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Sample records for marine fish fed

  1. Epigenomics in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Metzger, David C H; Schulte, Patricia M

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are an underappreciated and often ignored component of an organism's response to environmental change and may underlie many types of phenotypic plasticity. Recent technological advances in methods for detecting epigenetic marks at a whole-genome scale have launched new opportunities for studying epigenomics in ecologically relevant non-model systems. The study of ecological epigenomics holds great promise to better understand the linkages between genotype, phenotype, and the environment and to explore mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. The many attributes of marine fish species, including their high diversity, variable life histories, high fecundity, impressive plasticity, and economic value provide unique opportunities for studying epigenetic mechanisms in an environmental context. To provide a primer on epigenomic research for fish biologists, we start by describing fundamental aspects of epigenetics, focusing on the most widely studied and most well understood of the epigenetic marks: DNA methylation. We then describe the techniques that have been used to investigate DNA methylation in marine fishes to date and highlight some new techniques that hold great promise for future studies. Epigenomic research in marine fishes is in its early stages, so we first briefly discuss what has been learned about the establishment, maintenance, and function of DNA methylation in fishes from studies in zebrafish and then summarize the studies demonstrating the pervasive effects of the environment on the epigenomes of marine fishes. We conclude by highlighting the potential for ongoing research on the epigenomics of marine fishes to reveal critical aspects of the interaction between organisms and their environments.

  2. Dietary Butyrate Helps to Restore the Intestinal Status of a Marine Teleost (Sparus aurata) Fed Extreme Diets Low in Fish Meal and Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    Estensoro, Itziar; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Grammes, Fabian; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Mydland, Liv-Torunn; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Fuentes, Juan; Karalazos, Vasileios; Ortiz, Álvaro; Øverland, Margareth; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period. In a second longer trial (T2) (8 months), four diets were used: a control diet containing 25% FM (T2-D1) and three experimental diets containing 5% FM (T2-D2, T2-D3, T2-D4). FO was the only added oil in D1, while a blend of plant oils replaced 58% and 84% of FO in T2-D2, and T2-D3 and T2-D4, respectively. The latter was supplemented with 0.4% BP-70. In a third trial (T3), two groups of fish were fed for 12 and 38 months with D1, D3 and D4 diets of T2. The effects of dietary changes were studied using histochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and electrophysiological tools. The extreme diet (T2-D3) modified significantly the transcriptomic profile, especially at the anterior intestine, up-regulating the expression of inflammatory markers, in coincidence with a higher presence of granulocytes and lymphocytes in the submucosa, and changing genes involved in antioxidant defences, epithelial permeability and mucus production. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (Rt) was also decreased (T3-D3). Most of these modifications were returned to control values with the addition of BP-70. None of the experimental diets modified the staining pattern of PCNA, FABP2 or ALPI. These results further confirm the potential of this additive to improve or reverse the detrimental effects of extreme fish diet formulations. PMID:27898676

  3. Dietary Butyrate Helps to Restore the Intestinal Status of a Marine Teleost (Sparus aurata) Fed Extreme Diets Low in Fish Meal and Fish Oil.

    PubMed

    Estensoro, Itziar; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Grammes, Fabian; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Mydland, Liv-Torunn; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Fuentes, Juan; Karalazos, Vasileios; Ortiz, Álvaro; Øverland, Margareth; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period. In a second longer trial (T2) (8 months), four diets were used: a control diet containing 25% FM (T2-D1) and three experimental diets containing 5% FM (T2-D2, T2-D3, T2-D4). FO was the only added oil in D1, while a blend of plant oils replaced 58% and 84% of FO in T2-D2, and T2-D3 and T2-D4, respectively. The latter was supplemented with 0.4% BP-70. In a third trial (T3), two groups of fish were fed for 12 and 38 months with D1, D3 and D4 diets of T2. The effects of dietary changes were studied using histochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and electrophysiological tools. The extreme diet (T2-D3) modified significantly the transcriptomic profile, especially at the anterior intestine, up-regulating the expression of inflammatory markers, in coincidence with a higher presence of granulocytes and lymphocytes in the submucosa, and changing genes involved in antioxidant defences, epithelial permeability and mucus production. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (Rt) was also decreased (T3-D3). Most of these modifications were returned to control values with the addition of BP-70. None of the experimental diets modified the staining pattern of PCNA, FABP2 or ALPI. These results further confirm the potential of this additive to improve or reverse the detrimental effects of extreme fish diet formulations.

  4. Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John D; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Goodwin, Nicholas B; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    We review interactions between extrinsic threats to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond to those threats. Information is available on the status of less than 5% of the world's approximately 15 500 marine fish species, most of which are of commercial importance. By 2001, based on data from 98 North Atlantic and northeast Pacific populations, marine fishes had declined by a median 65% in breeding biomass from known historic levels; 28 populations had declined by more than 80%. Most of these declines would be sufficient to warrant a status of threatened with extinction under international threat criteria. However, this interpretation is highly controversial, in part because of a perception that marine fishes have a suite of life history characteristics, including high fecundity and large geographical ranges, which might confer greater resilience than that shown by terrestrial vertebrates. We review 15 comparative analyses that have tested for these and other life history correlates of vulnerability in marine fishes. The empirical evidence suggests that large body size and late maturity are the best predictors of vulnerability to fishing, regardless of whether differences among taxa in fishing mortality are controlled; there is no evidence that high fecundity confers increased resilience. The evidence reviewed here is of direct relevance to the diverse criteria used at global and national levels by various bodies to assess threat status of fishes. Simple life history traits can be incorporated directly into quantitative assessment criteria, or used to modify the conclusions of quantitative assessments, or used as preliminary screening criteria for assessment of the ∼95% of marine fish species whose status has yet to be evaluated either by conservationists or fisheries scientists. PMID:16243696

  5. Vibrio diseases of marine fish populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, R. R.; Grimes, D. J.

    1984-03-01

    Several Vibrio spp. cause disease in marine fish populations, both wild and cultured. The most common disease, vibriosis, is caused by V. anguillarum. However, increase in the intensity of mariculture, combined with continuing improvements in bacterial systematics, expands the list of Vibrio spp. that cause fish disease. The bacterial pathogens, species of fish affected, virulence mechanisms, and disease treatment and prevention are included as topics of emphasis in this review.

  6. Alaska Arctic marine fish ecology catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman K.; Love, Milton S.

    2016-08-08

    The marine fishes in waters of the United States north of the Bering Strait have received new and increased scientific attention over the past decade (2005–15) in conjunction with frontier qualities of the region and societal concerns about the effects of Arctic climate change. Commercial fisheries are negligible in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, but many marine species have important traditional and cultural values to Alaska Native residents. Although baseline conditions are rapidly changing, effective decisions about research and monitoring investments must be based on reliable information and plausible future scenarios. For the first time, this synthesis presents a comprehensive evaluation of the marine fish fauna from both seas in a single reference. Although many unknowns and uncertainties remain in the scientific understanding, information presented here is foundational with respect to understanding marine ecosystems and addressing dual missions of the U.S. Department of the Interior for energy development and resource conservation. 

  7. Marine soundscape shaped by fishing activity

    PubMed Central

    Lossent, Julie; Grall, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Marine communities face anthropogenic pressures that degrade ecosystems. Because underwater soundscapes carry information about habitat quality, we explored whether destructive impacts of fishing could be evaluated via the soundscape. Maerl beds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots and they experience major worldwide degradation owing to fishing. We collected field acoustic recordings in maerl beds exposed to different fishing practices. We found that unfished maerl beds were threefold louder and exhibited sound frequencies more diversified than those recorded in fished maerl beds. Analyses of associated fauna samples indicated that snapping shrimps provided a major contribution to the maerl bed soundscape. Moreover, sea urchins and squat lobsters most likely contributed to differences between the soundscapes of unfished and fished maerl beds. Our results supported the idea that the soundscape can provide valuable information on maerl bed ecosystem health related to fishing activity. PMID:28280559

  8. Marine soundscape shaped by fishing activity.

    PubMed

    Coquereau, Laura; Lossent, Julie; Grall, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Marine communities face anthropogenic pressures that degrade ecosystems. Because underwater soundscapes carry information about habitat quality, we explored whether destructive impacts of fishing could be evaluated via the soundscape. Maerl beds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots and they experience major worldwide degradation owing to fishing. We collected field acoustic recordings in maerl beds exposed to different fishing practices. We found that unfished maerl beds were threefold louder and exhibited sound frequencies more diversified than those recorded in fished maerl beds. Analyses of associated fauna samples indicated that snapping shrimps provided a major contribution to the maerl bed soundscape. Moreover, sea urchins and squat lobsters most likely contributed to differences between the soundscapes of unfished and fished maerl beds. Our results supported the idea that the soundscape can provide valuable information on maerl bed ecosystem health related to fishing activity.

  9. Collapse and recovery of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, J A

    2000-08-24

    Overexploitation and subsequent collapse of marine fishes has focused attention on the ability of affected populations to recover to former abundance levels and on the degree to which their persistence is threatened by extinction. Although potential for recovery has been assessed indirectly, actual changes in population size following long-term declines have not been examined empirically. Here I show that there is very little evidence for rapid recovery from prolonged declines, in contrast to the perception that marine fishes are highly resilient to large population reductions. With the possible exception of herring and related species that mature early in life and are fished with highly selective equipment, my analysis of 90 stocks reveals that many gadids (for example, cod, haddock) and other non-clupeids (for example, flatfishes) have experienced little, if any, recovery as much as 15 years after 45-99% reductions in reproductive biomass. Although the effects of overfishing on single species may generally be reversible, the actual time required for recovery appears to be considerable. To exempt marine fishes from existing criteria used to assign extinction risk would be inconsistent with precautionary approaches to fisheries management and the conservation of marine biodiversity.

  10. Ecological speciation in marine v. freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Puebla, O

    2009-10-01

    Absolute barriers to dispersal are not common in marine systems, and the prevalence of planktonic larvae in marine taxa provides potential for gene flow across large geographic distances. These observations raise the fundamental question in marine evolutionary biology as to whether geographic and oceanographic barriers alone can account for the high levels of species diversity observed in marine environments such as coral reefs, or whether marine speciation also operates in the presence of gene flow between diverging populations. In this respect, the ecological hypothesis of speciation, in which reproductive isolation results from divergent or disruptive natural selection, is of particular interest because it may operate in the presence of gene flow. Although important insights into the process of ecological speciation in aquatic environments have been provided by the study of freshwater fishes, comparatively little is known about the possibility of ecological speciation in marine teleosts. In this study, the evidence consistent with different aspects of the ecological hypothesis of speciation is evaluated in marine fishes. Molecular approaches have played a critical role in the development of speciation hypotheses in marine fishes, with a role of ecology suggested by the occurrence of sister clades separated by ecological factors, rapid cladogenesis or the persistence of genetically and ecologically differentiated species in the presence of gene flow. Yet, ecological speciation research in marine fishes is still largely at an exploratory stage. Cases where the major ingredients of ecological speciation, namely a source of natural divergent or disruptive selection, a mechanism of reproductive isolation and a link between the two have been explicitly documented are few. Even in these cases, specific predictions of the ecological hypothesis of speciation remain largely untested. Recent developments in the study of freshwater fishes illustrate the potential for

  11. Fish Assemblages of Mediterranean Marine Caves

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  12. Fish assemblages of Mediterranean marine caves.

    PubMed

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning.

  13. Dataset for Alaska marine fish ecology catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman K.

    2017-01-01

    This collection of GIS layers was prepared for the report Alaska Arctic Marine Fish Ecology Catalog (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5038). The layers display geographic distribution and sampling locations for Arctic marine fish species in the region of United States sectors of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Certain diadromous species (for example, Pacific salmon, char, and whitefishes) are treated as marine fishes (McDowall, 1987) because much of their life cycle is in marine and brackish environments. This synthesis of information is meant to provide current information and understanding of this fauna and its relative vulnerability to changing Arctic conditions.There are 104 species in the collection - some species have both polygon and point data layers. The report (SIR 2016-5038) also describes for each species its names - species, common, and colloquial; ecological role; physical description/attributes; range (geographic); relative abundance; depth range; habitats and life history; behavior; populations or stocks, reproduction, food and feeding, biological interactions, resilience, traditional and cultural importance, commercial fisheries, potential effects of climate change, areas for future research, cited references, and bibliography.  The published report has one map for each species showing the polygon and point data as well as land and relevant administrative boundaries. Although some of the species also have an inland water presence, this report was concerned only with their marine conditions; therefore, the land component (from the original sources) has been clipped and removed. The distribution areas may be greater in extent than that shown in the report map bounding box limits. Distributions of marine fishes are shown in adjacent Arctic seas where reliable data are available. The report can be accessed at: https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20165038This metadata document describes the collection of species data layers. Each

  14. Immunosuppression in harbour seals fed fish from the contaminated Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.S. |; Swart, R.L. de |; Timmerman, H.H.; Loveren, H. van; Vos, J.G.; Vedder, L.J.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.

    1994-12-31

    Environmental contaminants including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls have been shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals, but little information exists as to their possible effect on mammals in the natural environment. Recent virus-induced mass mortalities among marine mammals occupying high trophic levels have led to much speculation regarding a possible contributory role of pollutants in these events. The authors undertook a two-year captive feeding experiment with harbor seals, Phoca vitulina, where one group was fed herring from the contaminated Baltic Sea and a second group was fed relatively uncontaminated herring from the Atlantic Ocean. During the course of the experiment, they regularly sampled blood and undertook a series of immune function tests. They observed a significant impairment of natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function, in vitro, in the group of seals fed the Baltic Sea fish. In addition, seals of this group were less able to mount a specific humoral and delayed type hypersensitivity response to a protein antigen, ovalbumin, upon immunization. Increased numbers of granulocytes in this group may have reflected periodic bacterial infections as a consequence of impaired immune function. Their results suggest that pollutants accumulated through the food chain in contaminated marine waters may suppress normal immune responses in marine mammals and lead to an increased susceptibility to opportunistic infection.

  15. Comparative contribution of trophic transfer and biotransformation on arsenobetaine bioaccumulation in two marine fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Yanyan; Chen, Lizhao; Zhang, Li

    2016-10-01

    Marine fish can accumulate high arsenic (As) concentrations, with arsenobetaine (AsB) as the major species in the body. However, whether the high AsB accumulation in fish occurs mainly through trophic transfer from diet or biotransformation in the fish body remains unclear. This study investigated the trophic transfer and biotransformation of As in two marine fish (seabream Acanthopagrus schlegeli and grunt Terapon jarbua) fed artificial and clam diets for 28 d. The different diets contained different proportions of inorganic [As(III) and As(V)] and organic [methylarsenate (MMA), dimethylarsenate (DMA), and AsB] As compounds. Positive correlations were observed between the accumulated As concentrations and AsB concentrations in both fish, suggesting that AsB contributed to the accumulation of total As in marine fish. Based on the calculated total input of AsB and detected AsB concentrations in the muscle of the seabream and grunt, the ingested amounts of AsB accounted for 0.1-0.3%, 8.1-14.4% of detected AsB concentrations, respectively, in the muscle of seabream and grunt fish species, suggesting that AsB was mainly biotransformed versus trophically transferred in these marine fish. In summary, this study demonstrates that marine fish prefer to biotransform inorganic As forms into AsB, resulting in high bioaccumulation of total As.

  16. 75 FR 22731 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act for imports of fish and fish products. NMFS is seeking advance... prohibition of imports of some fish or fish products. Possible Standards for Evaluating Marine Mammal Bycatch...

  17. A review of mycobacteriosis in marine fish.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J M; Stine, C B; Baya, A M; Kent, M L

    2009-02-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a serious and often lethal disease of fish, affecting a wide range of species globally both in culture and wild settings. Caused by several species of the genus Mycobacterium, the disease has received considerable attention in recent years because of the discovery of new species in piscine hosts, epizootics in wild fisheries, and the ability of a few species to infect humans. The impact of this disease in aquaculture and the aquaria trade has been well reported and there is currently no widely accepted cure other than depopulation and facility disinfection. However, the impact on wild fisheries is poorly understood and may relate to species-specific interactions (host-pathogen) and possibly environmental stressors. In this review, much of what is known about mycobacteriosis in marine fish is summarized with particular attention to an epizootic in striped bass, Morone saxatilis, (Walbaum), in Chesapeake Bay, USA.

  18. Fish stings and other marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Bee, M

    1991-07-01

    West Virginia, it would seem, is an unlikely place for physicians to encounter patients with poisonous marine envenomations. To the contrary, West Virginias who vacation at the beach may be envenomated and require further evaluation and treatment when they return home. Likewise, certain aquarium pets or even freshwater fish may envenomate those who have contact with them. Such underwater sea creatures can cause local and systemic toxic or allergic reactions which potentially can be serious. This article describes these possible toxic encounters as well as first aid and medical management.

  19. Bioavailability of purified subcellular metals to a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Yao, Jie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, the authors used a supply of naturally contaminated oysters to investigate how the subcellular metal distribution and the metal burden in prey affected the transfer of metals to a marine fish, the grunt Terapon jarbua. The oysters, Crassostrea hongkongensis, each with different contamination histories, were collected and separated into 3 subcellular fractions: 1) metal-rich granules, 2) cellular debris, and 3) a combined fraction of organelles, heat-denatured proteins, and metallothionein-like proteins, defined as the trophically available metal (TAM). These purified fractions showed a wide range of metal concentrations and were fed to the fish for a period of 7 d at a daily comparable feeding rate of 3% of fish body weight. After 7 d exposure, the newly absorbed metals were mainly distributed in the intestine and liver, indicating a significant tissue-specific trophic transfer, especially for Cd and Cu. The trophic transfer factors (TTFs) showed a sequence of cellular debris >TAM > metal-rich granules, suggesting the impact of subcellular distribution in prey on metal bioavailability. However, significant inverse relationships between the TTFs and the metal concentrations in diets were also found in the present study, especially for Cd and Zn. The subcellular metal compartmentalization might be less important than the metal concentration in prey influencing the trophic transfer. The authors' results have important implications for bioavailability and environmental assessment of dietary metals.

  20. Marine Fish Proteins and Peptides for Cosmeceuticals: A Review.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Anil, Sukumaran; Kim, Se-Kwon; Shim, Min Suk

    2017-05-18

    Marine fish provide a rich source of bioactive compounds such as proteins and peptides. The bioactive proteins and peptides derived from marine fish have gained enormous interest in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical industries due to their broad spectrum of bioactivities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-aging activities. Recently, the development of cosmeceuticals using marine fish-derived proteins and peptides obtained from chemical or enzymatical hydrolysis of fish processing by-products has increased rapidly owing to their activities in antioxidation and tissue regeneration. Marine fish-derived collagen has been utilized for the development of cosmeceutical products due to its abilities in skin repair and tissue regeneration. Marine fish-derived peptides have also been utilized for various cosmeceutical applications due to their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory activities. In addition, marine fish-derived proteins and hydrolysates demonstrated efficient anti-photoaging activity. The present review highlights and presents an overview of the current status of the isolation and applications of marine fish-derived proteins and peptides. This review also demonstrates that marine fish-derived proteins and peptides have high potential for biocompatible and effective cosmeceuticals.

  1. Marine Fish Proteins and Peptides for Cosmeceuticals: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Anil, Sukumaran; Kim, Se-Kwon; Shim, Min Suk

    2017-01-01

    Marine fish provide a rich source of bioactive compounds such as proteins and peptides. The bioactive proteins and peptides derived from marine fish have gained enormous interest in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical industries due to their broad spectrum of bioactivities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-aging activities. Recently, the development of cosmeceuticals using marine fish-derived proteins and peptides obtained from chemical or enzymatical hydrolysis of fish processing by-products has increased rapidly owing to their activities in antioxidation and tissue regeneration. Marine fish-derived collagen has been utilized for the development of cosmeceutical products due to its abilities in skin repair and tissue regeneration. Marine fish-derived peptides have also been utilized for various cosmeceutical applications due to their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory activities. In addition, marine fish-derived proteins and hydrolysates demonstrated efficient anti-photoaging activity. The present review highlights and presents an overview of the current status of the isolation and applications of marine fish-derived proteins and peptides. This review also demonstrates that marine fish-derived proteins and peptides have high potential for biocompatible and effective cosmeceuticals. PMID:28524092

  2. Marine fish communities in shallow volcanic habitats.

    PubMed

    Pinault, M; Loiseau, N; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Magalon, H; Quod, J P; Galzin, R

    2013-06-01

    This survey of the marine ichthyofauna of the Piton de La Fournaise volcano at Reunion Island is the first explanatory study of fish community structures in this area. It describes and analyses the main qualitative descriptors of the fish communities (i.e. species richness, diet, life history and geographical distribution) and their spatio-temporal organization. This investigation in 2011 examined lava flows of different ages, including the most recent flows that entered the ocean between 1977 and 2007. In all, 263 species belonging to 45 families were observed. Overall, the fish community was notable for an absence of top predators and a predominance of opportunistic small-bodied species, with dietary flexibility and high reproductive rates, characteristic of the early stages of ecological succession. Between-site analysis indicated that the fish assemblages differed essentially according to the intensity of the last volcanic disturbances. Fish communities in the most disturbed sites showed the highest numbers of Serranidae and the highest proportions of omnivores and small-bodied opportunistic carnivores, including a high proportion of endemic south-western Indian Ocean species. The spatial pattern of this last category of species could be the result of convergent biological traits, and their adaptation to unstable environments at the expense of their competitiveness in more biodiverse, mature communities. Conversely, fish communities in the less disturbed sites showed the highest number of Holocentridae and the highest proportion of browsers of sessile invertebrates. This last characteristic could be a consequence of higher ecological maturity, illustrated by a more specialized trophic network, for assemblages in areas with less intense disturbances. Otherwise, high structural complexity, either in unconsolidated lava boulders, rocks and rubble or high coral-covered sites, could favour the increase of the total number of species independent of disturbance

  3. Rapid biotic homogenization of marine fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Magurran, Anne E; Dornelas, Maria; Moyes, Faye; Gotelli, Nicholas J; McGill, Brian

    2015-09-24

    The role human activities play in reshaping biodiversity is increasingly apparent in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the responses of entire marine assemblages are not well-understood, in part, because few monitoring programs incorporate both spatial and temporal replication. Here, we analyse an exceptionally comprehensive 29-year time series of North Atlantic groundfish assemblages monitored over 5° latitude to the west of Scotland. These fish assemblages show no systematic change in species richness through time, but steady change in species composition, leading to an increase in spatial homogenization: the species identity of colder northern localities increasingly resembles that of warmer southern localities. This biotic homogenization mirrors the spatial pattern of unevenly rising ocean temperatures over the same time period suggesting that climate change is primarily responsible for the spatial homogenization we observe. In this and other ecosystems, apparent constancy in species richness may mask major changes in species composition driven by anthropogenic change.

  4. Fish, human health and marine ecosystem health: policies in collision.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Jones, Peter J S; Friel, Sharon; Bartley, Mel

    2009-02-01

    Health recommendations advocating increased fish consumption need to be placed in the context of the potential collapse of global marine capture fisheries. Literature overview. In economically developed countries, official healthy eating advice is to eat more fish, particularly that rich in omega-3 oils. In many less economically developed countries, fish is a key human health asset, contributing >20% of animal protein intake for 2.6 billion people. Marine ecologists predict on current trends that fish stocks are set to collapse in 40 years, and propose increased restrictions on fishing, including no-take zones, in order to restore marine ecosystem health. Production of fishmeal for aquaculture and other non-food uses (22 MT in 2003) appears to be unsustainable. Differences in fish consumption probably contribute to within-country and international health inequalities. Such inequalities are likely to increase if fish stocks continue to decline, while increasing demand for fish will accelerate declines in fish stocks and the health of marine ecosystems. Urgent national and international action is necessary to address the tensions arising from increasing human demand for fish and seafood, and rapidly declining marine ecosystem health.

  5. Prey-specific determination of arsenic bioaccumulation and transformation in a marine benthic fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-02-06

    The sediments from Chinese coastal waters contain relatively high concentrations of arsenic (As), mainly arsenate As(V), which may be transferred along the marine benthic food chain. The prey-specific determination of As bioaccumulation and transformation in marine benthic fish remains little known. In this study, we focused on a typical marine benthic food chain comprising of sediments, deposit-feeding invertebrates (polychaete Nereis succinea and clam Gafrarium tumidum) and goby fish Mugilogobius chulae. Graded exposed experiments using different As exposure durations and concentrations were conducted to examine their transformation rate and efficiency. Radiotracer techniques were used to determine the rates of As uptake (as arsenate) from seawater, assimilation from two prey and its subsequent efflux in the goby fish. We demonstrated that the two prey (polychates and clams) displayed different As biotransformation in the goby fish. Biotransformation rate was higher in the goby fish fed on the clams than on the polychaetes, and biotransformation efficiency was lower with increasing inorganic As concentration in the prey. The As overall bioaccumulation in the goby fish was very low, mainly because of the low dissolved uptake and dietary assimilation and high efflux. Combining the biotransformation and biokinetics measurements, our findings highlighted that different prey containing different As concentrations and As species resulted in the comparable As bioaccumulation in the goby fish.

  6. A marine fish diet reduces spontaneous lymphoma in outbred Swiss-Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Somers, Christopher M; Kwiecien, Jacek M; Quinn, James S

    2005-12-01

    Diets rich in marine organisms or their oils are known to suppress solid tumor development in humans and rodents, but the potential for marine foods to affect hematopoietic system cancers is not well understood. As part of a toxicology study, we fed groups of mice three different diets for 10 weeks: marine fish, 58% homogenized Atlantic smelt and herring; freshwater fish, 58% smelt and alewife from the North American Great Lakes, and commercial dry rodent chow. Between 1 and 15 weeks following dietary treatment, 20 of 103 (19.4%) mice unexpectedly developed spontaneous lymphoma. Disease incidence peaked when the mice were 7-8 months old, and was not distributed equally across treatment groups. Mice in the control (30%) and fresh water fish (27.5%) groups had significantly higher incidences of lymphoma than those fed Atlantic fish species (5%). Although our experiment was not originally designed for this purpose, our results indicate that consumption of fat-rich Atlantic smelt and herring protected mice against hematopoietic tumor development.

  7. Fishing-gear restrictions and biomass gains for coral reef fishes in marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart J; Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Soler, German; Bates, Amanda E

    2017-08-04

    Strong empirical evidence supports recovery of reef fish populations with fishery closures. In countries where full exclusion of people from fishing may be perceived as inequitable, fishing gear restrictions on non-selective and destructive gears may offer socially relevant management alternatives to build recovery of fish biomass. Even so, very few studies have statistically compared the responses of tropical reef fisheries to alternative management strategies. Here we test for the effects of fishery closures and fishing gear restrictions on tropical reef fish biomass, at the community and family level, at 1,396 underwater surveys conducted at 617 unique sites across a spatial hierarchy within 22 global marine ecoregions representing five realms. We compare total biomass across local fish assemblages, and among 20 reef fish families inside marine protected areas (MPAs) with different fishing restrictions: no-take, hook and line fishing only, several fishing gears allowed, to sites open to all fishing gears. We include a further category representing remote sites where fishing pressure is low. As expected, full fishery closures, often referred to as 'no-take' zones, most benefit community and family level fish biomass in comparison with restrictions on fishing gears and openly fished sites. We further find that although biomass responses to fishery closures are highly variable across families, some fishery targets (e.g., Carcharhinidae, and Lutjanidae) respond positively to multiple restrictions on fishing gears (i.e., where gears other than hook and line fishing are not permitted). Remoteness also imparts a positive influence on the response of community level fish biomass and many fish families. Our findings provide strong support for the role of fishing restrictions in building recovery of fish biomass, and indicate important interactions among fishing gear types on removal of fish biomass among a range of reef fish families. This article is protected by

  8. Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens after dietborne exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lizhao; Zhou, Yanyan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is well known to be biodiminished along marine food chains. The marine herbivorous fish at a lower trophic level are expected to accumulate more As. However, little is known about how marine herbivorous fish biotransform the potential high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, the present study quantified the biotransformation of two inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens following dietborne exposure. The fish were fed on As contaminated artificial diets at nominal concentrations of 400 and 1500 μg As(III) or As(V) g(-1) (dry weight) for 21 d and 42 d. After exposure, As concentrations in intestine, liver, and muscle tissues of rabbitfish increased significantly and were proportional to the inorganic As exposure concentrations. The present study demonstrated that both inorganic As(III) and As(V) in the dietborne phases were able to be biotransformed to the less toxic arsenobetaine (AsB) (63.3-91.3% in liver; 79.0%-95.2% in muscle). The processes of As biotransformation in rabbitfish could include oxidation of As(III) to As(V), reduction of As(V) to As(III), methylation to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and subsequent conversion to AsB. These results also demonstrated that AsB synthesis processes were diverse facing different inorganic As species in different tissues. In summary, the present study elucidated that marine herbivorous fish had high ability to biotransform inorganic As to the organic forms (mainly AsB), resulting in high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, marine herbivorous fish could detoxify inorganic As in the natural environment.

  9. [Effects of fishing on the marine ecosystem of Beibu Gulf].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuo-Zhi; Qiu, Yong-Song; Jia, Xiao-Ping; Zhong, Zhi-Hui

    2008-07-01

    By using Ecopath with Ecosim 5.1 software, the Ecosim model of Beibu Gulf marine ecosystem in 1959-1960 was constructed, which included about 20 functional groups such as fishery, marine mammals, sea-birds, sharks, pelagic fishes, demersal fishes, and benthic crustaceans, etc. Through the comparison with the investigation data in 1997-1999, the effects of fishing on the structure and function of Beibu Gulf marine ecosystem were analyzed. The results indicated that with the increasing fishing pressure in past forty years, the ecosystem structure and function shifted drastically, with the biomass of long-lived, high trophic level and piscivorous fishes declined while short-lived and small fishes and benthic invertebrates dominated gradually. The biomass of piscivorous species in 1999 was only 6% of that in 1960, while cephalopods increased 2.7 times or more. The trophic level of the catch declined from 3.2 in 1960 to 2.98 in 1999, which fitted the rule of "fishing down the food web" and suggested that the present exploitation patterns were unsustainable. Based on the data of the 1990s, the changes of the ecosystem under decreasing fishing pressure were predicted. This study validated the feasibility of Ecosim model in predicting the effects of fishing pressure on marine ecosystem.

  10. Contribution of fish to the marine inorganic carbon cycle.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R W; Millero, F J; Taylor, J R; Walsh, P J; Christensen, V; Jennings, S; Grosell, M

    2009-01-16

    Oceanic production of calcium carbonate is conventionally attributed to marine plankton (coccolithophores and foraminifera). Here we report that marine fish produce precipitated carbonates within their intestines and excrete these at high rates. When combined with estimates of global fish biomass, this suggests that marine fish contribute 3 to 15% of total oceanic carbonate production. Fish carbonates have a higher magnesium content and solubility than traditional sources, yielding faster dissolution with depth. This may explain up to a quarter of the increase in titratable alkalinity within 1000 meters of the ocean surface, a controversial phenomenon that has puzzled oceanographers for decades. We also predict that fish carbonate production may rise in response to future environmental changes in carbon dioxide, and thus become an increasingly important component of the inorganic carbon cycle.

  11. Fishing destabilizes the biomass flow in the marine size spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Rochet, M.-J.; Benoît, E.

    2012-01-01

    Fishing impacts on marine food webs are predicted by simulations of a size spectrum community model. In this model, predation is determined by predator and prey size and abundance, and drives predator growth and prey mortality. Fishing amplifies temporal oscillations in the biomass flow. Oscillations appear at lower fishing intensity and have wider amplitude when fishing is selective (removes a narrow size range) and/or when large fish are targeted, than when fishing is more balanced (catching a larger size range) or when small fish are targeted. A novel index of size diversity is developed, and is shown to be sensitive to both fishing intensity and selectivity. To avoid unstable food web dynamics with potential harmful consequences for fisheries, limiting both fishing intensity and selectivity might be an appropriate exploitation strategy. PMID:21632631

  12. Protection of Marine Fish Stocks at Risk of Extinction

    Treesearch

    J.A. Musick; S.A. Berkeley; G.M. Cailliet; M. Camhi; G. Huntsman; M. Nammack; Melvin L. Warren

    2000-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommends that registory agencies closely scrutinize both marine fish and invertebrate stocks that may be at risk of extinction and take remedial action before populations are threatened or endungered. Initial AFS analyses of marine stocks at risk in North America show at least four primary geographic "hot spots" with...

  13. Tuberculosis in marine tropical fishes in an aquarium.

    PubMed

    Giavenni, R; Finazzi, M; Poli, G; Grimaldi, E

    1980-04-01

    Skin, gill and visceral tubercle lesions were detected in marine tropical fish in an aquarium. Ninety-seven fish of 17 different genera were affected. The tubercles consisted of a wall of densely packed epithelioid cells and necrotic center packed with acid-fast bacilli identified as Mycobacterium marinum.

  14. Use of soybean meal and papain to partially replace animal protein for culturing three marine fish species: Fish growth and water quality.

    PubMed

    Mo, W Y; Lau, R S S; Kwok, A C K; Wong, M H

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using soybean meal added with papain to replace half of the fishmeal used in the moist pellets (49% fishmeal and 45% trash fish) developed by the Hong Kong Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) for culturing marine fish. Gold-lined seabream (Rhabdosargus sarba), brown spotted grouper (Epinephelus bleekeri) and pompano (Trachinotus blochii) were farmed at one of the research stations (Kat-O) of AFCD, for a period of 340 days. Results indicated that diets containing papain resulted in better fish growth (reflected by relative weight gain and feed conversion ratio) than diets without papain. In general, wet weight gain of fish depends on the amount of papain added in diet rather than the diet composition. Soybean used in conjunction with papain also contributed to a more effective growth than fish fed with the moist pellets alone. A laboratory experiment (using tanks) was conducted to study the effects of the diets on concentrations of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in the tank water. Results showed that concentrations of ammonia and nitrate were significantly lower (p < 0.05) when the fish were fed with papain-supplemented (with or without soybean meal) diets. It is envisaged that by using plant protein incorporated with enzymes could promote better growth of marine fish and lower the adverse impact of trash fish and fishmeal on water quality of the mariculture zones.

  15. Molecular adaptations in Antarctic fish and marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Daniela; Russo, Roberta; di Prisco, Guido; Verde, Cinzia

    2012-06-01

    The Antarctic marine environment is one of the most extreme on Earth due to its stably low temperature and high oxygen content. Here we discuss various aspects of the molecular adaptations evolved by Antarctic fish and marine microorganisms living in this environment. This review will in particular focus on: (i) the genetic/genomic bases of adaptation in Antarctic notothenioid fish; (ii) the role of neuroglobin recently identified in the brain of Antarctic icefish; (iii) the structural and functional features of globins of the Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125.

  16. Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tye A.; Anderson, Todd W.; Širović, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur. PMID:26402068

  17. Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tye A; Anderson, Todd W; Širović, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

  18. Comparison of Bioavailability and Biotransformation of Inorganic and Organic Arsenic to Two Marine Fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Dietary uptake could be the primary route of arsenic (As) bioaccumulation in marine fish, but the bioavailability of inorganic and organic As remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the trophic transfer and bioavailability of As in herbivorous rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens and carnivorous seabass Lateolabrax japonicus. Rabbitfish were fed with one artificial diet or three macroalgae, whereas seabass were fed with one artificial diet, one polychaete, or two bivalves for 28 days. The six spiked fresh prey diets contained different proportions of inorganic As [As(III) and As(V)] and organic As compounds [methylarsenate (MMA), dimethylarsenate (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)], and the spiked artificial diet mainly contained As(III) or As(V). We demonstrated that the trophic transfer factors (TTF) of As in both fish were negatively correlated with the concentrations of inorganic As in the diets, while there was no relationship between TTF and the AsB concentrations in the diets. Positive correlation was observed between the accumulated As concentrations and the AsB concentrations in both fish, suggesting that organic As compounds (AsB) were more trophically available than inorganic As. Furthermore, the biotransformation ability of seabass was higher than that in rabbitfish, which resulted in higher As accumulation in seabass than in rabbitfish. Our study demonstrated that different prey with different inorganic/organic As proportions resulted in diverse bioaccumulation of total As in different marine fish.

  19. Diseases of fish and shellfish caused by marine fungi.

    PubMed

    Hatai, Kishio

    2012-01-01

    Fungal diseases are problematic in cultured fish and shellfish, their seeds, and sometimes wild marine animals. In this chapter fungal diseases found in marine animals, especially in Japan, are described. Pathogens in the fungal diseases are divided into two groups. One of them is marine Oomycetes, which cause fungal diseases in marine shellfish and abalones. The diseases caused by the fungi of this group and the fungal characteristics are introduced. The pathogens include members of the genera Lagenidium, Haliphthoros, Halocrusticida, Halioticida, Atkinsiella, and Pythium. On the other hand, some fungal diseases caused by mitosporic fungi are also known in marine fish and shellfish. The diseases caused by these fungi and the fungal characteristics are described. The pathogens include members of the genera Fusarium, Ochroconis, Exophiala, Scytalidium, Plectosporium, and Acremonium.

  20. Carbon budgets for a phytoplanktivorous fish fed three different unialgal populations.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Michael E

    1985-05-01

    The filter feeding blue tilapia, Tilapia aurea, was fed three different algae. Blue tilapia ingestion of two green algae, Chlamydomonas sp. and Ankistrodesmus falcatus and the filamentous blue-green alga, Anabaena flos-aquae, ranged from 21%-89% of the available cells. There were significant differences in the assimilation of algal carbon by the fish depending on the alga fed; A. flos-aquae was the easiest to assimilate (83%). The fish respired significantly less of the Chlamydomonas sp. ingested carbon (15%). The gross growth efficiency of fishes fed either green alga was not significantly different (22%-24%), but these efficiencies were significantly less than the gross growth efficiency of fish fed A. flos-aquae (46%). The carbon budgets for fish feeding on the green algae were similar to that constructed from the literature for a congener fed a mixed algae diet. However, the assimilation component of the budget for blue tilapia fed A. flos-aquae was 2 times greater than that of the literature budget.

  1. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew P; Sparks, John S; Smith, W Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world's oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication.

  2. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew P.; Sparks, John S.; Smith, W. Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world’s oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication. PMID:27276229

  3. Composition and properties of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil.

    PubMed

    Baer, R J; Ryali, J; Schingoethe, D J; Kasperson, K M; Donovan, D C; Hippen, A R; Franklin, S T

    2001-02-01

    A control diet and a fish oil diet were fed to 12 multiparous Holstein cows to determine how the incorporation of Menhaden fish oil in the diet would influence the fatty acid composition, especially the conjugated linoleic acid and transvaccenic acid, contents of milk and butter. The control diet consisted of a 50:50 ratio of forage to concentrate, and the fish oil diet consisted of the control diet with 2% (on a dry matter basis) added fish oil. Milk from cows fed the control diet contained higher average concentrations of milk fat (3.37%) compared with milk from cows fed the fish oil diet (2.29%). Milk from cows fed fish oil contained higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and total unsaturated fatty acids (0.68 and 2.51; 1.42 and 6.28; and 30.47 and 41.71 g/100 g of fat, respectively). Butter made from the fish oil diet milk also had higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and unsaturated fatty acids. Penetrometer readings indicated fish oil diet butters were softer at 4 and 20 degrees C than the control diet butters. Acid degree values were similar in the fish oil butters compared with the control butters. No significant difference was found in the flavor characteristics of milk and butter from cows fed the control and fish oil diets. Production of milk and butter with increased amounts of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and other beneficial fatty acids may have a desirable impact on the health of consumers and lead to increased sales.

  4. Food webs and the transmission of parasites to marine fish.

    PubMed

    Marcogliese, D J

    2002-01-01

    Helminth parasites of fish in marine systems are often considered to be generalists, lacking host specificity for both intermediate and definitive hosts. In addition, many parasites in marine waters possess life cycles consisting of long-lived larval stages residing in intermediate and paratenic hosts. These properties are believed to be adaptations to the long food chains and the low densities of organisms distributed over broad spatial scales that are characteristic of open marine systems. Moreover, such properties are predicted to lead to the homogenization of parasite communities among fish species. Yet, these communities can be relatively distinct among marine fishes. For benthos, the heterogeneous horizontal distribution of invertebrates and fish with respect to sediment quality and water depth contributes to the formation of distinct parasite communities. Similarly, for the pelagic realm, vertical partitioning of animals with depth will lead to the segregation of parasites among fish hosts. Within each habitat, resource partitioning in terms of dietary preferences of fish further contributes to the establishment of distinct parasite assemblages. Parasite distributions are predicted to be superimposed on distributional patterns of free-living animals that participate as hosts in parasite life cycles. The purpose of this review is first, to summarize distribution patterns of invertebrates and fish in the marine environment and relate these patterns to helminth transmission. Second, patterns of transmission in marine systems are interpreted in the context of food web structure. Consideration of the structure and dynamics of food webs permits predictions about the distribution and abundance of parasites. Lastly, parasites that influence food web structure by regulating the abundance of dominant host species are briefly considered in addition to the effects of pollution and exploitation on food webs and parasite transmission.

  5. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish.

    PubMed

    Garrido, S; Ben-Hamadou, R; Santos, A M P; Ferreira, S; Teodósio, M A; Cotano, U; Irigoien, X; Peck, M A; Saiz, E; Ré, P

    2015-11-24

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish.

  6. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, S.; Ben-Hamadou, R.; Santos, A.M.P.; Ferreira, S.; Teodósio, M.A.; Cotano, U.; Irigoien, X.; Peck, M.A.; Saiz, E.; Ré, P.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish. PMID:26597385

  7. Histopathologic Effects of Estrogens on Marine Fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histologically compared and evaluated effects of EDCs in two species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paral...

  8. Histopathologic Effects of Estrogens on Marine Fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histologically compared and evaluated effects of EDCs in two species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paral...

