro, Sheila; Poppe, Guido T.; Aliño, Porfirio M.; Oliverio, Marco; Kantor, Yuri I.; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2010-01-01

    Cone snail venoms have yielded pharmacologically-active natural products of exceptional scientific interest. However, cone snails are a small minority of venomous molluscan biodiversity, the vast majority being tiny venomous morphospecies in the family Turridae. A novel method called lumun-lumun opens access to these micromolluscs and their venoms. Old fishing nets are anchored to the sea bottom for a period of 1–6 months and marine biotas rich in small molluscs are established. In a single lumun-lumun community, we found a remarkable gastropod biodiversity (155 morphospecies). Venomous predators belonging to the superfamily Conoidea (36 morphospecies) were the largest group, the majority being micromolluscs in the family Turridae. We carried out an initial analysis of the most abundant of the turrid morphospecies recovered, Clathurella (Lienardia) cincta (Dunker, 1871). In contrast to all cDNA clones characterized from cone snail venom ducts, one of the C. cincta clones identified encoded two different peptide precursors presumably translated from a single mRNA. The prospect of easily accessing so many different morphospecies of venomous marine snails raises intriguing toxinological possibilities: the 36 conoidean morphospecies in this one net alone have the potential to yield thousands of novel pharmacologically-active compounds. PMID:20005243

  3. Accessing novel conoidean venoms: Biodiverse lumun-lumun marine communities, an untapped biological and toxinological resource.

    PubMed

    Seronay, Romell A; Fedosov, Alexander E; Astilla, Mary Anne Q; Watkins, Maren; Saguil, Noel; Heralde, Francisco M; Tagaro, Sheila; Poppe, Guido T; Aliño, Porfirio M; Oliverio, Marco; Kantor, Yuri I; Concepcion, Gisela P; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2010-12-15

    Cone snail venoms have yielded pharmacologically active natural products of exceptional scientific interest. However, cone snails are a small minority of venomous molluscan biodiversity, the vast majority being tiny venomous morphospecies in the family Turridae. A novel method called lumun-lumun opens access to these micromolluscs and their venoms. Old fishing nets are anchored to the sea bottom for a period of 1-6months and marine biotas rich in small molluscs are established. In a single lumun-lumun community, we found a remarkable gastropod biodiversity (155 morphospecies). Venomous predators belonging to the superfamily Conoidea (36 morphospecies) were the largest group, the majority being micromolluscs in the family Turridae. We carried out an initial analysis of the most abundant of the turrid morphospecies recovered, Clathurella (Lienardia) cincta (Dunker, 1871). In contrast to all cDNA clones characterized from cone snail venom ducts, one of the C. cincta clones identified encoded two different peptide precursors presumably translated from a single mRNA. The prospect of easily accessing so many different morphospecies of venomous marine snails raises intriguing toxinological possibilities: the 36 conoidean morphospecies in this one net alone have the potential to yield thousands of novel pharmacologically active compounds.

  4. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of gasoline contamination in the shallow aquifer, Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, Francis; Bradley, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory, field, and digital solute-transport- modeling studies demonstrate that microorganisms indigenous to the shallow ground-water system at Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina, can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons in gasoline released at the site. Microorganisms in aquifer sediments incubated in the laboratory under aerobic and anaerobic conditions mineralized radiolabeled carbon 14-toluene to 14C-carbon dioxide with first-order rate constants of Kbio = -0.640 per day and Kbio = -0.003 per day, respectively. Digital solute- transport modeling using the numerical code SUTRA revealed that anaerobic biodegradation of benzene occurs with a first-order rate constant near Kbio = -0.00025 per day. Sandy aquifer material beneath Laurel Bay Exchange is characterized by relatively high hydraulic conductivities (Kaq = 8.9 to 17.3 feet per day), average ground-water flow rate of about 60 feet per year, and a relatively uniform hydraulic gradient of 0.004 feet per foot. The sandy aquifer material also has low adsorptive potentials for toluene and benzene (both about Kad = 2.0 x 10-9 cubic feet per milligram), because of the lack of natural organic matter in the aquifer. The combination of this ground-water-flow rate and absence of significant adsorptive capacity in the aquifer permits toluene and benzene concentrations to be detected downgradient from the source area in monitoring wells, even though biodegradation of these compounds has been demonstrated. Solute-transport simulations, however, indicate that toluene and benzene will not reach the Broad River, the nearest point of contact with wildlife or human populations, about 3,600 feet west of the site boundary. These simulations also show that contamination will not be transported to the nearest Marine Corps property line about 2,400 feet south of the site. This is primarily because the source of contaminants has essentially been removed, and the low adsorptive capacity of the aquifer

  5. A marine sulfate-reducing bacterium producing multiple antibiotics: biological and chemical investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Gu, Xiaojie; Zhao, Chenyan; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Zeping

    2009-07-21

    A marine sulfate-reducing bacterium SRB-22 was isolated by means of the agar shake dilution method and identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis. In the bioassay, its extract showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity using the paper disc agar diffusion method. This isolate showed a different antimicrobial profile than either ampicillin or nystatin and was found to produce at least eight antimicrobial components by bioautography. Suitable fermentation conditions for production of the active constituents were determined to be 28 day cultivation at 25 degrees C to 30 degrees C with a 10% inoculation ratio. Under these conditions, the SRB-22 was fermented, extracted and chemically investigated. So far an antimicrobial compound, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and an inactive compound, thymine, have been isolated and characterized.

  6. Distribution of sea snakes in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: observations from 10 yrs of baited remote underwater video station (BRUVS) sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udyawer, Vinay; Cappo, Mike; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Heupel, Michelle R.; Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi

    2014-09-01

    The distributions of three species of sea snake (olive sea snake: Aipysurus laevis, spine-bellied sea snake: Lapemis curtus, and ornate sea snake: Hydrophis ocellatus) were estimated over 14° of latitude within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) using data from baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS). A total of 2,471 deployments of BRUVS were made in a range of locations, in sites open and closed to trawl fishing. Sightings of sea snakes were analysed alongside six spatial factors [depth, relative distance across (longitude) and along (latitude) the GBRMP, proximity to land, proximity to the nearest reef, and habitat complexity] to determine the factors that most strongly influenced the distribution and abundance of sea snakes. The results showed a strong latitudinal effect on the distribution of all three sea snake species, with the highest densities and diversities occurring in central and southern GBRMP locations, while the northern Great Barrier Reef was relatively depauperate in terms of both occurrence and diversity. Shallow inshore areas were identified as key habitats for A. laevis and L. curtus, whereas deeper offshore habitats were most important for H. ocellatus. No significant difference was found in the mean number of snakes sighted per hour between sites open and closed to trawling. There was a high degree of congruence in the distribution of sea snakes estimated from the BRUVS data and results from previous trawl and underwater visual surveys, demonstrating the utility of BRUVS to estimate distribution and relative abundance in these species of sea snake at broad spatial scales in a non-extractive manner.

  7. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data from well clusters near the wastewater-treatment plant, U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, L.C.; Daniel, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and ground-water quality data were collected near the wastewater-treatment plant and associated polishing lagoons at the Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, in 1988. Between March and May 1988, two observation wells were installed upgradient and six wells were installed downgradient of the polishing lagoons and sampled for organic and inorganic U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants. Placement of the well screens allowed sampling from both the upper and lower parts of the surficial aquifer. Natural gamma-ray geophysical logs were run in the four deepest wells. Lithologic logs were prepared from split-spoon samples collected during the drilling operations. Laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on samples of fine-grained material recovered from the two confining units that separate the surficial aquifer and the drinking-water supply aquifer; values ranged from 0.011 to 0.014 foot per day (4x10-6 to 5x10-6 centimeters per second). Static water levels were recorded on April 25, 1988. Relatively low concentrations of purgeable organic compounds (up to 2.2 micrograms per liter for dichlorodifluoromethane), acid and base/neutral extractable compounds (up to 58 micrograms per liter for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), or pesticides (up to 0.03 micrograms per liter for diazinon and methyl parathion) were detected in water samples collected from all of the wells. Trace metals were detected in concentrations above minimum detectable limits in all of the wells and were found to be higher in water samples collected from the downgradient wells (up to 320 micrograms per liter for zinc) than in water samples from the upgradient wells.

  8. Syllabus for an Associate Degree Program in Applied Marine Biology and Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Tapan

    Included is a detailed outline of the content of each course required or offered as an elective in the associate degree program. With an 18 or 19 unit load each semester the program requires two years, and includes 64 hours at sea every semester. In addition to chemistry, physics, biology, and oceanography courses, there is a required course in…

  9. Priorities and developments of sensors, samplers and methods for key marine biological observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Samantha; Chavez, Francisco; Pearlman, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Over the last two decades or more, physical oceanography has seen a significant growth in in-situ sensors and platforms including fixed point and cable observatories, Argo floats, gliders and AUVs to supplement satellites for creating a 3-D view of the time-varying global ocean temperature and salinity structures. There are important developments recently for biogeochemists for monitoring nitrate, chemical contaminants, oxygen and pH that can now be added to these autonomous systems. Biologists are still lagging. Given the importance of biology to ocean health and the future earth, and the present reliance on humans and ships for observing species and abundance, it is paramount that new biological sensor systems be developed. Some promising sensor systems based on, but not limited to acoustic, chemical, genomic or imaging techniques, can sense from microbes to whales, are on the horizon. These techniques can be applied in situ with either real time or recorded data and can be captured and returned to the laboratory using the autonomous systems. The number of samples is limiting, requiring adaptive and smart systems. Two steps are envisioned to meeting the challenges. The first is to identify the priority biological variables to focus observation requirements and planning. The second is to address new sensors that can fill the gaps in current capabilities for biological observations. This abstract will review recent efforts to identify core biological variables for the US Integrated Ocean Observing System and address new sensors and innovations for observing these variables, particularly focused on availability and maturity of sensors.

  10. A Balanced Marine Aquarium [and] The Biology of Marine Aquarium Fishes Collected in Monroe County, Florida. A Two-Paper NOAA Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palko, Barbara Jayne; And Others

    This document consists of two separate papers. The first paper, "A Balanced Marine Aquarium" (Barbara Jayne Palko), discusses various aspects of a balanced marine aquarium. Information provided includes the basic and optional equipment needed to construct a balanced aquarium, preparations for setting up the aquarium, preparing the…

  11. Dietary marine-derived tocopherol has a higher biological availability in mice relative to alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Naohiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Oka, Tomiko; Mashimo, Daisuke; Noguchi, Noriko; Hata, Kazuhiko; Wada, Shun

    2009-02-01

    The biologic availability of two kinds of tocomonoenols, marine-derived tocopherol (MDT) and alpha-tocomonoenol, was investigated in ICR mice. Vitamin E-deficient ICR mice were fed MDT and alpha-tocomonoenol together with alpha-tocopherol, beta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol, and storage in liver, spleen, lung, and brain was quantified using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The vitamin E relative biologic availability (VE-RBA) in liver was 100 for alpha-tocopherol, 26 +/- 3 for beta-tocopherol, 4 +/- 2 for gamma-tocopherol, not detected for delta-tocopherol, 49 +/- 6 for MDT, and 30 +/- 7 for alpha-tocomonoenol. The VE-RBA in brain was 100 for alpha-tocopherol, 5 +/- 2 for beta-tocopherol, not detected for gamma-tocopherol and delta-tocopherol, 8 +/- 1 for MDT, and 4 +/- 1 for alpha-tocomonoenol. Tocopherols and tocomonoenols did not accumulate in the spleen or lung. MDT and alpha-tocomonoenol had high VE-RBA values. The VE-RBA value for MDT was much higher than that for beta-tocopherol.

  12. A review of sensors, samplers and methods for marine biological observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, S. E.; Chavez, F.; Pearlman, J.; Working Group, T B S

    2016-02-01

    Physical scientists now have Argo floats, gliders and AUVs to supplement satellites to provide a 3-D view of the time-varying global ocean temperature and salinity structure. Biogeochemists are catching up with evolving sensors for nitrate, optical properties, oxygen and pH that can now be added to these autonomous systems. Biologists are still lagging, although some promising sensor systems based on but not limited to acoustic, chemical, genomic or imaging techniques, that can sense from microbes to whales, are on the horizon. These techniques can not only be applied in situ but also on samples returned to the laboratory using the autonomous systems. The number of samples is limiting, requiring adaptive and smart systems. Given the importance of biology to ocean health and the future earth, and the present reliance on humans and ships for observing species and abundance it is paramount that new biological sensor systems be developed. This abstract will review recent efforts to identify core biological variables for the US Integrated Ocean Observing System and address new sensors and innovations for observing these variables, particularly focused on availability and maturity of sensors. The relevance of this work in a global context will also be touched on.

  13. Biologic origin of iron nodules in a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.; Schulz, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; White, A.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution, chemistry, and morphology of Fe nodules were studied in a marine terrace soil chronosequence northwest of Santa Cruz, California. The Fe nodules are found at depths <1 m on all terraces. The nodules consisted of soil mineral grains cemented by Fe oxides. The nodules varied in size from 0.5 to 25 mm in diameter. Nodules did not occur in the underlying regolith. The Fe-oxide mineralogy of the nodules was typically goethite; however, a subset of nodules consisted of maghemite. There was a slight transformation to hematite with time. The abundance of soil Fe nodules increased with terrace age on the five terraces studied (aged 65,000-226,000 yr). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed Fe-oxide-containing fungal hyphae throughout the nodules, including organic structures incorporating fine-grained Fe oxides. The fine-grained nature of the Fe oxides was substantiated by M??ssbauer spectroscopy. Our microscopic observations led to the hypothesis that the nodules in the Santa Cruz terrace soils are precipitated by fungi, perhaps as a strategy to sequester primary mineral grains for nutrient extraction. The fungal structures are fixed by the seasonal wetting and dry cycles and rounded through bioturbation. The organic structures are compacted by the degradation of fungal C with time. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological activities of aqueous and organic extracts from tropical marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Sepcić, Kristina; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Turk, Tom

    2010-04-28

    We report on screening tests of 66 extracts obtained from 35 marine sponge species from the Caribbean Sea (Curaçao) and from eight species from the Great Barrier Reef (Lizard Island). Extracts were prepared in aqueous and organic solvents and were tested for hemolytic, hemagglutinating, antibacterial and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, as well as their ability to inhibit or activate cell protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The most interesting activities were obtained from extracts of Ircinia felix, Pandaros acanthifolium, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Verongula rigida and Neofibularia nolitangere. Aqueous and organic extracts of I. felix and V. rigida showed strong antibacterial activity. Topsentia aqueous and some organic extracts were strongly hemolytic, as were all organic extracts from I. felix. The strongest hemolytic activity was observed in aqueous extracts from P. acanthifolium. Organic extracts of N. nolitangere and I. felix inhibited PP1. The aqueous extract from Myrmekioderma styx possessed the strongest hemagglutinating activity, whilst AChE inhibiting activity was found only in a few sponges and was generally weak, except in the methanolic extract of T. ophiraphidites.

