Science.gov

Sample records for marine biology letters

  1. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  2. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  3. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  4. Marine Fisheries: A Biological Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haefner, Paul A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine science course offered to high school biology teachers. The course objectives were designed to introduce teachers to a marine science subject that could be used in the secondary science classroom and laboratory and to create an awareness of the issues surrounding the marine sciences. (DS)

  5. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  6. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  7. Central Equipment Facility for Molecular Marine Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-07

    used. Projects supported include marine symbiosis (Haygood, Felback), cell biology (Vacquier), pressure adaptation in marine bacteria (Bartlett), population genetics and evolution of marine organisms (Perrin, Newman).

  8. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  9. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  10. Linking marine biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    de Nys, Rocky; Steinberg, Peter D

    2002-06-01

    Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of ultraviolet sunscreens.

  11. Resource Letter TPB-1: Theoretical Physics and Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, N.

    1974-01-01

    This is one of a series of Resource Letters on different topics, intended to guide college physicists to some of the literature and other teaching aids. This bibliography is designed to help physicists identify literature related to mathematical biology. (Author/RH)

  12. Gloucester Marine Biology Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Sonja; And Others

    Objectives and activities for a field trip study of the seacoast environment of Gloucester, Massachusetts, are outlined in this guide. One phase of a six-week tenth grade biology unit, the field trip features study of tidal pool and salt marsh ecosystems. Specific objectives of the trip relate to observation and identification of various forms of…

  13. Gloucester Marine Biology Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Sonja; And Others

    Objectives and activities for a field trip study of the seacoast environment of Gloucester, Massachusetts, are outlined in this guide. One phase of a six-week tenth grade biology unit, the field trip features study of tidal pool and salt marsh ecosystems. Specific objectives of the trip relate to observation and identification of various forms of…

  14. The Physics of Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways in which marine biology can be integrated into the physics classroom. Topics suggested for incorporation include the harmonic motion of ocean waves, ocean currents, the interaction of visible light with ocean water, pressure, light absorption, and sound transfer in water. (MDH)

  15. The Physics of Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways in which marine biology can be integrated into the physics classroom. Topics suggested for incorporation include the harmonic motion of ocean waves, ocean currents, the interaction of visible light with ocean water, pressure, light absorption, and sound transfer in water. (MDH)

  16. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  17. Resource Letter PFBi-1: Physical frontiers in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielczarek, Eugenie Vorburger

    2006-05-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on physical frontiers in biology. Books and review articles are cited as well as journal articles for the following topics: cells and cellular mats; conformational dynamics/folding; electrostatics; enzymes, proteins, and molecular machines; material-biomineralization; miscellaneous topics; nanoparticles and nanobiotechnology; neuroscience; photosynthesis; quantum mechanics theory; scale and energy; spectroscopy and microscopy: experiments and instrumentation; single-molecule dynamics; and water and hydrogen-bonded solvents. A list of web resources and videotapes is also given.

  18. Biological importance of marine algae.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Ali A

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.

  19. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  20. From marine ecology to biological oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Eric L.

    1995-03-01

    Looking back from the 1990s it seems natural to view the work done in the Biologische Anstalt Helgoland by Friedrich Heincke and his colleagues, beginning in 1892, as marine ecology or marine biology, and that done in Kiel, under Victor Hensen and Karl Brandt, as biological oceanography. But historical analysis shows this view to be untenable. Biological oceanography, as a research category and a profession, does not appear until at least the 1950's. In the German tradition of marine research, “Ozeanographie”, originating in 19th century physical geography, did not include the biological sciences. The categories “Meereskunde” and “Meeresforschung” covered all aspects of marine research in Germany from the 1890's to the present day. “Meeresbiologie” like that of Brandt, Heincke, and other German marine scientists, fitted comfortably into these. But in North America no such satisfactory professional or definitional structure existed before the late 1950's. G. A. Riley, one of the first biological oceanographers, fought against descriptive, nonquantitative American ecology. In 1951 he described biological oceanography as the “ecology of marine populations”, linking it with quantitative population ecology in the U.S.A. By the end of the 1960's the U.S. National Science Foundation had recognized biological oceanography as a research area supported separately from marine biology. There was no need for the category “biological oceanography” in German marine science because its subject matter lay under the umbrella of “Meereskunde” or “Meeresforschung”. But in North America, biological oceanography — a fundamental fusion of physics and chemistry with marine biology — was created to give this marine science a status higher than that of the conceptually overloaded ecological sciences. The sociologists Durkheim and Mauss claimed in 1903 that, “the classification of things reproduces the classification of men”; similarly, in science, the

  1. [Biologically active metabolites of the marine actinobacteria].

    PubMed

    Sobolevskaia, M P; Kuznetsova, T A

    2010-01-01

    This review systematically data on the chemical structure and biological activity of metabolites of obligate and facultative marine actinobacteria, published from 2000 to 2007. We discuss some structural features of the five groups of metabolites related to macrolides and compounds containing lactone, quinone and diketopiperazine residues, cyclic peptides, alkaloids, and compounds of mixed biosynthesis. Survey shows a large chemical diversity of metabolites actinobacteria isolated from marine environment. It is shown that, along with metabolites, identical to previously isolated from terrestrial actinobacteria, marine actinobacteria synthesize unknown compounds not found in other natural sources, including micro organisms. Perhaps the biosynthesis of new chemotypes bioactive compounds in marine actinobacteria is one manifestation of chemical adaptation of microorganisms to environmental conditions at sea. Review stresses the importance of the chemical study of metabolites of marine actinobacteria. These studies are aimed at obtaining new data on marine microorganisms producers of biologically active compounds and chemical structure and biological activity of new low-molecular bioregulators of natural origin.

  2. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  3. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Maths for physics? Help! Fire! Energy and mass Maths for physics? As a maths graduate working as a university research associate I should be well qualified to support my daughter, who has just started AS-level physics, with the maths she needs for the course. There seems to be little integration between the maths and physics departments, so that maths needed for physics has not yet been covered in maths lessons. This is a problem I remember from my own school days, but the shorter timescale and modular nature of the AS and A2 levels means that it is essential that this mismatch of knowledge is resolved now. I would like to know whether physics teachers in the UK have encountered this problem and whether there is a deficiency in the maths syllabus in relation to the requirements of the AS and A2 levels in Physics or whether this is a problem peculiar to my daughter's school. Eleanor Parent of A-level student, Sheffield, UK Help! Fire! Is there a crisis in physics education? Is physics didactics coming to an end? Yes and no. Being a delegate from Norway at the on-going conference Physics on Stage (6-10 November 2000) at CERN in Geneva, I have had the opportunity to discuss this with people from all over Europe. Yes, there is a crisis. (Look at the proceedings for details on this.) I'd like to take a broader look at this situation. Like Hari Seldon in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy, I believe that there is nothing like a real crisis to get things going... Famous is the quote from the American Patent Office around 1890: 'Everything has been invented that could be invented'. Fortunately, this spurred action. The Michelson and Morley experiment heralded a most exciting period for physics. Just a cosmic blink later we put a person on the Moon. Coming back to the crisis - I am certain that in the near future we will see an interesting development

  4. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  5. Resource Letter TTSM-1: Teaching Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics in Introductory Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Geller, Benjamin D.; Meltzer, David E.; Sawtelle, Vashti

    2015-01-01

    This Resource Letter draws on discipline-based education research from physics, chemistry, and biology to collect literature on the teaching of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in the three disciplines. While the overlap among the disciplinary literatures is limited at present, we hope this Resource Letter will spark more interdisciplinary interaction.

  6. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  7. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  8. Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Pyridoacridines are a class of strictly marine-derived alkaloids that constitute one of the largest chemical families of marine alkaloids. During the last few years, both natural pyridoacridines and their analogues have constituted excellent targets for synthetic works. They have been the subject of intense study due to their significant biological activities; cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, anti-HIV, and anti-parasitic activities. In the present review, 95 pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from marine organisms are discussed in term of their occurrence, biosynthesis, biological activities, and structural assignment.

  9. Biological methods for marine toxin detection.

    PubMed

    Vilariño, Natalia; Louzao, M Carmen; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2010-07-01

    The presence of marine toxins in seafood poses a health risk to human consumers which has prompted the regulation of the maximum content of marine toxins in seafood in the legislations of many countries. Most marine toxin groups are detected by animal bioassays worldwide. Although this method has well known ethical and technical drawbacks, it is the official detection method for all regulated phycotoxins except domoic acid. Much effort by the scientific and regulatory communities has been focused on the development of alternative techniques that enable the substitution or reduction of bioassays; some of these have recently been included in the official detection method list. During the last two decades several biological methods including use of biosensors have been adapted for detection of marine toxins. The main advances in marine toxin detection using this kind of technique are reviewed. Biological methods offer interesting possibilities for reduction of the number of biosassays and a very promising future of new developments.

  10. Field Techniques in Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is one teacher's method of teaching students to use various marine and scientific apparati while studying important relationships within the ecosystem. A data retrieval chart is included with questions and problems to ask about the data, along with information on how to interpret the data chart. (MA)

  11. Field Techniques in Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is one teacher's method of teaching students to use various marine and scientific apparati while studying important relationships within the ecosystem. A data retrieval chart is included with questions and problems to ask about the data, along with information on how to interpret the data chart. (MA)

  12. Resource Letter BSSMF-1: Biological Sensing of Static Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegold, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the effects of static (time-invariant) magnetic fields B on life, concentrating on how selected creatures sense/detect B. Journal articles, books, and previous and future electronically accessible media are cited for the following topics: history, the magnetic sensing/detection of B by creatures from bacteria to bugworms to butterflies to bees to birds to bats to bovines to beings (human), some of the mechanisms of effects at the developmental and cellular levels, experimental pitfalls, claimed healing effects of B, some medical uses of magnets, and cosmetics. The field presents a fascinating, evolving saga.

  13. Genetic perspectives on marine biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Geller, Jonathan B; Darling, John A; Carlton, James T

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which the geographic distributions of marine organisms have been reshaped by human activities remains underappreciated, and so does, consequently, the impact of invasive species on marine ecosystems. The application of molecular genetic data in fields such as population genetics, phylogeography, and evolutionary biology have improved our ability to make inferences regarding invasion histories. Genetic methods have helped to resolve longstanding questions regarding the cryptogenic status of marine species, facilitated recognition of cryptic marine biodiversity, and provided means to determine the sources of introduced marine populations and to begin to recover the patterns of anthropogenic reshuffling of the ocean's biota. These approaches stand to aid materially in the development of effective management strategies and sustainable science-based policies. Continued advancements in the statistical analysis of genetic data promise to overcome some existing limitations of current approaches. Still other limitations will be best addressed by concerted collaborative and multidisciplinary efforts that recognize the important synergy between understanding the extent of biological invasions and coming to a more complete picture of both modern-day and historical marine biogeography.

  14. Environmental biology of the marine Roseobacter lineage.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Biebl, Hanno

    2006-01-01

    The Roseobacter lineage is a phylogenetically coherent, physiologically heterogeneous group of alpha-Proteobacteria comprising up to 25% of marine microbial communities, especially in coastal and polar oceans, and it is the only lineage in which cultivated bacteria are closely related to environmental clones. Currently 41 subclusters are described, covering all major marine ecological niches (seawater, algal blooms, microbial mats, sediments, sea ice, marine invertebrates). Members of the Roseobacter lineage play an important role for the global carbon and sulfur cycle and the climate, since they have the trait of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, oxidize the greenhouse gas carbon monoxide, and produce the climate-relevant gas dimethylsulfide through the degradation of algal osmolytes. Production of bioactive metabolites and quorum-sensing-regulated control of gene expression mediate their success in complex communities. Studies of representative isolates in culture, whole-genome sequencing, e.g., of Silicibacter pomeroyi, and the analysis of marine metagenome libraries have started to reveal the environmental biology of this important marine group.

  15. Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John D; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Goodwin, Nicholas B; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    We review interactions between extrinsic threats to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond to those threats. Information is available on the status of less than 5% of the world's approximately 15 500 marine fish species, most of which are of commercial importance. By 2001, based on data from 98 North Atlantic and northeast Pacific populations, marine fishes had declined by a median 65% in breeding biomass from known historic levels; 28 populations had declined by more than 80%. Most of these declines would be sufficient to warrant a status of threatened with extinction under international threat criteria. However, this interpretation is highly controversial, in part because of a perception that marine fishes have a suite of life history characteristics, including high fecundity and large geographical ranges, which might confer greater resilience than that shown by terrestrial vertebrates. We review 15 comparative analyses that have tested for these and other life history correlates of vulnerability in marine fishes. The empirical evidence suggests that large body size and late maturity are the best predictors of vulnerability to fishing, regardless of whether differences among taxa in fishing mortality are controlled; there is no evidence that high fecundity confers increased resilience. The evidence reviewed here is of direct relevance to the diverse criteria used at global and national levels by various bodies to assess threat status of fishes. Simple life history traits can be incorporated directly into quantitative assessment criteria, or used to modify the conclusions of quantitative assessments, or used as preliminary screening criteria for assessment of the ∼95% of marine fish species whose status has yet to be evaluated either by conservationists or fisheries scientists. PMID:16243696

  16. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them. PMID:26312188

  17. Biological and ecological traits of marine species.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark John; Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the 'status' of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them.

  18. [Book Review] Biology of marine birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Roby, Daniel D.; Antolos, Michelle; Lyons, Donald E.; Rizzolo, Daniel; Wright, Sadie K.; Anderson, Cynthia D.; Anderson, Scott K.; Nelson, S. Kim; Gall, Adrian E.; Wennerberg, Liv

    2003-01-01

    A text devoted to the biology and ecology of marine birds has not been published in the last 15 years. Although a number of more taxa-specific texts have been produced during that period, there has not been a single publication that attempted to review our knowledge of all the major seabird orders since the works of Nelson (1979), Croxall (1987), and Furness and Monaghan (1987). Following the publication of those works, a large and impressive body of literature has been produced. Given the rapid expansion of the field in the last two decades, the time was ripe for production of an extensive compendium on the biology, ecology, and conservation of the world's seabirds.E. A. Schreiber and J. Burger are editors of this CRC publication, Biology of Marine Birds. The book consists of 19 chapters that vary in length from 15 to 51 pages. There are also two extensive appendices: (1) a list of seabird species (restricted to the orders Sphenisciformes, Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Charadriiformes, the latter limited to Stercorariidae, Laridae, Rhynchopidae, and Alcidae) and their IUCN status, and (2) a very useful table of species-specific life-history traits. The 19 chapters were prepared by 26 authors, among them some of the most respected and published seabird scientists in the world. A brief preface introduces the book, its objective (to provide an examination and summary of the research on seabirds), its audience (researchers, conservationists, managers, and policy-makers), and the taxa covered. The editors coauthored the introductory chapter, Seabirds in the Marine Environment. The authors describe distinctive characteristics of seabird life-histories in comparison to other taxa, hypotheses for why those lifestyles evolved and the potential role of energy limitation in the evolution of seabird life-histories. Along with a discussion of other common seabird traits, such as a propensity for colonial breeding, the authors also suggest directions for future

  19. Debaryomyces hansenii: A Model System for Marine Molecular Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-30

    System for Marine Molecular Biology PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE: June 1, 1990 to May 30, 1991 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: To establish Debaryomyces hansenii as a model...Analysis of 17s rRNA gene from the marine yeast Debaryomyces hansenii . In preparation for Current Genetics. TRAINING ACTIVITIES Two graduate students, one...Institution: University of California, Santa Barbara. Grant Title: Debaryomyces hansenii : A Model System for Marine Molecular Biology. Period of

  20. Marine biology: Polar merry-go-round

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, Marcel

    2016-12-01

    The dynamics of polar marine ecosystems are poorly understood. A laser-based space-borne sensor captures annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass in seasonally ice-free polar waters, and provides clues on how growth drives these cycles.

  1. From Darwin to the Census of Marine Life: Marine Biology as Big Science

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming ‘big science’. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international ‘Census of Marine Life’ (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration – including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication – I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different ‘collective ways of knowing’. PMID:23342119

  2. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.

  3. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  4. Laboratory Experiences in Marine Biology, Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual contains instructions for laboratory exercises using marine organisms. For each exercise a problem is defined, materials are listed, possible ways to solve the problem are suggested, questions are asked to guide the student in interpreting data, and further reading is suggested. The exercises deal with the measurement of oxygen…

  5. Two If by Sea: Marine Biological Invasions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimowitz, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses alien species on the west coast, efforts to combat invasions, methods of transport, and educational projects developed to aid prevention efforts. Includes a list of marine invaders in the Pacific Northwest, plus threats from California and the Great Lakes. (PVD)

  6. Two If by Sea: Marine Biological Invasions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimowitz, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses alien species on the west coast, efforts to combat invasions, methods of transport, and educational projects developed to aid prevention efforts. Includes a list of marine invaders in the Pacific Northwest, plus threats from California and the Great Lakes. (PVD)

  7. Marine sponge lectins: actual status on properties and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Gomes Filho, Sandro Mascena; Cardoso, Juscélio Donizete; Anaya, Katya; Silva do Nascimento, Edilza; de Lacerda, José Thalles Jucelino Gomes; Mioso, Roberto; Santi Gadelha, Tatiane; de Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto

    2014-12-26

    Marine sponges are primitive metazoans that produce a wide variety of molecules that protect them against predators. In studies that search for bioactive molecules, these marine invertebrates stand out as promising sources of new biologically-active molecules, many of which are still unknown or little studied; thus being an unexplored biotechnological resource of high added value. Among these molecules, lectins are proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. In this review, various structural features and biological activities of lectins derived from marine sponges so far described in the scientific literature are discussed. From the results found in the literature, it could be concluded that lectins derived from marine sponges are structurally diverse proteins with great potential for application in the production of biopharmaceuticals, especially as antibacterial and antitumor agents.

  8. Biological Potential of Chitinolytic Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Sara Skøtt; Andersen, Birgitte; Gram, Lone; Machado, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Chitinolytic microorganisms secrete a range of chitin modifying enzymes, which can be exploited for production of chitin derived products or as fungal or pest control agents. Here, we explored the potential of 11 marine bacteria (Pseudoalteromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae) for chitin degradation using in silico and phenotypic assays. Of 10 chitinolytic strains, three strains, Photobacterium galatheae S2753, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040 and S2724, produced large clearing zones on chitin plates. All strains were antifungal, but against different fungal targets. One strain, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040, had a pronounced antifungal activity against all seven fungal strains. There was no correlation between the number of chitin modifying enzymes as found by genome mining and the chitin degrading activity as measured by size of clearing zones on chitin agar. Based on in silico and in vitro analyses, we cloned and expressed two ChiA-like chitinases from the two most potent candidates to exemplify the industrial potential. PMID:27999269

  9. Natural products with health benefits from marine biological resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ocean is the cradle of lives, which provides a diverse array of intriguing natural products that has captured scientists’ attention in the past few decades due to their significant and extremely potent biological activities. In addition to being rich sources for pharmaceutical drugs, marine nat...

  10. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  11. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon. PMID:21556162

  12. Marine carotenoids: biological functions and commercial applications.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M

    2011-03-03

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon.

  13. Letters and Letter Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    "The Goldfinch" is a periodical that introduces young children to various facets of Iowa history. Each issue has a different theme topic and a number of articles covering diverse aspects of the topic being addressed. This issue focuses on letters and letter writing. Featured articles discuss letters that illuminate historical events. The…

  14. Marine biology, intertidal ecology, and a new place for biology.

    PubMed

    Benson, Keith R

    2015-01-01

    At the present time, there is considerable interest for the physical setting of science, that is, its actual 'place' of practice. Among historians of biology, place has been considered to be a crucial component for the study of ecology. Other historians have noted the 'built' environments (laboratories) for the study of biology along the seashore, even referring to these places in terms more applicable to vacation sites. In this paper, I examine the place of intertidal ecology investigations, both in terms of the physical space and the built space. Part of the examination will investigate the aesthetic aspect of the Pacific Coast, part will evaluate the unique character of the intertidal zone, and part will consider the construction of natural laboratories and built laboratories as characteristic places for biology.

  15. Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Eiji; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Harada, Naomi; Honda, Makio C; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ishida, Akio; Kishi, Michio J

    2014-05-27

    The future conditions of Arctic sea ice and marine ecosystems are of interest not only to climate scientists, but also to economic and governmental bodies. However, the lack of widespread, year-long biogeochemical observations remains an obstacle to understanding the complicated variability of the Arctic marine biological pump. Here we show an early winter maximum of sinking biogenic flux in the western Arctic Ocean and illustrate the importance of shelf-break eddies to biological pumping from wide shelves to adjacent deep basins using a combination of year-long mooring observations and three-dimensional numerical modelling. The sinking flux trapped in the present study included considerable fresh organic material with soft tissues and was an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. We predict that further reductions in sea ice will promote the entry of Pacific-origin biological species into the Arctic basin and accelerate biogeochemical cycles connecting the Arctic and subarctic oceans.

  16. Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Eiji; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Harada, Naomi; Honda, Makio C.; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ishida, Akio; Kishi, Michio J.

    2014-01-01

    The future conditions of Arctic sea ice and marine ecosystems are of interest not only to climate scientists, but also to economic and governmental bodies. However, the lack of widespread, year-long biogeochemical observations remains an obstacle to understanding the complicated variability of the Arctic marine biological pump. Here we show an early winter maximum of sinking biogenic flux in the western Arctic Ocean and illustrate the importance of shelf-break eddies to biological pumping from wide shelves to adjacent deep basins using a combination of year-long mooring observations and three-dimensional numerical modelling. The sinking flux trapped in the present study included considerable fresh organic material with soft tissues and was an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. We predict that further reductions in sea ice will promote the entry of Pacific-origin biological species into the Arctic basin and accelerate biogeochemical cycles connecting the Arctic and subarctic oceans. PMID:24862402

  17. Guidelines for Marine Biological Reference Collections. Unesco Reports in Marine Sciences, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hureau, J. C.; Rice, A. L.

    This manual provides practical advice on the appropriation, conservation, and documentation of a marine biological reference collection, in response to needs expressed by Mediterranean Arab countries. A reference collection is defined as a working museum containing a series of specimens with which biologists are able to compare their own material.…

  18. Guidelines for Marine Biological Reference Collections. Unesco Reports in Marine Sciences, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hureau, J. C.; Rice, A. L.

    This manual provides practical advice on the appropriation, conservation, and documentation of a marine biological reference collection, in response to needs expressed by Mediterranean Arab countries. A reference collection is defined as a working museum containing a series of specimens with which biologists are able to compare their own material.…

  19. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  1. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  2. Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponganis, Paul J.

    2007-02-01

    Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates had its origins in the field of bio-telemetry in the 1960s and 1970s. The development of microprocessor technology allowed its first application to bio-logging investigations of Weddell seal diving physiology in the early 1980s. Since that time, with the use of increased memory capacity, new sensor technology, and novel data processing techniques, investigators have examined heart rate, temperature, swim speed, stroke frequency, stomach function (gastric pH and motility), heat flux, muscle oxygenation, respiratory rate, diving air volume, and oxygen partial pressure (P) during diving. Swim speed, heart rate, and body temperature have been the most commonly studied parameters. Bio-logging investigation of pressure effects has only been conducted with the use of blood samplers and nitrogen analyses on animals diving at isolated dive holes. The advantages/disadvantages and limitations of recording techniques, probe placement, calibration techniques, and study conditions are reviewed.

  3. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Locomotion and the cost of hunting in large, stealthy marine carnivores. Integrative and Comparative Biology : doi:10.1093/icb/icv025. [published...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking...Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences Terrie M. Williams Center for Ocean Health- Long Marine Lab Department of

  4. Gap analysis on the biology of Mediterranean marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Dimarchopoulou, Donna; Stergiou, Konstantinos I; Tsikliras, Athanassios C

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the current level of knowledge concerning several biological characteristics of the Mediterranean marine fishes by carrying out a gap analysis based on information extracted from the literature, aiming to identify research trends and future needs in the field of Mediterranean fish biology that can be used in stock assessments, ecosystem modeling and fisheries management. Based on the datasets that emerged from the literature review, there is no information on any biological characteristic for 43% (n = 310) of the Mediterranean fish species, whereas for an additional 15% (n = 109) of them there is information about just one characteristic. The gap between current and desired knowledge (defined here as having information on most biological characteristics for at least half of the Mediterranean marine fishes) is smaller in length-weight relationships, which have been studied for 43% of the species, followed by spawning (39%), diet (29%), growth (25%), maturity (24%), lifespan (19%) and fecundity (17%). The gap is larger in natural mortality for which information is very scarce (8%). European hake (Merluccius merluccius), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), annular seabream (Diplodus annularis), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) and bogue (Boops boops) were the most studied species, while sharks and rays were among the least studied ones. Only 25 species were fully studied, i.e. there was available information on all their biological characteristics. The knowledge gaps per characteristic varied among the western, central and eastern Mediterranean subregions. The number of available records per species was positively related to total landings, while no relationship emerged with its maximum reported length, trophic level and commercial value. Future research priorities that should be focused on less studied species (e.g. sharks and rays) and mortality/fecundity instead of length

  5. Gap analysis on the biology of Mediterranean marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Dimarchopoulou, Donna; Stergiou, Konstantinos I.

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the current level of knowledge concerning several biological characteristics of the Mediterranean marine fishes by carrying out a gap analysis based on information extracted from the literature, aiming to identify research trends and future needs in the field of Mediterranean fish biology that can be used in stock assessments, ecosystem modeling and fisheries management. Based on the datasets that emerged from the literature review, there is no information on any biological characteristic for 43% (n = 310) of the Mediterranean fish species, whereas for an additional 15% (n = 109) of them there is information about just one characteristic. The gap between current and desired knowledge (defined here as having information on most biological characteristics for at least half of the Mediterranean marine fishes) is smaller in length-weight relationships, which have been studied for 43% of the species, followed by spawning (39%), diet (29%), growth (25%), maturity (24%), lifespan (19%) and fecundity (17%). The gap is larger in natural mortality for which information is very scarce (8%). European hake (Merluccius merluccius), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), annular seabream (Diplodus annularis), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) and bogue (Boops boops) were the most studied species, while sharks and rays were among the least studied ones. Only 25 species were fully studied, i.e. there was available information on all their biological characteristics. The knowledge gaps per characteristic varied among the western, central and eastern Mediterranean subregions. The number of available records per species was positively related to total landings, while no relationship emerged with its maximum reported length, trophic level and commercial value. Future research priorities that should be focused on less studied species (e.g. sharks and rays) and mortality/fecundity instead of length

  6. Biological effects and subsequent economic effects and losses from marine pollution and degradations in marine environments: Implications from the literature.

    PubMed

    Ofiara, Douglas D; Seneca, Joseph J

    2006-08-01

    This paper serves as the missing piece in a more fuller understanding about economic losses from marine pollution, and demonstrates what losses have been estimated in the literature. Biological effects from marine pollution are linked with resulting economic effects and losses. The merging of these two areas is usually absent in studies of marine pollution losses. The literature has examined several effects due to marine pollution: damages due to harvest closures-restrictions, damages from consumption of unsafe seafood, damages due to decreased recreational activity, and damages related to waterfront real estate adjacent to contaminated water. Overall, marine pollution can and has resulted in sizable economic effects and losses. On the basis of the literature there is adequate justification for public policy actions to curb marine pollution, require inspection of seafood for toxic substances, and preserve marine water quality and sensitive marine environments.

  7. The marine biological week as an approach to science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ransdorf, Angela; Satzinger, Viktoria

    2017-04-01

    The "Wiedner Gymnasium" is an academic high school with two branches: one focusses on languages and the other one on science. In the language branch the students learn at least three languages; one of which is Latin, whereas the students of the scientific branch can learn geometrical drawing and have to attend a scientific laboratory throughout the last four upper classes. As incentive highlights the language classes have a one week's school trip to France, Italy or Spain at the beginning of their 7th form in order to attend a language school and to practice their language skills. As a counterbalance, there was introduced the "marine biological week" several years ago, in which the students of the scientific branch take part whilst their colleagues have their language trips. The marine biological week takes place in Rovinj, Croatia. A team of biologists and divers leads through a programme, by which the students get an overview of different habitats, their conditions and the different ways of adaptation organisms find. Thus, they also become acquainted with several species of animals and plants which are characteristic for this area. They become familiar with some methods of scientific work and also get to know some of the problems marine ecosystems are confronted with. They also learn a little bit if the Mediterranean history and culture. Back in school all the findings are reviewed and brought into an ecological context. The insights can be used for many other topics, too, such as e.g. evolution. This week has proved to be a good start as well for the topic of ecology as for learning to think scientifically in general. So, you can call it a pivot for the scientific branch of our school.

  8. Laboratory Experiences in Marine Biology for Upper Elementary and Secondary School Grades, Teachers Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    Designed to assist the teacher who wishes to use marine organisms for biological laboratory investigations, this manual includes general information on maintaining marine aquaria and collecting marine organisms as well as five tested laboratory exercises. The exercises deal with the measurement of oxygen consumption (giving techniques for…

  9. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  10. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  11. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or…

  12. A model for Bioinformatics training: the marine biological laboratory.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Grant; Miller, Holly; Goddard, Anthony; Norton, Cathy

    2010-11-01

    Many areas of science such as biology, medicine and oceanography are becoming increasingly data-rich and most programs that train scientists do not address informatics techniques or technologies that are necessary for managing and analysing large amounts of data. Educational resources for scientists in informatics are scarce, yet scientists need the skills and knowledge to work with informaticians and manage graduate students and post-docs in informatics projects. The Marine Biological Laboratory houses a world-renowned library and is involved in a number of informatics projects in the sciences. The MBL has been home to the National Library of Medicine's BioMedical Informatics Course for nearly two decades and is committed to educating scientists and other scholars in informatics. In an innovative, immersive learning experience, G.Y., a biologist and post-doc at Arizona State University, visited the Science Informatics Group at the MBL to learn first hand how informatics is done and how informatics teams work. Hands-on work with developers, systems administrators, librarians and other scientists provided an invaluable education in informatics and is a model for future science informatics training.

  13. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  14. Chiral alkynylcarbinols from marine sponges: asymmetric synthesis and biological relevance.

    PubMed

    Listunov, Dymytrii; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi; Génisson, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Covering: up to March 2014. Previous review on the topic: B. W. Gung, C. R. Chim., 2009, 12, 489-505. Chiral α-functional lipidic propargylic alcohols extracted from marine sponges, in particular of the pacific genus Petrosia, constitute a class of acetylenic natural products exhibiting remarkable in vitro biological activities, especially anti-tumoral cytotoxicity. These properties, associated to functionalities that are uncommon among natural products, have prompted recent projects on asymmetric total synthesis. On the basis of a three-sector structural typology, three main sub-types of secondary alkynylcarbinols (with either alkyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl as the second substituent) can be identified as the minimal pharmacophoric units. Selected natural products containing these functionalities have been targeted using previously known or on purpose-designed procedures, where the stereo-determining step can be: (i) a C-C bond forming reaction (e.g. the Zn-mediated addition of alkynyl nucleophiles to aldehydes in the presence of chiral aminoalcohols), (ii) a functional layout (e.g. the asymmetric organo- or metallo-catalytic reduction of ynones), or (iii) an enantiomeric resolution (e.g. a lipase-mediated kinetic resolution via acetylation). The promising medicinal importance of these targets is finally surveyed, and future investigation prospects are proposed, such as: (i) further total synthesis of known or future extraction products; (ii) the synthesis of non-natural analogues, with simpler lipophilic environments of the alkynylcarbinol-based pharmacophoric units; (iii) the variation and optimization of both the pharmacophoric units and their lipophilic environment; and (iv) investigations into the biological mode of action of these unique structures.

  15. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Jennifer L. Miksis-Olds Applied Research Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University PO...signals impact marine mammal prey and resulting marine mammal habitat use. This is especially critical in areas like the Bering Sea where global climate...animal presence and habitat use. Objective 1: What effect do changing sea ice dynamics have on zooplankton populations? a) How does zooplankton

  16. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on physical factors influencing life in the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the ocean floor; (2) tides; (3) ocean waves; (4) ocean currents; (5)…

  17. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Seven and Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 7 and 8. The unit, focusing on life in the sea and the physical factors which influence that life, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the theory of plate tectonics; (2) ocean floor…

  18. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on physical factors influencing life in the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the ocean floor; (2) tides; (3) ocean waves; (4) ocean currents; (5)…

  19. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Seven and Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 7 and 8. The unit, focusing on life in the sea and the physical factors which influence that life, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the theory of plate tectonics; (2) ocean floor…

  20. Biological activities and potential health benefits of bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Nghiep; Wijesekara, Isuru; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2012-11-01

    Marine organisms have been recognized as rich sources of bioactive compounds with valuable nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potentials. Recently, marine bioactive peptides have gained much attention because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Notably, these peptides exhibit various biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-proliferative, anticoagulant, calcium-binding, anti-obesity and anti-diabetic activities. This review mainly presents biological activities of peptides from marine organisms and emphasizing their potential applications in foods as well as pharmaceutical areas.

  1. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

  2. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for marine carotenoids: new opportunities and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-09-17

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.

  3. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. While some of these technologies have been readily incorporated into the study of marine organisms as models for understanding basic biology, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology and biological oceanography has only recently begun to be appreciated. This report defines critical scientific questions in marine biology and biological oceanography, describes the molecular technologies that could be used to answer these questions, and discusses some of the implications and economic opportunities that might result from this research which could potentially improve the international competitive position of the United States in the rapidly growing area of marine biotechnology. The committee recommends that the federal government provide the infrastructure necessary to use the techniques of molecular biology in the marine sciences.

  4. Biological activities and health effects of terpenoids from marine fungi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Li, Yong-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed by the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical products due to their various health beneficial effects. Hence, it can be suggested that bioactive functional ingredients from marine bioresources and their by-products are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to consumer's well-being, as a part of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Marine-derived fungi produce a vast array of secondary metabolites including terpenes, steroids, polyketides, peptides, alkaloids, and polysaccharides. These secondary metabolites serve many biopharmaceutical purposes. This chapter discusses about marine fungi-derived terpenoids and presents an overview of their beneficial health effects.

  5. Marine organic aerosol and oceanic biological activity: what we know and what we need (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, M.