  9. Marine fish-derived bioactive peptides as potential antihypertensive agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Vo, Thanh-Sang

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is the most widespread risk factor for many serious cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a crucial role in cardiovascular physiological regulation by converting angiotensin I to a potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II. Hence, the inhibition of ACE is a key target for antihypertensive activity. Recently, potent antihypertensive peptides have been purified widely by enzymatic hydrolysis of muscle protein, skin collagen, and gelatin of many different kinds of marine fishes. Marine fish-derived bioactive peptides can be developed as antihypertensive components in functional foods or nutraceuticals. This contribution presents an overview of the ACE inhibitory peptides derived from marine fishes and discusses their future prospects to be used as potential drug candidates for preventing and treating high blood pressure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anglers' Guide to the United States Pacific Coast: Marine Fish, Fishing Grounds & Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, James L., Jr.; Smith, Susan E.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a general source of information on areas of the Pacific coast that are more frequently fished and the species of fish that are commonly taken. The guide covers the marine and estuarine waters along the coasts of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, and Guam. It is arranged in five…

  11. Bacterial bioluminescence as a lure for marine zooplankton and fish

    PubMed Central

    Zarubin, Margarita; Belkin, Shimshon; Ionescu, Michael; Genin, Amatzia

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of bioluminescence for nonsymbiotic marine bacteria have not been elucidated fully. One of the most commonly cited explanations, proposed more than 30 y ago, is that bioluminescence augments the propagation and dispersal of bacteria by attracting fish to consume the luminous material. This hypothesis, based mostly on the prevalence of luminous bacteria in fish guts, has not been tested experimentally. Here we show that zooplankton that contacts and feeds on the luminescent bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi starts to glow, and demonstrate by video recordings that glowing individuals are highly vulnerable to predation by nocturnal fish. Glowing bacteria thereby are transferred to the nutritious guts of fish and zooplankton, where they survive digestion and gain effective means for growth and dispersal. Using bioluminescence as bait appears to be highly beneficial for marine bacteria, especially in food-deprived environments of the deep sea. PMID:22203999

  12. Bacterial bioluminescence as a lure for marine zooplankton and fish.

    PubMed

    Zarubin, Margarita; Belkin, Shimshon; Ionescu, Michael; Genin, Amatzia

    2012-01-17

    The benefits of bioluminescence for nonsymbiotic marine bacteria have not been elucidated fully. One of the most commonly cited explanations, proposed more than 30 y ago, is that bioluminescence augments the propagation and dispersal of bacteria by attracting fish to consume the luminous material. This hypothesis, based mostly on the prevalence of luminous bacteria in fish guts, has not been tested experimentally. Here we show that zooplankton that contacts and feeds on the luminescent bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi starts to glow, and demonstrate by video recordings that glowing individuals are highly vulnerable to predation by nocturnal fish. Glowing bacteria thereby are transferred to the nutritious guts of fish and zooplankton, where they survive digestion and gain effective means for growth and dispersal. Using bioluminescence as bait appears to be highly beneficial for marine bacteria, especially in food-deprived environments of the deep sea.

  13. Mercury accumulation in mink fed fish collected from streams on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

    PubMed

    Halbrook, R S; Lewis, L A; Aulerich, R I; Bursian, S J

    1997-10-01

    This study evaluates effects of feeding mercury (Hg) contaminated fish collected from streams on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on mink. Diets composed of 25, 50, or 75% fish collected from streams on the ORR were fed to mink beginning 3 months prior to breeding and ending 6 weeks following whelping. Mercury concentrations in diets, tissues of adult mink and their offspring, and physiological and reproductive effects were recorded and compared to concentrations and effects observed in mink fed diets composed of 75% fish collected from the Clinch River above the ORR or from the ocean. Mercury concentrations in prepared diets and in tissues of adult mink and their offspring increased progressively with increased percentage of ORR fish in the diets. Female mink fed diets containing 75% ORR fish had reduced body weight and a decreased number of kits compared to those fed diets containing 75% fish collected above the ORR or from the ocean. However, based on previously reported Hg concentrations associated with adverse effects in mink, the observed adverse effects are not thought to result from exposure to Hg.

  14. Nerocila species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Trilles, Jean-Paul; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2013-03-01

    Eleven Nerocila species are recorded from 22 marine fishes belonging to 15 families. Three, Nerocila arres, Nerocila depressa, and Nerocila loveni, are new for the Indian fauna. N. arres and Nerocila sigani, previously synonymized, are redescribed and their individuality is restored. Nerocila exocoeti, until now inadequately identified, is described and distinctly characterized. A neotype is designated. New hosts were identified for N. depressa, N. loveni, Nerocila phaiopleura, Nerocila serra, and Nerocila sundaica. Host-parasite relationships were considered. The parasitologic indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. A checklist of the nominal Nerocila species until now reported from Indian marine fishes was compiled.

  15. Artificial propagation and breeding of marine fish in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wan-Shu; Zhang, Qi-Yong

    2002-03-01

    Since the 1990s, artificial propagation and breeding technique of marine fish in China have developed by way of increasing species and fry numbers, with special stress laid on valuable species. Large quantities of artificial fry can meet the needs of both marine cage culture and pond culture for most species. Experimental results obtained by scientists have been put into use in actual production. Fish fry production has entered a period of sustainable development. So far, at least 44 species (21 families) of marine fish have been successfully bred in China. The artificial fry number of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea) exceeded 300 million in 1999. The species whose artificial fry numbers have each surpassed 10 million annually are red drum ( Sciaenops ocellatus), Japanese seabass ( Lateolabrax japonicus), cuneate drum ( Nibea miichthioides), spring spawning red seabream ( Pagrosomus major) and threebanded sweetlip ( Plectorhynchus cinctus). Millions of artificial fry are bred annually in the species of black porgy ( Sparus macrocephalus), Russell's snapper ( Lutjanus russelli), javelin grunt ( Pomadasys hasta), miiuy croaker ( Miichthys miiuy) and skewband grunt ( Hapalogenys nitens). The fish in the family Sciaenidae are the main species in artificial propagation and breeding. Some problems and prospects on marine fish culture and stock enhancement are also discussed and some proposals for sustainable development are put forward in this article.

  16. Bony fish and their contribution to marine inorganic carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Michael; Perry, Chris; Wilson, Rod; Harborne, Alistair

    2016-04-01

    Conventional understanding of the marine inorganic carbon cycle holds that CaCO3 (mostly as low Mg-calcite and aragonite) precipitates in the upper reaches of the ocean and sinks to a point where it either dissolves or is deposited as sediment. Thus, it plays a key role controlling the distribution of DIC in the oceans and in regulating their capacity to absorb atmospheric CO2. However, several aspects of this cycle remain poorly understood and have long perplexed oceanographers, such as the positive alkalinity anomaly observed in the upper water column of many of the world's oceans, above the aragonite and calcite saturation horizons. This anomaly would be explained by extensive dissolution of a carbonate phase more soluble than low Mg-calcite or aragonite, but major sources for such phases remain elusive. Here we highlight marine bony fish as a potentially important primary source of this 'missing' high-solubility CaCO3. Precipitation of CaCO3 takes place within the intestines of all marine bony fish as part of their normal physiological functioning, and global production models suggest it could account for up to 45 % of total new marine CaCO3 production. Moreover, high Mg-calcite containing >25 % mol% MgCO3 - a more soluble phase than aragonite - is a major component of these precipitates. Thus, fish CaCO3 may at least partially explain the alkalinity anomaly in the upper water column. However, the issue is complicated by the fact that carbonate mineralogy actually varies among fish species, with high Mg-calcite (HMC), low Mg-calcite (LMC), aragonite, and amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) all being common products. Using data from 22 Caribbean fish species, we have generated a novel production model that resolves phase proportions. We evaluate the preservation/dissolution potential of these phases and consider potential implications for marine inorganic carbon cycling. In addition, we consider the dramatic changes in fish biomass structure that have resulted

  17. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos; Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marín, Arnaldo

    2011-03-01

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems.

  18. Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife.

    PubMed

    Dau, Brynie Kaplan; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Gulland, Frances M; Higgins, Ali; Holcomb, Jay B; Leger, Judy St; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    not detected between seasons for pinnipeds. Derelict fishing gear-lost, abandoned or discarded sport and commercial line, nets, traps, etc.-in the marine environment is a significant cause of injury in California coastal marine wildlife. We evaluated data for stranded animals only; our results may underestimate the true number of coastal marine animals injured by lost or discarded fishing gear in California.

  19. Metal concentrations in water, sediment, and fish from sewage-fed aquaculture ponds of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, S; Ghosh, L; Rai, S P; Ayyappan, S

    2009-12-01

    The concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc were investigated in the sewage-fed pond water, sediment, and the various organs of Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Oreochromis mossambicus, and Cyprinus carpio cultured in sewage-fed ponds, Kolkata, India. Among the metals, cadmium, lead, and zinc were detected in water and, except lead, were below the water quality guideline levels for the protection of freshwater aquatic life proposed by CEQG (Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines) and AENV (Alberta Environment). Therefore, lead could pose danger to aquatic organisms. All the five metals were detected in the sediment and, except cadmium and lead, were below the sediment quality guideline levels for aquatic life proposed by EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Therefore, these two metals could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Significant (P > 0.05) differences were observed among the five fish species for all these metals accumulation. Also, significant (P > 0.05) differences were noticed among these metals accumulation in fish organs. Cadmium showed the least bioaccumulation, while zinc showed the highest bioaccumulation in all the fish species. Though the metal concentration in the different fish tissues was variable, the highest concentration was found in kidney and the lowest in the muscle. Concentrations of these metals in the muscle tissue of all the fish species were well below the consumption safety tolerance in fish set by WHO/FAO, and thus, so far as these metals are concerned, these sewage-fed cultured fishes are safe and suitable for human consumption.

  20. 75 FR 38070 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... fish products to the United States, and other interested parties to comment on the advance notice of proposed rulemaking to implement the provisions of section 101(a)(2)(A) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act...

  1. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Guillermo E.; Moeller, Holly V.

    2016-01-01

    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks—and their habitats—can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot–Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically. PMID:26976560

  2. Reduced hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats fed docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil suppresses postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, I; Kumamaru, J; Nakatani, N; Sakono, M; Murota, I; Imaizumi, K

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms of suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid, the effect on the intestinal absorption of triglyceride, activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and metabolism of chylomicrons (CM) and CM remnants were compared with that of safflower oil in Sprague-Dawley rats in a series of studies. The feeding of fish oil for 3 wk suppressed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (study 1). Dietary fish oil did not alter the rate of lymphatic absorption of triglyceride (study 2). The activities of LPL and HTGL were measured at 5 h after the beginning of feeding, when serum triglyceride concentrations were highest in both dietary groups. The activities of LPL in adipose tissue and heart were greater (P < 0.05) and those of HTGL were lower (P < 0.05) in the rats fed fish oil (study 3). In contrast, there were no differences in the activities of LPL and HTGL in postheparin plasma between the fish and safflower oil groups (study 4). The clearance rates of CM and CM remnants were measured by injecting intravenously CM collected from rats fed safflower or fish oils with [14C]triolein and [3H]cholesterol (study 5). Dietary oil did not influence the half-lives of CM or CM remnants. The secretion of triglyceride from the liver of rats injected with Triton WR-1339 was lower (P < 0.05) in the rats fed docosahexaenoic acid, a major component of fish oil, than those fed linoleic acid, a major component of safflower oil (study 6). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that in rats, the principal cause of the suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil is the depression of triglyceride secretion from the liver.

  3. Marine Forage Fishes in Puget Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    authors and liaison with the NST and PMT. We also thank the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Public Affairs Staff — Patricia Grasser, Dick Devlin , Nola...the teleost fish, Ammodytes hexapterus, in relation to its burrowing behavior. Comparative Biochemistry and Physi- ology 97(A):57-61. Rice, C.A. 2006

  4. Association of marine archaea with the digestive tracts of two marine fish species.

    PubMed

    van der Maarel, M J; Artz, R R; Haanstra, R; Forney, L J

    1998-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that archaea which were always thought to live under strict anoxic or extreme environmental conditions are also present in cold, oxygenated seawater, soils, the digestive tract of a holothurian deep-sea-deposit feeder, and a marine sponge. In this study, we show, by using PCR-mediated screening in other marine eukaryotes, that marine archaea are also present in the digestive tracts of flounder and grey mullet, two fish species common in the North Sea, in fecal samples of flounder, and in suspended particulate matter of the North Sea water column. No marine archaea could be detected in the digestive tracts of mussels or the fecal pellets of a copepod species. The archaeal 16S ribosomal DNA clone libraries of feces of flounder and the contents of the digestive tracts of grey mullet and flounder were dominated by group II marine archaea. The marine archaeal clones derived from flounder and grey mullet digestive tracts and feces formed a distinct cluster within the group II marine archaea, with 76.7 to 89. 8% similarity to previously described group II clones. Fingerprinting of the archaeal community of flounder digestive tract contents and feces by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of archaeal 16S rRNA genes after restriction with HhaI showed a dominant fragment at 249 bp, which is likely to be derived from group II marine archaea. Clones of marine archaea that were closely related to the fish-associated marine archaea clones were obtained from suspended particulate matter of the water column at two stations in the North Sea. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of the archaeal community present in suspended particulate matter showed the same fragment pattern as was found for the archaeal community of the flounder digestive tract contents and feces. These data demonstrate that marine archaea are present in the digestive tracts and feces of very common marine fish. It is possible that the marine

  5. 78 FR 20296 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine... for revision of a current information collection. The title will be changed from ``Marine Recreational Information Program'' to ``Marine Recreational Information Program Fishing Effort Survey''....

  6. Damped trophic cascades driven by fishing in model marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Andersen, K H; Pedersen, M

    2010-03-07

    The largest perturbation on upper trophic levels of many marine ecosystems stems from fishing. The reaction of the ecosystem goes beyond the trophic levels directly targeted by the fishery. This reaction has been described either as a change in slope of the overall size spectrum or as a trophic cascade triggered by the removal of top predators. Here we use a novel size- and trait-based model to explore how marine ecosystems might react to perturbations from different types of fishing pressure. The model explicitly resolves the whole life history of fish, from larvae to adults. The results show that fishing does not change the overall slope of the size spectrum, but depletes the largest individuals and induces trophic cascades. A trophic cascade can propagate both up and down in trophic levels driven by a combination of changes in predation mortality and food limitation. The cascade is damped as it comes further away from the perturbed trophic level. Fishing on several trophic levels leads to a disappearance of the signature of the trophic cascade. Differences in fishing patterns among ecosystems might influence whether a trophic cascade is observed.

  7. Mercury levels of marine fish commonly consumed in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal Mohd; Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita Wan; Jaafar, Hamdan; Ishak, Ismail; Azmi, Wan Nurul Farah Wan; Veloo, Yuvaneswary; Hairi, Mohd Hairulhisam

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of total mercury in the edible portion of 46 species of marine fish (n = 297) collected from selected major fish landing ports and wholesale markets throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Samples were collected in June to December 2009. Prior to analysis, the fish samples were processed which consisted of drying at 65 °C until a constant weight was attained; then, it was grounded and digested by a microwave digestion system. The analytical determination was carried out by using a mercury analysis system. Total mercury concentration among fish species was examined. The results showed that mercury concentrations were found significantly higher (p < 0.001) in demersal fish (the range was from 0.173 to 2.537 mg/kg in dried weight) compared to pelagic fish (which ranged from 0.055 to 2.137 mg/kg in dried weight). The mercury concentrations were also higher in carnivorous fish especially in the species with more predatory feeding habits. Besides, the family group of Latidae (0.537 ± 0.267 mg/kg in dried weight), Dasyatidae (0.492 ± 0.740 mg/kg in dried weight), and Lutjanidae (0.465 ± 0.566 mg/kg in dried weight) showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher mercury levels compared to other groups. Fish collected from Port Klang (0.563 ± 0.509 mg/kg in dry weight), Kuala Besar (0.521 ± 0.415 mg/kg in dry weight), and Pandan (0.380 ± 0.481 mg/kg in dry weight) were significantly higher (p = 0.014) in mercury concentrations when compared to fish from other sampling locations. Total mercury levels were significantly higher (p < 0.002) in bigger fish (body length >20 cm) and were positively related with fish size (length and weight) in all fish samples. Despite the results, the level of mercury in marine fish did not exceed the permitted levels of Malaysian and JECFA guideline values at 0.5 mg/kg methylmercury in fish.

  8. Gastric ulceration and suspected vitamin A toxicosis in grower pigs fed fish silage.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, J W; Holbek, N E; Beames, R M; Puls, R; O'Brien, W P

    1998-01-01

    In 3 feeding trials, gastric ulceration was diagnosed in 2 of 12 lame and recumbent grower pigs fed a diet of 50% fish silage produced from the offal of farmed Atlantic salmon. Premature femoral physeal closure and elevated serum retinyl palmitate levels, features of vitamin A toxicosis, were also observed. Images Figure 1. PMID:9524722

  9. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  10. Contrasting "Fish" Diversity Dynamics between Marine and Freshwater Environments.

    PubMed

    Guinot, Guillaume; Cavin, Lionel

    2015-08-31

    Two theoretical models have been proposed to describe long-term dynamics of diversification: the equilibrium model considers the Earth as a closed system with a fixed maximum biological carrying capacity, whereas the expansion model hypothesizes a continuously increasing diversification of life. Based on the analysis of the fossil record of all organisms, Benton suggested contrasting models of diversity dynamics between marine and continental realms. Diversity in marine environments is characterized by phases of rapid diversification followed by plateaux, i.e., an equilibrium model directly derived from insular biogeography theories, whereas diversity in continental environments is characterized by exponential growth. Previous studies that aimed at testing these models with empirical data were based on datasets extracted directly from the reading of the vagaries of the raw fossil record, without correcting for common fossil record biases (preservation and sampling). Although correction of datasets for the incompleteness of the fossil record is now commonly performed for addressing long-term biodiversity variations, only a few attempts have been made to produce diversity curves corrected by phylogenetic data from extant and extinct taxa. Here we show that phylogenetically corrected diversity curves for "fish" (actinopterygians and elasmobranchs) during the last 200 million years fit an equilibrium model in the marine realm and an expansion model in the freshwater realm. These findings demonstrate that the rate of diversification has decreased for marine fish over the Cenozoic but is in sharp expansion for freshwater fish.

  11. DNA viruses associated with diseases of marine and anadromous fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetrick, F. M.

    1984-03-01

    The association of DNA-containing viruses with diseases of marine and anadromous fish is reviewed. One section of the review describes those diseases with a proven viral etiology. Available information on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the viruses is included. Another section deals with those diseases where a viral etiology is suspected but not established. The primary evidence associating viruses with many of these diseases is the observation of virus particles in electron micrographs of thin sections of tissue samples from diseased fish. Finally, the possible role of pollutants, and other stress factors, in predisposing fish to viral infection is discussed as are the problems associated with studying diseases of wild fish populations.

  12. Blood pressure and vascular reactivity changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed fish oil.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, K.; Chu, Z. M.; Beilin, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    1. To examine possible mechanisms of antihypertensive effects of feeding fish oil rich in n-3 fatty acids, we have studied vascular reactivity of aortic rings and perfused mesenteric resistance vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) given such a diet. 2. In two experiments, rats were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing either 'fish oil' (10 and 20% by weight) or hydrogenated coconut oil (control) (10 and 20%) for 4 weeks. 3. Blood pressure rose significantly less in the fish oil group than in controls in both experiments. 4. Aortic rings from control rats showed endothelium-dependent relaxations to low concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) but relaxed less at higher concentrations. In contrast, rings from the fish oil group had relaxations which increased through the range of concentrations used. Indomethacin (10 microM) also increased the relaxation responses seen in rings from control rats, suggesting that fish oil inhibits a contractile cyclo-oxygenase product. This contractile substance may be thromboxane A2 (TxA2) or its endoperoxide precursor, prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) as aortic incubates and serum levels of TxB2 (the stable product of TxA2) were greatly reduced in fish oil-fed rats, and the decrease of relaxant responses to high concentrations of ACh were also blocked by a TxA2/PGH2 receptor blocker (SQ 29548). 5. In contrast to aortic rings, perfused preconstricted mesenteric resistance vessels of control rats relaxed to ACh in a similar fashion to tissues from fish oil-fed rats. However, in this preparation, fish oil feeding enhanced relaxations to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and contractile responses to noradrenaline were less than controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1855129

  13. Additive and Synergistic Impacts of Fishing and Warming on the Growth of a Temperate Marine Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrongiello, J.

    2016-02-01

    Fishing and climate change are having profound impacts on the trajectory and variability of marine populations. However, despite the wealth of work undertaken in marine environments on the causes of longer-term biological change, the effects of these two drivers have traditionally been considered in isolation or just additively. Such an approach obviously overlooks the potential for significant synergistic or antagonistic interactions between fishing and climate to occur. Indeed, it is increasingly becoming acknowledged that the direction and magnitude of biological responses to natural environmental variation and climate change can be mediated by other anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing, and vice versa. Somatic growth is an ideal candidate with which to explore the impacts of fishing and environmental variability due to its strong biological relevance and its heightened sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic drivers. I developed 19-year growth biochronologies (1980-1999) for three south-east Australian populations of a site-attached temperate reef fish, purple wrasse (Notolabrus fucicola) using individual-based growth information naturally archived in otoliths. A commercial wrasse fishery began in the early 1990s; before this there was negligible recreational or commercial fishing. The growth of older fish was proportionally higher and that of the youngest fish proportionally lower after the onset of commercial fishing; 2-year olds grew 7.4% slower, but 5-year-olds grew 10.3% and 10-year-olds 26% faster in the latter period. These results are consistent with a density dependent response to harvesting. Average growth rates across all ages increased by 6.6%.oC-1, reflecting either a direct or indirect temperature effect in this global marine 'hotspot'. Finally, the distribution of individual thermal reaction norms significantly changed post fishing, showing that fishing and temperature can have a synergetic impact on marine populations via within

  14. Fish Growth in Marine Culture Systems: A Challenge for Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lyndon

    1999-07-01

    : Aquaculture production is constrained largely by the growth efficiency of the species being produced. Nutritional approaches have played an important part in improving this situation, but, it is argued, the room for further improvement using such established techniques is limited. Alternative ways of improving fish production by utilizing recent biotechnological advances are explored and assessed as to their potential for commercialization in the near future. Transgenic technologies promise a revolution in aquaculture, but it is considered that consumer resistance may delay the use of transgenic fish for food production. An alternative approach could be the breeding of transgenic fodder plants without the amino acid deficiencies of existing alternatives to fish meal in aquaculture diets. The use of probiotics could reduce antibiotic use on fish farms while they might also provide the basis for "smart" diets, tailored to specific purposes by the inclusion of microorganisms. The selection and genetic engineering of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria could also pave the way for fully enclosed, recirculating marine culture systems, which would allow control of the environmental variables that currently restrain marine fish culture.

  15. Marine genetic swamping: hybrids replace an obligately estuarine fish.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David G; Gray, Charles A; West, Ronald J; Ayre, David J

    2010-02-01

    Populations of obligately estuarine taxa are potentially small and isolated and may lack genetic variation and display regional differentiation as a result of drift and inbreeding. Hybridization with a wide-ranging marine congener should introduce genetic variation and reduce the effects of inbreeding depression and genetic drift. However, high levels of hybridization can cause demographic and genetic swamping. In southeastern Australia hybridization occurs between obligately estuarine Black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) and migratory marine Yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus australis). Here, we surveyed genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region of juvenile fish from five coastal lagoons (including temporal replication in two lagoons) (total n = 970) to determine the frequency and persistence of hybridization, and its likely consequence for the estuarine restricted A. butcheri. Of 688 juvenile fish genotyped 95% were either A. australis (347) or hybrids (309); only 5% (32) were A. butcheri. Most hybrids were later generation hybrids or A. butcheri backcrosses, which are likely multi-generational residents within lagoons. Far greater proportions of hybrid juveniles were found within two lagoons that are generally closed to the ocean (>90% hybrid fish within generally closed lagoons vs. 12-27% in permanently or intermittently open lagoons). In both lagoons, this was consistent across multiple cohorts of fish [79-97% hybrid fish (n = 282)]. Hybridization and introgression represent a major threat to the persistence of A. butcheri and have yet to be investigated for large numbers of estuarine taxa.

  16. Occurrence of cymothoid isopod from Miri, East Malaysian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Anand Kumar, A; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Priya, E Rethna; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Leng, Alex Goh Kwang

    2015-06-01

    To identify the isopod parasite, which has been recorded from Miri, East Malaysian marine fishes. During the present study, four cymothoid isopods are reported three genera, including Cymothoa eremita, Lobothorax typus, Nerocila longispina and Nerocila loveni. Nerocila longispina and N. loveni are also previously reported from Malaysia and two additional cymothoids C. eremita and L. typus are reported for the first record of Miri coast, East Malaysia. New hosts were identified for N. loveni on Chirocentrus dorab for the first time in the world fauna. The Parasitological indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. These parasites can cause the damage in gill, eye and internal organ including swim bladder. Marine fish parasitology is a rapidly developing field of aquatic science.

  17. Environmental management of marine fish culture in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H W; Choi, K W; Arega, F

    2003-01-01

    Marine fish farming is an important commercial practice in Hong Kong. Marine fish farms located in eutrophic coastal waters often face the threat of severe dissolved oxygen depletion associated with algal blooms and red tides. On the other hand, mariculture activities also contribute to pollution. The sustainable management of mariculture requires proper siting of the fish farms and stocking density control. Both of these are related to the carrying capacity of the water body concerned, which is mainly governed by its flushing characteristics. A simple method to determine the carrying capacity of a fish farm has been developed by using three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic modelling and its effective coupling with a diagenetic water quality model. A systematic methodology using numerical tracer experiments has been developed to compute the tidal flushing in a fish farm. The flushing time is determined from the results of a numerical tracer experiment using robust 3D hydrodynamic and mass transport models. A unit tracer concentration is initially prescribed inside the region of interest and zero elsewhere; the subsequent mass transport and the mass removal process are then tracked. The fish farms are usually situated in well-sheltered shallow embayments and may not connect directly to the open water. It is found that it is necessary to define both "local" and "system-wide" flushing times to represent the effectiveness of the mass exchange with the surrounding water body and the open sea respectively. A diagenetic water quality model simulating the sediment-water-pollutant interaction is employed to address the response of the water column and the benthic layer to pollution discharges. With the flushing rate reliably computed, the carrying capacity of the fish farm can be determined in terms of key water quality parameters: chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, organic nitrogen and potential lowest dissolved oxygen level on a day of negligible photosynthetic production. The

  18. Evidence of melanoma in wild marine fish populations.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Michael; Kirkham, Nigel; Bendall, Mark; Currey, Leanne; Bythell, John; Heupel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The increase in reports of novel diseases in a wide range of ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, has been linked to many factors including exposure to novel pathogens and changes in the global climate. Prevalence of skin cancer in particular has been found to be increasing in humans, but has not been reported in wild fish before. Here we report extensive melanosis and melanoma (skin cancer) in wild populations of an iconic, commercially-important marine fish, the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. The syndrome reported here has strong similarities to previous studies associated with UV induced melanomas in the well-established laboratory fish model Xiphophorus. Relatively high prevalence rates of this syndrome (15%) were recorded at two offshore sites in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). In the absence of microbial pathogens and given the strong similarities to the UV-induced melanomas, we conclude that the likely cause was environmental exposure to UV radiation. Further studies are needed to establish the large scale distribution of the syndrome and confirm that the lesions reported here are the same as the melanoma in Xiphophorus, by assessing mutation of the EGFR gene, Xmrk. Furthermore, research on the potential links of this syndrome to increases in UV radiation from stratospheric ozone depletion needs to be completed.

  19. Arsenic speciation in marine fish and shellfish from American Samoa.

    PubMed

    Peshut, Peter J; Morrison, R John; Brooks, Barbara A

    2008-03-01

    We speciated arsenic compounds in marine fish and shellfish from two islands of the United States Territory of American Samoa in the South Pacific, and found that inorganic arsenic occurred as a minor fraction. The proportion of inorganic arsenic was generally far below the levels of prevailing assumptions typically used in human health risk assessments when only total arsenic is analysed. Fish and shellfish were collected from Tutuila and Ofu between May 2001 and March 2002 (n=383 individual specimens, with 117 composites); sites were selected based on habitat type and were representative of those frequented by local fishers. These islands have moderately developed reef fish fisheries among artisanal fishers, are far removed from any industrial or mining sources of arsenic, and presented an opportunity to study arsenic variations in marine biota from un-impacted environments. Target species were from various trophic levels and are among those frequently harvested for human consumption. We found evidence that arsenic concentrated in some marine species, but did not tend to follow classic trophic patterns for biomagnification or bioaccumulation. For the majority of samples, inorganic arsenic was less than 0.5% of total arsenic, with only a few samples in the range of 1-5%, the latter being mollusks which are recognized to have unusually high arsenic levels in general. This work supports the importance of speciation analysis for arsenic, because of the ubiquitous occurrence of arsenic in the environment, and its variable toxicity depending on chemical form.

  20. Evidence of Melanoma in Wild Marine Fish Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael; Kirkham, Nigel; Bendall, Mark; Currey, Leanne; Bythell, John; Heupel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The increase in reports of novel diseases in a wide range of ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, has been linked to many factors including exposure to novel pathogens and changes in the global climate. Prevalence of skin cancer in particular has been found to be increasing in humans, but has not been reported in wild fish before. Here we report extensive melanosis and melanoma (skin cancer) in wild populations of an iconic, commercially-important marine fish, the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. The syndrome reported here has strong similarities to previous studies associated with UV induced melanomas in the well-established laboratory fish model Xiphophorus. Relatively high prevalence rates of this syndrome (15%) were recorded at two offshore sites in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). In the absence of microbial pathogens and given the strong similarities to the UV-induced melanomas, we conclude that the likely cause was environmental exposure to UV radiation. Further studies are needed to establish the large scale distribution of the syndrome and confirm that the lesions reported here are the same as the melanoma in Xiphophorus, by assessing mutation of the EGFR gene, Xmrk. Furthermore, research on the potential links of this syndrome to increases in UV radiation from stratospheric ozone depletion needs to be completed. PMID:22870273

  1. Increase in plasma lipid peroxide in cats fed a fish diet.

    PubMed

    Momoi, Y; Goto, Y; Tanide, K; Takahashi, N; Watari, T; Yamazo, K; Tsujimoto, H; Kudo, T

    2001-12-01

    Plasma lipid peroxide levels were examined in cats. Plasma lipid peroxide levels in 3 of 4 clinical cases which had been fed raw fish were higher than those in normal cats. When healthy cats were put on a raw fish diet in controlled conditions, a remarkable increase in plasma lipid peroxide was observed. This increase occurred within 1 to 3 weeks in cats without obvious clinical disorders. We also showed that a continuous raw fish diet is necessary to cause the increase, but the increase was transient and restored in spite of a continuous raw fish diet, indicating the development of an unidentified antioxidant process. Our results clearly indicate that intake of foods high in polyunsaturated fatty acid can induce oxidative stress in cats.

  2. Effects of customary marine closures on fish behavior, spear-fishing success, and underwater visual surveys.

    PubMed

    Feary, David A; Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A

    2011-04-01

    Customary management systems (i.e., management systems that limit the use of marine resources), such as rotational fisheries closures, can limit harvest of resources. Nevertheless, the explicit goals of customary management are often to influence fish behavior (in particular flight distance, i.e., distance at which an organism begins to flee an approaching threat), rather than fish abundance. We explored whether the flight distance of reef fishes targeted by local artisanal fishers differed between a customary closure and fished reefs. We also examined whether flight distance of these species affected fishing success and accuracy of underwater visual census (UVC) between customary closed areas and areas open to fishing. Several species demonstrated significant differences in flight distance between areas, indicating that fishing activity may increase flight distance. These relatively long flight distances mean that in fished areas most target species may stay out of the range of spear fishers. In addition, mean flight distances for all species both inside and outside the customary-closure area were substantially smaller than the observation distance of an observer conducting a belt-transect UVC (mean [SE]= 8.8 m [0.48]). For targeted species that showed little ability to evade spear fishers, customary closures may be a vital management technique. Our results show that customary closures can have a substantial, positive effect on resource availability and that conventional UVC techniques may be insensitive to changes in flight behavior of fishes associated with fishing. We argue that short, periodic openings of customary closures may allow the health of the fish community to be maintained and local fishers to effectively harvest fishes. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Sagittal otolith morphogenesis asymmetry in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Mille, T; Mahe, K; Villanueva, M C; De Pontual, H; Ernande, B

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated and compared asymmetry in sagittal otolith shape and length between left and right inner ears in four roundfish and four flatfish species of commercial interest. For each species, the effects of ontogenetic changes (individual age and total body length), sexual dimorphism (individual sex) and the otolith's location on the right or left side of the head, on the shape and length of paired otoliths (between 143 and 702 pairs according to species) were evaluated. Ontogenetic changes in otolith shape and length were observed for all species. Sexual dimorphism, either in otolith shape and length or in their ontogenetic changes, was detected for half of the species, be they round or flat. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was detected in one roundfish species each, but its inconsistency across species and its small average amplitude (6·17% for shape and 1·99% for length) suggested that it has barely any biological relevance. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was found for all flatfish species except otolith length for one species. Its average amplitude varied between 2·06 and 17·50% for shape and between 0·00 and 11·83% for length and increased significantly throughout ontogeny for two species, one dextral and one sinistral. The longer (length) and rounder otolith (shape) appeared to be always on the blind side whatever the species. These results suggest differential biomineralization between the blind and ocular inner ears in flatfish species that could result from perturbations of the proximal-distal gradient of otolith precursors in the endolymph and the otolith position relative to the geometry of the saccular epithelium due to body morphology asymmetry and lateralized behaviour. The fact that asymmetry never exceeded 18% even at the individual level suggests an evolutionary canalization of otolith shape symmetry to avoid negative effects on fish hearing and balance. Technically

  4. Fatty acid clearance by isolated perfused hindquarters of rats fed fish oil

    SciTech Connect

    Herzberg, G.R.; MacCharles, G.; Rogerson, M. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that, compared to the dietary fatty acid composition, n-3 fatty acids are underrepresented in the adipose tissue of rats consuming fish oil diets. They have also shown that in rats fed fish oil diets, lipoprotein lipase is elevated in skeletal muscle and heart but not in adipose tissue. These two observations led us to hypothesize that n-3 enriched lipoproteins and n-3 fatty acids are preferentially utilized by muscle. Rats were fed diets containing 10% by weight corn oil (CO) or 2% CO + 8% fish oil (MaxEPA) for two weeks. Skinned hindquarters were perfused using a Krebs-Henselheit buffer containing 3% albumin, 5.5 mM glucose and 0.5 mM fatty acid. Muscle ATP was unaffected by previous diet or fatty acid perfused and was approximately 6 {mu}mol/g wet weight in each group. The rate of fatty acid removal was linear for 60 minutes by which time between 30 and 50% of the fatty acid in the perfusate had been removed. They determined the removal of either {sup 14}C EPA and {sup 14}C oleate. There was a significant effect of both the type of fatty acid and the previous diet of the rats from which the hindquarters were obtained. EPA was removed more rapidly by hindquarters from MaxEPA-fed rats than corn oil fed rats. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced utilization of fatty acids by muscle contributes to the hypotriglyceridemic effect of dietary fish oils. They also suggest that n-3 fatty acids are more rapidly utilized by skeletal muscle.

  5. Effects of seismic air guns on marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardle, C. S.; Carter, T. J.; Urquhart, G. G.; Johnstone, A. D. F.; Ziolkowski, A. M.; Hampson, G.; Mackie, D.

    2001-05-01

    Observations of marine fish and invertebrates on an inshore reef were made using TV and acoustic tags one week before, during, and four days after a seismic triple G. airgun (three synchronised airguns, each gun 2.5 l and 2000 psi) was deployed and repeatedly fired. The guns were fired once/min for eight periods on four days at different positions. The structure and intensity of the sound of each triple G. gun explosion was recorded and calibrated. Peak sound pressure levels of 210 dB (rel to 1 μPa) at 16 m range and 195 dB (rel to 1 μPa) at 109 m range were measured at positions where the fish were being observed. The final position of the triple G. gun, at 5.3 m range, had a peak pressure level of 218 dB (rel to 1 μPa). Neither the fish, nor the invertebrates, showed any signs of moving away from the reef. Firing the guns did not interrupt a diurnal rhythm of fish gathering at dusk and passing the TV camera position while the guns were firing. The long-term day-to-night movements of two tagged pollack were slightly changed by the arrival and banging of the guns particularly when positioned within 10 m of their normal living positions. Those reef fish, watched by the TV camera, always showed involuntary reactions in the form of a Mauthner cell reflex, C-start, at each explosion of the guns at all ranges tested (maximum range was 109 m, 195 dB rel to 1 μPa). When the explosion source was not visible to the fish, the C-start reaction was cut short and the fish continued with what they were doing before the stimulus. When the G. gun rack was sunk to the seabed (depth 14 m) visible to the fish and the TV camera, those fish that were observed approaching the G. gun rack when the guns were fired were seen to turn and flee from the very visible explosion. When the gun rack was suspended midwater (5 m depth) and just outside visible range at 16 metres, the fish receiving a 6 ms peak to peak, 206 dB (rel to 1 μPa) pressure swing exhibited a C-start and then continued

  6. Biodiversity conservation should focus on no-take Marine Reserves: 94% of Marine Protected Areas allow fishing.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark J; Ballantine, Bill

    2015-09-01

    Conservation needs places where nature is left wild; but only a quarter of coastal countries have no-take Marine Reserves. 'Marine Protected Areas' (MPAs) have been used to indicate conservation progress but we found that 94% allow fishing and thus cannot protect all aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation should focus on Marine Reserves, not MPAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    PubMed

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Fitzsimons, John D; Tillitt, Donald E; Brown, Scott B

    2009-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  8. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  9. A review of the influence of biogeography, riverine linkages, and marine connectivity on fish assemblages in evolving lagoons and lakes of coastal southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Alan K; Weerts, Steven P; Weyl, Olaf L F

    2017-09-01

    The Holocene evolution of eight South African coastal lakes and lagoons is examined and related to changes in fish composition over that period. Historical and current connectivity with riverine and marine environments are the primary determinants of present-day fish assemblages in these systems. A small and remarkably consistent group of relict estuarine species have persisted in these coastal lakes and lagoons. The loss or reduction of connectivity with the sea has impacted on the diversity of marine fishes in all eight study systems, with no marine fishes occurring in those water bodies where connectivity has been completely broken (e.g. Sibaya, Groenvlei). In systems that have retained tenuous linkages with the sea (e.g., Verlorenvlei, Wilderness lakes), elements of the marine fish assemblage have persisted, especially the presence of facultative catadromous species. Freshwater fish diversity in coastal lakes and lagoons is a function of historical and present biogeography and salinity. From a freshwater biogeography perspective, the inflowing rivers of the four temperate systems reviewed here contain three or fewer native freshwater fishes, while the subtropical lakes that are fed by river systems contain up to 40 freshwater fish species. Thus, the significantly higher fish species diversity in subtropical versus temperate coastal lakes and lagoons comes as no surprise. Fish species diversity has been increased further in some systems (e.g., Groenvlei) by alien fish introductions. However, the impacts of fish introductions and translocations have not been studied in the coastal lakes and lagoons of South Africa. In these closed systems, it is probable that predation impacts on small estuarine fishes are significant. The recent alien fish introductions is an example of the growing threats to these systems during the Anthropocene, a period when human activities have had significant negative impacts and show potential to match the changes recorded during the

  10. Dietary toxicity of field-contaminated invertebrates to marine fish: effects of metal doses and subcellular metal distribution.

    PubMed

    Dang, Fei; Rainbow, Philip S; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-09-15

    There is growing awareness of the toxicological effects of metal-contaminated invertebrate diets on the health of fish populations in metal-contaminated habitats, yet the mechanisms underlying metal bioaccumulation and toxicity are complex. In the present study, marine fish Terapon jurbua terepon were fed a commercial diet supplemented with specimens of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor or the clam Scrobicularia plana, collected from four metal-impacted estuaries (Tavy, Restronguet Creek, West Looe, Gannel) in southwest England, as environmentally realistic metal sources. A comparative toxicological evaluation of both invertebrates showed that fish fed S. plana for 21 d exhibited evident mortality compared to those fed N. diversicolor. Furthermore, a spatial effect on mortality was observed. Differences in metal doses rather than subcellular metal distributions between N. diversicolor and S. plana appeared to be the cause of such different mortalities. Partial least squares regression was used to evaluate the statistical relationship between multiple-metal doses and fish mortality, revealing that Pb, Fe, Cd and Zn in field-collected invertebrates co-varied most strongly with the observed mortality. This study provides a step toward exploring the underlying mechanism of dietary toxicity and identifying the potential causality in complex metal mixture exposures in the field.

  11. Ecology of selected marine communities in Glacier Bay: Zooplankton, forage fish, seabirds and marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robards, Martin D.; Drew, Gary S.; Piatt, John F.; Anson, Jennifer Marie; Abookire, Alisa A.; Bodkin, James L.; Hooge, Philip N.; Speckman, Suzann G.

    2003-01-01

    We studied oceanography (including primary production), secondary production, small schooling fish (SSF), and marine bird and mammal predators in Glacier Bay during 1999 and 2000. Results from these field efforts were combined with a review of current literature relating to the Glacier Bay environment. Since the conceptual model developed by Hale and Wright (1979) ‘changes and cycles’ continue to be the underlying theme of the Glacier Bay ecosystem. We found marked seasonality in many of the parameters that we investigated over the two years of research, and here we provide a comprehensive description of the distribution and relative abundance of a wide array of marine biota. Glacier Bay is a tidally mixed estuary that leads into basins, which stratify in summer, with the upper arms behaving as traditional estuaries. The Bay is characterized by renewal and mixing events throughout the year, and markedly higher primary production than in many neighboring southeast Alaska fjords (Hooge and Hooge, 2002). Zooplankton diversity and abundance within the upper 50 meters of the water column in Glacier Bay is similar to communities seen throughout the Gulf of Alaska. Zooplankton in the lower regions of Glacier Bay peak in abundance in late May or early June, as observed at Auke Bay and in the Gulf of Alaska. The key distinction between the lower Bay and other estuaries in the Gulf of Alaska is that a second smaller peak in densities occurs in August. The upper Bay behaved uniformly in temporal trends, peaking in July. Densities had begun to decline in August, but were still more than twice those observed in that region in May. The highest density of zooplankton observed was 17,870 organisms/m3 in Tarr Inlet during July. Trends in zooplankton community abundance and diversity within the lower Bay were distinct from upper-Glacier Bay trends. Whereas the lower Bay is strongly influenced by Gulf of Alaska processes, local processes are the strongest influence in the upper

  12. 50 CFR 223.301 - Special rules-marine and anadromous fishes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special rules-marine and anadromous fishes. 223.301 Section 223.301 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE...