  15. Biological effects of marine PCB contamination on black guillemot nestlings at Saglek, Labrador: liver biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Zou Zou A; Burgess, Neil M; Stow, Jason P; Fox, Glen A

    2003-01-01

    Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) in Saglek Bay, Labrador have elevated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations due to marine sediment contamination around a former military site. We measured liver biomarkers and sigmaPCB concentrations in 31 nestlings from three PCB-exposure groups: Reference group (range: 15-46 ng/g liver, wet wt.), moderately exposed Islands group (24-150 ng/g), and highly exposed Beach group (170-6200 ng/g). Biomarker responses were dose-dependent and in some cases sex-dependent. Livers of female Beach nestlings were enlarged 36% relative to Reference females. In both sexes, Beach nestlings had liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities elevated 79% and liver retinol concentrations reduced 47%. Retinyl palmitate concentrations were reduced 50% but only among female nestlings. Island nestlings also exhibited EROD induction (57%) and reductions in retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations (28 and 58%, respectively). Liver lipid content increased with sigmaPCBs in both sexes, and correlated with liver mass in males. Malic enzyme activity and porphyrin concentrations showed little association with sigmaPCBs. Although similar associations between liver biomarkers and organochlorine exposure in fish-eating birds are well documented, typically exposures involve multiple contaminants and there is uncertainty about specific PCB effects. Our findings indicate that liver biomarkers respond to relatively low PCB exposures (approximately 73 ng/g liver) in guillemots.

  16. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, C; Fodelianakis, S; Guerrero-Meseguer, L; Marín, A; Karakassis, I

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mesocosm experiments for evaluating the biological efficacy of ozone treatment of marine ballast water.

    PubMed

    Perrins, Jake C; Cordell, Jeffery R; Ferm, Nissa C; Grocock, Jaime L; Herwig, Russell P

    2006-12-01

    Ballast water is a major pathway for the transfer of non-indigenous species in aquatic environments. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of ozone to reduce the numbers of a spectrum of marine organisms collected from Puget Sound, Washington in replicated mesocosm (280 l) experiments, and estimate the minimum ozone concentrations as measured by total residual oxidant (TRO) required to reduce organism densities. Ozone treatment was effective in removing bacteria, phytoplankton, and mesozooplankton with initial TRO concentrations of 2-5 mg l(-1) as Br(2). Persistence of TRO resulted in an extended period of toxicity and cumulative mortality. TRO decay allowed bacteria populations to multiply when TRO levels fell below 0.5-1.0 mg l(-1) as Br(2). Phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations were rapidly reduced by ozone treatment and did not increase in any treatments or controls because of lack of light. Overall mesozooplankton viability was rapidly reduced by 90-99% in treatment TRO levels above 1.85 mg l(-1) as Br(2). Our study outlines novel protocols that can be used for testing different potential ballast water treatment systems in replicated and controlled mesocosm experiments.

  18. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ginsberg, Joshua R.; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. PMID:26982578

  19. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rossi Lafferriere, Natalia A; Antelo, Rafael; Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ayarzagüena, José; Ginsberg, Joshua R; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

  20. Physiological and Molecular Biological Characterization of Intracellular Carbonic Anhydrase from the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum1

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Dan; Hiraoka, Yasutaka; Colman, Brian; Matsuda, Yusuke

    2001-01-01

    A single intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) was detected in air-grown and, at reduced levels, in high CO2-grown cells of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (UTEX 642). No external CA activity was detected irrespective of growth CO2 conditions. Ethoxyzolamide (0.4 mm), a CA-specific inhibitor, severely inhibited high-affinity photosynthesis at low concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, whereas 2 mm acetazolamide had little effect on the affinity for dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting that internal CA is crucial for the operation of a carbon concentrating mechanism in P. tricornutum. Internal CA was purified 36.7-fold of that of cell homogenates by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and two-step column chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-sephacel and p-aminomethylbenzene sulfone amide agarose. The purified CA was shown, by SDS-PAGE, to comprise an electrophoretically single polypeptide of 28 kD under both reduced and nonreduced conditions. The entire sequence of the cDNA of this CA was obtained by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and indicated that the cDNA encodes 282 amino acids. Comparison of this putative precursor sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified CA indicated that it included a possible signal sequence of up to 46 amino acids at the N terminus. The mature CA was found to consist of 236 amino acids and the sequence was homologous to β-type CAs. Even though the zinc-ligand amino acid residues were shown to be completely conserved, the amino acid residues that may constitute a CO2-binding site appeared to be unique among the β-CAs so far reported. PMID:11500545

  1. Ribonucleotide reductases reveal novel viral diversity and predict biological and ecological features of unknown marine viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sakowski, Eric G.; Munsell, Erik V.; Hyatt, Mara; Kress, William; Williamson, Shannon J.; Nasko, Daniel J.; Polson, Shawn W.; Wommack, K. Eric

    2014-01-01

    Virioplankton play a crucial role in aquatic ecosystems as top-down regulators of bacterial populations and agents of horizontal gene transfer and nutrient cycling. However, the biology and ecology of virioplankton populations in the environment remain poorly understood. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are ancient enzymes that reduce ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides and thus prime DNA synthesis. Composed of three classes according to O2 reactivity, RNRs can be predictive of the physiological conditions surrounding DNA synthesis. RNRs are universal among cellular life, common within viral genomes and virioplankton shotgun metagenomes (viromes), and estimated to occur within >90% of the dsDNA virioplankton sampled in this study. RNRs occur across diverse viral groups, including all three morphological families of tailed phages, making these genes attractive for studies of viral diversity. Differing patterns in virioplankton diversity were clear from RNRs sampled across a broad oceanic transect. The most abundant RNRs belonged to novel lineages of podoviruses infecting α-proteobacteria, a bacterial class critical to oceanic carbon cycling. RNR class was predictive of phage morphology among cyanophages and RNR distribution frequencies among cyanophages were largely consistent with the predictions of the “kill the winner–cost of resistance” model. RNRs were also identified for the first time to our knowledge within ssDNA viromes. These data indicate that RNR polymorphism provides a means of connecting the biological and ecological features of virioplankton populations. PMID:25313075

  2. Chemical and Biological Aspects of Marine Sponges from the Family Mycalidae.

    PubMed

    Habener, Leesa J; Hooper, John N A; Carroll, Anthony R

    2016-06-01

    Sponges are a useful source of bioactive natural products. Members of the family Mycalidae, in particular, have provided a variety of chemical structures including alkaloids, polyketides, terpene endoperoxides, peptides, and lipids. This review highlights the compounds isolated from Mycalid sponges and their associated biological activities. A diverse group of 190 compounds have been reported from over 40 specimens contained in 49 references. Over half of the studies have reported on the biological activities for the compounds isolated. The polyketides, in particular the macrolides, displayed potent cytotoxic activities (< 1 µM), and the alkaloids, in particular the 2,5-disubstituted pyrrole derivatives, were associated with moderate cytotoxic activities (1-20 µM). The pyrrole alkaloids and the cyclic peroxides appear to be phylogenetically restricted to sponges and thus might prove useful when applied to sponge taxonomy. The observed diversity of chemical structures suggests this family makes a good target for targeted biodiscovery projects. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Differential physical, rheological, and biological properties of rapid in situ gelable hydrogels composed of oxidized alginate and gelatin derived from marine or porcine sources.

    PubMed

    Liao, Huijuan; Zhang, Hanwei; Chen, Weiliam

    2009-06-01

    Marine derived gelatin is not known to associate with any communicable diseases to mammals and could be a reasonable substitute for gelatin derived from either bovine or porcine sources. The low melting point of marine gelatin (8 degrees C) also offers greater formulation flexibility than mammalian derived gelatins. However, the sub-optimal physical properties of marine gelatin generally limit the interest to further develop it for biomedical applications. This study aimed at investigating the feasibility of using oxidized alginate (Oalg) as a high activity macromolecular crosslinker of marine gelatin to formulate in situ gelable hydrogels with the goal of enhancing the latter's physical properties. The performance of Oalg/marine gelatin hydrogel was compared to Oalg/porcine gelatin hydrogel; in general, the physicomechanical properties of both hydrogels were comparable, with the hydrogels containing porcine gelatin exhibiting moderately higher mechanical strengths with shorter gelation times, smaller size pores, and higher swelling ratios. On the contrary, the biological performances of the two hydrogels were significantly difference. Cells cultured in the marine gelatin derived hydrogel grew significantly faster, with greater than 60% more cells by 7 days and they exhibited more spread-out conformations as compared those cultured in the porcine derived hydrogel. Production of ECM by cells cultured in the Oalg/marine gelatin hydrogel was up to 2.4 times greater than that of in the Oalg/porcine gelatin hydrogel. The biodegradation rate of the hydrogel formulated from marine gelatin was greater than its counterpart prepared from porcine gelatin. These differences have important implications in the biomedical applications of the two hydrogels.

  4. Hydrogeologic, water-level, and water-quality data from monitoring wells at the US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, L.C.; Keoughan, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Unlined hazardous-waste disposal sites at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, are located near drinking-water supply wells that tap the Castle Hayne aquifer. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected near 2 of these sites from 12 monitoring wells installed in May through June 1987. Near the northernmost landfill site, differences in hydraulic head between the surficial, intermediate Yorktown, and Castle Hayne aquifers indicate a potential for migration of contaminants downward into the intermediate Yorktown and Castle Hayne aquifers. Movement would be impeded, however, by two confining units of silty sand to sandy clay that separate these aquifers. Geophysical and lithologic data show the upper confining unit to be approximately 26 feet thick near this landfill. Near the southernmost landfill, these confining units are thin and discontinuous in an area that coincides with the location of a buried paleochannel. Static water-level data collected in this area indicate that both the Castle Hayne and Yorktown aquifers discharge into the surficial aquifer, minimizing the potential for downward contaminant movement. Ground water in the surficial aquifer at both landfills moves laterally away from nearby drinking-water supply wells and toward Slocum Creek, a tributary of the Neuse River. Concentrations of organic compounds and trace inorganic constituents included on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s list of priority pollutants were determined for water samples from the surficial and Yorktown aquifers. High concentrations of two purgeable organic compounds, trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloroethene (4,600 and 4,800 micrograms per liter, respectively), were detected in water samples collected from the surficial aquifer near the southernmost landfill; much smaller concentrations of trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloroethene were detected in samples from wells in the Yorktown aquifer (up to 16 and 12 micrograms per liter

  5. Phase contrast and DIC instrumentation and applications in cell, developmental, and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, Heinz

    1994-05-01

    Nomarski's differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is discussed in comparison to Zernike's phase contrast (PhC) microscopy. The possibilities and limits of both are demonstrated by various applications. The high contrast and the use of the full numerical aperture of the DIC optics makes it possible to obtain a series of 'optical sections' through rather thick living specimens (e.g. head of water flea, salivary gland of Drosophila, Xenopus nucleolus, sea urchen egg, mouse embryo). PhC and DIC optics are today available for high resolution light microscopy until N.A. 1.4 Oil as well as for long working distance (LWD) optics, mainly combined with inverted biological microscopes.

  6. Alkenone paleothermometry: Biological lessons from marine sediment records off western South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl, Fredrick G.; Mix, Alan C.; Sparrow, Margaret A.

    2006-01-01

    An empirical global core-top calibration that relates the alkenone unsaturation index U37K' to mean annual SST (maSST) is statistically the same as that defined for a subarctic Pacific strain of Emiliania huxleyi (CCMP1742) grown exponentially in batch culture under isothermal conditions. Although both equations have been applied widely for paleoSST reconstruction, uncertainty still stems from two key ecological factors: variability in the details of biosynthesis among genetically distinct alkenone-producing strains, and impacts of non-thermal physiological growth factors on U37K'. New batch culture experiments with CCMP1742 here reveal that U37K' diverge systematically from the core-top calibration in response to nutrient depletion and light deprivation, two physiological stresses experienced by phytoplankton populations in the real ocean. Other aspects of alkenone/alkenoate composition also respond to these stresses and may serve as signatures of such effects, providing an opportunity to detect, understand, and potentially correct for such impacts on the geologic record. A test case documents that sediments from the Southeast Pacific display the alkenone/alkenoate compositional signature characteristic of cells physiologically stressed by light deprivation. Such an observation could be explained if marine snow provided a major vector of sedimentation for these biomarkers. Late Pleistocene U37K' records in the Southeast Pacific yield plausible paleotemperature histories of ice-age cooling, but ice-age alkenone/alkenoate signatures fall outside the range of modern calibration samples of similar U37K'. They better match core-top samples deposited beneath waters characterized by much cooler maSST, suggesting key features of ice-age ecology for alkenone-producing haptophytes were different from today, and that the U37K' index taken alone may misgauge the total range of ice-age cooling at these locations. Analysis of the full spectrum of alkenone/alkenoate compositions

  7. Missing organic carbon in Eocene marine sediments: Is metabolism the biological feedback that maintains end-member climates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivarez Lyle, Annette; Lyle, Mitchell W.