    2009-12-01

    Observations carried out in the North Atlantic as well as in other marine locations evidenced a seasonal dependence of sub micron particle chemical composition on biological oceanic activity and a potentially important marine aerosol organic component from primary and/or secondary formation processes associated to marine vegetation and its seasonal cycle. Primary organics generated by bubble bursting in high biological activity periods are almost entirely water insoluble (WIOM up to 96 ± 2 % )and are constituted by aggregation of lipopolysaccharides exuded by phytoplankton with dominant surface tension character. In many marine environments the secondary organic fraction is dominated by MSA and by several oxygenated species (mainly carboxylic acids). New measurements also show the potential importance of secondary organic N species (biogenic amine salts ). However a large fraction of the secondary organic fraction (SOA) is still not characterized and the precursors are not identified. For modeling marine organics, besides reducing the uncertainty in the knowledge of the chemical composition and new precursors, it is of crucial importance to link marine aerosol organic composition to satellite products that could be better proxy for marine biological activity and of its decomposition products than chlorophyll-a.

  6. Synthesis and biology of cyclic imine toxins, an emerging class of potent, globally distributed marine toxins.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Craig E; Benoit, Evelyne; Aráoz, Rómulo; Servent, Denis; Novikov, Alexei; Molgó, Jordi; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-03-01

    From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day.

  7. The Coastal Marine Biology Program at the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastre, M.; Vélez, S.; Parrilla, D.; Ortiz, E.; Rosa, B.

    2016-02-01

    Our Marine Biology Program at the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao is one of the four BS programs available in the Department of Biology at this institution. This program started approximately thirty years ago and was the first program of this kind in Puerto Rico. The program admits every year approximatley 55 students. The retention rate of this program is approximately 35 percent. Approximately 16 students graduate every year from the program. Graduated student usually work in marine biology-related fields such as environmental law, etc.

  8. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  9. An overview of recent research in marine biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Farrah T; Briski, Elizabeta

    2017-01-01

    The Topical Collection on Invasive Species includes 50 articles addressing many tenets of marine invasion ecology. The collection covers important topics relating to propagule pressure associated with transport vectors, species characteristics, attributes of recipient ecosystems, invasion genetics, biotic interactions, testing of invasion hypotheses, invasion dynamics and spread, and impacts of nonindigenous species. This article summarizes some of the collection's highlights.

  10. 50 CFR 217.76 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL... affected species or stocks of marine mammal(s). (e) Notice of issuance or denial of a Letter...

  11. Sedimentation: Potential Biological Effects of Dredging Operations in Estuarine and Marine Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    1999). “Impacts of sediment burial on mangroves.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 37, 420-426. Fonseca, M. S., Kenworthy, W. J., and Thayer, G W. (1998... Marine Pollution Bulletin 4, 166-169. Tomasko, D.A., Dawes, C. J., and Hall, M. O. (1996). “The effects of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment in...adjacent coral reefs,” Marine Pollution Bulletin 42, 864-872. Wilber, D. H., and Clarke, D. G. (2001). “Biological effects of suspended sediments: a

  12. A Comprehensive Web-Based Library of Marine Biological Sounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-07

    sound recordings were digitized, documented in an extensive metadata base, and made available for free online playback. Users can search the collection...staff, educators, K-12 and college students, conservation and wildlife programs, the arts, museums , zoos, and aquaria, publishers, nature outreach...6 year period. 5700 audio clips (1200 hours) of marine mammal and fish sound recordings were digitized, documented in an extensive metadata base

  13. How are climate and marine biological outbreaks functionally linked?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, M.L.; Bonaventura, J.; Mitchell, T.P.; Prospero, J.M.; Shinn, E.A.; Van Dolah, F.; Barber, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, large-scale episodic events such as disease epidemics, mass mortalities, harmful algal blooms and other population explosions have been occurring in marine environments at an historically unprecedented rate. The variety of organisms involved (host, pathogens and other opportunists) and the absolute number of episodes have also increased during this period. Are these changes coincidental? Between 1972 and 1976, a global climate regime shift took place, and it is manifest most clearly by a change in strength of the North Pacific and North Atlantic pressure systems. Consequences of this regime shift are: (1) prolonged drought conditions in the Sahel region of Africa; (2) increased dust supply to the global atmosphere, by a factor of approximately four; (3) increased easterly trade winds across the Atlantic; (4) increased eolian transport of dust to the Atlantic and Caribbean basins; and (5) increased deposition of iron-rich eolian dust to typically iron-poor marine regions. On the basis of well-documented climate and dust observations and the widely accepted increase in marine outbreak rates, this paper proposes that the increased iron supply has altered the micronutrient factors limiting growth of opportunistic organisms and virulence of pathogenic microbes, particularly in macronutrient-rich coastal systems.

  14. Zooplankton fecal pellets, marine snow, phytodetritus and the ocean's biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jefferson T.

    2015-01-01

    The 'biological pump' is the process by which photosynthetically-produced organic matter in the ocean descends from the surface layer to depth by a combination of sinking particles, advection or vertical mixing of dissolved organic matter, and transport by animals. Particulate organic matter that is exported downward from the euphotic zone is composed of combinations of fecal pellets from zooplankton and fish, organic aggregates known as 'marine snow' and phytodetritus from sinking phytoplankton. Previous reviews by Turner and Ferrante (1979) and Turner (2002) focused on publications that appeared through late 2001. Since that time, studies of the biological pump have continued, and there have been >300 papers on vertical export flux using sediment traps, large-volume filtration systems and other techniques from throughout the global ocean. This review will focus primarily on recent studies that have appeared since 2001. Major topics covered in this review are (1) an overview of the biological pump, and its efficiency and variability, and the role of dissolved organic carbon in the biological pump; (2) zooplankton fecal pellets, including the contribution of zooplankton fecal pellets to export flux, epipelagic retention of zooplankton fecal pellets due to zooplankton activities, zooplankton vertical migration and fecal pellet repackaging, microbial ecology of fecal pellets, sinking velocities of fecal pellets and aggregates, ballasting of sinking particles by mineral contents, phytoplankton cysts, intact cells and harmful algae toxins in fecal pellets, importance of fecal pellets from various types of zooplankton, and the role of zooplankton fecal pellets in picoplankton export; (3) marine snow, including the origins, abundance, and distributions of marine snow, particles and organisms associated with marine snow, consumption and fragmentation of marine snow by animals, pathogens associated with marine snow; (4) phytodetritus, including pulsed export of

  15. Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zissler, D.

    1995-03-01

    Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892. The picture, of which several variant poses with minor differences exist, is a photograph taken on Helgoland in September, 1865. The original is to be found in the collections of the Ernst-Haeckel-Haus in Jena. The photograph shows only a few objects and fewer persons, but they are arranged like a bouquet: in front, collecting vessels; behind, grouped around a table, five scientists, Dohrn, Greeff, Haeckel, Salverda, Marchi. They hold up their catching nets like insignia, identifying their basic activity. This photograph is a unique document for the marine biological research on Helgoland before 1892. Furthermore, it illustrates a time and place for the birth of the idea of establishing the world's most famous marine biological station, the Stazione Zoologica di Napoli.

  16. What is marine biology?: Defining a science in the United States in the mid 20th century.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Marine biology and biological oceanography are two disciplinary subfields that have long struggled with their definitions. Should marine biology simply be considered a part of biology that takes place in the marine environment or is it a distinct entity, with conceptual problems and methodological approaches all its own? Similarly, biological oceanography could be seen as a necessary adjunct to physical and chemical oceanography or it could be defined more as an extension of biology into the marine realm. In the United States, these issues were directly addressed from the mid 1950s through the mid 1960s in a series of events that shed light on how marine biologists came to a working definition of their field that provided a broad methodological tent for practitioners and, at the same time, allied the field to oceanography during a period in which exploration of uncharted areas drew considerable funding from the post-WWII federal agencies charged with keeping American science at the forefront.

  17. Insights from the Sea: Structural Biology of Marine Polyketide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Akey, David L.; Gehret, Jennifer J.; Khare, Dheeraj; Smith, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a rich source of natural products with extremely interesting chemistry. Biosynthetic pathways have been worked out for a few, and the story is being enriched with crystal structures of interesting pathway enzymes. By far, the greatest number of structural insights from marine biosynthetic pathways has originated with studies of curacin A, a poster child for interesting marine chemistry with its cyclopropane and thiazoline rings, internal cis double bond, and terminal alkene. Using the curacin A pathway as a model, structural details are now available for a novel loading enzyme with remarkable dual decarboxylase and acetyltransferase activities, an Fe2+/α-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenase that dictates substrate binding order through conformational changes, a decarboxylase that establishes regiochemistry for cyclopropane formation, and a thioesterase with specificity for β-sulfated substrates that lead to terminal alkene offloading. The four curacin A pathway dehydratases reveal an intrinsic flexibility that may accommodate bulky or stiff polyketide intermediates. In the salinosporamide A pathway, active site volume determines the halide specificity of a halogenase that catalyzes for the synthesis of a halogenated building block. Structures of a number of putative polyketide cyclases may help in understanding reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities although their substrates are presently unknown. PMID:22498975

  18. Insights from the sea: structural biology of marine polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Akey, David L; Gehret, Jennifer J; Khare, Dheeraj; Smith, Janet L

    2012-10-01

    The world's oceans are a rich source of natural products with extremely interesting chemistry. Biosynthetic pathways have been worked out for a few, and the story is being enriched with crystal structures of interesting pathway enzymes. By far, the greatest number of structural insights from marine biosynthetic pathways has originated with studies of curacin A, a poster child for interesting marine chemistry with its cyclopropane and thiazoline rings, internal cis double bond, and terminal alkene. Using the curacin A pathway as a model, structural details are now available for a novel loading enzyme with remarkable dual decarboxylase and acetyltransferase activities, an Fe(2+)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenase that dictates substrate binding order through conformational changes, a decarboxylase that establishes regiochemistry for cyclopropane formation, and a thioesterase with specificity for β-sulfated substrates that lead to terminal alkene offloading. The four curacin A pathway dehydratases reveal an intrinsic flexibility that may accommodate bulky or stiff polyketide intermediates. In the salinosporamide A pathway, active site volume determines the halide specificity of a halogenase that catalyzes for the synthesis of a halogenated building block. Structures of a number of putative polyketide cyclases may help in understanding reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities although their substrates are presently unknown.

  19. 50 CFR 217.76 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska § 217.76 Letter of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless... number of marine mammals, by species and age class, authorized to be taken; (2) Permissible methods...

  20. 50 CFR 218.16 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Jacksonville Range Complex (JAX Range Complex) § 218.16 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended...

  1. 50 CFR 216.277 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Southern California Range Complex (SOCAL Range Complex) § 216.277 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless...

  2. 50 CFR 218.7 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Virginia Capes Range Complex (VACAPES Range Complex) § 218.7 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless...

  3. 50 CFR 216.257 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.257 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended or revoked...

  4. 46 CFR 3.05-1 - Letter of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 3.05-1 Letter of designation. A letter issued by an Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, designating an uninspected vessel as an...

  5. 50 CFR 217.209 - Modifications of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project § 217.209 Modifications of Letters of Authorization. (a) Except as... opportunity for public comment has been provided. For purposes of this paragraph, a renewal of a Letter of...

  6. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, A.; Juanes, F.; Planes, S.; Garcia-Vazquez, E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction. PMID:27609423

  7. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Ardura, A; Juanes, F; Planes, S; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-09-09

    Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction.

  8. Sequential determination of biological and pollutant elements in marine bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Zeisler, R.; Stone, S.F.; Sanders, R.W.

    1988-12-15

    A unique sequence of instrumental methods has been employed to obtain concentrations for 44 elements in marine bivalve tissue. The techniques used were (1) X-ray fluorescence, (2) prompt gamma activation analysis, and (3) neutron activation analysis. It is possible to use a single subsample and follow it nondestructively through the three instrumental analysis techniques. A final radiochemical procedure for tin was also applied after completing the instrumental analyses. Comparison of results for elements determined by more than one technique in sequence showed good agreement, as did results from certified reference material samples analyzed along with the samples. The concentrations found in the bivalve samples ranged from carbon at more than 50% dry weight down to gold at several microgram per kilogram.

  9. Marine-derived biological macromolecule-based biomaterials for wound healing and skin tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chandika, Pathum; Ko, Seok-Chun; Jung, Won-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex biological process that depends on the wound condition, the patient's health, and the physicochemical support given through external materials. The development of bioactive molecules and engineered tissue substitutes to provide physiochemical support to enhance the wound healing process plays a key role in advancing wound-care management. Thus, identification of ideal molecules in wound treatment is still in progress. The discovery of natural products that contain ideal molecules for skin tissue regeneration has been greatly advanced by exploration of the marine bioenvironment. Consequently, tremendously diverse marine organisms have become a great source of numerous biological macromolecules that can be used to develop tissue-engineered substitutes with wound healing properties. This review summarizes the wound healing process, the properties of macromolecules from marine organisms, and the involvement of these molecules in skin tissue regeneration applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  11. Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-08-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  12. What are undergraduates doing at biological field stations and marine laboratories?

    Treesearch

    Janet Hodder

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations and marine laboratories (FSMLs) serve as places to study the natural environment in a variety of ways, from the level of the molecule to the globe. Undergraduate opportunities at FSMLs reflect the diversity of study options -- formal courses, research and service internships, and field-trip experiences -- and students are responding to those...

  13. Marine Biology: Ecology of the Sea. A Zephyr Learning Packet. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    From the smallest plankton to the most massive whales, marine biology is the study of the flora and fauna, the living creatures of the ocean. This Zephyr self-directed study unit was developed to bridge the gap between students as passive learners to students as active participants. Originally developed for gifted students, these units emphasize…

  14. Marine Biology: Ecology of the Sea. A Zephyr Learning Packet. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    From the smallest plankton to the most massive whales, marine biology is the study of the flora and fauna, the living creatures of the ocean. This Zephyr self-directed study unit was developed to bridge the gap between students as passive learners to students as active participants. Originally developed for gifted students, these units emphasize…

  15. Effectiveness of Biological Surrogates for Predicting Patterns of Marine Biodiversity: A Global Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mellin, Camille; Delean, Steve; Caley, Julian; Edgar, Graham; Meekan, Mark; Pitcher, Roland; Przeslawski, Rachel; Williams, Alan; Bradshaw, Corey

    2011-01-01

    The use of biological surrogates as proxies for biodiversity patterns is gaining popularity, particularly in marine systems where field surveys can be expensive and species richness high. Yet, uncertainty regarding their applicability remains because of inconsistency of definitions, a lack of standard methods for estimating effectiveness, and variable spatial scales considered. We present a Bayesian meta-analysis of the effectiveness of biological surrogates in marine ecosystems. Surrogate effectiveness was defined both as the proportion of surrogacy tests where predictions based on surrogates were better than random (i.e., low probability of making a Type I error; P) and as the predictability of targets using surrogates (R2). A total of 264 published surrogacy tests combined with prior probabilities elicited from eight international experts demonstrated that the habitat, spatial scale, type of surrogate and statistical method used all influenced surrogate effectiveness, at least according to either P or R2. The type of surrogate used (higher-taxa, cross-taxa or subset taxa) was the best predictor of P, with the higher-taxa surrogates outperforming all others. The marine habitat was the best predictor of R2, with particularly low predictability in tropical reefs. Surrogate effectiveness was greatest for higher-taxa surrogates at a <10-km spatial scale, in low-complexity marine habitats such as soft bottoms, and using multivariate-based methods. Comparisons with terrestrial studies in terms of the methods used to study surrogates revealed that marine applications still ignore some problems with several widely used statistical approaches to surrogacy. Our study provides a benchmark for the reliable use of biological surrogates in marine ecosystems, and highlights directions for future development of biological surrogates in predicting biodiversity. PMID:21695119

  16. Biological responses of marine flatfish exposed to municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Baker, Michael E; Hardiman, Gary; Reyes, Jesus A; Kelley, Kevin M; Schlenk, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing concern over the presence of pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, and other chemicals collectively known as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in municipal effluents, yet knowledge of potential environmental impacts related to these compounds is still limited. The present study used laboratory exposures to examine estrogenic, androgenic, and thyroid-related endocrine responses in marine hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) exposed to CECs from municipal effluents with 2 degrees of treatment. Fish were exposed for 14 d to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent (0.5%) and to a higher concentration (5%) to investigate dose responses. Plasma concentrations of estradiol (E2), vitellogenin (VTG), 11-keto testosterone, and thyroxine were measured to assess endocrine responses. Contaminants of emerging concern were analyzed to characterize the effluents. Diverse types of effluent CECs were detected. Statistically significant responses were not observed in fish exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent. Elevated plasma E2 concentrations were observed in males exposed to ammonia concentrations similar to those found in effluents. However, exposure to ammonia did not induce VTG production in male fish. The results of the present study highlight the importance of conducting research with sentinel organisms in laboratory studies to understand the environmental significance of the presence of CECs in aquatic systems.

  17. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria: A biological source of the bacteriohopanetetrol stereoisomer in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rush, Darci; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Poulton, Simon W.; Thamdrup, Bo; Garside, A. Leigh; Acuña González, Jenaro; Schouten, Stefan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Talbot, Helen M.

    2014-09-01

    Bacterially-derived bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are abundant, well preserved lipids in modern and paleo-environments. Bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) is a ubiquitously produced BHP while its less common stereoisomer (BHT isomer) has previously been associated with anoxic environments; however, its biological source remained unknown. We investigated the occurrence of BHPs in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic marine fjord-like enclosure located in Costa Rica. The distribution of BHT isomer in four sediment cores and a surface sediment transect closely followed the distribution of ladderane fatty acids, unique biomarkers for bacteria performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). This suggests that BHT isomer and ladderane lipids likely shared the same biological source in Golfo Dulce. This was supported by examining the BHP lipid compositions of two enrichment cultures of a marine anammox species ('Candidatus Scalindua profunda'), which were found to contain both BHT and BHT isomer. Remarkably, the BHT isomer was present in higher relative abundance than BHT. However, a non-marine anammox enrichment contained only BHT, which explains the infrequence of BHT isomer observations in terrestrial settings, and indicates that marine anammox bacteria are likely responsible for at least part of the environmentally-observed marine BHT isomer occurrences. Given the substantially greater residence time of BHPs in sediments, compared to ladderanes, BHT isomer is a potential biomarker for past anammox activity.

  18. Synthesis and Biology of Cyclic Imine Toxins, An Emerging Class of Potent, Globally Distributed Marine Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Stivala, Craig E.; Benoit, Evelyne; Araoz, Romulo; Servent, Denis; Novikov, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day. PMID:25338021

  19. Heat shock proteins as key biological targets of the marine natural cyclopeptide perthamide C.

    PubMed

    Margarucci, Luigi; Monti, Maria Chiara; Mencarelli, Andrea; Cassiano, Chiara; Fiorucci, Stefano; Riccio, Raffaele; Zampella, Angela; Casapullo, Agostino

    2012-04-01

    Linking bioactive compounds to their cellular targets is a central challenge in chemical biology. Herein we report the mode of action of perthamide C, a natural cyclopeptide isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Through an emerging mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics approach, Heat Shock Protein 90 and Glucose Regulated Protein 94 were identified as key targets of perthamide C and this evidence has been validated using surface plasmon resonance. The ability of perthamide C to influence heat shock protein-mediated cell apoptosis revealed that this marine metabolite could be a good candidate for the development of a lead compound with therapeutic applications based on apoptosis modulation.

  20. Marine biological controls on atmospheric CO2 and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the ocean is losing N gas faster than N is being returned to the ocean, and that replenishment of the N supply in the ocean usually occurs during ice ages. Available N from river and estruarine transport and from rainfall after formation by lightning are shown to be at a rate too low to compensate for the 10,000 yr oceanic lifetime of N. Ice sheets advance and transfer moraine N to the ocean, lower the sea levels, erode the ocean beds, promote greater biological productivity, and reduce CO2. Ice core samples have indicated a variability in the atmospheric N content that could be attributed to the ice age scenario.

  1. Matching biological traits to environmental conditions in marine benthic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremner, J.; Rogers, S. I.; Frid, C. L. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of variability in environmental conditions on species composition in benthic ecosystems are well established, but relatively little is known about how environmental variability relates to ecosystem functioning. Benthic invertebrate assemblages are heavily involved in the maintenance of ecological processes and investigation of the biological characteristics (traits) expressed in these assemblages can provide information about some aspects of functioning. The aim of this study was to establish and explore relationships between environmental variability and biological traits expressed in megafauna assemblages in two UK regions. Patterns of trait composition were matched to environmental conditions and subsets of variables best describing these patterns determined. The nature of the relationships were subsequently examined at two separate scales, both between and within the regions studied. Over the whole area, some traits related to size, longevity, reproduction, mobility, flexibility, feeding method, sociability and living habit were negatively correlated with salinity, sea surface temperature, annual temperature range and the level of fishing effort, and positively associated with fish taxon richness and shell content of the substratum. Between the two regions, reductions in temperature range and shell content were associated with infrequent relative occurrences of short-lived, moderately mobile, flexible, solitary, opportunistic, permanent-burrow dwelling fauna and those exhibiting reproductive strategies based on benthic development. Relationships between some traits and environmental conditions diverged within the two regions, with increases in fishing effort and shell content of the substratum being associated with low frequencies of occurrence of moderately mobile and moderately to highly flexible fauna within one region, but high frequencies in the other. These changes in trait composition have implications for ecosystem processes, with, for

  2. Army Response Letter - signed April 27, 1988

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Army response letter regarding a request to elevate the decision of the New England Division Engineer (DE) to issue a permit to the Maine Department of Transportation to construct a marine terminal at Sears Island.

  3. The Influence of the Biological Pump on Marine Redox Conditions During Earth History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. M.; Ridgwell, A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence for bottom-water anoxia on the continental shelves waned over the course of the Phanerozoic, which may be influenced by secular changes in the biological pump that led to weaker positive feedbacks within the oceans. The biological pump describes the transfer of carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean, which creates vertical gradients in nutrients and oxygen, both important influences in the structure of marine ecosystems. We used the cGENIE Earth system model to quantitatively test the hypothesis that reductions in the efficiency of the nutrient recycling loop of the biological pump during the past 550 Ma reduced the extent of anoxia on the shelves and acted as an important control on marine animal ecosystems. When the modeled remineralization depth is shallow relative to the modern ocean, anoxia tends to be more widespread at continental shelf depths. As the modeled remineralization depth increases toward modern conditions, anoxia is less prevalent and occurs at depths below the continental shelves. Reduced marine productivity in the closed system configuration of cGENIE cannot produce the frequent bottom-water anoxia conditions envisioned for the Paleozoic. We hypothesize that evidence for greater animal abundance and metabolic demand during the Phanerozoic was driven by progressive oxygenation of shelf environments related to changes in the biological pump rather than greater food availability. In general, these model simulations suggest changes in the depth distribution of organic carbon remineralization may have controlled observed shifts in ocean chemistry, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem structure during the Phanerozoic.

  4. Marine protected communities against biological invasions: A case study from an offshore island.

    PubMed

    Gestoso, I; Ramalhosa, P; Oliveira, P; Canning-Clode, J

    2017-03-21

    Biological invasions are a major threat to the world's biota and are considered a major cause of biodiversity loss. Therefore, world marine policy has recognized the need for more marine protected areas (MPAs) as a major tool for biodiversity conservation. The present work experimentally evaluated how protected communities from an offshore island can face the settlement and/or expansion of nonindigenous species (NIS). First, NIS colonization success in marine protected and marina communities was compared by deploying PVC settling plates at the Garajau MPA and Funchal marina (SW Madeira Island). Then, the settling plates from the MPA were transferred to Funchal marina to test their resistance to NIS invasion under high levels of NIS pressure. Results indicated that the structure and composition of fouling communities from the MPA differed from those collected in the marina. Interestingly, communities from the protected area showed lower NIS colonization success, suggesting some degree of biotic resistance against NIS invasion.

  5. Glycosaminoglycans analogs from marine invertebrates: structure, biological effects, and potential as new therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pavão, Mauro S G

    2014-01-01

    In this review, several glycosaminoglycan analogs obtained from different marine invertebrate are reported. The structure, biological activity and mechanism of action of these unique molecules are detailed reviewed and exemplified by experiments in vitro and in vivo. Among the glycans studied are low-sulfated heparin-like polymers from ascidians, containing significant anticoagulant activity and no bleeding effect; dermatan sulfates with significant neurite outgrowth promoting activity and anti-P-selectin from ascidians, and a unique fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumbers, possessing anticoagulant activity after oral administration and high anti P- and L-selectin activities. The therapeutic value and safety of these invertebrate glycans have been extensively proved by several experimental animal models of diseases, including thrombosis, inflammation and metastasis. These invertebrate glycans can be obtained in high concentrations from marine organisms that have been used as a food source for decades, and usually obtained from marine farms in sufficient quantities to be used as starting material for new therapeutics.

  6. Dispersal of marine organisms and the grand challenges in biology: an introduction to the symposium.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Sara M

    2012-10-01

    Understanding dispersal and its complex variables is critical to understanding the ecology and evolution of life histories of species, but research on dispersal tends to reflect or emphasize particular disciplines, such as population genetics, functional morphology, evolutionary and developmental biology, physiology, and biophysics, or to emphasize a particular clade or functional group (e.g., fish, planktotrophs or lecithotrophs, pelagic or benthic organisms) in marine ecosystems. The symposium on "Dispersal of Marine Organisms" assembled an interdisciplinary group of outstanding young and established speakers to address dispersal in marine organisms in order to foster integration and cross-talk among different disciplines and to identify gaps in our knowledge and suggest areas for future research.

  7. Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

    2014-01-01

    As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ground truthing at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously.

  9. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.

  10. Ideas and perspectives: climate-relevant marine biologically driven mechanisms in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hense, Inga; Stemmler, Irene; Sonntag, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The current generation of marine biogeochemical modules in Earth system models (ESMs) considers mainly the effect of marine biota on the carbon cycle. We propose to also implement other biologically driven mechanisms in ESMs so that more climate-relevant feedbacks are captured. We classify these mechanisms in three categories according to their functional role in the Earth system: (1) biogeochemical pumps, which affect the carbon cycling; (2) biological gas and particle shuttles, which affect the atmospheric composition; and (3) biogeophysical mechanisms, which affect the thermal, optical, and mechanical properties of the ocean. To resolve mechanisms from all three classes, we find it sufficient to include five functional groups: bulk phyto- and zooplankton, calcifiers, and coastal gas and surface mat producers. We strongly suggest to account for a larger mechanism diversity in ESMs in the future to improve the quality of climate projections.

  11. 50 CFR 218.188 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.188 Modifications to Letters of Authorization....

  12. 50 CFR 218.188 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.188 Modifications to Letters of Authorization....

  13. 50 CFR 218.185 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.185 Applications for Letters of Authorization....

  14. 50 CFR 218.188 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.188 Modifications to Letters of Authorization....

  15. 50 CFR 218.188 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.188 Modifications to Letters of Authorization....

  16. 50 CFR 218.185 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.185 Applications for Letters of Authorization....

  17. 50 CFR 218.185 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.185 Applications for Letters of Authorization....

  18. 50 CFR 218.185 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.185 Applications for Letters of Authorization....

  19. Natural Proline-Rich Cyclopolypeptides from Marine Organisms: Chemistry, Synthetic Methodologies and Biological Status

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wan-Yin; Dahiya, Rajiv; Qin, Hua-Li; Mourya, Rita; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Peptides have gained increased interest as therapeutics during recent years. More than 60 peptide drugs have reached the market for the benefit of patients and several hundreds of novel therapeutic peptides are in preclinical and clinical development. The key contributor to this success is the potent and specific, yet safe, mode of action of peptides. Among the wide range of biologically-active peptides, naturally-occurring marine-derived cyclopolypeptides exhibit a broad range of unusual and potent pharmacological activities. Because of their size and complexity, proline-rich cyclic peptides (PRCPs) occupy a crucial chemical space in drug discovery that may provide useful scaffolds for modulating more challenging biological targets, such as protein-protein interactions and allosteric binding sites. Diverse pharmacological activities of natural cyclic peptides from marine sponges, tunicates and cyanobacteria have encouraged efforts to develop cyclic peptides with well-known synthetic methods, including solid-phase and solution-phase techniques of peptide synthesis. The present review highlights the natural resources, unique structural features and the most relevant biological properties of proline-rich peptides of marine-origin, focusing on the potential therapeutic role that the PRCPs may play as a promising source of new peptide-based novel drugs. PMID:27792168

  20. Natural Proline-Rich Cyclopolypeptides from Marine Organisms: Chemistry, Synthetic Methodologies and Biological Status.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wan-Yin; Dahiya, Rajiv; Qin, Hua-Li; Mourya, Rita; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2016-10-26

    Peptides have gained increased interest as therapeutics during recent years. More than 60 peptide drugs have reached the market for the benefit of patients and several hundreds of novel therapeutic peptides are in preclinical and clinical development. The key contributor to this success is the potent and specific, yet safe, mode of action of peptides. Among the wide range of biologically-active peptides, naturally-occurring marine-derived cyclopolypeptides exhibit a broad range of unusual and potent pharmacological activities. Because of their size and complexity, proline-rich cyclic peptides (PRCPs) occupy a crucial chemical space in drug discovery that may provide useful scaffolds for modulating more challenging biological targets, such as protein-protein interactions and allosteric binding sites. Diverse pharmacological activities of natural cyclic peptides from marine sponges, tunicates and cyanobacteria have encouraged efforts to develop cyclic peptides with well-known synthetic methods, including solid-phase and solution-phase techniques of peptide synthesis. The present review highlights the natural resources, unique structural features and the most relevant biological properties of proline-rich peptides of marine-origin, focusing on the potential therapeutic role that the PRCPs may play as a promising source of new peptide-based novel drugs.

  1. Results of efforts by the Convention on Biological Diversity to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas.

    PubMed

    Bax, Nicholas J; Cleary, Jesse; Donnelly, Ben; Dunn, Daniel C; Dunstan, Piers K; Fuller, Mike; Halpin, Patrick N

    2016-06-01

    In 2004, Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) addressed a United Nations (UN) call for area-based planning, including for marine-protected areas that resulted in a global effort to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas (EBSAs). We summarized the results, assessed their consistency, and evaluated the process developed by the Secretariat of the CBD to engage countries and experts in 9 regional workshops held from 2011 to 2014. Experts from 92 countries and 79 regional or international bodies participated. They considered 250 million km(2) of the world's ocean area (two-thirds of the total). The 204 areas they examined in detail differed widely in area (from 5.5 km(2) to 11.1 million km(2) ). Despite the initial focus of the CBD process on areas outside national jurisdiction, only 31 of the areas examined were solely outside national jurisdiction. Thirty-five extended into national jurisdictions, 137 were solely within national jurisdictions, and 28 included the jurisdictions of more than 1 country (1 area lacked precise boundaries). Data were sufficient to rank 88-99% of the areas relative to each of the 7 criteria for EBSAs agreed to previously by Parties to the CBD. The naturalness criterion ranked high for a smaller percentage of the EBSAs (31%) than other criteria (51-70%), indicating the difficulty in finding relatively undisturbed areas in the ocean. The highly participatory nature of the workshops, including easy and consistent access to the relevant information facilitated by 2 technical teams, contributed to the workshop participants success in identifying areas that could be ranked relative to most criteria and areas that extend across jurisdictional boundaries. The formal recognition of workshop results by the Conference of Parties to the CBD resulted in these 204 areas being identified as EBSAs by the 196 Parties. They represent the only suite of marine areas recognized by the international community for their

  2. Polar marine biology science in Portugal and Spain: Recent advances and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, José C.; Barbosa, Andrés; Agustí, Susana; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Alvito, Pedro; Ameneiro, Julia; Ávila, Conxita; Baeta, Alexandra; Canário, João; Carmona, Raquel; Catry, Paulo; Ceia, Filipe; Clark, Melody S.; Cristobo, Francisco J.; Cruz, Bruno; Duarte, Carlos M.; Figuerola, Blanca; Gili, Josep-Maria; Gonçalves, Ana R.; Gordillo, Francisco J. L.; Granadeiro, José P.; Guerreiro, Miguel; Isla, Enrique; Jiménez, Carlos; López-González, Pablo J.; Lourenço, Sílvia; Marques, João C.; Moreira, Elena; Mota, Ana M.; Nogueira, Marta; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Orejas, Covadonga; Paiva, Vitor H.; Palanques, Albert; Pearson, Gareth A.; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Peña Cantero, Álvaro L.; Power, Deborah M.; Ramos, Jaime A.; Rossi, Sergi; Seco, José; Sañé, Elisabet; Serrão, Ester A.; Taboada, Sergi; Tavares, Sílvia; Teixidó, Núria; Vaqué, Dolors; Valente, Tiago; Vázquez, Elsa; Vieira, Rui P.; Viñegla, Benjamin

    2013-10-01

    Polar marine ecosystems have global ecological and economic importance because of their unique biodiversity and their major role in climate processes and commercial fisheries, among others. Portugal and Spain have been highly active in a wide range of disciplines in marine biology of the Antarctic and the Arctic. The main aim of this paper is to provide a synopsis of some of the results and initiatives undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish polar teams within the field of marine sciences, particularly on benthic and pelagic biodiversity (species diversity and abundance, including microbial, molecular, physiological and chemical mechanisms in polar organisms), conservation and ecology of top predators (particularly penguins, albatrosses and seals), and pollutants and evolution of marine organisms associated with major issues such as climate change, ocean acidification and UV radiation effects. Both countries have focused their polar research more in the Antarctic than in the Arctic. Portugal and Spain should encourage research groups to continue increasing their collaborations with other countries and develop multi-disciplinary research projects, as well as to maintain highly active memberships within major organizations, such as the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the International Arctic Science Council (IASC) and the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), and in international research projects.