  13. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, on Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  14. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, On Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  15. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, On Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  16. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, on Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  17. Some camallanid nematodes from marine perciform fishes off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou; Rigby, Mark C

    2006-09-01

    Two new, one known and three unidentified species of the nematode family Camallanidae are reported and described from the intestines of marine perciform fishes off the southwestern coast of New Caledonia, South Pacific: Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1952 from the forked-tailed threadfin bream Nemipterus furcosus (Nemipteridae), the yellowstriped goatfish Upeneus vittatus and the whitesaddle goatfish Parupeneus ciliatus (both Mullidae) (new host records); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) variolae sp. n. from the white-edged lyretail Variola albimarginata (type host) and the blacktip grouper Epinephelus fasciatus (both Serranidae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) longus sp. n. from the twotone tang Zebrasoma scopas (Acanthuridae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 1 (female tail with 2 terminal spikes on a digit-like projection) from the speckled sand-perch Parapercis hexophtalma (Pinguipedidae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 2 (female tail with 1 spike on a digit-like projection) from the drab emperor Lethrinus ravus (Lethrinidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 3 (female tail with a smooth digit-like protrusion) from the two-lined monocle bream Scolopsis bilineata (Nemipteridae). Camallanus paracarangis Velasquez, 1980 is synonymized with C. carangis. Several additional species of Camallanus from marine fish of the Indo-Pacific region may be synonymous with C. carangis as it has a poorly sclerotized left spicule and 3 small caudal projections on the tail of young (i.e., non-gravid) females. The fourth-stage larva of C. carangis is described for the first time. P. (S.) variolae differs from most similar species of this region mainly in the position (i.e., at level or posterior to the nerve ring) and shape of deirids. P. (S.) longus differs from the similar P. (S.) chaimha mainly in a different arrangement of postanal papillae, shape of the female tail, much longer right spicule (429 microm) and longer body of gravid females (38-55 mm). All Camallanus and

  18. Checklist of digenean trematodes reported from Indian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Madhavi, R

    2011-03-01

    This checklist summarises information on the digenean trematodes of Indian marine fishes contained in the world literature dating from 1913 to the end of 2008. Altogether more than 700 species of digeneans belonging to more than 200 genera and 32 families are recorded. For each parasite species information is provided on the host(s), geographical locality (-ies) and the published source(s). The synonymies proposed in the literature for some of the parasite species are also included. The classification follows that given in the 'Keys to the Trematoda'.

  19. Branchial cymothoids infesting the marine food fishes of Malabar coast.

    PubMed

    Panakkool-Thamban, Aneesh; Ameri Kottarathil, Helna; Kappalli, Sudha

    2016-12-01

    Occurrence of cymothoid isopods parasitizing the branchial chamber of marine food fishes along the Malabar coast was investigated. Live and fresh fishes collected from the Ayyikkara fish landing center (Lat. 11°51'N, Long. 75°22'E; Malabar coast, India) were subjected to the thorough observation for the presence of branchial cymothoids for 3 consecutive years (November 2009-November 2012). Among the recovered cymothoids, 11 species were branchial residents belonging to 6 genera; the species include Agarna malayi, Catoessa gruneri, C. boscii, Joryma hilsae, J. brachysoma, J. engraulidis, J. sawayah, Mothocya collettei, M. renardi, Norileca indica and Ryukyua circularis; highest prevalence being exhibited by two species of Mothocya, (M. renardi and M. collettei) parasitizing the belonidaen fishes, Strongylura leiura (92.15 %) and Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (87.2 %) respectively. Except Mothocya species, which preferred the branchial floor for infestation, all recovered branchial cymothoids were found attached the inner wall of the operculum. In several instances, the parasites appeared in male-female pairs, one in each branchial cavity. Ovigerous female members of all species of branchial cymothoids except R. circularis showed remarkable bending either towards left or right depending on whether they are located in right or left branchial cavity of their respective host fishes. The deleterious effects of parasitization by all recovered branchial cymothoids include the formation of a pit like depression in the branchial chamber and atrophy of the gill filament; the damage was more pronounced in the gill cavity of parasitized host fishes where the ovigerous female member was accommodated.

  20. Ocean acidification erodes crucial auditory behaviour in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stephen D; Munday, Philip L; Wittenrich, Matthew L; Manassa, Rachel; Dixson, Danielle L; Gagliano, Monica; Yan, Hong Y

    2011-12-23

    Ocean acidification is predicted to affect marine ecosystems in many ways, including modification of fish behaviour. Previous studies have identified effects of CO(2)-enriched conditions on the sensory behaviour of fishes, including the loss of natural responses to odours resulting in ecologically deleterious decisions. Many fishes also rely on hearing for orientation, habitat selection, predator avoidance and communication. We used an auditory choice chamber to study the influence of CO(2)-enriched conditions on directional responses of juvenile clownfish (Amphiprion percula) to daytime reef noise. Rearing and test conditions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predictions for the twenty-first century: current-day ambient, 600, 700 and 900 µatm pCO(2). Juveniles from ambient CO(2)-conditions significantly avoided the reef noise, as expected, but this behaviour was absent in juveniles from CO(2)-enriched conditions. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that ocean acidification affects the auditory response of fishes, with potentially detrimental impacts on early survival.

  1. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in marine fishes along the Chinese coastline.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chonghuan; Lam, James C W; Wu, Xiaoguo; Sun, Liguang; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-03-01

    This study reports concentrations of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in two species of marine fish, large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaenacrocea) and silver pomfret (Pampusargenteus) (n = 46), from nine Chinese coastal cities (Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Shanghai, Zhoushan, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Quanzhou and Xiamen). HBCDs were detectable in all samples analyzed, indicating ubiquitous contamination of these compounds in the Chinese coastal environment. The average total HBCD concentration was 3.7 ng g⁻¹ lipid weight (range: 0.57-10.1 ng g⁻¹ lipid weight), which is relatively lower than other regions of the world, especially Europe, where HBCDs are intensively used. Among the three individual HBCD isomers (α-, β- and γ-HBCD) in all fish samples, the α-isomer showed a remarkable predominance (from 87.5% to 100% of total contribution), indicating its higher bioaccumulative potential. Geographically, the highest HBCD level present in fish was found in Dalian in northern China, and the lowest occurred in Wenzhou. Estimated daily intakes of HBCDs via fish consumption for the Chinese population were 0.004-1.00 ng kg body weight⁻¹ d⁻¹. These exposure levels were much lower than the effect levels.

  2. Gap analysis on the biology of Mediterranean marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Dimarchopoulou, Donna; Stergiou, Konstantinos I; Tsikliras, Athanassios C

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the current level of knowledge concerning several biological characteristics of the Mediterranean marine fishes by carrying out a gap analysis based on information extracted from the literature, aiming to identify research trends and future needs in the field of Mediterranean fish biology that can be used in stock assessments, ecosystem modeling and fisheries management. Based on the datasets that emerged from the literature review, there is no information on any biological characteristic for 43% (n = 310) of the Mediterranean fish species, whereas for an additional 15% (n = 109) of them there is information about just one characteristic. The gap between current and desired knowledge (defined here as having information on most biological characteristics for at least half of the Mediterranean marine fishes) is smaller in length-weight relationships, which have been studied for 43% of the species, followed by spawning (39%), diet (29%), growth (25%), maturity (24%), lifespan (19%) and fecundity (17%). The gap is larger in natural mortality for which information is very scarce (8%). European hake (Merluccius merluccius), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), annular seabream (Diplodus annularis), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) and bogue (Boops boops) were the most studied species, while sharks and rays were among the least studied ones. Only 25 species were fully studied, i.e. there was available information on all their biological characteristics. The knowledge gaps per characteristic varied among the western, central and eastern Mediterranean subregions. The number of available records per species was positively related to total landings, while no relationship emerged with its maximum reported length, trophic level and commercial value. Future research priorities that should be focused on less studied species (e.g. sharks and rays) and mortality/fecundity instead of length

  3. Gap analysis on the biology of Mediterranean marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Dimarchopoulou, Donna; Stergiou, Konstantinos I.

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the current level of knowledge concerning several biological characteristics of the Mediterranean marine fishes by carrying out a gap analysis based on information extracted from the literature, aiming to identify research trends and future needs in the field of Mediterranean fish biology that can be used in stock assessments, ecosystem modeling and fisheries management. Based on the datasets that emerged from the literature review, there is no information on any biological characteristic for 43% (n = 310) of the Mediterranean fish species, whereas for an additional 15% (n = 109) of them there is information about just one characteristic. The gap between current and desired knowledge (defined here as having information on most biological characteristics for at least half of the Mediterranean marine fishes) is smaller in length-weight relationships, which have been studied for 43% of the species, followed by spawning (39%), diet (29%), growth (25%), maturity (24%), lifespan (19%) and fecundity (17%). The gap is larger in natural mortality for which information is very scarce (8%). European hake (Merluccius merluccius), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), annular seabream (Diplodus annularis), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) and bogue (Boops boops) were the most studied species, while sharks and rays were among the least studied ones. Only 25 species were fully studied, i.e. there was available information on all their biological characteristics. The knowledge gaps per characteristic varied among the western, central and eastern Mediterranean subregions. The number of available records per species was positively related to total landings, while no relationship emerged with its maximum reported length, trophic level and commercial value. Future research priorities that should be focused on less studied species (e.g. sharks and rays) and mortality/fecundity instead of length

  4. Toxicokinetics of mercury in blood compartments and hair of fish-fed sled dogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding mercury (Hg) distribution in blood and the importance of hair as an excretory pathway is critical for evaluating risk from long term dietary Hg exposure. The major objective of this study was to characterize changes in total Hg concentrations in specific blood compartments and hair over time due to long term piscivory. Methods Eight sled dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) were fed either a fish and kibble diet (n = 4), or a fish-free control diet (n = 4) for 12 weeks. Concentrations of Hg were monitored throughout the exposure period, and for 10 weeks post exposure, until Hg concentrations in all blood compartments of one of the exposed dogs dropped below detection limit. Additionally, foreleg hair was sampled during acclimation and weeks 0 and 12. Results Hg was detected primarily in whole blood and packed cells, although it was sporadically detected at low concentrations in plasma and serum in two of the fish fed dogs. Dogs ingested an estimated average of 13.4 ± 0.58 μg Hg per kg body weight per day. Hg was detectable in whole blood and packed cells within a week of exposure. Detected concentrations continued to rise until plateauing at approximately 3-6 weeks of exposure at a mean of 9.2 ± 1.97 ng/g (ppb) in whole blood. Hg concentration decreased post exposure following 1st order elimination. The mean half-life (t1/2) in whole blood for Hg was 7 weeks. Mean Hg in hair for the fish-fed dogs at week 12 was 540 ± 111 ppb and was significantly greater (about 7-fold) than the Hg hair concentration for the control dogs. The hair to blood ratio for Hg in fish-fed dogs was 59.0 ± 7.6:1. Conclusions This study found the sled dog model to be an effective method for investigating and characterizing blood Hg distribution (whole blood, serum, plasma, packed cells) and toxicokinetics associated with a piscivorous diet, especially for Hg-exposed fur bearing mammals (such as polar bears). Although hair excretion and hair to blood Hg ratios were not

  5. Major pathways by which climate may force marine fish populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottersen, Geir; Kim, Suam; Huse, Geir; Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2010-02-01

    Climate may affect marine fish populations through many different pathways, operating at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Climate impacts may work their way bottom up through the food web or affect higher trophic levels more directly. In this review we try to disentangle and summarize some of the current knowledge made available through the rapidly increasing literature on the topic, with particular emphasis on the work within the Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) programme. We first consider different classification schemes and hypotheses relating climate through physical features of the ocean to population patterns. The response of a population or community to climate may be linear or non-linear, direct or indirect. The hypotheses may be classified according to the form of physical features in operation as being related to mixing, advection or temperature. The bulk of the paper is devoted to a region-by-region presentation and discussion of examples relating climate variability to marine fish populations. It is slanted towards the North Atlantic and North Pacific, but the tropical Pacific is also covered. By means of different categorization methods we compare climate responses between ecosystems. We conclude that the use of such classification schemes allows for a more precise description of the various ecosystems particular properties and facilitates inter-regional comparison.

  6. Fish oil ameliorates trimethylamine N-oxide-exacerbated glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Chengzi; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2015-04-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a component commonly present in seafood, has been found to have a harmful impact on glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, seafood also contains fish oil (FO), which has been shown to have beneficial effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated the effect of FO on TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the high fat (HF), TMAO, and fish oil groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO, and the FO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO and 2% fish oil for 12 weeks. After 10 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary FO improved the fasting glucose level, the fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR value, QUICKI score and ameliorated TMAO-induced exacerbated impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signalling pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and glucose transport in peripheral tissues. Dietary fish oil also decreased TMAO-aggravated adipose tissue inflammation. Our results suggested that dietary FO ameliorated TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance, insulin signal transduction in peripheral tissue, and adipose tissue inflammation in HFD-fed mice.

  7. Replacement of Marine Fish Oil with de novo Omega-3 Oils from Transgenic Camelina sativa in Feeds for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Betancor, Mónica B; Sprague, M; Montero, D; Usher, S; Sayanova, O; Campbell, P J; Napier, J A; Caballero, M J; Izquierdo, M; Tocher, D R

    2016-10-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are essential components of the diet of all vertebrates. The major dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA for humans has been fish and seafood but, paradoxically, farmed fish are also reliant on marine fisheries for fish meal and fish oil (FO), traditionally major ingredients of aquafeeds. Currently, the only sustainable alternatives to FO are vegetable oils, which are rich in C18 PUFA, but devoid of the eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) abundant in FO. Two new n-3 LC-PUFA sources obtained from genetically modified (GM) Camelina sativa containing either EPA alone (ECO) or EPA and DHA (DCO) were compared to FO and wild-type camelina oil (WCO) in juvenile sea bream. Neither ECO nor DCO had any detrimental effects on fish performance, although final weight of ECO-fed fish (117 g) was slightly lower than that of FO- and DCO-fed fish (130 and 127 g, respectively). Inclusion of the GM-derived oils enhanced the n-3 LC-PUFA content in fish tissues compared to WCO, although limited biosynthesis was observed indicating accumulation of dietary fatty acids. The expression of genes involved in several lipid metabolic processes, as well as fish health and immune response, in both liver and anterior intestine were altered in fish fed the GM-derived oils. This showed a similar pattern to that observed in WCO-fed fish reflecting the hybrid fatty acid profile of the new oils. Overall the data indicated that the GM-derived oils could be suitable alternatives to dietary FO in sea bream.

  8. Antioxidant status of serum, muscle, intestine and hepatopancreas for fish fed graded levels of biotin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Gangfu; Jiang, Weidan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Hu, Kai; Li, Shuhong; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2014-04-01

    Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and antioxidant activities of muscle, intestine, hepatopancreas and serum in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) were investigated after feeding graded levels of biotin (0.010, 0.028, 0.054, 0.151, 0.330, 1.540 and 2.680 mg kg(-1) diet) for 63 days. Both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content in all studied tissues and serum were the lowest in fish fed diets containing 0.151-0.330 mg biotin kg(-1) diet and then increased in fish fed the diet with 2.680 mg biotin kg(-1) diet (P < 0.05). Similarly, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase activities in serum significantly decreased with biotin levels up to 0.151 mg kg(-1) diet (P < 0.05). Conversely, capacities of anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR) and anti-superoxide anion (ASA) in the detected tissues and serum significantly improved with biotin levels up to 0.054-1.540 mg kg(-1) diet and then decreased in 2.680 mg biotin kg(-1) diet group for muscle and intestinal AHR as well as hepatopancreas ASA (P < 0.05). Activities of superoxide dismutase in all studied tissues and serum significantly elevated with biotin levels up to 0.330 mg kg(-1) diet and then decreased when fish fed the diet with 2.680 mg biotin kg(-1) diet, except intestine (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase and total thiol content in all studied tissues and serum showed the upward trend with biotin supplementations (P < 0.05). These results indicated that biotin improved antioxidant status and depressed lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in all studied tissues and serum.

  9. Comparative analysis of pancreatic changes in aged rats fed life long with sunflower, fish, or olive oils.

    PubMed

    Roche, Enrique; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L; Arribas, María I; Ochoa, Julio J; Sirvent-Belando, José E; Battino, Maurizio; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; González-Alonso, Adrián; Pérez-López, M Patricia; Quiles, José L

    2014-08-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. We aimed to study the effect of oil consumption on pancreas histology in order to find aging-related signs. To this end, three groups of rats were fed an isocaloric diet for 2 years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of sacrifice. As a result, the sunflower oil-fed rats presented higher β-cell numbers and twice the insulin content than virgin olive oil-fed animals. In addition, rats fed with fish oil developed acinar fibrosis and macrophage infiltrates in peri-insular regions, compared with counterparts fed with virgin olive oil. Inflammation signs were less prominent in the sunflower group. The obtained data emphasize the importance of dietary fatty acids in determining pancreatic structure.

  10. Comparative pathology of gizzard lesions in broiler chicks fed fish meal, histamine and copper.

    PubMed

    Itakura, C; Kazama, T; Goto, M

    1982-01-01

    In order to elucidate the histopathogenesis of gizzard lesions occurring with various diets and in particular with fish meals, comparative studies were made on the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chicks fed a diet containing 15% of a suspect batch of fish meal (group A), and normal fish meal containing diets to which were added 0.4% of histamine (group B) or 1,000 parts/10(6) of copper (group C). The gizzard lesions in group A were widespread and consisted of thickening and loosening of the lining, frequently with erosions and ulcerations. The lesions in group B were almost identical to those in group A, but were less severe and less associated with erosions and ulceration. The lesions in group C were widespread and consisted of a markedly thickened lining with numerous desquamated surface cells, sometimes with erosions. The surface and chief cells were swollen in most glands of groups A and C and in the cells of those glands under the altered lining in group B. A poorly-staining secretion was shown to be excreted into the lining. The proventriculus in the three experimental groups showed increased secretion in direct proportion to the severity of the gizzard lesions. It was suggested that the gizzard lesions caused by dietary fish meal might have originated from hyperactivity of the gizzard glands, followed by erosion and ulceration.

  11. Quantifying Acoustic Uncertainty Due to Marine Mammals and Fish Near the Shelfbreak Front off Cape Hatteras

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. QuantifyingAcoustic Uncertainty Due to Marine Mammals and...LONG TERM GOALS The long term goals of our work on acoustic uncertainty due to fish and marine mammals are to: 1) understand the nature of low-to...medium frequency (100-2000 Hz) acoustic scattering (specifically reverberation and attenuation) by fish schools and larger marine mammals, 2) advance

  12. Species Identification of Marine Fishes in China with DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junbin

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a molecular method that uses a short standardized DNA sequence as a species identification tool. In this study, the standard 652 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) was sequenced in marine fish specimens captured in China. The average genetic distance was 50-fold higher between species than within species, as Kimura two parameter (K2P) genetic distances averaged 15.742% among congeners and only 0.319% for intraspecific individuals. There are no overlaps of pairwise genetic variations between conspecific and interspecific comparisons apart from the genera Pampus in which the introgressive hybridization was detected. High efficiency of species identification was demonstrated in the present study by DNA barcoding. Due to the incidence of cryptic species, an assumed threshold is suggested to expedite discovering of new species and biodiversity, especially involving biotas of few studies. PMID:21687792

  13. 78 FR 65971 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... goods such as fishing gear, boats, vehicles, and second homes. The second part, planned for 2016, will ask anglers about the expenses incurred on their most recent marine recreational fishing trip. As...

  14. Comparative assessment of Vibrio virulence in marine fish larvae.

    PubMed

    Rønneseth, A; Castillo, D; D'Alvise, P; Tønnesen, Ø; Haugland, G; Grotkjaer, T; Engell-Sørensen, K; Nørremark, L; Bergh, Ø; Wergeland, H I; Gram, L

    2017-10-01

    Vibrionaceae infections are a major obstacle for marine larviculture; however, little is known about virulence differences of Vibrio strains. The virulence of Vibrio strains, mostly isolated from vibriosis outbreaks in farmed fish, was tested in larval challenge trials with cod (Gadus morhua), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) using a multiwell dish assays with single-egg/larvae cultures. The strains differed significantly in virulence as some caused a high mortality of larva reaching 100% mortality after a few days, while others had no or only marginal effects on survival. Some Vibrio strains were pathogenic in all of the larva species, while some caused disease only in one of the species. Twenty-nine of the Vibrio anguillarum strains increased the mortality of larvae from at least one fish species; however, pathogenicity of the strains differed markedly. Other Vibrio species had no or less pronounced effects on larval mortalities. Iron uptake has been related to V. anguillarum virulence; however, the presence or absence of the plasmid pJM1 encoding anguibactin did not correlate with virulence. The genomes of V. anguillarum were compared (D. Castillo, P.W. D'Alvise, M. Middelboe & L. Gram, unpublished data) and most of the high-virulent strains had acquired virulence genes from other pathogenic Vibrio. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Spatiotemporal drivers of energy expenditure in a coastal marine fish.

    PubMed

    Brownscombe, Jacob W; Cooke, Steven J; Danylchuk, Andy J

    2017-03-01

    Animal behavior and energy expenditure often vary significantly across the landscape, and quantifying energy expenditure over space and time provides mechanistic insight into ecological dynamics. Yet, spatiotemporal variability in energy expenditure has rarely been explored in fully aquatic species such as fish. Our objective was to quantify spatially explicit energy expenditure for a tropical marine teleost fish, bonefish (Albula vulpes), to examine how bonefish energetics vary across landscape features and temporal factors. Using a swim tunnel respirometer, we calibrated acoustic accelerometer transmitters implanted in bonefish to estimate their metabolic rates and energy expenditure, and applied this technology in situ using a fine-scale telemetry system on a heterogeneous reef flat in Puerto Rico. Bonefish energy expenditure varied most among habitats, with significant interactions between habitat and temporal factors (i.e., diel period, tide state, season). The energy expenditure was generally highest in shallow water habitats (i.e., seagrass and reef crest). Variation in activity levels was the main driver of these differences in energy expenditure, which in shallow, nearshore habitats is likely related to foraging. Bonefish moderate energy expenditure across seasonal fluctuations in temperature, by selectively using shallow nearshore habitats at moderate water temperatures that correspond with their scope for activity. Quantifying how animals expend energy in association with environmental and ecological factors can provide important insight into behavioral ecology, with implications for bioenergetics models.

  16. Species-specific patterns of hyperostosis in marine teleost fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Kaufman, L.S.; Glowacki, J.

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of swollen or hyperostotic bones in skeletal preparations, preserved museum material or whole fresh specimens of marine teleost fishes was identified in 92 species belonging to 22 families. Patterns of hyperostotic skeletal growth were typically consistent and often species-specific in all individuals larger than a certain size. The taxonomic distribution of hyperostosis in diverse phylogenetic groups suggests that it has arisen independently many times. Selected bones from two species of the family Carangidae, horse-eye jack Caranx latus Agassiz and crevalle jackCaranx hippos (Linnaeus), were examined in detail by light and electron microscopy. Nonhyperostotic bone contained osteoid-producing osteoblasts, resorbing osteoclasts, occasional osteocytes, and a rich vascular network, all characteristics of cellular bone. Thus, these fishes have a spatial juxtaposition of cellular and acellular bone tissues in adjacent and often serially homologous bone sites. The functional significance of hyperostosis is unknown, but it is a predictable manifestation of bone growth and development for the many taxa in which it occurs.

  17. Cytogenetic studies in Brazilian marine Sciaenidae and Sparidae fishes (Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Accioly, I V; Molina, W F

    2008-04-22

    Fishes from the families Sciaenidae and Sparidae, the former comprising coastal species associated with shallow waters on the continental shelf and the latter composed of typically marine species, are of significant economic value. Karyotypic data are available for about 20% of the total number of species in these groups. In the present study, cytogenetic analyses were carried out in three Sciaenidae species, Menticirrhus americanus, Ophioscion punctatissimus and Pareques acuminatus, as well as in the sparid fish, Archosargus probatocephalus, using conventional staining (Giemsa) and Ag-nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and C-banding techniques. The diploid values (2n) and number of chromosome arms were equal to 48 in all species analyzed. NORs were located at pericentromeric positions, equivalent to large heterochromatic blocks, in M. americanus (1st pair), O. punctatissimus (10th pair), P. acuminatus (2nd pair), and A. probatocephalus (3rd pair). Heterochromatin was detected at the centromeric position in most chromosome pairs, being more conspicuous among Scianidae members. The remarkable karyotypic conservativeness detected in these species is similar to that observed in other perciform groups previously studied, regarding both the number of acrocentric chromosomes and NOR location. However, unusual events of heterochromatinization seem to have taken place along the karyotypic evolution of members of the family Sciaenidae. For the family Sparidae, distinct cytotypes between samples of Northeast Brazil and those previously analyzed on the southeastern coast were identified, suggesting that putative biogeographic barriers could be present throughout both regions on South Atlantic coast.

  18. The Electrophysiology of Electric Organs of Marine Electric Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, M. V. L.; Grundfest, H.

    1961-01-01

    The electroplaques of Astroscopus y-graecum were studied in situ with microelectrode recordings. Despite the distant taxonomic relations and the different origins of the organs, their properties in the teleost and torpedine marine electric fishes are remarkably similar. Only the innervated membrane (the dorsal) is electrogenically reactive in Astroscopus, and it, too, does not respond to electrical stimuli. As in the torpedine fishes, the uninnervated membrane of the electroplaques offers a very low resistance to the discharge of the innervated membrane. Additional direct evidence for electrical inexcitability of the reactive surface was obtained by denervating one of the bilateral organs. The denervated one did not respond to strong electrical stimuli which evoked responses in the opposite, innervated organ. The denervated electroplaques had a normal resting potential and were depolarized by acetylcholine and carbamylcholine similarly to normal cells. Other properties related to electrical inexcitability were also demonstrated. A pharmacological finding of considerable theoretical significance is that desensitization occurred on depolarizing cells with acetylcholine but was absent on depolarizing them with carbamylcholine. PMID:19873536

  19. Three-Year Breeding Cycle of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Plant-Based Diet, Totally Free of Marine Resources: Consequences for Reproduction, Fatty Acid Composition and Progeny Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance. PMID:25658483

  20. Three-year breeding cycle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-based diet, totally free of marine resources: consequences for reproduction, fatty acid composition and progeny survival.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance.

  1. Anisakids in marine fish from the coast of Chon Buri Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchjangreed, Chadaporn; Hamzah, Zulhainan; Suntornthiticharoen, Pattra; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa

    2006-01-01

    A total of 1,600 specimens, consisting of 16 different species of marine fish, were dissected and examined for anisakid larvae and adults in visceral organs, abdominal cavity, and muscles. One species of adult-stage nematode was found in two of 16 species of marine fish studied, Johnius carouna and Dendrophysa russelli. No anisakid larvae (third-stage) was found in any of the 16 species of marine fish studied. Morphological study of the adult-stage nematode showed similar morphology to Anisakis simplex. We found that the nematode adult recovered from the marine fish differed from other anisakids in morphology, life cycle and locality of infection in the fish. The anisakid adults recovered were ovoviviparous or larviparous, but not oviparous as is seen in most other anisakids. The intensity and prevalence of nematode infection in Johnius carouna were 2.4 and 31.7%, respectively, and in Dendrophysa russelli 3.9 and 87.5%, respectively.

  2. Characterizing ontogenetic habitat shifts in marine fishes: advancing nascent methods for marine spatial management.

    PubMed

    Galaiduk, Ronen; Radford, Ben T; Saunders, Benjamin J; Newman, Stephen J; Harvey, Euan S

    2017-09-01

    Niche requirements and habitat resource partitioning by conspecific fishes of different sizes are significant knowledge gaps in the species distribution modelling domain. Management actions and operations are typically concentrated on static habitats, or specific areas of interest, without considering movement patterns of species associated with ontogenetic shifts in habitat usage. Generalized additive models were used to model the body-length-habitat relationships of six fish species. These models were used to identify subsets of environmental parameters that drive and explain the continuous length-habitat relationships for each of the study species, which vary in their degree of ecological and/or commercial importance. Continuous predictive maps of the length distributions for each of the six study species across approximately 200 km(2) of the study area were created from these models. The spatial patterns in habitat partitioning by individuals of different body lengths for all six study species provide strong evidence for ontogenetic shifts. This highlights the importance of considering ontogenetic processes for marine spatial management. Importantly, predictive hotspot maps were created that identify potential areas that accumulate individuals of similar life stages of multiple species (e.g., multispecies nursery areas). In circumstances where limited resources are available for monitoring and management of fish resources, predictive modelling is a valuable tool for studying previously overlooked processes such as ontogenetic habitat shifts. Predictive modelling provides crucial information that elucidates spatial patterns in community composition across mosaics of benthic habitats. This novel technique can contribute to the spatial management of coastal fish and fisheries by identifying areas that are important for different life history stages of multiple fish species. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in southeast and central Alaska National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, J.F.; Robards, Martin D.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Drew, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a national inventory program funded by the National Park Service, we conducted an inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Sitka National Historical Park, and Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in 2001 and 2002. In addition, marine fish data from a previous project that focused on forage fishes and marine predators during 1999 and 2000 in Glacier Bay proper were compiled for this study. Sampling was conducted with modified herring and Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawls, a plumb staff beam trawl, and beach seines. Species lists of relative abundance were generated for nearshore fishes in all parks, and for demersal and pelagic fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. With a total sampling effort of 531 sets, we captured 100 species in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, 31 species in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, 23 species in Sitka National Historical Park, and 11 species in Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. We estimated that between 59 and 85 percent of the total marine fish species present were sampled by us in the various habitat-park units. We also combined these data with historical records and prepared an annotated species list of 160 marine and estuarine fishes known to occur in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Shannon-Wiener diversity index and catch per unit effort were used to assess the effects of depth and latitude (distance from tidewater glaciers) on marine fish community ecology in Glacier Bay proper. Our findings suggest that demersal fishes are more abundant and diverse with increased distance from tidewater glaciers, and that pelagic fishes sampled deeper than 50 m are more abundant in areas closer to tidewater glaciers. Fish, Marine, Estuarine, National Parks, Southeast Alaska, Central Alaska, Inventory, Monitoring, Diversity, Abundance, Glacier Bay

  4. Microbiological quality of fish grown in wastewater-fed and non-wastewater-fed fishponds in Hanoi, Vietnam: influence of hygiene practices in local retail markets.

    PubMed

    Lan, Nguyen Thi Phong; Dalsgaard, Anders; Cam, Phung Dac; Mara, Duncan

    2007-06-01

    Mean water quality in two wastewater-fed ponds and one non-wastewater-fed pond in Hanoi, Vietnam was approximately 10(6) and approximately 10(4) presumptive thermotolerant coliforms (pThC) per 100 ml, respectively. Fish (common carp, silver carp and Nile tilapia) grown in these ponds were sampled at harvest and in local retail markets. Bacteriological examination of the fish sampled at harvest from both types of pond showed that they were of very good quality (2 - 3 pThC g(-1) fresh muscle weight), despite the skin and gut contents being very contaminated (10(2) - 10(3) pThC g(-1) fresh weight and 10(4) - 10(6) pThC g(-1) fresh weight, respectively). These results indicate that the WHO guideline quality of < or = 1000 faecal coliforms per 100 ml of pond water in wastewater-fed aquaculture is quite restrictive and represents a safety factor of approximately 3 orders of magnitude. However, when the fish from both types of pond were sampled at the point of retail sale, quality deteriorated to 10(2) - 10(5) pThC g(-1) of chopped fresh fish (mainly flesh and skin contaminated with gut contents); this was due to the practice of the local fishmongers in descaling and chopping up the fish from both types of pond with the same knife and on the same chopping block. Fishmonger education is required to improve their hygienic practices; this should be followed by regular hygiene inspections.

  5. Empirical links between natural mortality and recovery in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Kuparinen, Anna

    2017-06-14

    Probability of species recovery is thought to be correlated with specific aspects of organismal life history, such as age at maturity and longevity, and how these affect rates of natural mortality (M) and maximum per capita population growth (rmax). Despite strong theoretical underpinnings, these correlates have been based on predicted rather than realized population trajectories following threat mitigation. Here, we examine the level of empirical support for postulated links between a suite of life-history traits (related to maturity, age, size and growth) and recovery in marine fishes. Following threat mitigation (medium time since cessation of overfishing = 20 years), 71% of 55 temperate populations had fully recovered, the remainder exhibiting, on average, negligible change (impaired recovery). Singly, life-history traits did not influence recovery status. In combination, however, those that jointly reflect length-based mortality at maturity, Mα , revealed that recovered populations have higher Mα , which we hypothesize to reflect local adaptations associated with greater rmax But, within populations, the smaller sizes at maturity generated by overfishing are predicted to increase Mα , slowing recovery and increasing its uncertainty. We conclude that recovery potential is greater for populations adapted to high M but that temporal increases in M concomitant with smaller size at maturity will have the opposite effect. The recovery metric documented here (Mα ) has a sound theoretical basis, is significantly correlated with direct estimates of M that directly reflect rmax, is not reliant on data-intensive time series, can be readily estimated, and offers an empirically defensible correlate of recovery, given its clear links to the positive and impaired responses to threat mitigation that have been observed in fish populations over the past three decades. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Accumulation of trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and N-acetylsulfamethoxazole in fish and shrimp fed medicated Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed Central

    Chair, M; Nelis, H J; Leger, P; Sorgeloos, P; de Leenheer, A P

    1996-01-01

    In a previous paper (H.J. Nelis, P. Léger, P. Sorgeloos, and A. P. De Leenheer, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:2486-2489, 1991) it was reported that two selected antibacterial agents, i.e., trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, can be efficiently bioencapsulated in nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana for administration to fish. This follow-up study showed that larvae of the sea bass and the turbot as well as postlarvae of the white shrimp accumulate the therapeutic agents in high quantities when fed medicated A. franciscana. To monitor their levels as a function of time, the liquid chromatographic method originally developed for the analysis of A. franciscana was modified with respect to chromatography, internal standardization, and sample pretreatment. The levels of trimethoprim ranged from 1 to 7 micrograms/g (sea bass), 1 to 13 micrograms/g (turbot), and 4 to 38 micrograms/g (white shrimp). The corresponding values for sulfamethoxazole were 0.3 to 4 micrograms/g (sea bass), 1 to 42 micrograms/g (turbot), and 4 to 35 micrograms/g (white shrimp). Only the two fish species, unlike the shrimp, metabolized the latter to N-acetylsulfamethoxazole (concentration range, 1 to 10 micrograms/g). These data suggest the potential of the bioencapsulation of therapeutic agents in live food as a tool to control infectious diseases in aquaculture. A preliminary challenge test also confirmed the in vivo efficacy of this approach. PMID:8807056

  7. Are fish fed with cyanobacteria safe, nutritious and delicious? A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hualei; Zhou, Wenshan; Zhang, Yulei; Qiao, Qin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2015-10-16

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms, which produce cyclic heptapeptide toxins known as microcystins, are worldwide environmental problems. On the other hand, the cyanobacteria protein (30-50%) has been recommended as substitute protein for aquaculture. The present laboratory study verified the feasibility of cyanobacteria protein substitution and risk assessment. Goldfish were fed diets supplemented lyophilised cyanobacteria powder for 16 weeks with the various doses: 0% (control), 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Low doses (10% and 20%) promoted growth whereas high doses (30% and 40%) inhibited growth. In cyanobacteria treated fish, the proximate composition of ash, crude fat content and crude protein content decreased in 16 weeks; the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content significantly increased; the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, collagen content and muscle pH significantly decreased; cooking loss percents increased significantly. Muscle fiber diameter and myofibril length were negatively correlation. Additionally, flavour compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and carnosine) changed significantly in the treated fish, and odour compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol increased significantly. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of microcystins in muscle was close to or exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake (TDI), representing a great health risk. Cyanobacterie is not feasible for protein sources use in aquaculture.

  8. Are fish fed with cyanobacteria safe, nutritious and delicious? A laboratory study

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hualei; Zhou, Wenshan; Zhang, Yulei; Qiao, Qin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2015-01-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms, which produce cyclic heptapeptide toxins known as microcystins, are worldwide environmental problems. On the other hand, the cyanobacteria protein (30–50%) has been recommended as substitute protein for aquaculture. The present laboratory study verified the feasibility of cyanobacteria protein substitution and risk assessment. Goldfish were fed diets supplemented lyophilised cyanobacteria powder for 16 weeks with the various doses: 0% (control), 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Low doses (10% and 20%) promoted growth whereas high doses (30% and 40%) inhibited growth. In cyanobacteria treated fish, the proximate composition of ash, crude fat content and crude protein content decreased in 16 weeks; the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content significantly increased; the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, collagen content and muscle pH significantly decreased; cooking loss percents increased significantly. Muscle fiber diameter and myofibril length were negatively correlation. Additionally, flavour compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and carnosine) changed significantly in the treated fish, and odour compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol increased significantly. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of microcystins in muscle was close to or exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake (TDI), representing a great health risk. Cyanobacterie is not feasible for protein sources use in aquaculture. PMID:26470644

  9. Physical and processing properties of milk, butter, and cheddar cheese from cows fed supplemental fish meal.

    PubMed

    Avramis, C A; Wang, H; McBride, B W; Wright, T C; Hill, A R

    2003-08-01

    Physical, chemical, sensory and processing properties of milk produced by feeding a rumen-undegradable fish meal protein supplement to Holstein cows were investigated. The supplement contained (as fed basis) 25% soft-white wheat, 60% herring meal, and 15% feather meal. The total fat level in the milk decreased to 2.43%. For both pasteurized and ultra-high temperature processed drinking milk, no difference was found between fish meal (FM) milk and control milk in terms of color, flavor and flavor stability; in particular, no oxidized flavor was observed. Cheddar cheese made from FM milk ripened faster after 3 mo of ripening and developed a more desirable texture and stronger Cheddar flavor. The yield efficiencies for FM and control cheese, 94.4 (+/- 2.44 SE) and 96.4 (+/- 2.26 SE), respectively, were not different. Relative to controls, average fat globule size was smaller in FM milk and churning time of FM cream was longer. FM butter had softer texture and better cold spreadability, and butter oils from FM enriched milk had lower dropping points compared to control butter oil (average 32.89 versus 34.06 degrees C). These differences in physical properties of butter fat were greater than expected considering that iodine values were not different. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing high quality products from milk naturally supplemented with FM, but the results also show that dietary changes affect processing properties.

  10. Are fish fed with cyanobacteria safe, nutritious and delicious? A laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hualei; Zhou, Wenshan; Zhang, Yulei; Qiao, Qin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2015-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms, which produce cyclic heptapeptide toxins known as microcystins, are worldwide environmental problems. On the other hand, the cyanobacteria protein (30-50%) has been recommended as substitute protein for aquaculture. The present laboratory study verified the feasibility of cyanobacteria protein substitution and risk assessment. Goldfish were fed diets supplemented lyophilised cyanobacteria powder for 16 weeks with the various doses: 0% (control), 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Low doses (10% and 20%) promoted growth whereas high doses (30% and 40%) inhibited growth. In cyanobacteria treated fish, the proximate composition of ash, crude fat content and crude protein content decreased in 16 weeks; the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content significantly increased; the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, collagen content and muscle pH significantly decreased; cooking loss percents increased significantly. Muscle fiber diameter and myofibril length were negatively correlation. Additionally, flavour compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and carnosine) changed significantly in the treated fish, and odour compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol increased significantly. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of microcystins in muscle was close to or exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake (TDI), representing a great health risk. Cyanobacterie is not feasible for protein sources use in aquaculture.

  11. Derelict fishing nets in Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits: patterns and threats to marine fauna.

    PubMed

    Good, Thomas P; June, Jeffrey A; Etnier, Michael A; Broadhurst, Ginny

    2010-01-01

    Derelict fishing gear remains in the marine environment for years, entangling, and killing marine organisms worldwide. Since 2002, hundreds of derelict nets containing over 32,000 marine animals have been recovered from Washington's inland waters. Analysis of 870 gillnets found many were derelict for years; most were recovered from northern Puget Sound and high-relief rocky habitats and were relatively small, of recent construction, in good condition, stretched open, and in relatively shallow water. Marine organisms documented in recovered gillnets included 31,278 invertebrates (76 species), 1036 fishes (22 species), 514 birds (16 species), and 23 mammals (4 species); 56% of invertebrates, 93% of fish, and 100% of birds and mammals were dead when recovered. For all taxa, mortality was generally associated with gillnet effectiveness (total area, age and condition, and suspension in the water). Mortality from derelict fishing gear is underestimated at recovery and may be important for species of economic and conservation concern. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effects of Norethindrone and Metabolite Ethynylestradiol on Reproductive Parameters in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Norethindrone (NOR) is a progestin used in human contraceptives and has been detected in low concentrations (ng/L) in aquatic environments. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether NOR could affect reproductiv...

  13. Effects of Norethindrone and Metabolite Ethynylestradiol on Reproductive Parameters in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Norethindrone (NOR) is a progestin used in human contraceptives and has been detected in low concentrations (ng/L) in aquatic environments. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether NOR could affect reproductiv...

  14. Enhancing highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids in phase-fed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Alaskan fish oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to investigate differences in the kinetics of fatty acids (FA) deposition in fillets of market-sized (approximately 450g) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing commercial Alaskan fish oils versus menhaden oil. Comparisons were made with FA leve...

  15. Comparison of the numerical grazing response of two marine heterotrophic nanoflagellates fed with different bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, B. R.; Fukami, K.

    2004-08-01

    The numerical grazing responses of two marine heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF), Jakoba libera strain 5(2) and Cafeteria sp. strain 5(3) fed with three bacterial strains ( Alteromonas sp., Flavobacterium sp., and Pseudomonas sp.) and mixed bacterial communities (MBC) were compared. J. libera-5(2) had different numerical grazing responses to food bacteria. The net HNF cellular production, maximum specific growth rate (μ max) and maximum clearance rate (F max) values of J. libera-5(2) were highest with Pseudomonas sp., followed by Flavobacterium sp., MBC and Alteromonas sp. In contrast, Cafeteria sp.-5(3) showed the same numerical response to the food bacteria, and attained a 57-fold higher net stationary phase population, a 9-fold higher μ max, and a 5-fold higher F max than J. libera-5(2) with Alteromonas sp. as food bacteria. These differences in numerical grazing response of HNF may be important in structuring both the bacterial and protozoan species composition and succession in the marine environments.