    2006-06-01

    Ocean chemistry is affected by pCO2 in the atmosphere by increasing the dissolution of solid calcium carbonate and elevating the dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in seawater. Positive feedbacks between the ocean and atmosphere can maintain high atmospheric pCO2 and affect global climate. We report evidence for changes in the oceanic carbon cycle from the first high-quality organic carbon (Corg) data set of Eocene sediments beneath the equatorial Pacific upwelling region (Leg 199 of the Ocean Drilling Program). Eocene Corg mass accumulation rates (MARs) are 10 times lower than Holocene rates, even though expected Corg MARs estimated from biogenic-barium MARs (an indicator of biological production) equal or exceed modern fluxes. What happened to the missing Corg? Recent advances in ecology and biochemical kinetics show that the metabolism of nearly all animals, marine and terrestrial, is positively correlated by first principles to environmental temperatures. The approximately 10°C abyssal temperature difference from Eocene to Holocene should have radically reduced pelagic Corg burial, as we observe. We propose that higher basal metabolism and nutrient utilization/recycling rates in the Eocene water column and surface sediments precluded Corg sediment burial in the pelagic ocean. Increased rates of metabolism, nutrient utilization, and lowered Corg sedimentation caused by increased temperature may have acted as a biological feedback to maintain high atmospheric pCO2 and hothouse climates. Conversely, these same parameters would reverse sign to maintain low pCO2 when temperatures decrease, thereby maintaining "icehouse" conditions during cold climate regimes.

  8. Biological changes observed on rice and biological and genetic changes observed on tabacco after space flight in the orbital station SALYUT-7 (Biobloc III experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayonove, J.; Burg, M.; Mir, A.; Delpoux, M.

    Caryopses and isolated embryos from Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Tobacco seeds (Nicotiana tabacum L. variety Xanthi) were studied in the Biobloc III container aboard the Soviet orbital space station SALYUT 7. The recovery from radiation damage under conditions of space flight was observed for rice caryopsis and embryos gamma irradiated (Co 60, 50 grays) prior to launch. There was a large decrease in the percentage of germinating seeds from the Tobacco strain tested when the seeds were exposed to heavy ions. Among the germinating plantlets there were few morphological anomalies. Furthermore, there was a significant greater amount of genetic change in those samples held in grids as compared to those in bags.

  9. Biological responses of a simulated marine food chain to lead addition.

    PubMed

    Soto-Jiménez, Martín F; Arellano-Fiore, Claudia; Rocha-Velarde, Ruth; Jara-Marini, Martín E; Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Voltolina, Domenico; Frías-Espericueta, Martín G; Quintero-Alvarez, Jesús M; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2011-07-01

    This investigation sought to assess the biological responses to Pb along a simplified four-level food chain, from the primary producer, the microalgae Tetraselmis suecica, grown in a control medium with < 1 µg/L of Pb and exposed to a sublethal dose (20 µg/L of Pb) and used as the base of a simulated food chain, through the primary-, secondary-, and tertiary-level consumers, namely, the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana; the white-leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei; and the grunt fish, Haemulon scudderi, respectively. Growth of Pb-exposed T. suecica was 40% lower than that of the control cultures, and survival of A. franciscana fed this diet was 25 to 30% lower than the control. No differences in the growth rates of Pb-exposed and control shrimp and fish and no gross morphological changes were evident in the exposed specimens. However, the exposed shrimp and fish had 20 and 15% higher mortalities than their controls, respectively. In addition, behavioral alterations were observed in exposed shrimp and fish, including reduction in food consumption or cessation of feeding, breathing air out of the water, reduction of motility, and erratic swimming. The negative correlation between Pb concentration in whole body of shrimp and fish and Fulton's condition factor suggested also that the exposed organisms were stressed because of Pb accumulation.

  10. Temporal and spatial patterns of anthropogenic disturbance at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennicutt, Mahlon C., II; Klein, Andrew; Montagna, Paul; Sweet, Stephen; Wade, Terry; Palmer, Terence; Sericano, Jose; Denoux, Guy

    2010-07-01

    Human visitations to Antarctica have increased in recent decades, raising concerns about preserving the continent's environmental quality. To understand the spatial and temporal patterns of anthropogenic disturbances at the largest scientific station in Antarctica, McMurdo Station, a long-term monitoring program has been implemented. Results from the first nine years (1999-2007) of monitoring are reported. Most physical disturbance of land surfaces occurred prior to 1970 during initial establishment of the station. Hydrocarbons from fuel and anthropogenic metals occur in patches of tens to hundreds of square meters in areas of fuel usage and storage. Most soil contaminant concentrations are not expected to elicit biological responses. Past disposal practices have contaminated marine sediments with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), petroleum hydrocarbons, and metals in close proximity to the station that often exceed concentrations expected to elicit biological responses. Chemical contamination and organic enrichment reduced marine benthic ecological integrity within a few hundred meters offshore of the station. Contaminants were detected in marine benthic organisms confirming bioavailability and uptake. PCBs in sediments are similar to suspected source materials, indicating minimal microbial degradation decades after release. Anthropogenic disturbance of the marine environment is likely to persist for decades. A number of monitoring design elements, indicators and methodologies used in temperate climates were effective and provide guidance for monitoring programs elsewhere in Antarctica.

  11. Marine macromolecules cross-linked hydrogel scaffolds as physiochemically and biologically favorable entities for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Sumayya, A S; Muraleedhara Kurup, G

    2017-06-01

    Marine biopolymer composite materials provide a technological platform for launching biomedical applications. Biomaterials demand good biocompatibility without the possibility of inflammation or foreign body reactions. In this study, we prepared two biocomposite hydrogels namely; HAC (hydroxyapatite, alginate & chitosan) and HACF (hydroxyapatite, alginate, chitosan & fucoidan) followed by calcium chloride cross linking. The prepared scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Porosity measurement, swelling, biodegradation, hemolysis, RBC aggregation, plasma protein adsorption and cytotoxicity studies were also done. The hydrogel scaffold HACF possessed a well-defined porous architecture, sufficient water holding capacity, better hemocompatibility and biodegradability. The biocompatibility was confirmed through in vitro cytotoxicity studies such as MTT assay, Neutral red uptake, DAPI staining, Trypan blue dye exclusion test and direct contact assay in L929 mouse fibroblast cells. In addition, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of both of these scaffolds were revealed by the mRNA expressions of major inflammatory marker genes in cytotoxic condition such as TNF-α, IL-6 and NF-κB. The physiochemical characterization and biological responses of HACF hydrogel signifies its suitability for various tissue engineering applications.

  12. Parasites as biological tags of marine, freshwater and anadromous fishes in North America from the Tropics to the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Marcogliese, David J; Jacobson, Kym C

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been considered as natural biological tags of marine fish populations in North America for almost 75 years. In the Northwest Atlantic, the most studied species include Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and the redfishes (Sebastes spp.). In the North Pacific, research has centred primarily on salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.). However, parasites have been applied as tags for numerous other pelagic and demersal species on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Relatively few studies have been undertaken in the Arctic, and these were designed to discriminate anadromous and resident salmonids (Salvelinus spp.). Although rarely applied in fresh waters, parasites have been used to delineate certain fish stocks within the Great Lakes-St Lawrence River basin. Anisakid nematodes and the copepod Sphyrion lumpi frequently prove useful indicators in the Northwest Atlantic, while myxozoan parasites prove very effective on the coast and open seas of the Pacific Ocean. Relative differences in the ability of parasites to discriminate between fish stocks on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts may be due to oceanographic and bathymetric differences between regions. Molecular techniques used to differentiate populations and species of parasites show promise in future applications in the field.

  13. 47 CFR 80.123 - Service to stations on land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service to stations on land. 80.123 Section 80... Stations § 80.123 Service to stations on land. Marine VHF public coast stations, including AMTS coast stations, may provide service to stations on land in accordance with the following: (a) The public...

  14. 47 CFR 80.17 - Administrative classes of stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.17 Administrative classes of stations. (a) Stations in the Maritime Mobile Service are licensed according to class of station as follows.... (5) Marine utility stations. (b) Stations on land in the Maritime Radiodetermination Service...

  15. 47 CFR 80.17 - Administrative classes of stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.17 Administrative classes of stations. (a) Stations in the Maritime Mobile Service are licensed according to class of station as follows.... (5) Marine utility stations. (b) Stations on land in the Maritime Radiodetermination Service...

  16. 47 CFR 80.105 - General obligations of coast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations. ...

  17. 47 CFR 80.105 - General obligations of coast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations. ...

  18. 47 CFR 80.105 - General obligations of coast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations. ...

  19. 47 CFR 80.105 - General obligations of coast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations. ...

  20. 47 CFR 80.105 - General obligations of coast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations. ...

  1. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING FURNACES, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  2. Biological effects and biochemical studies of tomato plants grown from seeds exposed for a long time at the MIR station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, G.; Yurov, S.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kapitanov, A.

    Experiments at orbital space stations were carried out with seeds of various plants -- welsh onion arabidopsis wheat pea maize barley tomato etc The results of these experiments showed some discrepancy concerning germinating capacity presence of chromosome aberrations and other parameters After short-term space flights most of plants did not exhibit any irreversible changes But prolongation of space flights to over one year leads to practically complete loss of the germinating capacity in for example Arabidopsis thaliana and Crepis capillaries The level of recessive mutations increased more than 3-fold as compared to the control variants after exposure of seeds during 840 days The objects studied in the experiments described here are tomato plants obtained from seeds carried for 6 years at the station MIR According to the results of the experiments the germinating capacity of the seeds was 32 versus 60 in the control The germination of the seeds began only on the 14-15 th days in the control -- on the 5 th day In the process of ontogenesis the level of mutations revealed in the experimental variants made up to 18 as compared to the 8 in the control After 6 years of exposure under space flight conditions practically all seeds lost their germinating capacity Most viable were seeds of wheat and tomato Biochemical analysis of tomato plants of the second generation produced from seeds exposed for a long time under space flight conditions was carried out The results of the analysis demonstrated an increased

  3. Understanding the transport of Patagonian dust and its influence on marine biological activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Kiliyanpilakkil, V. P.; Gassó, S.

    2011-03-01

    The supply of bioavailable iron to the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the Southern Ocean through atmospheric pathways could stimulate phytoplankton blooms and have major implications for the global carbon cycle. In this study, model results and remotely-sensed data are analyzed to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of iron-laden mineral dust deposition on marine biological productivity in the surface waters of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO). Model simulations for the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron are carried out for two large dust outbreaks originated at the source regions of northern Patagonia during the austral summer of 2009. Model-simulated horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes are in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Simulations indicate that the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems are largely accountable for dust transport trajectories over the SAO. According to model results and retrievals from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), synoptic flows caused by opposing pressure systems (a high pressure system located to the east or north-east of a low pressure system) elevate the South American dust plumes well above the marine boundary layer. Under such conditions, the bulk concentration of mineral dust can quickly be transported around the low pressure system in a clockwise manner, follow the southeasterly advection pathway, and reach the HNLC waters of the SAO and Antarctica in ~3-4 days after emission from the source regions of northern Patagonia. Two different mechanisms for dust-iron mobilization into a bioavailable form are considered in this study. A global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, is employed to estimate the atmospheric fluxes of soluble iron, while a

  4. Understanding the transport of Patagonian dust and its influence on marine biological activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Kiliyanpilakkil, V. P.; Gassó, S.

    2010-11-01

    The supply of bioavailable iron to the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the Southern Ocean through atmospheric pathways could stimulate phytoplankton blooms and have major implications for the global carbon cycle. In this study, model results and remotely-sensed data are analyzed to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of iron-laden mineral dust deposition on marine biological productivity in the surface waters of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO). Model simulations for the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron are carried out for two large dust outbreaks originated at the source regions of Northern Patagonia during the austral summer of 2009. Model-simulated horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes are in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Simulations indicate that the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems are largely accountable for dust transport trajectories over the SAO. According to model results and retrievals from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), synoptic flows caused by opposing pressure systems (a high pressure system located to the east or north-east of a low pressure system) elevate the South American dust plumes well above the marine boundary layer. Under such conditions, the bulk concentration of mineral dust can quickly be transported around the low pressure system in a clockwise manner, follow the southeasterly advection pathway, and reach the HNLC waters of the SAO and Antarctica in ~3-4 days after emission from the source regions of Northern Patagonia. Two different mechanisms for dust-iron mobilization into a bioavailable form are considered in this study. A global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, is employed to estimate the atmospheric fluxes of soluble iron, while a

  5. 76 FR 39386 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ..., from June 29 through November 19, 2010, trained graduate and undergraduate marine biology students... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project AGENCY: National Marine...

  6. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Physical Oceanography Component: Soundscapes Under Sea Ice: Can We Listen for Open Water?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    until May 17th (Day 137) when the open water soundscape returns for the season. The bowhead whales migrate north, with their chorus ending on Apr...especially critical in areas like the Bering Sea where global climate change can lead to rapid changes of the entire ecosystem. The Arctic is...physical environment that the marine mammals ( whales and seals) are using. Attention to the physical environment is often absent from biological

  7. An ecological acoustic recorder (EAR) for long-term monitoring of biological and anthropogenic sounds on coral reefs and other marine habitats.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Marc O; Brainard, Russell E; Au, Whitlow W L; Mooney, T Aran; Wong, Kevin B

    2008-03-01

    Keeping track of long-term biological trends in many marine habitats is a challenging task that is exacerbated when the habitats in question are in remote locations. Monitoring the ambient sound field may be a useful way of assessing biological activity because many behavioral processes are accompanied by sound production. This article reports the preliminary results of an effort to develop and use an Ecological Acoustic Recorder (EAR) to monitor biological activity on coral reefs and in surrounding waters for periods of 1 year or longer. The EAR is a microprocessor-based autonomous recorder that periodically samples the ambient sound field and also automatically detects sounds that meet specific criteria. The system was used to record the sound field of coral reefs and other marine habitats on Oahu, HI. Snapping shrimp produced the dominant acoustic energy on the reefs examined and exhibited clear diel acoustic trends. Other biological sounds recorded included those produced by fish and cetaceans, which also exhibited distinct temporal variability. Motor vessel activity could also be monitored effectively with the EAR. The results indicate that acoustic monitoring may be an effective means of tracking biological and anthropogenic activity at locations where continuous monitoring by traditional survey methods is impractical.