  3. Emerging Concepts Promising New Horizons for Marine Biodiscovery and Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Reen, F. Jerry; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Adams, Claire; O’Gara, Fergal

    2015-01-01

    The vast oceans of the world, which comprise a huge variety of unique ecosystems, are emerging as a rich and relatively untapped source of novel bioactive compounds with invaluable biotechnological and pharmaceutical potential. Evidence accumulated over the last decade has revealed that the diversity of marine microorganisms is enormous with many thousands of bacterial species detected that were previously unknown. Associated with this diversity is the production of diverse repertoires of bioactive compounds ranging from peptides and enzymes to more complex secondary metabolites that have significant bioactivity and thus the potential to be exploited for innovative biotechnology. Here we review the discovery and functional potential of marine bioactive peptides such as lantibiotics, nanoantibiotics and peptidomimetics, which have received particular attention in recent years in light of their broad spectrum of bioactivity. The significance of marine peptides in cell-to-cell communication and how this may be exploited in the discovery of novel bioactivity is also explored. Finally, with the recent advances in bioinformatics and synthetic biology, it is becoming clear that the integration of these disciplines with genetic and biochemical characterization of the novel marine peptides, offers the most potential in the development of the next generation of societal solutions. PMID:25984990

  4. Emerging concepts promising new horizons for marine biodiscovery and synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Reen, F Jerry; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; Dobson, Alan D W; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2015-05-13

    The vast oceans of the world, which comprise a huge variety of unique ecosystems, are emerging as a rich and relatively untapped source of novel bioactive compounds with invaluable biotechnological and pharmaceutical potential. Evidence accumulated over the last decade has revealed that the diversity of marine microorganisms is enormous with many thousands of bacterial species detected that were previously unknown. Associated with this diversity is the production of diverse repertoires of bioactive compounds ranging from peptides and enzymes to more complex secondary metabolites that have significant bioactivity and thus the potential to be exploited for innovative biotechnology. Here we review the discovery and functional potential of marine bioactive peptides such as lantibiotics, nanoantibiotics and peptidomimetics, which have received particular attention in recent years in light of their broad spectrum of bioactivity. The significance of marine peptides in cell-to-cell communication and how this may be exploited in the discovery of novel bioactivity is also explored. Finally, with the recent advances in bioinformatics and synthetic biology, it is becoming clear that the integration of these disciplines with genetic and biochemical characterization of the novel marine peptides, offers the most potential in the development of the next generation of societal solutions.

  5. Pyridinoacridine alkaloids of marine origin: NMR and MS spectral data, synthesis, biosynthesis and biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Biavatti, Maique W

    2015-01-01

    Summary This review focuses on pyridoacridine-related metabolites as one biologically interesting group of alkaloids identified from marine sources. They are produced by marine sponges, ascidians and tunicates, and they are structurally comprised of four to eight fused rings including heterocycles. Acridine, acridone, dihydroacridine, and quinolone cores are features regularly found in these alkaloid skeletons. The lack of hydrogen atoms next to quaternary carbon atoms for two or three rings makes the chemical shift assignment a difficult task. In this regard, one of the aims of this review is the compilation of previously reported, pyridoacridine 13C NMR data. Observations have been made on the delocalization of electrons and the presence of some functional groups that lead to changes in the chemical shift of some carbon resonances. The lack of mass spectra information for these alkaloids due to the compactness of their structures is further discussed. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways of some of these metabolites have been shown since they could inspire biomimetic synthesis. The synthesis routes used to prepare members of these marine alkaloids (as well as their analogues), which are synthesized for biological purposes are also discussed. Pyridoacridines were found to have a large spectrum of bioactivity and this review highlights and compares the pharmacophores that are responsible for the observed bioactivity. PMID:26664587

  6. 50 CFR 218.35 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications for Letters of Authorization. 218.35 Section 218.35 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Range Complex § 218.35 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally take marine mammals...

  7. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in marine ecosystems as both a carbon source for the microbial food web (and thus a source of CO2 to the atmosphere) and as a light inhibitor in marine environments. The presence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM; the optically active portion of total DOM) can have significant controlling effects on transmittance of sunlight through the water column and therefore on primary production as well as the heat balance of the upper ocean. However, CDOM is also susceptible to photochemical degradation, which decreases the flux of solar radiation that is absorbed. Knowledge of the current spatial and temporal distribution of CDOM in marine environments is thus critical for understanding how ongoing and future changes in climate may impact these biological, biogeochemical, and physical processes. We describe the quantity and quality of CDOM along five key productive transects across a developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) in the Pacific Arctic region. The samples were collected onboard the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in July 2013 and 2014. Monitoring of the variability of CDOM along transects of high productivity can provide important insights into biological and biogeochemical cycling across the region. Our analyses include overall concentrations of CDOM, as well as proxy information such as molecular weight, lability, and source (i.e., autochthonous vs. allochthonous) of organic matter. We utilize these field observations to compare with satellite-derived CDOM concentrations determined from the Aqua MODIS satellite platform, which ultimately provides a spatially and temporally continuous synoptic view of CDOM concentrations throughout the region. Examining the current relationships among CDOM, sea ice variability, biological productivity, and biogeochemical cycling in the Pacific Arctic region will likely provide key insights for how ecosystems throughout the region will respond in future

  8. Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

    2011-12-01

    Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stow, Craig A.; Jolliff, Jason; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Doney, Scott C.; Allen, J. Icarus; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Wallhead, Philip

    2009-02-01

    Coupled biological/physical models of marine systems serve many purposes including the synthesis of information, hypothesis generation, and as a tool for numerical experimentation. However, marine system models are increasingly used for prediction to support high-stakes decision-making. In such applications it is imperative that a rigorous model skill assessment is conducted so that the model's capabilities are tested and understood. Herein, we review several metrics and approaches useful to evaluate model skill. The definition of skill and the determination of the skill level necessary for a given application is context specific and no single metric is likely to reveal all aspects of model skill. Thus, we recommend the use of several metrics, in concert, to provide a more thorough appraisal. The routine application and presentation of rigorous skill assessment metrics will also serve the broader interests of the modeling community, ultimately resulting in improved forecasting abilities as well as helping us recognize our limitations.

  10. Skill Assessment for Coupled Biological/Physical Models of Marine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jolliff, Jason; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Doney, Scott C.; Allen, J. Icarus; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Wallhead, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Coupled biological/physical models of marine systems serve many purposes including the synthesis of information, hypothesis generation, and as a tool for numerical experimentation. However, marine system models are increasingly used for prediction to support high-stakes decision-making. In such applications it is imperative that a rigorous model skill assessment is conducted so that the model’s capabilities are tested and understood. Herein, we review several metrics and approaches useful to evaluate model skill. The definition of skill and the determination of the skill level necessary for a given application is context specific and no single metric is likely to reveal all aspects of model skill. Thus, we recommend the use of several metrics, in concert, to provide a more thorough appraisal. The routine application and presentation of rigorous skill assessment metrics will also serve the broader interests of the modeling community, ultimately resulting in improved forecasting abilities as well as helping us recognize our limitations. PMID:28366997

  11. Marine parasites as biological tags in South American Atlantic waters, current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cantatore, D M P; Timi, J T

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fisheries in South American Atlantic coasts (SAAC) are threatened by overfishing and under serious risk of collapsing. The SAAC comprises a diversity of environments, possesses a complex oceanography and harbours a vast biodiversity that provide an enormous potential for using parasites as biological tags for fish stock delineation, a prerequisite for the implementation of control and management plans. Here, their use in the SAAC is reviewed. Main evidence is derived from northern Argentine waters, where fish parasite assemblages are dominated by larval helminth species that share a low specificity, long persistence and trophic transmission, parasitizing almost indiscriminately all available fish species. The advantages and constraints of such a combination of characteristics are analysed and recommendations are given for future research. Shifting the focus from fish/parasite populations to communities allows expanding the concept of biological tags from local to regional scales, providing essential information to delineate ecosystem boundaries for host communities. This new concept arose as a powerful tool to help the implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, the new paradigm for fisheries science. Holistic approaches, including parasites as biological tags for stock delineation will render valuable information to help insure fisheries and marine ecosystems against further depletion and collapse.

  12. Biological Targets and Mechanisms of Action of Natural Products from Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Reyes, Lilibeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine cyanobacteria are an ancient group of organisms and prolific producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. These compounds are presumably optimized by evolution over billions of years to exert high affinity for their intended biological target in the ecologically relevant organism but likely also possess activity in different biological contexts such as human cells. Screening of marine cyanobacterial extracts for bioactive natural products has largely focused on cancer cell viability; however, diversification of the screening platform led to the characterization of many new bioactive compounds. Targets of compounds have oftentimes been elusive if the compounds were discovered through phenotypic assays. Over the past few years, technology has advanced to determine mechanism of action (MOA) and targets through reverse chemical genetic and proteomic approaches, which has been applied to certain cyanobacterial compounds and will be discussed in this review. Some cyanobacterial molecules are the most-potent-in-class inhibitors and therefore may become valuable tools for chemical biology to probe protein function but also be templates for novel drugs, assuming in vitro potency translates into cellular and in vivo activity. Our review will focus on compounds for which the direct targets have been deciphered or which were found to target a novel pathway, and link them to disease states where target modulation may be beneficial. PMID:25571978

  13. Syntheses and biological studies of marine terpenoids derived from inorganic cyanide.

    PubMed

    Schnermann, Martin J; Shenvi, Ryan A

    2015-04-01

    Isocyanoterpenes (ICTs) are marine natural products biosynthesized through an unusual pathway that adorns terpene scaffolds with nitrogenous functionality derived from cyanide. The appendage of nitrogen functional groups - isonitriles in particular - onto stereochemically-rich carbocyclic ring systems provides enigmatic, bioactive molecules that have required innovative chemical syntheses. This review discusses the challenges inherent to the synthesis of this diverse family and details the development of the field. We also present recent progress in isolation and discuss key aspects of the remarkable biological activity of these compounds.

  14. Determination of trace metals in marine biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; McLaren, J.W.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of two marine biological reference materials (dogfish liver tissue (DOLT-1) and dogfish muscle tissue (DORM-1)). The materials were put into solution by digestion in a nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Thirteen elements (Na, Mg, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were then determined. Accurate results were obtained by standard additions or isotope dilution techniques for all of these elements in DORM-1 and for all but Cr in DOLT-1.

  15. Syntheses and Biological Studies of Marine Terpenoids Derived from Inorganic Cyanide

    PubMed Central

    Schnermann, Martin J.; Shenvi, Ryan A.

    2015-01-01

    Isocyanoterpenes (ICTs) are marine natural products biosynthesized through an unusual pathway that adorns terpene scaffolds with nitrogenous functionality derived from cyanide. The appendage of nitrogen functional groups–isonitriles in particular–onto stereochemically-rich carbocyclic ring systems provides enigmatic, bioactive molecules that have required innovative chemical syntheses. This review discusses the challenges inherent to the synthesis of this diverse family and details the development of the field. We also present recent progress in isolation and discuss key aspects of the remarkable biological activity of these compounds. PMID:25514696

  16. Biological effects: Marine mammals and sea turtles (chapter 14). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Haebler, R.

    1994-01-01

    All spills are different, varying in type and amount of oil spilled, species exposed, and geographic and atmospheric conditions. It is important to understand as much as possible about both the natural history and characteristics of various species and the specific effects oil has on wildlife. Doing so improves the ability to extrapolate from one spill to another and improves prediction of types and severity of effects to wildlife. This chapter presents an overview of the biological effects of oil on marine mammals and sea turtles.

  17. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  18. Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca variations in environmental and biological sources: A survey of marine and terrestrial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, Stephanie; Clementz, Mark T.

    2012-10-01

    The relative concentrations of strontium to calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium to calcium (Ba/Ca) in mammalian bioapatite are common biogeochemical indicators for trophic level and/or dietary preferences in terrestrial foodwebs; however, similar research in marine foodwebs is lacking. This study combined environmental and biological Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca data from both terrestrial and marine settings from 62 published books, reports, and studies along with original data collected from 149 marine mammals (30 species) and 83 prey items (18 species) and found that variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of biological and environmental samples are appreciably different in terrestrial and marine systems. In terrestrial systems, environmental sources account for most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios. In contrast, environmental sources in marine systems (i.e., seawater) are comparatively invariant, meaning most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios originate from biological processes. Marine consumers, particularly non-mammalian and mammalian vertebrates, show evidence of biopurification of Ca relative to Sr and Ba, similar to what is observed in terrestrial systems; however, unlike terrestrial systems, variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of environmental sources are overprinted by bioaccumulation of Sr and Ba at the base of marine foodwebs. This demonstrates that in marine systems, spatial or temporal differences may have little to no effect on Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of marine vertebrates, making Sr/Ca, and to a lesser extent Ba/Ca, potentially useful global proxies for trophic level and dietary preferences of marine vertebrates.

  19. Effects of a spill of bunker oil on the marine biological communities in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, P.K. )

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a recent bunker oil spill on the marine environment were assessed through investigation of the rocky shore fauna, phytoplankton population and macrobenthic communities over a study period of 150 days. In addition, toxicity experiments were carried out in the laboratory to ascertain the toxic effects of the oil-plus-dispersant on selected test organisms. The impacts of the spill on the marine fauna were minimal with no visible reduction in species and individual numbers. Possible reasons were the small amount of oil spilled, the rapid containment and dispersion in the clean-up operations, and the less toxic effects of the heavy bunker oil. On Hong Kong shores, the limpets can be identified as indicator species to oil pollution. A quick survey of the limpet fauna on the rocky shores immediately after a spill provides an initial assessment of the impacts on the shoreline. However, faunal recovery over a long-term period may be difficult to assess in view of the lack of baseline data on most of the marine biological communities in Hong Kong waters.

  20. Investigation of Marine-Derived Fungal Diversity and Their Exploitable Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Jang, Seokyoon; Heo, Young Mok; Min, Mihee; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hanbyul; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-06-30

    Marine fungi are potential producers of bioactive compounds that may have pharmacological and medicinal applications. Fungi were cultured from marine brown algae and identified using multiple target genes to confirm phylogenetic placement. These target genes included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the nuclear large subunit (LSU), and the β-tubulin region. Various biological activities of marine-derived fungi were evaluated, including their antifungal, antioxidant and cellulolytic enzyme activities. As a result, a total of 50 fungi was isolated from the brown algae Sargassum sp. Among the 50 isolated fungi, Corollospora angusta was the dominant species in this study. The genus Arthrinium showed a relatively strong antifungal activity to all of the target plant pathogenic fungi. In particular, Arthrinium saccharicola KUC21221 showed high radical scavenging activity and the highest activities in terms of filter paper units (0.39 U/mL), endoglucanase activity (0.38 U/mL), and β-glucosidase activity (1.04 U/mL).

  1. High throughput extraction of plant, marine and fungal specimens for preservation of biologically active molecules.

    PubMed

    McCloud, Thomas G

    2010-06-24

    The Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP) of the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI), at its NCI-Frederick facility, has built perhaps the largest and most diverse natural products screening library in the world for drug discovery. Composed of plant, marine organism and microbial extracts, it currently contains in excess of 230,000 unique materials. From the inception of this program to identify new anticancer chemotherapeutics from natural products sources in 1987, two extracts have been sequentially prepared from each specimen: one produced by organic solvent extraction, which yields a complex material that contains non- to moderately polar small molecules, and a water-soluble extract, a milieu largely unexplored for useful drugs in earlier years, which contains polar small to medium-sized molecules. Plant specimens and microbial ferments are extracted by modified traditional methods, while the method developed to produce extracts from marine organisms is unique and very different from that used by marine natural products chemists previously, but again yields both an organic solvent soluble and a water soluble material for inclusion into the screening library. Details of high throughput extract production for preservation of biologically active molecules are presented.

  2. Investigation of Marine-Derived Fungal Diversity and Their Exploitable Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Jang, Seokyoon; Heo, Young Mok; Min, Mihee; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hanbyul; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Marine fungi are potential producers of bioactive compounds that may have pharmacological and medicinal applications. Fungi were cultured from marine brown algae and identified using multiple target genes to confirm phylogenetic placement. These target genes included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the nuclear large subunit (LSU), and the β-tubulin region. Various biological activities of marine-derived fungi were evaluated, including their antifungal, antioxidant and cellulolytic enzyme activities. As a result, a total of 50 fungi was isolated from the brown algae Sargassum sp. Among the 50 isolated fungi, Corollospora angusta was the dominant species in this study. The genus Arthrinium showed a relatively strong antifungal activity to all of the target plant pathogenic fungi. In particular, Arthrinium saccharicola KUC21221 showed high radical scavenging activity and the highest activities in terms of filter paper units (0.39 U/mL), endoglucanase activity (0.38 U/mL), and β-glucosidase activity (1.04 U/mL). PMID:26133554

  3. Biological invasions as a component of global change in stressed marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A; Savini, D

    2003-05-01

    Biological invasions in marine environment are the lesser known aspect of global change. However, recent events which occurred in the Mediterranean Sea demonstrate that they represent a serious ecological and economical menace leading to biodiversity loss, ecosystem unbalancing, fishery and tourism impairment. In this paper we review marine bioinvasions using examples taken from the Mediterranean/Black Sea region. Particular attention is given to the environmental status of the receiving area as a fundamental pre-requisite for the colonisation success of alien species. The spread of the tropical algae belonging to the genus Caulerpa in the northwestern basin of the Mediterranean Sea has been facilitated by pre-existing conditions of instability of the Posidonia oceanica endemic ecosystem in relation to stress of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Human interventions caused long-term modification in the Black Sea environment, preparing a fertile ground for mass bioinvasion of aquatic nuisance species which, in some cases, altered the original equilibrium of the entire basin. Finally, the Venice lagoon is presented as the third example of an environment subjected to high propagule pressure and anthropogenic forcing and bearing the higher "diversity" of non-indigenous species compared to the other Mediterranean lagoons. Stressed environments are easily colonised by alien species; understanding the links between human and natural disturbance and massive development of non-indigenous species will help prevent marine bioinvasions, that are already favoured by global oceanic trade.

  4. Determination of Iodine-129 in fish samples as new tracer of marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuno, Haruka; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2014-05-01

    Most of Iodine-129 in the surface environment is the anthropogenic origin, i.e., the result of the human nuclear activities. In the marine environment, like Pacific ocean, I-129 is transferred from atmosphere and slowly diffuses into deeper layer so that there is steep gradient of I-129 concentration, i.e., the surface layer has high I-129 concentration and it suddenly decreases going deeper. This peculiar depth profile is thus reflected by the isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) profile because stable iodine (I-127) concentration is almost uniform in the seawater (ca. 60 ppb). Iodine isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) of marine lives like fish should be determined by their habitats and the ways exchanging iodine with seawater. This means that the iodine isotopic ratio is potential indicator of marine biology. However there have been only few studies using I-129 for marine biology. This is because I-129 is so rare in the marine lives that ordinary analytical techniques cannot detect. Recently, the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry has been developed and demonstrates excellent sensitivity to detect I-129/I-127 ratio as low as 1E-14. However it requires typically 1 mg AgI sample. To obtain such amount of iodine several hundreds gram should be treated in the case of typical fish. In this study "carrier method" was adopted to overcome this difficulty. Our procedure is following: A fish sample was first dried completely then homogenized well. Iodine was extracted into an alkaline solution by the thermal hydrolysis from 0.1 to 0.5g of dried sample. An aliquot of this solution was taken for ICP-MS analysis to determine the stable iodine concentration. The remaining was, added with carrier iodine (about 1 mg), purified by solvent extraction and collected as AgI precipitation. I-129/I-127 ratio of obtained AgI was determined by AMS. From the AMS result and the stable iodine concentration, the isotopic ratio of the fish samples themselves can be calculated. The result of fish

  5. Isolation and biological characteristics of aerobic marine magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Pan, Hongmiao; Yue, Haidong; Song, Tao; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Guanjun; Wu, Longfei; Xiao, Tian

    2006-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have become a hot spot of research in microbiology attracting intensive interest of researchers in multiple disciplinary fields. However, the studies were limited in few fastidious bacteria. The objective of this study aims at isolating new marine magnetic bacteria and better comprehension of magnetotactic bacteria. In this study, an aerobic magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1 was isolated from sediments in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). In TEM, magnetic cells have one or several circular magnetosomes in diameter of 100nm, and consist of Fe and Co shown on energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The biological and physiological characteristics of this bacterium were also described. The colour of YSC-1 colony is white in small rod. The gram stain is negative. Results showed that Strain YSC-1 differs from microaerophile magnetotactic bacteria MS-1 and WD-1 in biology.

  6. Synthesis of marine guanidine alkaloids and their application as chemical/biological tools.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Yuichi

    2003-01-01

    Ptilomycalin A and crambescidins, novel marine guanidine alkaloids, have a unique pentacyclic guanidine structure, and exhibit a considerable array of biological activities. The first method developed for the synthesis of the pentacyclic guanidine core structure involved successive 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions and resulted in the first total synthesis of crambescidin 359. The synthesis of other pentacyclic guanidine derivatives has been based on this methodology and applied as tools for studying biological activities, and as chemical reaction catalysts. Copyright 2003 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Chem Rec 3: 201-211; 2003: Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI 10.1002/tcr.10064

  7. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas.

    PubMed

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E; Vethaak, A Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and endpoints (chemical analyses, biological effects). ICON has demonstrated the use of a framework for integrated contaminant assessment on European coastal and offshore areas. The assessment showed that chemical contamination did not always correspond with biological effects, indicating that both are required. The framework can be used to develop assessments for EU directives. If a 95% target were to be used as a regional indicator of MSFD GES, Iceland and offshore North Sea would achieve the target using the ICON dataset, but inshore North Sea, Baltic and Spanish Mediterranean regions would fail.

  8. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-03-25

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi's productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances.

  9. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances. PMID:27023571

  10. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Cristina Facchini, Maria; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray’s water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts.

  11. Parasites as biological tags in marine fisheries research: European Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, K; Hemmingsen, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the use of parasites as biological tags for stock identification and to follow migrations of marine fish, mammals and invertebrates in European Atlantic waters are critically reviewed and evaluated. The region covered includes the North, Baltic, Barents and White Seas plus Icelandic waters, but excludes the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Each fish species or ecological group of species is treated separately. More parasite tag studies have been carried out on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus than on any other species, while cod Gadus morhua have also been the subject of many studies. Other species that have been the subjects of more than one study are: blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarkii, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus and mackerel Scomber scombrus. Other species are dealt with under the general headings redfishes, flatfish, tunas, anadromous fish, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and invertebrates. A final section highlights how parasites can be, and have been, misused as biological tags, and how this can be avoided. It also reviews recent developments in methodology and parasite genetics, considers the potential effects of climate change on the distributions of both hosts and parasites, and suggests host-parasite systems that should reward further research.

  12. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via microscale biological processes: phytoplancton demise and viral infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, C.; O'Dowd, C. D. D.; Danovaro, R.

    2015-12-01

    The processes that link phytoplankton biomass and productivity to the organic matter enrichment in sea spray aerosol are far from being elucidated and modelling predictions remain highly uncertain at the moment. While some studies have asserted that the enrichment of OM in sea spray aerosol is independent on marine productivity, others, have shown significant correlation with phytoplankton biomass and productivity (Chl-a retrieved by satellites). We present here new results illustrating a clear link between OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) and both phytoplankton-biomass and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). We suggest that the OM enrichment of sea spray through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), which determine the release of celldebris, exudates and other colloidal material. This OM, through processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-drive plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spraymodification with potentially significant climate impacts.

  13. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-10-14

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray's water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts.

  14. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    PubMed Central

    O’Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Cristina Facchini, Maria; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell’Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray’s water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts. PMID:26464099

  15. Parasites as biological tags for stock discrimination in marine fish from South American Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Timi, Juan T

    2007-06-01

    The use of parasites as biological tags in population studies of marine fish in the south-western Atlantic has proved to be a successful tool for discriminating stocks for all species to which it has been applied, namely: Scomber japonicus, Engraulis anchoita, Merluccius hubbsi and Cynoscion guatucupa, the latter studied on a broader geographic scale, including samples from Uruguayan and Brazilian waters. The distribution patterns of marine parasites are determined mainly by temperature-salinity profiles and by their association with specific masses of water. Analyses of distribution patterns of some parasite species in relation to gradients in environmental (oceanographic) conditions showed that latitudinal gradients in parasite distribution are common in the study area, and are probably directly related to water temperature. Indeed, temperature, which is a good predictor of latitudinal gradients of richness and diversity of species, shows a latitudinal pattern in south-western Atlantic coasts, decreasing southwards, due to the influence of subtropical and subantarctic marine currents flowing along the edge of the continental slope. This pattern also determines the distribution of zooplankton, with a characteristic specific composition in different water masses. The gradient in the distribution of parasites determines differential compositions of their communities at different latitudes, which makes possible the identification of different stocks of their fish hosts. Other features of the host-parasite systems contributing to the success of the parasitological method are: (1) parasites identified as good biological tags (i.e. anisakids) are widely distributed in the local fauna; (2) many of these species show low specificity and use paratenic hosts; and (3) the structure of parasite communities are, to a certain degree, predictable in time and space.

  16. p53 Superfamily proteins in marine bivalve cancer and stress biology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Charles W; Van Beneden, Rebecca J; Muttray, Annette F; Böttger, S Anne; Kelley, Melissa L; Tucker, Abraham E; Thomas, W Kelley

    2011-01-01

    The human p53 tumour suppressor protein is inactivated in many cancers and is also a major player in apoptotic responses to cellular stress. The p53 protein and the two other members of this protein family (p63, p73) are encoded by distinct genes and their functions have been extensively documented for humans and some other vertebrates. The structure and relative expression levels for members of the p53 superfamily have also been reported for most major invertebrate taxa. The functions of homologous proteins have been investigated for only a few invertebrates (specifically, p53 in flies, nematodes and recently a sea anemone). These studies of classical model organisms all suggest that the gene family originally evolved to mediate apoptosis of damaged germ cells or to protect germ cells from genotoxic stress. Here, we have correlated data from a number of molluscan and other invertebrate sequencing projects to provide a framework for understanding p53 signalling pathways in marine bivalve cancer and stress biology. These data suggest that (a) the two identified p53 and p63/73-like proteins in soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Northern European squid (Loligo forbesi) have identical core sequences and may be splice variants of a single gene, while some molluscs and most other invertebrates have two or more distinct genes expressing different p53 family members; (b) transcriptional activation domains (TADs) in bivalve p53 and p63/73-like protein sequences are 67-69% conserved with human p53, while those in ecdysozoan, cnidarian, placozoan and choanozoan eukaryotes are ≤33% conserved; (c) the Mdm2 binding site in the transcriptional activation domain is 100% conserved in all sequenced bivalve p53 proteins (e.g. Mya, Mytilus, Crassostrea and Spisula) but is not present in other non-deuterostome invertebrates; (d) an Mdm2 homologue has been cloned for Mytilus trossulus; (e) homologues for both human p53 upstream regulatory and

  17. Detecting regime shifts in marine systems with limited biological data: An example from southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litzow, Michael A.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Frusher, Stewart D.; Dann, Peter; Tuck, Geoffrey N.

    2016-02-01

    The ability to detect ecological regime shifts in a data-limited setting was investigated, using southeast Australian ecosystems as a model. Community variability was summarized for 1968-2008 with the first two principal components (PCs) of recruitment estimates for six fish stocks and reproductive parameters for four seabird species; regional climate was summarized for 1953-2008 with the first two PCs for three parameters (sea surface temperature [SST], sea surface salinity, surface nitrate) measured at two stations; and basin-scale climate variability was summarized for 1950-2012 with mean South Pacific SST and the first two PCs of detrended South Pacific SST. The first two biology PCs explained 45% of total community variability. The first two PCs of basin-scale SST showed abrupt shifts similar to "regime" behavior observed in other ocean basins, and the first PC of basin-scale SST showed significant covariation with the first PC of regional climate. Together, these results are consistent with the strong community variability and decadal-scale red noise climatic variability associated with Northern Hemisphere regime shifts. However, statistical model selection showed that the first two PCs of regional climate and the first PC of biology time series all exhibited linear change, rather than abrupt shifts. This result is consistent with previous studies documenting rapid linear change in the climate and biology of southeast Australian shelf ecosystems, and we conclude that there is no evidence for regime shift behavior in the region's ecology. However, analysis of a large set of previously-published biological time series from the North Pacific (n = 64) suggests that studies using fewer than ∼30 biological time series, such as this one, may be unable to detect regime shifts. Thus we conclude that the nature of ecological variability in the region cannot be determined with available data. The development of additional long-term biological observations is needed

  18. Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben P; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moore, Pippa J

    2013-04-01

    Ocean acidification and warming are considered two of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, yet the combined effect of these stressors on marine organisms remains largely unclear. Using a meta-analytical approach, we assessed the biological responses of marine organisms to the effects of ocean acidification and warming in isolation and combination. As expected biological responses varied across taxonomic groups, life-history stages, and trophic levels, but importantly, combining stressors generally exhibited a stronger biological (either positive or negative) effect. Using a subset of orthogonal studies, we show that four of five of the biological responses measured (calcification, photosynthesis, reproduction, and survival, but not growth) interacted synergistically when warming and acidification were combined. The observed synergisms between interacting stressors suggest that care must be made in making inferences from single-stressor studies. Our findings clearly have implications for the development of adaptive management strategies particularly given that the frequency of stressors interacting in marine systems will be likely to intensify in the future. There is now an urgent need to move toward more robust, holistic, and ecologically realistic climate change experiments that incorporate interactions. Without them accurate predictions about the likely deleterious impacts to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over the next century will not be possible.

  19. Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ben P; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moore, Pippa J

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming are considered two of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, yet the combined effect of these stressors on marine organisms remains largely unclear. Using a meta-analytical approach, we assessed the biological responses of marine organisms to the effects of ocean acidification and warming in isolation and combination. As expected biological responses varied across taxonomic groups, life-history stages, and trophic levels, but importantly, combining stressors generally exhibited a stronger biological (either positive or negative) effect. Using a subset of orthogonal studies, we show that four of five of the biological responses measured (calcification, photosynthesis, reproduction, and survival, but not growth) interacted synergistically when warming and acidification were combined. The observed synergisms between interacting stressors suggest that care must be made in making inferences from single-stressor studies. Our findings clearly have implications for the development of adaptive management strategies particularly given that the frequency of stressors interacting in marine systems will be likely to intensify in the future. There is now an urgent need to move toward more robust, holistic, and ecologically realistic climate change experiments that incorporate interactions. Without them accurate predictions about the likely deleterious impacts to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over the next century will not be possible. PMID:23610641

  20. Biological activities of ethanolic extracts from deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Turk, Tom; Ambrožič Avguštin, Jerneja; Batista, Urška; Strugar, Gašper; Kosmina, Rok; Čivović, Sandra; Janussen, Dorte; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Sepčić, Kristina

    2013-04-02

    We report on the screening of ethanolic extracts from 33 deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges for different biological activities. We monitored hemolysis, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity towards normal and transformed cells and growth inhibition of laboratory, commensal and clinically and ecologically relevant bacteria. The most prominent activities were associated with the extracts from sponges belonging to the genus Latrunculia, which show all of these activities. While most of these activities are associated to already known secondary metabolites, the extremely strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential appears to be related to a compound unknown to date. Extracts from Tetilla leptoderma, Bathydorus cf. spinosus, Xestospongia sp., Rossella sp., Rossella cf. racovitzae and Halichondria osculum were hemolytic, with the last two also showing moderate cytotoxic potential. The antibacterial tests showed significantly greater activities of the extracts of these Antarctic sponges towards ecologically relevant bacteria from sea water and from Arctic ice. This indicates their ecological relevance for inhibition of bacterial microfouling.

  1. Marine biological metapopulation with coupled logistic growth functions: The MSY and quasi MSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husniah, H.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we develop a mathematical model for a harvested marine biological stock. The stock consists of two discretely separated sub-stocks which are connected by the dispersal of individuals, and hence forms a metapopulation structure. The model assumes that the production function of each stock follows a logistic equation, hence the full system of the stocks governed by a couple of logistic equations. We find the formula of the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) for each sub-stock, which is extendable to a metapopulation with several discretely separated sub-populations. We also give a numerical simulation to illustrate the application of the formula for two-patch case, based on the quasi maximum sustainable yield. The simulation shows that ignoring the existence of the coupling of the system resulting in a lower total harvest from the population. This indicates a financial lost potential arising from an inappropriate recognition of a metapopulation structure in a fishery industry.

  2. Barcodes of marine invertebrates from north Iberian ports: Native diversity and resistance to biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Miralles, L; Ardura, A; Arias, A; Borrell, Y J; Clusa, L; Dopico, E; de Rojas, A Hernandez; Lopez, B; Muñoz-Colmenero, M; Roca, A; Valiente, A G; Zaiko, A; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-11-15

    Ports are gateways for many marine organisms transported by ships worldwide, especially non-indigenous species (NIS). In this study carried out in North Iberian ports (Cantabrian Sea, Bay of Biscay) we have observed 38% of exotic macroinvertebrates. Four species, namely the barnacle Austrominius modestus, the tubeworm Ficopomatus enigmaticus, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the pygmy mussel Xenostrobus securis, exhibited clear signs of invasiveness. A total of 671 barcode (cytochrome oxidase subunit I or 18S rRNA) genes were obtained and confirmed the species status of some cryptic NIS. Negative and significant correlation between diversity estimators of native biota and proportion of NIS suggests biotic resistance in ports. This could be applied to management of port biota for contributing to prevent the settlement of biopollutants in these areas which are very sensitive to biological invasions.

  3. Biological Activities of Ethanolic Extracts from Deep-Sea Antarctic Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Tom; Ambrožič Avguštin, Jerneja; Batista, Urška; Strugar, Gašper; Kosmina, Rok; Čivović, Sandra; Janussen, Dorte; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Sepčić, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    We report on the screening of ethanolic extracts from 33 deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges for different biological activities. We monitored hemolysis, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity towards normal and transformed cells and growth inhibition of laboratory, commensal and clinically and ecologically relevant bacteria. The most prominent activities were associated with the extracts from sponges belonging to the genus Latrunculia, which show all of these activities. While most of these activities are associated to already known secondary metabolites, the extremely strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential appears to be related to a compound unknown to date. Extracts from Tetilla leptoderma, Bathydorus cf. spinosus, Xestospongia sp., Rossella sp., Rossella cf. racovitzae and Halichondria osculum were hemolytic, with the last two also showing moderate cytotoxic potential. The antibacterial tests showed significantly greater activities of the extracts of these Antarctic sponges towards ecologically relevant bacteria from sea water and from Arctic ice. This indicates their ecological relevance for inhibition of bacterial microfouling. PMID:23549284

  4. Investigating on the Correlation Between Some Biological Activities of Marine Sponge-Associated Bacteria Extracts and Isolated Diketopiperazines.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hady, Faten K; Fayad, Walid; Iodice, Carmine; El-Shahid, Zeinab A; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S; Crudele, Egle; Tommonaro, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Marine organisms have been considered as the richest sources of novel bioactive metabolites, which can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. In the last years, the interest for marine microorganisms has grown for their enormous biodiversity and for the evidence that many novel compounds isolated from marine invertebrates are really synthesized by their associated bacteria. Nevertheless, the discovery of a chemical communication Quorum sensing (QS) between bacterial cells and between bacteria and host has gained the researchers to expand the aim of their study toward the role of bacteria associated with marine invertebrates, such as marine sponge. In the present paper, we report the evaluation of biological activities of different extracts of bacteria Vibrio sp. and Bacillus sp. associated with marine sponges Dysidea avara and Ircinia variabilis, respectively. Moreover, we evaluated the biological activities of some diketopiperazines (DKPs), previously isolated, and able to activate QS mechanism. The results showed that all extracts, fractions, and DKPs showed low scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide anion, low cytotoxic and anti-tyrosinase activities, but no antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. One DKP [cyclo-(trans-4-hydroxy-L-prolyl-L-leucine)] has the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity even than the standard acarbose.