  16. Patterns of Fish Connectivity between a Marine Protected Area and Surrounding Fished Areas.

    PubMed

    Sahyoun, Rita; Guidetti, Paolo; Di Franco, Antonio; Planes, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of connectivity and self-recruitment are recognized as key factors shaping the dynamics of marine populations. Connectivity is also essential for maintaining and restoring natural ecological processes with genetic diversity contributing to the adaptation and persistence of any species in the face of global disturbances. Estimates of connectivity are crucial to inform the design of both marine protected areas (MPAs) and MPA networks. Among several approaches, genetic structure is frequently used as a proxy for patterns of connectivity. Using 8 microsatellite loci, we investigated genetic structure of the two-banded sea bream Diplodus vulgaris, a coastal fish that is both commercially and ecologically important. Adults were sampled in 7 locations (stretches of coastline approximately 8 km long) and juveniles in 14 sites (~100 to 200 m of coastline) along 200 km of the Apulian Adriatic coast (SW Adriatic Sea), within and outside an MPA (Torre Guaceto MPA, Italy). Our study found similar genetic diversity indices for both the MPA and the surrounding fished areas. An overall lack of genetic structure among samples suggests high gene flow (i.e. connectivity) across a scale of at least 200 km. However, some local genetic divergences found in two locations demonstrate some heterogeneity in processes renewing the population along the Apulian Adriatic coast. Furthermore, two sites appeared genetically divergent, reinforcing our observations within the genetic makeup of adults and confirming heterogeneity in early stage genetics that can come from either different supply populations or from chaotic genetic patchiness occurring under temporal variation in recruitment and in the reproductive success. While the specific role of the MPA is not entirely known in this case, these results confirm the presence of regional processes and the key role of connectivity in maintaining the local population supply.

  17. Patterns of Fish Connectivity between a Marine Protected Area and Surrounding Fished Areas

    PubMed Central

    Sahyoun, Rita; Guidetti, Paolo; Di Franco, Antonio; Planes, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of connectivity and self-recruitment are recognized as key factors shaping the dynamics of marine populations. Connectivity is also essential for maintaining and restoring natural ecological processes with genetic diversity contributing to the adaptation and persistence of any species in the face of global disturbances. Estimates of connectivity are crucial to inform the design of both marine protected areas (MPAs) and MPA networks. Among several approaches, genetic structure is frequently used as a proxy for patterns of connectivity. Using 8 microsatellite loci, we investigated genetic structure of the two-banded sea bream Diplodus vulgaris, a coastal fish that is both commercially and ecologically important. Adults were sampled in 7 locations (stretches of coastline approximately 8 km long) and juveniles in 14 sites (~100 to 200 m of coastline) along 200 km of the Apulian Adriatic coast (SW Adriatic Sea), within and outside an MPA (Torre Guaceto MPA, Italy). Our study found similar genetic diversity indices for both the MPA and the surrounding fished areas. An overall lack of genetic structure among samples suggests high gene flow (i.e. connectivity) across a scale of at least 200 km. However, some local genetic divergences found in two locations demonstrate some heterogeneity in processes renewing the population along the Apulian Adriatic coast. Furthermore, two sites appeared genetically divergent, reinforcing our observations within the genetic makeup of adults and confirming heterogeneity in early stage genetics that can come from either different supply populations or from chaotic genetic patchiness occurring under temporal variation in recruitment and in the reproductive success. While the specific role of the MPA is not entirely known in this case, these results confirm the presence of regional processes and the key role of connectivity in maintaining the local population supply. PMID:27907100

  18. Inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in southeast and central Alaska National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, John F.; Robards, Martin D.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Drew, Gary S.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a national inventory program funded by the National Park Service, we conducted an inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Sitka National Historical Park, and Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in 2001 and 2002. In addition, marine fish data from a previous project that focused on forage fishes and marine predators during 1999 and 2000 in Glacier Bay proper were compiled for this study. Sampling was conducted with modified herring and Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawls, a plumb staff beam trawl, and beach seines. Species lists of relative abundance were generated for nearshore fishes in all parks, and for demersal and pelagic fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. With a total sampling effort of 531 sets, we captured 100 species in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, 31 species in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, 23 species in Sitka National Historical Park, and 11 species in Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. We estimated that between 59 and 85 percent of the total marine fish species present were sampled by us in the various habitat-park units. We also combined these data with historical records and prepared an annotated species list of 160 marine and estuarine fishes known to occur in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Shannon-Wiener diversity index and catch per unit effort were used to assess the effects of depth and latitude (distance from tidewater glaciers) on marine fish community ecology in Glacier Bay proper. Our findings suggest that demersal fishes are more abundant and diverse with increased distance from tidewater glaciers, and that pelagic fishes sampled deeper than 50 m are more abundant in areas closer to tidewater glaciers.

  19. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people.

  20. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  5. Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Simon J; Monaco, Mark E; Friedlander, Alan M; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S; Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D; Wedding, Lisa M; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness.

  6. Fish with Chips: Tracking Reef Fish Movements to Evaluate Size and Connectivity of Caribbean Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Simon J.; Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S.; Kendall, Matthew S.; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D.; Wedding, Lisa M.; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40–64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

  7. Mechanisms driving recruitment variability in fish: comparisons between the Laurentian Great Lakes and marine systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; O'Brien, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal work, Hjort (in Fluctuations in the great fisheries of Northern Europe. Conseil Parmanent International Pour L'Exploration De La Mar. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux, 20: 1–228, 1914) observed that fish population levels fluctuated widely, year-class strength was set early in life, and egg production by adults could not alone explain variability in year-class strength. These observations laid the foundation for hypotheses on mechanisms driving recruitment variability in marine systems. More recently, researchers have sought to explain year-class strength of important fish in the Laurentian Great Lakes and some of the hypotheses developed for marine fisheries have been transferred to Great Lakes fish. We conducted a literature review to determine the applicability of marine recruitment hypotheses to Great Lakes fish. We found that temperature, interspecific interactions, and spawner effects (abundance, age, and condition of adults) were the most important factors in explaining recruitment variability in Great Lakes fish, whereas relatively fewer studies identified bottom-up trophodynamic factors or hydrodynamic factors as important. Next, we compared recruitment between Great Lakes and Baltic Sea fish populations and found no statistical difference in factors driving recruitment between the two systems, indicating that recruitment hypotheses may often be transferable between Great Lakes and marine systems. Many recruitment hypotheses developed for marine fish have yet to be applied to Great Lakes fish. We suggest that future research on recruitment in the Great Lakes should focus on forecasting the effects of climate change and invasive species. Further, because the Great Lakes are smaller and more enclosed than marine systems, and have abundant fishery-independent data, they are excellent candidates for future hypothesis testing on recruitment in fish.

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk from cows fed condensed corn distillers solubles and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Bharathan, M; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Gibson, M L; Karges, K

    2008-07-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to ascertain the lactational response to feeding fish oil (FO), condensed corn distillers solubles (CDS) as a source of extra linoleic acid, or both. Diets contained either no FO or 0.5% FO and either no CDS or 10% CDS in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were fed as total mixed rations for ad libitum consumption. The forage to concentrate ratio was 55:45 on a dry matter basis for all diets and the diets contained 16.2% crude protein. The ether extract concentrations were 2.86, 3.22, 4.77, and 5.02% for control, FO, CDS, and FOCDS diets, respectively. Inclusion of FO or CDS or both had no effect on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, body weight, and body condition scores compared with diets without FO and CDS, respectively. Yields of milk (33.3 kg/d), energy-corrected milk, protein, lactose, and milk urea N were similar for all diets. Feeding FO and CDS decreased milk fat percentages (3.85, 3.39, 3.33, and 3.12%) and yields compared with diets without FO and CDS. Proportions of trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid), cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.52, 0.90, 1.11, and 1.52 g/100 g of fatty acids), and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (0.07, 0.14, 0.13, and 0.16 g/100 g of fatty acids) in milk fat were increased by FO and CDS. No interactions were observed between FO and CDS on cis-9 trans-11 CLA although vaccenic acid tended to be higher with the interaction. The addition of CDS to diets increased trans-10 C18:1. Greater ratios of vaccenic acid to cis-9 trans-11 CLA in plasma than in milk fat indicate tissue synthesis of cis-9 trans-11 CLA in the mammary gland from vaccenic acid in cows fed FO or CDS. Feeding fish oil at 0.5% of diet dry matter with a C18:2 n-6 rich source such as CDS increased the milk CLA content but decreased milk fat percentages.

  9. Residual levels of rare earth elements in freshwater and marine fish and their health risk assessment from Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luping; Wang, Xining; Nie, Hongqian; Shao, Lijun; Wang, Guoling; Liu, Yongjun

    2016-06-15

    The total concentrations of rare earth elements (ΣREE) were quantified in 251 samples from 10 common species of freshwater and marine fish in seventeen cities of Shandong, China. ΣREE obtained from the freshwater fish ranged from 34.0 to 37.9ngg(-1) (wet weight) and marine fish from 12.7 to 37.6ngg(-1). The ratio of LREE to HREE was 13.7:1 and 10:1 for freshwater and marine fish, respectively. This suggests that freshwater fish exhibit greater REE concentrations than marine fish and the biological effects of LREE are higher than HREE. Results revealed a similar REE distribution pattern between those fish and coastal sediments, abiding the "abundance law". The health risk assessment demonstrated the EDIs of REEs in fish were significantly lower than the ADI, indicating that the consumption of these fish presents little risk to human health.

  10. [Histamine formation in Japanese marine fish species and the effect of frozen storage].

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Ryota; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kato, Noboru; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Araki, Emiko

    2013-01-01

    To investigate histamine formation in Japanese marine fish, model samples were made from fish meat mixed with intestines of commercial 73 fish species. After the samples were stored at 25℃ for 12 hr, histamine was detected in 35 fish species at 50 mg/kg or more. These fish species might potentially be related to histamine poisoning. In addition, the effect of frozen storage at -45℃ on histamine formation was examined. Although histamine was formed in some fish species, and Photobacterium damselae and Photobacterium iliopiscarium were isolated from the frozen samples, the amount of histamine formed in the model samples was reduced in all tested fish species after frozen storage. Therefore frozen storage of fish may be effective to control histamine formation, even though histamine forming bacteria survived under these conditions.

  11. Marine Biogeochemistry Under The Influence of Fish And Fisheries: An Ecosystem Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disa, Deniz; Akoglu, Ekin; Salihoglu, Baris

    2017-04-01

    The ocean and the marine ecosystems are important controllers of the global carbon cycle. They play a pivotal role in capturing atmospheric carbon into the ocean body, transforming it into organic carbon through photosynthesis and transporting it to the depths of the ocean. Fish, which has a significant role in the marine food webs, is thought to have a considerable impact on carbon export. More specifically, fish has a control on plankton dynamics as a predator, it provides nutrient to the ecosystem by its metabolic activities and it has the ability of moving actively and transporting materials. Fishing is also expected to impact carbon cycle because it directly changes the fish biomasses. However, how fish impacts the biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems is not studied extensively. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of fish and fisheries on marine biogeochemical processes by setting up an end-to-end model, which simulates lower and higher tropic levels of marine ecosystems simultaneously. For this purpose, a one dimensional biogeochemical model simulating lower tropic level dynamics (e.g. carbon export, nutrient cycles) and an food web model simulating fisheries exploitation and higher tropic level dynamics were online and two-way coupled. Representing the marine ecosystem from one end to the other, the coupled model served as a tool for the analysis of fishing impacts on marine biogeochemical dynamics. Results obtained after incorporation of higher trophic level model changed the plankton compositions and enhanced detritus pools and increased carbon export. Additionally, our model showed that active movement of fish contributed to transport of carbon from surface to the deeper parts of the ocean. Moreover, results after applying different fishing intensities indicated that changes in fisheries exploitation levels directly influence the marine nutrient cycles and hence, the carbon export. Depending on the target and the intensity of fisheries

  12. Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations.

  13. A survey of fish viruses isolated from wild marine fishes from the coastal waters of southern Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wi-Sik; Choi, Shin-Young; Kim, Do-Hyung; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2013-11-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate viral infection in 253 wild marine fishes harvested in the southern coastal area of Korea from 2010 to 2012. The fish that were captured by local anglers were randomly bought and sampled for virus examination. The samples were tested for presence of virus by virus isolation with FHM, FSP, and BF-2 cells and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing). Of the 253 fish sampled, 9 fish were infected with virus. Aquabirnaviruses (ABVs), Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and Red seabream iridovirus (RSIV) were detected in 7, 1, and 1 fish, respectively. Molecular phylogenies demonstrated the detected viruses (ABV, VHSV, and RSIV) were more closely related to viruses reported of the same type from Korea and Japan than from other countries, suggesting these viruses may be indigenous to Korean and Japanese coastal waters.

  14. Effects of soybean isoflavone on intestinal antioxidant capacity and cytokines in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Ma, Xian-yong; Jiang, Zong-yong; Hu, You-jun; Zheng, Chun-tian; Yang, Xue-fen; Wang, Li; Gao, Kai-guo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of glycitein, a synthetic soybean isoflavone (ISF), on the intestinal antioxidant capacity, morphology, and cytokine content in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil, 72 4-d-old male piglets were assigned to three treatments. The control group was fed a basal diet containing fresh fish oil, and the other two groups received the same diet except for the substitution with the same dosage of oxidized fish oil alone or with ISF (oxidized fish oil plus ISF). After 21 d of feeding, supplementation of oxidized fish oil increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO, and Caspase-3 in jejunal mucosa, and decreased the villous height in duodenum and the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IL-4 in the jejunal mucosa compared with supplementation with fresh oil. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF partially alleviated this negative effect. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF increased the villous height and levels of sIgA and IL-4 in jejunal mucosa, but decreased the levels of IL-1β and IL-2 in jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) compared with oxidized fish oil. Collectively, these results show that dietary supplementation of ISF could partly alleviate the negative effect of oxidized fish oil by improving the intestinal morphology as well as the antioxidant capacity and immune function in young piglets. PMID:27921401

  15. Myxosporean parasites of marine fishes: their distribution in the world's oceans.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, K; Kalavati, C

    2014-11-01

    Myxosporeans are among the most common parasites of marine fish. Their economic importance is mainly as pathogens of both wild and farmed fish, but they have also been used as biological tags in population studies of their fish hosts. Here we review the literature and show the distribution of different families of Myxosporea infecting marine fishes in the world's oceans - the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific and Indian. We also analyse their distribution in different orders of marine fishes. New families, genera and species of marine Myxosporea are continually being described and many more await description. Some regions, in particular the North Atlantic, have been more thoroughly investigated than others, so the analyses we present may not reflect the true distributions and we acknowledge that these may change considerably as other regions are investigated more fully. The distribution of myxosporean families in different taxonomic groups of marine fishes can indicate phylogenetic relationships between parasite and host and suggest the origins of different myxosporean taxa. We present some examples, while recognizing that new molecular information on phylogenetic relationships within the Myxozoa will lead to major changes in classification.

  16. Large Recovery of Fish Biomass in a No-Take Marine Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Erisman, Brad; Galland, Grantly R.; Mascareñas-Osorio, Ismael; Sala, Enric; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2011-01-01

    No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP) was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha−1 on average) and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha−1 (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha−1, or 463%), and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement) and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere. PMID:21858183

  17. Large recovery of fish biomass in a no-take marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Erisman, Brad; Galland, Grantly R; Mascareñas-Osorio, Ismael; Sala, Enric; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2011-01-01

    No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP) was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha(-1) on average) and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha(-1) (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha(-1), or 463%), and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement) and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere.

  18. First genealogy for a wild marine fish population reveals multigenerational philopatry

    PubMed Central

    Salles, Océane C.; Pujol, Benoit; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Almany, Glenn R.; Berumen, Michael L.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Srinivasan, Maya; Thorrold, Simon R.; Planes, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Natal philopatry, the return of individuals to their natal area for reproduction, has advantages and disadvantages for animal populations. Natal philopatry may generate local genetic adaptation, but it may also increase the probability of inbreeding that can compromise persistence. Although natal philopatry is well documented in anadromous fishes, marine fish may also return to their birth site to spawn. How philopatry shapes wild fish populations is, however, unclear because it requires constructing multigenerational pedigrees that are currently lacking for marine fishes. Here we present the first multigenerational pedigree for a marine fish population by repeatedly genotyping all individuals in a population of the orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula) at Kimbe Island (Papua New Guinea) during a 10-y period. Based on 2927 individuals, our pedigree analysis revealed that longitudinal philopatry was recurrent over five generations. Progeny tended to settle close to their parents, with related individuals often sharing the same colony. However, successful inbreeding was rare, and genetic diversity remained high, suggesting occasional inbreeding does not impair local population persistence. Local reproductive success was dependent on the habitat larvae settled into, rather than the habitat they came from. Our study suggests that longitudinal philopatry can influence both population replenishment and local adaptation of marine fishes. Resolving multigenerational pedigrees during a relatively short period, as we present here, provides a framework for assessing the ability of marine populations to persist and adapt to accelerating climate change. PMID:27799530

  19. Extinction risk and overfishing: reconciling conservation and fisheries perspectives on the status of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Davies, Trevor D; Baum, Julia K

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in the ocean, but their impacts on marine species are hotly debated. We evaluated marine fish statuses using conservation (Red List threatened or not) and fisheries (above or below reference points) metrics, compared their alignment, and diagnosed why discrepancies arise. Whereas only 13.5% of Red Listed marine fishes (n = 2952) are threatened, 40% and 21% of populations with stock assessments (n = 166) currently are below their more conservative and riskier reference points, respectively. Conservation and fisheries metrics aligned well (70.5% to 80.7%), despite their mathematical disconnect. Red Listings were not biased towards exaggerating threat status, and egregious errors, where populations were categorized at opposite extremes of fisheries and conservation metrics, were rare. Our analyses suggest conservation and fisheries scientists will agree on the statuses of exploited marine fishes in most cases, leaving only the question of appropriate management responses for populations of mutual concern still unresolved.

  20. Extinction Risk and Overfishing: Reconciling Conservation and Fisheries Perspectives on the Status of Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Trevor D.; Baum, Julia K.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in the ocean, but their impacts on marine species are hotly debated. We evaluated marine fish statuses using conservation (Red List threatened or not) and fisheries (above or below reference points) metrics, compared their alignment, and diagnosed why discrepancies arise. Whereas only 13.5% of Red Listed marine fishes (n = 2952) are threatened, 40% and 21% of populations with stock assessments (n = 166) currently are below their more conservative and riskier reference points, respectively. Conservation and fisheries metrics aligned well (70.5% to 80.7%), despite their mathematical disconnect. Red Listings were not biased towards exaggerating threat status, and egregious errors, where populations were categorized at opposite extremes of fisheries and conservation metrics, were rare. Our analyses suggest conservation and fisheries scientists will agree on the statuses of exploited marine fishes in most cases, leaving only the question of appropriate management responses for populations of mutual concern still unresolved. PMID:22872806

  1. Application of mercury isotopes for tracing trophic transfer and internal distribution of mercury in marine fish feeding experiments.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sae Yun; Blum, Joel D; Chirby, Michelle A; Chesney, Edward J

    2013-10-01

    Feeding experiments were performed to investigate mercury (Hg) isotope fractionation during trophic transfer and internal distribution of total Hg (THg) in marine fish on exposure to natural seafood. Young-of-the-year amberjack (Seriola dumerili) were fed with either blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus; 2647 ng/g THg) or brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus; 25.1 ng/g THg) for 80 d or 50 d, respectively, and dissected for muscle, liver, kidney, brain, and blood. After 30 d of tuna consumption, Hg isotopes (δ(202) Hg and Δ(199)Hg) of the amberjack organs shifted to the tuna value (δ(202)Hg = 0.55‰, Δ(199)Hg = 1.54‰,), demonstrating the absence of Hg isotope fractionation. When amberjack were fed a shrimp diet, there was an initial mixing of the amberjack organs toward the shrimp value (δ(202)Hg = -0.48‰, Δ(199)Hg = 0.32‰), followed by a cessation of further shifts in Δ(199)Hg and a small shift in δ(202)Hg. The failure of Δ(199)Hg to reach the shrimp value can be attributed to a reduction in Hg bioaccumulation from shrimp resulting from feeding inhibition and the δ(202)Hg shift can be attributed to a small internal fractionation during excretion. Given that the feeding rate and Hg concentration of the diet can influence internal Hg isotope distribution, these parameters must be considered in biosentinel fish studies. © 2013 SETAC.

  2. Detection of a diverse marine fish fauna using environmental DNA from seawater samples.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Kielgast, Jos; Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Møller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

    2012-01-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our

  3. Hyperoxia Elevates Adrenic Acid Peroxidation in Marine Fish and Is Associated with Reproductive Pheromone Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ming Long Sirius; Galano, Jean-Marie; Oger, Camille; Durand, Thierry; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The development of oxidative stress in the marine ecosystem is a concurring concern in fish reproductive behavior. Marine fish being rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of prostaglandin pheromone mediators but also vulnerable to lipid peroxidation. It is yet to be determined if hypoxia or hyperoxia environment, a cumulative effect in the marine ecosystem affect pheromone mediators in fish, and to understand if this is associated with the generation of oxidized lipid products of PUFA. Novel oxidized lipid metabolites, isoprostanoids (15-F2t-isoprostane, 7(RS)-7-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 8-F3t-isoprostane, 4(RS)-4-F4t-neuroprostane, 10-F4t-neuroprostane), isofuranoids (isofurans, 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-Δ15-11-dihomo-isofuran and neurofurans), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and resolvins, PUFA (arachidonic, adrenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) and prostaglandin pheromone mediators in fish muscle were determined in marine male and female fish muscles before and after interaction in a hypoxia or hyperoxia environment. Reproductive behaviors were also assessed. Our study showed oxidized lipid metabolites of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids were not influenced by hypoxia and hyperoxia exposure in the fishes and no gender differences were found. However, adrenic acid and its oxidized products, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane and 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-Δ15-11-dihomo-isofuran showed strong correspondence with male fish pheromone mediators and reproductive behavior when under oxidative stress especially, hyperoxia. The occurrence of hypoxia and hyperoxia in the marine ecosystem may not be detrimental to marine fish and instead presents as being beneficial in reproductive behavior. PMID:25874920

  4. Marine trophic diversity in an anadromous fish is linked to its life-history variation in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan P; Schindler, Daniel E

    2013-02-23

    We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from muscle tissues accrued in the ocean to examine whether marine foraging tactics in anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are linked to their ultimate freshwater life history as adults. Adults from large-bodied populations spawning in deep freshwater habitats had more enriched δ(15)N than individuals from small-bodied populations from shallow streams. Within populations, earlier maturing individuals had higher δ(15)N than older fish. These differences in δ(15)N suggest that the fish with different life histories or spawning habitats in freshwater either fed at different trophic positions or in different habitats in the ocean. We propose that, nested within interspecific diversity in the ecological attributes of salmon, population and life-history diversity in spawning adults is associated with variation in marine foraging tactics. These results further indicate that the trophic diversity of sockeye salmon in the ocean may be linked to trade-offs in ecological and evolutionary constraints they eventually experience as adults in freshwater ecosystems.

  5. Fish Oil Reduces Hepatic Injury by Maintaining Normal Intestinal Permeability and Microbiota in Chronic Ethanol-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiun-Rong; Chen, Ya-Ling; Peng, Hsiang-Chi; Lu, Yu-An; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Wang, Hsiao-Yun; Su, Yu-Ju; Yang, Suh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of fish oil on hepatic injury in ethanol-fed rats based on the intestinal permeability and microbiota. Rats were assigned to 6 groups and fed either a control diet or an ethanol diet such as C (control), CF25 (control with 25% fish oil), CF57 (control with 57% fish oil), E (ethanol), EF25 (ethanol with 25% fish oil), and EF57 (ethanol with 57% fish oil) groups. Rats were sacrificed at the end of 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and aminotransferase (ALT) activities, hepatic cytokines, and plasma endotoxin levels were significantly higher in the E group. In addition, hepatic histopathological analysis scores in the E group were significantly elevated. Rats in the E group also showed increased intestinal permeability and decreased numbers of fecal Bifidobacterium. However, plasma AST and ALT activities and hepatic cytokine levels were significantly lower in the EF25 and EF57 groups. Histological changes and intestinal permeability were also improved in the EF25 and EF57 groups. The fecal Escherichia coli numbers were significantly lower, but fecal Bifidobacterium numbers were significantly higher in the EF25 and EF57 groups. PMID:27143963

  6. Virtual Experiments in Marine Bioacoustics: Whales, Fish, and Anthropogenic Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    successful in providing insights on such phenomena in some marine mammals (Cranford et al. 2008a, b). The second long-term goal is to improve and refine our...employing our methodology with marine- mammal specimens, primarily toothed whales, acquiring, scanning, analyzing, and interpreting modeling results from...method has already been successful in providing insights on such phenomena in some marine mammals (Cranford et al. 2008a, b). The second long-term goal is

  7. Human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in the marine environment including fish farms in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Lee, In-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2017-02-01

    The occurrence trends and effects of 30 human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, anthelmintics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and β-blockers, in the marine environment, with a focus on seawater, sediment, cultured fish, and their feed collected from coastal and fish farm areas in the southern sea of Korea, were investigated. The concentrations of total pharmaceuticals in coastal area seawater (mean: 533ng/L) were higher than those in fish farm seawater (mean: 300ng/L), while the opposite trend (coastal area: 136ng/gdrywt<fish farm area; 195ng/gdrywt) was observed for sediment samples. Regarding cultured fish, the concentration of total pharmaceuticals in fish muscle (mean: 5.08ng/gwetwt) was lower than that in organs (mean: 14.1ng/gwetwt). However, not all compounds were present at higher concentrations in organs. Characteristic distribution patterns of pharmaceuticals were observed according to sample types and sampling sites based on the predominance of various antibiotics in fish farms (including cultured fish and feed) and the predominance of pharmaceuticals of terrestrial origin (human and livestock) in coastal areas. Pharmaceuticals used as fish drugs, such as sulfadiazine, erythromycin, and trimethoprim, were commonly detected in fish farm media (seawater, sediment, and cultured fish), which might contaminate fish farm media.

  8. Composition and flavor of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil, extruded soybeans, or their combination.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, N; Baer, R J; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kasperson, K M; Whitlock, L A

    2001-10-01

    Milk was collected from eight multiparous Holstein and four multiparous Brown Swiss cows that were distributed into four groups and arranged in a randomized complete block design with four 4-wk periods. The four treatments included a control diet of a 50:50 ratio of forage-to-concentrate; a fish oil diet of the control diet with 2% (on dry matter basis) added fat from menhaden fish oil; a fish oil with extruded soybean diet of the control diet with 1% (on dry matter basis) added fat from menhaden fish oil and 1% (on dry matter basis) added fat from extruded soybeans; and an extruded soybean diet of the control diet with 2% (on dry matter basis) added fat from extruded soybeans. Milk from cows fed control, fish oil, fish oil with extruded soybean, and extruded soybean diets contained 3.31, 2.58, 2.94, and 3.47% fat, respectively. Concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid in milk were highest in the fish oil (2.30 g/100 g of fatty acids) and fish oil with extruded soybean (2.17 g/100 g of fatty acids) diets compared with the control (0.56 g/100 g fatty acids) diet. Milk, cream, butter, and buttermilk from the fish oil, fish oil with extruded soybean, and extruded soybean diets had higher concentrations of transvaccenic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with the controls. Butter made from the extruded soybean diet was softest compared with all treatments. An experienced sensory panel found no flavor differences in milks or butters.

  9. Comparative toxicology for risk assessment of marine fishes and crustaceans. [Cyprinodon variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E. )

    1988-05-01

    The goal of this study was to collect data on the effects of chemicals on marine fishes and crustaceans and to evaluate the predictive power of the data for assessing risks to marine resources. The data sets consisted of acute median lethal concentrations (LC{sub 50s}) and chronic maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATCs). They were analyzed with regression models and simple comparisons. The conclusions include the following: (1) the variability found in the marine data was comparable to that found in freshwater data; (2) the standard marine test fish Cyprinodon variegatus appears to be representative of marine fishes; (3) the responses of marine crustaceans are so highly diverse that the concept of a representative crustacean is questionable; (4) mysid and penaeid shrimp appear to be particularly sensitive to toxic chemicals. These conclusions are subject to the constraints of the existing limited data base and should be confirmed by a systematic study of the relative sensitivity of marine organisms to chemicals with diverse modes of action.

  10. Administration of structured lipid composed of MCT and fish oil reduces net protein catabolism in enterally fed burned rats.

    PubMed

    Teo, T C; DeMichele, S J; Selleck, K M; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L; Bistrian, B R

    1989-07-01

    The effects of enteral feeding with safflower oil or a structured lipid (SL) derived from 60% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 40% fish oil (MCT/fish oil) on protein and energy metabolism were compared in gastrostomy-fed burned rats (30% body surface area) by measuring oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, nitrogen balance, total liver protein, whole-body leucine kinetics, and rectus muscle and liver protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR, %/day). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (195 +/- 5g) received 50 ml/day of an enteral regimen containing 50 kcal, 2 g amino acids, and 40% nonprotein calories as lipid for three days. Protein kinetics were estimated by using a continuous L-[1-14C] leucine infusion technique on day 2. Thermally injured rats enterally fed MCT/fish oil yielded significantly higher daily and cumulative nitrogen balances (p less than or equal to 0.025) and rectus muscle (39%) FSR (p less than or equal to 0.05) when compared with safflower oil. MCT/fish oil showed a 22% decrease (p less than or equal to 0.005) in per cent flux oxidized and a 7% (p less than or equal to 0.05) decrease in total energy expenditure (TEE) versus safflower oil. A 15% increase in liver FSR was accompanied by a significant elevation (p less than or equal to 0.025) in total liver protein with MCT/fish oil. This novel SL shares the properties of other structured lipids in that it reduces the net protein catabolic effects of burn injury, in part, by influencing tissue protein synthetic rates. The reduction in TEE is unique to MCT/fish oil and may relate to the ability of fish oil to diminish the injury response.

  11. Administration of structured lipid composed of MCT and fish oil reduces net protein catabolism in enterally fed burned rats.

    PubMed Central

    Teo, T C; DeMichele, S J; Selleck, K M; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L; Bistrian, B R

    1989-01-01

    The effects of enteral feeding with safflower oil or a structured lipid (SL) derived from 60% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 40% fish oil (MCT/fish oil) on protein and energy metabolism were compared in gastrostomy-fed burned rats (30% body surface area) by measuring oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, nitrogen balance, total liver protein, whole-body leucine kinetics, and rectus muscle and liver protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR, %/day). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (195 +/- 5g) received 50 ml/day of an enteral regimen containing 50 kcal, 2 g amino acids, and 40% nonprotein calories as lipid for three days. Protein kinetics were estimated by using a continuous L-[1-14C] leucine infusion technique on day 2. Thermally injured rats enterally fed MCT/fish oil yielded significantly higher daily and cumulative nitrogen balances (p less than or equal to 0.025) and rectus muscle (39%) FSR (p less than or equal to 0.05) when compared with safflower oil. MCT/fish oil showed a 22% decrease (p less than or equal to 0.005) in per cent flux oxidized and a 7% (p less than or equal to 0.05) decrease in total energy expenditure (TEE) versus safflower oil. A 15% increase in liver FSR was accompanied by a significant elevation (p less than or equal to 0.025) in total liver protein with MCT/fish oil. This novel SL shares the properties of other structured lipids in that it reduces the net protein catabolic effects of burn injury, in part, by influencing tissue protein synthetic rates. The reduction in TEE is unique to MCT/fish oil and may relate to the ability of fish oil to diminish the injury response. PMID:2500898

  12. Linking adults and immatures of South African marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Dirk; Connell, Allan D; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-11-01

    The early life-history stages of fishes are poorly known, impeding acquisition of the identifications needed to monitor larval recruitment and year-class strength. A comprehensive database of COI sequences, linked to authoritatively identified voucher specimens, promises to change this situation, representing a significant advance for fisheries science. Barcode records were obtained from 2526 early larvae and pelagic eggs of fishes collected on the inshore shelf within 5 km of the KwaZulu-Natal coast, about 50 km south of Durban, South Africa. Barcodes were also obtained from 3215 adults, representing 946 South African fish species. Using the COI reference library on BOLD based on adults, 89% of the immature fishes could be identified to a species level; they represented 450 species. Most of the uncertain sequences could be assigned to a genus, family, or order; only 92 specimens (4%) were unassigned. Accumulation curves based on inference of phylogenetic diversity indicate near-completeness of the collecting effort. The entire set of adult and larval fishes included 1006 species, representing 43% of all fish species known from South African waters. However, this total included 189 species not previously recorded from this region. The fact that almost 90% of the immatures gained a species identification demonstrates the power and completeness of the DNA barcode reference library for fishes generated during the 10 years of FishBOL.

  13. Marine conservation: The race to fish slows down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Andrew A.

    2017-04-01

    A fishery can allow participants to fish as hard as they can until its quota is reached, or allocate quota shares that can be caught at any time. A comparison of the systems in action reveals that shares slow the race to fish. See Letter p.223

  14. Mice fed fish oil diet and upregulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenic markers.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Silva-e-Silva, Anna Carolina Alves Gomes; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2016-02-01

    Fish oil (FO) elicits diverse beneficial effects. Reduction in or prevention of body mass (BM) gain in animal models may be associated with modulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). We aimed to evaluate the effects of different high-fat diets with FO on BAT metabolism and thermogenic markers. C57BL/6 male mice (3-month-old) were fed different diets during 8 weeks: standard-chow diet (SC 10% fat), high-fat lard diet (HF-L 50% fat), high-fat lard plus FO diet (HF-L+FO 50% fat), and high-fat FO diet (HF-FO 50% fat). We evaluated BM and performed an oral glucose tolerance test. At euthanasia, plasma was collected for leptin, and triacylglycerol measurement and interscapular BAT was dissected and stored for molecular analyses. HF-L group showed elevated BM; glucose intolerance associated with diminished TC10 and GLUT4 expressions; hypertriglyceridemia associated with increased CD36 and diminished CPT1 expression; elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines; and reduced PPAR expression. Furthermore, these animals showed hyperleptinemia with increased expression of thermogenic markers (beta3-AR, PGC1alpha, and UCP1). Conversely, HF-L+FO and HF-FO groups showed reduced BM gain with regularization of glucose tolerance and triglyceridemia, GLUT4, TC10, CD36, CPT1, and cytokines expressions. Both groups exhibited elevated PPAR and thermogenic markers expression in a dose-dependent way. FO improves metabolic profile and upregulates thermogenic markers, suggesting an elevated thermogenesis that leads to reduced BM gain.

  15. Anisakis simplex Larvae: Infection Status in Marine Fish and Cephalopods Purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae

    2011-01-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea. PMID:21461267

  16. Anisakis simplex larvae: infection status in marine fish and cephalopods purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae; Ock, Mee Sun

    2011-03-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea.

  17. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of dioxins in marine copepods and fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiong; Yang, Liuyan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-12-01

    Despite the great concerns about dioxins in the marine environments, the biokinetics and bioaccumulation of these compounds in marine organisms remains little known. Using radioactive tracers the aqueous uptake, dietary assimilation efficiency, and elimination of dioxins were measured in marine phytoplankton, copepods and seabream. The calculated uptake rate constant of dioxins decreased with increasing trophic levels, whereas the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) was 28.5-57.6% in the copepods and 36.6-70.2% in the fish. The dietary AE was highly dependent on the food concentrations and food type. The elimination rate constant of dioxin in the copepods varied with different exposure pathways as well as food concentration and food type. Biokinetic calculation showed that dietary accumulation was the predominant pathway for dioxin accumulation in marine copepods and fish. Aqueous uptake can be an important pathway only when the bioconcentration of dioxins in the phytoplankton was low.

  18. Rapid increase in fish numbers follows creation of world's largest marine reserve network.

    PubMed

    Russ, Garry R; Cheal, Alistair J; Dolman, Andrew M; Emslie, Michael J; Evans, Richard D; Miller, Ian; Sweatman, Hugh; Williamson, David H

    2008-06-24

    No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are much advocated as a solution to managing marine ecosystems, protecting exploited species and restoring natural states of biodiversity [1,2]. Increasingly, it is becoming clear that effective marine conservation and management at ecosystem and regional scales requires extensive networks of NTMRs [1,2]. The world's largest network of such reserves was established on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in 2004. Closing such a large area to all fishing has been socially and politically controversial, making it imperative that the effectiveness of this new reserve network be assessed. Here we report evidence, first, that the densities of the major target species of the GBR reef line fisheries were significantly higher in the new NTMRs, compared with fished sites, in just two years; and second, that the positive differences were consistent for multiple marine reserves over an unprecedented spatial scale (>1,000 km).

  19. [Anisakis simplex larvae: infection status in marine fishes for sale in Shantou].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Hua; Xu, Zhi-Xia; Xu, Guang-Xing; Huang, Jian-Yun; Chen, Hong-Hui; Shi, Shi-Zun; Wu, Xiu-Yang; Liang, Jing-Jing

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the infection status of Anisakis simplex larvae in marine fishes for sale in Shantou. Marine fishes were randomly collected from markets in Shantou City from February to December 2013, and then classified. The viscera and muscle of each fish were carefully dissected and thoroughly examined for anisakids. The larvae were examined under a light microscope. The infection rate and intensity of Anisakis simplex larvae were calculated. A total of 382 fish specimens belonging to 52 species were examined. 42 out of 52 species (80.8%) were found infected by A. simplex larvae. The overall infection rate reached 47.4% (181/382), and average 5.5 larvae parasitized per infected fish (995/181). The survival rate of larvae was 100%. The highest infection rate observed was 100% in Scomber australasicus (4/4), Trachurus japonicus (9/9), Decapterus maruadsi (8/8), Lutjanus lutjanus (9/9), Argyrosomus argentatus (4/4), Nibea albiflora (4/4), Nemipterus bathybius (12/12), Trachinocephalus myops (7/7) and Mene maculata (9/9), followed by 16/18 in Pneumatophorus japonicus, 6/7 in Lutjanus ophuysenii and 5/6 in Lutjanus fulvus. A. simplex larvae were not detected in 10 fish species, namely, Megalaspis cordyla, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Lutjanus fulviflamma, Acanthopagrus australis, Acanthopagrus latus, Plectorhinchus nigrus, Dentex tumifrons, Psenopsis anomala, Scatophagus argus, and Seriola lalandi. The infection intensity was the highest in Lutjanus fulvus (21.0 per fish), followed by Trachinocephalus myops (16.7 per fish), Saurida filamentosa (14.0 per fish) and Mene maculate (10.1 per fish). The lowest infection intensity was found in Rastrelliger kanagurta, Kaiwarinus equula, Atule mate, Lutjanus russellii, Plectorhinchus cinctus, Priacanthus tayenus, Branchiostegus argentatus, Branchiostegus albus, Sphyraena pinguis, Formio niger, Trachinotus blochii, Siganus fuscescens and Choerodon azurio (less than 2 per fish). The highest infection rate (34.3%, 131/382) was

  20. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    PubMed

    Darling, Emily S

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management.

  1. Assessing the Effect of Marine Reserves on Household Food Security in Kenyan Coral Reef Fishing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

  2. Virtual Experiments in Marine Bioacoustics: Whales, Fish, and Anthropogenic Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 7 19a...tested this algorithm on the CT dataset from a live bottlenose dolphin (acquired from the US Navy Marine Mammal Program). We will also calculate the...for comparative purposes has started with the CT dataset from the live bottlenose dolphin acquired from the US Navy Marine Mammal Program. We will

  3. Research on marine and freshwater fish identification model based on hyper-spectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yan; Guo, Pei-yuan; Xiang, Ling-zi; Bao, Man; Chen, Xing-hai

    2013-08-01

    With the gradually mature of hyper spectral image technology, the application of the meat nondestructive detection and recognition has become one of the current research focuses. This paper for the study of marine and freshwater fish by the pre-processing and feature extraction of the collected spectral curve data, combined with BP network structure and LVQ network structure, a predictive model of hyper spectral image data of marine and freshwater fish has been initially established and finally realized the qualitative analysis and identification of marine and freshwater fish quality. The results of this study show that hyper spectral imaging technology combined with the BP and LVQ Artificial Neural Network Model can be used for the identification of marine and freshwater fish detection. Hyper-spectral data acquisition can be carried out without any pretreatment of the samples, thus hyper-spectral imaging technique is the lossless, high- accuracy and rapid detection method for quality of fish. In this study, only 30 samples are used for the exploratory qualitative identification of research, although the ideal study results are achieved, we will further increase the sample capacity to take the analysis of quantitative identification and verify the feasibility of this theory.

  4. Fishing out marine parasites? Impacts of fishing on rates of parasitism in the ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2010-01-01

    Among anthropogenic effects on the ocean, fishing is one of the most pervasive and extends deepest into the past. Because fishing reduces the density of fish (reducing transmission efficiency of directly transmitted parasites), selectively removes large fish (which tend to carry more parasites than small fish), and reduces food web complexity (reducing transmission efficiency of trophically transmitted parasites), the removal of fish from the world’s oceans over the course of hundreds of years may be driving a long-term, global decline in fish parasites. There has been growing recognition in recent years that parasites are a critical part of biodiversity and that their loss could substantially alter ecosystem function. Such a loss may be among the last major ecological effects of industrial fishing to be recognized by scientists.

  5. Diastereoisomer- and species-specific distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in fish and marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jongchul; Shin, Eun-Su; Seo, Sung-hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-12-30

    The levels and distributional characteristics of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereoisomers have been largely reported for various fish and select shellfish. In this study, we reclassified a number and variety of marine invertebrates, including shellfish, to further contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the effects and assessment of human exposure to HBCD. Overall, 30 marine invertebrate species (n=188) were investigated and the following order of ∑2HBCD (α- and γ-HBCD) was observed: fish>chordata>cephalopoda>echinodermata>bivalve>crustacea. The marine invertebrates that were reclassified into nektonic and benthic organisms showed similar concentration of ∑2HBCD. The feeding habits and modes of the marine organisms were considered to compare the degree of bioaccumulation and diastereoisomer-specific distribution of HBCD due to the effects of the environment in and around pollution sources, as well as the organisms' metabolic capacities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the species-specific distribution patterns of HBCD for both fish and marine invertebrates. We expect to significantly expand the understanding of the environmental fate of HBCD for marine organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Histology as a Valid Tool To Differentiate Fresh from Frozen-Thawed Marinated Fish.

    PubMed

    Meistro, Serena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Muscolino, Daniele; Giarratana, Filippo; Baioni, Elisa; Panebianco, Antonio; Bozzetta, Elena

    2016-08-01

    European Commission Regulation (EU) 1276/2011 requires that fishery products intended for raw consumption be frozen at -20°C for not less than 24 h or at -35°C for at least 15 h in order to kill viable parasites other than trematodes. But because marinating processes are not always effective in destroying nematode larvae, raw marinated fish preparations should be frozen before consumption. This study evaluated the performance of a standardized histological method to distinguish between fresh and frozen-thawed raw marinated fish. Sixty anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) fillets were sampled: 30 were marinated at +4°C for 24 h, and 30 were frozen at -20°C for 24 h before being marinated for 24 h. All 60 samples were fixed in formalin, processed for paraffin embedding, cut, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The slide preparations were examined microscopically by three independent histopathologists and classified as frozen-thawed or negative according to standard operating procedure criteria in use at our laboratory. Performance evaluation of the method showed 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.4 to 100%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 88.4 to 100%), and the interrater agreement (Cohen's kappa) was 1 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1). Histology proved a valid and reliable tool to distinguish fresh from frozen-thawed marinated fish. It can be applied to deliver safe raw fishery products to consumers in order to minimize the risk of anisakidosis.