  8. Population biology of an endangered species: the common guitarfish Rhinobatos rhinobatos in Lebanese marine waters of the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lteif, M; Mouawad, R; Khalaf, G; Lenfant, P; Verdoit-Jarraya, M

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the population biology of the common guitarfish Rhinobatos rhinobatos, a cartilaginous fish listed as Endangered in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Between December 2012 and January 2014, 67 individuals were collected by bottom longlining in coastal Lebanese marine waters at different ports at depths ranging from 10 to 110 m. The total length (L(T)) of the specimens ranged from 50 to 143 cm, and the mean ± s.d. was 76.2 ± 19.7 cm. The most common L(T) classes were between 60 and 70 cm. The total mass of the specimens ranged from 410 to 10,000 g, and the mean ± s.d. was 1841 ± 1987 g. A total of 34 males and 33 females were collected, and the sex ratio was not significantly different from 1:1. The mass and L(T) relationship showed positive allometric growth (b = 3.096 and r(2)  = 0.99), and the mean ± s.d. L(T) at which 50% of the individuals were sexually mature was 84.73 ± 5.81 cm for females and 78.57 ± 4.88 cm for males. The gonado-somatic and hepato-somatic indices were determined along with a condition factor, and parturition appeared to occur in winter. The primary prey items found in the fish stomachs during the autumn and winter seasons were Penaeidae. The results of this study will help to parameterize models of the population dynamics for this exploited fish stock to ensure the long-term sustainability of its fishery. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Biologically Induced Deposition of Fine Suspended Particles by Filter-Feeding Bivalves in Land-Based Industrial Marine Aquaculture Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67±0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43±0.98 cm) was 77.84±7.77 and 6.37±0.67 mg ind−1•d−1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73±0.27 and 2.76±0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P<0.001). Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P<0.05). It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

  10. Biologically induced deposition of fine suspended particles by filter-feeding bivalves in land-based industrial marine aquaculture wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm) was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1) • d(-1), respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P < 0.001). Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P < 0.05). It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products.

  11. Predicting Natural Neuroprotection in Marine Mammals: Environmental and Biological Factors Affecting the Vulnerability to Acoustically Mediated Tissue Trauma in Marine Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    response and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias to the level of exercise performance and dive depth. This is being used to formulate new hypotheses...which mediate suppression of heart rate in diving marine mammals. We attribute cardiac arrhythmias (ectopic beats, inter-beat interval variability...observed during stroke gait transitions to this proposed autonomic neural conflict. Furthermore, the incidence of these cardiac arrhythmias appears

  12. Biological and chemical factors of importance in the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine contaminants in Arctic marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Borgå, Katrine; Fisk, Aaron T; Hoekstra, Paul E; Muir, Derek C G

    2004-10-01

    Recent studies of arctic marine food webs have provided detailed insights regarding the biological and chemical factors that influence the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine (OC) contaminants in aquatic systems. The present paper summarizes the recent literature with an emphasis on identifying important ecological factors for explaining variability of OC concentrations among organisms. The Arctic ecosystem has a number of unique attributes, including long food chains, reduced diversity of species, similar food webs across the entire region, and limited influence from pollution point sources. Lipid content, body size, age, gender, reproduction, habitat use, migration, biotransformation, seasonal changes in habitat conditions, feeding ecology, and trophic position have all been demonstrated to influence OC concentrations and bioaccumulation in arctic marine biota. The relative importance of each factor varies among OCs and organisms. Diet or trophic level is the dominant factor influencing OC concentrations and dynamics in seabirds and marine mammals, although biotransformation can significantly influence nonrecalcitrant OCs, such as hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. Dietary accumulation of OCs is also an important route of exposure for arctic fish and zooplankton, and biomagnification of OCs may also occur among these organisms. To date, only limited attempts have been made to model trophic transfer of OCs in the arctic marine food web. Although models developed to assess OC dynamics in aquatic food webs have included some biological variables (e.g., lipid content, feeding rate, diet composition, and growth rate), selection of processes included in these models as well as their mathematical solutions and parameterization all introduce simplification. This reduces biological validity of the models and may be particularly problematic in a highly seasonal environment, such as the Arctic Ocean.

  13. Marine enzymes.

    PubMed

    Debashish, Ghosh; Malay, Saha; Barindra, Sana; Joydeep, Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    Marine enzyme biotechnology can offer novel biocatalysts with properties like high salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity, and ease in large-scale cultivation. This review deals with the research and development work done on the occurrence, molecular biology, and bioprocessing of marine enzymes during the last decade. Exotic locations have been accessed for the search of novel enzymes. Scientists have isolated proteases and carbohydrases from deep sea hydrothermal vents. Cold active metabolic enzymes from psychrophilic marine microorganisms have received considerable research attention. Marine symbiont microorganisms growing in association with animals and plants were shown to produce enzymes of commercial interest. Microorganisms isolated from sediment and seawater have been the most widely studied, proteases, carbohydrases, and peroxidases being noteworthy. Enzymes from marine animals and plants were primarily studied for their metabolic roles, though proteases and peroxidases have found industrial applications. Novel techniques in molecular biology applied to assess the diversity of chitinases, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia-metabolizing, and pollutant-degrading enzymes are discussed. Genes encoding chitinases, proteases, and carbohydrases from microbial and animal sources have been cloned and characterized. Research on the bioprocessing of marine-derived enzymes, however, has been scanty, focusing mainly on the application of solid-state fermentation to the production of enzymes from microbial sources.

  14. The Current Status of the Space Station Biological Research Project: a Core Facility Enabling Multi-Generational Studies under Slectable Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, O.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) has developed a new plan which greatly reduces the development costs required to complete the facility. This new plan retains core capabilities while allowing for future growth. The most important piece of equipment required for quality biological research, the 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge capable of accommodating research specimen habitats at simulated gravity levels ranging from microgravity to 2.0 g, is being developed by NASDA, the Japanese space agency, for the SSBRP. This is scheduled for flight to the ISS in 2007. The project is also developing a multi-purpose incubator, an automated cell culture unit, and two microgravity habitat holding racks, currently scheduled for launch in 2005. In addition the Canadian Space Agency is developing for the project an insect habitat, which houses Drosophila melanogaster, and provides an internal centrifuge for 1 g controls. NASDA is also developing for the project a glovebox for the contained manipulation and analysis of biological specimens, scheduled for launch in 2006. This core facility will allow for experimentation on small plants (Arabidopsis species), nematode worms (C. elegans), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and a variety of microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We propose a plan for early utilization which focuses on surveys of changes in gene expression and protein structure due to the space flight environment. In the future, the project is looking to continue development of a rodent habitat and a plant habitat that can be accommodated on the 2.5 meter centrifuge. By utilizing the early phases of the ISS to broadly answer what changes occur at the genetic and protein level of cells and organisms exposed to the ISS low earth orbit environment, we can generate interest for future experiments when the ISS capabilities allow for direct manipulation and intervention of experiments. The ISS continues to hold promise for high quality, long

  15. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    In 1982, the Space Station Task Force was formed, signaling the initiation of the Space Station Freedom Program, and eventually resulting in the Marshall Space Flight Center's responsibilities for Space Station Work Package 1.

  16. Marine Biological Field Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in a standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. It could be a useful instructional tool for any high school student field…

  17. Compilation of selected marine radioecological data for the US Subseabed Program: Summaries of available radioecological concentration factors and biological half-lives

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphic summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of interstudy variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). This report updates earlier reviews and provides summaries of the tabulated data. In addition to the concentration factor/biological half-life data base, we provide an outline of other published marine radioecological works. Our goal is to present these data in a form that enables those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 555 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Nine New Species of Aleiodes Wesmael Reared at Yanayacu Biological Station (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) in Eastern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrew C.; Shaw, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Nine new species of Aleiodes (Braconidae: Rogadinae) are described and illustrated: A. aclydis, A. albiterminus, A. arbitrium, A. atripileatus, A. capillosus, A. greeneiyi, A. nebulosus, A. speciosus and A. stilpnos. Because of the difficulties in distinguishing Neotropical species that belong to the circumscriptus and gastritor species-groups, a larger species-group combining the two, termed the circumscriptus/gastritor species-group, is created. The new species described in this study belonged to the seriatus, albitibia, gressitti, and circumscnptus/gastritor species-groups, respectively. Aldodes capillosus represents the first Neotropical species belonging to the gressitti species-group. Of the 34 previously described Neotropical species in Aldodes, only 13 have known biologies. The Aleiodes species in this study were reared from the families Geometridae and Noctuidae, two of the most common host families of other Aleiodes species worldwide. PMID:19619013

  19. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  20. Career Choices by Biologists: A Case Study of Destinations of Graduates in Marine Biology and Zoology, 1986-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Margaret E.; Golding, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study tracking marine biologists' and zoologists' employment status between the years of 1986 and 1998. Suggests that despite the increase in university class sizes, able and well-trained biologists enjoy good career prospects. (Author/YDS)

  1. Career Choices by Biologists: A Case Study of Destinations of Graduates in Marine Biology and Zoology, 1986-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Margaret E.; Golding, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study tracking marine biologists' and zoologists' employment status between the years of 1986 and 1998. Suggests that despite the increase in university class sizes, able and well-trained biologists enjoy good career prospects. (Author/YDS)

  2. Developing a robust tephrochronological framework for Late Quaternary marine records in the Southern Adriatic Sea: new data from core station SA03-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, I. P.; Trincardi, F.; Lowe, J. J.; Bourne, A. J.; MacLeod, A.; Abbott, P. M.; Andersen, N.; Asioli, A.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lane, C. S.; Oh, Y. A.; Satow, C. S.; Staff, R. A.; Wulf, S.

    2015-06-01

    Tephra layers are assuming an increasingly important role in the dating and correlation of Late Quaternary marine sequences. Here we demonstrate their potential by reporting a new study of the sediment sequence of marine core SA03-11, recovered from the Southern Adriatic Sea, which spans the last c. 39 ka. A total of 28 discrete tephra layers are reported from this sequence, 10 of which are visible in the core and a further 18 are non-visible cryptotephra layers. These have been analysed using more than 1400 WDS-EPMA measurements of glass chemistry and results have been compared with published chemical measurements obtained from relevant proximal and distal sites which preserve eruptive material dating to within the same time interval. The data show that a high proportion of the layers originate from the Campi Flegrei volcanic field but more distinctive layers are sourced from Vesuvius, the Aeolian Islands and Vulcano, and these provide key marker horizons. The results show that the sequence extends in time to the Campanian Ignimbrite at the base, that a number of the layers have robust age estimates that permit a better constrained age-depth model to be constructed for the sequence, and that the potential exists for importing terrestrially-based age estimates into marine contexts, thereby circumventing problems of incorporating reservoir uncertainties associated with marine radiocarbon dates. The WDS-EPMA dataset generated here also provides important new data that constrain key Late Quaternary tephra layers in the central Mediterranean region.

  3. 33 CFR 72.01-25 - Marine broadcast notice to mariners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marine broadcast notice to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-25 Marine broadcast notice to... mines. Radio stations broadcasting marine information are listed in “Radio Navigational Aids”...

  4. 33 CFR 72.01-25 - Marine broadcast notice to mariners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marine broadcast notice to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-25 Marine broadcast notice to... mines. Radio stations broadcasting marine information are listed in “Radio Navigational Aids”...

  5. 33 CFR 72.01-25 - Marine broadcast notice to mariners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine broadcast notice to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-25 Marine broadcast notice to... mines. Radio stations broadcasting marine information are listed in “Radio Navigational Aids”...

  6. The significance of the study about the biological effects of solar ultraviolet radiation using the Exposed Facility on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2004-12-01

    It is believed that ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun participated in events related to the chemical evolution and birth of life on the primitive Earth. Although UV radiation would be also a driving force for the biological evolution of life on Earth, life space of the primitive living organisms would be limited in the UV-shielded place such as in the water at an early stage of the evolution of life. After the formation of stratospheric ozone layer through the production of oxygen by photoautotroph, living organisms were able to expand their domain from water to land. As a result, now, many kinds of living organisms containing human beings are flourishing on the ground. In the near future, increased transmission of harmful solar UV radiation may reach the Earth's surface due to stratospheric ozone layer depletion. In order to learn more about the biological effects of solar UV radiation with or without interruption by the ozone layer, the utilization of an Exposed Facility on the International Space Station is required. Experiments proposed for this facility would provide a tool for the scientific investigation of processes involved in the birth and evolution of life on Earth, and could also demonstrate the importance of protecting the Earth's future environment from future ozone layer depletion.

  7. Biologically effective ultraviolet radiation, total ozone abundance, and cloud optical depth at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, September 15 1988 through April 15 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Stamnes, K.; Slusser, J.; Bowen, M. ); Booth, C.; Lucas, T.

    1990-11-01

    Spectral measurements of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation taken at McMurdo Station, Antarctica are used to determine biologically effective UV dose, ozone column content, and effective cloud optical depth. The seasonal variation in these parameters from September 15, 1988 through April 15, 1989 is presented and discussed. Although no days from September 15 through October experienced UV dose exceeding that occurring at summer solstice, the temporal variation in the level of UV radiation is markedly asymmetric with respect to summer solstice. A general enhancement by about 20% in biologically effective UV dose in October, 1988 compared to March, 1989 is clearly evident. The main cause of this asymmetry appears to be the coincident deficiency in ozone abundance appears to be the coincident deficiency in ozone abundance by about 8% in spring compared to fall. The percent increase in UV dose per percent decrease in ozone abundance is about 2.5 in agreement with theoretical predictions. The total ozone amount is generally depleted (to about 250 DU) during October 1988, but there are large day-to-day fluctuations. Presumably these fluctuations are caused primarily by the motion of the polar vortex. After summer solstice UV radiation levels and ozone amounts exhibit much less pronounced day-to-day fluctuations. No spring/fall asymmetry in cloudiness, as it affects the surface ultraviolet radiation budget, is discernible from the measurements if the surface albedo is assumed to vary symmetrically around solstice.

  8. Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang-Zi; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, strain CZ-AM5(T), was isolated from an aerated biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CZ-AM5(T) were non-spore-forming rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 1.2-2.0 µm long, and motile by means of one or two polar or lateral flagella. Strain CZ-AM5(T) was strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 4.0 %). The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c (80.3 %). Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol%. Strain CZ-AM5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.5 %) to Phaeobacter caeruleus LMG 24369(T); it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.0-96.5, 95.2-96.3, 96.2, 94.6-95.7 and 94.8-95.8 % to members of the genera Phaeobacter, Ruegeria, Citreimonas, Leisingera and Donghicola, respectively. However, phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CZ-AM5(T) did not join any of the above genera, but formed a distinct lineage in the trees. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain CZ-AM5(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cribrihabitans marinus is CZ-AM5(T) ( = CGMCC 1.13219(T) = JCM 19401(T)).