  5. 50 CFR 217.76 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Letter of Authorization. 217.76 Section 217.76 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking of...

  6. 50 CFR 217.206 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To The Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project § 217.206 Applications for Letters of Authorization. (a) To incidentally take marine mammals pursuant to these regulations, the U.S. citizen (as defined by § 216.103...

  7. 50 CFR 217.206 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To The Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project § 217.206 Applications for Letters of Authorization. (a) To incidentally take marine mammals pursuant to these regulations, the U.S. citizen (as defined by § 216.103...

  8. 50 CFR 217.206 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To The Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project § 217.206 Applications for Letters of Authorization. (a) To incidentally take marine mammals pursuant to these regulations, the U.S. citizen (as defined by § 216.103...

  9. 50 CFR 217.206 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To The Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project § 217.206 Applications for Letters of Authorization. (a) To incidentally take marine mammals pursuant to these regulations, the U.S. citizen (as defined by § 216.103...

  10. 50 CFR 217.206 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To The Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project § 217.206 Applications for Letters of Authorization. (a) To incidentally take marine mammals pursuant to these regulations, the U.S. citizen (as defined by § 216.103...

  11. 50 CFR 217.208 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that the number of marine mammals taken during the period of the Letter of Authorization will be small... than a negligible impact on the species or stock of affected marine mammal(s), and that the total taking will not have an unmitigable adverse impact on the availability of species or stocks of marine...

  12. Biology of the Marine Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiling; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrophic dinoflagellates are prevalent protists in marine environments, which play an important role in the carbon cycling and energy flow in the marine planktonic community. Oxyrrhis marina (Dinophyceae), a widespread heterotrophic dinoflagellate, is a model species used for a broad range of ecological, biogeographic, and evolutionary studies. Despite the increasing research effort on this species, there lacks a synthesis of the existing data and a coherent picture of this organism. Here we reviewed the literature to provide an overview of what is known regarding the biology of O. marina, and identify areas where further studies are needed. As an early branch of the dinoflagellate lineage, O. marina shares similarity with typical dinoflagellates in permanent condensed chromosomes, less abundant nucleosome proteins compared to other eukaryotes, multiple gene copies, the occurrence of trans-splicing in nucleus-encoded mRNAs, highly fragmented mitochondrial genome, and disuse of ATG as a start codon for mitochondrial genes. On the other hand, O. marina also exhibits some distinct cytological features (e.g., different flagellar structure, absence of girdle and sulcus or pustules, use of intranuclear spindle in mitosis, presence of nuclear plaque, and absence of birefringent periodic banded chromosomal structure) and genetic features (e.g., a single histone-like DNA-associated protein, cob-cox3 gene fusion, 5′ oligo-U cap in the mitochondrial transcripts of protein-coding genes, the absence of mRNA editing, the presence of stop codon in the fused cob-cox3 mRNA produced by post-transcriptional oligoadenylation, and vestigial plastid genes). The best-studied biology of this dinoflagellate is probably the prey and predators types, which include a wide range of organisms. On the other hand, the abundance of this species in the natural waters and its controlling factors, genome organization and gene expression regulation that underlie the unusual cytological and

  13. Biology of the Marine Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina: Current Status and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiling; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2013-10-21

    Heterotrophic dinoflagellates are prevalent protists in marine environments, which play an important role in the carbon cycling and energy flow in the marine planktonic community. Oxyrrhismarina (Dinophyceae), a widespread heterotrophic dinoflagellate, is a model species used for a broad range of ecological, biogeographic, and evolutionary studies. Despite the increasing research effort on this species, there lacks a synthesis of the existing data and a coherent picture of this organism. Here we reviewed the literature to provide an overview of what is known regarding the biology of O. marina, and identify areas where further studies are needed. As an early branch of the dinoflagellate lineage, O. marina shares similarity with typical dinoflagellates in permanent condensed chromosomes, less abundant nucleosome proteins compared to other eukaryotes, multiple gene copies, the occurrence of trans-splicing in nucleus-encoded mRNAs, highly fragmented mitochondrial genome, and disuse of ATG as a start codon for mitochondrial genes. On the other hand, O. marina also exhibits some distinct cytological features (e.g., different flagellar structure, absence of girdle and sulcus or pustules, use of intranuclear spindle in mitosis, presence of nuclear plaque, and absence of birefringent periodic banded chromosomal structure) and genetic features (e.g., a single histone-like DNA-associated protein, cob-cox3 gene fusion, 5' oligo-U cap in the mitochondrial transcripts of protein-coding genes, the absence of mRNA editing, the presence of stop codon in the fused cob-cox3 mRNA produced by post-transcriptional oligoadenylation, and vestigial plastid genes). The best-studied biology of this dinoflagellate is probably the prey and predators types, which include a wide range of organisms. On the other hand, the abundance of this species in the natural waters and its controlling factors, genome organization and gene expression regulation that underlie the unusual cytological and

  14. Marine biotechnologies and synthetic biology, new issues for a fair and equitable profit-sharing commercial use.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jean-François; Tardieu-Guigues, Elisabeth

    2014-10-01

    The sea will be a source of economic development in the next years. Today the research works in marine biotechnologies supply new products and processes. The introduction in the laboratories of a new technology, synthesis biology, is going to increase the possibilities of creation of new products. Exploitation of product stemming from marine biodiversity has to be made with regard to various rights among which industrial property law, maritime law and the Convention on BioDiversity. All participants involved in the promotion of research in marine biotechnology must address the fair and equitable sharing of any commercial exploitation. Carrying out work involving synthetic biology has increased the number of unanswered questions about how operators should manage in order to avoid any threat of being sued for infringements of IP rights or for alleged bio-piracy. This paper, by no means exhaustive in the field, analyzes some of the issues raised on the modification to the landscape in marine biotechnology by the advent of synthetic biology. Such issues indicate how important the collaboration between researchers, industrialists, lawyers is for allowing proper use of marine biotech.

  15. Propagation of climatic events on ocean stratification, marine biology, and CO2: Case studies over the 1979-1999 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le QuéRé, Corinne; Aumont, Olivier; Monfray, Patrick; Orr, James

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the propagation of climatic events on ocean stratification, marine biology, and CO2 using a large-scale ocean general circulation model coupled to a simple biogeochemical model of plankton dynamics and the carbon cycle. The model was forced with satellite and reanalysis fields during 1979-1999. We focus on three climatic events: (1) the North Atlantic Oscillation, (2) El Niño events, and (3) the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Such climatic events caused variability in ocean stratification, approximated by the mixing depth (MD), from ±20 m in the subtropics to ±100 s of meters at high latitudes. In the subtropics, deepening of the MD resupplied nutrient-impoverished surface waters and increased marine biomass by 20-100%. In contrast, at high latitudes, shoaling of the MD lengthened the growing season (i.e., the length of time that light is available for plankton growth) and increased marine biomass by 10-20%. Variability in marine biology reached global peak-to-peak values of ±0.01 mg m-3 for surface chl a, ±3.4 Pg C yr-1 for primary production, and ±0.3 Pg C yr-1 for export production and its contribution to CO2 fluxes. Our model results suggest that changes in ocean stratification driven by short-term climatic events could be used to understand and quantify the feedbacks from marine biology to CO2 and climate.

  16. Marine Biology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for the gifted student, these reproducible marine biology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of marine biology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and…

  17. Marine Biology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for the gifted student, these reproducible marine biology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of marine biology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and…

  18. Learning about Marine Biology. Superific Science Book VI. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based on the assumption that most students have a natural curiosity about the plant and animal life residing in the oceans, this document provides students in grades five through eight with activities in marine biology. The book provides illustrated information and learning activities dealing with: (1) diatoms; (2) the life cycle of the jellyfish;…

  19. Learning about Marine Biology. Superific Science Book VI. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based on the assumption that most students have a natural curiosity about the plant and animal life residing in the oceans, this document provides students in grades five through eight with activities in marine biology. The book provides illustrated information and learning activities dealing with: (1) diatoms; (2) the life cycle of the jellyfish;…

  20. Recent trends in biological extraction of chitin from marine shell wastes: a review.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Surinder; Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh

    2015-03-01

    The natural biopolymer chitin and its deacetylated product chitosan are widely used in innumerable applications ranging from biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, food, agriculture and personal care products to environmental sector. The abundant and renewable marine processing wastes are commercially exploited for the extraction of chitin. However, the traditional chitin extraction processes employ harsh chemicals at elevated temperatures for a prolonged time which can harm its physico-chemical properties and are also held responsible for the deterioration of environmental health. In view of this, green extraction methods are increasingly gaining popularity due to their environmentally friendly nature. The bioextraction of chitin from crustacean shell wastes has been increasingly researched at the laboratory scale. However, the bioextraction of chitin is not currently exploited to its maximum potential on the commercial level. Bioextraction of chitin is emerging as a green, cleaner, eco-friendly and economical process. Specifically in the chitin extraction, microorganisms-mediated fermentation processes are highly desirable due to easy handling, simplicity, rapidity, controllability through optimization of process parameters, ambient temperature and negligible solvent consumption, thus reducing environmental impact and costs. Although, chitin production from crustacean shell waste through biological means is still at its early stage of development, it is undergoing rapid progress in recent years and showing a promising prospect. Driven by reduced energy, wastewater or solvent, advances in biological extraction of chitin along with valuable by-products will have high economic and environmental impact.

  1. Numerical and experimental hydrodynamic analysis of suction cup bio-logging tag designs for marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Mark; Shorter, Alex; Howle, Laurens; Johnson, Mark; Moore, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The improvement and miniaturization of sensing technologies has made bio-logging tags, utilized for the study of marine mammal behavior, more practical. These sophisticated sensing packages require a housing which protects the electronics from the environment and provides a means of attachment to the animal. The hydrodynamic forces on these housings can inadvertently remove the tag or adversely affect the behavior or energetics of the animal. A modification to the original design of a suction cup bio-logging tag housing was desired to minimize the adverse forces. In this work, hydrodynamic loading of two suction cup tag designs, original and modified designs, were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and validated experimentally. Overall, the simulation and experimental results demonstrated that a tag housing that minimized geometric disruptions to the flow reduced drag forces, and that a tag housing with a small frontal cross-sectional area close to the attachment surface reduced lift forces. Preliminary results from experimental work with a common dolphin cadaver indicates that the suction cups used to attach the tags to the animal provide sufficient attachment force to resist failure at predicted drag and lift forces in 10 m/s flow.

  2. Reproductive biology of two marine catfishes (Siluriformes, Ariidae) in the Sepetiba Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Iracema David; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2004-03-01

    Marine catfish are abundant in the Sepetiba Bay, a 305 km2 area in Southeast Brazilian coast (Lat. 22 degrees 54' - 23 degrees 04' S: Long. 43 degrees 44' - 44 degrees 10' W), but the knowledge on their biology is still scanty. The reproductive biology of Sciadeichthys luniscutis (Valenciennes 1840) and Genidens genidens (Valenciennes 1839) was studied through monthly sampling, from October 1998 to September 1999. Fishes were caught with a standardized otter trawl, in the interior of Sepetiba Bay, and near to the confluence with a major freshwater contributor. Six gonadal stages were described, based on macroscopic observations of gonad form, size, weight, color and oocyte diameter, and microscopic observations of differences in size and staining in the nucleus and cytoplasm structures, as viewed through a light microscope. Changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and in stages of gonadal development showed what S. luniscutis spawned in Spring, while G. genidens spawned in Summer. Total spawning was shown for both species as indicated by high concentration of post-ovulatory follicles in spent stages. Fecundity was low (14-38 vitellogenic oocytes for S. luniscutis and 6-24 for G. genidens). when compared with other teleosts. Low fecundity and separation in spawning period suggest that both species are k-strategist, able to avoid interspecific competition in early stages of life cycle to optimize the use of the available niche.

  3. Design in Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which sixth grade students design alphabets by transforming the shapes of the letters into new designs that are still recognizable. Explains that students brainstorm ideas for their own lettering style. (CMK)

  4. Letter to jane addams.

    PubMed

    Bloom, M

    1995-06-01

    This letter, written to one of the founding figures in social work, draws parallels between primary prevention at the beginning and the end of the twentieth century. As expected, the letter remains unanswered.

  5. Trace elements at the intersection of marine biological and geochemical evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Leslie J.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Partin, Camille A.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Kendall, Brian; Scott, Clinton T.; Hardisty, Dalton S.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Alessi, Daniel S.; Dupont, Christopher L.; Saito, Mak A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Poulton, Simon W.; Bekker, Andrey; Lyons, Timothy W.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2016-01-01

    Life requires a wide variety of bioessential trace elements to act as structural components and reactive centers in metalloenzymes. These requirements differ between organisms and have evolved over geological time, likely guided in some part by environmental conditions. Until recently, most of what was understood regarding trace element concentrations in the Precambrian oceans was inferred by extrapolation, geochemical modeling, and/or genomic studies. However, in the past decade, the increasing availability of trace element and isotopic data for sedimentary rocks of all ages has yielded new, and potentially more direct, insights into secular changes in seawater composition – and ultimately the evolution of the marine biosphere. Compiled records of many bioessential trace elements (including Ni, Mo, P, Zn, Co, Cr, Se, and I) provide new insight into how trace element abundance in Earth's ancient oceans may have been linked to biological evolution. Several of these trace elements display redox-sensitive behavior, while others are redox-sensitive but not bioessential (e.g., Cr, U). Their temporal trends in sedimentary archives provide useful constraints on changes in atmosphere-ocean redox conditions that are linked to biological evolution, for example, the activity of oxygen-producing, photosynthetic cyanobacteria. In this review, we summarize available Precambrian trace element proxy data, and discuss how temporal trends in the seawater concentrations of specific trace elements may be linked to the evolution of both simple and complex life. We also examine several biologically relevant and/or redox-sensitive trace elements that have yet to be fully examined in the sedimentary rock record (e.g., Cu, Cd, W) and suggest several directions for future studies.

  6. 50 CFR 217.88 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS... requirements contained in these regulations or in the current Letter of Authorization. (c) A notice of...

  7. 50 CFR 217.77 - Renewal of a Letter of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS... requirements contained in these regulations or in the current Letter of Authorization. (c) A notice of...

  8. 50 CFR 216.248 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS... requirements contained in these regulations or in the current Letter of Authorization. (c) A notice of...

  9. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  10. Overview on biological activities and molecular characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from marine green algae in recent years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-09-25

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.

  11. 50 CFR 218.106 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... identified in § 218.100(c) (i.e., the Navy) must apply for and obtain either an initial Letter...

  12. 50 CFR 218.116 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... identified in § 218.110(c) (i.e., the Navy) must apply for and obtain either an initial Letter...

  13. 33 CFR 157.106 - Letter of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.106 Letter of acceptance. The Coast...

  14. 33 CFR 157.106 - Letter of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.106 Letter of acceptance. The Coast...

  15. 33 CFR 157.106 - Letter of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.106 Letter of acceptance. The Coast...

  16. 33 CFR 157.106 - Letter of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.106 Letter of acceptance. The Coast...

  17. 33 CFR 157.106 - Letter of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.106 Letter of acceptance. The Coast...

  18. 50 CFR 216.127 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Space Vehicle And Test Flight Activities § 216.127 Letters... species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses (i.e., mitigation); and...

  19. 50 CFR 216.127 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Space Vehicle And Test Flight Activities § 216.127 Letters... period of time not to exceed the period of validity of this subpart, but must be renewed annually subject...

  20. 50 CFR 216.156 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Nicolas Island, CA § 216.156 Applications for Letters of Authorization. (a) To incidentally take marine... Authorization must include the following: (1) Name of the U.S. citizen requesting the authorization, (2) A...

  1. Elevation Request Letter to Army - signed April 29, 1986

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A letter requesting a review of the decision to issue a permit to the Maine Department of Transportation (MEDOT) authorizing the construction of an access causeway and a marine cargo terminal in Penobscot Bay at Sears Island, Searsport, Maine.

  2. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  3. Van: An Open Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  4. Developmental letter position dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Naama; Rahamim, Einav

    2007-09-01

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter order within words. So far, only cases of acquired LPD have been reported. This study presents selective LPD in its developmental form, via the testing of II Hebrew-speaking individuals with developmental dyslexia. The study explores the types of errors and effects on reading in this dyslexia, using a variety of tests: reading aloud, lexical decision, same-different decision, definition and letter naming. The findings indicate that individuals with developmental LPD have a deficit in the letter position encoding function of the orthographic visual analyser, which leads to underspecification of letter position within words. Letter position errors occur mainly in adjacent middle letters, when the error creates another existing word. The participants did not show an output deficit or phonemic awareness deficit. The selectivity of the deficit, causing letter position errors but no letter identity errors and no migrations between words, supports the existence of letter position encoding function as separate from letter identification and letter-to-word binding.

  5. Van: An Open Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  6. 50 CFR 216.158 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.158 Section 216.158 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... contained in these regulations or in the current Letter of Authorization. (c) A notice of issuance or...

  7. 50 CFR 216.158 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.158 Section 216.158 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... contained in these regulations or in the current Letter of Authorization. (c) A notice of issuance or...

  8. 50 CFR 216.178 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.178 Section 216.178 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... regulations or in the current Letter of Authorization. (c) A notice of issuance or denial of a renewal of...

  9. 50 CFR 216.128 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.128 Section 216.128 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... contained in these regulations or in the current Letter of Authorization. (c) A notice of issuance or...

  10. 50 CFR 216.118 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.118 Section 216.118 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... requirements contained in these regulations or in the current Letter of Authorization. (c) A notice of...

  11. 50 CFR 216.128 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.128 Section 216.128 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... contained in these regulations or in the current Letter of Authorization. (c) A notice of issuance or...

  12. 50 CFR 216.258 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.258 Section 216.258 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... regulations or in the current Letter of Authorization....

  13. 33 CFR 143.210 - Letter of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 143.210 Letter of compliance. (a) The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, determines whether a mobile offshore... of a foreign mobile offshore drilling unit requiring a letter of compliance examination must pay the...

  14. 33 CFR 143.210 - Letter of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 143.210 Letter of compliance. (a) The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, determines whether a mobile offshore... §§ 143.205 or 143.207 relating to design and equipment standards and issues a letter of compliance...

  15. The influence of the biological pump on ocean chemistry: implications for long-term trends in marine redox chemistry, the global carbon cycle, and marine animal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K M; Ridgwell, A; Payne, J L

    2016-05-01

    The net export of organic matter from the surface ocean and its respiration at depth create vertical gradients in nutrient and oxygen availability that play a primary role in structuring marine ecosystems. Changes in the properties of this 'biological pump' have been hypothesized to account for important shifts in marine ecosystem structure, including the Cambrian explosion. However, the influence of variation in the behavior of the biological pump on ocean biogeochemistry remains poorly quantified, preventing any detailed exploration of how changes in the biological pump over geological time may have shaped long-term shifts in ocean chemistry, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem structure. Here, we use a 3-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity to quantitatively explore the effects of the biological pump on marine chemistry. We find that when respiration of sinking organic matter is efficient, due to slower sinking or higher respiration rates, anoxia tends to be more prevalent and to occur in shallower waters. Consequently, the Phanerozoic trend toward less bottom-water anoxia in continental shelf settings can potentially be explained by a change in the spatial dynamics of nutrient cycling rather than by any change in the ocean phosphate inventory. The model results further suggest that the Phanerozoic decline in the prevalence ocean anoxia is, in part, a consequence of the evolution of larger phytoplankton, many of which produce mineralized tests. We hypothesize that the Phanerozoic trend toward greater animal abundance and metabolic demand was driven more by increased oxygen concentrations in shelf environments than by greater food (nutrient) availability. In fact, a lower-than-modern ocean phosphate inventory in our closed system model is unable to account for the Paleozoic prevalence of bottom-water anoxia. Overall, these model simulations suggest that the changing spatial distribution of photosynthesis and respiration in the oceans has

  16. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    improving the protection of marine mammals during naval operations. OBJECTIVES We are testing the hypothesis that extreme behaviors requiring...arrhythmias and physiological instability in diving marine mammals . Specifically, we will determine which factors or combination of factors act as the primary...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals : Linking

  17. Learning to Write Letters: Examination of Student and Letter Factors

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Learning to write the letters of the alphabet is an important part of learning how to write conventionally. In this study, we investigated critical factors in the development of letter-writing skills using exploratory item response models to simultaneously account for variance in responses due to differences between students and between letters. Letter-writing skills were assessed in 415 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years. At the student level, we examined the contribution of letter-name knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness to letter-writing skills. At the letter level, we examined seven intrinsic and extrinsic factors in understanding how preschool children learn to write alphabet letters: first letter of name, letters in name, letter order, textual frequency, number of strokes, symmetry, and letter type. Results indicated that variation in letter-writing skills was accounted for more by differences between students rather than by differences between letters, with most of the variability accounted for by letter-name knowledge and age. Although significant, the contribution of letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness was relatively small. Student-level mechanisms underlying the acquisition of letter-writing skills are similar to the mechanisms underlying the learning of letter sounds. However, letter characteristics, which appear to play a major role in the learning of letter names and letter sounds, did not appear to influence learning how to write letters in a substantial way. The exception was if the letter was in the child’s name. PMID:25181463

  18. Learning to write letters: examination of student and letter factors.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Learning to write the letters of the alphabet is an important part of learning how to write conventionally. In this study, we investigated critical factors in the development of letter-writing skills using exploratory item response models to simultaneously account for variance in responses due to differences between students and between letters. Letter-writing skills were assessed in 415 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years. At the student level, we examined the contribution of letter-name knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness to letter-writing skills. At the letter level, we examined seven intrinsic and extrinsic factors in understanding how preschool children learn to write alphabet letters: first letter of name, letters in name, letter order, textual frequency, number of strokes, symmetry, and letter type. Results indicated that variation in letter-writing skills was accounted for more by differences between students rather than by differences between letters, with most of the variability accounted for by letter-name knowledge and age. Although significant, the contribution of letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness was relatively small. Student-level mechanisms underlying the acquisition of letter-writing skills are similar to the mechanisms underlying the learning of letter sounds. However, letter characteristics, which appear to play a major role in the learning of letter names and letter sounds, did not appear to influence learning how to write letters in a substantial way. The exception was if the letter was in the child's name.

  19. The identification of a new Giardia duodenalis assemblage in marine vertebrates and a preliminary analysis of G. duodenalis population biology in marine systems.

    PubMed

    Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Welch, David Mark; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2010-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite of many vertebrates. The presence of G. duodenalis in the marine environment due to anthropogenic and wildlife activity is well documented, including the contributions from untreated sewage and storm water, agricultural run-off and droppings from terrestrial animals. Recently, studies have detected this protistan parasite in the faeces of marine vertebrates such as whales, dolphins, seals and shore birds. To explore the population biology of G. duodenalis in marine life, we determined the prevalence of G. duodenalis in two species of seal (Halichoerus grypus, Phoca vitulina vitulina and Phoca vitulina richardsi) from the east and west coasts of the USA, sequenced two loci from G. duodenalis-positive samples to assess molecular diversity and examined G. duodenalis distribution amongst these seals and other marine vertebrates along the east coast. We found a significant difference in the presence of G. duodenalis between east and west coast seal species. Only the zoonotic lineages of G. duodenalis, Assemblages A and B and a novel lineage, which we designated as Assemblage H, were identified in marine vertebrates. Assemblages A and B are broadly distributed geographically and show a lack of host specificity. Only grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) samples and one gull sample (Larus argentatus) from a northern location of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, showed the presence of Assemblage H haplotypes; only one other study of harbour seals from the Puget Sound region of Washington, USA previously recorded the presence of an Assemblage H haplotype. Assemblage H sequences form a monophyletic clade that appears as divergent from the other seven Assemblages of G. duodenalis as these assemblages are from each other. The discovery of a previously uncharacterised lineage of G. duodenalis suggests that this parasite has more genetic diversity and perhaps a larger host range than previously believed.

  20. Human pharmaceuticals in the marine environment: Focus on exposure and biological effects in animal species.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Elena; Franzellitti, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Marine waters have been poorly investigated for the occurrence of pharmaceutical contamination. Recent data confirm that pharmaceuticals occur widely in marine and coastal environments; therefore, assessment of potential risk to marine species needs further efforts. The present study represents the first extensive review of pharmaceutical contamination in marine environments addressing the effects on the marine biota analyzed at the molecular, cellular, and individual levels. Because pharmaceuticals differ from conventional pollutants, being designed to interact with specific physiological pathways at low doses, the most recent evidence on modes of action and physiological alterations on marine animal species are discussed. Data on spatial distributions of pharmaceuticals in waters and sediments, as well as bioaccumulation rates, are also presented. The present review also seeks to expand knowledge of how the quality of coastal and marine environments could be efficiently monitored to anticipate possible health and environmental risks. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Sponsorship of the Society for Marine Mammalogy’s 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing...and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information...Number: N00014110559 http://www.marinemammalscience.org/ LONG-TERM GOALS The Society for Marine Mammalogy ( SMM ), the world’s premier

  2. Integrating Distributed Physical and Biological Marine data using OGC Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmell, A. L.; Blower, J. D.; Haines, K.; Price, M.; Millard, K.; Harpham, Q.

    2008-12-01

    Earth scientists use highly diverse sources of data, including in-situ measurements, remotely-sensed information and the results of numerical simulations. The ability to access, visualize, combine and compare these datasets is at the core of scientific investigation, but such tasks have hitherto been very difficult or impossible due to a fundamental lack of harmonization of data products. As a result, much valuable data remains underused. We present a web portal that visualizes and compares physical and biological marine data from both numerical models and in-situ observations. The model data are obtained via an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)-compatible Web Map Service (WMS), and the observed data are obtained via an OGC Web Feature Service (WFS). The physical model WMS, the biological model WMS and the WFS are located at three different institutes. This ability to display in-situ point observations alongside model data facilitates much valuable work on model validation. As models become increasingly complex, and sources of observed data become more numerous, it is important to be able to access and compare this growing amount of data efficiently, to ensure cross-checking and consistency between models and observations. The web portal is being applied in a large European operational oceanography project (ECOOP), where it is used to provide support to ecosystem modellers, and specifically to aid detection of potentially harmful algal blooms in coastal areas. The development of this system has been enabled by the conceptual framework of the Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML), which provides a common view onto all these datasets, independent of their storage format or physical location. CSML is based upon emerging international standards, enabling interoperability with other standards-based infrastructures. By creating a reusable Java library that embodies the CSML concepts we are able to apply these techniques to a number of other projects.

  3. Biological N2O Fixation in the Eastern South Pacific Ocean and Marine Cyanobacterial Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Farías, Laura; Faúndez, Juan; Fernández, Camila; Cornejo, Marcela; Sanhueza, Sandra; Carrasco, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the global radiative balance and atmospheric ozone chemistry, its sources and sinks within the Earth’s system are still poorly understood. In the ocean, N2O is produced by microbiological processes such as nitrification and partial denitrification, which account for about a third of global emissions. Conversely, complete denitrification (the dissimilative reduction of N2O to N2) under suboxic/anoxic conditions is the only known pathway accountable for N2O consumption in the ocean. In this work, it is demonstrated that the biological assimilation of N2O could be a significant pathway capable of directly transforming this gas into particulate organic nitrogen (PON). N2O is shown to be biologically fixed within the subtropical and tropical waters of the eastern South Pacific Ocean, under a wide range of oceanographic conditions and at rates ranging from 2 pmol N L−1 d− to 14.8 nmol N L−1 d−1 (mean ± SE of 0.522±1.06 nmol N L−1 d−1, n = 93). Additional assays revealed that cultured cyanobacterial strains of Trichodesmium (H-9 and IMS 101), and Crocosphaera (W-8501) have the capacity to directly fix N2O under laboratory conditions; suggesting that marine photoautotrophic diazotrophs could be using N2O as a substrate. This metabolic capacity however was absent in Synechococcus (RCC 1029). The findings presented here indicate that assimilative N2O fixation takes place under extreme environmental conditions (i.e., light, nutrient, oxygen) where both autotrophic (including cyanobacteria) and heterotrophic microbes appear to be involved. This process could provide a globally significant sink for atmospheric N2O which in turn affects the oceanic N2O inventory and may also represent a yet unexplored global oceanic source of fixed N. PMID:23717516

  4. Lessons from the past and charting the future of marine natural products drug discovery and chemical biology

    PubMed Central

    Gerwick, William H.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Marine life forms are an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites, several of which have inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. These success stories have had to overcome difficulties inherent to natural products-derived drugs, such as adequate sourcing of the agent and issues related to structural complexity. Nevertheless, several marine-derived agents are now approved, most as `first-in-class' drugs, with 5 of 7 appearing in the past few years. Additionally, there is a rich pipeline of clinical and pre-clinical marine compounds to suggest their continued application in human medicine. Understanding of how these agents are biosynthetically assembled has accelerated in recent years, especially through interdisciplinary approaches, and innovative manipulations and re-engineering of some of these gene clusters are yielding novel agents of enhanced pharmaceutical properties compared with the natural product. PMID:22284357

  5. Structures, biological activities and phylogenetic relationships of terpenoids from marine ciliates of the genus Euplotes.

    PubMed

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-07-08

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported.

  6. Estimation of biologically damaging UV levels in marine surface waters with DNA and viral dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Steven W; Jeffrey, Wade H; Suttle, Curtis A; Mitchell, David L

    2002-09-01

    We have surveyed the biologically harmful radiation penetrating the water column along a transect in the western Gulf of Mexico using dosimeters consisting of intact viruses or naked calf-thymus DNA (ctDNA). The indigenous marine bacteriophage PWH3a-P1, which lytically infects the heterotrophic bacterium Vibrio natriegens (strain PWH3a), displayed decay rates for infectivity approaching 1.0 h(-1) in surface waters when deployed in a seawater-based dosimeter. The accumulation of pyrimidine dimers in ctDNA dosimeters provided a strong correlation to these results, with pyrimidine dimers representing more than 0.3% (up to ca 3800 dimers Mb(-1) DNA) of the total DNA in dosimeters exposed to sea surface levels of solar radiation. The results demonstrate a strong correlation between the dimer formation in the DNA dosimeters, the decay rates of viral infectivity and the penetration of UVB radiation into the water column. The decay of viral infectivity attenuated with depth in a manner similar to the decay of solar radiation and was still significant at 10 m in offshore oligotrophic water and at dimer frequencies less than 0.1% (ca 200-300 dimers Mb(-1) DNA).

  7. Chemical synthesis and biological activities of 3-alkyl pyridinium polymeric analogues of marine toxins

    PubMed Central

    Houssen, Wael E.; Lu, Zhibao; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Chatzi, Christina; Tucker, Steven J.; Sepčić, Kristina; Turk, Tom; Zovko, Ana; Shen, Sanbing

    2010-01-01

    Two new large poly-1,3-dodecylpyridinium salts, APS12 and APS12-2 of 12.5- and 14.7-kDa size, respectively, were synthesised and tested for their pore-forming and transfection capabilities in HEK 293 and undifferentiated mouse ES cells using patch-clamp recording, Ca2+ imaging and flow cytometry. Polymerisation reactions were enhanced by microwaves, and the product sizes were controlled by altering the irradiation time. This method can also be applied to obtain polymers with variable linking chains as shown by the preparation of poly-(1,3-octylpyridinium) salt of 11.9-kDa size. Molecular weights of the final products were determined using ESIMS analysis, which also indicated the products to be amongst the largest macro-cycles ever recorded, up to a 900-membered ring. Anti-bacterial, haemolytic and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities were also reported for the two dodecyl pyridinium polymers. These biological activities are characteristic to the structurally related marine toxin, poly-APS. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12154-010-0036-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21326630

  8. Seawater Incursion Events in a Cretaceous Paleo-lake Revealed by Specific Marine Biological Markers

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J. F.; Peng, P. A.; Liu, M. Y.; Xi, D. P.; Song, J. Z.; Wan, X. Q.; Wang, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Many large paleo-lakes in North China were formed after the Triassic Era. Seawater incursion events (SWIEs) in these lakes have been extensively discussed in the literature, yet lack reliable methodology and solid evidence, which are essential for reconstructing and confirming SWIEs. The present study employs specific marine biological markers (24-n-propyl and 24-isopropyl cholestanes) to trace SWIEs in a dated core taken from the Songliao Basin (SLB). Two SWIEs were identified. The first SWIE from 91.37 to 89.00 Ma, was continuous and variable but not strong, while the second SWIE from 84.72 to 83.72 Ma was episodic and strong. SWIEs caused high total organic carbon (TOC) and negative δ13Corg values in the sediments, which were interpreted as an indication of high productivity in the lake, due to the enhancement of nutrient supplies as well as high levels of aqueous CO2, due to the mixing of alkaline seawater and acidic lake water. The SWIEs in SLB were controlled by regional tectonic activity and eustatic variation. Movement direction changes of the Izanagi/Kula Plate in 90 Ma and 84 Ma created faults and triggered SWIEs. A high sea level, from 90 to 84 Ma, also facilitated the occurrence of SWIEs in SLB. PMID:25946976

  9. Structures, Biological Activities and Phylogenetic Relationships of Terpenoids from Marine Ciliates of the Genus Euplotes

    PubMed Central

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported. PMID:20714425

  10. 50 CFR 217.78 - Modifications to a Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launches at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska § 217.78 Modifications to a Letter of...

  11. 50 CFR 217.78 - Modifications to a Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launches at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska § 217.78 Modifications to a Letter of...