  7. Family Key to the Fish Commonly Taken on Board the Orange County Schools Marine Science Floating Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, David W.

    Provided is a dichotomous key to the families of marine fish commonly taken aboard the Orange County Schools Marine Science Floating Laboratory. This key has been designed for use by junior and senior high school students. Diagrams and drawings are provided which indicate diagnostic characteristics of various members of the fish families included.…

  8. Marine biofouling on fish farms and its remediation.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, R A; McEvoy, L A

    2005-01-01

    The fish farming industry suffers significantly from the effects of biofouling. The fouling of cages and netting, which is costly to remove, is detrimental to fish health and yield and can cause equipment failure. With rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry, coupled with the tightening of legislation on the use of antifouling biocides, the problems of fish farm biofouling are increasing. The nature of the biological communities that develop on fish farm equipment and the antifouling practices that can be employed to reduce it are described here. Particular emphasis is placed on antifouling legislature and the future needs of the industry. The biological communities that develop on fish cages and netting are distinctive, in comparison to those that foul ships. Temperate species of particular importance, because of their cosmopolitan distribution and opportunistic nature, include the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Antifouling practices include predominantly the use of copper-based antifoulant coatings, in combination with practical fish husbandry and site management practices. The antifouling solutions presently available are not ideal, and it is widely accepted that there is an urgent need for research into combatant technologies. Such alternatives include the adoption of "foul-release" technologies and "biological control" through the use of polyculture systems. However, none of these have, as yet, been proven satisfactory. In view of current legislative trends and the possible future "phasing out" of available antifouling materials, there is a need to find alternative strategies.

  9. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  10. Distribution of isopod parasites in commercially important marine fishes of the Miri coast, East Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Anand Kumar, A; Rameshkumar, G; Ravichandran, S; Nagarajan, R; Prabakaran, K; Ramesh, M

    2017-03-01

    Isopods occur very commonly as parasites in food fishes. Parasitic isopods are typically marine and usually inhabit the warmer seas. They are blood-feeding; several species settle in the buccal cavity of fish, others live in the gill chamber or on the body surface including the fins. Isopods can cause morbidity and mortality in captive fish populations. The infestation usually pressure atrophy often accompanies the presence of larger parasites. The present study was aimed at collecting information on the neglected group of isopod parasites of the marine fishes from the Miri coastal environment, East Malaysia. A very little information available regarding the distribution of isopod parasites of Malaysian coastal environment. In the present study, nine isopod parasites were  oberved from ten marine fish species. The maximum number of parasites were observed in the months of June and October, 2013. Maximum prevalence was observed in October (50 %) and the minimum was observed in June (7.14 %). The parasitic infestation may lead to an economic loss in commercial fish species.

  11. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Soler, German A; Edgar, Graham J; Thomson, Russell J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J; Dawson, Terence P; Barrett, Neville S; Bernard, Anthony T F; Galván, David E; Willis, Trevor J; Alexander, Timothy J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing.

  12. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Soler, German A.; Edgar, Graham J.; Thomson, Russell J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J.; Dawson, Terence P.; Barrett, Neville S.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Galván, David E.; Willis, Trevor J.; Alexander, Timothy J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  13. Effects of marine reserves versus nursery habitat availability on structure of reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G G; Mumby, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (≤ 25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems.

  14. Drivers of redistribution of fishing and non-fishing effort after the implementation of a marine protected area network.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Reniel B; Gaines, Steven D; Johnson, Brett A; Bell, Tom W; White, Crow

    2017-03-01

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) is increasingly utilized to sustainably manage ocean uses. Marine protected areas (MPAs), a form of spatial management in which parts of the ocean are regulated to fishing, are now a common tool in MSP for conserving marine biodiversity and managing fisheries. However, the use of MPAs in MSP often neglects, or simplifies, the redistribution of fishing and non-fishing activities inside and outside of MPAs following their implementation. This redistribution of effort can have important implications for effective MSP. Using long-term (14 yr) aerial surveys of boats at the California Channel Islands, we examined the spatial redistribution of fishing and non-fishing activities and their drivers following MPA establishment. Our data represent 6 yr of information before the implementation of an MPA network and 8 yr after implementation. Different types of boats responded in different ways to the closures, ranging from behaviors by commercial dive boats that support the hypothesis of fishing-the-line, to behaviors by urchin, sport fishing, and recreational boats that support the theory of ideal free distribution. Additionally, we found that boats engaged in recreational activities targeted areas that are sheltered from large waves and located near their home ports, while boats engaged in fishing activities also avoided high wave areas but were not constrained by the distance to their home ports. We did not observe the expected pattern of effort concentration near MPA borders for some boat types; this can be explained by the habitat preference of certain activities (for some activities, the desired habitat attributes are not inside the MPAs), species' biology (species such as urchins where the MPA benefit would likely come from larval export rather than adult spillover), or policy-infraction avoidance. The diversity of boat responses reveals variance from the usual simplified assumption that all extractive boats respond similarly to MPA

  15. Global mismatch between fishing dependency and larval supply from marine reserves

    PubMed Central

    Andrello, Marco; Guilhaumon, François; Albouy, Camille; Parravicini, Valeriano; Scholtens, Joeri; Verley, Philippe; Barange, Manuel; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Manel, Stéphanie; Mouillot, David

    2017-01-01

    Marine reserves are viewed as flagship tools to protect exploited species and to contribute to the effective management of coastal fisheries. Yet, the extent to which marine reserves are globally interconnected and able to effectively seed areas, where fisheries are most critical for food and livelihood security is largely unknown. Using a hydrodynamic model of larval dispersal, we predict that most marine reserves are not interconnected by currents and that their potential benefits to fishing areas are presently limited, since countries with high dependency on coastal fisheries receive very little larval supply from marine reserves. This global mismatch could be reversed, however, by placing new marine reserves in areas sufficiently remote to minimize social and economic costs but sufficiently connected through sea currents to seed the most exploited fisheries and endangered ecosystems. PMID:28691710

  16. Global mismatch between fishing dependency and larval supply from marine reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrello, Marco; Guilhaumon, François; Albouy, Camille; Parravicini, Valeriano; Scholtens, Joeri; Verley, Philippe; Barange, Manuel; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Manel, Stéphanie; Mouillot, David

    2017-07-01

    Marine reserves are viewed as flagship tools to protect exploited species and to contribute to the effective management of coastal fisheries. Yet, the extent to which marine reserves are globally interconnected and able to effectively seed areas, where fisheries are most critical for food and livelihood security is largely unknown. Using a hydrodynamic model of larval dispersal, we predict that most marine reserves are not interconnected by currents and that their potential benefits to fishing areas are presently limited, since countries with high dependency on coastal fisheries receive very little larval supply from marine reserves. This global mismatch could be reversed, however, by placing new marine reserves in areas sufficiently remote to minimize social and economic costs but sufficiently connected through sea currents to seed the most exploited fisheries and endangered ecosystems.

  17. Characterization and Relatedness of Marine Vibrios Pathogenic to Fish: Physiology, Serology, and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Pacha, R. E.; Kiehn, E. D.

    1969-01-01

    Cultural characteristics and serological relationships of pathogenic marine vibrios isolated from fish in the Pacific Northwest were studied. These organisms were compared with cultures of Vibrio anguillarum, a known fish pathogen. On the basis of morphological and cultural characteristics, the Pacific Northwest strains of Vibrio were found to be closely related to V. anguillarum. Serological analyses of thermostable antigens served to distinguish three serotypes among the vibrios. Serotype 1 was composed of organisms isolated from Northwest salmonids; serotype 2 of strains of V. anguillarum from European waters; and serotype 3 of organisms isolated from Pacific herring. The epidemiology of vibrio disease among populations of fish in the Pacific Northwest is discussed. PMID:5391230

  18. Heavy metals in marine fish meat and consumer health: a review.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Adina C; O'Neill, Bernadette; Sigge, Gunnar O; Kerwath, Sven E; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-15

    The numerous health benefits provided by fish consumption may be compromised by the presence of toxic metals and metalloids such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury, which can have harmful effects on the human body if consumed in toxic quantities. The monitoring of metal concentrations in fish meat is therefore important to ensure compliance with food safety regulations and consequent consumer protection. The toxicity of these metals may be dependent on their chemical forms, which requires metal speciation processes for direct measurement of toxic metal species or the identification of prediction models in order to determine toxic metal forms from measured total metal concentrations. This review addresses various shortcomings in current knowledge and research on the accumulation of metal contaminants in commercially consumed marine fish globally and particularly in South Africa, affecting both the fishing industry as well as fish consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Miocene marine incursions and marine/freshwater transitions: Evidence from Neotropical fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Nathan R.; Albert, James S.; Crampton, William G. R.

    2006-03-01

    Amazonian rivers contain a remarkable fauna of endemic species derived from taxa that generally occur in oceans and seas. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of marine-derived lineages, including opportunistic invasions via estuaries, vicariance related to uplift of the Andes, and vicariance related to Miocene marine incursions and connections. Here, we examine available data for marine-derived lineages of four groups: stingrays (Myliobatiformes), drums (Sciaenidae), anchovies (Engraulididae), and needlefish (Belonidae). Geographic distributions, age estimates (determined using fossils, biogeography, and molecular data sets), and phylogenies for these taxa are most compatible with origination during the Miocene from marine sister groups distributed along the northern coast of South America. We speculate that unique ecological and biogeographic aspects of the Miocene upper Amazonian wetland system, most notably long-term connections with marine systems, facilitated the evolutionary transition from marine to freshwater habitats.

  20. DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS FOR SELECTED MARINE AND ESTUARINE FISHES, CRUSTACEANS AND A BIVALVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, w...

  1. Global-Scale Relationships between Colonization Ability and Range Size in Marine and Freshwater Fish

    PubMed Central

    Strona, Giovanni; Galli, Paolo; Montano, Simone; Seveso, Davide; Fattorini, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Although fish range sizes are expected to be associated with species dispersal ability, several studies failed to find a clear relationship between range size and duration of larval stage as a measure of dispersal potential. We investigated how six characteristics of the adult phase of fishes (maximum body length, growth rate, age at first maturity, life span, trophic level and frequency of occurrence) possibly associated with colonization ability correlate with range size in both freshwater and marine species at global scale. We used more than 12 million point records to estimate range size of 1829 freshwater species and 10068 marine species. As measures of range size we used both area of occupancy and extent of occurrence. Relationships between range size and species traits were assessed using Canonical Correlation Analysis. We found that frequency of occurrence and maximum body length had a strong influence on range size measures, which is consistent with patterns previously found (at smaller scales) in several other taxa. Freshwater and marine fishes showed striking similarities, suggesting the existence of common mechanisms regulating fish biogeography in the marine and freshwater realms. PMID:23185338

  2. DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS FOR SELECTED MARINE AND ESTUARINE FISHES, CRUSTACEANS AND A BIVALVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, w...

  3. Global-scale relationships between colonization ability and range size in marine and freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Strona, Giovanni; Galli, Paolo; Montano, Simone; Seveso, Davide; Fattorini, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Although fish range sizes are expected to be associated with species dispersal ability, several studies failed to find a clear relationship between range size and duration of larval stage as a measure of dispersal potential. We investigated how six characteristics of the adult phase of fishes (maximum body length, growth rate, age at first maturity, life span, trophic level and frequency of occurrence) possibly associated with colonization ability correlate with range size in both freshwater and marine species at global scale. We used more than 12 million point records to estimate range size of 1829 freshwater species and 10068 marine species. As measures of range size we used both area of occupancy and extent of occurrence. Relationships between range size and species traits were assessed using Canonical Correlation Analysis. We found that frequency of occurrence and maximum body length had a strong influence on range size measures, which is consistent with patterns previously found (at smaller scales) in several other taxa. Freshwater and marine fishes showed striking similarities, suggesting the existence of common mechanisms regulating fish biogeography in the marine and freshwater realms.

  4. 77 FR 45268 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan AGENCY: National Marine... Dolphin Take Reduction Plan (BDTRP) and its implementing regulations by permanently continuing nighttime... November 1 through April 30. Members of the Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Team (Team) recommended...

  5. Enhancing fish Underwater Visual Census to move forward assessment of fish assemblages: An application in three Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Prato, Giulia; Thiriet, Pierre; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring fish assemblages is needed to assess whether Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are meeting their conservation and fisheries management goals, as it allows one to track the progress of recovery of exploited species and associated communities. Underwater Visual Census techniques (UVC) are used to monitor fish assemblages in MPAs. UVCs should be adapted to fish abundance, body-size and behaviour, which can strongly affect fish detectability. In Mediterranean subtidal habitats, however, UVC strip transects of one surface area (25x5 m2) are commonly used to survey the whole fish assemblage, from large shy fish to small crypto-benthic fish. Most high trophic level predators (HTLPs) are large shy fish which rarely swim close to divers and, consequently, their abundance may be under-estimated with commonly used transects. Here, we propose an improvement to traditional transect surveys to better account for differences in behaviour among and within species. First, we compared the effectiveness of combining two transect surface areas (large: 35x20 m2; medium: 25x5 m2) in quantifying large, shy fish within and outside Mediterranean MPAs. We identified species-specific body-size thresholds defining a smaller and a larger size class better sampled by medium and large transects respectively. Combining large and medium transects provided more accurate biomass and species richness estimates for large, shy species than using medium transects alone. We thus combined the new approach with two other transect surface areas commonly used to survey crypto-benthic (10x1 m2) and necto-benthic (25x5 m2) species in order to assess how effectively MPAs protection the whole fish assemblage. We verified that MPAs offer significant protection for HTLPs, their response in terms of biomass and density increase in MPAs was always higher in magnitude than other functional groups. Inside MPAs, the contribution of HTLP reached >25% of total fish biomass, against < 2% outside MPAs. Surveys with

  6. Enhancing fish Underwater Visual Census to move forward assessment of fish assemblages: An application in three Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Thiriet, Pierre; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring fish assemblages is needed to assess whether Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are meeting their conservation and fisheries management goals, as it allows one to track the progress of recovery of exploited species and associated communities. Underwater Visual Census techniques (UVC) are used to monitor fish assemblages in MPAs. UVCs should be adapted to fish abundance, body-size and behaviour, which can strongly affect fish detectability. In Mediterranean subtidal habitats, however, UVC strip transects of one surface area (25x5 m2) are commonly used to survey the whole fish assemblage, from large shy fish to small crypto-benthic fish. Most high trophic level predators (HTLPs) are large shy fish which rarely swim close to divers and, consequently, their abundance may be under-estimated with commonly used transects. Here, we propose an improvement to traditional transect surveys to better account for differences in behaviour among and within species. First, we compared the effectiveness of combining two transect surface areas (large: 35x20 m2; medium: 25x5 m2) in quantifying large, shy fish within and outside Mediterranean MPAs. We identified species-specific body-size thresholds defining a smaller and a larger size class better sampled by medium and large transects respectively. Combining large and medium transects provided more accurate biomass and species richness estimates for large, shy species than using medium transects alone. We thus combined the new approach with two other transect surface areas commonly used to survey crypto-benthic (10x1 m2) and necto-benthic (25x5 m2) species in order to assess how effectively MPAs protection the whole fish assemblage. We verified that MPAs offer significant protection for HTLPs, their response in terms of biomass and density increase in MPAs was always higher in magnitude than other functional groups. Inside MPAs, the contribution of HTLP reached >25% of total fish biomass, against < 2% outside MPAs. Surveys with

  7. Diel trophic structuring of seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsworth, Richard K. F.; Wylie, Elizabeth; Smith, David J.; Bell, James J.

    2007-03-01

    The faunal communities of seagrass beds throughout SE Asia are highly threatened by continued overexploitation, yet their ecology is poorly understood. Developing a greater understanding of the faunal linkages between seagrass beds and associated coastal habitats can facilitate more informed ecosystem level management. The present study used beach seine netting to sample seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia, to investigate diel migrations of fish into and out of seagrass beds. These fish assemblages were found to be diverse relative to other studies within the region, with many species being economically important to local subsistence fisheries. The abundance, species richness and trophic structure of these fish assemblages changed with time of day indicating that fish populations are in a dynamic state. Mean fish abundance increased by ≈45% from day to night (Day: 8.61 ± 0.13 fish 100 m -2; Night: 15.6 ± 1.4 fish 100 m -2) while mean species richness increased from 6.6 ± 1.9 per seine haul to 11.4 ± 0.2. Increasing abundance and diversity of fish at night suggests migration onto these habitats from nearby habitats such as reefs, mangroves or deep water; and/or increased activity of those fish resident within seagrass habitats. Division of species into trophic categories enabled the trophic structure of changing fish assemblages to be examined. Assemblages were dominated during both the day and night by invertebrate and fish feeders; however, a major diel change in trophic structure occurred in the abundance of omnivores. During the day omnivores were abundant, but they were replaced at night by exclusive invertebrate feeders. We therefore propose that diel changes in seagrass fish assemblages are predominantly structured by food availability, although other factors such as increased night-time shelter provision were also found to be important albeit to a much lesser extent.

  8. Community- and government-managed marine protected areas increase fish size, biomass and potential value.

    PubMed

    Chirico, Angelica A D; McClanahan, Timothy R; Eklöf, Johan S

    2017-01-01

    Government-managed marine protected areas (MPAs) can restore small fish stocks, but have been heavily criticized for excluding resource users and creating conflicts. A promising but less studied alternative are community-managed MPAs, where resource users are more involved in MPA design, implementation and enforcement. Here we evaluated effects of government- and community-managed MPAs on the density, size and biomass of seagrass- and coral reef-associated fish, using field surveys in Kenyan coastal lagoons. We also assessed protection effects on the potential monetary value of fish; a variable that increases non-linearly with fish body mass and is particularly important from a fishery perspective. We found that two recently established community MPAs (< 1 km2 in size, ≤ 5 years of protection) harbored larger fish and greater total fish biomass than two fished (open access) areas, in both seagrass beds and coral reefs. As expected, protection effects were considerably stronger in the older and larger government MPAs. Importantly, across management and habitat types, the protection effect on the potential monetary value of the fish was much stronger than the effects on fish biomass and size (6.7 vs. 2.6 and 1.3 times higher value in community MPAs than in fished areas, respectively). This strong effect on potential value was partly explained by presence of larger (and therefore more valuable) individual fish, and partly by higher densities of high-value taxa (e.g. rabbitfish). In summary, we show that i) small and recently established community-managed MPAs can, just like larger and older government-managed MPAs, play an important role for local conservation of high-value fish, and that ii) these effects are equally strong in coral reefs as in seagrass beds; an important habitat too rarely included in formal management. Consequently, community-managed MPAs could benefit both coral reef and seagrass ecosystems and provide spillover of valuable fish to nearby

  9. Community- and government-managed marine protected areas increase fish size, biomass and potential value

    PubMed Central

    Chirico, Angelica A. D.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Eklöf, Johan S.

    2017-01-01

    Government-managed marine protected areas (MPAs) can restore small fish stocks, but have been heavily criticized for excluding resource users and creating conflicts. A promising but less studied alternative are community-managed MPAs, where resource users are more involved in MPA design, implementation and enforcement. Here we evaluated effects of government- and community-managed MPAs on the density, size and biomass of seagrass- and coral reef-associated fish, using field surveys in Kenyan coastal lagoons. We also assessed protection effects on the potential monetary value of fish; a variable that increases non-linearly with fish body mass and is particularly important from a fishery perspective. We found that two recently established community MPAs (< 1 km2 in size, ≤ 5 years of protection) harbored larger fish and greater total fish biomass than two fished (open access) areas, in both seagrass beds and coral reefs. As expected, protection effects were considerably stronger in the older and larger government MPAs. Importantly, across management and habitat types, the protection effect on the potential monetary value of the fish was much stronger than the effects on fish biomass and size (6.7 vs. 2.6 and 1.3 times higher value in community MPAs than in fished areas, respectively). This strong effect on potential value was partly explained by presence of larger (and therefore more valuable) individual fish, and partly by higher densities of high-value taxa (e.g. rabbitfish). In summary, we show that i) small and recently established community-managed MPAs can, just like larger and older government-managed MPAs, play an important role for local conservation of high-value fish, and that ii) these effects are equally strong in coral reefs as in seagrass beds; an important habitat too rarely included in formal management. Consequently, community-managed MPAs could benefit both coral reef and seagrass ecosystems and provide spillover of valuable fish to nearby

  10. Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line

    PubMed Central

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

  11. Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.

    PubMed

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented.

  12. Detection of a Diverse Marine Fish Fauna Using Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Møller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

    2012-01-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our

  13. Marine fish community structure and habitat associations on the Canadian Beaufort shelf and slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Andrew R.; Atchison, Sheila; MacPhee, Shannon; Eert, Jane; Niemi, Andrea; Michel, Christine; Reist, James D.

    2017-03-01

    Marine fishes in the Canadian Beaufort Sea have complex interactions with habitats and prey, and occupy a pivotal position in the food web by transferring energy between lower- and upper-trophic levels, and also within and among habitats (e.g., benthic-pelagic coupling). The distributions, habitat associations, and community structure of most Beaufort Sea marine fishes, however, are unknown thus precluding effective regulatory management of emerging offshore industries in the region (e.g., hydrocarbon development, shipping, and fisheries). Between 2012 and 2014, Fisheries and Oceans Canada conducted the first baseline survey of offshore marine fishes, their habitats, and ecological relationships in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Benthic trawling was conducted at 45 stations spanning 18-1001 m depths across shelf and slope habitats. Physical oceanographic variables (depth, salinity, temperature, oxygen), biological variables (benthic chlorophyll and integrated water-column chlorophyll) and sediment composition (grain size) were assessed as potential explanatory variables for fish community structure using a non-parametric statistical approach. Selected stations were re-sampled in 2013 and 2014 for a preliminary assessment of inter-annual variability in the fish community. Four distinct fish assemblages were delineated on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf and slope: 1) Nearshore-shelf: <50 m depth, 2) Offshore-shelf: >50 and ≤200 m depths, 3) Upper-slope: ≥200 and ≤500 m depths, and 4) Lower-slope: ≥500 m depths. Depth was the environmental variable that best explained fish community structure, and each species assemblage was spatially associated with distinct aspects of the vertical water mass profile. Significant differences in the fish community from east to west were not detected, and the species composition of the assemblages on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf have not changed substantially over the past decade. This community analysis provides a framework for testing

  14. Severe Inbreeding and Small Effective Number of Breeders in a Formerly Abundant Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Shannon J.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.; Fast, Mark D.; Chapman, Demian D.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to freshwater fish it is presumed that marine fish are unlikely to spawn with close relatives due to the dilution effect of large breeding populations and their propensity for movement and reproductive mixing. Inbreeding is therefore not typically a focal concern of marine fish management. We measured the effective number of breeders in 6 New York estuaries for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), a formerly abundant fish, using 11 microsatellite markers (6–56 alleles per locus). The effective number of breeders for 1–2 years was remarkably small, with point estimates ranging from 65–289 individuals. Excess homozygosity was detected at 10 loci in all bays (FIS = 0.169–0.283) and individuals exhibited high average internal relatedness (IR; mean = 0.226). These both indicate that inbreeding is very common in all bays, after testing for and ruling out alternative explanations such as technical and sampling artifacts. This study demonstrates that even historically common marine fish can be prone to inbreeding, a factor that should be considered in fisheries management and conservation plans. PMID:23762473

  15. Analysis of EPA and DHA in the viscera of marine fish using gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Yong; Xu, Xiao-Lu; Shen, Xiu-Ying; Mei, Yu; Xu, Hui-Ying

    2016-03-01

    The viscera of 10 kinds of marine fishes were collected for fish oil extraction and detection of DHA and EPA, two most important polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fish oil extraction ratio for the evaluated fishes varied from 0.95% to 10.18% (wt%). Pseudosciaena crocea presented the highest fish oil yield, followed by Mustelus manazo, Hippoglossus and Sciaenopsocellatus. A gas chromatography method was then established for analysis of EPA/DHA. The EPA concentration (in methyl ester form) in the fish oil varied from 1.39 to 10.65(mg/g). Epinephelus awoara presented the highest EPA concentration (p<0.05), followed by Epinephelussp, Sciaenopsocellatus and Hippoglossus. The DHA concentration (in methyl ester form) in the fish oil varied from 0.58 to 37.02 (mg/g). Epinephelus awoara presented the highest DHA concentration (p<0.05), followed by Sciaenopsocellatus, Pseudosciaena crocea and Hippoglossus. No strict positive correlation between the EPA/DHA concentration and the sea depth where the fish live was observed. The fishes living in middle depth presented highest EPA/DHA concentration.

  16. Paleocoastal marine fishing on the Pacific Coast of the Americas: perspectives from Daisy Cave, California.

    PubMed

    Rick, T C; Erlandson, J M; Vellanoweth, R L

    2001-10-01

    Analysis of over 27,000 fish bones from strata at Daisy Cave dated between about 11,500 and 8500 cal B.P. suggests that early Channel Islanders fished relatively intensively in a variety of habitats using a number of distinct technologies, including boats and the earliest evidence for hook-and-line fishing on the Pacific Coast of the Americas. The abundance of fish remains and fishing-related artifacts supports dietary reconstructions that suggest fish provided more than 50 percent of the edible meat represented in faunal samples from the early Holocene site strata. The abundance and economic importance of fish at Daisy Cave, unprecedented among early sites along the Pacific Coast of North America, suggest that early maritime capabilities on the Channel Islands were both more advanced and more variable than previously believed. When combined with a survey of fish remains from several other early Pacific Coast sites, these data suggest that early New World peoples effectively used watercraft, captured a diverse array of fish, and exploited a variety of marine habitats and resources.

  17. Stress profile influences learning approach in a marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Trompf, Larissa; Williamson, Jane E.; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The spatial learning skills of high and low stress juvenile mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) were tested in a dichotomous choice apparatus. Groups of fish were formed based on background blood cortisol levels and required to learn the location of a food reward hidden in one of two compartments. Low stress fish characterised by low background levels of the stress hormone cortisol had higher activity levels and entered both rewarded and unrewarded rooms frequently. Within the first week of exposure, however, their preference for the rewarded room increased, indicative of learning. Fish that had high background levels of cortisol, in contrast, showed low levels of activity but when they chose between the two rooms they chose the rewarded room most often but showed less improvement over time. After 12 days in the apparatus, both low and high stress fish had similar ratios of rewarded vs unrewarded room entrances. Our results suggest that proactive coping styles may increase exposure to novel contexts and thus favour faster learning but at the cost of reduced initial accuracy. PMID:28607840

  18. Alien Marine Fishes Deplete Algal Biomass in the Eastern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Enric; Kizilkaya, Zafer; Yildirim, Derya; Ballesteros, Enric

    2011-01-01

    One of the most degraded states of the Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem is a barren composed solely of bare rock and patches of crustose coralline algae. Barrens are typically created by the grazing action of large sea urchin populations. In 2008 we observed extensive areas almost devoid of erect algae, where sea urchins were rare, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. To determine the origin of those urchin-less ‘barrens’, we conducted a fish exclusion experiment. We found that, in the absence of fish grazing, a well-developed algal assemblage grew within three months. Underwater fish censuses and observations suggest that two alien herbivorous fish from the Red Sea (Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus) are responsible for the creation and maintenance of these benthic communities with extremely low biomass. The shift from well-developed native algal assemblages to ‘barrens’ implies a dramatic decline in biogenic habitat complexity, biodiversity and biomass. A targeted Siganus fishery could help restore the macroalgal beds of the rocky infralittoral on the Turkish coast. PMID:21364943

  19. Behavior, Ecology and Toxicity of Venomous Marine Fishes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-31

    u ltrastructure of the venom apparatus of the stingrays and scorpion fishes ’~~nd~ .. I# )”the chemistry and pharmacolo~~~~~~M~~ ~~~~~~ o of stingray

  20. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  1. Impacts of fishing low-trophic level species on marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony D M; Brown, Christopher J; Bulman, Catherine M; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Johnson, Penny; Kaplan, Isaac C; Lozano-Montes, Hector; Mackinson, Steven; Marzloff, Martin; Shannon, Lynne J; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Tam, Jorge

    2011-08-26

    Low-trophic level species account for more than 30% of global fisheries production and contribute substantially to global food security. We used a range of ecosystem models to explore the effects of fishing low-trophic level species on marine ecosystems, including marine mammals and seabirds, and on other commercially important species. In five well-studied ecosystems, we found that fishing these species at conventional maximum sustainable yield (MSY) levels can have large impacts on other parts of the ecosystem, particularly when they constitute a high proportion of the biomass in the ecosystem or are highly connected in the food web. Halving exploitation rates would result in much lower impacts on marine ecosystems while still achieving 80% of MSY.

  2. Global marine protected areas do not secure the evolutionary history of tropical corals and fishes.

    PubMed

    Mouillot, D; Parravicini, V; Bellwood, D R; Leprieur, F; Huang, D; Cowman, P F; Albouy, C; Hughes, T P; Thuiller, W; Guilhaumon, F

    2016-01-12

    Although coral reefs support the largest concentrations of marine biodiversity worldwide, the extent to which the global system of marine-protected areas (MPAs) represents individual species and the breadth of evolutionary history across the Tree of Life has never been quantified. Here we show that only 5.7% of scleractinian coral species and 21.7% of labrid fish species reach the minimum protection target of 10% of their geographic ranges within MPAs. We also estimate that the current global MPA system secures only 1.7% of the Tree of Life for corals, and 17.6% for fishes. Regionally, the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific show the greatest deficit of protection for corals while for fishes this deficit is located primarily in the Western Indian Ocean and in the Central Pacific. Our results call for a global coordinated expansion of current conservation efforts to fully secure the Tree of Life on coral reefs.

  3. Arctic marine fishes and their fisheries in light of global change.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Jørgen S; Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Karamushko, Oleg V

    2014-02-01

    In light of ocean warming and loss of Arctic sea ice, harvested marine fishes of boreal origin (and their fisheries) move poleward into yet unexploited parts of the Arctic seas. Industrial fisheries, already in place on many Arctic shelves, will radically affect the local fish species as they turn up as unprecedented bycatch. Arctic marine fishes are indispensable to ecosystem structuring and functioning, but they are still beyond credible assessment due to lack of basic biological data. The time for conservation actions is now, and precautionary management practices by the Arctic coastal states are needed to mitigate the impact of industrial fisheries in Arctic waters. We outline four possible conservation actions: scientific credibility, 'green technology', legitimate management and overarching coordination. © 2013 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Global marine protected areas do not secure the evolutionary history of tropical corals and fishes

    PubMed Central

    Mouillot, D.; Parravicini, V.; Bellwood, D. R.; Leprieur, F.; Huang, D.; Cowman, P. F.; Albouy, C.; Hughes, T. P.; Thuiller, W.; Guilhaumon, F.

    2016-01-01

    Although coral reefs support the largest concentrations of marine biodiversity worldwide, the extent to which the global system of marine-protected areas (MPAs) represents individual species and the breadth of evolutionary history across the Tree of Life has never been quantified. Here we show that only 5.7% of scleractinian coral species and 21.7% of labrid fish species reach the minimum protection target of 10% of their geographic ranges within MPAs. We also estimate that the current global MPA system secures only 1.7% of the Tree of Life for corals, and 17.6% for fishes. Regionally, the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific show the greatest deficit of protection for corals while for fishes this deficit is located primarily in the Western Indian Ocean and in the Central Pacific. Our results call for a global coordinated expansion of current conservation efforts to fully secure the Tree of Life on coral reefs. PMID:26756609

  5. Arctic marine fishes and their fisheries in light of global change

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Jørgen S; Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Karamushko, Oleg V

    2014-01-01

    In light of ocean warming and loss of Arctic sea ice, harvested marine fishes of boreal origin (and their fisheries) move poleward into yet unexploited parts of the Arctic seas. Industrial fisheries, already in place on many Arctic shelves, will radically affect the local fish species as they turn up as unprecedented bycatch. Arctic marine fishes are indispensable to ecosystem structuring and functioning, but they are still beyond credible assessment due to lack of basic biological data. The time for conservation actions is now, and precautionary management practices by the Arctic coastal states are needed to mitigate the impact of industrial fisheries in Arctic waters. We outline four possible conservation actions: scientific credibility, ‘green technology’, legitimate management and overarching coordination. PMID:24105993

  6. Effect of marine protected areas (MPAs) on consumer diet: MPA fish feed higher in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Dell, Claire; Montoya, Joseph; Hay, Mark

    2015-11-26

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are often established to mitigate the effects of overfishing and other human disturbances. In Fiji these are locally managed and, where enforced, have significantly higher coral cover, higher fish biomass, and lower seaweed cover than in the adjacent, unprotected reefs (non-MPAs). We investigated how the isotopic signatures of a common, mid-level consumer, Epinephelus merra, differed among three small (0.5- 0.8km(2)) MPAs versus adjacent, unprotected reefs. Isotopic ratios suggested that the fish in the MPAs fed higher in the food chain than those in the adjacent non-MPAs, despite being slightly smaller in size. Calculations using a brown alga as representative of the basal level of the food chain estimate this difference to be about half a trophic level. Thus, the isotopic ratio of a mid-level consumer can be noticeably altered over scales of only a few hundred meters. This may result from more complete food webs and hence greater prey choice and availability in the MPAs and implies that MPAs affect not only species' abundance and diversity, but also diet composition and trophic biology of member individuals. Our findings suggest E. merra exhibits considerable site fidelity in its feeding biology and thus provides a localized isotopic signal of its reef of residence. If the isotopic signal of this mid-level carnivore is reflective of the composition of the food web beneath it, the signal might provide an easily obtained indication of reef conditions in that area.

  7. Stable isotopes in juvenile marine fishes and their invertebrate prey from the Thames Estuary, UK, and adjacent coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jennings, Simon; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

    2008-04-01

    Estuaries are regarded as valuable nursery habitats for many commercially important marine fishes, potentially providing a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Stable isotope analysis may be used to assess relative resource use from isotopically distinct sources. This study comprised two major components: (1) development of a spatial map and discriminant function model of stable isotope variation in selected invertebrate groups inhabiting the Thames Estuary and adjacent coastal regions; and (2) analysis of stable isotope signatures of juvenile bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax), sole ( Solea solea) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) for assessment of resource use and feeding strategies. The data were also used to consider anthropogenic enrichment of the estuary and potential energetic benefits of feeding in estuarine nursery habitat. Analysis of carbon (δ 13C), nitrogen (δ 15N) and sulphur (δ 34S) isotope data identified significant differences in the 'baseline' isotopic signatures between estuarine and coastal invertebrates, and discriminant function analysis allowed samples to be re-classified to estuarine and coastal regions with 98.8% accuracy. Using invertebrate signatures as source indicators, stable isotope data classified juvenile fishes to the region in which they fed. Feeding signals appear to reflect physiological (freshwater tolerance) and functional (mobility) differences between species. Juvenile sole were found to exist as two isotopically-discrete sub-populations, with no evidence of mixing between the two. An apparent energetic benefit of estuarine feeding was only found for sole.

  8. Effect of marine protected areas (MPAs) on consumer diet: MPA fish feed higher in the food chain

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Claire; Montoya, Joseph; Hay, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are often established to mitigate the effects of overfishing and other human disturbances. In Fiji these are locally managed and, where enforced, have significantly higher coral cover, higher fish biomass, and lower seaweed cover than in the adjacent, unprotected reefs (non-MPAs). We investigated how the isotopic signatures of a common, mid-level consumer, Epinephelus merra, differed among three small (0.5- 0.8km2) MPAs versus adjacent, unprotected reefs. Isotopic ratios suggested that the fish in the MPAs fed higher in the food chain than those in the adjacent non-MPAs, despite being slightly smaller in size. Calculations using a brown alga as representative of the basal level of the food chain estimate this difference to be about half a trophic level. Thus, the isotopic ratio of a mid-level consumer can be noticeably altered over scales of only a few hundred meters. This may result from more complete food webs and hence greater prey choice and availability in the MPAs and implies that MPAs affect not only species’ abundance and diversity, but also diet composition and trophic biology of member individuals. Our findings suggest E. merra exhibits considerable site fidelity in its feeding biology and thus provides a localized isotopic signal of its reef of residence. If the isotopic signal of this mid-level carnivore is reflective of the composition of the food web beneath it, the signal might provide an easily obtained indication of reef conditions in that area. PMID:27340314

  9. Total and inorganic arsenic in Mid-Atlantic marine fish and shellfish and implications for fish advisories.

    PubMed

    Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric

    2006-10-01

    Sampling was conducted in 2002 to determine the total concentration and chemical speciation of arsenic in several marine fish and shellfish species collected from the Delaware Inland Bays and the Delaware Estuary, both of which are important estuarine waterbodies in the US Mid-Atlantic region that support recreational and commercial fishing. Edible meats from summer flounder (Paralicthys dentatus), striped bass (Marone saxatilis), Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulates), and hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) were tested. Total arsenic was highest in summer flounder, followed by hard clam, then striped bass, and finally, Atlantic croaker. Total arsenic was higher in summer flounder collected during the spring, as these fish migrated into the Inland Bays from the continental shelf, compared with levels in summer flounder collected during the fall, after these fish had spent the summer in the Inland Bays. Similarly, striped bass collected in the early spring close to the ocean had higher total arsenic levels compared with levels detected in striped bass collected later during the year in waters with lower salinity. Speciation of arsenic revealed low concentrations (0.00048-0.02 microg/g wet wt) of toxic inorganic arsenic. Dimethylarsinic acid was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding that was attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish consumption advisory is not warranted.

  10. Histopathology and contaminant concentrations in fish from Kuwait's marine environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Zaidan, A S; Al-Sarawi, H A; Massoud, M S; Al-Enezi, M; Smith, A J; Bignell, J P; Green, M J; Askem, C; Bolam, T P C; Barber, J L; Bersuder, P; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    Kuwait has witnessed major socioeconomic and industrial development in recent decades. Consequently, a variety of contaminants related to these activities have been discharged directly into the marine environment. This paper describes the application of a histopathology baseline survey in two potential sentinel species, the Giant sea catfish (Arius thalassinus) and the Fourlined terapon (Pelates quadrilineatus) to assess the health of biota inhabiting Kuwait's marine environment. Histological analysis revealed several lesion types in both species, although the prevalence was generally considered low with no discernible differences between sampling locations. The analysis of contaminant burdens (metals, PCBs, PBDEs, HBCDD) in A. thalassinus, along with the analysis of bile for PAH metabolites in both species, indicated that levels of contaminant exposure was low. Overall the data show that both species appear to be susceptible to pathologies associated with environmental contaminants and therefore suitable for further investigation as sentinel organisms for biological effects monitoring.

  11. Virtual Experiments in Marine Bioacoustics: Whales, Fish, and Anthropogenic Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 12 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT...Marine Mammal Program). We have also calculated the forward projection of the sound field for use in our model as an alternate validation effort...Biomimetics 3, 1-10. Cranford, T. W., McKenna , M. F., Soldevilla, M. S., Wiggins, S. M., Shadwick, R. E., Goldbogen, J., Krysl, P., St. Leger, J. A

  12. Virtual Experiments in Marine Bioacoustics: Whales, Fish, and Anthropogenic Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    in some marine mammals (Cranford et al., 2008b; Cranford et al., 2008c). The second long-term goal is to improve and refine our ability to measure...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...1-10 Cranford TW, McKenna MF, Soldevilla MS, Wiggins SM, Shadwick RE, Goldbogen J, Krysl P, St. Leger JA, Hildebrand JA (2008c) Anatomic geometry

  13. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States.

    PubMed

    Rhyne, Andrew L; Tlusty, Michael F; Schofield, Pamela J; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A; Bruckner, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

  14. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

  15. Revealing the Appetite of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume and Biodiversity of Fish Imported into the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

  16. Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: a case study of a heavily targeted reef fish.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brett M; McIlwain, Jennifer L; Kerr, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself) is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.

  17. Marine Reserves and Reproductive Biomass: A Case Study of a Heavily Targeted Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brett M.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.; Kerr, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself) is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs. PMID:22761836

  18. Identification and ruminal outflow of long-chain fatty acid biohydrogenation intermediates in cows fed diets containing fish oil.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, Piia; Toivonen, Vesa; Shingfield, Kevin J

    2011-07-01

    The abundance of 20- to 24-carbon fatty acids in omasal digesta of cows fed grass silage-based diets supplemented with 0 (Control) and 250 g/day of fish oil (FO) was examined to investigate the fate of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen. Complimentary argentation thin-layer chromatography and gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives prepared from fish oil and omasal digesta enabled the structure of novel 20- to 22-carbon fatty acids to be elucidated. Compared with the Control, the FO treatment resulted in the formation and accumulation of 27 novel 20- and 22-carbon biohydrogenation intermediates containing at least one trans double bond and the appearance of cis-14 20:1, 20:2n-3, 21:4n-3 and 22:3n-6 not contained in fish oil. No conjugated ≥ 20-carbon fatty acids were detected in Control or FO digesta. In conclusion, fish oil in the diet results in the formation of numerous long-chain biohydrogenation intermediates in the rumen of lactating cows. Comparison of the intake and flow of 20-, 21- and 22-carbon fatty acids at the omasum in cows fed the Control and FO treatments suggests that the first committed steps of 20:5n-3, 21:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 hydrogenation in the rumen involve the reduction and/or isomerisation of double bonds closest to the carboxyl group.

  19. Influence of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on growth, nutritional composition and immune function in marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shiming; Yue, Yanfeng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Yin, Fei; Wang, Jiangang

    2014-09-01

    A 60-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth, nutritional composition and immune function of marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus. Five diets containing 3.6, 10.2, 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg n-3 LC-PUFA were prepared. The results reveal significant influences of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on the final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and condition factor. As dietary n-3 LCPUFA increased, weight gain and specific growth rate increased and were significantly higher in groups fed 18.2, 26.5 and 37.0 g/kg than in groups fed 3.6 and 10.2 g/kg ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference between groups fed 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg ( P>0.05). With increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid content in muscle and liver increased significantly, immunoglobulin class M content gradually increased from 9.1 to 14.8 μg/L, and lysozyme activity content increased from 1 355 to 2 268 U/mL. Broken line model analysis according to weight gain indicated that a dietary n-3 LC-PUFA level of 18.2 g/kg is essential for normal growth at a fat level of 125 g/kg. Therefore, appropriate dietary n-3 LC-PUFA not only promote growth and improve the n-3 LC-PUFA content, but also enhance immune function in S. marmoratus.

  20. Electron microscope evidence of virus infection in cultured marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Qu, Ling-Yun

    2000-09-01

    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus).