  9. Microbial monitoring and performance evaluation for H2S biological air emissions control at a wastewater lift station in South Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kim D; Yadavalli, Naga; Karre, Anand K; Paca, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system consisting of a biotrickling filter and two biofilters was installed at Waste Water Lift Station # 64 in Brownsville, Texas, USA to evaluate the performance of the system being loaded with variable concentrations of wastewater hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions. In this study, the effectiveness of sulfur oxidizing bacteria along with the distribution of various sulfur species and their correlation with the performance of the biofilters was evaluated. The biofilters were packed with engineered media consisting of plastic cylinders with compacted organic material which was supplied by Met-Pro Environmental Air Solutions (formerly Bio·Reaction Industries). The overall performance of the pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system with an Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) of 60s and the overall performance of the biofilter unit with an EBRT of 35s developed a removal efficiency of > 99% at H(2)S levels up to 500 ppm. A decrease in performance over time was observed in the first and second sections of the first biofilter unit with the third section of the biofilter unit ultimately becoming the most robust unit removing most of the pollutant. The second biofilter unit was not needed and subsequently removed from the system. The number of CFUs in sulfur oxidizing T.thioparus selective media grew significantly in all four sections of the biofilter over the two months of pilot operation of the biological unit. The sulfur oxidizer growth rates appeared to be highest at low total sulfur content and at slightly acidic pH levels. This study has implications for improving the understanding of the distribution of sulfur oxidizing bacteria throughout the length of the biofilter columns, which can be used to further optimize performance and estimate breakthrough at these very high H(2)S input loadings.

  10. The role of sustained observations in tracking impacts of environmental change on marine biodiversity and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mieszkowska, N; Sugden, H; Firth, L B; Hawkins, S J

    2014-09-28

    Marine biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats from multiple pressures arising from human activities. Global drivers such as climate change and ocean acidification interact with regional eutrophication, exploitation of commercial fish stocks and localized pressures including pollution, coastal development and the extraction of aggregates and fuel, causing alteration and degradation of habitats and communities. Segregating natural from anthropogenically induced change in marine ecosystems requires long-term, sustained observations of marine biota. In this review, we outline the history of biological recording in the coastal and shelf seas of the UK and Ireland and highlight where sustained observations have contributed new understanding of how anthropogenic activities have impacted on marine biodiversity. The contributions of sustained observations, from those collected at observatories, single station platforms and multiple-site programmes to the emergent field of multiple stressor impacts research, are discussed, along with implications for management and sustainable governance of marine resources in an era of unprecedented use of the marine environment.

  11. The role of sustained observations in tracking impacts of environmental change on marine biodiversity and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Mieszkowska, N.; Sugden, H.; Firth, L. B.; Hawkins, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats from multiple pressures arising from human activities. Global drivers such as climate change and ocean acidification interact with regional eutrophication, exploitation of commercial fish stocks and localized pressures including pollution, coastal development and the extraction of aggregates and fuel, causing alteration and degradation of habitats and communities. Segregating natural from anthropogenically induced change in marine ecosystems requires long-term, sustained observations of marine biota. In this review, we outline the history of biological recording in the coastal and shelf seas of the UK and Ireland and highlight where sustained observations have contributed new understanding of how anthropogenic activities have impacted on marine biodiversity. The contributions of sustained observations, from those collected at observatories, single station platforms and multiple-site programmes to the emergent field of multiple stressor impacts research, are discussed, along with implications for management and sustainable governance of marine resources in an era of unprecedented use of the marine environment. PMID:25157190

  12. The effects of power station entrainment passage on three species of marine planktonic crustacean, Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Crangon crangon (Decapoda) and Homarus gammarus (Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Bamber, Roger N; Seaby, Richard M H

    2004-05-01

    Experiments have been undertaken exposing larval common shrimp (Crangon crangon) and lobster (Homarus gammarus) and adult copepods (Acartia tonsa) to the key stresses of entrainment within power-station cooling-water systems. The apparatus has enabled the testing of mechanical, thermal, chlorine and realistic pressure effects both alone and in combination, the range of stressors spanning the standard conditions found within a temperate coastal direct-cooled power station. Mechanical stresses affected only lobster larvae, pressure changes affected only the Acartia adults. Residual chlorine caused significant mortality of Acartia and shrimp larvae, but had no effect on lobster larvae even at 1 ppm. The temperature increment significantly affected all three species, with a synergistic effect on chlorine sensitivity in the shrimp larvae, but only temperatures higher than would be experienced in a normally-operating power station affected the copepods. The majority of individuals of each species would survive passage through a power-station system under normal conditions. It is notable that, within the species tested, generalizations from the responses of one species to those of another are not valid.

  13. Growth and development of Arabidopsis in the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) hardware designed for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savidge, Rodney

    Wild type (Col 0) Arabidopsis thaliana were grown in a growth chamber within the single mid-deck sized Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) spaceflight hardware developed by NASA Kennedy Space Center. Before beginning this experiment, the plants, each rooted in individual transferable tubes containing nutrients, were cultivated hydroponically on halfstrength Hoagland's solution beneath either LED lighting similar to that provided by the ABRS growth chamber or white fluorescent lighting. The leaves of the basal whorl of plants pre-grown in ABRS lighting were small and purplish at the start of the experiment, whereas those under fluorescent lighting were larger and green. The plants were transferred to the ABRS soon after their inflorescence axes had started to elongate, and thereafter they were maintained under preset conditions (22 o C, approximately 1500 ppm CO2 , predominantly 125 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR) with pulses of water provided at 1-3 d intervals (as needed) to the module into which the root tubes were inserted. That module was pre-treated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution on day 0, but no additional nutrients were provided the plants thereafter. Strong primary growth of all inflorescence stems occurred soon after initiating the ABRS experiment, and the plants began forming an overarching canopy of flowering stems beneath the LED lighting module within two weeks. After 38 days the root module was littered with seeds, siliques and abscised leaves, but all plants remained alive. Plants pre-grown in ABRS lighting were more advanced toward senescence, and leaves and stems of plants pre-grown in fluorescent lighting although greener were also acquiring a purplish hue. Microscopy revealed that the flowering stems achieved no secondary growth; however, progressive inward conversion of pith parenchyma into sclerenchyma cells did occur resulting in the inflorescence stems becoming abnormally woody.

  14. 78 FR 19224 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...We have received an application from the U.S. Marine Corps (Marine Corps) requesting an incidental harassment authorization (Authorization) to take marine mammals incidental to various training exercises at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Cherry Point Range Complex, North Carolina for a period of one year. The Marine Corps' activities are military readiness activities pursuant to the Marine......

  15. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  16. Impacts of biological parameterization, initial conditions, and environmental forcing on parameter sensitivity and uncertainty in a marine ecosystem model for the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, G. A.; Spitz, Y. H.

    2011-11-01

    We use a series of Monte Carlo experiments to explore simultaneously the sensitivity of the BEST marine ecosystem model to environmental forcing, initial conditions, and biological parameterizations. Twenty model output variables were examined for sensitivity. The true sensitivity of biological and environmental parameters becomes apparent only when each parameter is allowed to vary within its realistic range. Many biological parameters were important only to their corresponding variable, but several biological parameters, e.g., microzooplankton grazing and small phytoplankton doubling rate, were consistently very important to several output variables. Assuming realistic biological and environmental variability, the standard deviation about simulated mean mesozooplankton biomass ranged from 1 to 14 mg C m - 3 during the year. Annual primary productivity was not strongly correlated with temperature but was positively correlated with initial nitrate and light. Secondary productivity was positively correlated with primary productivity and negatively correlated with spring bloom timing. Mesozooplankton productivity was not correlated with water temperature, but a shift towards a system in which smaller zooplankton undertake a greater proportion of the secondary production as the water temperature increases appears likely. This approach to incorporating environmental variability within a sensitivity analysis could be extended to any ecosystem model to gain confidence in climate-driven ecosystem predictions.

  17. Location plan for Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Location plan for Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, October 8, 1943 - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  18. Determination of selenium in marine biological tissues by transverse heated electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal Zeeman background correction and automated ultrasonic slurry sampling.

    PubMed

    Méndez, H; Alava, F; Lavilla, I; Bendicho, C

    2001-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and reliable method for determination of selenium in marine biological tissues by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with slurry sampling was developed. Slurries were prepared from fresh and frozen seafood samples that were previously homogenized, dried, and ground; particle sizes <100 microm were taken for analysis. A 3% (v/v) HNO3 solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 was used as slurry diluent. Slurries were mixed on an automated ultrasonic slurry sampler at 20% amplitude for 30 s just before an aliquot was injected into the furnace. The method was successfully validated against the following certified reference materials: NRCC CRM DORM-2 (Dogfish muscle); NRCC CRM TORT-2 (Lobster hepatopancreas); NRCC CRM DOLT-2 (Dogfish liver); and BCR CRM 278 (Mussel tissue), and was subsequently applied to determination of Se in 10 marine biological samples. The influences of the drying procedure (oven-, microwave-, and freeze-drying), matrix modifier amount, mass of solid material in cup, and pipetting sequence are discussed. The limit of determination of Se was 0.16 microg/g and the repeatability, estimated as between-batch precision, was in the range of 4-8%. Se contents in the samples ranged from 0.6 to 2.8 microg/g. The proposed method should be useful for fast assessment of the daily dietary intake of Se.

  19. The Littoral Station of Aguda, in the North of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.

    1995-03-01

    The public authorities have recently approved the building of a Littoral Station in Aguda, a small fishing village on the Atlantic coast, 15 km south of the River Douro estuary in the municipal area of Vila Nova de Gaia. The internal structure of the building involves a Fishery Museum exhibiting ancient and modern gear, a Public Aquarium displaying the local marine fauna and flora and a Research and Educational Department for marine biology, aquaculture and fishery. The project was drawn up by the architect João Paulo Peixoto, in collaboration with local engineers, and the author. In Aguda there is an active, small-scale fishery, based on traditional methods handed down from generation to generation. The almost unstudied local marine fauna and flora is characterized by a high diversity of invertebrates and a rich abundance of fish stocks. Easy access to a variety of marine biotopes is guaranteed by means of the local fishing-fleet, thus supporting the Station's programme of education and research.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and surface marine sediment near Jubany Station (Antarctica). Role of permafrost as a low-permeability barrier.

    PubMed

    Curtosi, Antonio; Pelletier, Emilien; Vodopivez, Cristian L; Mac Cormack, Walter P

    2007-09-20

    Although Antarctica is still considered as one of the most pristine areas of the world, the growing tourist and fisheries activities as well as scientific operations and their related logistic support are responsible for an increasing level of pollutants in this fragile environment. Soils and coastal sediments are significantly affected near scientific stations particularly by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this work sediment and soil were sampled in two consecutive summer Antarctic expeditions at Potter Cove and peninsula, in the vicinity of Jubany Station (South Shetland Islands). Two- and 3-ring PAHs (methylnaphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene) were the main compounds found in most sites, although total PAH concentrations showed relatively low levels compared with other human-impacted areas in Antarctica. Pattern distribution of PAHs observed in samples suggested that low-temperature combustion processes such as diesel motor combustion and open-field garbage burning are the main sources of these compounds. An increase in PAH concentrations was observed from surface to depth into the active soil layer except for a unique sampling site where a fuel spill had been recently reported and where an inverted PAH concentration gradient was observed. The highest level was detected in the upper layer of permafrost followed by a sharp decrease in depth, showing this layer is acting as a barrier for downward PAH migration. When PAH levels in soil from both sampling programs were compared a significant decrease (p<0.01) was observed in summer 2005 (range at 75-cm depth: 12+/-1-153+/-22 ng/g) compared to summer 2004 (range at 75-cm depth: 162+/-15-1182+/-113 ng/g) whereas concentrations in surface sediment collected nearby the station PAHs increased drastically in 2005 (range: 36+/-3-1908+/-114 ng/g) compared to 2004 (range: 28+/-3-312+/-24 ng/g). Precipitation regime and water run off suggest that an important wash out of soil-PAHs occurred during

  1. Otters, Marine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  2. 75 FR 38465 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... graduate and undergraduate marine biology students conducted approximately 783 hours of scientific... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XQ80 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project AGENCY:...

  3. Comparative effects of biological and chemical dispersants on the bioavailability and toxicity of crude oil to early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

    PubMed

    Mu, Jingli; Jin, Fei; Ma, Xindong; Lin, Zhongsheng; Wang, Juying

    2014-11-01

    The authors assessed the bioavailability and chronic toxicity of water-accommodated fractions of crude oil (WAFs) and 2 dispersants plus dispersed crude oil (chemical dispersant + crude oil [CE-WAF] and biological dispersant + crude oil [BE-WAF]) on the early life stages of marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma. The results showed that the addition of the 2 dispersants caused a 3- and 4-fold increase in concentrations of summed priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and high-molecular-weight PAHs with 3 or more benzene rings. The chemical and biological dispersants increased the bioavailability (as measured by ethoxyresorufin-O-dethylase activity) of crude oil 6-fold and 3-fold, respectively. Based on nominal concentrations, chronic toxicity (as measured by deformity) in WAFs exhibited a 10-fold increase in CE-WAF and a 3-fold increase in BE-WAF, respectively. When total petroleum hydrocarbon was measured, the differences between WAF and CE-WAF treatments disappeared, and CE-WAF was approximately 10 times more toxic than BE-WAF. Compared with the chemical dispersant, the biological dispersant possibly modified the toxicity of oil hydrocarbons because of the increase in the proportion of 2- and 3-ringed PAHs in water. The chemical and biological dispersants enhanced short-term bioaccumulation and toxicity, through different mechanisms. These properties should be considered in addition to their efficacy in degrading oil when oil spill management strategies are selected.

  4. Study to determine the aquatic biological effects on the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). [technique for monitoring marine microbial fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. R.; Zachary, A.

    1979-01-01

    The surface of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB), which are jettisoned from the Shuttle Orbiter to parachute in the sea, are studied for colonization by marine life. Techniques for monitoring the marine microbial fouling of SRB materials are presented. An assessment of the nature and degree of the biofouling expected on the SRB materials in the recovery zone is reported. A determination of the degree and the effects of seasonal variation occurring on microbial fouling in the retrieval zone waters is made. The susceptibility of the SRB parachute recovery system to microbial fouling and biodeterioration is investigated. The development of scanning electron microscopy and epifluorescence microscopic observation techniques for rapid assessment of microbial fouling is discussed.