  12. 50 CFR 217.78 - Modifications to a Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launches at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska § 217.78 Modifications to a Letter of...

  13. 50 CFR 218.187 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.187 Renewal of Letters...

  14. Fatty acids from lipids of marine organisms: molecular biodiversity, roles as biomarkers, biologically active compounds, and economical aspects.

    PubMed

    Bergé, Jean-Pascal; Barnathan, Gilles

    2005-01-01

    Because of their characteristic living environments, marine organisms produce a variety of lipids. Fatty acids constitute the essential part of triglycerides and wax esters, which are the major components of fats and oils. Nevertheless, phospholipids and glycolipids have considerable importance and will be taken into account, especially the latter compounds that excite increasing interest regarding their promising biological activities. Thus, in addition to the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, a great number of various fatty acids occur in marine organisms, e.g. saturated, mono- and diunsaturated, branched, halogenated, hydroxylated, methoxylated, non-methylene-interrupted. Various unprecedented chemical structures of fatty acids, and lipid-containing fatty acids, have recently been discovered, especially from the most primitive animals such as sponges and gorgonians. This review of marine lipidology deals with recent advances in the field of fatty acids since the end of the 1990s. Different approaches will be followed, mainly developing biomarkers of trophic chains in marine ecosystems and of chemotaxonomic interest, reporting new structures, especially those with biological activities or biosynthetic interest. An important part of this review will be devoted to the major PUFA, their relevance to health and nutrition, their biosynthesis, their sources (usual and promising) and market.

  15. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    beluga whales at the Barren Islands, Alaska, the Bering Sea Acoustic Report, Marine Mammal Monitoring for NW Fisheries, and Monitoring killer whale ...distribution, physical oceanographic process, and sound levels to marine mammal habitat use on the eastern Bering Sea shelf. Integrated data such...individual parameters. 3) A mixed-model analysis will be performed to identify relationships between marine mammal presence and environmental sound

  16. Quantifying Stress in Marine Mammals: Measuring Biologically Active Cortisol in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Quantifying Stress in Marine Mammals: Measuring...boonstra/ LONG-TERM GOALS This research will improve our ability to measure stress in marine mammals. Stress hormones (glucocorticoids...are best estimated by measuring “free glucocorticoid” levels (i.e. that hormone not bound by CBG). This project will improve the capacity of marine

  17. The Brachyura and Anomura fauna (Decapoda; Crustacea) in the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve on the southern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Bouzon, J L; Freire, A S

    2007-05-01

    Eight species of Brachyura and two species of Anomura were registered for the first time on the Santa Catarina coast, in the waters around the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve. The animals were collected by scuba divers, between 3 and 22 meters depth, from September 2001 to February 2003. A total of 31 decapod species were collected, and most of the new occurrences had already been registered in the adjacent northern waters.

  18. Biological Significance of Marine Actinobacteria of East Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Alapati; Savithri, Handanahal S

    2017-01-01

    An attempt was made to identify actinobacterial strains present in the marine soil of East Coast regions viz., Chirala, Bapatla, and Peddaganjam, Andhra Pradesh; Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu and Goa, Goa along with the study of their antimicrobial potential. Eight out of 73 actinobacterial strains isolated from these regions showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Molecular identification (16S rRNA analysis) of the eight strains revealed that they belong to Dietzia sp., Kocuria sp., Nocardiopsis sp., and Streptomyces spp. ISP (International Streptomyces project) -1, ISP-2 and starch casein media supported high antimicrobial potential after 5-6 days of growth. Production of antimicrobials by the strains varied significantly with different carbon and nitrogen sources. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of volatile compounds produced by the strains illustrated an array of antimicrobial compounds such as 1, 2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, 2-piperidinone, pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dion, phenyl ethyl alcohol, 3-phenyl propionic acid etc. Ours is the first report on the study and detection of above mentioned antimicrobial metabolites from Dietzia sp. (A3), Kocuria sp. (A5), and Nocardiopsis sp. (A7). By sequence based analysis for secondary metabolites, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster was noticed in six strains (A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, and A8) and none of them had polyketide synthase (PKS) system. The present study intimates the biological potentiality of the actinobacterial strains isolated from East Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India which reveals further scope to investigate new bioactive compounds from them by employing both natural product chemistry and modern biotechnological aspects.

  19. Satellite Tracking of Sympatric Marine Megafauna Can Inform the Biological Basis for Species Co-Management

    PubMed Central

    Gredzens, Christian; Marsh, Helene; Fuentes, Mariana M. P. B.; Limpus, Colin J.; Shimada, Takahiro; Hamann, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Context Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. Methodology/Results Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. Conclusions/Significance: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co-management possible, but

  20. Biological Significance of Marine Actinobacteria of East Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Alapati; Savithri, Handanahal S.

    2017-01-01

    An attempt was made to identify actinobacterial strains present in the marine soil of East Coast regions viz., Chirala, Bapatla, and Peddaganjam, Andhra Pradesh; Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu and Goa, Goa along with the study of their antimicrobial potential. Eight out of 73 actinobacterial strains isolated from these regions showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Molecular identification (16S rRNA analysis) of the eight strains revealed that they belong to Dietzia sp., Kocuria sp., Nocardiopsis sp., and Streptomyces spp. ISP (International Streptomyces project) -1, ISP-2 and starch casein media supported high antimicrobial potential after 5–6 days of growth. Production of antimicrobials by the strains varied significantly with different carbon and nitrogen sources. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of volatile compounds produced by the strains illustrated an array of antimicrobial compounds such as 1, 2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, 2-piperidinone, pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dion, phenyl ethyl alcohol, 3-phenyl propionic acid etc. Ours is the first report on the study and detection of above mentioned antimicrobial metabolites from Dietzia sp. (A3), Kocuria sp. (A5), and Nocardiopsis sp. (A7). By sequence based analysis for secondary metabolites, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster was noticed in six strains (A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, and A8) and none of them had polyketide synthase (PKS) system. The present study intimates the biological potentiality of the actinobacterial strains isolated from East Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India which reveals further scope to investigate new bioactive compounds from them by employing both natural product chemistry and modern biotechnological aspects. PMID:28729856

  1. Satellite tracking of sympatric marine megafauna can inform the biological basis for species co-management.

    PubMed

    Gredzens, Christian; Marsh, Helene; Fuentes, Mariana M P B; Limpus, Colin J; Shimada, Takahiro; Hamann, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co-management possible, but important differences exist between locations making it

  2. Enriching a cellulose hydrogel with a biologically active marine exopolysaccharide for cell-based cartilage engineering.

    PubMed

    Rederstorff, E; Rethore, G; Weiss, P; Sourice, S; Beck-Cormier, S; Mathieu, E; Maillasson, M; Jacques, Y; Colliec-Jouault, S; Fellah, B H; Guicheux, J; Vinatier, C

    2017-04-01

    The development of biologically and mechanically competent hydrogels is a prerequisite in cartilage engineering. We recently demonstrated that a marine exopolysaccharide, GY785, stimulates the in vitro chondrogenesis of adipose stromal cells. In the present study, we thus hypothesized that enriching our silated hydroxypropyl methylcellulose hydrogel (Si-HPMC) with GY785 might offer new prospects in the development of scaffolds for cartilage regeneration. The interaction properties of GY785 with growth factors was tested by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The biocompatibility of Si-HPMC/GY785 towards rabbit articular chondrocytes (RACs) and its ability to maintain and recover a chondrocytic phenotype were then evaluated in vitro by MTS assay, cell counting and qRT-PCR. Finally, we evaluated the potential of Si-HPMC/GY785 associated with RACs to form cartilaginous tissue in vivo by transplantation into the subcutis of nude mice for 3 weeks. Our SPR data indicated that GY785 was able to physically interact with BMP-2 and TGFβ. Our analyses also showed that three-dimensionally (3D)-cultured RACs into Si-HPMC/GY785 strongly expressed type II collagen (COL2) and aggrecan transcripts when compared to Si-HPMC alone. In addition, RACs also produced large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) containing glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and COL2. When dedifferentiated RACs were replaced in 3D in Si-HPMC/GY785, the expressions of COL2 and aggrecan transcripts were recovered and that of type I collagen decreased. Immunohistological analyses of Si-HPMC/GY785 constructs transplanted into nude mice revealed the production of a cartilage-like extracellular matrix (ECM) containing high amounts of GAG and COL2. These results indicate that GY785-enriched Si-HPMC appears to be a promising hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  4. Functional genomics to assess biological responses to marine pollution at physiological and evolutionary timescales: toward a vision of predictive ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Reid, Noah M; Whitehead, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Marine pollution is ubiquitous, and is one of the key factors influencing contemporary marine biodiversity worldwide. To protect marine biodiversity, how do we surveil, document and predict the short- and long-term impacts of pollutants on at-risk species? Modern genomics tools offer high-throughput, information-rich and increasingly cost-effective approaches for characterizing biological responses to environmental stress, and are important tools within an increasing sophisticated kit for surveiling and assessing impacts of pollutants on marine species. Through the lens of recent research in marine killifish, we illustrate how genomics tools may be useful for screening chemicals and pollutants for biological activity and to reveal specific mechanisms of action. The high dimensionality of transcriptomic responses enables their usage as highly specific fingerprints of exposure, and these fingerprints can be used to diagnose environmental problems. We also emphasize that molecular pathways recruited to respond at physiological timescales are the same pathways that may be targets for natural selection during chronic exposure to pollutants. Gene complement and sequence variation in those pathways can be related to variation in sensitivity to environmental pollutants within and among species. Furthermore, allelic variation associated with evolved tolerance in those pathways could be tracked to estimate the pace of environmental health decline and recovery. We finish by integrating these paradigms into a vision of how genomics approaches could anchor a modernized framework for advancing the predictive capacity of environmental and ecotoxicological science. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Impact of geoengineering with olivine dissolution on the carbon cycle and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, P.; Abrams, J.; Völker, C.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.; Hartmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the potential of a specific geoengineering technique: the carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification. If details of the marine chemistry are taken into consideration, a new mass ratio of CO2 sequestration per olivine dissolution of about 1 is achieved, 20% smaller than previously assumed. We calculate that this approach has the potential to sequestrate up to 1 Pg of C per year directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics, but this rate is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. These upper limit sequestration rates come at the environmental cost of pH values in the rivers rising to 8.2 in examples for the rivers Amazon and Congo (Köhler et al., 2010). The secondary effects of the input of silicic acid connected with this approach leads in an ecosystem model (ReCOM2.0 in MITgcm) to species shifts aways from the calcifying species towards diatoms, thus altering the biological carbon pumps. Open ocean dissolution of olivine would sequestrate about 1 Pg CO2 per Pg olivine from which about 8% are caused by changes in the biological pumps (increase export of organic matter, decreased export of CaCO3). The chemical impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine (the increased alkalinity input) is therefore less efficient than dissolution on land, but leads due to different chemical impacts to a higher surface ocean pH enhancement to counteract ocean acidification. We finally investigate open ocean dissolution rates of up to 10 Pg olivine per year corresponding to geoengineering rates which might be of interest in the light of expected future emission (e.g. A2 scenario with emissions rising to 30 PgC/yr in 2100 AD). Those rates would still sequestrate only less than 20% of the emission until 2100, but would require that the nowadays available

  6. Size distributions of organic nitrogen and carbon in remote marine aerosols: Evidence of marine biological origin based on their isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yuzo; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Sawano, Maki

    2010-03-01

    Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected over the western North Pacific in summer 2008 for the measurements of organic nitrogen (ON) and organic carbon (OC). ON and OC showed bimodal size distributions. Their concentrations showed positive correlation with those of biogenic tracers, methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and azelaic acid (C9). We found that average ON and OC concentrations were twice greater in aerosols collected in the oceanic region with higher biological productivity than in the regions with lower productivity. The average ON/OC ratios are higher (0.49 ± 0.11) in more biologically influenced aerosols than those (0.35 ± 0.10) in less influenced aerosols. Stable carbon isotopic analysis indicates that marine-derived carbon accounted for ˜46-72% of total carbon in more biologically influenced aerosols. These results provide evidence that organic aerosols in this region are enriched in ON that is linked to oceanic biological activity and the subsequent emissions to the atmosphere.

  7. 50 CFR 216.106 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE... within 30 days of issuance. (e) Letters of Authorization shall be withdrawn or suspended, either on an... subsistence uses. (f) The requirement for notice and opportunity for public review in § 216.106(e) shall...

  8. 50 CFR 216.258 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.258 Section 216.258 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... upon: (1) Notification to the National Marine Fisheries Service that the activity described in...

  9. 50 CFR 218.127 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adverse impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses (i... renewal of the Letter of Authorization shall be based on a determination that the total number of marine... species or stock of marine mammal(s). ...

  10. 50 CFR 218.117 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adverse impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses (i... renewal of the Letter of Authorization shall be based on a determination that the total number of marine... species or stock of marine mammal(s). ...

  11. 50 CFR 218.107 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adverse impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses (i... renewal of the Letter of Authorization shall be based on a determination that the total number of marine... species or stock of marine mammal(s). ...

  12. 50 CFR 217.207 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses. (c) Issuance of a Letter of Authorization will be based on the determination that the number of marine mammals... the species or stock of affected marine mammal(s), and that the total taking will not have an...

  13. 50 CFR 217.207 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses. (c) Issuance of a Letter of Authorization will be based on the determination that the number of marine mammals... the species or stock of affected marine mammal(s), and that the total taking will not have an...

  14. Bacterial Exopolysaccharides from Extreme Marine Habitats: Production, Characterization and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Annarita; Anzelmo, Gianluca; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. Marine EPS-producing microorganisms have been also isolated from several extreme niches such as the cold marine environments typically of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, characterized by low temperature and low nutrient concentration, and the hypersaline marine environment found in a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems such as salt lakes and salterns. Most of their EPSs are heteropolysaccharides containing three or four different monosaccharides arranged in groups of 10 or less to form the repeating units. These polymers are often linear with an average molecular weight ranging from 1 × 105 to 3 × 105 Da. Some EPS are neutral macromolecules, but the majority of them are polyanionic for the presence of uronic acids or ketal-linked pyruvate or inorganic residues such as phosphate or sulfate. EPSs, forming a layer surrounding the cell, provide an effective protection against high or low temperature and salinity, or against possible predators. By examining their structure and chemical-physical characteristics it is possible to gain insight into their commercial application, and they are employed in several industries. Indeed EPSs produced by microorganisms from extreme habitats show biotechnological promise ranging from pharmaceutical industries, for their immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, bone regeneration and cicatrizing capacity, to food-processing industries for their peculiar gelling and thickening properties. Moreover, some EPSs are employed as biosurfactants and in detoxification mechanisms of petrochemical oil-polluted areas. The aim of this paper is to give

  15. Bacterial exopolysaccharides from extreme marine habitats: production, characterization and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Poli, Annarita; Anzelmo, Gianluca; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2010-06-03

    Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. Marine EPS-producing microorganisms have been also isolated from several extreme niches such as the cold marine environments typically of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, characterized by low temperature and low nutrient concentration, and the hypersaline marine environment found in a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems such as salt lakes and salterns. Most of their EPSs are heteropolysaccharides containing three or four different monosaccharides arranged in groups of 10 or less to form the repeating units. These polymers are often linear with an average molecular weight ranging from 1 x 10(5) to 3 x 10(5) Da. Some EPS are neutral macromolecules, but the majority of them are polyanionic for the presence of uronic acids or ketal-linked pyruvate or inorganic residues such as phosphate or sulfate. EPSs, forming a layer surrounding the cell, provide an effective protection against high or low temperature and salinity, or against possible predators. By examining their structure and chemical-physical characteristics it is possible to gain insight into their commercial application, and they are employed in several industries. Indeed EPSs produced by microorganisms from extreme habitats show biotechnological promise ranging from pharmaceutical industries, for their immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, bone regeneration and cicatrizing capacity, to food-processing industries for their peculiar gelling and thickening properties. Moreover, some EPSs are employed as biosurfactants and in detoxification mechanisms of petrochemical oil-polluted areas. The aim of this paper is to

  16. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions.

  17. Relationships between ocean anoxia, the biological pump, and marine animal life during the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. M.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean anoxia/euxinia and carbon cycle instability have long been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and the Early Triassic interval of delayed or interrupted biotic recovery. Many hypotheses to explain this extinction event invoke the release of greenhouse gases during the emplacement of the Siberian Traps, which likely triggered abrupt changes in marine biogeochemical cycling, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. However, the precise ways in which volcanism and these perturbations are linked and how they governed the tempo and mode of biotic recovery remain poorly understood. Here we highlight new C, Ca, and Sr isotopic data that serve to link volcanic CO2 inputs to changes in marine biogeochemistry and environmental change. We then examine the relationship between ocean biogeochemistry, the biological pump, and marine animal ecosystems during the end-Permian mass extinction and Early Triassic recovery. Finally, we use numerical simulations to probe whether these relationships also explain broad Phanerozoic trends in ocean nutrient status, anoxia, and productivity of marine ecosystems.

  18. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia—a perceived distortion of visual space—is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment. PMID:25453116

  19. From Shape to Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Hillel A.

    In order to make letter shape recognition an integral part of perception training, the use of the line in its two basic shapes is proposed. Letter shapes may seem exceedingly complex linear shapes to young minds. Thus instead of instruction in configuration, instruction involving transformational activities to manipulate and create the…

  20. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition.

    PubMed

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C; Bex, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia--a perceived distortion of visual space--is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment.

  1. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-28

    seasonal breakup of the ice has begun. The bowhead whales detections finally disappear as these mammals begin their annual migration to the Arctic Ocean...signals impact marine mammal habitat use. This is especially critical in areas like the Bering Sea where global climate change can lead to rapid changes...identify and make synoptic measurements of the physical environment that the marine mammals ( whales and seals) are using. Attention to the physical

  2. Which Children Benefit from Letter Names in Learning Letter Sounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Boada, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Typical U.S. children use their knowledge of letters' names to help learn the letters' sounds. They perform better on letter sound tests with letters that have their sounds at the beginnings of their names, such as v, than with letters that have their sounds at the ends of their names, such as m, and letters that do not have their sounds in their…

  3. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

    2013-09-30

    Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent

  4. Marine biological controls on climate via the carbon and sulphur geochemical cycles

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    We review aspects of the influence of the marine biota on climate, focusing particularly on their role in mediating surface temperatures via their influence on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations. Variation in natural CO2 concentrations occurring over 103 to 105 years are set by oceanic processes, and in particular by conditions in the Southern Ocean, so it is to this region that we must look to understand the glacial-interglacial changes in CO2 concentrations. It seems likely that marine productivity in the Southern Ocean is limited by a combination of restricted iron supply to the region and insufficient light. Plankton-produced DMS is thought to influence climate by changing the numbers of cloud condensation nuclei available in remote regions; the efficiency of this mechanism is still unknown, but calculations suggest it may be a powerful influence on climate. It has a much shorter time-scale than the CO2 effect, and as a consequence may well be a player on the 'global change' timescale. The direction of both the CO2 and the DMS mechanisms is such that more marine productivity would lead to lower global temperatures, and we speculate that the overall effect of the marine biota today is to cool the planet by ca. 6°C as a result of these two mechanisms, with one-third of this figure being due to CO2 effects and two-thirds due to DMS. While the marine biota influence climate, climate also influences the marine biota, chiefly via changing atmospheric circulation. This in turn alters ocean circulation patterns, responsible for mixing up sub-surface nutrients, and also influences the transport of nutrients, such as iron, in atmospheric dust. A more vigorous atmospheric circulation would be expected to increase the productivity of the marine biota on both counts. Thus during glacial time, the colder and drier climate might be expected to stimulate greater marine productivity than occurs today. Since more production leads to

  5. Response of the bacterial community in oil-contaminated marine water to the addition of chemical and biological dispersants.

    PubMed

    Couto, Camila Rattes de Almeida; Jurelevicius, Diogo de Azevedo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    2016-12-15

    The use of dispersants in different stages of the oil production chain and for the remediation of water and soil is a well established practice. However, the choice for a chemical or biological dispersant is still a controversial subject. Chemical surfactants that persist long in the environment may pose problems of toxicity themselves; therefore, biosurfactants are considered to constitute an environmentally friendly and effective alternative. Nevertheless, the putative effects of such agents on the microbiomes of oil-contaminated and uncontaminated marine environments have not been sufficiently evaluated. Here, we studied the effects of the surfactant Ultrasperse II(®) and the surfactin (biosurfactant) produced by Bacillus sp. H2O-1 on the bacterial communities of marine water. Specifically, we used quantitative PCR and genetic fingerprint analyses to study the abundance and structure of the bacterial communities in marine water collected from two regions with contrasting climatic conditions. The addition of either chemical surfactant or biosurfactant influenced the structure and abundance of total and oil-degrading bacterial communities of oil-contaminated and uncontaminated marine waters. Remarkably, the bacterial communities responded similarly to the addition of oil and/or either the surfactant or the biosurfactant in both set of microcosms. After 30 days of incubation, the addition of surfactin enhanced the oil-degrading bacteria more than the chemical surfactant. However, no increase of hydrocarbon biodegradation values was observed, irrespective of the dispersant used. These data contribute to an increased understanding of the impact of novel dispersants on marine bacteriomes before commercial release into the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F.; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.

    2013-03-01

    Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ˜30%.

  7. Resumes, Applications, and Cover Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Olivia

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines for creating resumes, job applications, and cover letters. Includes examples of resumes and cover letters, additional resources, and information on preparing scannable resumes. (JOW)

  8. Methods to examine reproductive biology in free-ranging, fully-marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, Janet M; Burgess, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Historical overexploitation of marine mammals, combined with present-day pressures, has resulted in severely depleted populations, with many species listed as threatened or endangered. Understanding breeding patterns of threatened marine mammals is crucial to assessing population viability, potential recovery and conservation actions. However, determining reproductive parameters of wild fully-marine mammals (cetaceans and sirenians) is challenging due to their wide distributions, high mobility, inaccessible habitats, cryptic lifestyles and in many cases, large body size and intractability. Consequently, reproductive biologists employ an innovative suite of methods to collect useful information from these species. This chapter reviews historic, recent and state-of-the-art methods to examine diverse aspects of reproduction in fully-aquatic mammals.

  9. Marine Natural Product Bis-indole Alkaloid Caulerpin: Chemistry and Biology.

    PubMed

    Lunagariya, Jignesh; Bhadja, Poonam; Zhong, Shenghui; Vekariya, Rohit; Xu, Shihai

    2017-09-27

    Marine bis-indole alkaloids comprise a large and increasingly growing class of secondary metabolites, and continue to deliver a great variety of structural templates. The alkaloids derived from marine resources play a crucial role in medicinal chemistry and as chemical agents. In particular, bis-indole alkaloid caulerpin isolated from marine green algae Caulerpa and a red algae Chondria armata at various places around the world, and tested against several therapeutic areas such as anti-diabetic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-larvicidal, anti-herpes, anti-tubercular, anti-microbial and immunostimulating activity as well as means of other chemical agents. Herein, we summarized discovery of caulerpin, and its potential medicinal and chemical applications in chronological order with various aspects. Additionally, synthesis of caulerpin, its functional analogues, and structural isomer have also been reviewed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Suicide letters in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Chia, Audrey; Tai, Bee-Choo

    2008-01-01

    The contents of suicide letters provide insight into the reasons for suicide and the mental states of victims. Coroner court records of 1,721 Singaporean suicides occurring between 2000 and 2004 were reviewed, 398 (23%) of whom left suicide letters. Letter writers tended to be younger, single, and less likely to have mental or physical illness. A reason for suicide was evident in 58%. Major reasons included school and relationship problems in the young, financial and marital problems in adults and physical illnesses in the elderly. Positive sentiment (care/concern) was expressed in 59%. Negative emotions in 45% of which despondency/agony (60%) was the most common, followed by emptiness (25%), guilt/shame (15%), hopelessness (10%), and anger (3%). The study of these letters suggests that there are combinations of social, psychological and physical factors that influence a person to suicide, all of which are important in the prevention, assessment, and management of suicide.

  11. Letter to My Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puccio, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the author's ideas about teaching in the form of a letter to his students. Gives his message in the form of a story. Focuses on a reverence for questions, an acceptance of solitude, and a commitment to reflectiveness. (SG)

  12. Homestead Determination Letter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 10, 2017 letter from EPA responds to the petition from Homestead for an advanced biofuel pathway for yellow grease used as heating oil under the Clean Air Act and the Renewable Fuel Standard Program.

  13. Reasons for Letter Contracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    supplies and services for the national defense. But, excessive use of letter contracts leads to charges of poor planning and may deter effective ...definitive contract. But, excessive use of letter contracts leads to charges of poor planning and may deter effective negotiation of definitized...unilateral determination because of the impact on relationships with the contractor. There are cases where, as a matter of principle, the Government must take

  14. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  15. Optimization of microwave digestion for mercury determination in marine biological samples by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cardellicchio, Nicola; Di Leo, Antonella; Giandomenico, Santina; Santoro, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    Optimization of acid digestion method for mercury determination in marine biological samples (dolphin liver, fish and mussel tissues) using a closed vessel microwave sample preparation is presented. Five digestion procedures with different acid mixtures were investigated: the best results were obtained when the microwave-assisted digestion was based on sample dissolution with HNO3-H2SO4-K2Cr2O7 mixture. A comparison between microwave digestion and conventional reflux digestion shows there are considerable losses of mercury in the open digestion system. The microwave digestion method has been tested satisfactorily using two certified reference materials. Analytical results show a good agreement with certified values. The microwave digestion proved to be a reliable and rapid method for decomposition of biological samples in mercury determination.

  16. Biological conservation through marine protected areas in the presence of alternative stable states.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Bapan; Pal, Debprasad; Kar, T K; Valverde, Jose C

    2017-04-01

    This article addresses how depleted stock can be restored by creation of marine reserve and species mobility when alternative stable states persist in a marine ecosystem. To understand the role of a marine protected area, we develop a two-patch version of an originally single-patch model. In the two-patch model, we prove that some of the locally stable equilibria are not stable equilibria from an ecological viewpoint. Similarly, some unstable equilibria determined classically from the mathematical model are no longer equilibria. It is shown that increasing reserve size may produce three alternative stable states in the presence of harvesting. Dynamic solutions have a tendency to reach an upper stable state from a lower stable state when reserve size is increased, but the opposite phenomenon (i.e., shifting to a lower stable state from an upper one) never occurs. This suggests that MPAs always have a positive effect in stock conservation even when alternative stable states inherently persist in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    arrhythmias from ECGs recorded continuously during vertical sprints by bottlenose dolphins. Comparable tests conducted on trained dolphins in pools and...physiological and environmental factors leading to cardiac arrhythmias and physiological instability in diving marine mammals. Specifically, we will determine...and kinematic responses. We will identify, 1) the incidence of arrhythmias , 2) triggers for cardiac anomalies, and 3) the segments of dives

  18. Biodiversity's Big Wet Secret: The Global Distribution of Marine Biological Records Reveals Chronic Under-Exploration of the Deep Pelagic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Thomas J.; Vanden Berghe, Edward; O'Dor, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the distribution of marine biodiversity is a crucial first step towards the effective and sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Recent efforts to collate location records from marine surveys enable us to assemble a global picture of recorded marine biodiversity. They also effectively highlight gaps in our knowledge of particular marine regions. In particular, the deep pelagic ocean – the largest biome on Earth – is chronically under-represented in global databases of marine biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings We use data from the Ocean Biogeographic Information System to plot the position in the water column of ca 7 million records of marine species occurrences. Records from relatively shallow waters dominate this global picture of recorded marine biodiversity. In addition, standardising the number of records from regions of the ocean differing in depth reveals that regardless of ocean depth, most records come either from surface waters or the sea bed. Midwater biodiversity is drastically under-represented. Conclusions/Significance The deep pelagic ocean is the largest habitat by volume on Earth, yet it remains biodiversity's big wet secret, as it is hugely under-represented in global databases of marine biological records. Given both its value in the provision of a range of ecosystem services, and its vulnerability to threats including overfishing and climate change, there is a pressing need to increase our knowledge of Earth's largest ecosystem. PMID:20689845

  19. Biodiversity's big wet secret: the global distribution of marine biological records reveals chronic under-exploration of the deep pelagic ocean.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J; Vanden Berghe, Edward; O'Dor, Ron

    2010-08-02

    Understanding the distribution of marine biodiversity is a crucial first step towards the effective and sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Recent efforts to collate location records from marine surveys enable us to assemble a global picture of recorded marine biodiversity. They also effectively highlight gaps in our knowledge of particular marine regions. In particular, the deep pelagic ocean--the largest biome on Earth--is chronically under-represented in global databases of marine biodiversity. We use data from the Ocean Biogeographic Information System to plot the position in the water column of ca 7 million records of marine species occurrences. Records from relatively shallow waters dominate this global picture of recorded marine biodiversity. In addition, standardising the number of records from regions of the ocean differing in depth reveals that regardless of ocean depth, most records come either from surface waters or the sea bed. Midwater biodiversity is drastically under-represented. The deep pelagic ocean is the largest habitat by volume on Earth, yet it remains biodiversity's big wet secret, as it is hugely under-represented in global databases of marine biological records. Given both its value in the provision of a range of ecosystem services, and its vulnerability to threats including overfishing and climate change, there is a pressing need to increase our knowledge of Earth's largest ecosystem.

  20. Effects of gill-net fishing on marine birds in a biological hotspot in the northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Davoren, Gail K

    2007-08-01

    Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland during July and August 2000-2003. By examining the distributional patterns of top predators through ship-based surveys at multiple spatial and temporal scales, I found that the biomasses of birds-dominated by Common Murres (Uria aalge)-and mammals-dominated by whale species-were concentrated along the coast, with a biological hotspot forming near two persistent spawning sites of capelin in all years. The formation of this hotspot was well defined in space and time from middle of July to middle of August, likely coinciding with the spawning chronology of capelin. Within this hotspot, there was a high spatial and temporal overlap of Common Murres and gill nets set to capture Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). This resulted in breeding murres becoming entangled in gill nets while feeding on spawning capelin. Despite an acknowledged uncertainty of bycatch mortality, estimates for the larger regional-scale area (1936-4973 murres/year; 0.2-0.6% of the breeding population) underestimated mortality relative to estimates within the hotspot (3053-14054 murres/year; 0.4-1.7%). Although fishing effort for Atlantic cod has declined substantially since the groundfish moratorium in 1992, chronic, unnatural, and additive mortality through bycatch continues in coastal Newfoundland. Restricted use of gill nets within this and other biological hotspots during the capelin spawning period appears to be a straightforward application of the "ecological and biologically significant area" management framework in Canada's Oceans Act. This protection would minimize murre bycatch and maintain ecosystem

  1. Neural substrates of sensorimotor processes: letter writing and letter perception

    PubMed Central

    James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Writing and perceiving letters are thought to share similar neural substrates; however, what constitutes a neural representation for letters is currently debated. One hypothesis is that letter representation develops from sensorimotor experience resulting in an integrated set of modality-specific regions, whereas an alternative account suggests that letter representations may be abstract, independent of modality. Studies reviewed suggest that letter representation consists of a network of modality-responsive brain regions that may include an abstract component. PMID:26203115

  2. Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of actinobacteria isolated from the Chukchi Shelf marine sediments in the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Meng; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Dong, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-03-06

    Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis.

  3. Phylogenetic Diversity and Biological Activity of Actinobacteria Isolated from the Chukchi Shelf Marine Sediments in the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Meng; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Dong, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:24663116

  4. Limitations of an optimum sustainable population or potential biological removal approach for conserving marine mammals: Pacific walrus case study.

    PubMed

    Robards, Martin D; Burns, John J; Meek, Chanda L; Watson, Annette

    2009-10-01

    Decision rules are the agreed-upon points at which specific management interventions are initiated. For marine mammal management under the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), decision rules are usually based on either a numeric population or biological-removal approach. However, for walrus and other ice-associated pinnipeds, the inability to reliably assess population numbers or biological removals highlights a significant gap in the MMPA, particularly when the Arctic environment is rapidly changing. We describe the MMPA's ecosystem-based management goals, and why managers have bypassed these goals in favor of an approach that depends upon numerical population assessment. We then revisit the statute's primary goals in light of current knowledge about the Pacific walrus ecosystem and new developments in environmental governance. We argue that to monitor and respond to changes in the walrus ecosystem, decision rules should be based on scientific criteria that depend less on the currently-impractical goal of accurately enumerating population size and trends, or removals from that population. Rather, managers should base decisions on ecological needs and observed ecological changes. To implement this approach would require an amendment to the MMPA that supports filling the gap in management with achievable decision rules. Alternatively, walrus and other ice-associated pinnipeds will remain largely unmanaged during a period of profound environmental change.

  5. Letter Recognition and Sound Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Jennifer

    This lesson, which is most appropriate for kindergartners, reviews letter names and their sounds through a group letter recognition activity, a picture book activity, and alphabet practice with several online activities. During three 30-minute sessions, students will: identify the letters of the alphabet; identify the sounds of letters; identify…

  6. Letter Names, Letter Sounds and Phonological Awareness: An Examination of Kindergarten Children across Letters and of Letters across Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Bell, Michelle; Shaw, Deborah; Moretti, Shelley; Page, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    In this study 149 kindergarten children were assessed for knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, phonological awareness, and cognitive abilities. Through this it examined child and letter characteristics influencing the acquisition of alphabetic knowledge in a naturalistic context, the relationship between letter-sound knowledge and…

  7. Students' Perceptions of Reference Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brian K.; Appel, Jonathan; Smith, Donald H.; Hoofnagle, Kara

    2006-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of reference letters. Students (n = 444) were asked to describe how they perceived reference letters. Four themes were uncovered. First, some students perceived reference letters as useful for employers. Second, some students perceived the letters as important for students seeking employment or admission…

  8. Temporal processing deficits in letter-by-letter reading.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Janet L; Eskes, Gail A

    2007-01-01

    Theories of the cognitive impairment underlying letter-by-letter reading vary widely, including prelexical and lexical level deficits. One prominent prelexical account proposes that the disorder results from difficulty in processing multiple letters simultaneously. We investigated whether this deficit extends to letters presented in rapid temporal succession. A letter-by-letter reader, G.M., was administered a rapid serial visual presentation task that has been used widely to study the temporal processing characteristics of the normal visual system. Comparisons were made to a control group of 6 brain-damaged individuals without reading deficits. Two target letters were embedded at varying temporal positions in a stream of rapidly presented single digits. After each stream, the identities of the two letters were reported. G.M. required an extended period of time after he had processed one letter before he was able to reliably identify a second letter, relative to the controls. In addition, G.M.'s report of the second letter was most impaired when it immediately followed the first letter, a pattern not seen in the controls, indicating that G.M. had difficulty processing the two items together. These data suggest that a letter-by-letter reading strategy may be adopted to help compensate for a deficit in the temporal processing of letters.