  1. DNA barcoding identifies Argentine fishes from marine and brackish waters.

    PubMed

    Mabragaña, Ezequiel; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan Martín; Hanner, Robert; Zhang, Junbin; González Castro, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species), and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125) examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha taxonomy, barcodes provide robust support for most morphologically based taxon concepts and

  2. DNA Barcoding Identifies Argentine Fishes from Marine and Brackish Waters

    PubMed Central

    Mabragaña, Ezequiel; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan Martín; Hanner, Robert; Zhang, Junbin; González Castro, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species), and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125) examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. Conclusions/Significance This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha taxonomy, barcodes provide

  3. Do freshwater fishes diversify faster than marine fishes? A test using state-dependent diversification analyses and molecular phylogenetics of new world silversides (atherinopsidae).

    PubMed

    Bloom, Devin D; Weir, Jason T; Piller, Kyle R; Lovejoy, Nathan R

    2013-07-01

    Freshwater habitats make up only ∼0.01% of available aquatic habitat and yet harbor 40% of all fish species, whereas marine habitats comprise >99% of available aquatic habitat and have only 60% of fish species. One possible explanation for this pattern is that diversification rates are higher in freshwater habitats than in marine habitats. We investigated diversification in marine and freshwater lineages in the New World silverside fish clade Menidiinae (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae). Using a time-calibrated phylogeny and a state-dependent speciation-extinction framework, we determined the frequency and timing of habitat transitions in Menidiinae and tested for differences in diversification parameters between marine and freshwater lineages. We found that Menidiinae is an ancestrally marine lineage that independently colonized freshwater habitats four times followed by three reversals to the marine environment. Our state-dependent diversification analyses showed that freshwater lineages have higher speciation and extinction rates than marine lineages. Net diversification rates were higher (but not significant) in freshwater than marine environments. The marine lineage-through time (LTT) plot shows constant accumulation, suggesting that ecological limits to clade growth have not slowed diversification in marine lineages. Freshwater lineages exhibited an upturn near the recent in their LTT plot, which is consistent with our estimates of high background extinction rates. All sequence data are currently being archived on Genbank and phylogenetic trees archived on Treebase.

  4. Severe hypoxia impairs lateralization in a marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Nati, Julie J H; Blasco, Felipe Rocco; Johansen, Jacob L; Steffensen, John F; Domenici, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    In intertidal environments, the recurring hypoxic condition at low tide is one of the main factors affecting fish behaviour, causing broad effects on ecological interactions. We assessed the effects of hypoxia on lateralization (e.g. the tendency to turn left or right), a behaviour related to brain functional asymmetry, which is thought to play a key role in several life history aspects of fish. Using staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), a benthic fish that typically inhabits the intertidal zone, we found that hypoxia affects behavioural lateralization at the population level. On average, staghorn sculpins showed a distinct preference for right turns under normoxic conditions (>90% oxygen saturation), but an equal probability of turning right or left after exposure to hypoxia for 2 h (20% oxygen saturation). The specific turning preference observed in the staghorn sculpin control population is likely to have an adaptive value, for example in predator-prey interactions by enhancing attack success or survival from predatory attacks. Therefore the alteration of lateralization expressed by staghorn sculpins under hypoxic conditions may have far-reaching implications for species ecology and trophic interactions. Moreover, our work raises the need to study this effect in other species, in which a hypoxia-driven disruption of lateralization could affect a wider range of behaviours, such as social interactions and schooling. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Biocomplexity in a highly migratory pelagic marine fish, Atlantic herring

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzante, Daniel E; Mariani, Stefano; Bekkevold, Dorte; André, Carl; Mosegaard, Henrik; Clausen, Lotte A.W; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Hutchinson, William F; Hatfield, Emma M.C; Torstensen, Else; Brigham, Jennifer; Simmonds, E. John; Laikre, Linda; Larsson, Lena C; Stet, René J.M; Ryman, Nils; Carvalho, Gary R

    2006-01-01

    The existence of biologically differentiated populations has been credited with a major role in conferring sustainability and in buffering overall productivity of anadromous fish population complexes where evidence for spatial structure is uncontroversial. Here, we describe evidence of correlated genetic and life history (spawning season linked to spawning location) differentiation in an abundant and highly migratory pelagic fish, Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, in the North Sea (NS) and adjacent areas. The existence of genetically and phenotypically diverse stocks in this region despite intense seasonal mixing strongly implicates natal homing in this species. Based on information from genetic markers and otolith morphology, we estimate the proportional contribution by NS, Skagerrak (SKG) and Kattegat and western Baltic (WBS) fish to mixed aggregations targeted by the NS fishery. We use these estimates to identify spatial and temporal differences in life history (migratory behaviour) and habitat use among genetically differentiated migratory populations that mix seasonally. Our study suggests the existence of more complex patterns of intraspecific diversity than was previously recognized. Sustainability may be compromised if such complex patterns are reduced through generalized management (e.g. area closures) that overlooks population differences in spatial use throughout the life cycle. PMID:16777738

  6. Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

    2015-02-01

    Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Risk assessment of residual DDTs in freshwater and marine fish cultivated around the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Leung, S Y; Kwok, C K; Nie, X P; Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

    2010-02-01

    Six species of freshwater fish collected from 10 fishponds in Shunde and Zhongshan, China, four species of marine fishes collected from different mariculture farms [four in Hong Kong (Tung Lung Chau, Ma Wan, Cheung Chau and Kat O) and two in mainland China (Daya Bay and Shenzhen)] together with feed (both trash fish and commercial pellets) and sediment were analyzed for DDTs. Total DDTs in freshwater fish flesh decreased in the order of: carnivores [1742 microg/kg lipid weight (l.w.)] > herbivores (165 microg/kg, l.w.) > omnivores (42.5 microg/kg, l.w.), with the highest concentration detected in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) (2641 microg/kg, l.w.). For marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) collected in Ma Wan contained elevated levels of total DDTs (2590 and 2034 microg/kg l.w., respectively). Trash fish used in both freshwater and marine fish farms contained significantly higher levels (86.5-641 microg/kg l.w.) (p < 0.05) of DDTs than in commercial pellets, but correlations between DDT levels in fish feed and muscle were not significant. The elevated biota-sediment accumulating factor for tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) (24.1) indicated that accumulation of DDTs from sediment to the fish was evident. It can be concluded that trash fish should not be used for fish culture in order to lower the level of residual DDTs in fish muscle.

  8. Mercury exposure and source tracking in distinct marine-caged fish farm in southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Coasts of South China have experienced an unprecedented growth in its marine-caged fish industry. We analyzed mercury concentrations and stable mercury isotope ratios in fourteen fish species from two cage-cultured farms in Southern China. Total mercury concentrations of all species were lower than the human health screening values, but the human exposures through consumption of several carnivorous fish exceeded the USEPA's reference dose. Isotopic compositions in the sediment (δ(202)Hg: -1.45‰ to -1.23‰; Δ(199)Hg: -0.04‰ to -0.01‰) suggested that mercury in these farms were from coal combustion and industrial inputs. Commercial food pellets and fresh fish viscera provided the major sources of methylmercury to the farmed fish and dominated their mercury isotopic signatures. Non-carnivorous fish presented lower δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values than the carnivorous fish. Using a mixing model, we demonstrated that the majority of mercury in non-carnivorous species came from pellets and in carnivorous fish came from combined diets of pellets and viscera. Meanwhile, methylmercury concentrations and % methylmercury in the fish were positively correlated with δ(202)Hg values but not with Δ(199)Hg values, mainly because fish eating similar feeds maintained similar Δ(199)Hg values. Environmental influences of cage farming such as fish feces and uneaten viscera that continuously provide organic mercury to the environments need to be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally

    PubMed Central

    Claisse, Jeremy T.; Pondella, Daniel J.; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A.; Williams, Chelsea M.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Bull, Ann S.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

  10. A Locomotor Innovation Enables Water-Land Transition in a Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Shi-Tong Tonia

    2010-01-01

    Background Morphological innovations that significantly enhance performance capacity may enable exploitation of new resources and invasion of new ecological niches. The invasion of land from the aquatic realm requires dramatic structural and physiological modifications to permit survival in a gravity-dominated, aerial environment. Most fishes are obligatorily aquatic, with amphibious fishes typically making slow-moving and short forays on to land. Methodology/Principal Findings Here I describe the behaviors and movements of a little known marine fish that moves extraordinarily rapidly on land. I found that the Pacific leaping blenny, Alticus arnoldorum, employs a tail-twisting movement on land, previously unreported in fishes. Focal point behavioral observations of Alticus show that they have largely abandoned the marine realm, feed and reproduce on land, and even defend terrestrial territories. Comparisons of these blennies' terrestrial kinematic and kinetic (i.e., force) measurements with those of less terrestrial sister genera show A. arnoldorum move with greater stability and locomotor control, and can move away more rapidly from impending threats. Conclusions/Significance My results demonstrate that axial tail twisting serves as a key innovation enabling invasion of a novel marine niche. This paper highlights the potential of using this system to address general evolutionary questions about water-land transitions and niche invasions. PMID:20585564

  11. Occurrence of persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from the Natuna Island, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yao, Zi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-15

    Five marine fish species were collected from the Natuna Island, South China Sea to investigate the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs in marine fish ranged from 2.85 to 7.82, 14.3 to 48.1, and 7.99 to 40.3 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Higher concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs were observed in Snakefish (Trachinocephalus myops), which might be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. PCBs were the predominant POPs in all marine fish, followed by DDTs and PBDEs. BDE 47 and PCB 153 were the predominant congener of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. Compositional distribution of DDTs indicated the possible presence of fresh input sources around the Natuna Island. The ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT being less than 1 in fish samples suggested that DDT contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. New input sources of DDT in South China Sea are worth further research.

  12. A locomotor innovation enables water-land transition in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shi-Tong Tonia

    2010-06-18

    Morphological innovations that significantly enhance performance capacity may enable exploitation of new resources and invasion of new ecological niches. The invasion of land from the aquatic realm requires dramatic structural and physiological modifications to permit survival in a gravity-dominated, aerial environment. Most fishes are obligatorily aquatic, with amphibious fishes typically making slow-moving and short forays on to land. Here I describe the behaviors and movements of a little known marine fish that moves extraordinarily rapidly on land. I found that the Pacific leaping blenny, Alticus arnoldorum, employs a tail-twisting movement on land, previously unreported in fishes. Focal point behavioral observations of Alticus show that they have largely abandoned the marine realm, feed and reproduce on land, and even defend terrestrial territories. Comparisons of these blennies' terrestrial kinematic and kinetic (i.e., force) measurements with those of less terrestrial sister genera show A. arnoldorum move with greater stability and locomotor control, and can move away more rapidly from impending threats. My results demonstrate that axial tail twisting serves as a key innovation enabling invasion of a novel marine niche. This paper highlights the potential of using this system to address general evolutionary questions about water-land transitions and niche invasions.

  13. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally.

    PubMed

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Williams, Jonathan P; Bull, Ann S

    2014-10-28

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies.

  14. Effects of marine protected areas on overfished fishing stocks with multiple stable states.

    PubMed

    Takashina, Nao; Mougi, Akihiko

    2014-01-21

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have attracted much attention as a tool for sustainable fisheries management, restoring depleted fisheries stocks and maintaining ecosystems. However, even with total exclusion of fishing effort, depleted stocks sometimes show little or no recovery over a long time period. Here, using a mathematical model, we show that multiple stable states may hold the key to understanding the tendency for fisheries stocks to recover because of MPAs. We find that MPAs can have either a positive effect or almost no effect on the recovery of depleted fishing stocks, depending on the fish migration patterns and the fishing policies. MPAs also reinforce ecological resilience, particularly for migratory species. In contrast to previous reports, our results show that MPAs have small or sometimes negative effects on the recovery of sedentary species. Unsuitable MPA planning might result in low effectiveness or even deterioration of the existing condition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems.

  16. Impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism of two marine fish by in vitro mercuric chloride exposure.

    PubMed

    Mieiro, C L; Pardal, M; Duarte, A; Pereira, E; Palmeira, C M

    2015-08-15

    The goal of this work was to understand the extent of mercury toxic effects in liver metabolism under an episode of acute contamination. Hence, the effects of in vitro mercuric chloride in liver mitochondria were assessed in two commercial marine fish: Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Liver mitochondria were exposed to 0.2mgL(-1) of mercury, the average concentration found in fish inhabiting contaminated areas. Mercuric chloride depressed mitochondrial respiration state 3 and the maximal oxygen consumption in the presence of FCCP indicating inhibitory effects on the oxidative phosphorylation and on the electron transport chain, respectively. The inhibition of F1Fo-ATPase and succinate-dehydrogenase activities also corroborated the ability of mercury to inhibit ADP phosphorylation and the electron transport chain. This study brings new understanding on the mercury levels able to impair fish mitochondrial function, reinforcing the need for further assessing bioenergetics as a proxy for fish health status.

  17. Evolution of movement rate increases the effectiveness of marine reserves for the conservation of pelagic fishes.

    PubMed

    Mee, Jonathan A; Otto, Sarah P; Pauly, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Current debates about the efficacy of no-take marine reserves (MR) in protecting large pelagic fish such as tuna and sharks have usually not considered the evolutionary dimension of this issue, which emerges because the propensity to swim away from a given place, like any other biological trait, will probably vary in a heritable fashion among individuals. Here, based on spatially explicit simulations, we investigated whether selection to remain in MRs to avoid higher fishing mortality can lead to the evolution of more philopatric fish. Our simulations, which covered a range of life histories among tuna species (skipjack tuna vs. Atlantic bluefin tuna) and shark species (great white sharks vs. spiny dogfish), suggested that MRs were most effective at maintaining viable population sizes when movement distances were lowest. Decreased movement rate evolved following the establishment of marine reserves, and this evolution occurred more rapidly with higher fishing pressure. Evolutionary reductions in movement rate led to increases in within-reserve population sizes over the course of the 50 years following MR establishment, although this varied among life histories, with skipjack responding fastest and great white sharks slowest. Our results suggest the evolution of decreased movement can augment the efficacy of marine reserves, especially for species, such as skipjack tuna, with relatively short generation times. Even when movement rates did not evolve substantially over 50 years (e.g., given long generation times or little heritable variation), marine reserves were an effective tool for the conservation of fish populations when mean movement rates were low or MRs were large.

  18. Marine dock pilings foster diverse, native cryptobenthic fish assemblages across bioregions.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Simon J; Casey, Jordan M; Knowlton, Nancy; Duffy, James Emmett

    2017-09-01

    Anthropogenic habitats are increasingly prevalent in coastal marine environments. Previous research on sessile epifauna suggests that artificial habitats act as a refuge for nonindigenous species, which results in highly homogenous communities across locations. However, vertebrate assemblages that live in association with artificial habitats are poorly understood. Here, we quantify the biodiversity of small, cryptic (henceforth "cryptobenthic") fishes from marine dock pilings across six locations over 35° of latitude from Maine to Panama. We also compare assemblages from dock pilings to natural habitats in the two southernmost locations (Panama and Belize). Our results suggest that the biodiversity patterns of cryptobenthic fishes from dock pilings follow a Latitudinal Diversity Gradient (LDG), with average local and regional diversity declining sharply with increasing latitude. Furthermore, a strong correlation between community composition and spatial distance suggests distinct regional assemblages of cryptobenthic fishes. Cryptobenthic fish assemblages from dock pilings in Belize and Panama were less diverse and had lower densities than nearby reef habitats. However, dock pilings harbored almost exclusively native species, including two species of conservation concern absent from nearby natural habitats. Our results suggest that, in contrast to sessile epifaunal assemblages on artificial substrates, artificial marine habitats can harbor diverse, regionally characteristic assemblages of vertebrates that follow macroecological patterns that are well documented for natural habitats. We therefore posit that, although dock pilings cannot function as a replacement for natural habitats, dock pilings may provide cost-effective means to preserve native vertebrate biodiversity, and provide a habitat that can be relatively easily monitored to track the status and trends of fish biodiversity in highly urbanized coastal marine environments.

  19. Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Lost at sea: ocean acidification undermines larval fish orientation via altered hearing and marine soundscape modification.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tullio; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Connell, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal of larvae and their settlement to suitable habitat is fundamental to the replenishment of marine populations and the communities in which they live. Sound plays an important role in this process because for larvae of various species, it acts as an orientational cue towards suitable settlement habitat. Because marine sounds are largely of biological origin, they not only carry information about the location of potential habitat, but also information about the quality of habitat. While ocean acidification is known to affect a wide range of marine organisms and processes, its effect on marine soundscapes and its reception by navigating oceanic larvae remains unknown. Here, we show that ocean acidification causes a switch in role of present-day soundscapes from attractor to repellent in the auditory preferences in a temperate larval fish. Using natural CO2 vents as analogues of future ocean conditions, we further reveal that ocean acidification can impact marine soundscapes by profoundly diminishing their biological sound production. An altered soundscape poorer in biological cues indirectly penalizes oceanic larvae at settlement stage because both control and CO2-treated fish larvae showed lack of any response to such future soundscapes. These indirect and direct effects of ocean acidification put at risk the complex processes of larval dispersal and settlement. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Lost at sea: ocean acidification undermines larval fish orientation via altered hearing and marine soundscape modification

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Tullio; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Connell, Sean D.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal of larvae and their settlement to suitable habitat is fundamental to the replenishment of marine populations and the communities in which they live. Sound plays an important role in this process because for larvae of various species, it acts as an orientational cue towards suitable settlement habitat. Because marine sounds are largely of biological origin, they not only carry information about the location of potential habitat, but also information about the quality of habitat. While ocean acidification is known to affect a wide range of marine organisms and processes, its effect on marine soundscapes and its reception by navigating oceanic larvae remains unknown. Here, we show that ocean acidification causes a switch in role of present-day soundscapes from attractor to repellent in the auditory preferences in a temperate larval fish. Using natural CO2 vents as analogues of future ocean conditions, we further reveal that ocean acidification can impact marine soundscapes by profoundly diminishing their biological sound production. An altered soundscape poorer in biological cues indirectly penalizes oceanic larvae at settlement stage because both control and CO2-treated fish larvae showed lack of any response to such future soundscapes. These indirect and direct effects of ocean acidification put at risk the complex processes of larval dispersal and settlement. PMID:26763221

  2. Shrinking of fishes exacerbates impacts of global ocean changes on marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, William W. L.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Dunne, John; Frölicher, Thomas L.; Lam, Vicky W. Y.; Deng Palomares, M. L.; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Changes in temperature, oxygen content and other ocean biogeochemical properties directly affect the ecophysiology of marine water-breathing organisms. Previous studies suggest that the most prominent biological responses are changes in distribution, phenology and productivity. Both theory and empirical observations also support the hypothesis that warming and reduced oxygen will reduce body size of marine fishes. However, the extent to which such changes would exacerbate the impacts of climate and ocean changes on global marine ecosystems remains unexplored. Here, we employ a model to examine the integrated biological responses of over 600 species of marine fishes due to changes in distribution, abundance and body size. The model has an explicit representation of ecophysiology, dispersal, distribution, and population dynamics. We show that assemblage-averaged maximum body weight is expected to shrink by 14-24% globally from 2000 to 2050 under a high-emission scenario. About half of this shrinkage is due to change in distribution and abundance, the remainder to changes in physiology. The tropical and intermediate latitudinal areas will be heavily impacted, with an average reduction of more than 20%. Our results provide a new dimension to understanding the integrated impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems.

  3. CONSERVATION BIOLOGY: Feds Team Up With a Company to Protect 17 Threatened Fish Species.

    PubMed

    Wuethrich, B

    2000-07-21

    For several years now, road runoff and erosion stemming in part from the operations of the Plum Creek Timber Co. have choked Elk Creek, known as the best bull trout spawning stream in the West, with sediment, raising fears of even further decline in this endangered species. Now, in an effort to mitigate its harmful effects and avert regulatory action, Plum Creek has designed a Native Fish Habitat Conservation Plan covering 17 fish species, including the bull trout.

  4. Hepatoprotective action of celery (Apium graveolens) leaves in acetaminophen-fed freshwater fish (Pangasius sutchi).

    PubMed

    Shivashri, C; Rajarajeshwari, T; Rajasekar, P

    2013-10-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage is one of the most common problems among the population. Therefore, the study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of celery leaves on APAP-induced toxicity in a freshwater fish, Pangasius sutchi. Fish were divided into four experimental groups of 6 fish each. Group 1 served as control. Group 2 fish were exposed to APAP (500 mg/kg) for 24 h. Groups 3 and 4 fish were exposed to APAP + celery leaf powder (CE) (500 mg/kg) and CE for 24 h, respectively. The severity of liver damage, hepatic lipid, glycogen, ions status and histological alterations was examined. The characterization of CE extract was also performed. APAP-exposed fish showed elevated levels of both circulating and tissue hepatotoxic markers (AST, ALT and ALP), reduced hepatic glycogen and lipid contents (TG and cholesterol), increased tissue lipid peroxidation markers (TBARS, LHP and PCO), altered tissue levels of enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST) and non-enzymatic (GSH) antioxidants and cellular thiol levels (T-SH, P-SH and NP-SH), and reduced hepatic ions (Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+)) and abnormal liver histology. The abnormalities associated with APAP exposure were reversed on treatment with CE. The TLC separation and HPLC quantification of petroleum ether/acetone extract of CE showed the peaks for highly efficient flavonoids such as rutein, quercetin and luteolin. The observed hepatoprotective effect of CE might be due to its rich flavonoids.

  5. DNA Barcoding for Species Assignment: The Case of Mediterranean Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Monica; Dimech, Mark; Arculeo, Marco; Biondo, Girolama; Martins, Rogelia; Carneiro, Miguel; Carvalho, Gary Robert; Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Costa, Filipe O.

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding enhances the prospects for species-level identifications globally using a standardized and authenticated DNA-based approach. Reference libraries comprising validated DNA barcodes (COI) constitute robust datasets for testing query sequences, providing considerable utility to identify marine fish and other organisms. Here we test the feasibility of using DNA barcoding to assign species to tissue samples from fish collected in the central Mediterranean Sea, a major contributor to the European marine ichthyofaunal diversity. Methodology/Principal Findings A dataset of 1278 DNA barcodes, representing 218 marine fish species, was used to test the utility of DNA barcodes to assign species from query sequences. We tested query sequences against 1) a reference library of ranked DNA barcodes from the neighbouring North East Atlantic, and 2) the public databases BOLD and GenBank. In the first case, a reference library comprising DNA barcodes with reliability grades for 146 fish species was used as diagnostic dataset to screen 486 query DNA sequences from fish specimens collected in the central basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Of all query sequences suitable for comparisons 98% were unambiguously confirmed through complete match with reference DNA barcodes. In the second case, it was possible to assign species to 83% (BOLD-IDS) and 72% (GenBank) of the sequences from the Mediterranean. Relatively high intraspecific genetic distances were found in 7 species (2.2%–18.74%), most of them of high commercial relevance, suggesting possible cryptic species. Conclusion/Significance We emphasize the discriminatory power of COI barcodes and their application to cases requiring species level resolution starting from query sequences. Results highlight the value of public reference libraries of reliability grade-annotated DNA barcodes, to identify species from different geographical origins. The ability to assign species with high precision from DNA samples of

  6. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed. PMID:24688853

  7. Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Valerie J.; Desbois, Andrew P.; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae. PMID:20479976

  8. Conventional and unconventional antimicrobials from fish, marine invertebrates and micro-algae.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie J; Desbois, Andrew P; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A

    2010-04-14

    All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae.

  9. Detection of micronucleus and abnormal nucleus in erythrocytes from the gill and kidney of Labeo bata cultivated in sewage-fed fish farms.

    PubMed

    Talapatra, S N; Banerjee, S K

    2007-02-01

    Determination of genotoxic effect in fish, micronucleus test as well as the study of the abnormal shape of nuclei is a suitable measure, in which the presence or absence of genotoxins can be detected in water. In the present study, micronuclei and abnormal nuclei frequencies were scored in the gill and kidney erythrocytes of the fish Labeo bata grown in the sewage-fed fish farms of East Calcutta wetlands. Three experimental sites were chosen, namely, Bantala, Chowbaga and Chingrihata (basically these sites have sewage-fed fishponds), which were compared with fishponds of no sewage influence as the control area. Highly significant differences (P<0.001) were noticed for micronucleus frequencies in the gill and kidney erythrocytes of experimental fishes, where kidney erythrocytes showed an increased value than gill erythrocytes without any statistical differences. The frequencies of nuclear abnormalities such as necrotic cells, apoptotic cells, notch nucleated cells and binucleated cells were also counted separately for gill and kidney erythrocytes, in which significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.05) increased values were obtained in comparison to control populations. These genotoxicity results confirmed that the sewage-fed ponds contain genotoxic metals such as Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe through wastewater and sludge because of the direct use of sewage water without pretreatment which may lead to health risks among humans through chronic consumption of fish from these experimental fish ponds. Other vertebrates grown in sewage-fed ponds may also suffer a certain amount of genotoxic substances.

  10. Beyond Marine Reserves: Exploring the Approach of Selecting Areas where Fishing Is Permitted, Rather than Prohibited

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Natalie C.; Vincent, Amanda C. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Marine populations have been declining at a worrying rate, due in large part to fishing pressures. The challenge is to secure a future for marine life while minimizing impacts on fishers and fishing communities. Methods and Principal Findings Rather than selecting areas where fishing is banned – as is usually the case with spatial management – we assess the concept of designating areas where fishing is permitted. We use spatial catch statistics for thirteen commercial fisheries on Canada's west coast to determine the minimum area that would be needed to maintain a pre-ascribed target percentage of current catches. We found that small reductions in fisheries yields, if strategically allocated, could result in large unfished areas that are representative of biophysical regions and habitat types, and have the potential to achieve remarkable conservation gains. Conclusions Our approach of selecting fishing areas instead of reserves could help redirect debate about the relative values that society places on conservation and extraction, in a framework that could gain much by losing little. Our ideas are intended to promote discussions about the current status quo in fisheries management, rather than providing a definitive solution. PMID:19623248

  11. Profiling of oxidized lipid products of marine fish under acute oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ming Long Sirius; Lee, Kai Yan Eric; Lee, Chung-Yung Jetty

    2013-03-01

    Free radical products including reactive oxygen species are potent to oxidize lipids and reliable measurements have been established mostly in human and rodent. To date, robust biomarkers were not used to assess the peroxidation in marine fish. The changes of oxidized lipid products from polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol were assessed after exposure of H(2)O(2) to fish (medaka). Oxidized lipid products released by free radical reaction (F(2)-isoprostanes and metabolites, F(3)-isoprostanes, neuroprostanes, 7-ketocholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol), by lipoxygenase enzymes (5(S)-, 8(S)-, 12(S)- and 15(S)-HETE, and resolvin D1) and by cytochrome P450 (9(S)-, 11(S)- and 20-HETE, and 27-hydroxycholestrol) were measured in fish muscle using LC/MS/MS. Arachidonate, docosahexaenoate, eicosapentaenoate and cholesterol levels, and antioxidant enzymes activity (catalase, SOD and gluthathione reductase) measurement were also determined. Activity of antioxidant enzymes especially catalase were elevated in presence of H(2)O(2) however longer exposure time suppressed the antioxidant activities. Arachidonate, docosahexaenoate, eicosapentaenoate and cholesterol levels were reduced in presence of H(2)O(2) and oxidized lipid products (isoprostanes, neuroprostanes 5(S)-HETE, 20-HETE, 7-ketocholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol and resolvin D1) were rapidly released in the fish muscle. This study validates oxidized lipid products, noticeably isoprostanes are measurable in marine fish muscle and should be considered when assessing oxidative stress especially due to exogenous factors.

  12. Nanosilver-marine fungal chitosan as antibiotic synergizers against sepsis fish bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Khouloud Mohamed; Gohar, Yousri Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mortality is highly variable within population of cultured fish due to virulent bacteria causing fish septicemia. The use of nano-silver marine fungal chitosan as antibiotic synergisers could be an alternative in the treatment of sepsis fish pathogens. Materials and Methods: Different bulk chitosan solutions were prepared from the mycelia of four marine fungi (Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavipes, Tricoderma hamatum and Fennellia flavipes) and used as capping agents for silver nanoparticles. In vitro, the antibacterial activity of these preparations was determined against nine fish-sepsis causing bacteria, alone and in combination with nine antibiotics of choice used in aquaculture. Prepared fungal chitosans (CsF) were characterized by yield of chistosan obtained, degree of deacetylation and viscosity. Results and Conclusion: The maximum yield of chitosan (28%) was obtained from Aspergillus terreus. A. terreus chitosan (CsF), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and chitosan-silver nanoparticles (CsF-AgNPs) showed maximum activity at the minimum inhibitory concentrations average (MICAVG) 27.2, 18.2 and 7.9 μg/ml, respectively. Combination of CsF -AgNPs with amikacin (Ak) and rifampicin (RD) reduced the MIC values by 96 and 94%, respectively, with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) = 0.42 and 0.50 as synergistic effect. It is promising to use CsF-AgNPs as enhancing agent in combination with antibiotics for fish sepsis therapy. PMID:26885333

  13. Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Elisabet; Dupont, Sam; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Amundsen, Trond

    2013-10-01

    As an effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing. Understanding how this will affect marine organisms and ecosystems are critical in predicting the impacts of this ongoing ocean acidification. Work on coral reef fishes has revealed dramatic effects of elevated oceanic CO2 on sensory responses and behavior. Such effects may be widespread but have almost exclusively been tested on tropical reef fishes. Here we test the effects elevated CO2 has on the reproduction and early life history stages of a temperate coastal goby with paternal care by allowing goby pairs to reproduce naturally in an aquarium with either elevated (ca 1400 μatm) CO2 or control seawater (ca 370 μatm CO2). Elevated CO2 did not affect the occurrence of spawning nor clutch size, but increased embryonic abnormalities and egg loss. Moreover, we found that elevated CO2 significantly affected the phototactic response of newly hatched larvae. Phototaxis is a vision-related fundamental behavior of many marine fishes, but has never before been tested in the context of ocean acidification. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification affects embryonic development and sensory responses in temperate fishes, with potentially important implications for fish recruitment.

  14. Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Forsgren, Elisabet; Dupont, Sam; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Amundsen, Trond

    2013-01-01

    As an effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing. Understanding how this will affect marine organisms and ecosystems are critical in predicting the impacts of this ongoing ocean acidification. Work on coral reef fishes has revealed dramatic effects of elevated oceanic CO2 on sensory responses and behavior. Such effects may be widespread but have almost exclusively been tested on tropical reef fishes. Here we test the effects elevated CO2 has on the reproduction and early life history stages of a temperate coastal goby with paternal care by allowing goby pairs to reproduce naturally in an aquarium with either elevated (ca 1400 μatm) CO2 or control seawater (ca 370 μatm CO2). Elevated CO2 did not affect the occurrence of spawning nor clutch size, but increased embryonic abnormalities and egg loss. Moreover, we found that elevated CO2 significantly affected the phototactic response of newly hatched larvae. Phototaxis is a vision-related fundamental behavior of many marine fishes, but has never before been tested in the context of ocean acidification. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification affects embryonic development and sensory responses in temperate fishes, with potentially important implications for fish recruitment. PMID:24198929

  15. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22849436

  16. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paddack, M.J.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

  17. Sublethal toxicity of cyanide to the tropical marine fish Dascyllus aruanus

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.; Hanawa, M.; Farrell, A.P.; Bendell-Young, L.I.; Graham, M.

    1995-12-31

    The use of NACN in collecting tropical marine fish for the hobby trade results in high mortality rates of the captured fish, plus the destruction of the associated coral reef. Despite its widespread use, little is known of sublethal effects of cyanide to tropical marine fish. The objectives were two-fold: (1) determine the concentration/time exposure regime that results in exposed fish being anesthetized but surviving long enough for export and (2) through the measurement of several physiological endpoints, identify a biomarker indicative of sublethal cyanide exposure. Hand caught Dascyllus aruanus were exposed to 25 and 50 ppm cyanide solutions for periods of 10-, 60- and 120-s. Two weeks following exposure, hemoglobin concentration, blood [O{sub 2}], and liver O{sub 2} consumption rate were determined. Only the 120-s exposure at 25 and 50 ppm proved lethal (42% and 0% survival respectively). Liver O{sub 2} consumption rate was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for the 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed versus control fish (2.0 {+-} 0.4 and 2.56 {+-} 0.1 versus 5.4 {+-} 2.0 ml/mg/min, respectively: values = mean {+-} 1.S.D.). O{sub 2} consumption rate for the 25 ppm, 10-s exposed fish was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) versus control fish (0.9 {+-} 0.5 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). In contrast, no difference in O{sub 2} consumption rate between the 25 ppm, 60-s exposed versus control fish was noted (2.4 {+-} 0.8 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). Hemoglobin concentration tended to be lower in fish exposed to 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed fish versus that of controls. Hemoglobin concentration results were inconclusive for the 25 ppm exposed versus the control fish. Blood [O{sub 2}] was highly variable with no apparent trends between exposed versus control fish. Sublethal exposure to cyanide clearly results in impaired liver function indicated by depressed O{sub 2} consumption rate.

  18. Tracing Dietary Mercury Histochemically, with Autometallography, through the Liver to the Ovaries and Spawned Eggs of the Spot, a Temperate Coastal Marine Fish.

    PubMed

    Govoni, John J; Morris, James A; Evans, David W

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to mercury (Hg) results in reproductive abnormalities and deficiencies in female fish. We traced the maternal assimilation and redistribution of dietary inorganic (HgII) and organic (MeHg) forms of Hg in a coastal marine fish, the Spot Leiostomus xanthurus. We conducted a 90-d laboratory experiment in which treatment Spot were fed muscle of Blue Marlin Makaira nigricans with elevated concentrations of Hg mixed with a commercial fish food, while control Spot were fed only commercial food pellets. Gonadal maturation was induced by shortening the photoperiod and increasing the temperature. Spawning was induced by intramuscular injection of human chorionic gonadotropin at 100 IU/kg. Solid-sampling atomic absorption spectrophotometry measured the total Hg (THg), HgII, and MeHg in Blue Marlin muscle. Autometallography located Hg-sulfide granules in the liver, ovaries, and spawned eggs, and densitometry provided comparisons of Hg-sulfide granules in the ovaries of treatment and control Spot. Overall, the intensity and prevalence of Hg-sulfide granules were greater in the liver, ovaries, and eggs from treatment Spot than in those from controls. The tissue and cellular distribution of Hg-sulfide granules differed. Received November 18, 2016; accepted June 18, 2017.

  19. Fish protein hydrolysates affect cholesterol metabolism in rats fed non-cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2012-03-01

    Fish consumption is well known to provide health benefits in both experimental animals and human subjects. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of various protein hydrolysates on lipid metabolism. In this context, this study examined the effect of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) on cholesterol metabolism compared with the effect of casein. FPHs were prepared from Alaska pollock meat using papain as a protease. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following four dietary groups of seven rats each: either casein (20%) or FPH (10%) + casein (10%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Serum and liver lipid levels, fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions, and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis were examined. In rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein diets with or without cholesterol and sodium cholate, the indexes of cholesterol metabolism-namely, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels-were significantly lower, whereas fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions were higher. Rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein with cholesterol exhibited a lower liver cholesterol level via an increased liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression level. This study demonstrates that the intake of FPH has hypocholesterolemic effects through the enhancement of fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions and CYP7A1 expression levels. Therefore, fish peptides prepared by papain digestion might provide health benefits by decreasing the cholesterol content in the blood, which would contribute to the prevention of circulatory system diseases such as arteriosclerosis.

  20. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

  1. Transgenerational marking of marine fish larvae: stable-isotope retention, physiological effects and health issues.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D H; Jones, G P; Thorrold, S R; Frisch, A J

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the toxicological and physiological responses of a commercially important coral-reef grouper, Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), to injection of enriched stable-isotope barium chloride (BaCl(2)) solution. Thirty adult P. leopardus were subject to one of two (138)BaCl(2) injection treatment groups (corresponding to dosage rates of 2 and 4 mg (138)Ba kg(-1) body mass), and a control group in which fish were injected with 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Fish from each group were sampled at post-injection intervals of 48 h and 1, 3, 5 and 8 weeks, at which time blood and tissue samples were removed from each fish. Residual concentrations of Ba and (138)Ba:(137)Ba ratios were measured in muscle, gonad, liver and bone tissues of each experimental fish. Elevated Ba concentrations were detected in all treatment fish tissue samples within 48 h post injection. Residual Ba concentrations decreased throughout the remainder of the 8 week experimental period in all tissues except bone. The BaCl(2) injection had no significant effects on measured whole blood variables or on the plasma concentrations of steroid hormones. Enriched Ba stable isotopes can therefore be used at low dosages to mark larvae of commercially important marine fishes, without adverse effects on the health of the fishes or on humans who may consume them.

  2. Diseases of cultured marine fishes caused by Platyhelminthes (Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K

    2015-01-01

    Mariculture is a rapidly developing industrial sector. Generally, fish are maintained in net cages with high density. Cage culture systems allow uncontrolled flow of sea water containing potentially infectious stages of fish parasites. In such culture conditions, prevention of such parasitic infections is difficult for parasites with life cycles that complete within culture sites, among which monogeneans and blood flukes are the most important platyhelminthes. Intense monogenean infections induce respiratory and osmo-regulatory dysfunctions. A variety of control measures have been developed, including freshwater bath treatment and chemotherapy. The potential to control monogenean infections through selective breeding, modified culture techniques to avoid infection, and general fish health management are discussed. It should be noted that mariculture conditions have provided some host-specific monogeneans with a chance to expand their host ranges. Blood flukes sometimes induce mass mortality among farmed fish. In-feed administration of praziquantel is the best solution to treat infected fish. Some cases are described that show how international trade in marine fish has resulted in the spread of hitherto unknown parasites into indigenous farmed and wild fish.

  3. The importance of deep-sea vulnerable marine ecosystems for demersal fish in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Christopher K.; Vandeperre, Frederic; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Isidro, Eduardo; Morato, Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Cold-water corals and sponges aggregations are important features of the deep sea, recently classified as vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs). VMEs increase habitat complexity, believed to act as feeding, reproductive, nursery and refuge areas for a high number of invertebrates and fish species. In the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic), VMEs are prevalent but their ecological role has not received much attention. The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of VMEs in influencing the distribution of demersal fish in the Azores. With data collected during experimental longline surveys , we modeled the catch of six demersal fish species of commercial value (Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pagellus bogaraveo, Mora moro, Conger conger, Phycis phycis, Pontinus kuhlii) in relation to the presence of VMEs and other environmental factors using General Additive Models (GAMs). Our study demonstrated that total fish catch was higher inside VMEs but the relationship between fish and VMEs varied among fish species. Species specific models showed that catch was strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly depth, whilst the presence of VMEs was only important for two rockfish species; juvenile and adult P. kuhlii and juvenile H. dactylopterus. Although the association between deep-sea demersal fish and VMEs may be an exception to the rule, we suggest that VMEs act as an important habitat for two commercially important species in the Azores.

  4. [Stoichiometry of cytochromes and oxygen tension in skeletal muscles of marine fish].

    PubMed

    Soldatov, A A; Parfenova, I A

    2014-01-01

    The character of oxygen tension distribution and peculiarities of cytochromes stoichiometry in skeletal muscles of bottom and pelagic species of marine fish were compared. It is shown, that the limitation of muscle activity increases the number of hypoxic zones in the muscle tissue. The mitochondrial electron-transporting chain then obtain the uncompensated type of organization, expressed in the increase of the share of the terminal complex aa3 on the background of general reduction of cytochromes content in the muscles. The reaction is of an adaptive character and can be implemented by pelagic fish species in conditions of experimental hypokinesia.

  5. [Infection and physico-chemical characteristics of Anisakis among marine fish caught in Zhoushan Fishery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-yue; Zhang, Jun-he; Lin, Qi; Zhang, Qian-tong; He, Wei-xian; Li, Ke-feng; Xu, Xu

    2010-09-01

    To study the rates of infection and physicochemical characteristics of the third stage Anisakis simplex larvae among marine fish caught in Zhoushan Fishery. Fish were dissected to detect Anisakis larvae and identified morphologically. The survival tolerance of the third stage Anisakis simplex larvae in various medium, anthelmintic drug, temperature were studied in laboratory. The total infection rate of Anisakis simplex larvae in fish was 49.10%. High rates of Anisakis infection were observed in hairtails, Pneumatophorus japonicus, Miichthys milky, Argyrosomus argentatus and Muraenesox cinereus (infection rates > 90 percent). The infection intensity of Anisakis per fish varied from 1 to 114. The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae was 15.20 per fish. 3314 Anisakis were detected in 218 marine fish. The survival tolerance of the third stage Anisakis simplex larvae in various Medium, anthelmintic drug, temperature were observed in laboratory condition. The third stage Anisakis simplex larvae showed a strong endurance to stock condiment. The anisakicidal effects of the high purity wine were more effective than that of the low purity wine. The anisakicidal effects of 6.25 g/L mebendazole composite were more effective than that of 18.75 g/L and also more effective than those of other drugs. The third stage Anisakis simplex larvae could survive with length up to 9 h and 12 h in condition of -20°C, -10°C and very sensitive to high temperature treatment. However, they could barely survive in more than 11 s and 1 s under the temperature of 50°C and 60°C. The percentage of infection was fairly high for Anisakis larvae of marine fish caught in Zhoushan Fishery. The third stage Anisakis simplex larvae was shown to have a fairly good tolerance to the external environments. The marine fish were frozen under -20°C beyond 24 h before they were sold on market and cooked with high temperature seemed to be helpful for preventing and controlling effectively the infection of Anisakis.

  6. Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2014-03-01

    The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

  7. The growth performance of Jade Tiger cultured abalone fed diets supplemented with fish oil and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation and the dietary replacement of FO with flaxseed oil (FlaxO) and canola oil (CO) on the growth of cultured abalone was investigated. The study involved three growth experiments: (E1) diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO, respectively; (E2) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% FlaxO, respectively; and (E3) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% CO, respectively. In Experiment 1, abalone fed a diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed a significantly higher (121.2 ± 1.1 mg day(-1)) daily growth rate of weight (DGRw ) compared to control (70.1 ± 1.71 mg day(-1)). In Experiment 2, abalone fed 1.5% FO diet and diets containing 25-75% FlaxO showed no significant differences in DGRw. The diet containing 100% FlaxO showed significantly lower (63.3 ± 6.7 mg day(-1)) DGRw. In Experiment 3, abalone fed diets containing 25% and 50% CO showed similar DGRw as those fed a 1.5% FO diet. The diet containing 75% and 100% CO showed significantly lower (63.7 ± 5.0 to 95.4 ± 5.1 mg day(-1)) DGRw. Supplementation with 1.5% of dietary FO can improve growth performance in cultured abalone. It is feasible to replace 75% of dietary FO with FlaxO and 50% of dietary FO with CO, without negative effect on growth performance. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Impacts of electromagnetic fields associated with marine and hydrokinetic surrogate technologies on fish movements and behaviors.