  5. Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals (10th), Held in Galveston, Texas on November 11-15, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-15

    Mamiferos Marinos. P. 0. Box 09-01-6637, Guayaquil, Ecuador. ThevocalizationsofacaptivejuvenilefcmaleGuadalupefurseal Between February 1990 and January...MORPHOLOGICAL INDEX, FISHERY STOCK, AND SCHOOL Laboratorio de Mamiferos Marinos, Fac. de Ciencias, UNAM, Mexico. Garcia, A. I. and Dizon, A. E. Ap...J!, McAdie, Haase, J .M .B. , and F6lix, F. Malcolm L.’, and Cornish, Tracy E.’ Fundacijn Ecuatoriana para el Estudio de Mamiferos Marinos. ’Marine

  6. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence.

  7. A roadmap for hazard monitoring and risk assessment of marine biotoxins on the basis of chemical and biological test systems.

    PubMed

    Daneshian, Mardas; Botana, Luis M; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Buckland, Gemma; Campàs, Mònica; Dennison, Ngaire; Dickey, Robert W; Diogène, Jorge; Fessard, Valérie; Hartung, Thomas; Humpage, Andrew; Leist, Marcel; Molgó, Jordi; Quilliam, Michael A; Rovida, Costanza; Suarez-Isla, Benjamin A; Tubaro, Aurelia; Wagner, Kristina; Zoller, Otmar; Dietrich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic food accounts for over 40% of global animal food products, and the potential contamination with toxins of algal origin--marine biotoxins--poses a health threat for consumers. The gold standards to assess toxins in aquatic food have traditionally been in vivo methods, i.e., the mouse as well as the rat bioassay. Besides ethical concerns, there is also a need for more reliable test methods because of low inter-species comparability, high intra-species variability, the high number of false positive and negative results as well as questionable extrapolation of quantitative risk to humans. For this reason, a transatlantic group of experts in the field of marine biotoxins was convened from academia and regulatory safety authorities to discuss future approaches to marine biotoxin testing. In this report they provide a background on the toxin classes, on their chemical characterization, the epidemiology, on risk assessment and management, as well as on their assumed mode of action. Most importantly, physiological functional assays such as in vitro bioassays and also analytical techniques, e.g., liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS), as substitutes for the rodent bioassay are reviewed. This forms the basis for recommendations on methodologies for hazard monitoring and risk assessment, establishment of causality of intoxications in human cases, a roadmap for research and development of human-relevant functional assays, as well as new approaches for a consumer directed safety concept.

  8. Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    bringing together many of the top researchers in marine bioacoustics, biological oceanography, and marine biology , we provide students with a unique...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks for the future...postdoctoral investigators with a broad understanding of ocean acoustics as well as the techniques used to study the ecology of marine animals in situ. By

  9. Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 8. INTERIOR VIEW OF STATION PARLEY LOOKING THROUGH THE HATCH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW OF STATION PARLEY LOOKING THROUGH THE HATCH, SHOWING THE FLOOR AND THE INSTRUMENT PEDESTAL WITH HARDWARE. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighterthanairhangar roof truss details. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighter-than-air-hangar roof truss details. Drawing no. 212817. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  12. Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal rolling door. Drawing no. 2122 820. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  13. Biological properties

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous biological degradations that wood is exposed to in various environments. Biological damage occurs when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Biological organisms, such as bacteria, mold, stain, decay fungi, insects, and marine borers, depend heavily on temperature and moisture conditions to grow. A higher...

  14. Vitamin B1 in marine sediments: pore water concentration gradient drives benthic flux with potential biological implications.

    PubMed

    Monteverde, Danielle R; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Cutter, Lynda; Chong, Lauren; Berelson, William; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B1, or thiamin, can limit primary productivity in marine environments, however the major marine environmental sources of this essential coenzyme remain largely unknown. Vitamin B1 can only be produced by organisms that possess its complete synthesis pathway, while other organisms meet their cellular B1 quota by scavenging the coenzyme from exogenous sources. Due to high bacterial cell density and diversity, marine sediments could represent some of the highest concentrations of putative B1 producers, yet these environments have received little attention as a possible source of B1 to the overlying water column. Here we report the first dissolved pore water profiles of B1 measured in cores collected in two consecutive years from Santa Monica Basin, CA. Vitamin B1 concentrations were fairly consistent between the two years ranging from 30 pM up to 770 pM. A consistent maximum at ~5 cm sediment depth covaried with dissolved concentrations of iron. Pore water concentrations were higher than water column levels and represented some of the highest known environmental concentrations of B1 measured to date, (over two times higher than maximum water column concentrations) suggesting increased rates of cellular production and release within the sediments. A one dimensional diffusion-transport model applied to the B1 profile was used to estimate a diffusive benthic flux of ~0.7 nmol m(-2) d(-1). This is an estimated flux across the sediment-water interface in a deep sea basin; if similar magnitude B-vitamin fluxes occur in shallow coastal waters, benthic input could prove to be a significant B1-source to the water column and may play an important role in supplying this organic growth factor to auxotrophic primary producers.

  15. Ecotoxicity of triphenyltin on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus at various biological organisations: from molecular to population-level effects.

    PubMed

    Yi, Andy Xianliang; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-09-01

    Triphenyltin compounds (TPTs), as effective biocides for different industrial and agricultural purposes, have been detected in coastal marine environments worldwide, in particular in Asian countries. However, little is known about their toxicity to marine organisms. This study comprehensively investigated the molecular, individual and population responses of the marine copepod, Tigriopus japonicus upon waterborne exposure to TPT chloride (TPTCl). Our results indicated that TPTCl was highly toxic to adult T. japonicus, with a 96-h LC50 concentration at 6.3 μg/L. As shown in a chronic full life-cycle test, T. japonicus exposed to 1.0 μg/L TPTCl exhibited a delay in development and a significant reduction of population growth, in terms of the intrinsic rate of increase (r m ). Based on the negative relationship between the r m and exposure concentration, a critical effect concentration was estimated at 1.6 μg/L TPTCl; at or above which population extinction could occur. At 0.1 μg/L TPTCl or above, the sex ratio of the second generation of the copepod was significantly altered and changed to a male-biased population. At molecular level, the inhibition of the transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase related genes might lead to dysfunction of detoxification, and the inhibition of retinoid X receptor mRNA expression implied an interruption of the growth and moulting process in T. japonicus. As the only gene that observed up-regulated in this study, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating its function in protecting the copepod from TPT-mediated oxidative stress. The study advances our understanding on the ecotoxicity of TPT, and provides some initial data on its toxic mechanisms in small crustaceans like copepods.

  16. Diversity and biological activities of the bacterial community associated with the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Dupont, S; Carré-Mlouka, A; Descarrega, F; Ereskovsky, A; Longeon, A; Mouray, E; Florent, I; Bourguet-Kondracki, M L

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the cultivable microbiota of the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior frequently found in the Mediterranean Sea was investigated, and its potential as a source of antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiplasmodial compounds was evaluated. The cultivable bacterial community was studied by isolation, cultivation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Twenty-three bacterial strains were isolated and identified in the Proteobacteria (α or γ classes) and Actinobacteria phyla. Furthermore, three different bacterial morphotypes localized extracellularly within the sponge tissues were revealed by microscopic observations. Bacterial strains were assigned to seven different genera, namely Vibrio, Photobacterium, Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Ruegeria, Pseudovibrio and Citricoccus. The strains affiliated to the same genus were differentiated according to their genetic dissimilarities using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Eleven bacterial strains were selected for evaluation of their bioactivities. Three isolates Pseudovibrio P1Ma4, Vibrio P1MaNal1 and Citricoccus P1S7 revealed antimicrobial activity; Citricoccus P1S7 and Vibrio P1MaNal1 isolates also exhibited antiplasmodial activity, while two Vibrio isolates P1Ma8 and P1Ma5 displayed antioxidant activity. These data confirmed the importance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria associated with marine sponges as a reservoir of bioactive compounds. This study presents the first report on the diversity of the cultivable bacteria associated with the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior, frequently found in the Mediterranean Sea. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the isolates has been investigated and allowed to select bacterial strains, confirming the importance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria as sources of bioactive compounds. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Vitamin B1 in marine sediments: pore water concentration gradient drives benthic flux with potential biological implications

    PubMed Central

    Monteverde, Danielle R.; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Cutter, Lynda; Chong, Lauren; Berelson, William; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B1, or thiamin, can limit primary productivity in marine environments, however the major marine environmental sources of this essential coenzyme remain largely unknown. Vitamin B1 can only be produced by organisms that possess its complete synthesis pathway, while other organisms meet their cellular B1 quota by scavenging the coenzyme from exogenous sources. Due to high bacterial cell density and diversity, marine sediments could represent some of the highest concentrations of putative B1 producers, yet these environments have received little attention as a possible source of B1 to the overlying water column. Here we report the first dissolved pore water profiles of B1 measured in cores collected in two consecutive years from Santa Monica Basin, CA. Vitamin B1 concentrations were fairly consistent between the two years ranging from 30 pM up to 770 pM. A consistent maximum at ~5 cm sediment depth covaried with dissolved concentrations of iron. Pore water concentrations were higher than water column levels and represented some of the highest known environmental concentrations of B1 measured to date, (over two times higher than maximum water column concentrations) suggesting increased rates of cellular production and release within the sediments. A one dimensional diffusion-transport model applied to the B1 profile was used to estimate a diffusive benthic flux of ~0.7 nmol m−2 d−1. This is an estimated flux across the sediment-water interface in a deep sea basin; if similar magnitude B-vitamin fluxes occur in shallow coastal waters, benthic input could prove to be a significant B1-source to the water column and may play an important role in supplying this organic growth factor to auxotrophic primary producers. PMID:26029181

  18. Three forms of assessment of prior knowledge, and improved performance following an enrichment programme, of English second language biology students within the context of a marine theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, Nicola F.; Downs, Colleen T.

    2002-02-01

    The Science Foundation Programme (SFP) was launched in 1991 at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa in an attempt to equip a selected number of matriculants from historically disadvantaged schools with the skills, resources and self-confidence needed to embark on their tertiary studies. Previous research within the SFP biology component suggests that a major contributor to poor achievement and low retention rates among English second language (ESL) students in the Life Sciences is the inadequate background knowledge in natural history. In this study, SFP student background knowledge was assessed along a continuum of language dependency using a set of three probes. Improved student performance in each of the respective assessments examined the extent to which a sound natural history background facilitated meaningful learning relative to ESL proficiency. Student profiles and attitudes to biology were also examined. Results indicated that students did not perceive language to be a problem in biology. However, analysis of the student performance in the assessment probes indicated that, although the marine course provided the students with the background knowledge that they were initially lacking, they continued to perform better in the drawing and MCQ tools in the post-tests, suggesting that it is their inability to express themselves in the written form that hampers their development. These results have implications for curriculum development within the constructivist framework of the SFP.

  19. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a modular space station. In 1970 the Marshall Space Flight Center arnounced the completion of a study concerning a modular space station that could be launched by the planned-for reusable Space Shuttle. The study envisioned a space station composed of cylindrical sections 14 feet in diameter and of varying lengths joined to form any one of a number of possible shapes. The sections were restricted to 14 feet in diameter and 58 feet in length to be consistent with a shuttle cargo bay size of 15 by 60 feet. Center officials said that the first elements of the space station could be in orbit by about 1978 and could be manned by three or six men. This would be an interim space station with sections that could be added later to form a full 12-man station by the early 1980s.

  20. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  1. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  2. Organomercury determination in biological reference materials: application to a study on mercury speciation in marine mammals off the Faröe Islands.

    PubMed

    Schintu, M; Jean-Caurant, F; Amiard, J C

    1992-08-01

    The potential use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) for the organic mercury determination in marine biological tissues was evaluated. Following its isolation by acid extraction in toluene, organic mercury was recovered in aqueous thiosulfate and measured by GF-AAS. The detection limit was 0.01 microgram Hg/g (as methyl mercury). Analyses were conducted on three reference standard materials certified for their methyl mercury content, DOLT-1, DORM-1, and TORT-1, provided by the National Research Council of Canada. The method resulted in very good recovery and reproducibility, indicating that GF-AAS can provide results comparable to those obtained by using more expensive and time consuming analytical techniques. The method was applied to the analysis of liver tissues of pilot whale specimens (Globicephala melas) from the drive fishery of the Faröe Islands (northeast Atlantic). The results provided useful information on the proportion of different mercury forms in the liver of these marine mammals.