  9. Marine biological production from in situ oxygen measurements on a profiling float in the subarctic Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushinsky, Seth M.; Emerson, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Evaluating the organic carbon flux from the surface ocean to the interior (the marine biological pump) is essential for predictions of ocean carbon cycle feedback to climate change. One approach for determining these fluxes is to measure the concentration of oxygen in the upper ocean over a seasonal cycle, calculate the net O2 flux using an upper ocean model, and then use a stoichiometric relationship between oxygen evolved and organic carbon produced. Applying this tracer in a variety of ocean areas over seasonal cycles requires accurate O2 measurements on autonomous vehicles. Here we demonstrate this approach using an O2 sensor on a profiling float that is periodically calibrated against atmospheric pO2. Using accurate data and a model that includes all physical and biological processes influencing oxygen, we determine an annual net community production of 0.7 ± 0.5 mol C m-2 yr-1 in the northeast Pacific Ocean (50°N, 145°W) from June 2012 to June 2013. There is a strong seasonal cycle in net biological oxygen production with wintertime fluxes caused by bubble processes critical to determining the annual flux. Approximately 50% of net autotrophic production during summer months is consumed by net respiration during the winter. The result is a biological pump in the subarctic Pacific Ocean that is less than that determined by similar methods in the subtropics to the south. This estimate is significantly lower than that predicted by satellite remote sensing and global circulation models.

  10. Turritella attenuata (Kasinathan): as biological indicator of marine pollution--a trace metal analytical study.

    PubMed

    Paul, V I; Radhakrishnan, M V; Hemalatha, S

    1999-11-01

    A study to monitor marine pollution with reference to trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) on T. attenuata, commonly called as screw shell over a period of one year on the whole body and various organs, viz. digestive diverticula, foot, mantle and ovary was conducted from the sandy beach of Porto Novo Coast (Lat 11 degrees 29' N Long: 79 degrees 46' E) of Peninsular India using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Higher concentration of all the four trace metals analysed were recorded in the digestive diverticula, whereas lower concentration of zinc and manganese were recorded in the ovary during the monsoon period. The higher level of trace metal concentration in the monsoon period may be due to the presence of these pollutants in large amounts in water. The accumulation of selected trace metals varies in different seasons according to the extent of pollution load in the marine environment.

  11. Corrosion Susceptibility of AA5083-H116 in Biologically Active Atmospheric Marine Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    with potato dextrose agar (PDA), a fungal growth media; the remaining coupon areas were left bare and fully exposed to the marine atmosphere. Fungal...fungi. AA5083-H116 coupons were half covered with potato dextrose agar (PDA), a ftingal growth media; the remaining coupon areas were left bare and...containers, lids and two coupons per container were washed with iso-propyl alcohol and air-dried. Difco™ potato dextrose agar (PDA) was prepared

  12. Biological and Behavioral Response Studies of Marine Mammals in Southern California, 2011 (SOCAL-11)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Brian Bloodworth   National Marine Fisheries Service  Silver Spring, MD     Antoinette  M. Gorgone   NOAA Southeast Fisheries Science Center   Beaufort, NC     1          1          1        1       

  13. Arsenic species extraction of biological marine samples (Periwinkles, Littorina littorea) from a highly contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Whaley-Martin, K J; Koch, I; Reimer, K J

    2012-01-15

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the tissues of marine organisms and in uncontaminated environments it is dominantly present as the highly soluble and easily extractable non-toxic arsenical, arsenobetaine. However in contaminated environments, higher proportions of inorganic arsenic, which is much less soluble, are accumulated into the tissues of marine organisms, resulting in lower extraction efficiencies (defined as the percent extracted arsenic of the total arsenic). This study carried out a comparative analysis between three different two-step arsenic extraction methods based on Foster et al. [27] from highly contaminated tissue of the marine periwinkle, Littorina littorea. The first extraction step used 100% water, 1:1 methanol-water, or a 9:1 methanol-water as the extraction solvent and the second step consisted of a gently heated dilute nitric acid extraction. The optimized two step extraction method was 1:1 methanol-water extraction followed by a 2% HNO(3) extraction, based on maximum amounts of extracted species, including organoarsenic species.

  14. Learning to recognize letters in the periphery: Effects of repeated exposure, letter frequency, and letter complexity

    PubMed Central

    Husk, Jesse S.; Yu, Deyue

    2017-01-01

    Patients with central vision loss must rely on their peripheral vision for reading. Unfortunately, limitations of peripheral vision, such as crowding, pose significant challenges to letter recognition. As a result, there is a need for developing effective training methods for improving crowded letter recognition in the periphery. Several studies have shown that extensive practice with letter stimuli is beneficial to peripheral letter recognition. Here, we explore stimulus-related factors that might influence the effectiveness of peripheral letter recognition training. Specifically, we examined letter exposure (number of letter occurrences), frequency of letter use in English print, and letter complexity and evaluated their contributions to the amount of improvement observed in crowded letter recognition following training. We analyzed data collected across a range of training protocols. Using linear regression, we identified the best-fitting model and observed that all three stimulus-related factors contributed to improvement in peripheral letter recognition with letter exposure being the most important factor. As an important explanatory variable, pretest accuracy was included in the model as well to avoid estimate biases and was shown to have influence on the relationship between training improvement and letter exposure. When developing training protocols for peripheral letter recognition, it may be beneficial to not only consider the overall length of training, but also to tailor the number of stimulus occurrences for each letter according to its initial performance level, frequency, and complexity. PMID:28265651

  15. Multi-parameter instrumentation to understand interactions of physical, biological and chemical processes in marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorgeville, E.; Tengberg, A.; Kamenos, N.; Burdett, H.; Mao, J.; Tholo, H.

    2016-02-01

    Developments in electronics, telecommunication, optics and acoustics measuring techniques have opened new possibilities for long-term monitoring of the marine environment. The intention of this conference presentation is to describe the use of a new type of compact instrument in some coastal projects and its benefits in climate change studies and carbonate system studies in natural environments. The combination of current profiles, pH and pCO2 (based on optode technology), oxygen, conductivity, temperature, pressure, wave and tide is crucial for understanding the ongoing processes and for cross quality control.

  16. Making United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) inclusive of marine biological resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moustahfid, H.; Potemra, J.; Goldstein, P.; Mendelssohn, R.; Desrochers, A.

    2011-01-01

    An important Data Management and Communication (DMAC) goal is to enable a multi-disciplinary view of the ocean environment by facilitating discovery and integration of data from various sources, projects and scientific domains. United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) DMAC functional requirements are based upon guidelines for standardized data access services, data formats, metadata, controlled vocabularies, and other conventions. So far, the data integration effort has focused on geophysical U.S. IOOS core variables such as temperature, salinity, ocean currents, etc. The IOOS Biological Observations Project is addressing the DMAC requirements that pertain to biological observations standards and interoperability applicable to U.S. IOOS and to various observing systems. Biological observations are highly heterogeneous and the variety of formats, logical structures, and sampling methods create significant challenges. Here we describe an informatics framework for biological observing data (e.g. species presence/absence and abundance data) that will expand information content and reconcile standards for the representation and integration of these biological observations for users to maximize the value of these observing data. We further propose that the approach described can be applied to other datasets generated in scientific observing surveys and will provide a vehicle for wider dissemination of biological observing data. We propose to employ data definition conventions that are well understood in U.S. IOOS and to combine these with ratified terminologies, policies and guidelines. ?? 2011 MTS.

  17. A new mechanochemical model: coupled Ginzburg-Landau and Swift-Hohenberg equations in biological patterns of marine animals.

    PubMed

    Morales, M A; Rojas, J F; Oliveros, J; Hernández S, A A

    2015-03-07

    In this work the skin coating of some vertebrate marine animals is modeled considering only dermis, epidermis and basal layers. The biological process takes into account: cellular diffusion of the epidermis, diffusion inhibition and long-range spatial interaction (nonlocal effect on diffusive dispersal) for cells of dermal tissue. The chemical and physical interactions between dermis and epidermis are represented by coupling quadratic terms and nonlinear terms additional. The model presents an interesting property associated with their gradient form: a connection between some physical, chemical and biological systems. The model equations proposed are solved with numerical methods to study the spatially stable emergent configurations. The spatiotemporal dynamic obtained of the numerical solution of these equations, present similarity with biological behaviors that have been found recently in the cellular movement of chromatophores (as contact-dependent depolarization and repulsion movement between melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores). The numerical solution of the model shows a great variety of beautiful patterns that are robust to changes of boundary condition. The resultant patterns are very similar to the pigmentation of some fish.

  18. Marine Isolates of Trichoderma spp. as Potential Halotolerant Agents of Biological Control for Arid-Zone Agriculture ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-01-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030

  19. Assessing potential effects of incinerating organic wastes at sea: Development and field testing of the Marine Incineration Biological Assessment Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Werme, C.; Boehm, P.; Cooke, M.; Oberacker, D.; Jackson, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and field-testing of the Marine Incineration Biological Assessment Sampler (MIBAS), used to assess potential effects of incinerating hazardous wastes at sea. In 1985, the U.S. EPA developed a strategy for the research necessary for measuring environmental and public health effects of incinerating hazardous wastes at sea. One area of the strategy addressed developing a way to sample incinerator emissions and introduce them into seawater for use as test media in toxicity tests. Responding to the strategy, EPA developed the MIBAS system, a system that samples incineration flue gas, cools the emissions, and collects them in seawater-filled impingers. Particulate matter and both semi-volatile and nonvolatile organic species are collected by the train. The system uses no materials that could in themselves prove toxic to marine organisms. A recent modification of the train permits collecting emissions in the first impinger without bubbling, mimicking the situation in nature, where emissions would settle onto the ocean surface. MIBAS tests have included spike recovery, using a gas-phase spiking system to spike compounds into the emissions and then measuring them in the components of the MIBAS train.

  20. Marine isolates of Trichoderma spp. as potential halotolerant agents of biological control for arid-zone agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-08-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents.

  1. HPLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS Analysis and Biological Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from the Colombian Marine Sponge Ectyoplasia ferox

    PubMed Central

    Colorado-Ríos, Jhonny; Muñoz, Diana; Montoya, Guillermo; Márquez, Diana; Márquez, Maria-Elena; López, Juan; Martínez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox produces antipredatory and allelopathic triterpenoid glycosides as part of its chemical defense repertoire against predators, competitors, and fouling organisms. These molecules are responsible for the pharmacological potential found in the glycosides present in this species. In order to observe the glycochemical diversity present in E. ferox, a liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometry approach to analyse a complex polar fraction of this marine sponge was performed. This gave valuable information for about twenty-five compounds three of which have been previously reported and another three which were found to be composed of known aglycones. Furthermore, a group of four urabosides, sharing two uncommon substitutions with carboxyl groups at C-4 on the terpenoid core, were identified by a characteristic fragmentation pattern. The oxidized aglycones present in this group of saponins can promote instability, making the purification process difficult. Cytotoxicity, cell cycle modulation, a cell cloning efficiency assay, as well as its hemolytic activity were evaluated. The cytotoxic activity was about IC50 40 µg/mL on Jurkat and CHO-k1 cell lines without exhibiting hemolysis. Discussion on this bioactivity suggests the scanning of other biological models would be worthwhile. PMID:24317472

  2. Accessing Novel Conoidean Venoms: Biodiverse Lumun-lumun Marine Communities, An Untapped Biological and Toxinological Resource

    PubMed Central

    Seronay, Romell A.; Fedosov, Alexander E.; Astilla, Mary Anne; Watkins, Maren; Saguil, Noel; Heralde, Francisco M.; Tagaro, Sheila; Poppe, Guido T.; Aliño, Porfirio M.; Oliverio, Marco; Kantor, Yuri I.; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2010-01-01

    Cone snail venoms have yielded pharmacologically-active natural products of exceptional scientific interest. However, cone snails are a small minority of venomous molluscan biodiversity, the vast majority being tiny venomous morphospecies in the family Turridae. A novel method called lumun-lumun opens access to these micromolluscs and their venoms. Old fishing nets are anchored to the sea bottom for a period of 1–6 months and marine biotas rich in small molluscs are established. In a single lumun-lumun community, we found a remarkable gastropod biodiversity (155 morphospecies). Venomous predators belonging to the superfamily Conoidea (36 morphospecies) were the largest group, the majority being micromolluscs in the family Turridae. We carried out an initial analysis of the most abundant of the turrid morphospecies recovered, Clathurella (Lienardia) cincta (Dunker, 1871). In contrast to all cDNA clones characterized from cone snail venom ducts, one of the C. cincta clones identified encoded two different peptide precursors presumably translated from a single mRNA. The prospect of easily accessing so many different morphospecies of venomous marine snails raises intriguing toxinological possibilities: the 36 conoidean morphospecies in this one net alone have the potential to yield thousands of novel pharmacologically-active compounds. PMID:20005243

  3. Accessing novel conoidean venoms: Biodiverse lumun-lumun marine communities, an untapped biological and toxinological resource.

    PubMed

    Seronay, Romell A; Fedosov, Alexander E; Astilla, Mary Anne Q; Watkins, Maren; Saguil, Noel; Heralde, Francisco M; Tagaro, Sheila; Poppe, Guido T; Aliño, Porfirio M; Oliverio, Marco; Kantor, Yuri I; Concepcion, Gisela P; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2010-12-15

    Cone snail venoms have yielded pharmacologically active natural products of exceptional scientific interest. However, cone snails are a small minority of venomous molluscan biodiversity, the vast majority being tiny venomous morphospecies in the family Turridae. A novel method called lumun-lumun opens access to these micromolluscs and their venoms. Old fishing nets are anchored to the sea bottom for a period of 1-6months and marine biotas rich in small molluscs are established. In a single lumun-lumun community, we found a remarkable gastropod biodiversity (155 morphospecies). Venomous predators belonging to the superfamily Conoidea (36 morphospecies) were the largest group, the majority being micromolluscs in the family Turridae. We carried out an initial analysis of the most abundant of the turrid morphospecies recovered, Clathurella (Lienardia) cincta (Dunker, 1871). In contrast to all cDNA clones characterized from cone snail venom ducts, one of the C. cincta clones identified encoded two different peptide precursors presumably translated from a single mRNA. The prospect of easily accessing so many different morphospecies of venomous marine snails raises intriguing toxinological possibilities: the 36 conoidean morphospecies in this one net alone have the potential to yield thousands of novel pharmacologically active compounds.

  4. Letter to Doxiadis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Buckminster

    1969-01-01

    The second half of a lengthy letter to Dr. Constantine Doxiadis (published in full in Main Currents in Modern Thought, XXV, March-April 1969) summarizes Buckminster Fuller's personal reflections on the impact of industrialization and on the effect of technological change in uniting mankind. (MF)

  5. Letters in this Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook individual letters by Edward T. Samulski; Stephen J. Hawkes; Stephen J. Fisher; J. Stephen Hartman; A. R. H. Cole; Stanley Pine, Ronald Archer, and Herbert Kaesz; Jimmy Reeves; Robert Hill; and Brock Spencer, C. Bradley Moore and Nedah Rose. Re: article by R. J. Gillespie The author replies

  6. Harvard Education Letter, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David, T., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six issues in volume 17 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Charters and Districts: Three Stages in an Often Rocky Relationship" (Kelly) and "'We…

  7. Harvard Education Letter, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David T., Editor

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 6 issues in volume 18 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January/February--"Curriculum Access in the Digital Age" (David T. Gordon) and "Using Charters To Improve…

  8. Letters from a suicide.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Donna Holland; Lawal-Solarin, Foluso Williams; Lester, David

    2007-08-01

    A linguistic analysis of a series of letters written by a young man who died by suicide to 1 friend over a period of 2 years prior to his death revealed several trends, including a decrease in negative emotion words and an increase in death words. The implication of these trends was discussed.

  9. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallas, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  10. Five Long Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Eric

    1990-01-01

    Describes the life of former Louisiana governor Huey Long through five fictitious letters. Discusses Long's experiences as a state public service commissioner, governor, and senator. Attributes Long's assassination to his killer's personal motives. Concludes that Long's life showed how much personal power could be gained even in a democracy. (SG)

  11. Harvard Education Letter, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves-Desai, Kelly, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six issues in volume 15 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Retention vs. Social Promotion: Schools Search for Alternatives" (Kelly), and "School…

  12. Letters and American Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevis, David E.

    The work itself should help a person who is going to teach reading and writing. Practical suggestions are offered in the final two chapters, while the opening three give intellectual perspectives. A theme binds the work of letting the consciousness of writing as a visual system be increased and of breaking the spell by which letter phonetics can…

  13. Letter to Doxiadis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Buckminster

    1969-01-01

    The second half of a lengthy letter to Dr. Constantine Doxiadis (published in full in Main Currents in Modern Thought, XXV, March-April 1969) summarizes Buckminster Fuller's personal reflections on the impact of industrialization and on the effect of technological change in uniting mankind. (MF)

  14. Inside the Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Roger; Graham, Alan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how a Java applet can help to build learners' intuitions about basic ideas of algebra. "Matchbox Algebra" is a Java applet the authors have designed to enable learners to grasp a key idea in learning algebra: that the letter "x" may be thought of as representing an as-yet-unknown number. They describe the…

  15. Letters and American Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevis, David E.

    The work itself should help a person who is going to teach reading and writing. Practical suggestions are offered in the final two chapters, while the opening three give intellectual perspectives. A theme binds the work of letting the consciousness of writing as a visual system be increased and of breaking the spell by which letter phonetics can…

  16. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallas, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  17. Inside the Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Roger; Graham, Alan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how a Java applet can help to build learners' intuitions about basic ideas of algebra. "Matchbox Algebra" is a Java applet the authors have designed to enable learners to grasp a key idea in learning algebra: that the letter "x" may be thought of as representing an as-yet-unknown number. They describe the…

  18. Five Long Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Eric

    1990-01-01

    Describes the life of former Louisiana governor Huey Long through five fictitious letters. Discusses Long's experiences as a state public service commissioner, governor, and senator. Attributes Long's assassination to his killer's personal motives. Concludes that Long's life showed how much personal power could be gained even in a democracy. (SG)

  19. A marine sulfate-reducing bacterium producing multiple antibiotics: biological and chemical investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Gu, Xiaojie; Zhao, Chenyan; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Zeping

    2009-07-21

    A marine sulfate-reducing bacterium SRB-22 was isolated by means of the agar shake dilution method and identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis. In the bioassay, its extract showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity using the paper disc agar diffusion method. This isolate showed a different antimicrobial profile than either ampicillin or nystatin and was found to produce at least eight antimicrobial components by bioautography. Suitable fermentation conditions for production of the active constituents were determined to be 28 day cultivation at 25 degrees C to 30 degrees C with a 10% inoculation ratio. Under these conditions, the SRB-22 was fermented, extracted and chemically investigated. So far an antimicrobial compound, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and an inactive compound, thymine, have been isolated and characterized.

  20. Syllabus for an Associate Degree Program in Applied Marine Biology and Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Tapan

    Included is a detailed outline of the content of each course required or offered as an elective in the associate degree program. With an 18 or 19 unit load each semester the program requires two years, and includes 64 hours at sea every semester. In addition to chemistry, physics, biology, and oceanography courses, there is a required course in…

  1. EPA Void Letter for Suzuki

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When a certificate is voided, EPA issues a void letter to the manufacturer.November 30, 2016, letter from Byron Bunker to Suzuki Motor America Inc., voiding certificate of conformity for highway motorcycle engine family CSKXC.652VR1.

  2. Priorities and developments of sensors, samplers and methods for key marine biological observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Samantha; Chavez, Francisco; Pearlman, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Over the last two decades or more, physical oceanography has seen a significant growth in in-situ sensors and platforms including fixed point and cable observatories, Argo floats, gliders and AUVs to supplement satellites for creating a 3-D view of the time-varying global ocean temperature and salinity structures. There are important developments recently for biogeochemists for monitoring nitrate, chemical contaminants, oxygen and pH that can now be added to these autonomous systems. Biologists are still lagging. Given the importance of biology to ocean health and the future earth, and the present reliance on humans and ships for observing species and abundance, it is paramount that new biological sensor systems be developed. Some promising sensor systems based on, but not limited to acoustic, chemical, genomic or imaging techniques, can sense from microbes to whales, are on the horizon. These techniques can be applied in situ with either real time or recorded data and can be captured and returned to the laboratory using the autonomous systems. The number of samples is limiting, requiring adaptive and smart systems. Two steps are envisioned to meeting the challenges. The first is to identify the priority biological variables to focus observation requirements and planning. The second is to address new sensors that can fill the gaps in current capabilities for biological observations. This abstract will review recent efforts to identify core biological variables for the US Integrated Ocean Observing System and address new sensors and innovations for observing these variables, particularly focused on availability and maturity of sensors.

  3. A Balanced Marine Aquarium [and] The Biology of Marine Aquarium Fishes Collected in Monroe County, Florida. A Two-Paper NOAA Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palko, Barbara Jayne; And Others

    This document consists of two separate papers. The first paper, "A Balanced Marine Aquarium" (Barbara Jayne Palko), discusses various aspects of a balanced marine aquarium. Information provided includes the basic and optional equipment needed to construct a balanced aquarium, preparations for setting up the aquarium, preparing the…

  4. Letters to a Young Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, C. D.; Schulman, Grace

    2001-01-01

    Presents two letters to a young writer, modeled on the influential "Letters to a Young Poet" by Rainer Maria Rilke. Notes the first letter situates itself when a young writer first turns toward poetry; and the second addresses the relationship between mentorship and the imagination, questioning the right of any writer to presume to guide the…

  5. Letters: Windows to the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier-Seiter, Claudia; Seiter, David M.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan utilizing personal letters of ordinary people to teach U.S. history. Suggests that the lesson can teach about the historical information available in personal letters, develop analytical skills through use of primary sources, and increase students' understanding of minority issues. Includes four letters to use as handouts.…

  6. Dietary marine-derived tocopherol has a higher biological availability in mice relative to alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Naohiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Oka, Tomiko; Mashimo, Daisuke; Noguchi, Noriko; Hata, Kazuhiko; Wada, Shun

    2009-02-01

    The biologic availability of two kinds of tocomonoenols, marine-derived tocopherol (MDT) and alpha-tocomonoenol, was investigated in ICR mice. Vitamin E-deficient ICR mice were fed MDT and alpha-tocomonoenol together with alpha-tocopherol, beta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol, and storage in liver, spleen, lung, and brain was quantified using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The vitamin E relative biologic availability (VE-RBA) in liver was 100 for alpha-tocopherol, 26 +/- 3 for beta-tocopherol, 4 +/- 2 for gamma-tocopherol, not detected for delta-tocopherol, 49 +/- 6 for MDT, and 30 +/- 7 for alpha-tocomonoenol. The VE-RBA in brain was 100 for alpha-tocopherol, 5 +/- 2 for beta-tocopherol, not detected for gamma-tocopherol and delta-tocopherol, 8 +/- 1 for MDT, and 4 +/- 1 for alpha-tocomonoenol. Tocopherols and tocomonoenols did not accumulate in the spleen or lung. MDT and alpha-tocomonoenol had high VE-RBA values. The VE-RBA value for MDT was much higher than that for beta-tocopherol.

  7. 50 CFR 218.177 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.177 Section 218.177 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... Letters of Authorization are restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that...

  8. 50 CFR 216.278 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management. 216.278 Section 216.278 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... comment on renewals of Letters of Authorization are restricted to: (1) New cited information and...

  9. 50 CFR 216.178 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.178 Section 216.178 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... changes to the mitigation and monitoring requirements contained in these regulations or in the...

  10. 33 CFR 157.204 - Letter of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.204 Letter of acceptance. The Coast Guard... submitted under § 157.202 show that the dedicated clean ballast tank system meets this subpart....

  11. 50 CFR 216.128 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.128 Section 216.128 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in this...

  12. 50 CFR 216.178 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.178 Section 216.178 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in this document are in need...

  13. 50 CFR 216.158 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.158 Section 216.158 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in this...

  14. 50 CFR 216.128 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.128 Section 216.128 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in this...

  15. 50 CFR 218.7 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... practicable adverse impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence... and renewal of the Letter of Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of... affected species or stock of marine mammal(s). ...

  16. 50 CFR 218.36 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses (i.e... Letter of Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of marine mammals taken by the activity as a whole will have no more than a negligible impact on the affected species or stock of...

  17. 50 CFR 218.16 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... practicable adverse impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence... and renewal of the Letter of Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of... affected species or stock of marine mammal(s). ...

  18. 50 CFR 216.157 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses (i.e... Letter of Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of marine mammals taken by the activity as a whole will have no more than a negligible impact on the affected species or stock of...

  19. 50 CFR 216.277 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... practicable adverse impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence... and renewal of the Letter of Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of... affected species or stock of marine mammal(s). ...

  20. 50 CFR 216.247 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses (i.e... Letter of Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of marine mammals taken by the activity as a whole will have no more than a negligible impact on the affected species or stock of...

  1. 50 CFR 216.257 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adverse impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses... Letter of Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of marine mammals taken by the activity as a whole will have no more than a negligible impact on the species or stock of affected...

  2. A review of sensors, samplers and methods for marine biological observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, S. E.; Chavez, F.; Pearlman, J.; Working Group, T B S

    2016-02-01

    Physical scientists now have Argo floats, gliders and AUVs to supplement satellites to provide a 3-D view of the time-varying global ocean temperature and salinity structure. Biogeochemists are catching up with evolving sensors for nitrate, optical properties, oxygen and pH that can now be added to these autonomous systems. Biologists are still lagging, although some promising sensor systems based on but not limited to acoustic, chemical, genomic or imaging techniques, that can sense from microbes to whales, are on the horizon. These techniques can not only be applied in situ but also on samples returned to the laboratory using the autonomous systems. The number of samples is limiting, requiring adaptive and smart systems. Given the importance of biology to ocean health and the future earth, and the present reliance on humans and ships for observing species and abundance it is paramount that new biological sensor systems be developed. This abstract will review recent efforts to identify core biological variables for the US Integrated Ocean Observing System and address new sensors and innovations for observing these variables, particularly focused on availability and maturity of sensors. The relevance of this work in a global context will also be touched on.

  3. Biologic origin of iron nodules in a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.; Schulz, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; White, A.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution, chemistry, and morphology of Fe nodules were studied in a marine terrace soil chronosequence northwest of Santa Cruz, California. The Fe nodules are found at depths <1 m on all terraces. The nodules consisted of soil mineral grains cemented by Fe oxides. The nodules varied in size from 0.5 to 25 mm in diameter. Nodules did not occur in the underlying regolith. The Fe-oxide mineralogy of the nodules was typically goethite; however, a subset of nodules consisted of maghemite. There was a slight transformation to hematite with time. The abundance of soil Fe nodules increased with terrace age on the five terraces studied (aged 65,000-226,000 yr). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed Fe-oxide-containing fungal hyphae throughout the nodules, including organic structures incorporating fine-grained Fe oxides. The fine-grained nature of the Fe oxides was substantiated by M??ssbauer spectroscopy. Our microscopic observations led to the hypothesis that the nodules in the Santa Cruz terrace soils are precipitated by fungi, perhaps as a strategy to sequester primary mineral grains for nutrient extraction. The fungal structures are fixed by the seasonal wetting and dry cycles and rounded through bioturbation. The organic structures are compacted by the degradation of fungal C with time. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological activities of aqueous and organic extracts from tropical marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Sepcić, Kristina; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Turk, Tom

    2010-04-28

    We report on screening tests of 66 extracts obtained from 35 marine sponge species from the Caribbean Sea (Curaçao) and from eight species from the Great Barrier Reef (Lizard Island). Extracts were prepared in aqueous and organic solvents and were tested for hemolytic, hemagglutinating, antibacterial and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, as well as their ability to inhibit or activate cell protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The most interesting activities were obtained from extracts of Ircinia felix, Pandaros acanthifolium, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Verongula rigida and Neofibularia nolitangere. Aqueous and organic extracts of I. felix and V. rigida showed strong antibacterial activity. Topsentia aqueous and some organic extracts were strongly hemolytic, as were all organic extracts from I. felix. The strongest hemolytic activity was observed in aqueous extracts from P. acanthifolium. Organic extracts of N. nolitangere and I. felix inhibited PP1. The aqueous extract from Myrmekioderma styx possessed the strongest hemagglutinating activity, whilst AChE inhibiting activity was found only in a few sponges and was generally weak, except in the methanolic extract of T. ophiraphidites.

  5. Biological effects of marine PCB contamination on black guillemot nestlings at Saglek, Labrador: liver biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Zou Zou A; Burgess, Neil M; Stow, Jason P; Fox, Glen A

    2003-01-01

    Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) in Saglek Bay, Labrador have elevated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations due to marine sediment contamination around a former military site. We measured liver biomarkers and sigmaPCB concentrations in 31 nestlings from three PCB-exposure groups: Reference group (range: 15-46 ng/g liver, wet wt.), moderately exposed Islands group (24-150 ng/g), and highly exposed Beach group (170-6200 ng/g). Biomarker responses were dose-dependent and in some cases sex-dependent. Livers of female Beach nestlings were enlarged 36% relative to Reference females. In both sexes, Beach nestlings had liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities elevated 79% and liver retinol concentrations reduced 47%. Retinyl palmitate concentrations were reduced 50% but only among female nestlings. Island nestlings also exhibited EROD induction (57%) and reductions in retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations (28 and 58%, respectively). Liver lipid content increased with sigmaPCBs in both sexes, and correlated with liver mass in males. Malic enzyme activity and porphyrin concentrations showed little association with sigmaPCBs. Although similar associations between liver biomarkers and organochlorine exposure in fish-eating birds are well documented, typically exposures involve multiple contaminants and there is uncertainty about specific PCB effects. Our findings indicate that liver biomarkers respond to relatively low PCB exposures (approximately 73 ng/g liver) in guillemots.

  6. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, C; Fodelianakis, S; Guerrero-Meseguer, L; Marín, A; Karakassis, I

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mesocosm experiments for evaluating the biological efficacy of ozone treatment of marine ballast water.

    PubMed

    Perrins, Jake C; Cordell, Jeffery R; Ferm, Nissa C; Grocock, Jaime L; Herwig, Russell P

    2006-12-01

    Ballast water is a major pathway for the transfer of non-indigenous species in aquatic environments. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of ozone to reduce the numbers of a spectrum of marine organisms collected from Puget Sound, Washington in replicated mesocosm (280 l) experiments, and estimate the minimum ozone concentrations as measured by total residual oxidant (TRO) required to reduce organism densities. Ozone treatment was effective in removing bacteria, phytoplankton, and mesozooplankton with initial TRO concentrations of 2-5 mg l(-1) as Br(2). Persistence of TRO resulted in an extended period of toxicity and cumulative mortality. TRO decay allowed bacteria populations to multiply when TRO levels fell below 0.5-1.0 mg l(-1) as Br(2). Phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations were rapidly reduced by ozone treatment and did not increase in any treatments or controls because of lack of light. Overall mesozooplankton viability was rapidly reduced by 90-99% in treatment TRO levels above 1.85 mg l(-1) as Br(2). Our study outlines novel protocols that can be used for testing different potential ballast water treatment systems in replicated and controlled mesocosm experiments.

  8. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Criticisms of hands-on pseudoscience David J Fisher 27 Elderberry Road, Cardiff CF5 3RG, UK Measuring varying fields Don Koks Adelaide University, Australia Relativity at A-level: a comment David Sang 3 Ellasdale Road, Bognor Regis, PO21 2SG, UK

  9. A comparison of letter and digit processing in letter-by-letter reading.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Janet L; Eskes, Gail A

    2008-01-01

    The extent to which letter-by-letter reading results from a specific orthographic deficit, as compared with a nonspecific disturbance in basic visuoperceptual mechanisms, is unclear. The current study directly compared processing of letters and digits in a letter-by-letter reader, G.M., using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task and a speeded matching task. Comparisons were made to a group of six brain-damaged individuals without reading deficits. In the RSVP task, G.M. had increased difficulty reporting the target identities when they were letters, as compared with digits. Although this general pattern was also evident in the control group, the magnitude of the letter-digit accuracy difference was greater in G.M. Similarly, in the matching task, G.M. was slower to match letters than digits, relative to the control group, although his response times to both item types were increased. These data suggest that letter-by-letter reading, at least in this case, results from a visuoperceptual encoding deficit that particularly affects letters, but also extends to processing of digits to a lesser extent. Results are consistent with the notion that a left occipitotemporal area is specialized for letter processing with greater bilaterality in the visual processing of digits.