    SciTech Connect

    Claisse, Jeremy T.; Pondella, Daniel J.; Williams, Chelsea M.; Zahn, Laurel A.; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2015-09-30

    Marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) and offshore wind devices are being developed and deployed in U.S. and international waters. Electric current flowing through subsea transmission cables associated with these devices will generate electromagnetic fields (EMF), which may interact with, and potentially impact, marine fishes. Some marine fishes can detect electric and/or magnetic fields and use them to navigate, orientate, and sense prey, mates and predators. Over the past five years there have been multiple comprehensive reviews and studies evaluating the potential vulnerability of marine fishes to EMF produced by MHK devices. Most documented effects involve sub-lethal behavioral responses of individual fish when in close proximity to EMF (e.g., fish being repelled by or attracted to fields). These reviews reach conclusions that the current state of research on this topic is still in its infancy and evaluations of potential impacts are associated with great uncertainty. A variety of MHK technologies are likely to be considered for deployment offshore of the Hawaiian Islands, and there is a need to be able to better predict and assess potential associated environmental impacts. The goal of this study was to provide a complementary piece to these previous reviews (e.g., Normandeau et al. 2011) by focusing on marine fish species in the Hawaii region. We compiled the relevant available information, then prioritized fish species as candidates for various paths of future research. To address this, we first developed a list of Hawaii Region Focal Species, which included fishes that are more likely to be sensitive to EMF. We then compiled species-specific information available in the literature on their sensitivity to EMF, as well as life history, movement and habitat use information that could inform an analysis of their likelihood of encountering EMF from subsea cables associated with MHK devices. Studies have only documented EMF sensitivity in 11 of the marine fish

  9. Morphological and molecular characterization of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa, including its development in a leech vector

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trypanosomes are ubiquitous blood parasites of marine and freshwater fishes, typically transmitted by aquatic leeches. Phylogenetic studies have been dominated by examples derived from freshwater fishes, with few marine representatives. Furthermore, life cycle studies on marine fish trypanosomes have focused on those of the northern hemisphere. In this investigation, we have examined the life cycle and molecular taxonomy of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa. Methods To locate trypanosome stages, leeches were removed from fishes captured on the west and south coasts of South Africa, and fish blood films and leech squashes were Giemsa-stained and screened; leeches were also examined histologically. To determine whether trypanosome stages in fishes and leeches were of the same genotype, DNA was extracted from Giemsa-stained fish blood films and leech squashes, and from fish whole blood. Fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified by PCR using trypanosome-specific primers and sequenced. Resulting sequence data were compared with each other and with published trypanosome 18S rDNA sequences, and used for phylogenetic analysis. Results Trypanosomes were detected in blood films from fishes of the families Clinidae, Blenniidae and Gobiidae. The flagellates ranged in size and staining properties within the films and across fish hosts. In squashes and histological sections of adult and juvenile leeches, identified as Zeylanicobdella arugamensis, trypanosome developmental stages were predominantly slender epimastigotes. Sequence data showed that trypanosomes derived from fishes were identical, irrespective of whether they were small or large forms; sequences derived largely from leech epimastigotes were also identical to those obtained from fish trypanosomes. Fish and leech trypanosome sequences fell into a marine fish aquatic clade, and aligned most closely with two trypanosome sequences from marine fishes off Norway. Conclusions Combined morphological

  10. Morphological and molecular characterization of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa, including its development in a leech vector.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Polly M; Lawton, Scott P; Smit, Nico J; Gibson, Wendy C; Davies, Angela J

    2014-01-24

    Trypanosomes are ubiquitous blood parasites of marine and freshwater fishes, typically transmitted by aquatic leeches. Phylogenetic studies have been dominated by examples derived from freshwater fishes, with few marine representatives. Furthermore, life cycle studies on marine fish trypanosomes have focused on those of the northern hemisphere. In this investigation, we have examined the life cycle and molecular taxonomy of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa. To locate trypanosome stages, leeches were removed from fishes captured on the west and south coasts of South Africa, and fish blood films and leech squashes were Giemsa-stained and screened; leeches were also examined histologically. To determine whether trypanosome stages in fishes and leeches were of the same genotype, DNA was extracted from Giemsa-stained fish blood films and leech squashes, and from fish whole blood. Fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified by PCR using trypanosome-specific primers and sequenced. Resulting sequence data were compared with each other and with published trypanosome 18S rDNA sequences, and used for phylogenetic analysis. Trypanosomes were detected in blood films from fishes of the families Clinidae, Blenniidae and Gobiidae. The flagellates ranged in size and staining properties within the films and across fish hosts. In squashes and histological sections of adult and juvenile leeches, identified as Zeylanicobdella arugamensis, trypanosome developmental stages were predominantly slender epimastigotes. Sequence data showed that trypanosomes derived from fishes were identical, irrespective of whether they were small or large forms; sequences derived largely from leech epimastigotes were also identical to those obtained from fish trypanosomes. Fish and leech trypanosome sequences fell into a marine fish aquatic clade, and aligned most closely with two trypanosome sequences from marine fishes off Norway. Combined morphological and molecular methods indicate that the

  11. Naringin and vitamin E influence the oxidative stability and lipid profile of plasma in lambs fed fish oil.

    PubMed

    Bodas, R; Prieto, N; López-Campos, O; Giráldez, F J; Andrés, S

    2011-08-01

    Thirty two Merino lambs (15 weeks old) fed barley straw and fish oil enriched concentrate were used to assess the effect of vitamin E (6 g kg(-1) DM) and naringin (1.5-3 g kg(-1) DM) on plasma lipid peroxidation (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS), immune response, plasma cholesterol, and triglycerides. After 21 days feeding the experimental diets, lambs were subjected to a 4 h transportation stress period and then held 4 more hours without feed. TBARS values before stress were lower for animals consuming vitamine E and naringin when compared to control lambs (P<0.05). However, after stress all groups presented similar levels of TBARS. TAS decreased (P<0.05) in all groups in response to stress with values recovering (P<0.05) to pre-stress values following 4 h of rest. A rise (P<0.05) in serum concentrations of triacylglycerol following 21 d of fish oil supplementation was dampened in lambs consuming vitamin E or naringin. Both pre-stress TBARS and triacylglycerol-reducing effects of naringin added to fish oil enriched concentrate for fattening lambs are reported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inflammation and innate immune response against viral infections in marine fish.

    PubMed

    Novoa, B; Mackenzie, S; Figueras, A

    2010-01-01

    Viral infections in fish are common in both natural and cultured fish populations and the spread of infectious disease is a serious threat to both natural ecosystems and commercial exploitations. A significant body of studies have addressed the host response to viral infection including the efficacy of DNA vaccines however we still have a fragmented vision of both pathologies associated with viral infection and the immune response to those across fish species. Many studies have concentrated upon freshwater fish including the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) whereas the majority of marine fish studies address the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Here we provide a comprehensive review concentrating upon the salient pathological features of the most common viral infections including examples of the Betanodaviruses, Birnaviruses, Rhabdoviruses and the Isavirus in cultured fish with emphasis where possible upon non-salmonid cold water adapted marine species. In parallel we review the current state of the art mainly in reference to gene expression studies describing the host innate immune response concentrating upon the inflammatory response and its relationship toward anti-viral immunity in fish. Due to the complexity of the observed responses and the limitations of candidate gene expression studies to describe global biological processes, recent efforts in the use of microarray analysis for the study of the anti-viral response have been highlighted including members of the Pleuronectiform and the Perciform families. Finally we review the potential of the zebrafish to become a significant biological model in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the piscine immune response to viral infection.

  13. Impact of environmental bacterial communities on fish health in marine recirculating aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shuxia; Xu, Wei; Wei, Junli; Sun, Jinsheng

    2017-05-01

    Marine cultured fish diseases caused by bacteria in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) greatly threaten fish aquaculture. To date, the dynamics of bacterial populations in RAS and their impacts to fish health remain largely unknown. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the water from two different marine RASs were analyzed using pyrosequencing technique. Fish disease syndromes and mortality had been reported from one RAS (RAS-d) while the fish in the other RAS remained healthy (RAS-h). The diversity of bacteria in each RAS and the abundance of each bacterium were identified based on sequencing the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. A total number of 107,476 effective sequences were obtained from the pyrosequencing results. 640 and 844 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in RAS-d and RAS-h, respectively. In order level, tags annotation showed that Vibrionales and Flavobacteriales were the predominant strains in RAS-d with a relative abundance 50.5% and 36.5%, respectively. In contrast, the bacterial community in RAS-h contained 35.8% Vibrionales, 17.3% Alteromonadales, 10.7% Rhodobacterales, 7.43% Kordiimonadales, and 6.26% Oceanospirillales. In addition, the Vibrionaceae in the RAS-d represented 6.98% of the population which was significantly higher than that in RAS-h (0.40%). More potential pathogenic bacteria in fish, such as Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio rotiferianus were also found in the bacterial population in RAS-d. The results also showed that the bacteria community in RAS-h was more diverse and balanced than in RAS-d. These findings of this study suggested a potential correlation between fish diseases and environmental bacterial populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes--Proceedings of a Research Symposium, September 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa; Gibson, Caroline; Lowry, Dayv; Fagergren, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Locally and globally, there is growing recognition of the critical roles that herring, smelt, sand lance, eulachon, and other forage fishes play in marine ecosystems. Scientific and resource management entities throughout the Salish Sea, agree that extensive information gaps exist, both in basic biological knowledge and parameters critical to fishery management. Communication and collaboration among researchers also is inadequate. Building on the interest and enthusiasm generated by recent forage fish workshops and symposia around the region, the 2012 Research Symposium on the Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes was designed to elucidate practical recommendations for science and policy needs and actions, and spur further collaboration in support for the precautionary management of forage fish. This dynamic and productive event was a joint venture of the Northwest Straits Commission Forage Fish Program, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and The Puget Sound Partnership. The symposium was held on September 12–14, 2012, at the University of Washington, Friday Harbor Laboratories campus. Sixty scientists, graduate students, and fisheries policy experts convened; showcasing ongoing research, conservation, and management efforts targeting forage fish from regional and national perspectives. The primary objectives of this event were to: (1) review current research and management related to marine forage fish species; and (2) identify priority science and policy needs and actions for Washington, British Columbia, and the entire West Coast. Given the diversity of knowledge, interests, and disciplines surrounding forage fish on both sides of the international border, the organizing committee made a concerted effort to contact many additional experts who, although unable to attend, provided valuable insights and ideas to the symposium structure and discussions. The value of the symposium format was highlighted in

  15. Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

  16. Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

  17. Measuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and demography

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Baum, Julia K

    2005-01-01

    Patterns in marine fish biodiversity can be assessed by quantifying temporal variation in rate of population change, abundance, life history and demography concomitant with long-term reductions in abundance. Based on data for 177 populations (62 species) from four north-temperate oceanic regions (Northeast Atlantic and Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, North mid-Atlantic), 81% of the populations in decline prior to 1992 experienced reductions in their rate of loss thereafter; species whose rate of population decline accelerated after 1992 were predominantly top predators such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), sole (Solea solea) and pelagic sharks. Combining population data across regions and species, marine fish have declined 35% since 1978 and are currently less than 70% of recorded maxima; demersal species are generally at historic lows, pelagic species are generally stable or increasing in abundance. Declines by demersal species have been associated with substantive increases in pelagic species, a pattern consistent with the hypothesis that increases in the latter may be attributable to reduced predation mortality. There is a need to determine the consequences to population growth effected by the reductions in age (21%) and size (13%) at maturity and in mean age (5%) and size (18%) of spawners, concomitant with population decline. We conclude that reductions in the rate of population decline, in the absence of targets for population increase, will be insufficient to effect a recovery of marine fish biodiversity, and that great care must be exercised when interpreting multi-species patterns in abundance. Of fundamental importance is the need to explain the geographical, species-specific and habitat biases that pervade patterns of marine fish recovery and biodiversity. PMID:15814348

  18. Restriction site heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial DNA of the marine fish Sciaenops ocellatus (L.).

    PubMed

    Gold, J R; Richardson, L R

    1990-01-01

    Restriction site heteroplasmy involving the enzymes NcoI and XbaI was detected in the mitochondrial DNAs of two individuals of the marine fish Sciaenops ocellatus. This represents only the sixth documented example of mitochondrial DNA restriction site heteroplasmy in animals. Two heteroplasmic individuals were found in a survey of nearly 750 individuals, suggesting that in most studies the incidence of mitochondrial DNA site heteroplasmy may be too low to be routinely detected.

  19. Determination of chlorobiphenyls in seal blubber, marine sediment, and fish: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J; van der Meer, J; Brinkman, U A

    1996-01-01

    Between 1988 and 1994, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the Oslo and Paris Commissions organized a stepwise interlaboratory study for determination of chlorobiphenyls (CBs) in marine media. The final parts of this study, in which 53 laboratories from 14 countries participated, focused on long-term precision, cleanup, and extraction. Calibration was controlled continuously by analysis of 10 CBs in an unknown solution. Participants were requested to analyze 3 CBs in a certified reference material fish oil (6 times); 10 CBs in cleaned and uncleaned marine sediment and seal blubber extracts; and 10 CBs in seal blubber oil, dried marine sediment, and wet, lean fish muscle tissue. The long-term precision study showed that, compared with earlier exercises in which only duplicate analyses were required, repeatability increased about 1.5-fold compared with reproducibility. The mean standard error for reproducibility of determination of 10 CBs in standard solutions improved from 1.22 to 1.15. The standard error improved from 1.36 to 1.25 (without CBs 28 and 31) for seal blubber oil and from 1.36 to 1.22 for dried marine sediment. In seal blubber oil and dried marine sediment, the major CBs 118, 138, 153, and 180 can now be determined by the group of participating laboratories with a reproducibility of 1.5 (about 50%). No significant differences were found between results for cleaned-up and uncleaned extracts. No acceptable results could be obtained for determination of CBs in lean fish muscle tissue. Biplots of principal component analyses are extremely helpful in evaluating the data generated by this type of study.

  20. Asymmetric connectivity of spawning aggregations of a commercially important marine fish using a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alexis; Marinone, Silvio Guido; Erisman, Brad; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Girón-Nava, Alfredo; Pfister, Tad; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Torre, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed. We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea). We tested the hypothesis that source–sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites. We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast) were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and the Midriffs) were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae from the Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region and towards the

  1. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  2. Spatial behavior of two coral reef fishes within a Caribbean marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jessica; Mourier, Johann; Lenfant, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    A better understanding of the key ecological processes of marine organisms is fundamental to improving design and effective implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) and marine biodiversity. The movement behavior of coral reef fish is a complex mechanism that is highly linked to species life-history traits, predation risk and food resources. We used passive acoustic telemetry to study monthly, daily and hourly movement patterns and space use in two species, Schoolmaster snapper (Lutjanus apodus) and Stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride). We investigated the spatial overlap between the two species and compared intra-specific spatial overlap between day and night. Presence-absence models showed different diel presence and habitat use patterns between the two species. We constructed a spatial network of the movement patterns, which showed that for both species when fish were detected by the array of receivers most movements were made around the coral reef habitat while occasionally moving to silt habitats. Our results show that most individuals made predictable daily crepuscular migrations between different locations and habitat types, although individual behavioral changes were observed for some individuals across time. Our study also highlights the necessity to consider multiple species during MPA implementation and to take into account the specific biological and ecological traits of each species. The low number of fish detected within the receiver array, as well as the intraspecific variability observed in this study, highlight the need to compare results across species and individuals to be used for MPA management.

  3. Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernández, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan

    2013-11-01

    1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  4. Do You Know Our Marine Fish? A Marine Education Infusion Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip

    Designed to provide teaching materials for middle school and junior high school teachers in northern New England, this marine education unit presents teacher-tested ideas and activities for use in the classroom and in field trips to the ocean. Each unit includes ideas and activities drawn from a variety of content areas so teachers of many…

  5. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-01-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8 years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

  6. Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide.

  7. Simulating Blade-Strike on Fish passing through Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2014-06-16

    The study reported here evaluated the occurrence, frequency, and intensity of blade strike of fish on an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine by using two modeling approaches: a conventional kinematic formulation and a proposed Lagrangian particle- based scheme. The kinematic model included simplifying assumptions of fish trajectories such as distribution and velocity. The proposed method overcame the need for such simplifications by integrating the following components into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model: (i) advanced eddy-resolving flow simulation, (ii) generation of ambient turbulence based on field data, (iii) moving turbine blades in highly transient flows, and (iv) Lagrangian particles to mimic the potential fish pathways. The test conditions to evaluate the blade-strike probability and fish survival rate were: (i) the turbulent environment, (ii) the fish size, and (iii) the approaching flow velocity. The proposed method offered the ability to produce potential fish trajectories and their interaction with the rotating turbine. Depending upon the scenario, the percentile of particles that registered a collision event ranged from 6% to 19% of the released sample size. Next, by using a set of experimental correlations of the exposure-response of living fish colliding with moving blades, the simulated collision data were used as input variables to estimate the survival rate of fish passing through the operating turbine. The resulting survival rates were greater than 96% in all scenarios, which is comparable to or better than known survival rates for conventional hydropower turbines. The figures of strike probability and mortality rate were amplified by the kinematic model. The proposed method offered the advantage of expanding the evaluation of other mechanisms of stress and injury on fish derived from hydrokinetic turbines and related devices.

  8. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-02-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8 years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery.

  9. Large-Scale Assessment of Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas Effects on Fish Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide. PMID:24740479

  10. Adaptive morphological shifts to novel habitats in marine sculpin fishes.

    PubMed

    Knope, M L; Scales, J A

    2013-03-01

    Sculpin fishes of the North American Pacific Coast provide an ideal opportunity to examine whether adaptive morphological character shifts have facilitated occupation of novel habitat types because of their well-described phylogeny and ecology. In this group, the basal-rooted species primarily occupy the subtidal habitat, whereas the species in the most distal clades are found in the intertidal. We tested multiple evolutionary models to determine whether changes in body size and changes in number of scales are adaptive for habitat use in sculpins. Based on a statistically robust, highly resolved molecular phylogeny of 26 species of sculpins, in combination with morphometric and habitat affinity data, our analyses show that an adaptive model based on habitat use best explains changes in body size and number of scales. The habitat model was statistically supported over models of neutral evolution, stabilizing selection across all habitats, and three clade-based models. We suggest that loss of scales and reduction of body size in the intertidal may facilitate cutaneous breathing in air when tidepools become hypoxic during low tides. This study demonstrates how the combined use of phylogenetic, ecological and statistical approaches helps to identify traits that are likely adaptive to novel habitats. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Ascaridoid parasites infecting in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal area of China: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Lü, Liang; Chen, Hui-Xia; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Marine fishes represent the important components of the diet in the coastal areas of China and they are also natural hosts of various parasites. However, to date, little is known about the occurrence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in China. In order to determine the presence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal town Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, 211 fish representing 45 species caught from the South China Sea (off Daya Gulf) were examined. Five species of ascaridoid nematodes at different developmental stages were detected in the marine fishes examined herein, including third-stage larva of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860), third and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge, 2013, adult and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium zhoushanense Li, Liu & Zhang, 2014, adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu, 1949) and adults of Raphidascaris longispicula Li, Liu & Zhang, 2012. The overall prevalence of infection is 18.0%. Of them, Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A with the highest prevalence (17.5%) and intensity (mean=14.6) of infection was the predominant species. The prevalence and intensity of A. typica were very low (1/211 of marine fish infected with an intensity of one parasite per fish). The morphological and molecular characterization of all nematode species was provided. A cladistic analysis based on ITS sequence was constructed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these ascaridoid parasites obtained herein. The present study provided important information on the occurrence and diagnosis of ascaridoid nematodes in the commercially important marine fishes from the South China Sea. The low level of infection and the species composition of ascaridoid nematodes seem to indicate the presence of low risk of human anisakidosis when local population consumed these marine fishes examined herein.

  12. Structure and seasonal variability of fish food webs in an estuarine tropical marine protected area (Senegal): Evidence from stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faye, Djibril; Tito de Morais, Luis; Raffray, Jean; Sadio, Oumar; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Le Loc'h, François

    2011-05-01

    West African tropical estuaries play an important role in the growth and survival of many commercially exploited fish species and enable the sustainability of considerable artisanal fishery yields. However, their trophic functioning remains poorly understood. In the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal), a marine protected area (MPAs) was designated in 2003 to manage fisheries resources. The present study aimed to determine the structure, trophic functioning and seasonal patterns of the fish assemblages in this MPA. Throughout the study, 28 fish species were collected, with higher values of biomass (3826 kg km -2) recorded during the wet season and lower values during the dry season (1228 kg km -2). Fish assemblages in both seasons were dominated by species with marine affinity, which accounted for 87% of the total biomass in the wet season and 70% in the dry season, with their abundance varying from 83% to 57%, respectively. Based on stable isotopic composition (δ 13C and δ 15N), species were combined into trophic groups. Primary consumers were partitioned into suspensivores (pelagic copepods, oysters and mussels), which fed mainly on particulate organic matter, and intermediate consumers, feeding on freshly deposited organic matter and benthic microalgae ( Sarotherodon melanotheron and Arca senilis). Secondary consumers were divided into three groups. The first group included mullet, which fed by grazing on benthic microalgae (benthic affinity feeders). The second group, pelagic affinity feeders, was the most heterogeneous and fed mainly on pelagic components. The last secondary consumer group termed the intermediate group, included piscivores and benthic and pelagic invertebrate feeders, which dominated the top of the food web. The food chain in October was lengthened due to the occurrence of tertiary consumers. Food webs were dominated by secondary consumers, which constituted 89% of total biomass in the dry season and 71% in the wet season. The fish food web varied

  13. The Principles of Buoyancy in Marine Fish Eggs and Their Vertical Distributions across the World Oceans.

    PubMed

    Sundby, Svein; Kristiansen, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Buoyancy acting on plankton, i.e. the difference in specific gravity between plankton and the ambient water, is a function of salinity and temperature. From specific gravity measurements of marine fish eggs salinity appears to be the only determinant of the buoyancy indicating that the thermal expansions of the fish egg and the ambient seawater are equal. We analyze the mechanisms behind thermal expansion in fish eggs in order to determine to what extent it can be justified to neglect the effects of temperature on buoyancy. Our results confirm the earlier assumptions that salinity is the basic determinant on buoyancy in marine fish eggs that, in turn, influence the vertical distributions and, consequently, the dispersal of fish eggs from the spawning areas. Fish populations have adapted accordingly by producing egg specific gravities that tune the egg buoyancy to create specific vertical distributions for each local population. A wide variety of buoyancy adaptations are found among fish populations. The ambient physical conditions at the spawning sites form a basic constraint for adaptation. In coastal regions where salinity increases with depth, and where the major fraction of the fish stocks spawns, pelagic and mesopelagic egg distributions dominate. However, in the larger part of worlds' oceans salinity decreases with depth resulting in different egg distributions. Here, the principles of vertical distributions of fish eggs in the world oceans are presented in an overarching framework presenting the basic differences between regions, mainly coastal, where salinity increases with depth and the major part of the world oceans where salinity decreases with depth. We show that under these latter conditions, steady-state vertical distribution of mesopelagic fish eggs cannot exist as it does in most coastal regions. In fact, a critical spawning depth must exist where spawning below this depth threshold results in eggs sinking out of the water column and become lost for

  14. The Principles of Buoyancy in Marine Fish Eggs and Their Vertical Distributions across the World Oceans

    PubMed Central

    Sundby, Svein; Kristiansen, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Buoyancy acting on plankton, i.e. the difference in specific gravity between plankton and the ambient water, is a function of salinity and temperature. From specific gravity measurements of marine fish eggs salinity appears to be the only determinant of the buoyancy indicating that the thermal expansions of the fish egg and the ambient seawater are equal. We analyze the mechanisms behind thermal expansion in fish eggs in order to determine to what extent it can be justified to neglect the effects of temperature on buoyancy. Our results confirm the earlier assumptions that salinity is the basic determinant on buoyancy in marine fish eggs that, in turn, influence the vertical distributions and, consequently, the dispersal of fish eggs from the spawning areas. Fish populations have adapted accordingly by producing egg specific gravities that tune the egg buoyancy to create specific vertical distributions for each local population. A wide variety of buoyancy adaptations are found among fish populations. The ambient physical conditions at the spawning sites form a basic constraint for adaptation. In coastal regions where salinity increases with depth, and where the major fraction of the fish stocks spawns, pelagic and mesopelagic egg distributions dominate. However, in the larger part of worlds’ oceans salinity decreases with depth resulting in different egg distributions. Here, the principles of vertical distributions of fish eggs in the world oceans are presented in an overarching framework presenting the basic differences between regions, mainly coastal, where salinity increases with depth and the major part of the world oceans where salinity decreases with depth. We show that under these latter conditions, steady-state vertical distribution of mesopelagic fish eggs cannot exist as it does in most coastal regions. In fact, a critical spawning depth must exist where spawning below this depth threshold results in eggs sinking out of the water column and become lost

  15. Role of NO in arterial vascular function of intertidal fish (Girella laevifrons) and marine fish (Isacia conceptionis).

    PubMed

    Moraga, F A; Urriola-Urriola, N

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies performed in intertidal fish (Girella laevifrons),as well as marine fish (Isacia conceptionis), showed that acetylcholine (ACh) produced contractions mediated by cyclooxygenases that were dependent on the area and potency of contraction in several arterial vessels. Given that the role of nitric oxide is poorly understood in fish, the objective of our study was to evaluate the role of nitric oxide in branchial afferent (ABA), branchial efferent (ABE), dorsal (DA) and mesenteric (MA) arterial vessels from both Girella laevifrons and Isacia conceptionis. We studied afferent and efferent branchial, dorsal and mesenteric arteries that were dissected from 6 juvenile specimens. Isometric tension studies were done using dose response curves (DRC) for Ach (10-13 to 10-3 M) and blockade with L-NAME (10-5 M), and DRC for sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a donor of NO). L-NAME produced an attenuation of the contractile response in the dorsal, afferent and efferent branchial arteries and a potentiation of the contraction in the MA. SNP caused 70% dilation in the mesenteric artery and 40% in the dorsal artery. Our results suggest that Ach promotes precarious dilatation in MA mediated by NO; data that is supported by the use of sodium nitroprusside. In contrast, in the vessels DA, ABA and EBA our results support that the pathway Ach-NO-relaxation is absent in both species.

  16. Oil Platforms off California are among the Most Productive Marine Fish Habitats Globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondella, D.; Claisse, J.; Love, M.; Zahn, L.; Williams, J.; Williams, C.; Bull, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the conservation and fisheries value of active and decommissioned oil platforms, production of fishes on oil platforms (and natural rocky reefs for comparison) off of southern California, USA were modeled using fisheries independent empirically-collected manned submersible data. We found that these platforms have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat where similar estimates have been made. The high rates of fish production ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies.

  17. The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.

    PubMed

    Barrett, James H; Locker, Alison M; Roberts, Callum M

    2004-12-07

    The catastrophic impact of fishing pressure on species such as cod and herring is well documented. However, the antiquity of their intensive exploitation has not been established. Systematic catch statistics are only available for ca.100 years, but large-scale fishing industries existed in medieval Europe and the expansion of cod fishing from the fourteenth century (first in Iceland, then in Newfoundland) played an important role in the European colonization of the Northwest Atlantic. History has demonstrated the scale of these late medieval and post-medieval fisheries, but only archaeology can illuminate earlier practices. Zooarchaeological evidence shows that the clearest changes in marine fishing in England between AD 600 and 1600 occurred rapidly around AD 1000 and involved large increases in catches of herring and cod. Surprisingly, this revolution predated the documented post-medieval expansion of England's sea fisheries and coincided with the Medieval Warm Period--when natural herring and cod productivity was probably low in the North Sea. This counterintuitive discovery can be explained by the concurrent rise of urbanism and human impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The search for 'pristine' baselines regarding marine ecosystems will thus need to employ medieval palaeoecological proxies in addition to recent fisheries data and early modern historical records.

  18. The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, James H.; Locker, Alison M.; Roberts, Callum M.

    2004-01-01

    The catastrophic impact of fishing pressure on species such as cod and herring is well documented. However, the antiquity of their intensive exploitation has not been established. Systematic catch statistics are only available for ca.100 years, but large-scale fishing industries existed in medieval Europe and the expansion of cod fishing from the fourteenth century (first in Iceland, then in Newfoundland) played an important role in the European colonization of the Northwest Atlantic. History has demonstrated the scale of these late medieval and post-medieval fisheries, but only archaeology can illuminate earlier practices. Zooarchaeological evidence shows that the clearest changes in marine fishing in England between AD 600 and 1600 occurred rapidly around AD 1000 and involved large increases in catches of herring and cod. Surprisingly, this revolution predated the documented post-medieval expansion of England's sea fisheries and coincided with the Medieval Warm Period--when natural herring and cod productivity was probably low in the North Sea. This counterintuitive discovery can be explained by the concurrent rise of urbanism and human impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The search for 'pristine' baselines regarding marine ecosystems will thus need to employ medieval palaeoecological proxies in addition to recent fisheries data and early modern historical records. PMID:15590590

  19. Climate change and marine fish distributions: Forecasting from historical analogy

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, S.A. )

    1993-09-01

    Analyses of 36 fish and squid species sampled in standardized bottom-trawl surveys of the northwest Atlantic Ocean (1967-present) revealed a continuum of distributional responses associated with seasonal and annual variations in water temperature. Mean and maximum latitude of occurrence of the species were regressed against average surface- and bottom-water temperatures and indices of relative abundance from spring and autumn trawl surveys. Significant (P [le] 0.05) regression models were fitted for 17 of 36 species from spring and fall survey data. Variations in water temperature were significant in explaining changes in mean latitude of occurrence for 12 of 36 species in both seasons. Maximum latitude distribution responses to interannual differences in water temperatures occurred for pelagic species, including Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus and Atlantic herring Clupea harengus. Weighted mean catches of these species shifted poleward by 0.5-0.8 degree of latitude for each 1[degrees]C increase in average water temperature. Statistically significant poleward range extensions, associated with warmer water temperatures, occurred for five species in spring surveys and four in fall surveys. Different responses among species to changing thermal regimes of the northwest Atlantic Shelf have important potential consequences for trophic dynamics and fisheries yields of the ecosystem. Species found to be sensitive in distribution to temperature change include primary prey species of some predators that show limited seasonal or annual changes in distribution. Changes in distributional overlaps between some predators and prey therefore are a likely result of shelf warming associated with climate change. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. The role of biophysical parameters in the antilipopolysaccharide activities of antimicrobial peptides from marine fish.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2014-03-13

    Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs. In this review, therefore, we will focus on the physiochemical properties of AMPs; that is, the contributions made by their sequences, net charge, hydrophobicity and amphipathicity to their mechanism of action. Moreover, the interactions between LPS and fish AMPs and the structure of fish AMPs with LPS bound will also be discussed. A better understanding of the biophysical properties will be useful in the design of AMPs effective against septic shock and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, including those that commonly produce wound infections.

  1. A simple molecular technique for identifying marine host fish by sequencing blood-feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Nagel, L; Lougheed, S C

    2006-06-01

    Gnathiid isopods are common ectoparasites of fish on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. While screening for appropriate markers for phylogenetic studies of gnathiids, we found that primers for 12S and 16S rDNA preferentially amplified the host fish DNA instead of gnathiid DNA. This amplification occurred even when using gnathiids that were not engorged with host blood and adult gnathiids that do not feed on fish blood. This method could be used in host-parasite studies to identify hosts without having to sample parasites directly from the host (which can be costly and requires considerable skill in a marine environment). Target ribosomal DNA sequences can be amplified from total DNA extracted from parasites that are captured in funnel traps or plankton tows. Sequence data from these can be used to identify the hosts that gnathiids were feeding on before capture.

  2. Larval dispersal connects fish populations in a network of marine protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Planes, Serge; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Thorrold, Simon R.

    2009-01-01

    Networks of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for the conservation of marine biodiversity. But for MPA networks to be successful in protecting marine populations, individual MPAs must be self-sustaining or adequately connected to other MPAs via dispersal. For marine species with a dispersive larval stage, populations within MPAs require either the return of settlement-stage larvae to their natal reserve or connectivity among reserves at the spatial scales at which MPA networks are implemented. To date, larvae have not been tracked when dispersing from one MPA to another, and the relative magnitude of local retention and connectivity among MPAs remains unknown. Here we use DNA parentage analysis to provide the first direct estimates of connectivity of a marine fish, the orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula), in a proposed network of marine reserves in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea. Approximately 40% of A. percula larvae settling into anemones in an island MPA at 2 different times were derived from parents resident in the reserve. We also located juveniles spawned by Kimbe Island residents that had dispersed as far as 35 km to other proposed MPAs, the longest distance that marine larvae have been directly tracked. These dispersers accounted for up to 10% of the recruitment in the adjacent MPAs. Our findings suggest that MPA networks can function to sustain resident populations both by local replenishment and through larval dispersal from other reserves. More generally, DNA parentage analysis provides a direct method for measuring larval dispersal for other marine organisms. PMID:19307588

  3. Stable isotope ratio analysis as a tool to discriminate between rainbow trout (O. mykiss) fed diets based on plant or fish-meal proteins.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rojas, J M; Tulli, F; Messina, M; Tibaldi, E; Guillou, C

    2008-12-01

    The use of stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) as a rapid analytical tool to characterize and discriminate farmed fish on the basis of the feedstuffs included in the diet formulation is discussed. Two isoproteic (44.8%) and isolipidic (19.6%) extruded diets were formulated: a fish-meal-based diet (FM diet), containing fish meal as the sole protein source; a plant-protein-based diet (PP diet), where pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten meal replaced 80% of fish meal protein. The diets were fed to eight groups of rainbow trout (initial body weight: 106.6g) for 103 days in two daily meals under controlled rearing conditions. Growth performance (final body weight: 318.5 g; specific growth rate: 1.06%) and feed-to-gain ratio (0.79) were not affected by the dietary treatment. The differences in isotopic values of the two diets were clearly reflected in the different carbon and nitrogen isotopic values in rainbow trout fillets. The delta(13)C and delta(15)N values of muscle of farmed rainbow trout showed differences between farmed fish fed a fish-protein-based diet (-20.47 +/- 0.34 and 12.38 +/- 0.57 for delta(13)C and delta(15)N, respectively) and those fed a plant-protein-based diet (-23.96 +/- 0.38 and 7.15 +/- 0.51 for delta(13)C and delta(15)N, respectively). The results suggest that SIRA provides a robust and verifiable analytical tool to discriminate between fish fed on a plant or a fish protein diet.

  4. Homeostatic regulation of copper in a marine fish simulated by a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xun; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-11-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential yet potentially toxic metal, thus delicate homeostatic controls are developed in the fish. In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to simulate the homeostatic regulation of Cu in a marine fish (Terapon jarbua) under dietary and waterborne exposures. In this model, fish were schematized as a six-compartment model, with the intestine being divided into two sub-compartments (chyme and gut wall). The blood was assumed to be the "carrier" distributing Cu into different compartments. The transfer rates between different compartments were determined in fish during Cu exposure (20 d) and depuration (20 d). The differences in Cu transfer from chyme to gut wall between dietary and waterborne treatments suggested that the intestine regulated the dietary uptake and re-absorption of Cu from the chyme. The extremely low uptake rate constant (0.0013 d(-1)) for gills under waterborne exposure indicated that gills strongly restricted Cu uptake from the ambient water. For both treatments, the liver had considerable input rate through the enterohepatic circulation and comparably high exchange rate with the blood, suggesting that the liver can efficiently accumulate newly absorbed Cu. The differences in Cu output from the liver between dietary and waterborne treatments suggested that it can effectively regulate the redistribution of Cu. All of these observations demonstrated that the liver played the central role in Cu homeostasis by serving as the main depository and distributing center. Modeling results also indicated that renal and branchial excretion was of minor importance, whereas biliary excretion combined with defecation played the most important role in whole-body Cu elimination in marine fish. The effective regulation by the "Blood-Liver-Intestine" cycle could be the main reason for the relatively low levels of Cu in fish.

  5. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, David J; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis; Claireaux, Guy; Cooke, Steven J; Corner, Richard A; De Boeck, Gudrun; Domenici, Paolo; Guerreiro, Pedro M; Hamer, Bojan; Jørgensen, Christian; Killen, Shaun S; Lefevre, Sjannie; Marras, Stefano; Michaelidis, Basile; Nilsson, Göran E; Peck, Myron A; Perez-Ruzafa, Angel; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; Shiels, Holly A; Steffensen, John F; Svendsen, Jon C; Svendsen, Morten B S; Teal, Lorna R; van der Meer, Jaap; Wang, Tobias; Wilson, Jonathan M; Wilson, Rod W; Metcalfe, Julian D

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental physiology of a wider range of species. Multifactorial field and laboratory studies on biomarkers hold promise to relate ecophysiology directly to habitat quality and population status. The 'Fry paradigm' could have broad applications for conservation physiology research if it provides a universal mechanism to link physiological function with ecological performance and population dynamics of fishes, through effects of abiotic conditions on aerobic metabolic scope. The available data indicate, however, that the paradigm is not universal, so further research is required on a wide diversity of species. Fish physiologists should interact closely with researchers developing ecological models, in order to investigate how integrating physiological information improves confidence in projecting effects of global change; for example, with mechanistic models that define habitat suitability based upon potential for aerobic scope or outputs of a dynamic energy budget. One major challenge to upscaling from physiology of individuals to the level of species and communities is incorporating intraspecific variation, which could be a crucial component of species' resilience to global change. Understanding what fishes do in the wild is also a challenge, but techniques of biotelemetry and biologging are providing novel information towards effective conservation. Overall, fish physiologists must strive to render research outputs more applicable to management and decision-making. There are various potential avenues for information flow, in the shorter term directly through biomarker studies and in the longer

  6. Determination of Iodine-129 in fish samples as new tracer of marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuno, Haruka; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2014-05-01

    Most of Iodine-129 in the surface environment is the anthropogenic origin, i.e., the result of the human nuclear activities. In the marine environment, like Pacific ocean, I-129 is transferred from atmosphere and slowly diffuses into deeper layer so that there is steep gradient of I-129 concentration, i.e., the surface layer has high I-129 concentration and it suddenly decreases going deeper. This peculiar depth profile is thus reflected by the isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) profile because stable iodine (I-127) concentration is almost uniform in the seawater (ca. 60 ppb). Iodine isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) of marine lives like fish should be determined by their habitats and the ways exchanging iodine with seawater. This means that the iodine isotopic ratio is potential indicator of marine biology. However there have been only few studies using I-129 for marine biology. This is because I-129 is so rare in the marine lives that ordinary analytical techniques cannot detect. Recently, the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry has been developed and demonstrates excellent sensitivity to detect I-129/I-127 ratio as low as 1E-14. However it requires typically 1 mg AgI sample. To obtain such amount of iodine several hundreds gram should be treated in the case of typical fish. In this study "carrier method" was adopted to overcome this difficulty. Our procedure is following: A fish sample was first dried completely then homogenized well. Iodine was extracted into an alkaline solution by the thermal hydrolysis from 0.1 to 0.5g of dried sample. An aliquot of this solution was taken for ICP-MS analysis to determine the stable iodine concentration. The remaining was, added with carrier iodine (about 1 mg), purified by solvent extraction and collected as AgI precipitation. I-129/I-127 ratio of obtained AgI was determined by AMS. From the AMS result and the stable iodine concentration, the isotopic ratio of the fish samples themselves can be calculated. The result of fish

  7. Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer?

    PubMed

    Cailliet, G M; Andrews, A H; Burton, E J; Watters, D L; Kline, D E; Ferry-Graham, L A

    2001-04-01

    Age determination and validation studies on deep-water marine fishes indicate they are difficult to age and often long-lived. Techniques for the determination of age in individual fish includes growth-zone analysis of vertebral centra, fin rays and spines, other skeletal structures, and otoliths (there are three sets of otoliths in most bony fish semicircular canals, each of which is made of calcium carbonate). Most have regular increments deposited as the fish (and its semicircular canals) grows. The most commonly used otolith for age determination is the largest one called the sagitta. Age validation techniques include: (1) tag-recapture, often combined with oxytetracycline injection and analysis in growth-zones of bone upon recapture; (2) analysis of growth-zones over time; and (3) radiometric approaches utilizing a known radioactive decay series as an independent chronometer in otoliths from bony fishes. We briefly summarize previous studies using these three validation approaches and present results from several of our radiometric studies on deep-water, bony fishes recently subjected to expanding fisheries. Radiometric age validation results are presented for four species of scorpaenid fishes (the bank, Sebastes rufus, and bocaccio, S. paucispinis, rockfishes, and two thornyhead species, Sebastolobus altivelis and S. alascanus). In addition, our analysis of scorpaenids indicates that longevity increases exponentially with maximum depth of occurrence. The reason that the deep-water forms of scorpaenid fishes are long-lived is uncertain. Their longevity, however, may be related to altered physiological processes relative to environmental parameters like low temperature, high pressures, low light levels, low oxygen, and poor food resources.

  8. Trajectories and magnitude of change in coral reef fish populations in Philippine marine reserves: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliao, R. J.; White, A. T.; Maypa, A. P.; Turingan, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Marine reserves are widely implemented worldwide to meet both conservation and fisheries management goals. This study examines the efficacy of Philippine marine reserves using meta-analysis by comparing variations in fish density (1) between reserves and adjacent fished reefs (spatial comparison), (2) within reserves before establishment relative to years following the establishment (temporal comparison), and (3) among reserves classified based on size, age, and enforcement capacity. A grand (total) mean of nineteen 22.3 ha coral reef reserves, protected for a mean duration of 8.2 years, were included in the meta-analyses. The overall density of fishes was higher in the reserves compared with the fished reefs and this difference was largely accounted for by exploited fishes. However, the overall density of fishes within the same reserves remained similar from the period before its establishment to several years following its establishment. Only the density of nonexploited fishes increased significantly during years subsequent to the establishment of the reserves. Neither age nor size of reserves correlated with pattern of change in fish density following the establishment of the reserves; however, fish density was consistently higher in larger and older reserves relative to smaller and younger reserves in the spatial comparison. Furthermore, well-enforced reserves had higher density of exploited fishes relative to less-enforced reserves in both spatial and temporal comparisons. In general, the magnitude and trajectory of change in fish density following the establishment of Philippine marine reserves are influenced by (1) functional groups of fishes under consideration, (2) size and age of the reserve, and (3) level of enforcement of the regulatory mechanisms necessary to sustain a marine reserve.