  3. Combining Methods to Describe Important Marine Habitats for Top Predators: Application to Identify Biological Hotspots in Tropical Waters

    PubMed Central

    Thiers, Laurie; Louzao, Maite; Ridoux, Vincent; Le Corre, Matthieu; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-01-01

    In tropical waters resources are usually scarce and patchy, and predatory species generally show specific adaptations for foraging. Tropical seabirds often forage in association with sub-surface predators that create feeding opportunities by bringing prey close to the surface, and the birds often aggregate in large multispecific flocks. Here we hypothesize that frigatebirds, a tropical seabird adapted to foraging with low energetic costs, could be a good predictor of the distribution of their associated predatory species, including other seabirds (e.g. boobies, terns) and subsurface predators (e.g., dolphins, tunas). To test this hypothesis, we compared distribution patterns of marine predators in the Mozambique Channel based on a long-term dataset of both vessel- and aerial surveys, as well as tracking data of frigatebirds. By developing species distribution models (SDMs), we identified key marine areas for tropical predators in relation to contemporaneous oceanographic features to investigate multi-species spatial overlap areas and identify predator hotspots in the Mozambique Channel. SDMs reasonably matched observed patterns and both static (e.g. bathymetry) and dynamic (e.g. Chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature) factors were important explaining predator distribution patterns. We found that the distribution of frigatebirds included the distributions of the associated species. The central part of the channel appeared to be the best habitat for the four groups of species considered in this study (frigatebirds, brown terns, boobies and sub-surface predators). PMID:25494047

  4. Biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical Triclosan in the marine mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Cortez, Fernando Sanzi; Seabra Pereira, Camilo Dias; Santos, Aldo Ramos; Cesar, Augusto; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Martini, Gisela de Assis; Bohrer-Morel, Maria Beatriz

    2012-09-01

    Triclosan (5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is an antibacterial compound widely employed in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Although this emerging compound has been detected in aquatic environments, scarce information is found on the effects of Triclosan to marine organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a concentration range of Triclosan through fertilization assay (reproductive success), embryo-larval development assay (early life stage) and physiological stress (Neutral Red Retention Time assay - NRRT) (adult stage) in the marine sentinel organism Perna perna. The mean inhibition concentrations for fertilization (IC(50) = 0.490 mg L(-1)) and embryo-larval development (IC(50) = 0.135 mg L(-1)) tests were above environmental relevant concentrations (ng L(-1)) given by previous studies. Differently, significant reduction on NRRT results was found at 12 ng L(-1), demonstrating the current risk of the continuous introduction of Triclosan into aquatic environments, and the need of ecotoxicological studies oriented by the mechanism of action of the compound. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding the Transport of Patagonian Dust and Its Influence on Marine Biological Activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Kiliyanpilakkil, Praju; Gasso, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and remote sensing techniques were applied to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of soluble-iron- laden mineral dust deposition on marine primary productivity in the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) surface waters. The global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem, implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, was applied to evaluate the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron during two dust outbreaks originating in the source regions of Patagonia. In addition to this "rapidly released" iron, offline calculations were also carried out to estimate the amount of bioavailable iron leached during the residence time of dust in the ocean mixed layer. Model simulations showed that the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes were largely influenced by the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems. Model-predicted horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust over the SAO were in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Comparison between remotely-sensed and offline calculated ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentrations indicated that, for the two dust outbreaks examined in this study, the deposition of bioavailable iron in the SAO through atmospheric pathways was insignificant. As the two dust transport episodes examined here represent typical outflows of mineral dust from South American sources, our study suggests that the atmospheric deposition of mineral dust is unlikely to induce large scale marine primary productivity and carbon sequestration in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean.

  6. Spatial patterns of benthic foraminifera as a support to the oceanographic characterisation of Arvoredo biological marine reserve (South Atlantic, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Paquette, Marie-Laurence; Bonetti, Carla; Bitencourt, Volney; Bonetti, Jarbas

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of benthic foraminifera in a sector of the inner continental shelf of Santa Catarina State (Brazil), which comprises a Marine Protected Area (MPA). Species indicators of continental input suggest that waters under the influence of continental drainage can eventually reach the southwestern part of the reserve, which might jeopardise the ecosystems of this MPA due to the transport of contaminants related to human activities. Species known to be indicators of high marine benthic productivity were more abundant below 30 m, and were associated with areas under the stronger influence of nutrient-enriched water mass. The high density of foraminifera and the low dominance of species found in most samples inside the reserve might be evidence for the positive effects of the prohibition of bottom trawling, ensuring a higher ecological equilibrium of benthic communities. These results can contribute to the current debate about the reclassification and change in the extent of this MPA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Promising Biological Indicator of Heavy Metal Pollution: Bioluminescent Bacterial Strains Isolated and Characterized from Marine Niches of Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Thakre, Neha A; Shanware, Arti S

    2015-09-01

    In present study, several marine water samples collected from the North Goa Beaches, India for isolation of luminescent bacterial species. Isolates obtained labelled as DP1-5 and AB1-6. Molecular characterization including identification of a microbial culture using 16S rRNA gene based molecular technique and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that DP3 & AB1 isolates were Vibrio harveyi. All of the isolates demonstrated multiple metal resistances in terms of growth, with altered luminescence with variable metal concentration. Present investigations were an attempt towards exploring and reporting an updated diversity of bioluminescent bacterial species from various sites around the Goa, India which would be explored in future for constructing luminescence based biosensor for efficiently monitoring the level of hazardous metals in the environment.

  8. First Total Synthesis and Biological Screening of a Proline-Rich Cyclopeptide from a Caribbean Marine Sponge.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Rajiv; Singh, Sunil; Sharma, Ajay; Chennupati, Suresh V; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2016-12-15

    A natural heptacyclopeptide, stylissamide G (7), previously isolated from the Bahamian marine sponge Stylissa caribica from the Caribbean Sea, was synthesized via coupling of the tetrapeptide l-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-proline methyl ester with the tripeptide Boc-l-leucyl-l-isoleucyl-l-proline, followed by cyclization of the linear heptapeptide fragment. The structure of the synthesized cyclooligopeptide was confirmed using quantitative elemental analysis, FT-IR, ¹H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry. Results of pharmacological activity studies indicated that the newly synthesized cycloheptapeptide displayed good anthelmintic potential against Megascoplex konkanensis, Pontoscotex corethruses and Eudrilus eugeniea at 2 mg/mL and in addition, potent antifungal activity against pathogenic Candida albicans and dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii at a concentration of 6 μg/mL.

  9. Identification and Biological Activities of Long-Chain Peptaibols Produced by a Marine-Derived Strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

    PubMed

    Mohamed-Benkada, Mustapha; François Pouchus, Yves; Vérité, Philippe; Pagniez, Fabrice; Caroff, Nathalie; Ruiz, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Six long-chain peptaibols, 1 - 6, were identified from agar cultures of a marine-derived Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai strain (MMS151) isolated from blue mussels. The structure elucidation was carried out using electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS) and GC/EI-MS. The long-chain peptaibols exhibited the general building scheme Ac-Aib-Ala-Aib-Ala-Aib-XXX-Gln-Aib-Vxx-Aib-Gly-XXX-Aib-Pro-Vxx-Aib-XXX-Gln-Gln-Pheol and were similar or identical to recurrent 20-residue peptaibols produced by Trichoderma spp. Three new sequences were identified and were called longibrachins A-0, A-II-a, and A-IV-b. The isolated peptaibols were assayed for cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities, and acute toxicity on Dipteran larvae. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. First Total Synthesis and Biological Screening of a Proline-Rich Cyclopeptide from a Caribbean Marine Sponge

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Rajiv; Singh, Sunil; Sharma, Ajay; Chennupati, Suresh V.; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    A natural heptacyclopeptide, stylissamide G (7), previously isolated from the Bahamian marine sponge Stylissa caribica from the Caribbean Sea, was synthesized via coupling of the tetrapeptide l-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-proline methyl ester with the tripeptide Boc-l-leucyl-l-isoleucyl-l-proline, followed by cyclization of the linear heptapeptide fragment. The structure of the synthesized cyclooligopeptide was confirmed using quantitative elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. Results of pharmacological activity studies indicated that the newly synthesized cycloheptapeptide displayed good anthelmintic potential against Megascoplex konkanensis, Pontoscotex corethruses and Eudrilus eugeniea at 2 mg/mL and in addition, potent antifungal activity against pathogenic Candida albicans and dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii at a concentration of 6 μg/mL. PMID:27983681

  11. Marine-derived myxobacteria of the suborder Nannocystineae: An underexplored source of structurally intriguing and biologically active metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Schäberle, Till F

    2016-01-01

    Summary Myxobacteria are famous for their ability to produce most intriguing secondary metabolites. Till recently, only terrestrial myxobacteria were in the focus of research. In this review, however, we discuss marine-derived myxobacteria, which are particularly interesting due to their relatively recent discovery and due to the fact that their very existence was called into question. The to-date-explored members of these halophilic or halotolerant myxobacteria are all grouped into the suborder Nannocystineae. Few of them were chemically investigated revealing around 11 structural types belonging to the polyketide, non-ribosomal peptide, hybrids thereof or terpenoid class of secondary metabolites. A most unusual structural type is represented by salimabromide from Enhygromyxa salina. In silico analyses were carried out on the available genome sequences of four bacterial members of the Nannocystineae, revealing the biosynthetic potential of these bacteria. PMID:27340488

  12. Trial of multidisciplinary observation at an expandable sub-marine cabled station "off-hatsushima island observatory" in sagami bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kasaya, Takafumi; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko; Goto, Tada-Nori; Iwase, Ryoichi; Sayanagi, Keizo; Araki, Eiichiro; Asakawa, Kenichi; Mikada, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Tomoki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Nagao, Toshiyasu

    2009-01-01

    Sagami Bay is an active tectonic area in Japan. In 1993, a real-time deep sea floor observatory was deployed at 1,175 m depth about 7 km off Hatsushima Island, Sagami Bay to monitor seismic activities and other geophysical phenomena. Video cameras monitored biological activities associated with tectonic activities. The observation system was renovated completely in 2000. An ocean bottom electromagnetic meter (OBEM), an ocean bottom differential pressure gauge (DPG) system, and an ocean bottom gravity meter (OBG) were installed January 2005; operations began in February of that year. An earthquake (M5.4) in April 2006, generated a submarine landslide that reached the Hatsushima Observatory, moving some sensors. The video camera took movies of mudflows; OBEM and other sensors detected distinctive changes occurring with the mudflow. Although the DPG and OBG were recovered in January 2008, the OBEM continues to obtain data.

  13. Trial of Multidisciplinary Observation at an Expandable Sub-Marine Cabled Station “Off-Hatsushima Island Observatory” in Sagami Bay, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kasaya, Takafumi; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko; Goto, Tada-nori; Iwase, Ryoichi; Sayanagi, Keizo; Araki, Eiichiro; Asakawa, Kenichi; Mikada, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Tomoki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Nagao, Toshiyasu

    2009-01-01

    Sagami Bay is an active tectonic area in Japan. In 1993, a real-time deep sea floor observatory was deployed at 1,175 m depth about 7 km off Hatsushima Island, Sagami Bay to monitor seismic activities and other geophysical phenomena. Video cameras monitored biological activities associated with tectonic activities. The observation system was renovated completely in 2000. An ocean bottom electromagnetic meter (OBEM), an ocean bottom differential pressure gauge (DPG) system, and an ocean bottom gravity meter (OBG) were installed January 2005; operations began in February of that year. An earthquake (M5.4) in April 2006, generated a submarine landslide that reached the Hatsushima Observatory, moving some sensors. The video camera took movies of mudflows; OBEM and other sensors detected distinctive changes occurring with the mudflow. Although the DPG and OBG were recovered in January 2008, the OBEM continues to obtain data. PMID:22291563

  14. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Marianne; Murillo, Laurence; Becquet, Vanessa; Churlaud, Carine; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Huet, Valérie; Lacroix, Camille; Pante, Eric; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia) at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational) responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases) as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde) were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites) than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites. PMID:26938082

  15. 77 FR 25145 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ....D., Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua... conduct acoustic studies on captive marine mammals at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology through May... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA37 Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857...

  16. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1952-01-01

    This is a von Braun 1952 space station concept. In a 1952 series of articles written in Collier's, Dr. Wernher von Braun, then Technical Director of the Army Ordnance Guided Missiles Development Group at Redstone Arsenal, wrote of a large wheel-like space station in a 1,075-mile orbit. This station, made of flexible nylon, would be carried into space by a fully reusable three-stage launch vehicle. Once in space, the station's collapsible nylon body would be inflated much like an automobile tire. The 250-foot-wide wheel would rotate to provide artificial gravity, an important consideration at the time because little was known about the effects of prolonged zero-gravity on humans. Von Braun's wheel was slated for a number of important missions: a way station for space exploration, a meteorological observatory and a navigation aid. This concept was illustrated by artist Chesley Bonestell.

  17. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has been issued a permit to conduct ] scientific research on marine mammal parts. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available...

  18. Examining the reproducibility of stable isotope ratios in the marine bivalve, Astarte borealis, from populations in the White Sea, Russia: implications for biological consequences of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNabb, Justin; Surge, Donna

    2015-04-01

    Shells of the marine bivalve, Astarte, are uniquely suited to investigate links between environmental/climate change and biological consequences because of their change in size and biogeographic distribution through time. For example, are there corresponding changes in lifespan and biogeographic distribution depending on warm vs. cold climate states? Does warm vs. cold climate state result in longer or shorter lifespans? Early studies of Astarte have documented a decrease in shell size through geologic time. Modern specimens are much smaller than those from the mid Pliocene at similar latitudes. Astarte had a wide latitudinal and cosmopolitan distribution in the western North Atlantic during the Oligocene to Pliocene. During the early Pleistocene, most of the warm-water species became extinct, and today, their biogeographic distribution is mostly restricted to the northern Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans. To answer questions linking biological consequences and climate change, we must first decipher ontogenetic changes in shell growth of modern specimens. Preliminary data using isotope sclerochronology identified slowed shell growth from late summer to winter in modern specimens from the White Sea, Russia, possibly triggered by increasing freshwater input and decreasing temperatures. Here, we present new data examining the reproducibility of isotopic time series and season of slowed growth among modern individuals collected at the same time from the same population.

  19. Biological characterization of two marine Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms isolated from Daya bay of Shenzhen, China and their application in the elimination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanhuan; Liu, Chunjiao; Chen, Liyun; Zhang, Xuemei; Cai, Junpeng

    2011-11-15

    Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs) are a group of highly motile delta-proteobacteria that prey on other gram-negative bacteria. However, nothing is known of the application potential of marine BALOs in safeguarding seafood safety. Here, biological characterization of two marine BALOs strains and their application in the elimination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis) at the laboratory scale were investigated. BALOs strains BDH12 and BDHSH06 were isolated from sediment of Daya bay in Shenzhen of China, with Shewanella putrefaciens strain 12 and V. parahaemolyticus strain SH06 as preys, respectively, when using double layer agar technique. They were identified as BALOs morphologically by transmission electron microscopy, while partial 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that they showed no close relationships with members of the known genera Bdellovibrio, Bacteriolyticum, Bacteriovorax, or Peredibacter. Biological characterizations revealed that both strains had the optimal pH, salinity and temperature at 7.2, 3% and 30 °C, correspondingly. They could not utilize autoclaved, dead cells as hosts. Prey range analysis revealed that individually, BDH12 and BDHSH06 lysed 82.5% (47 strains) and 84.2% (48 strains) of the total 57 preys tested respectively. In combination, they lysed 98.2% (56 of 57) strains. All strains of V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus tested could be lysed by both strains. A 7-day laboratory-scale V. parahaemolyticus elimination experiment in oyster showed that in the control, the cell counts of total vibrios and V. parahaemolyticus strain Vp plus in water and in oyster intestines were on the rise, whereas in the BALOs treated groups, their numbers were down from 8.09±0.05 log CFU/ml and 8.02±0.04 log CFU/ml to 2.39±0.01 log CFU/ml and 2.33±0.01 log CFU/ml, respectively. The same patterns could also be observed in oyster intestines. Results of this study indicate the feasibility of using

  20. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Space Station Freedom as it would look orbiting the Earth, illustrated by Marshall Space Flight Center artist, Tom Buzbee. Scheduled to be completed in late 1999, this smaller configuration of the Space Station featured a horizontal truss structure that supported U.S., European, and Japanese Laboratory Modules; the U.S. Habitation Module; and three sets of solar arrays. The Space Station Freedom was an international, permanently marned, orbiting base to be assembled in orbit by a series of Space Shuttle missions that were to begin in the mid-1990's.