  10. Physiological and Molecular Biological Characterization of Intracellular Carbonic Anhydrase from the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum1

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Dan; Hiraoka, Yasutaka; Colman, Brian; Matsuda, Yusuke

    2001-01-01

    A single intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) was detected in air-grown and, at reduced levels, in high CO2-grown cells of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (UTEX 642). No external CA activity was detected irrespective of growth CO2 conditions. Ethoxyzolamide (0.4 mm), a CA-specific inhibitor, severely inhibited high-affinity photosynthesis at low concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, whereas 2 mm acetazolamide had little effect on the affinity for dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting that internal CA is crucial for the operation of a carbon concentrating mechanism in P. tricornutum. Internal CA was purified 36.7-fold of that of cell homogenates by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and two-step column chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-sephacel and p-aminomethylbenzene sulfone amide agarose. The purified CA was shown, by SDS-PAGE, to comprise an electrophoretically single polypeptide of 28 kD under both reduced and nonreduced conditions. The entire sequence of the cDNA of this CA was obtained by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and indicated that the cDNA encodes 282 amino acids. Comparison of this putative precursor sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified CA indicated that it included a possible signal sequence of up to 46 amino acids at the N terminus. The mature CA was found to consist of 236 amino acids and the sequence was homologous to β-type CAs. Even though the zinc-ligand amino acid residues were shown to be completely conserved, the amino acid residues that may constitute a CO2-binding site appeared to be unique among the β-CAs so far reported. PMID:11500545

  11. Allographic Agraphia for Single letters

    PubMed Central

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a series of imagery tasks for cursive letters. PS’s performance may indicate that single letter production requires explicit imagery. Explicit imagery may not be required, instead, when letters have to be produced in the context of a word: letter production in this case may rely on implicit retrieval of well learned scripts in a procedural way. PMID:22713390

  12. Ribonucleotide reductases reveal novel viral diversity and predict biological and ecological features of unknown marine viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sakowski, Eric G.; Munsell, Erik V.; Hyatt, Mara; Kress, William; Williamson, Shannon J.; Nasko, Daniel J.; Polson, Shawn W.; Wommack, K. Eric

    2014-01-01

    Virioplankton play a crucial role in aquatic ecosystems as top-down regulators of bacterial populations and agents of horizontal gene transfer and nutrient cycling. However, the biology and ecology of virioplankton populations in the environment remain poorly understood. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are ancient enzymes that reduce ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides and thus prime DNA synthesis. Composed of three classes according to O2 reactivity, RNRs can be predictive of the physiological conditions surrounding DNA synthesis. RNRs are universal among cellular life, common within viral genomes and virioplankton shotgun metagenomes (viromes), and estimated to occur within >90% of the dsDNA virioplankton sampled in this study. RNRs occur across diverse viral groups, including all three morphological families of tailed phages, making these genes attractive for studies of viral diversity. Differing patterns in virioplankton diversity were clear from RNRs sampled across a broad oceanic transect. The most abundant RNRs belonged to novel lineages of podoviruses infecting α-proteobacteria, a bacterial class critical to oceanic carbon cycling. RNR class was predictive of phage morphology among cyanophages and RNR distribution frequencies among cyanophages were largely consistent with the predictions of the “kill the winner–cost of resistance” model. RNRs were also identified for the first time to our knowledge within ssDNA viromes. These data indicate that RNR polymorphism provides a means of connecting the biological and ecological features of virioplankton populations. PMID:25313075

  13. Chemical and Biological Aspects of Marine Sponges from the Family Mycalidae.

    PubMed

    Habener, Leesa J; Hooper, John N A; Carroll, Anthony R

    2016-06-01

    Sponges are a useful source of bioactive natural products. Members of the family Mycalidae, in particular, have provided a variety of chemical structures including alkaloids, polyketides, terpene endoperoxides, peptides, and lipids. This review highlights the compounds isolated from Mycalid sponges and their associated biological activities. A diverse group of 190 compounds have been reported from over 40 specimens contained in 49 references. Over half of the studies have reported on the biological activities for the compounds isolated. The polyketides, in particular the macrolides, displayed potent cytotoxic activities (< 1 µM), and the alkaloids, in particular the 2,5-disubstituted pyrrole derivatives, were associated with moderate cytotoxic activities (1-20 µM). The pyrrole alkaloids and the cyclic peroxides appear to be phylogenetically restricted to sponges and thus might prove useful when applied to sponge taxonomy. The observed diversity of chemical structures suggests this family makes a good target for targeted biodiscovery projects. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Which children benefit from letter names in learning letter sounds?

    PubMed

    Treiman, Rebecca; Pennington, Bruce F; Shriberg, Lawrence D; Boada, Richard

    2008-03-01

    Typical U.S. children use their knowledge of letters' names to help learn the letters' sounds. They perform better on letter sound tests with letters that have their sounds at the beginnings of their names, such as v, than with letters that have their sounds at the ends of their names, such as m, and letters that do not have their sounds in their names, such as h. We found this same pattern among children with speech sound disorders, children with language impairments as well as speech sound disorders, and children who later developed serious reading problems. Even children who scored at chance on rhyming and sound matching tasks performed better on the letter sound task with letters such as v than with letters such as m and h. Our results suggest that a wide range of children use the names of letters to help learn the sounds and that phonological awareness, as conventionally measured, is not required in order to do so.

  15. Young Children's Letter-Sound Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Barbara; Carr, Alex

    2003-01-01

    This study with 83 normally developing children (ages 4-6) compared three essential skills in early literacy, letter-sound recognition, letter-sound recall, and letter reproduction. Children performed better in letter-sound recognition than in letter-sound recall and letter reproduction. There were no performance differences due to sex or age.…

  16. Differential physical, rheological, and biological properties of rapid in situ gelable hydrogels composed of oxidized alginate and gelatin derived from marine or porcine sources.

    PubMed

    Liao, Huijuan; Zhang, Hanwei; Chen, Weiliam

    2009-06-01

    Marine derived gelatin is not known to associate with any communicable diseases to mammals and could be a reasonable substitute for gelatin derived from either bovine or porcine sources. The low melting point of marine gelatin (8 degrees C) also offers greater formulation flexibility than mammalian derived gelatins. However, the sub-optimal physical properties of marine gelatin generally limit the interest to further develop it for biomedical applications. This study aimed at investigating the feasibility of using oxidized alginate (Oalg) as a high activity macromolecular crosslinker of marine gelatin to formulate in situ gelable hydrogels with the goal of enhancing the latter's physical properties. The performance of Oalg/marine gelatin hydrogel was compared to Oalg/porcine gelatin hydrogel; in general, the physicomechanical properties of both hydrogels were comparable, with the hydrogels containing porcine gelatin exhibiting moderately higher mechanical strengths with shorter gelation times, smaller size pores, and higher swelling ratios. On the contrary, the biological performances of the two hydrogels were significantly difference. Cells cultured in the marine gelatin derived hydrogel grew significantly faster, with greater than 60% more cells by 7 days and they exhibited more spread-out conformations as compared those cultured in the porcine derived hydrogel. Production of ECM by cells cultured in the Oalg/marine gelatin hydrogel was up to 2.4 times greater than that of in the Oalg/porcine gelatin hydrogel. The biodegradation rate of the hydrogel formulated from marine gelatin was greater than its counterpart prepared from porcine gelatin. These differences have important implications in the biomedical applications of the two hydrogels.

  17. Phase contrast and DIC instrumentation and applications in cell, developmental, and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, Heinz

    1994-05-01

    Nomarski's differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is discussed in comparison to Zernike's phase contrast (PhC) microscopy. The possibilities and limits of both are demonstrated by various applications. The high contrast and the use of the full numerical aperture of the DIC optics makes it possible to obtain a series of 'optical sections' through rather thick living specimens (e.g. head of water flea, salivary gland of Drosophila, Xenopus nucleolus, sea urchen egg, mouse embryo). PhC and DIC optics are today available for high resolution light microscopy until N.A. 1.4 Oil as well as for long working distance (LWD) optics, mainly combined with inverted biological microscopes.

  18. Alkenone paleothermometry: Biological lessons from marine sediment records off western South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl, Fredrick G.; Mix, Alan C.; Sparrow, Margaret A.

    2006-01-01

    An empirical global core-top calibration that relates the alkenone unsaturation index U37K' to mean annual SST (maSST) is statistically the same as that defined for a subarctic Pacific strain of Emiliania huxleyi (CCMP1742) grown exponentially in batch culture under isothermal conditions. Although both equations have been applied widely for paleoSST reconstruction, uncertainty still stems from two key ecological factors: variability in the details of biosynthesis among genetically distinct alkenone-producing strains, and impacts of non-thermal physiological growth factors on U37K'. New batch culture experiments with CCMP1742 here reveal that U37K' diverge systematically from the core-top calibration in response to nutrient depletion and light deprivation, two physiological stresses experienced by phytoplankton populations in the real ocean. Other aspects of alkenone/alkenoate composition also respond to these stresses and may serve as signatures of such effects, providing an opportunity to detect, understand, and potentially correct for such impacts on the geologic record. A test case documents that sediments from the Southeast Pacific display the alkenone/alkenoate compositional signature characteristic of cells physiologically stressed by light deprivation. Such an observation could be explained if marine snow provided a major vector of sedimentation for these biomarkers. Late Pleistocene U37K' records in the Southeast Pacific yield plausible paleotemperature histories of ice-age cooling, but ice-age alkenone/alkenoate signatures fall outside the range of modern calibration samples of similar U37K'. They better match core-top samples deposited beneath waters characterized by much cooler maSST, suggesting key features of ice-age ecology for alkenone-producing haptophytes were different from today, and that the U37K' index taken alone may misgauge the total range of ice-age cooling at these locations. Analysis of the full spectrum of alkenone/alkenoate compositions

  19. Missing organic carbon in Eocene marine sediments: Is metabolism the biological feedback that maintains end-member climates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivarez Lyle, Annette; Lyle, Mitchell W.

    2006-06-01

    Ocean chemistry is affected by pCO2 in the atmosphere by increasing the dissolution of solid calcium carbonate and elevating the dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in seawater. Positive feedbacks between the ocean and atmosphere can maintain high atmospheric pCO2 and affect global climate. We report evidence for changes in the oceanic carbon cycle from the first high-quality organic carbon (Corg) data set of Eocene sediments beneath the equatorial Pacific upwelling region (Leg 199 of the Ocean Drilling Program). Eocene Corg mass accumulation rates (MARs) are 10 times lower than Holocene rates, even though expected Corg MARs estimated from biogenic-barium MARs (an indicator of biological production) equal or exceed modern fluxes. What happened to the missing Corg? Recent advances in ecology and biochemical kinetics show that the metabolism of nearly all animals, marine and terrestrial, is positively correlated by first principles to environmental temperatures. The approximately 10°C abyssal temperature difference from Eocene to Holocene should have radically reduced pelagic Corg burial, as we observe. We propose that higher basal metabolism and nutrient utilization/recycling rates in the Eocene water column and surface sediments precluded Corg sediment burial in the pelagic ocean. Increased rates of metabolism, nutrient utilization, and lowered Corg sedimentation caused by increased temperature may have acted as a biological feedback to maintain high atmospheric pCO2 and hothouse climates. Conversely, these same parameters would reverse sign to maintain low pCO2 when temperatures decrease, thereby maintaining "icehouse" conditions during cold climate regimes.

  20. Letter to an ethicist

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Malcolm; Crelinsten, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Just as issues have arisen in court that cause the public to question whether the rights of criminals are taking precedence over the rights of victims, some physicians wonder if ethicists are placing the rights of some patients ahead of the rights of society and the common good. Pathologist Malcolm Silver raised this issue in a letter to the editor of CMAJ. With his permission, it was forwarded to Dr. Gordon Crelinsten, past chair of the ethics committee at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal. PMID:7697584

  1. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Physics and history Arthur I Miller Department of Science & Technology Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Physics and history: a reply David Miller Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Cathode rays, the electron and Thomson's discovery John Harris 33 Glentham Road, London SW13 9JD, UK Vectors: swallow them whole! David Wheeler Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand

  2. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  3. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Science spreadsheets Richard Beare Institute of Education, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK Calculating the `lost energy' Zhang Yongzhao and Zhang Shuyan Police Frontier Guard Patrol Boat Institute, Zhejiang, Ningbo 315801, People's Republic of China Cartesian diver solves the inverse sprinkler problem Boris M Valiyov and Vladimir D Yegorenkov Department of Physics, Kharkov State University, 4 Svobody sq., 310077, Kharkov, Ukraine Update excellence Karen Barker Lytham St Annes, Lancs, UK

  4. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Software teaching of modular physics: SToMP Stephen Hearn Head of Science, Charterhouse, Godalming, Surrey GU7 2DX Bridging the gap or avoiding a chasm? R W West York Strengths and weaknesses of science John Bausor Christians in Science Education, Edgware, London HA8 6RR Addressing the issues Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School Modern syllabuses and old textbooks: a useful synthesis Richard Barrass St Mary's College, Doncaster DN1 2ES

  5. Biological responses of a simulated marine food chain to lead addition.

    PubMed

    Soto-Jiménez, Martín F; Arellano-Fiore, Claudia; Rocha-Velarde, Ruth; Jara-Marini, Martín E; Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Voltolina, Domenico; Frías-Espericueta, Martín G; Quintero-Alvarez, Jesús M; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2011-07-01

    This investigation sought to assess the biological responses to Pb along a simplified four-level food chain, from the primary producer, the microalgae Tetraselmis suecica, grown in a control medium with < 1 µg/L of Pb and exposed to a sublethal dose (20 µg/L of Pb) and used as the base of a simulated food chain, through the primary-, secondary-, and tertiary-level consumers, namely, the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana; the white-leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei; and the grunt fish, Haemulon scudderi, respectively. Growth of Pb-exposed T. suecica was 40% lower than that of the control cultures, and survival of A. franciscana fed this diet was 25 to 30% lower than the control. No differences in the growth rates of Pb-exposed and control shrimp and fish and no gross morphological changes were evident in the exposed specimens. However, the exposed shrimp and fish had 20 and 15% higher mortalities than their controls, respectively. In addition, behavioral alterations were observed in exposed shrimp and fish, including reduction in food consumption or cessation of feeding, breathing air out of the water, reduction of motility, and erratic swimming. The negative correlation between Pb concentration in whole body of shrimp and fish and Fulton's condition factor suggested also that the exposed organisms were stressed because of Pb accumulation.

  6. Marine macromolecules cross-linked hydrogel scaffolds as physiochemically and biologically favorable entities for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Sumayya, A S; Muraleedhara Kurup, G

    2017-06-01

    Marine biopolymer composite materials provide a technological platform for launching biomedical applications. Biomaterials demand good biocompatibility without the possibility of inflammation or foreign body reactions. In this study, we prepared two biocomposite hydrogels namely; HAC (hydroxyapatite, alginate & chitosan) and HACF (hydroxyapatite, alginate, chitosan & fucoidan) followed by calcium chloride cross linking. The prepared scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Porosity measurement, swelling, biodegradation, hemolysis, RBC aggregation, plasma protein adsorption and cytotoxicity studies were also done. The hydrogel scaffold HACF possessed a well-defined porous architecture, sufficient water holding capacity, better hemocompatibility and biodegradability. The biocompatibility was confirmed through in vitro cytotoxicity studies such as MTT assay, Neutral red uptake, DAPI staining, Trypan blue dye exclusion test and direct contact assay in L929 mouse fibroblast cells. In addition, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of both of these scaffolds were revealed by the mRNA expressions of major inflammatory marker genes in cytotoxic condition such as TNF-α, IL-6 and NF-κB. The physiochemical characterization and biological responses of HACF hydrogel signifies its suitability for various tissue engineering applications.

  7. Parasites as biological tags of marine, freshwater and anadromous fishes in North America from the Tropics to the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Marcogliese, David J; Jacobson, Kym C

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been considered as natural biological tags of marine fish populations in North America for almost 75 years. In the Northwest Atlantic, the most studied species include Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and the redfishes (Sebastes spp.). In the North Pacific, research has centred primarily on salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.). However, parasites have been applied as tags for numerous other pelagic and demersal species on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Relatively few studies have been undertaken in the Arctic, and these were designed to discriminate anadromous and resident salmonids (Salvelinus spp.). Although rarely applied in fresh waters, parasites have been used to delineate certain fish stocks within the Great Lakes-St Lawrence River basin. Anisakid nematodes and the copepod Sphyrion lumpi frequently prove useful indicators in the Northwest Atlantic, while myxozoan parasites prove very effective on the coast and open seas of the Pacific Ocean. Relative differences in the ability of parasites to discriminate between fish stocks on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts may be due to oceanographic and bathymetric differences between regions. Molecular techniques used to differentiate populations and species of parasites show promise in future applications in the field.

  8. Understanding the transport of Patagonian dust and its influence on marine biological activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Kiliyanpilakkil, V. P.; Gassó, S.

    2011-03-01

    The supply of bioavailable iron to the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the Southern Ocean through atmospheric pathways could stimulate phytoplankton blooms and have major implications for the global carbon cycle. In this study, model results and remotely-sensed data are analyzed to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of iron-laden mineral dust deposition on marine biological productivity in the surface waters of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO). Model simulations for the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron are carried out for two large dust outbreaks originated at the source regions of northern Patagonia during the austral summer of 2009. Model-simulated horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes are in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Simulations indicate that the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems are largely accountable for dust transport trajectories over the SAO. According to model results and retrievals from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), synoptic flows caused by opposing pressure systems (a high pressure system located to the east or north-east of a low pressure system) elevate the South American dust plumes well above the marine boundary layer. Under such conditions, the bulk concentration of mineral dust can quickly be transported around the low pressure system in a clockwise manner, follow the southeasterly advection pathway, and reach the HNLC waters of the SAO and Antarctica in ~3-4 days after emission from the source regions of northern Patagonia. Two different mechanisms for dust-iron mobilization into a bioavailable form are considered in this study. A global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, is employed to estimate the atmospheric fluxes of soluble iron, while a

  9. Understanding the transport of Patagonian dust and its influence on marine biological activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Kiliyanpilakkil, V. P.; Gassó, S.

    2010-11-01

    The supply of bioavailable iron to the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the Southern Ocean through atmospheric pathways could stimulate phytoplankton blooms and have major implications for the global carbon cycle. In this study, model results and remotely-sensed data are analyzed to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of iron-laden mineral dust deposition on marine biological productivity in the surface waters of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO). Model simulations for the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron are carried out for two large dust outbreaks originated at the source regions of Northern Patagonia during the austral summer of 2009. Model-simulated horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes are in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Simulations indicate that the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems are largely accountable for dust transport trajectories over the SAO. According to model results and retrievals from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), synoptic flows caused by opposing pressure systems (a high pressure system located to the east or north-east of a low pressure system) elevate the South American dust plumes well above the marine boundary layer. Under such conditions, the bulk concentration of mineral dust can quickly be transported around the low pressure system in a clockwise manner, follow the southeasterly advection pathway, and reach the HNLC waters of the SAO and Antarctica in ~3-4 days after emission from the source regions of Northern Patagonia. Two different mechanisms for dust-iron mobilization into a bioavailable form are considered in this study. A global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, is employed to estimate the atmospheric fluxes of soluble iron, while a

  10. 76 FR 39386 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ..., from June 29 through November 19, 2010, trained graduate and undergraduate marine biology students... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project AGENCY: National Marine...

  11. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Physical Oceanography Component: Soundscapes Under Sea Ice: Can We Listen for Open Water?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    until May 17th (Day 137) when the open water soundscape returns for the season. The bowhead whales migrate north, with their chorus ending on Apr...especially critical in areas like the Bering Sea where global climate change can lead to rapid changes of the entire ecosystem. The Arctic is...physical environment that the marine mammals ( whales and seals) are using. Attention to the physical environment is often absent from biological

  12. What Can Reduce Letter Migrations in Letter Position Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Rahamim, Einav

    2014-01-01

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter position within words, such as reading "cloud" as "could." In this study, we assessed the effect of various display manipulations and reading methods on the reading of 10 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD. These manipulations included…

  13. What Can Reduce Letter Migrations in Letter Position Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Rahamim, Einav

    2014-01-01

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter position within words, such as reading "cloud" as "could." In this study, we assessed the effect of various display manipulations and reading methods on the reading of 10 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD. These manipulations included…

  14. An ecological acoustic recorder (EAR) for long-term monitoring of biological and anthropogenic sounds on coral reefs and other marine habitats.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Marc O; Brainard, Russell E; Au, Whitlow W L; Mooney, T Aran; Wong, Kevin B

    2008-03-01

    Keeping track of long-term biological trends in many marine habitats is a challenging task that is exacerbated when the habitats in question are in remote locations. Monitoring the ambient sound field may be a useful way of assessing biological activity because many behavioral processes are accompanied by sound production. This article reports the preliminary results of an effort to develop and use an Ecological Acoustic Recorder (EAR) to monitor biological activity on coral reefs and in surrounding waters for periods of 1 year or longer. The EAR is a microprocessor-based autonomous recorder that periodically samples the ambient sound field and also automatically detects sounds that meet specific criteria. The system was used to record the sound field of coral reefs and other marine habitats on Oahu, HI. Snapping shrimp produced the dominant acoustic energy on the reefs examined and exhibited clear diel acoustic trends. Other biological sounds recorded included those produced by fish and cetaceans, which also exhibited distinct temporal variability. Motor vessel activity could also be monitored effectively with the EAR. The results indicate that acoustic monitoring may be an effective means of tracking biological and anthropogenic activity at locations where continuous monitoring by traditional survey methods is impractical.

  15. 50 CFR 218.187 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.187 Section 218.187 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS...

  16. 50 CFR 218.17 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.17 Section 218.17 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS...

  17. 50 CFR 218.27 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management. 218.27 Section 218.27 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS...

  18. 50 CFR 216.248 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management. 216.248 Section 216.248 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS...

  19. 50 CFR 216.278 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management. 216.278 Section 216.278 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS...

  20. 50 CFR 218.8 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.8 Section 218.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE...

  1. Population biology of an endangered species: the common guitarfish Rhinobatos rhinobatos in Lebanese marine waters of the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lteif, M; Mouawad, R; Khalaf, G; Lenfant, P; Verdoit-Jarraya, M

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the population biology of the common guitarfish Rhinobatos rhinobatos, a cartilaginous fish listed as Endangered in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Between December 2012 and January 2014, 67 individuals were collected by bottom longlining in coastal Lebanese marine waters at different ports at depths ranging from 10 to 110 m. The total length (L(T)) of the specimens ranged from 50 to 143 cm, and the mean ± s.d. was 76.2 ± 19.7 cm. The most common L(T) classes were between 60 and 70 cm. The total mass of the specimens ranged from 410 to 10,000 g, and the mean ± s.d. was 1841 ± 1987 g. A total of 34 males and 33 females were collected, and the sex ratio was not significantly different from 1:1. The mass and L(T) relationship showed positive allometric growth (b = 3.096 and r(2)  = 0.99), and the mean ± s.d. L(T) at which 50% of the individuals were sexually mature was 84.73 ± 5.81 cm for females and 78.57 ± 4.88 cm for males. The gonado-somatic and hepato-somatic indices were determined along with a condition factor, and parturition appeared to occur in winter. The primary prey items found in the fish stomachs during the autumn and winter seasons were Penaeidae. The results of this study will help to parameterize models of the population dynamics for this exploited fish stock to ensure the long-term sustainability of its fishery. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Biologically Induced Deposition of Fine Suspended Particles by Filter-Feeding Bivalves in Land-Based Industrial Marine Aquaculture Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67±0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43±0.98 cm) was 77.84±7.77 and 6.37±0.67 mg ind−1•d−1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73±0.27 and 2.76±0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P<0.001). Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P<0.05). It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

  3. Biologically induced deposition of fine suspended particles by filter-feeding bivalves in land-based industrial marine aquaculture wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm) was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1) • d(-1), respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P < 0.001). Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P < 0.05). It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products.

  4. Letters in Biographies and Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterra, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    This is an annotated bibliography of biographies, historical fiction, contemporary stories, and discussion questions related to letter writing. A sidebar suggests an activity that involves reading a book about Ludwig van Beethoven, listening to Beethoven's music, and discussing letters in the story. (DGM)

  5. Predicting Natural Neuroprotection in Marine Mammals: Environmental and Biological Factors Affecting the Vulnerability to Acoustically Mediated Tissue Trauma in Marine Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    response and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias to the level of exercise performance and dive depth. This is being used to formulate new hypotheses...which mediate suppression of heart rate in diving marine mammals. We attribute cardiac arrhythmias (ectopic beats, inter-beat interval variability...observed during stroke gait transitions to this proposed autonomic neural conflict. Furthermore, the incidence of these cardiac arrhythmias appears

  6. Biological and chemical factors of importance in the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine contaminants in Arctic marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Borgå, Katrine; Fisk, Aaron T; Hoekstra, Paul E; Muir, Derek C G

    2004-10-01

    Recent studies of arctic marine food webs have provided detailed insights regarding the biological and chemical factors that influence the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine (OC) contaminants in aquatic systems. The present paper summarizes the recent literature with an emphasis on identifying important ecological factors for explaining variability of OC concentrations among organisms. The Arctic ecosystem has a number of unique attributes, including long food chains, reduced diversity of species, similar food webs across the entire region, and limited influence from pollution point sources. Lipid content, body size, age, gender, reproduction, habitat use, migration, biotransformation, seasonal changes in habitat conditions, feeding ecology, and trophic position have all been demonstrated to influence OC concentrations and bioaccumulation in arctic marine biota. The relative importance of each factor varies among OCs and organisms. Diet or trophic level is the dominant factor influencing OC concentrations and dynamics in seabirds and marine mammals, although biotransformation can significantly influence nonrecalcitrant OCs, such as hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. Dietary accumulation of OCs is also an important route of exposure for arctic fish and zooplankton, and biomagnification of OCs may also occur among these organisms. To date, only limited attempts have been made to model trophic transfer of OCs in the arctic marine food web. Although models developed to assess OC dynamics in aquatic food webs have included some biological variables (e.g., lipid content, feeding rate, diet composition, and growth rate), selection of processes included in these models as well as their mathematical solutions and parameterization all introduce simplification. This reduces biological validity of the models and may be particularly problematic in a highly seasonal environment, such as the Arctic Ocean.

  7. 76 FR 35856 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued a one-year Letter of Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to... Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore...

  8. Marine enzymes.

    PubMed

    Debashish, Ghosh; Malay, Saha; Barindra, Sana; Joydeep, Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    Marine enzyme biotechnology can offer novel biocatalysts with properties like high salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity, and ease in large-scale cultivation. This review deals with the research and development work done on the occurrence, molecular biology, and bioprocessing of marine enzymes during the last decade. Exotic locations have been accessed for the search of novel enzymes. Scientists have isolated proteases and carbohydrases from deep sea hydrothermal vents. Cold active metabolic enzymes from psychrophilic marine microorganisms have received considerable research attention. Marine symbiont microorganisms growing in association with animals and plants were shown to produce enzymes of commercial interest. Microorganisms isolated from sediment and seawater have been the most widely studied, proteases, carbohydrases, and peroxidases being noteworthy. Enzymes from marine animals and plants were primarily studied for their metabolic roles, though proteases and peroxidases have found industrial applications. Novel techniques in molecular biology applied to assess the diversity of chitinases, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia-metabolizing, and pollutant-degrading enzymes are discussed. Genes encoding chitinases, proteases, and carbohydrases from microbial and animal sources have been cloned and characterized. Research on the bioprocessing of marine-derived enzymes, however, has been scanty, focusing mainly on the application of solid-state fermentation to the production of enzymes from microbial sources.

  9. Marine Biological Field Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in a standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. It could be a useful instructional tool for any high school student field…

  10. Students as Letter Writers: How Letters Inform Instructors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirms, Lynn M.

    2004-07-01

    The enhancement of faculty understanding of students through student letter writing is explored. Two short letter-writing assignments are described and their value in the teaching process is outlined. An argument is presented for gaining a realistic picture of who our students are so as to enrich our communication and teaching effectiveness in the classroom. The letter-writing assignments were made in an organic chemistry lecture setting, but could be applied throughout a chemical curriculum, at the high school and at the university level.

  11. Compilation of selected marine radioecological data for the US Subseabed Program: Summaries of available radioecological concentration factors and biological half-lives

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphic summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of interstudy variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). This report updates earlier reviews and provides summaries of the tabulated data. In addition to the concentration factor/biological half-life data base, we provide an outline of other published marine radioecological works. Our goal is to present these data in a form that enables those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 555 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  13. Career Choices by Biologists: A Case Study of Destinations of Graduates in Marine Biology and Zoology, 1986-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Margaret E.; Golding, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study tracking marine biologists' and zoologists' employment status between the years of 1986 and 1998. Suggests that despite the increase in university class sizes, able and well-trained biologists enjoy good career prospects. (Author/YDS)

  14. Career Choices by Biologists: A Case Study of Destinations of Graduates in Marine Biology and Zoology, 1986-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Margaret E.; Golding, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study tracking marine biologists' and zoologists' employment status between the years of 1986 and 1998. Suggests that despite the increase in university class sizes, able and well-trained biologists enjoy good career prospects. (Author/YDS)

  15. Subjective contours along truncated letters.

    PubMed

    Gillam, Barbara; Vecellio, Elia

    2012-01-01

    The truncation of upper-case words can result in a subjective contour along the truncated ends of the letters. We explored this effect in two experiments designed to tease apart the processes responsible: in particular, the possible role of letter recognition. Such a role would indicate an unprecedented involvement of "high-level vision" in the genesis of subjective contours. In experiment 1, we confirmed the basic effect of word truncation in eliciting a subjective contour, using only letters where truncation does not eliminate any critical features. In experiment 2, we showed that the effect is not confined to words/letters but is equally strong for controlled non-letter stimuli that, like words, have many forms that have an inflection or an intersection near the centre. Truncation at one end then introduces proportional imbalance between upper and lower sections of the figures. We conclude from the two experiments that part of the effect is due to vertical shortening per se and the rest to the proportional imbalance introduced by the truncation. The effect of proportional imbalance, a novel determinant of subjective contours, may result from experience with letters, although the effect is not "high level" in requiring the recognition of specific letters.

  16. Feature detection and letter identification.

    PubMed

    Pelli, Denis G; Burns, Catherine W; Farell, Bart; Moore-Page, Deborah C

    2006-12-01

    Seeking to understand how people recognize objects, we have examined how they identify letters. We expected this 26-way classification of familiar forms to challenge the popular notion of independent feature detection ("probability summation"), but find instead that this theory parsimoniously accounts for our results. We measured the contrast required for identification of a letter briefly presented in visual noise. We tested a wide range of alphabets and scripts (English, Arabic, Armenian, Chinese, Devanagari, Hebrew, and several artificial ones), three- and five-letter words, and various type styles, sizes, contrasts, durations, and eccentricities, with observers ranging widely in age (3 to 68) and experience (none to fluent). Foreign alphabets are learned quickly. In just three thousand trials, new observers attain the same proficiency in letter identification as fluent readers. Surprisingly, despite this training, the observers-like clinical letter-by-letter readers-have the same meager memory span for random strings of these characters as observers seeing them for the first time. We compare performance across tasks and stimuli that vary in difficulty by pitting the human against the ideal observer, and expressing the results as efficiency. We find that efficiency for letter identification is independent of duration, overall contrast, and eccentricity, and only weakly dependent on size, suggesting that letters are identified by a similar computation across this wide range of viewing conditions. Efficiency is also independent of age and years of reading. However, efficiency does vary across alphabets and type styles, with more complex forms yielding lower efficiencies, as one might expect from Gestalt theories of perception. In fact, we find that efficiency is inversely proportional to perimetric complexity (perimeter squared over "ink" area) and nearly independent of everything else. This, and the surprisingly fixed ratio of detection and identification

  17. Two New Letters by Denning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Two letters written by W. F. Denning to R. P. Greg in March and April of 1879 that had been tucked into the folds of an 1876 edition of the British Association for the Advancement of Science Reports were recently found at the Carnegie Institution in Washington D.C. The letters are wonderfully preserved, and offer us a snap-shot of the work being performed by a young Denning at the time when his influence in the field of meteor studies was in its ascendency. The contents of these two letters is analyzed and placed within context to Denning's other publications and private life.

  18. Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang-Zi; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, strain CZ-AM5(T), was isolated from an aerated biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CZ-AM5(T) were non-spore-forming rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 1.2-2.0 µm long, and motile by means of one or two polar or lateral flagella. Strain CZ-AM5(T) was strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 4.0 %). The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c (80.3 %). Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol%. Strain CZ-AM5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.5 %) to Phaeobacter caeruleus LMG 24369(T); it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.0-96.5, 95.2-96.3, 96.2, 94.6-95.7 and 94.8-95.8 % to members of the genera Phaeobacter, Ruegeria, Citreimonas, Leisingera and Donghicola, respectively. However, phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CZ-AM5(T) did not join any of the above genera, but formed a distinct lineage in the trees. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain CZ-AM5(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cribrihabitans marinus is CZ-AM5(T) ( = CGMCC 1.13219(T) = JCM 19401(T)).

  19. The Complaint Letter and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an assignment in which students write a letter of complaint, and discusses how this assignment aids students in seeing the importance of effective written communication to their daily lives. (SR)

  20. Letter from the Friends Chairman

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Letter from the Friends Chairman Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... FNLM Chairman Paul Rogers converse at a recent Friends function at the National Library of Medicine. Photo ...

  1. Letters to a Young Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)

  2. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  3. Readability of standard appointment letters.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Daniel M; Gilchrist, Anne

    2010-06-01

    Introduction and aims The first contact a clinical service has with a patient is often an appointment letter and thus it is important that this letter is written in a way which is accessible. One concern is to write in language which is easily able to be read by the majority of recipients. A simple initial way to assess this is by using measures of readability of text.Methods We applied measures to examine the readability of appointment and administrative letters sent to young people by clinicians in the Young People's Department at the Royal Cornhill Hospital in Aberdeen.Results Many letters were unlikely to be understood by our youngest patients. We revised the letters to meet an agreed standard of readability, and agreed their routine use within the team. All letters were significantly improved on standard measures of readability and were preferred by patients.Conclusions The methods used are feasible, easily available and may be helpful to clinicians working in other specialties to improve the level of readability of written communication. This will help patients and families in their first contact with any clinical service.

  4. 76 FR 27308 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of issuance of a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine... a Letter of Authorization (LOA) has been issued to the Alaska Aerospace Corporation (AAC) to take... created by ascending rockets launched from the KLC reach the Earth's surface over deep ocean, well...

  5. Embedded Picture Mnemonics to Learn Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmidman, Adina; Ehri, Linnea

    2010-01-01

    Can embedded mnemonics ease the task of learning a foreign alphabet? English-speaking preschoolers (N = 36, M = 5;2 years) were taught 10 Hebrew letter-sound relations. Experimental letters were learned with mnemonics that embedded letter shapes in drawings of objects whose shapes resembled the letters and whose English names began with the…

  6. Letter Writing: A Tool for Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Rachel M.

    2008-01-01

    Letter writing is an integral component of narrative therapy practice. In addition to the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice, letter writing may hold interesting possibilities for use in counselor education. This article provides a brief review of the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice and discusses the potential use…

  7. Precision of Position Signals for Letters

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T.L.; Legge, Gordon E.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate reading of words and text relies on reliable identification of letters in left to right order. Previous studies have shown that people often make letter-reversal errors when identifying strings of letters away from fixation. These errors contribute to a decline in letter identification performance away from fixation. This study tests the hypothesis that these errors are due to decreased precision (increased position noise) in the coding of letter position in the periphery. To test our hypothesis, we measured observers' performance for identifying pairs of adjacent letters presented within 8 letter positions left and right of fixation. The task was to name the two letters of each pair, from left to right. Responses were scored in two ways for each letter position: (1) letters were identified correctly and in the correct position, and (2) letters were identified correctly but in the wrong position. The ratio of these two scores, when subtracted from 1, gives the empirical rate of mislocation errors. Our primary finding shows that the coding of letter position becomes increasingly imprecise with distance from fixation. A model in which the encoded position of each letter is independent and Gaussian distributed, and in which the spread of the distribution governs the precision of localizing the letter accounts for the empirical rate of mislocation errors. We also found that precision of letter position coding scales with letter size but the precision does not improve with the use of a pre-cue. PMID:19460396

  8. Essay: Physical Review Letters; Sam Goudsmit's Vision.

    PubMed

    Adair, Robert K

    2008-01-18

    Sam Goudsmit implemented his vision of converting the Letters section of Physical Review into a distinct journal fifty years ago. Physical Review Letters was designed to publish "only papers that really deserve rapid communication." The new journal became so successful with physicists throughout the world that Physical Review Letters now publishes 3500 Letters per year.

  9. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance with § 170.120 in subchapter S of this chapter, a vessel must be provided with a stability letter, the...

  10. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance with § 170.120 in subchapter S of this chapter, a vessel must be provided with a stability letter, the...

  11. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance with § 170.120 in subchapter S of this chapter, a vessel must be provided with a stability letter, the...

  12. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance with § 170.120 in subchapter S of this chapter, a vessel must be provided with a stability letter, the...

  13. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance with § 170.120 in subchapter S of this chapter, a vessel must be provided with a stability letter, the...

  14. Business Letter Writing: English, French, and Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Susan; Hinds, John

    1987-01-01

    Examination of business letters in English, French, and Japanese, focusing on prescriptive accounts in the respective languages, found that, despite amazingly similar surface characteristics, American business letters were reader-oriented, French business letters were writer-oriented, and Japanese business letters were oriented to the space…

  15. Impacts of biological parameterization, initial conditions, and environmental forcing on parameter sensitivity and uncertainty in a marine ecosystem model for the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, G. A.; Spitz, Y. H.

    2011-11-01

    We use a series of Monte Carlo experiments to explore simultaneously the sensitivity of the BEST marine ecosystem model to environmental forcing, initial conditions, and biological parameterizations. Twenty model output variables were examined for sensitivity. The true sensitivity of biological and environmental parameters becomes apparent only when each parameter is allowed to vary within its realistic range. Many biological parameters were important only to their corresponding variable, but several biological parameters, e.g., microzooplankton grazing and small phytoplankton doubling rate, were consistently very important to several output variables. Assuming realistic biological and environmental variability, the standard deviation about simulated mean mesozooplankton biomass ranged from 1 to 14 mg C m - 3 during the year. Annual primary productivity was not strongly correlated with temperature but was positively correlated with initial nitrate and light. Secondary productivity was positively correlated with primary productivity and negatively correlated with spring bloom timing. Mesozooplankton productivity was not correlated with water temperature, but a shift towards a system in which smaller zooplankton undertake a greater proportion of the secondary production as the water temperature increases appears likely. This approach to incorporating environmental variability within a sensitivity analysis could be extended to any ecosystem model to gain confidence in climate-driven ecosystem predictions.

  16. Breaking the Genetic Code in a Letter by Max Delbruck.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Marty

    1996-01-01

    Describes a classroom exercise that uses a letter from Max Delbruck to George Beadle to stimulate interest in the mechanics of a nonoverlapping comma-free code. Enables students to participate in the rich history of molecular biology and illustrates to them that scientists and science can be fun. (JRH)

  17. Breaking the Genetic Code in a Letter by Max Delbruck.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Marty

    1996-01-01

    Describes a classroom exercise that uses a letter from Max Delbruck to George Beadle to stimulate interest in the mechanics of a nonoverlapping comma-free code. Enables students to participate in the rich history of molecular biology and illustrates to them that scientists and science can be fun. (JRH)

  18. Reply to Discussion: a critique of Possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the late Quaternary: evidence from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Geo-Marine Letters, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazik, Atike; Meriç, Engin; Avşar, Niyazi

    2012-06-01

    In their discussion of our 2011 paper dealing with possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the "late" Quaternary, based on data from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Yaltırak et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 32:267-274, 2012) essentially reject the idea of any links whatsoever, be they between the Marmara Sea and the lakes İznik and Sapanca, or further to the Black Sea via the valley of the Sakarya River. The evidence they provide in support of their view, however, is essentially circumstantial, in part conjectural, and also inconclusive considering the findings in favour of linkage between the Marmara Sea and the lakes at the very least, while the proposed connection with the Sakarya River valley remains speculative because of the lack of unambiguous data. On the other hand, Yaltırak et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 32:267-274, 2012) do raise valid points of concern which deserve careful future investigation, the most important being the possibility of sample contamination from dumped marine sediment used for construction purposes along some parts of the shore of Lake İznik. We agree that a concerted multidisciplinary effort is required to address the many unresolved issues in connection with the potential waterways proposed by us and others before us.

  19. Effects of Letter-Identification Training on Letter Naming in Prereading Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Schmidt, Anna C.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    Three prereading children who named 0 to 3 of 20 targeted letters were taught to select the 20 printed letters when they heard spoken letter names. For all participants, letter-identification training resulted in naming for the majority of letters.

  20. Language General and Specific Factors in Letter Acquisition: Considering Child and Letter Characteristics in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the extent to which child level factors (i.e., phonological awareness) and letter level factors (i.e., letter name structures, letter frequency, visual similarity, and letter order) contributed to letter name and sound acquisition, using data from Korean-speaking children (N = 169) and cross-classified…

  1. Effects of Letter-Identification Training on Letter Naming in Prereading Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Schmidt, Anna C.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    Three prereading children who named 0 to 3 of 20 targeted letters were taught to select the 20 printed letters when they heard spoken letter names. For all participants, letter-identification training resulted in naming for the majority of letters.

  2. Determination of selenium in marine biological tissues by transverse heated electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal Zeeman background correction and automated ultrasonic slurry sampling.

    PubMed

    Méndez, H; Alava, F; Lavilla, I; Bendicho, C

    2001-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and reliable method for determination of selenium in marine biological tissues by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with slurry sampling was developed. Slurries were prepared from fresh and frozen seafood samples that were previously homogenized, dried, and ground; particle sizes <100 microm were taken for analysis. A 3% (v/v) HNO3 solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 was used as slurry diluent. Slurries were mixed on an automated ultrasonic slurry sampler at 20% amplitude for 30 s just before an aliquot was injected into the furnace. The method was successfully validated against the following certified reference materials: NRCC CRM DORM-2 (Dogfish muscle); NRCC CRM TORT-2 (Lobster hepatopancreas); NRCC CRM DOLT-2 (Dogfish liver); and BCR CRM 278 (Mussel tissue), and was subsequently applied to determination of Se in 10 marine biological samples. The influences of the drying procedure (oven-, microwave-, and freeze-drying), matrix modifier amount, mass of solid material in cup, and pipetting sequence are discussed. The limit of determination of Se was 0.16 microg/g and the repeatability, estimated as between-batch precision, was in the range of 4-8%. Se contents in the samples ranged from 0.6 to 2.8 microg/g. The proposed method should be useful for fast assessment of the daily dietary intake of Se.

  3. Otters, Marine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  4. 75 FR 38465 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... graduate and undergraduate marine biology students conducted approximately 783 hours of scientific... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XQ80 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project AGENCY:...

  5. Comparative effects of biological and chemical dispersants on the bioavailability and toxicity of crude oil to early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

    PubMed

    Mu, Jingli; Jin, Fei; Ma, Xindong; Lin, Zhongsheng; Wang, Juying

    2014-11-01

    The authors assessed the bioavailability and chronic toxicity of water-accommodated fractions of crude oil (WAFs) and 2 dispersants plus dispersed crude oil (chemical dispersant + crude oil [CE-WAF] and biological dispersant + crude oil [BE-WAF]) on the early life stages of marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma. The results showed that the addition of the 2 dispersants caused a 3- and 4-fold increase in concentrations of summed priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and high-molecular-weight PAHs with 3 or more benzene rings. The chemical and biological dispersants increased the bioavailability (as measured by ethoxyresorufin-O-dethylase activity) of crude oil 6-fold and 3-fold, respectively. Based on nominal concentrations, chronic toxicity (as measured by deformity) in WAFs exhibited a 10-fold increase in CE-WAF and a 3-fold increase in BE-WAF, respectively. When total petroleum hydrocarbon was measured, the differences between WAF and CE-WAF treatments disappeared, and CE-WAF was approximately 10 times more toxic than BE-WAF. Compared with the chemical dispersant, the biological dispersant possibly modified the toxicity of oil hydrocarbons because of the increase in the proportion of 2- and 3-ringed PAHs in water. The chemical and biological dispersants enhanced short-term bioaccumulation and toxicity, through different mechanisms. These properties should be considered in addition to their efficacy in degrading oil when oil spill management strategies are selected.

  6. Study to determine the aquatic biological effects on the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). [technique for monitoring marine microbial fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. R.; Zachary, A.

    1979-01-01

    The surface of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB), which are jettisoned from the Shuttle Orbiter to parachute in the sea, are studied for colonization by marine life. Techniques for monitoring the marine microbial fouling of SRB materials are presented. An assessment of the nature and degree of the biofouling expected on the SRB materials in the recovery zone is reported. A determination of the degree and the effects of seasonal variation occurring on microbial fouling in the retrieval zone waters is made. The susceptibility of the SRB parachute recovery system to microbial fouling and biodeterioration is investigated. The development of scanning electron microscopy and epifluorescence microscopic observation techniques for rapid assessment of microbial fouling is discussed.

  7. Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals (10th), Held in Galveston, Texas on November 11-15, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-15

    Mamiferos Marinos. P. 0. Box 09-01-6637, Guayaquil, Ecuador. ThevocalizationsofacaptivejuvenilefcmaleGuadalupefurseal Between February 1990 and January...MORPHOLOGICAL INDEX, FISHERY STOCK, AND SCHOOL Laboratorio de Mamiferos Marinos, Fac. de Ciencias, UNAM, Mexico. Garcia, A. I. and Dizon, A. E. Ap...J!, McAdie, Haase, J .M .B. , and F6lix, F. Malcolm L.’, and Cornish, Tracy E.’ Fundacijn Ecuatoriana para el Estudio de Mamiferos Marinos. ’Marine

  8. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence.

  9. A roadmap for hazard monitoring and risk assessment of marine biotoxins on the basis of chemical and biological test systems.

    PubMed

    Daneshian, Mardas; Botana, Luis M; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Buckland, Gemma; Campàs, Mònica; Dennison, Ngaire; Dickey, Robert W; Diogène, Jorge; Fessard, Valérie; Hartung, Thomas; Humpage, Andrew; Leist, Marcel; Molgó, Jordi; Quilliam, Michael A; Rovida, Costanza; Suarez-Isla, Benjamin A; Tubaro, Aurelia; Wagner, Kristina; Zoller, Otmar; Dietrich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic food accounts for over 40% of global animal food products, and the potential contamination with toxins of algal origin--marine biotoxins--poses a health threat for consumers. The gold standards to assess toxins in aquatic food have traditionally been in vivo methods, i.e., the mouse as well as the rat bioassay. Besides ethical concerns, there is also a need for more reliable test methods because of low inter-species comparability, high intra-species variability, the high number of false positive and negative results as well as questionable extrapolation of quantitative risk to humans. For this reason, a transatlantic group of experts in the field of marine biotoxins was convened from academia and regulatory safety authorities to discuss future approaches to marine biotoxin testing. In this report they provide a background on the toxin classes, on their chemical characterization, the epidemiology, on risk assessment and management, as well as on their assumed mode of action. Most importantly, physiological functional assays such as in vitro bioassays and also analytical techniques, e.g., liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS), as substitutes for the rodent bioassay are reviewed. This forms the basis for recommendations on methodologies for hazard monitoring and risk assessment, establishment of causality of intoxications in human cases, a roadmap for research and development of human-relevant functional assays, as well as new approaches for a consumer directed safety concept.

  10. Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    bringing together many of the top researchers in marine bioacoustics, biological oceanography, and marine biology , we provide students with a unique...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks for the future...postdoctoral investigators with a broad understanding of ocean acoustics as well as the techniques used to study the ecology of marine animals in situ. By

  11. 50 CFR 18.125 - What criteria does the Service use to evaluate Letter of Authorization requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... evaluate Letter of Authorization requests? 18.125 Section 18.125 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Nonlethal Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Production Activities in...

  12. 50 CFR 18.125 - What criteria does the Service use to evaluate Letter of Authorization requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... evaluate Letter of Authorization requests? 18.125 Section 18.125 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Nonlethal Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Production Activities in...

  13. Biological properties

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous biological degradations that wood is exposed to in various environments. Biological damage occurs when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Biological organisms, such as bacteria, mold, stain, decay fungi, insects, and marine borers, depend heavily on temperature and moisture conditions to grow. A higher...

  14. Letter from Reykjavik.

    PubMed

    Jónsson, P V

    1998-06-01

    Medical care in Iceland can be viewed as an experiment of nature. This small island society has combined the Nordic social and welfare structures with advanced international medicine. The Vikings settled Iceland in the ninth century, and the population has remained biologically homogeneous because of its remote isolation. This homogeneity may provide a unique opportunity to contribute to the understanding of the genetics of common disorders. Iceland's isolation has also limited the resources that are available for clinical training. Therefore, it has been necessary for most physicians who graduate from the medical school at the University of Iceland to obtain postgraduate training abroad. This has been of enormous benefit to Icelandic medicine. Fewer opportunities for foreign medical graduates to train in the United States would have a substantial effect on the future practice of Icelandic medicine. The Icelandic health care system faces many challenges. Because health care spending has been reined in, priorities must be set more clearly than in the past, and heated discussions have erupted about gatekeeping and merging of hospitals. These have been "interesting times" for Icelandic medicine. Other countries may learn lessons from our medical situation: a microcosm, to be sure, but no longer an isolated one.

  15. The Harvard Education Letter, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves-Desai, Kelly, Ed.; Eaton, Susan, Ed.; Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 14 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in the six issues of this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Multi-Age Classrooms: An Age-Old Grouping Method Is Still Evolving" (Walser), "Teachers Wanted:…

  16. Resumes, Applications, and Cover Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Good resumes, applications, and cover letters broadcast one's abilities. They tell employers how one's qualifications match a job's responsibilities. If these critical preliminaries are constructed well, one has a better chance of landing interviews--and, eventually, a job. This article provides some guidelines for creating resumes and cover…

  17. Letter to a Young Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Describes, in the form of a letter to a young writer, how the author celebrates the pendulous life of the poet: from arrogance to uncertainty, from misstep to breakthrough. Emphasizes the sustaining force of reading and the need to be initiated into one's own work by the work of others. (SG)

  18. Letter to a Young Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents Part Two of the ongoing series Letters to a Young Writer where poet and professor Susan Mitchell corresponds with a contemporary composer as a means of exploring the relationship between poetry and the human voice. Reflects on the role of the poet in a civilization, a "habitat," under attack. (SG)

  19. "The Scarlet Letter". [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel "The Scarlet Letter," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that the ending of a novel does not resolve all of the questions that may occur to readers; and that readers may imagine characters living out their lives beyond the ending the author gave to a novel. The main…

  20. The Harvard Education Letter, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 11 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in the volume's six issues are: (1) January-February--"The Old Model of Staff Development Survives in a World Where Everything Else Has Changed" (Miller), "Giving Voice to Our…

  1. The Harvard Education Letter, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves-Desai, Kelly, Ed.; Maloney, Karen, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 13 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in the six issues of this volume include: (1) January-February --"Making Detracking Work" (Lynn and Wheelock), "Developing a Culture of High Expectations for…

  2. Curriculum Vitae and Related Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharyl Bender

    This booklet, which was developed by a college career center, explains the purpose of and procedures for writing curriculum vitae (CV) and related letters. The following topics are covered: when a CV is appropriate, points to consider when writing a CV, items usually included, possible sections to include in a CV, and steps in writing cover…

  3. Resource Letter RC-1: Cosmology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael P., Jr.; Shepley, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    This is one of a series of resource letters on different topics intended to guide college physicists, astronomers, and other scientists to some of the literature and other teaching aids that may help improve course content in specified fields. (Author/CP)

  4. A Letter to Giuseppe Garibaldi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gent, Kathryn

    1979-01-01

    Describes four suggested junior high or senior high school teaching activities to use in conjunction with a letter written to Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Civil War. Activities encourage skills such as information gathering, reading and oral skills, creative expression, and critical thinking. (CK)

  5. Letter to the next President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Mikuta, Julie; Freeland, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This article takes the form of a letter to the 44th president of the United States, urging the president to pursue an aggressive agenda to improve teacher quality. The authors assert that because teacher quality is the single most important factor shown to impact student outcomes, the next administration must dedicate resources to human capital…

  6. Letters from a Nightingale nurse.

    PubMed

    Denny, E

    1996-01-01

    Mary Cadbury was one of six daughters in a wealthy Birmingham family, all of whom took up professional or unpaid philanthropic work. In 1873 Mary began nurse training at the Nightingale School, St Thomas's Hospital, and regularly sent letters to family and friends, which provide a graphic account of the experience of a nurse in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

  7. Resource Letter N-1: Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cela, Devin; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Helen Zeng, Tingying; Terrones, Mauricio; Souza Filho, Antonio G.; Ferreira, Odair P.

    2014-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on Nanotechnology. Journal articles, books, websites, and other documents are cited on the following topics: attributes of various types of nanomaterials, nanotechnology in the context of different academic fields, and the effects of nanotechnology on society.

  8. The Harvard Education Letter, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward Ed.; Graves-Desai, Kelly, Ed.; Maloney, Karen, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 12 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary-secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Early Reports From Kentucky on Cash Rewards for 'Successful' Schools Reveal Many Problems" (Miller), "New…

  9. Vitamin B1 in marine sediments: pore water concentration gradient drives benthic flux with potential biological implications.

    PubMed

    Monteverde, Danielle R; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Cutter, Lynda; Chong, Lauren; Berelson, William; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B1, or thiamin, can limit primary productivity in marine environments, however the major marine environmental sources of this essential coenzyme remain largely unknown. Vitamin B1 can only be produced by organisms that possess its complete synthesis pathway, while other organisms meet their cellular B1 quota by scavenging the coenzyme from exogenous sources. Due to high bacterial cell density and diversity, marine sediments could represent some of the highest concentrations of putative B1 producers, yet these environments have received little attention as a possible source of B1 to the overlying water column. Here we report the first dissolved pore water profiles of B1 measured in cores collected in two consecutive years from Santa Monica Basin, CA. Vitamin B1 concentrations were fairly consistent between the two years ranging from 30 pM up to 770 pM. A consistent maximum at ~5 cm sediment depth covaried with dissolved concentrations of iron. Pore water concentrations were higher than water column levels and represented some of the highest known environmental concentrations of B1 measured to date, (over two times higher than maximum water column concentrations) suggesting increased rates of cellular production and release within the sediments. A one dimensional diffusion-transport model applied to the B1 profile was used to estimate a diffusive benthic flux of ~0.7 nmol m(-2) d(-1). This is an estimated flux across the sediment-water interface in a deep sea basin; if similar magnitude B-vitamin fluxes occur in shallow coastal waters, benthic input could prove to be a significant B1-source to the water column and may play an important role in supplying this organic growth factor to auxotrophic primary producers.

  10. Ecotoxicity of triphenyltin on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus at various biological organisations: from molecular to population-level effects.

    PubMed

    Yi, Andy Xianliang; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-09-01

    Triphenyltin compounds (TPTs), as effective biocides for different industrial and agricultural purposes, have been detected in coastal marine environments worldwide, in particular in Asian countries. However, little is known about their toxicity to marine organisms. This study comprehensively investigated the molecular, individual and population responses of the marine copepod, Tigriopus japonicus upon waterborne exposure to TPT chloride (TPTCl). Our results indicated that TPTCl was highly toxic to adult T. japonicus, with a 96-h LC50 concentration at 6.3 μg/L. As shown in a chronic full life-cycle test, T. japonicus exposed to 1.0 μg/L TPTCl exhibited a delay in development and a significant reduction of population growth, in terms of the intrinsic rate of increase (r m ). Based on the negative relationship between the r m and exposure concentration, a critical effect concentration was estimated at 1.6 μg/L TPTCl; at or above which population extinction could occur. At 0.1 μg/L TPTCl or above, the sex ratio of the second generation of the copepod was significantly altered and changed to a male-biased population. At molecular level, the inhibition of the transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase related genes might lead to dysfunction of detoxification, and the inhibition of retinoid X receptor mRNA expression implied an interruption of the growth and moulting process in T. japonicus. As the only gene that observed up-regulated in this study, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating its function in protecting the copepod from TPT-mediated oxidative stress. The study advances our understanding on the ecotoxicity of TPT, and provides some initial data on its toxic mechanisms in small crustaceans like copepods.

  11. Diversity and biological activities of the bacterial community associated with the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Dupont, S; Carré-Mlouka, A; Descarrega, F; Ereskovsky, A; Longeon, A; Mouray, E; Florent, I; Bourguet-Kondracki, M L

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the cultivable microbiota of the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior frequently found in the Mediterranean Sea was investigated, and its potential as a source of antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiplasmodial compounds was evaluated. The cultivable bacterial community was studied by isolation, cultivation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Twenty-three bacterial strains were isolated and identified in the Proteobacteria (α or γ classes) and Actinobacteria phyla. Furthermore, three different bacterial morphotypes localized extracellularly within the sponge tissues were revealed by microscopic observations. Bacterial strains were assigned to seven different genera, namely Vibrio, Photobacterium, Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Ruegeria, Pseudovibrio and Citricoccus. The strains affiliated to the same genus were differentiated according to their genetic dissimilarities using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Eleven bacterial strains were selected for evaluation of their bioactivities. Three isolates Pseudovibrio P1Ma4, Vibrio P1MaNal1 and Citricoccus P1S7 revealed antimicrobial activity; Citricoccus P1S7 and Vibrio P1MaNal1 isolates also exhibited antiplasmodial activity, while two Vibrio isolates P1Ma8 and P1Ma5 displayed antioxidant activity. These data confirmed the importance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria associated with marine sponges as a reservoir of bioactive compounds. This study presents the first report on the diversity of the cultivable bacteria associated with the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior, frequently found in the Mediterranean Sea. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the isolates has been investigated and allowed to select bacterial strains, confirming the importance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria as sources of bioactive compounds. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Vitamin B1 in marine sediments: pore water concentration gradient drives benthic flux with potential biological implications

    PubMed Central

    Monteverde, Danielle R.; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Cutter, Lynda; Chong, Lauren; Berelson, William; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B1, or thiamin, can limit primary productivity in marine environments, however the major marine environmental sources of this essential coenzyme remain largely unknown. Vitamin B1 can only be produced by organisms that possess its complete synthesis pathway, while other organisms meet their cellular B1 quota by scavenging the coenzyme from exogenous sources. Due to high bacterial cell density and diversity, marine sediments could represent some of the highest concentrations of putative B1 producers, yet these environments have received little attention as a possible source of B1 to the overlying water column. Here we report the first dissolved pore water profiles of B1 measured in cores collected in two consecutive years from Santa Monica Basin, CA. Vitamin B1 concentrations were fairly consistent between the two years ranging from 30 pM up to 770 pM. A consistent maximum at ~5 cm sediment depth covaried with dissolved concentrations of iron. Pore water concentrations were higher than water column levels and represented some of the highest known environmental concentrations of B1 measured to date, (over two times higher than maximum water column concentrations) suggesting increased rates of cellular production and release within the sediments. A one dimensional diffusion-transport model applied to the B1 profile was used to estimate a diffusive benthic flux of ~0.7 nmol m−2 d−1. This is an estimated flux across the sediment-water interface in a deep sea basin; if similar magnitude B-vitamin fluxes occur in shallow coastal waters, benthic input could prove to be a significant B1-source to the water column and may play an important role in supplying this organic growth factor to auxotrophic primary producers. PMID:26029181

  13. Letter from Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per Magnus

    2015-04-01

    reflects the position of psychoanalysis outside the mainstream of psychiatric health services and academic psychology. Despite the criticism of Freud's thinking from biologically and cognitively oriented theoretical standpoints, the interest in psychoanalysis endures.

  14. Three forms of assessment of prior knowledge, and improved performance following an enrichment programme, of English second language biology students within the context of a marine theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, Nicola F.; Downs, Colleen T.

    2002-02-01

    The Science Foundation Programme (SFP) was launched in 1991 at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa in an attempt to equip a selected number of matriculants from historically disadvantaged schools with the skills, resources and self-confidence needed to embark on their tertiary studies. Previous research within the SFP biology component suggests that a major contributor to poor achievement and low retention rates among English second language (ESL) students in the Life Sciences is the inadequate background knowledge in natural history. In this study, SFP student background knowledge was assessed along a continuum of language dependency using a set of three probes. Improved student performance in each of the respective assessments examined the extent to which a sound natural history background facilitated meaningful learning relative to ESL proficiency. Student profiles and attitudes to biology were also examined. Results indicated that students did not perceive language to be a problem in biology. However, analysis of the student performance in the assessment probes indicated that, although the marine course provided the students with the background knowledge that they were initially lacking, they continued to perform better in the drawing and MCQ tools in the post-tests, suggesting that it is their inability to express themselves in the written form that hampers their development. These results have implications for curriculum development within the constructivist framework of the SFP.

  15. Organomercury determination in biological reference materials: application to a study on mercury speciation in marine mammals off the Faröe Islands.

    PubMed

    Schintu, M; Jean-Caurant, F; Amiard, J C

    1992-08-01

    The potential use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) for the organic mercury determination in marine biological tissues was evaluated. Following its isolation by acid extraction in toluene, organic mercury was recovered in aqueous thiosulfate and measured by GF-AAS. The detection limit was 0.01 microgram Hg/g (as methyl mercury). Analyses were conducted on three reference standard materials certified for their methyl mercury content, DOLT-1, DORM-1, and TORT-1, provided by the National Research Council of Canada. The method resulted in very good recovery and reproducibility, indicating that GF-AAS can provide results comparable to those obtained by using more expensive and time consuming analytical techniques. The method was applied to the analysis of liver tissues of pilot whale specimens (Globicephala melas) from the drive fishery of the Faröe Islands (northeast Atlantic). The results provided useful information on the proportion of different mercury forms in the liver of these marine mammals.

  16. Combining Methods to Describe Important Marine Habitats for Top Predators: Application to Identify Biological Hotspots in Tropical Waters

    PubMed Central

    Thiers, Laurie; Louzao, Maite; Ridoux, Vincent; Le Corre, Matthieu; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-01-01

    In tropical waters resources are usually scarce and patchy, and predatory species generally show specific adaptations for foraging. Tropical seabirds often forage in association with sub-surface predators that create feeding opportunities by bringing prey close to the surface, and the birds often aggregate in large multispecific flocks. Here we hypothesize that frigatebirds, a tropical seabird adapted to foraging with low energetic costs, could be a good predictor of the distribution of their associated predatory species, including other seabirds (e.g. boobies, terns) and subsurface predators (e.g., dolphins, tunas). To test this hypothesis, we compared distribution patterns of marine predators in the Mozambique Channel based on a long-term dataset of both vessel- and aerial surveys, as well as tracking data of frigatebirds. By developing species distribution models (SDMs), we identified key marine areas for tropical predators in relation to contemporaneous oceanographic features to investigate multi-species spatial overlap areas and identify predator hotspots in the Mozambique Channel. SDMs reasonably matched observed patterns and both static (e.g. bathymetry) and dynamic (e.g. Chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature) factors were important explaining predator distribution patterns. We found that the distribution of frigatebirds included the distributions of the associated species. The central part of the channel appeared to be the best habitat for the four groups of species considered in this study (frigatebirds, brown terns, boobies and sub-surface predators). PMID:25494047

  17. Biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical Triclosan in the marine mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Cortez, Fernando Sanzi; Seabra Pereira, Camilo Dias; Santos, Aldo Ramos; Cesar, Augusto; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Martini, Gisela de Assis; Bohrer-Morel, Maria Beatriz

    2012-09-01

    Triclosan (5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is an antibacterial compound widely employed in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Although this emerging compound has been detected in aquatic environments, scarce information is found on the effects of Triclosan to marine organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a concentration range of Triclosan through fertilization assay (reproductive success), embryo-larval development assay (early life stage) and physiological stress (Neutral Red Retention Time assay - NRRT) (adult stage) in the marine sentinel organism Perna perna. The mean inhibition concentrations for fertilization (IC(50) = 0.490 mg L(-1)) and embryo-larval development (IC(50) = 0.135 mg L(-1)) tests were above environmental relevant concentrations (ng L(-1)) given by previous studies. Differently, significant reduction on NRRT results was found at 12 ng L(-1), demonstrating the current risk of the continuous introduction of Triclosan into aquatic environments, and the need of ecotoxicological studies oriented by the mechanism of action of the compound. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding the Transport of Patagonian Dust and Its Influence on Marine Biological Activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Kiliyanpilakkil, Praju; Gasso, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and remote sensing techniques were applied to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of soluble-iron- laden mineral dust deposition on marine primary productivity in the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) surface waters. The global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem, implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, was applied to evaluate the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron during two dust outbreaks originating in the source regions of Patagonia. In addition to this "rapidly released" iron, offline calculations were also carried out to estimate the amount of bioavailable iron leached during the residence time of dust in the ocean mixed layer. Model simulations showed that the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes were largely influenced by the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems. Model-predicted horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust over the SAO were in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Comparison between remotely-sensed and offline calculated ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentrations indicated that, for the two dust outbreaks examined in this study, the deposition of bioavailable iron in the SAO through atmospheric pathways was insignificant. As the two dust transport episodes examined here represent typical outflows of mineral dust from South American sources, our study suggests that the atmospheric deposition of mineral dust is unlikely to induce large scale marine primary productivity and carbon sequestration in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean.

  19. Spatial patterns of benthic foraminifera as a support to the oceanographic characterisation of Arvoredo biological marine reserve (South Atlantic, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Paquette, Marie-Laurence; Bonetti, Carla; Bitencourt, Volney; Bonetti, Jarbas

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of benthic foraminifera in a sector of the inner continental shelf of Santa Catarina State (Brazil), which comprises a Marine Protected Area (MPA). Species indicators of continental input suggest that waters under the influence of continental drainage can eventually reach the southwestern part of the reserve, which might jeopardise the ecosystems of this MPA due to the transport of contaminants related to human activities. Species known to be indicators of high marine benthic productivity were more abundant below 30 m, and were associated with areas under the stronger influence of nutrient-enriched water mass. The high density of foraminifera and the low dominance of species found in most samples inside the reserve might be evidence for the positive effects of the prohibition of bottom trawling, ensuring a higher ecological equilibrium of benthic communities. These results can contribute to the current debate about the reclassification and change in the extent of this MPA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  1. Letters of Reprimand: The Important Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines two legal cases involving letters of reprimand written by administrators and put in teachers' files. Shows how in these cases the letters did not constitute defamation or a violation of First or Fourteenth Amendment rights. (MD)

  2. Written Communications Simulation: Write Me a Letter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This simulation is intended for use as a culminating activity after students have been exposed to personal and/or business letter writing, use of reference manuals, typing of letters, mailing procedures, typing of numbers, punctuation practice, and filing procedures. Stated objectives are to enable students to type a mailable letter; to inspect,…

  3. 48 CFR 316.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter contracts. 316.603 Section 316.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 316.603 Letter...

  4. Beyond Zebra: Preschoolers' Knowledge about Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Tincoff, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Argues that an important type of child knowledge about letters is knowledge of the phonological structure of the letters' names in English. Concludes that learning the alphabet forms the basis for generalizations about the structure of letter names. (22 references) (Author/CK)

  5. 48 CFR 3416.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Letter contracts. 3416.603... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 3416.603 Letter contracts. ...

  6. 48 CFR 3016.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Letter contracts. 3016.603... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 3016.603 Letter contracts. ...

  7. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Management letter. 1773.33 Section 1773.33 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33 Management letter. The CPA must prepare a management letter that includes, at a minimum, comments on: (a) Audit procedures....

  8. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Management letter. 1773.33 Section 1773.33... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33 Management letter. The CPA must prepare a management letter that includes, at a minimum, comments on: (a)...

  9. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management letter. 1773.33 Section 1773.33... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33 Management letter. The CPA must prepare a management letter that includes, at a minimum, comments on: (a)...

  10. Beyond Zebra: Preschoolers' Knowledge about Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Tincoff, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Argues that an important type of child knowledge about letters is knowledge of the phonological structure of the letters' names in English. Concludes that learning the alphabet forms the basis for generalizations about the structure of letter names. (22 references) (Author/CK)

  11. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management letter. 1773.33 Section 1773.33... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33 Management letter. The CPA must prepare a management letter that includes, at a minimum, comments on: (a) Audit...

  12. Making Routine Letters Have Positive Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, S. M.

    While few business people dispute the importance of carefully crafting persuasive, demanding, conciliatory, and bad-news letters, the regular flow of routine communications receives very little meaningful consideration or scrutiny. These routine communications (letters, inquiries, requests, collection letters, complaints, confirmations,…

  13. Letter Recognition Difficulties: Their Real Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Marvin

    This paper examines the letter recognition difficulties of 322 primary grade students with decoding problems. Each student was asked to name all of the lower case letters, which were presented in non-alphabetical order. Each response was accurately recorded to determine which letters were taken for others. All responses were then tallied, and an…

  14. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  15. 19 CFR 354.7 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charging letter. 354.7 Section 354.7 Customs... VIOLATION OF AN ANTIDUMPING OR COUNTERVAILING DUTY ADMINISTRATIVE PROTECTIVE ORDER § 354.7 Charging letter. (a) Contents of Letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate proceedings by issuing a...

  16. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management letter. 1773.33 Section 1773.33... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33 Management letter. The CPA must prepare a management letter that includes, at a minimum, comments on: (a) Audit...

  17. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  18. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance with § 178.210 of this chapter, a vessel must be provided with a stability...

  19. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance with § 178.210 of this chapter, a vessel must be provided with a stability...

  20. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance with § 178.210 of this chapter, a vessel must be provided with a stability...