  1. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Space Station Freedom as it would look orbiting the Earth; illustrated by Marshall Space Flight Center artist, Tom Buzbee. Scheduled to be completed in late 1999, this smaller configuration of the Space Station features a horizontal truss structure that supported U.S., European, and Japanese Laboratory Modules; the U.S. Habitation Module; and three sets of solar arrays. The Space Station Freedom was an international, permanently marned, orbiting base to be assembled in orbit by a series of Space Shuttle missions that were to begin in the mid-1990's.

  2. 77 FR 50289 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... implement. SAG members will include recognized marine biology and marine bio-acoustic scientific subject... Part 218 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations... Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed...

  3. Syntheses of a library of molecules on the marine natural product ianthelliformisamines platform and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faiz Ahmed; Ahmad, Saeed; Kodipelli, Naveena; Shivange, Gururaj; Anindya, Roy

    2014-06-21

    Ianthelliformisamines A-C are a novel class of bromotyrosine-derived antibacterial agents isolated recently from the marine sponge Suberea ianthelliformis. We have synthesized ianthelliformisamines A-C straightforwardly by the condensation of (E)-3-(3,5-dibromo-4-methoxyphenyl)acrylic acid and the corresponding Boc-protected polyamine followed by Boc-deprotection with TFA. Further, using this reaction protocol, a library of their analogues (39 analogues) has been synthesized by employing 3-phenylacrylic acid derivatives and Boc-protected polyamine chains through various combinations of these two fragments differing in phenyl ring substitution, double bond geometry or chain length of the central spacer of the polyamine chain (shown in red color). All the synthesized compounds (ianthelliformisamines A-C and their analogues) were screened for antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) strains. All synthetic analogues of ianthelliformisamine A showed bacterial growth inhibition against both strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus), having MIC values in the range of 117.8-0.10 μM, while none of the synthetic analogues of ianthelliformisamine C as well as the parent compound showed any detectable antibacterial activity. Interestingly, some of the synthetic analogues of ianthelliformisamines A and B exerted a bactericidal effect against both E. coli and S. aureus strains, decreasing viable bacterial count by 99% at concentrations as low as 2 × MIC.

  4. Biological Experiment and Clinical Tests on Mammotropic Action Of Muyingle — A New Type of Healthfood Prepared from Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ba-fan; Hao, Lin-hua; Liu, Xiang-dong

    1996-12-01

    Muyingle is a new type of health food prepared from marine organisms. The mammotropic action of Muyingle was investigated by studying its effect on mammary glands and pituitary glands of lactating mice and the survival rate of suckling mice. The results showed that the mammotropic action of Muyingle was very effective. The survival rates of suckling mice were 92.90% for the treated group and 0 for the control group ( p<0.01). The weights of mammary gland were 163 ± 51.1mg/10g (weight of mouse) for the treated group and 98.5 ± 18.4 mg/10 g for the control group ( p<0.01). Histological examinations suggested that mammary glands from the treated group were at the secreting stages, while those from the control group were at the resting stages. Clinical tests also demonstrated that Muyingle was highly effective in promoting lactation and improving the quality of the puerpera's milk. The efficiency was up to 86.7%.

  5. Aqabamycins A-G: novel nitro maleimides from a marine Vibrio species. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Al-Zereini, Wael; Fotso Fondja Yao, Clarisse Blanchine; Laatsch, Hartmut; Anke, Heidrun

    2010-06-01

    In a screening of marine bacteria, a Vibrio species isolated from the surface of the soft coral Sinularia polydactyla collected in the Red Sea was found to be a prolific producer of secondary metabolites with antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Seven novel maleimide derivatives named aqabamycin A (1a), aqabamycin B (1b), aqabamycin C (1c), aqabamycin D (1d), aqabamycin E (1e and 1e'), aqabamycin F (1f) and aqabamycin G (2) were isolated together with several known metabolites such as 3-nitro-1H-indazole (3), indazole-3-carbaldehyde (4), phenyl-2-bis-indolylmethane (5a), turbomycin B (5b), vibrindole A (6), 1,4-dithiane (7), 3-(3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid (8), 3-nitro-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (9), phenylacetic acid, benzoic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid. The aqabamycins, except aqabamycin A, bear a nitro group. Compounds 3, 4, 7 are described here for the first time from a natural source and vibrindole A was found to have cytotoxic activity.

  6. Jobs in Marine Science. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The instructional booklet explores various occupations in the job family of marine science. Following a brief introduction to the concept of occupational clusters, the student is given an overall orientation to the general area of oceanography and marine-related careers. A shore research station and the activities of a marine biologist are…

  7. Jobs in Marine Science. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The instructional booklet explores various occupations in the job family of marine science. Following a brief introduction to the concept of occupational clusters, the student is given an overall orientation to the general area of oceanography and marine-related careers. A shore research station and the activities of a marine biologist are…

  8. Stations Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, John P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Described is a program of outdoor education utilizing activity-oriented learning stations. Described are 13 activities including: a pond study, orienteering, nature crafts, outdoor mathematics, linear distance measurement, and area measurement. (SL)

  9. Functional structure of marine benthic assemblages using Biological Traits Analysis (BTA): A study along the Emilia-Romagna coastline (Italy, North-West Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, Daniele; Marchini, Agnese; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The functional diversity index has shown that the functional diversity of the macrobenthic community increased along a spatial gradient of distance from the Po river delta (Emilia-Romagna coast, Italy, North-Adriatic Sea), which suggests that riverine inputs have a detrimental effect on community functioning. This study focuses on two different depths along a southward gradient of increasing distance from the Po river delta where the Po river is the main source of freshwater and nutrient inputs in the North-Adriatic Sea. A Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) was used to examine a dataset of 156 soft-bottom macrobenthic species that were collected at eight stations in this area. Instead of comparing communities on the basis of their taxonomic composition, BTA uses a series of life history, morphological and behavioural characteristics of species to indicate aspects of their ecological functioning. The variability of the Emilia-Romagna dataset was governed by relatively few biological traits: growth form, trophic group, type of movement, habit, adult mobility and bioturbation activity. The community closer to the coastline was mainly composed of moderately mobile vermiform organisms with burrowing or tube-dwelling behaviour, and deposit feeding behaviour. However, the offshore community was mainly characterized by organisms with a laterally compressed or globose body and tube-dwelling behaviour; filter feeders and deposit feeders were dominant.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of marine algae.

    PubMed

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection.

  11. Water resources data, Wyoming, water year 2004; Volume 1. Surface water; with List of discontinued and active surface-water, water-quality, sediment, and biological stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.R.; Woodruff, R.E.; Laidlaw, G.A.; Clark, M.L.; Miller, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Wyoming consist of records of stage, discharge and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 of this report contains discharge records for 164 gaging stations; water quality for 43 gaging stations and 45 ungaged stations, and stage and contents for one reservoir. Volume 2 of this report contains water levels records for 64 wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent part of the National Water Information System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Wyoming.

  12. A new record from China of epiphytic marine algae, Acrochaete leptochaete (Chaetophoraceae, Chlorophyta) with its primary experimental biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yunyan; Tang, Xiaorong; Ding, Lanping; Lian, Shaoxing

    2011-03-01

    Acrochaete leptochaete, a species in Chaetophoraceae (Chlorophyta), was observed during our recent laboratory culture of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha that was originally collected from an intertidal pool in Rongcheng, Shandong Province, China. This is the first record of this species in China. Its morphology, taxonomy, and distribution were introduced and discussed in detail. Isolated culture experiments at different temperatures (9-29°C) and light intensities (36-108 μmol/m2·s) were also carried out. The culture-based observations have extended our knowledge of growth morphology and general biology of the species.

  13. Biological effects of TiO2 and CeO2 nanoparticles on the growth, photosynthetic activity, and cellular components of a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Cheng, Jie; Hu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Ling; Li, Da; Gao, Kun

    2017-01-01

    It is very important to have a good understanding of the biological effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on marine diatoms. In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to titanium dioxide NPs (nano-TiO2) and cerium oxide NPs (nano-CeO2) were compared and evaluated using 96h growth tests in a batch-culture system. At 96h of exposure, the growth inhibition rate (IR, %) of P. tricornutum increased from 5.46 to 27.31% with increasing nano-TiO2 concentrations from 2.5 to 40mgL(-1). The maximum IR of 49.59% occurred in 40mgL(-1) nano-TiO2 treatments at 48h of exposure. Growth of the diatom was increased in low nano-CeO2 treatments (≤5mgL(-1)), but was inhibited in high nano-CeO2 treatments (≥10mgL(-1)). Large aggregates of NPs were attached to the cells of P. tricornutum in 20 and 40mgL(-1) nano-TiO2 and nano-CeO2 treatments. In addition, the effective quantum yields (ΦPSII) of P. tricornutum in 40mgL(-1) nano-TiO2 and nano-CeO2 treatments were 83.33 and 71.13% of that in the controls at 96h of exposure, respectively. Compared with that of the controls at 96h of exposure, chlorophyll a content, soluble sugar content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, SOD and POD activities of P. tricornutum in 40mgL(-1) nano-TiO2 and nano-CeO2 treatments increased by 57.56, 142.97, 373.25, 698.76, 204.85% and 21.43, 89.41, 194.97, 340.05, 502.86%, while soluble protein content decreased by 70.38 and 28.64%, respectively. These findings will be helpful to understand the effect mechanisms of NPs on marine organisms.

  14. Combined in situ effects of metals and nutrients on marine biofilms: Shifts in the diatom assemblage structure and biological traits.

    PubMed

    Belando, M D; Marín, A; Aboal, M; García-Fernández, A J; Marín-Guirao, L

    2017-01-01

    The effects of multiple stressors on marine diatom assemblages are still poorly understood. The interactive effects of metals and nutrients were assessed in two coastal biofilms grown at a reference site and a historically contaminated site. The biofilms were exposed in situ to pulse exposures of metals (Zn and Pb) and nutrients (N and P) individually and in combination to mimic patterns of discharge in the study area. The reference community's structure (composition and abundance of taxa) was modified after metals and/or nutrients exposure, but each stressor acted in different way. Irrespective of the stressors or scenario, the abundance of the dominant species Opephora krumbeinii declined, and it is proposed as sensitive species. Nutrient supply favoured the proliferation of certain species with high nutrient tolerances (Fragilaria famelica, Tabularia ktenoeides), whereas metals promoted the colonisation of metal-tolerant species, e.g., Berkeleya fennica, Opephora marina. Simultaneous exposure induced an amplification of levels of accumulated metals, chlorophyll a and EPS contents and triggered the succession of species towards tolerant species with specific growth. Metals seemed to act as a selective factor of metal-tolerant species, and nutrients favoured the proliferation of those species forming zig-zag colonies (Neosynedra provincialis), mucous tubes (Berkeleya spp.) and motile diatoms (Navicula salinicola, Nitzschia incognita), resulting in biofilms with a more complex architecture. The diatom communities from the historically contaminated site were more resistant to pulse exposure, but metals or nutrients loads induced overproduction of mucilage. We propose that growth forms may complement taxonomic approaches and provide a quick and easy way to detect community changes related to metal and nutrient pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Status of marine biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, O

    1976-01-01

    A meeting on Marine Biomedical Research, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, was attended by approximately 125 scientists, directors and representatives from many of the country's marine biological laboratories, and government agencies whose interests and responsibilites are in the marine biology and health areas. The purpose of the meeting was to explore the undeveloped research opportunities in the area of marine biology for the advancement of our understanding of human health problems and to provide information on the current status of marine biology laboratories. The meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions in four general areas: (1)Marine Species as Models for Human Disease; (2)Environmental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis; (3)Human Health and the Marine Environment--infectious agents and naturally occurring and foreign toxins; and (4)Drugs from the seas. Representatives from twelve of the country's approximatley 40 marine laboratories discussed their organization, developmental history, scientific programs, facilities, and present status of their support. The presentations served as a background and stimulated very lively analytical and constructive discussions of the undeveloped research and education potential residing in the marine environment and biological laboratories for a better understanding of many human health problems; some scientific areas that should be developed to realize this potential; and the needs and problems of marine laboratories that require attention and support if they are to survive and realize their possibilities. PMID:944630

  16. 47 CFR 80.514 - Marine VHF frequency coordinating committee(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine VHF frequency coordinating committee(s... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.514 Marine VHF frequency coordinating committee(s). This section contains the names...

  17. 47 CFR 80.514 - Marine VHF frequency coordinating committee(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine VHF frequency coordinating committee(s... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.514 Marine VHF frequency coordinating committee(s). This section contains the names...

  18. 75 FR 65278 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... its regulations to establish one new danger zone in Pamlico Sound near Marine Corps Air Station Cherry... scheduled live fire training, Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point has requested that the Corps establish... advance of the actual training start date. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point will have a call-in...

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-14

    Astronaut James S. Voss, Expedition Two flight engineer, works with a series of cables on the EXPRESS Rack in the United State's Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). The EXPRESS Rack is a standardized payload rack system that transports, stores, and supports experiments aboard the ISS. EXPRESS stands for EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to the Space Station, reflecting the fact that this system was developed specifically to maximize the Station's research capabilities. The EXPRESS Rack system supports science payloads in several disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, ecology, and medicine. With the EXPRESS Rack, getting experiments to space has never been easier or more affordable. With its standardized hardware interfaces and streamlined approach, the EXPRESS Rack enables quick, simple integration of multiple payloads aboard the ISS. The system is comprised of elements that remain on the ISS, as well as elements that travel back and forth between the ISS and Earth via the Space Shuttle.

  20. Bioactive terpenes from marine-derived fungi.

    PubMed

    Elissawy, Ahmed M; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S; Singab, AbdelNasser B; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-03

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years' reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.