  9. Marine protected areas increase temporal stability of community structure, but not density or diversity, of tropical seagrass fish communities.

    PubMed

    Alonso Aller, Elisa; Jiddawi, Narriman S; Eklöf, Johan S

    2017-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been shown to increase long-term temporal stability of fish communities and enhance ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the potential ability of MPAs to buffer effects of environmental variability at shorter time scales remains widely unknown. In the tropics, the yearly monsoon cycle is a major natural force affecting marine organisms in tropical regions, and its timing and severity are predicted to change over the coming century, with potentially severe effects on marine organisms, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the ability of MPAs to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on seagrass-associated fish communities, using a field survey in two MPAs (no-take zones) and two unprotected (open-access) sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania). We assessed the temporal stability of fish density and community structure within and outside MPAs during three monsoon seasons in 2014-2015, and investigated several possible mechanisms that could regulate temporal stability. Our results show that MPAs did not affect fish density and diversity, but that juvenile fish densities were temporally more stable within MPAs. Second, fish community structure was more stable within MPAs for juvenile and adult fish, but not for subadult fish or the total fish community. Third, the observed effects may be due to a combination of direct and indirect (seagrass-mediated) effects of seasonality and, potentially, fluctuating fishing pressure outside MPAs. In summary, these MPAs may not have the ability to enhance fish density and diversity and to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on the whole fish community. However, they may increase the temporal stability of certain groups, such as juvenile fish. Consequently, our results question whether MPAs play a general role in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under changing environmental conditions in tropical seagrass fish communities.

  10. Vast assembly of vocal marine mammals from diverse species on fish spawning ground.

    PubMed

    Wang, Delin; Garcia, Heriberto; Huang, Wei; Tran, Duong D; Jain, Ankita D; Yi, Dong Hoon; Gong, Zheng; Jech, J Michael; Godø, Olav Rune; Makris, Nicholas C; Ratilal, Purnima

    2016-03-17

    Observing marine mammal (MM) populations continuously in time and space over the immense ocean areas they inhabit is challenging but essential for gathering an unambiguous record of their distribution, as well as understanding their behaviour and interaction with prey species. Here we use passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (POAWRS) in an important North Atlantic feeding ground to instantaneously detect, localize and classify MM vocalizations from diverse species over an approximately 100,000 km(2) region. More than eight species of vocal MMs are found to spatially converge on fish spawning areas containing massive densely populated herring shoals at night-time and diffuse herring distributions during daytime. We find the vocal MMs divide the enormous fish prey field into species-specific foraging areas with varying degrees of spatial overlap, maintained for at least two weeks of the herring spawning period. The recorded vocalization rates are diel (24 h)-dependent for all MM species, with some significantly more vocal at night and others more vocal during the day. The four key baleen whale species of the region: fin, humpback, blue and minke have vocalization rate trends that are highly correlated to trends in fish shoaling density and to each other over the diel cycle. These results reveal the temporospatial dynamics of combined multi-species MM foraging activities in the vicinity of an extensive fish prey field that forms a massive ecological hotspot, and would be unattainable with conventional methodologies. Understanding MM behaviour and distributions is essential for management of marine ecosystems and for accessing anthropogenic impacts on these protected marine species.

  11. The impact of fish and the commercial marine harvest on the ocean iron cycle.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Allison R; Haffa, Arlene L M

    2014-01-01

    Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7-7 × 10(11) g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4-1.5 × 10(12) g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1-6 × 10(9) g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7-3 × 10(10) g in 1996, which declines to 0.6-2 × 10(10) g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles.

  12. Environmental Drivers of Inter-annual Variability in Beaufort Sea Marine Fish Community Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, A.; Atchison, S.; Eert, J.; Dempsey, M.; MacPhee, S.; Michel, C.; Reist, J.

    2016-02-01

    The Beaufort Sea is a complex and dynamic system influenced by a wide suite of oceanic and riverine inputs that affect the ecosystem. Interactions within the resulting water masses are largely driven by factors such as precipitation, wind, and ice cover. Thus, the Beaufort Sea environment is highly variable in both space and time, and this variability is reflected in the habitats of biota. Inherent system variability must be factored into baselines designed to detect changes resulting from anthropogenic stressors and natural drivers. Between 2012 and 2014, Fisheries and Oceans Canada conducted the first baseline survey of offshore marine fishes, their habitats, and ecological relationships in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. In 2012, benthic trawling was conducted at 28 stations spanning 20-1000 m depths across shelf and slope habitats, and selected stations were re-sampled in 2013 and 2014. Concurrent sampling of oceanographic parameters and sediment composition was conducted at each station. We examine the stability of marine fish assemblages over a three-year period, and compare results for shelf stations to previous research to develop longer-term perspectives. Oceanographic (e.g., salinity), physical (e.g., depth and sediment grain size) and geographic (e.g., distance from shore) parameters, and proxies for local productivity (i.e., water-column and benthic chlorophyll) are explored as explanatory variables affecting fish community structure among years. Establishing knowledge baselines and understanding variability in the community structure and habitat associations of Beaufort Sea marine fishes will support mitigation and conservation efforts by enhancing our ability to predict, detect and monitor the effects of hydrocarbon development and climate change on this pivotal ecosystem component.

  13. The Impact of Fish and the Commercial Marine Harvest on the Ocean Iron Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Allison R.; Haffa, Arlene L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7–7×1011 g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4–1.5×1012 g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1–6×109 g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7–3×1010 g in 1996, which declines to 0.6–2×1010 g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles. PMID:25251284

  14. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling fish Tor tambra (Cyprinidae) fed formulated diet supplemented with enhanced probiotic.

    PubMed Central

    Muchlisin, Zainal Abidin; Murda, Tanzil; Yulvizar, Cut; Dewiyanti, Irma; Fadli, Nur; Afrido, Fardin; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor; Muhammadar, Abdullah A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish ( Tor tambra) fry. Methods Lactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg -1 (control), 5 ml kg -1, 10 ml kg -1 and 15 ml kg -1 were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic) to 10 ml kg -1 of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg -1. Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg -1. Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg -1 of feed. PMID:28357045

  15. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling fish Tor tambra (Cyprinidae) fed formulated diet supplemented with enhanced probiotic.

    PubMed

    Muchlisin, Zainal Abidin; Murda, Tanzil; Yulvizar, Cut; Dewiyanti, Irma; Fadli, Nur; Afrido, Fardin; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor; Muhammadar, Abdullah A

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish ( Tor tambra) fry. MethodsLactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg (-1) (control), 5 ml kg (-1), 10 ml kg (-1) and 15 ml kg (-1) were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic) to 10 ml kg (-1) of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg (-1). Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg (-1). Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg (-1) of feed.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. A seascape approach to investigating fish spillover across a marine protected area boundary in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) can benefit fisheries through export of pelagic eggs and larvae and the net emigration of adults and juveniles (spillover). Spillover was investigated for a marine protected area on the north shore of Oahu, Hawai‘i utilizing a seascape approach. This study incorporated habitat variables and underwater visual surveys of fishes and benthos measured at two distinct scales (125 m2 and 1000 m2) inside and outside the protected area at varying distance from the boundary. The relationship between fish biomass from fine-scale surveys and key habitat variables was found to account for a large portion of the variability for both resource (targeted) fish species (15%) and non-resource fish (28%). The remaining variation in resource fish biomass was significantly correlated with distance from the MPA boundary showing a decreasing gradient from inside to outside (r2 = 0.46, p = 0.001), indicating fish spillover at a local scale (p = 0.45). The evidence of spillover based on the fine-scale surveys was corroborated by results from broad-scale surveys, which also showed a significant relationship (r2 = 0.19, p < 0.01) between resource fish biomass and distance from the MPA boundary. In addition, observed spatial distribution of fishing effort was consistent with predictions that fishers respond to biomass gradients across protected area boundaries. Fish spillover can help mitigate costs associated with the establishment of marine protected areas in terms of lost fishing area and therefore have a positive effect on the attitudes of fishers toward marine reserves and marine protected areas.

  18. Are We Predicting the Actual or Apparent Distribution of Temperate Marine Fishes?

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Harvey, Euan; Rattray, Alex; Versace, Vincent L.

    2012-01-01

    Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change – particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information for many marine species, scientists are increasingly using spatially-explicit, predictive-modeling approaches. Through the improved access to multibeam sonar and underwater video technology these models provide spatial predictions of the most suitable regions for an organism at resolutions previously not possible. However, sensible-looking, well-performing models can provide very different predictions of distribution depending on which occurrence dataset is used. To examine this, we construct species distribution models for nine temperate marine sedentary fishes for a 25.7 km2 study region off the coast of southeastern Australia. We use generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM) and maximum entropy (MAXENT) to build models based on co-located occurrence datasets derived from two underwater video methods (i.e. baited and towed video) and fine-scale multibeam sonar based seafloor habitat variables. Overall, this study found that the choice of modeling approach did not considerably influence the prediction of distributions based on the same occurrence dataset. However, greater dissimilarity between model predictions was observed across the nine fish taxa when the two occurrence datasets were compared (relative to models based on the same dataset). Based on these results it is difficult to draw any general trends in regards to which video method provides more reliable occurrence datasets. Nonetheless, we suggest predictions reflecting the species apparent distribution (i.e. a combination of species distribution and the probability

  19. Induction of CYP1A in marine fish species from the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, K.L.; McDonald, S.; Narasimhan, T.R.; Connor, K.; Safe, S.; Kennicutt, M.C.

    1994-12-31

    Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities in over twenty species of fish, invertebrates, and fauna were used as biomarkers of exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Gulf of Mexico. The highest AHH and EROD activities in fish were detected in pinfish, tile, flounder, and hardhead catfish. In contrast, minimal to non-detectable induction was observed in invertebrates. Analysis of induction results showed that with the exception of a few species, there was a linear correlation between the induction of EROD vs AHH activity suggesting that ethoxyresorufin and benzo[a]pyrene serve as comparable substrates for CYP1A. In contrast, AHH activity was not induced in either hardhead catfish or lizard fish; whereas, the levels of EROD activity varied from 4.0 to 155 pmol/min/mg. These results indicate that there is some species-dependent variability in the catalytic activity of CYP1A protein in marine fish species, and that more reliable indicators of exposure to PAHs such as CYP1A mRNA levels should also be utilized in environmental monitoring studies. The results of Northern analysis of CYP1A mRNA levels in fish will be presented.

  20. Parasite infection and immune and health-state in wild fish exposed to marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Sueiro, María Cruz; Bagnato, Estefanía; Palacios, María Gabriela

    2017-06-15

    Association between parasitism and immunity and health-state was investigated in wild Sebastes oculatus after having determined that pollution exposure is associated with altered immune and health-state parameters. Given the importance of the immune system in antiparasite defense we predicted: (i) parasite infection would be higher in pollution-exposed than in control fish and (ii) fish with lower immune and health-state parameters would show higher parasitism than fish in better condition. Metazoan parasite fauna was compared between pollution-exposed and non-exposed fish and parasitic indices were correlated with integrated measures of immunity and health-state. Results provided little support for the predictions; some parasite taxa increased, some decreased, and some were not affected in pollution-exposed fish despite their altered health and immunity. Furthermore, there was no link between individual immune and health-state parameters and parasitism. These findings highlight the complexity of host-parasite-environment interactions in relation to pollution in natural marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mercury bioaccumulation increases with latitude in a coastal marine fish (Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia).

    PubMed

    Baumann, Zofia; Mason, Robert P; Conover, David O; Balcom, Prentiss; Chen, Celia Y; Buckman, Kate L; Fisher, Nicholas S; Baumann, Hannes

    2017-07-01

    Human exposure to the neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) occurs primarily via the consumption of marine fish, but the processes underlying large-scale spatial variations in fish MeHg concentrations [MeHg], which influence human exposure, are not sufficiently understood. We used the Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia), an extensively studied model species and important forage fish, to examine latitudinal patterns in total Hg [Hg] and [MeHg]. Both [Hg] and [MeHg] significantly increased with latitude (0.014 and 0.048 μg MeHg g(-1) dw per degree of latitude in juveniles and adults, respectively). Four known latitudinal trends in silverside traits help explain these patterns: latitudinal increase in MeHg assimilation efficiency, latitudinal decrease in MeHg efflux, latitudinal increase in weight loss due to longer and more severe winters, and latitudinal increase in food consumption as an adaptation to decreasing length of the growing season. Given the absence of a latitudinal pattern in particulate MeHg, a diet proxy for zooplanktivorous fish, we conclude that large-scale spatial variation in growth is the primary control of Hg bioaccumulation in this and potentially other fish species.

  2. Mercury bioaccumulation increases with latitude in a coastal marine fish (Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia)

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Zofia; Mason, Robert P.; Conover, David O.; Balcom, Prentiss; Chen, Celia Y.; Buckman, Kate L.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Baumann, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to the neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) occurs primarily via the consumption of marine fish, but the processes underlying large-scale spatial variations in fish MeHg concentrations [MeHg], which influence human exposure, are not sufficiently understood. We used the Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia), an extensively studied model species and important forage fish, to examine latitudinal patterns in total Hg [Hg] and [MeHg]. Both [Hg] and [MeHg] significantly increased with latitude (0.014 and 0.048 μg MeHg g−1 dw per degree of latitude in juveniles and adults, respectively). Four known latitudinal trends in silverside traits help explain these patterns: latitudinal increase in MeHg assimilation efficiency, latitudinal decrease in MeHg efflux, latitudinal increase in weight loss due to longer and more severe winters, and latitudinal increase in food consumption as an adaptation to decreasing length of the growing season. Given the absence of a latitudinal pattern in particulate MeHg, a diet proxy for zooplanktivorous fish, we conclude that large-scale spatial variation in growth is the primary control of Hg bioaccumulation in this and potentially other fish species. PMID:28701819

  3. Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design.

    PubMed

    Green, Alison L; Maypa, Aileen P; Almany, Glenn R; Rhodes, Kevin L; Weeks, Rebecca; Abesamis, Rene A; Gleason, Mary G; Mumby, Peter J; White, Alan T

    2015-11-01

    Well-designed and effectively managed networks of marine reserves can be effective tools for both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation. Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals as larvae, juveniles or adults, is a key ecological factor to consider in marine reserve design, since it has important implications for the persistence of metapopulations and their recovery from disturbance. For marine reserves to protect biodiversity and enhance populations of species in fished areas, they must be able to sustain focal species (particularly fishery species) within their boundaries, and be spaced such that they can function as mutually replenishing networks whilst providing recruitment subsidies to fished areas. Thus the configuration (size, spacing and location) of individual reserves within a network should be informed by larval dispersal and movement patterns of the species for which protection is required. In the past, empirical data regarding larval dispersal and movement patterns of adults and juveniles of many tropical marine species have been unavailable or inaccessible to practitioners responsible for marine reserve design. Recent empirical studies using new technologies have also provided fresh insights into movement patterns of many species and redefined our understanding of connectivity among populations through larval dispersal. Our review of movement patterns of 34 families (210 species) of coral reef fishes demonstrates that movement patterns (home ranges, ontogenetic shifts and spawning migrations) vary among and within species, and are influenced by a range of factors (e.g. size, sex, behaviour, density, habitat characteristics, season, tide and time of day). Some species move <0.1-0.5 km (e.g. damselfishes, butterflyfishes and angelfishes), <0.5-3 km (e.g. most parrotfishes, goatfishes and surgeonfishes) or 3-10 km (e.g. large parrotfishes and wrasses), while others move tens to hundreds

  4. Regulation of red fluorescent light emission in a cryptic marine fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Animal colouration is a trade-off between being seen by intended, intra- or inter-specific receivers while not being seen by the unintended. Many fishes solve this problem by adaptive colouration. Here, we investigate whether this also holds for fluorescent pigments. In those aquatic environments in which the ambient light is dominated by bluish light, red fluorescence can generate high-contrast signals. The marine, cryptic fish Tripterygion delaisi inhabits such environments and has a bright red-fluorescent iris that can be rapidly up- and down-regulated. Here, we described the physiological and cellular mechanism of this phenomenon using a neurostimulation treatment with KCl and histology. Results KCl-treatment revealed that eye fluorescence regulation is achieved through dispersal and aggregation of black-pigmented melanosomes within melanophores. Histology showed that globular, fluorescent iridophores on the anterior side of the iris are grouped and each group is encased by finger-like extensions of a single posterior melanophore. Together they form a so-called chromatophore unit. By dispersal and aggregation of melanosomes into and out of the peripheral membranous extensions of the melanophore, the fluorescent iridophores are covered or revealed on the anterior (outside) of the iris. Conclusion T. delaisi possesses a well-developed mechanism to control the fluorescent emission from its eyes, which may be advantageous given its cryptic lifestyle. This is the first time chromatophore units are found to control fluorescent emission in marine teleost fishes. We expect other fluorescent fish species to use similar mechanisms in the iris or elsewhere in the body. In contrast to a previously described mechanism based on dendritic fluorescent chromatophores, chromatophore units control fluorescent emission through the cooperation between two chromatophore types: an emitting and an occluding type. The discovery of a second mechanism for fluorescence

  5. Density-dependent changes in effective area occupied for sea-bottom-associated marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Thorson, James T; Rindorf, Anna; Gao, Jin; Hanselman, Dana H; Winker, Henning

    2016-10-12

    The spatial distribution of marine fishes can change for many reasons, including density-dependent distributional shifts. Previous studies show mixed support for either the proportional-density model (PDM; no relationship between abundance and area occupied, supported by ideal-free distribution theory) or the basin model (BM; positive abundance-area relationship, supported by density-dependent habitat selection theory). The BM implies that fishes move towards preferred habitat as the population declines. We estimate the average relationship using bottom trawl data for 92 fish species from six marine regions, to determine whether the BM or PDM provides a better description for sea-bottom-associated fishes. We fit a spatio-temporal model and estimate changes in effective area occupied and abundance, and combine results to estimate the average abundance-area relationship as well as variability among taxa and regions. The average relationship is weak but significant (0.6% increase in area for a 10% increase in abundance), whereas only a small proportion of species-region combinations show a negative relationship (i.e. shrinking area when abundance increases). Approximately one-third of combinations (34.6%) are predicted to increase in area more than 1% for every 10% increase in abundance. We therefore infer that population density generally changes faster than effective area occupied during abundance changes. Gadiformes have the strongest estimated relationship (average 1.0% area increase for every 10% abundance increase) followed by Pleuronectiformes and Scorpaeniformes, and the Eastern Bering Sea shows a strong relationship between abundance and area occupied relative to other regions. We conclude that the BM explains a small but important portion of spatial dynamics for sea-bottom-associated fishes, and that many individual populations merit cautious management during population declines, because a compressed range may increase the efficiency of harvest.

  6. Toxicity of ammonia to three marine fish and three marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Gregory D; Starbuck, Steven M; Hudgins, Douglas B; Li, Xiayoun; Kuhn, David D

    2004-04-01

    Laboratory toxicity tests were performed to obtain more data on the toxicity of ammonia to saltwater organisms. The standards for in-stream ammonia limits in marine environments presently are based on toxicity tests involving both freshwater and saltwater organisms. Acute tests (48 and 96 h) were performed at 20 degrees C, and chronic tests (7 days) were performed at 25 degrees C. Synthetic seawater and natural seawater from the Chesapeake Bay were used and compared. Included among the organisms tested were sheepshead minnow (14 days old), summer flounder (2 months old), Atlantic silverside (14 days old), mysid shrimp (less than 2 days old), ghost shrimp (10 days old), and quahog clam (9 months old). Based on these results, it seems the chronic criterion for ammonia in marine environments could be increased from 0.035 to 0.081 mg/L un-ionized ammonia, which would, of course, increase the chronic limit for total ammonia under typical saltwater conditions by a factor of 2.31. No difference was observed in the toxicity of ammonia in natural water compared to synthetic water for both the summer flounder and Atlantic silverside. Furthermore, the Atlantic silverside became more sensitive to ammonia as the salinity was increased from 14 to 22 ppt, but exhibited no change in toxicity response from 22 to 30 ppt.

  7. Seabird, fish, marine mammal, and oceanography coordinated investigations (SMMOCI) in Sitka Sound, Alaska, July 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, John F.; Dragoo, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys for seabirds and marine mammals were conducted in and near Sitka Sound, Alaska (Fig. 1) from the M/V Tiĝlax̂ during 12-16 July 2000 (Table 1, Fig. 1). The objective was to characterize the marine environment in the vicinity of St. Lazaria Island, one of ten seabird colonies monitored annually by the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge (See Dragoo et al. 2003). In addition to censusing seabirds and mammals encountered on line transects, local oceanography was characterized by measuring water temperature and salinity continuously at the sea surface, and by taking profiles of the water column on a series of CTD transects. The relative abundance of zooplankton and fish biomass was measured using a dual -frequency echosounder. Significant acoustic targets were sampled with a m id-water trawl net. Long-lines were se t twice to catch and characterize diets of large demersal fish species.Rosenthal et al. (1981 and 1982) studied the bottomfish component of the nearshore habitats in southeastern Alaska including the Sitka Sound area during the summers of 1980 and 1981, allowing comparisons of our findings to those from the earlier works. There are no previous surveys for seabirds or marine mammals in this area with which we can compare our surveys.

  8. A critical review of the potential impacts of marine seismic surveys on fish & invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Carroll, A G; Przeslawski, R; Duncan, A; Gunning, M; Bruce, B

    2017-01-15

    Marine seismic surveys produce high intensity, low-frequency impulsive sounds at regular intervals, with most sound produced between 10 and 300Hz. Offshore seismic surveys have long been considered to be disruptive to fisheries, but there are few ecological studies that target commercially important species, particularly invertebrates. This review aims to summarise scientific studies investigating the impacts of low-frequency sound on marine fish and invertebrates, as well as to critically evaluate how such studies may apply to field populations exposed to seismic operations. We focus on marine seismic surveys due to their associated unique sound properties (i.e. acute, low-frequency, mobile source locations), as well as fish and invertebrates due to the commercial value of many species in these groups. The main challenges of seismic impact research are the translation of laboratory results to field populations over a range of sound exposure scenarios and the lack of sound exposure standardisation which hinders the identification of response thresholds. An integrated multidisciplinary approach to manipulative and in situ studies is the most effective way to establish impact thresholds in the context of realistic exposure levels, but if that is not practical the limitations of each approach must be carefully considered. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Derelict fishing gear in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia: spatial patterns and implications for marine fauna.

    PubMed

    Bilkovic, Donna Marie; Havens, Kirk; Stanhope, David; Angstadt, Kory

    2014-03-15

    Derelict fishing gear is a source of mortality for target and non-target marine species. A program employing commercial watermen to remove marine debris provided a novel opportunity to collect extensive spatially-explicit information for four consecutive winters (2008-2012) on the type, distribution, and abundance of derelict fishing gear and bycatch in Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay. The most abundant form of derelict gear recovered was blue crab pots with almost 32,000 recovered. Derelict pots were widely distributed, but with notable hotspot areas, capturing 40 species and over 31,000 marine organisms. The target species, blue crab, experienced the highest mortality from lost pots with an estimated 900,000 animals killed each year, a potential annual economic loss to the fishery of $300,000. Important fishery species were captured and killed in derelict pots including Atlantic croaker and black sea bass. While some causes of gear loss are unavoidable, others can be managed to minimize loss.

  10. Commented checklist of marine fishes from the Galicia Bank seamount (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Bañon, Rafael; Arronte, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez-Cabello, Cristina; Piñeiro, Carmen-Gloria; Punzon, Antonio; Serrano, Alberto

    2016-01-21

    A commented checklist containing 139 species of marine fishes recorded at the Galician Bank seamount is presented. The list is based on nine prospecting and research surveys carried out from 1980 to 2011 with different fishing gears. The ichthyofauna list is diversified in 2 superclasses, 3 classes, 20 orders, 62 families and 113 genera. The largest family is Macrouridae, with 9 species, followed by Moridae, Stomiidae and Sternoptychidae with 7 species each. The trachichthyd Hoplostethus mediterraneus and the morid Lepidion lepidion were the most abundant species. Biogeographically, the Atlantic group, with 113 species (81.3%) is the best represented, followed by the Lusitanian one with 17 species (12.2%). Data on species abundance, as number of individuals caught, size and depth are reported. Habitat, distribution and vulnerability status are commented. Moreover, biometric data and meristic counts are also reported for several species. The results obtained showing a high fish biodiversity and a sensible number of threatened species, strongly support the future declaration of the Galicia Bank as a Marine Protected Area.

  11. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine fish obtained from tsunami-stricken areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Uekusa, Yoshinori; Takatsuki, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Watanabe, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in 101 marine fish obtained from tsunami-stricken areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. In particular, to determine the degree of PCB contamination in the fish, we investigated the concentration of total PCB (∑PCB) and the proportions of 209 individual PCB congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ∑PCB concentration was 1.7-33 ng/g in fat greenling (n = 29), 0.44-25 ng/g in flounder (n = 36), and 1.6-86 ng/g in mackerel (n = 36), all values being much lower than the provisional regulatory limit in Japan. In the congener analysis, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorinated PCB congeners dominated in all samples (comprising over 86% of the ∑PCB). The proportions of the chlorinated PCB congeners were similar to the contamination patterns derived from Kanechlor in the environment, implying that the marine fish were not contaminated with fresh PCBs.

  12. Population Structure and Phylogeography in Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a Mass-Aggregating Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alexis M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S.; Heppell, Scott A.; Bush, Phillippe G.; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A. B.; Calosso, Marta C.; Sealey, Kathleen S.; Schärer, Michelle T.; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST = 0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST = 0.002, p = 0.004) and SNPs (FST = 0.002, p = 0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions. PMID:24830641

  13. Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pham, Christopher K; Diogo, Hugo; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Braga-Henriques, Andreia; Vandeperre, Frederic; Morato, Telmo

    2014-04-29

    Bottom trawl fishing threatens deep-sea ecosystems, modifying the seafloor morphology and its physical properties, with dramatic consequences on benthic communities. Therefore, the future of deep-sea fishing relies on alternative techniques that maintain the health of deep-sea ecosystems and tolerate appropriate human uses of the marine environment. In this study, we demonstrate that deep-sea bottom longline fishing has little impact on vulnerable marine ecosystems, reducing bycatch of cold-water corals and limiting additional damage to benthic communities. We found that slow-growing vulnerable species are still common in areas subject to more than 20 years of longlining activity and estimate that one deep-sea bottom trawl will have a similar impact to 296-1,719 longlines, depending on the morphological complexity of the impacted species. Given the pronounced differences in the magnitude of disturbances coupled with its selectivity and low fuel consumption, we suggest that regulated deep-sea longlining can be an alternative to deep-sea bottom trawling.

  14. Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Christopher K.; Diogo, Hugo; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Braga-Henriques, Andreia; Vandeperre, Frederic; Morato, Telmo

    2014-01-01

    Bottom trawl fishing threatens deep-sea ecosystems, modifying the seafloor morphology and its physical properties, with dramatic consequences on benthic communities. Therefore, the future of deep-sea fishing relies on alternative techniques that maintain the health of deep-sea ecosystems and tolerate appropriate human uses of the marine environment. In this study, we demonstrate that deep-sea bottom longline fishing has little impact on vulnerable marine ecosystems, reducing bycatch of cold-water corals and limiting additional damage to benthic communities. We found that slow-growing vulnerable species are still common in areas subject to more than 20 years of longlining activity and estimate that one deep-sea bottom trawl will have a similar impact to 296–1,719 longlines, depending on the morphological complexity of the impacted species. Given the pronounced differences in the magnitude of disturbances coupled with its selectivity and low fuel consumption, we suggest that regulated deep-sea longlining can be an alternative to deep-sea bottom trawling. PMID:24776718

  15. Growth evaluation of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) raised in seawater or freshwater and fed either fishmeal based or marine-free diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A forty week feeding study was conducted with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in two recirculating aquaculture systems. Two identical systems were used and contained either freshwater (0 ppt) or seawater (about 30 ppt). Fish were fed one of two diets, a control diet containing fishmeal and fi...

  16. Assessment of total mercury level in fish collected from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Subarna; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Dutta, Siddartha; Santra, Subhas Chandra

    2010-05-01

    Total mercury levels were quantified in Tilapia mossambicus, Cirrhinus mrigela and Labio rohita, captured from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture ponds. The bioconcentration factor of collected fish was assessed. Total mercury level ranged from 0.073 to 0.94 microg/g in both pre and post monsoon season. T. mossambicus in both season and C. mrigela at pre monsoon, cross the Indian recommended maximum limit (0.50 microg/g wet weight) for food consumption and according to World Health Organization guidelines all fish were not recommended for pregnant women and individuals under 15 years ages. A significant correlation was observed between mercury content of aquaculture pond water and fish muscle tissue. Total mercury concentration in experimental sites were higher than the control area (Wilcoxon Ranked-Sum test p > 0.05), which suggested the connection between mercury bioaccumulation and sewage fed aquaculture.

  17. Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

    2015-04-01

    This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is that the global atmospheric planetary waves can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the most recent 59-year period (1950-2008) have been identified based on Student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. The global forcing mechanism is described with a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate that examining the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries is a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from longwave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter

  18. Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

    2014-08-01

    This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is the global atmospheric planetary waves that can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the recent 59 years (1950-2008) have been identified based on student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. Due to the multidisciplinary audience, the global forcing mechanism is described from a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries are a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from long wave (relatively smooth and less complex) to

  19. Sequence analyses and chromosomal distribution of the Tc1/Mariner element in Parodontidae fish (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Schemberger, Michelle Orane; Nogaroto, Viviane; Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Valente, Guilherme Targino; Martins, Cesar; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo

    2016-11-30

    Transposable elements are able to move along eukaryotic genomes. They are divided into two classes according to their transposition intermediate: RNA (class I or retrotransposons) or DNA (class II or DNA transposons). Most of these sequences are inactive or non-autonomous in eukaryotic genomes. Inactivate transposons can accumulate mutations at neutral rates until losing their molecular identity. They may either be eliminated from the genome or take on different molecular functions. Transposable elements may also participate in the differentiation of sex chromosomes. Therefore, the structural variations and nucleotide similarity of Tc1/Mariner sequences were analyzed along with their potential participation in the differentiation processes of sex chromosomes in the genomes of Parodontidae fish. All Parodontidae species presented non-autonomous copies of Tc1/Mariner with structural variation, different levels of deterioration (genetic distance), and variations in insertion and deletion patterns. The physical mapping of Tc1/Mariner on chromosomes revealed dispersed signals in euchromatins, with small accumulations in terminal regions and in the sex chromosomes. The gene dosage ratios indicated copy number variations of Tc1/Mariner among the genomes and high transposase open reading frame deterioration in Parodon hilarii and Parodon pongoensis genomes. This transposon presented transcriptional activity in gonads, but there was no significant difference between sexes. This may indicate non-functional protein expression or may correspond to DNA binding proteins derived from Tc1/Mariner. Thus, our results show Tc1/Mariner inactivation along with a diversity in Parodontidae genomes and its participation in the differentiation of the W sex chromosome.

  20. Dietary fish oil reverse epididymal tissue adiposity, cell hypertrophy and insulin resistance in dyslipemic sucrose fed rat model small star, filled.

    PubMed

    Soria, Ana; Chicco, Adriana; Eugenia D'Alessandro, María; Rossi, Andrea; Lombardo, Yolanda B.

    2002-04-01

    The present work was designed to assess the possible benefits of (7% w/w) dietary fish oil in reversing the morphological and metabolic changes present in the adipose tissue of rats fed an SRD for a long time. With this purpose, in the epididymal fat tissue, we investigated the effect of dietary fish oil upon: i) the number, size and distribution of cells, ii) the basal and stimulated lipolysis, iii) the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, and iv) the antilipolytic action of insulin. The study was conducted on rats fed an SRD during 120 days with fish oil being isocaloric substituted for corn oil for 90-120 days in half the animals. Permanent hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance and abnormal glucose homeostasis were present in the rats before the source of fat in the diet was replaced. The major new findings of this study are the following: i) Dietary fish oil markedly reduced the fat pads mass, the hypertrophy of fat cells and improved the altered cell size distribution. ii) The presence of fish oil in the diet corrected the inhibitory effect of high sucrose diet upon the antilipolytic action of insulin, reduced the "in vitro" enhanced basal lipolysis and normalized isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis. Fat pads lipoprotein lipase activity decreased reaching values similar to those observed in age-matched controls fed a control diet (CD). These effects were not accompanied by any change in rat body weight. All these data suggest that the dyslipemic rats fed a moderate amount of dietary fish oil constitute a useful animal model to study diet-regulated insulin action.

  1. A Ranking System for Reference Libraries of DNA Barcodes: Application to Marine Fish Species from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Filipe O.; Landi, Monica; Martins, Rogelia; Costa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria E.; Carneiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria J.; Steinke, Dirk; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing availability of reference libraries of DNA barcodes (RLDB) offers the opportunity to the screen the level of consistency in DNA barcode data among libraries, in order to detect possible disagreements generated from taxonomic uncertainty or operational shortcomings. We propose a ranking system to attribute a confidence level to species identifications associated with DNA barcode records from a RLDB. Here we apply the proposed ranking system to a newly generated RLDB for marine fish of Portugal. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens (n = 659) representing 102 marine fish species were collected along the continental shelf of Portugal, morphologically identified and archived in a museum collection. Samples were sequenced at the barcode region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI-5P). Resultant DNA barcodes had average intra-specific and inter-specific Kimura-2-parameter distances (0.32% and 8.84%, respectively) within the range usually observed for marine fishes. All specimens were ranked in five different levels (A–E), according to the reliability of the match between their species identification and the respective diagnostic DNA barcodes. Grades A to E were attributed upon submission of individual specimen sequences to BOLD-IDS and inspection of the clustering pattern in the NJ tree generated. Overall, our study resulted in 73.5% of unambiguous species IDs (grade A), 7.8% taxonomically congruent barcode clusters within our dataset, but awaiting external confirmation (grade B), and 18.7% of species identifications with lower levels of reliability (grades C/E). Conclusion/Significance We highlight the importance of implementing a system to rank barcode records in RLDB, in order to flag taxa in need of taxonomic revision, or reduce ambiguities of discordant data. With increasing DNA barcode records publicly available, this cross-validation system would provide a metric of relative accuracy of barcodes, while enabling the

  2. Odours from marine plastic debris induce food search behaviours in a forage fish.

    PubMed

    Savoca, Matthew S; Tyson, Chris W; McGill, Michael; Slager, Christina J

    2017-08-16

    Plastic pollution is an anthropogenic stressor in marine ecosystems globally. Many species of marine fish (more than 50) ingest plastic debris. Ingested plastic has a variety of lethal and sublethal impacts and can be a route for bioaccumulation of toxic compounds throughout the food web. Despite its pervasiveness and severity, our mechanistic understanding of this maladaptive foraging behaviour is incomplete. Recent evidence suggests that the chemical signature of plastic debris may explain why certain species are predisposed to mistaking plastic for food. Anchovy (Engraulis sp.) are abundant forage fish in coastal upwelling systems and a critical prey resource for top predators. Anchovy ingest plastic in natural conditions, though the mechanism they use to misidentify plastic as prey is unknown. Here, we presented wild-caught schools of northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) with odour solutions made of plastic debris and clean plastic to compare school-wide aggregation and rheotactic responses relative to food and food odour presentations. Anchovy schools responded to plastic debris odour with increased aggregation and reduced rheotaxis. These results were similar to the effects food and food odour presentations had on schools. Conversely, these behavioural responses were absent in clean plastic and control treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that adult anchovy use odours to forage. We conclude that the chemical signature plastic debris acquires in the photic zone can induce foraging behaviours in anchovy schools. These findings provide further support for a chemosensory mechanism underlying plastic consumption by marine wildlife. Given the trophic position of forage fish, these findings have considerable implications for aquatic food webs and possibly human health. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity to fish and invertebrates in marine and estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Leonard, Erin M

    2017-04-01

    In freshwater settings the toxicity of the trace metal nickel (Ni) is relatively well understood. However, until recently, there was little knowledge regarding Ni toxicity in waters of higher salinity, where factors such as water chemistry and the physiology of estuarine and marine biota would be expected to alter toxicological impact. This review summarizes recent literature investigating Ni toxicity in marine and estuarine invertebrates and fish. As in freshwater, three main mechanisms of Ni toxicity exist: ionoregulatory impairment, inhibition of respiration, and promotion of oxidative stress. However, unlike in freshwater biota, where mechanisms of toxicity are largely Class-specific, the delineation of toxic mechanisms between different species is less defined. In general, despite changes in Ni speciation in marine waters, organism physiology appears to be the main driver of toxic impact, a fact that will need to be accounted for when adapting regulatory tools (such as bioavailability normalization) from freshwater to estuarine and marine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Applying population genetics for authentication of marine fish: the case of saithe (Pollachius virens).

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Konstanze; Rehbein, Hartmut; von Appen, Annika; Fischer, Markus

    2015-01-28

    The number of fishery products with a quite detailed description of the origin is increasing. This trend is driven by the interest of consumers and the fight against illegal unregulated and unreported fisheries. Unfortunately, there is a lack of methods to prove this information experimentally besides the document-based traceability assessments. For marine fish population genetics is a promising strategy, but research is concentrated only on a few species. Saithe is a commercially important fish species, despite the fact that genetic knowledge is scarce regarding the specification of populations. For a comparative study cost- and time-effective strategies were tested: We found RAPD-PCR to be a useful method for low-budget research or prestudies. Adoption of microsatellites from closely related species turned out to be possible with limited success quota. Our results suggest a clustered structure of populations within the Northeast Atlantic, probably overlapping in the northern North Sea.

  5. Foraging preferences influence microplastic ingestion by six marine fish species from the Texas Gulf Coast.

    PubMed

    Peters, Colleen A; Thomas, Peyton A; Rieper, Kaitlyn B; Bratton, Susan P

    2017-07-11

    This study evaluated the influence of foraging preferences on microplastic ingestion by six marine fish species from the Texas Gulf Coast. A total of 1381 fish were analyzed and 42.4% contained ingested microplastic, inclusive of fiber (86.4%), microbead (12.9% %), and fragment (<1.0%) forms. Despite a substantial overlap in diet, ordination of ingested prey items clustered samples into distinctive species groupings, reflective of the foraging gradient among species. Orthopristis chrysoptera displayed the lowest overall frequency of microplastic ingestion and the most distinctive ordination grouping, indicating their selective invertebrate foraging preferences. Cluster analysis of O. chrysoptera most closely classified microplastic with the ingestion of benthic invertebrates, whereas the ingestion of microplastic by all other species most closely classified with the ingestion of vegetation and shrimp. O. chrysoptera, as selective invertebrate foragers, are less likely to ingest microplastics than species exhibiting generalist foraging preferences and methods of prey capture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Classification accuracy of algorithms for blood chemistry data for three aquaculture-affected marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Coz-Rakovac, R; Topic Popovic, N; Smuc, T; Strunjak-Perovic, I; Jadan, M

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was determination and discrimination of biochemical data among three aquaculture-affected marine fish species (sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax; sea bream, Sparus aurata L., and mullet, Mugil spp.) based on machine-learning methods. The approach relying on machine-learning methods gives more usable classification solutions and provides better insight into the collected data. So far, these new methods have been applied to the problem of discrimination of blood chemistry data with respect to season and feed of a single species. This is the first time these classification algorithms have been used as a framework for rapid differentiation among three fish species. Among the machine-learning methods used, decision trees provided the clearest model, which correctly classified 210 samples or 85.71%, and incorrectly classified 35 samples or 14.29% and clearly identified three investigated species from their biochemical traits.

  7. Adaptive capacity of fishing communities at marine protected areas: a case study from the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rocío del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio

    2013-12-01

    Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction.

  8. Premature aging in bone of fish from a highly polluted marine area.

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Giovanna; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Tramati, Cecilia D; Mazzola, Antonio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-08-15

    Fish species have attracted considerable interest in studies assessing biological responses to environmental contaminants. In this study, the attention has been focussed on fishbone of selected fish species from a highly polluted marine area, Augusta Bay (Italy, Central Mediterranean) to evaluate if toxicant elements had an effect on the mineralogical structure of bones, although macroscopic deformations were not evident. In particular, an attempt was made to evaluate if bone mineral features, such as crystallinity, mineral maturity and carbonate/phosphate mineral content, determined by XR-Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy, suffered negative effects due to trace element levels in fishbone, detected by ICP-OES. Results confirmed the reliability of the use of diffractometric and spectroscopic techniques to assess the degree of crystallinity and the mineral maturity in fishbone. In addition, in highly polluted areas, Hg and Cr contamination induced a process of premature aging of fishbone, altering its biochemical and mineral contents.

  9. Distribution of Po-210 in two species of predatory marine fish from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Mársico, E T; Ferreira, M S; São Clemente, S C; Gouvea, R C S; Jesus, E F O; Conti, C C; Conte, C A; Kelecom, A G A C

    2014-02-01

    Polonium-210 ((210)Po) concentration was quantified in the muscle tissue and organs of two predatory marine fishes (Genypterus brasiliensis and Cynoscion microlepidotus) from Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species C. microlepidotus, a benthic carnivore, registered higher (210)Po in its tissue. The organs associated with digestion displayed the maximum radionuclide compared with other organs. The average activity was 2 mBq kg(-1) for G. brasiliensis and it was 6 mBq kg(-1) for C. microlepidotus. The activity concentrations varied significantly between the species and among organs.

  10. Bioactive substances from marine fishes, shrimps, and algae and their functions: present and future.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Gu, Huifen

    2015-01-01

    Marine fishes, shrimps, and algae have many important bioactive substances, such as peptides, unsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, trace elements, and natural pigments. The introduction of these substances contributes to a significant improvement in developing them in final processed products. In fact, the knowledge of these bioactive substances has experienced a rapid increase in the past 20 years and prompted the relevant technological revolution with a decisive contribution to the final application. The purpose of this review was to introduce critically and comprehensively the present knowledge of these bioactive substances and pointed out their future developmental situation.

  11. Quantifying fish assemblages in large, offshore marine protected areas: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring

  12. Extraordinary aggressive behavior from the giant coral reef fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a remote marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Roldan C; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Laughlin, Joseph L; Teer, Bradford Z

    2012-01-01

    Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world's largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes.

  13. Extraordinary Aggressive Behavior from the Giant Coral Reef Fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a Remote Marine Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Roldan C.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Laughlin, Joseph L.; Teer, Bradford Z.

    2012-01-01

    Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world’s largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes. PMID:22701606

  14. Quantifying Fish Assemblages in Large, Offshore Marine Protected Areas: An Australian Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring

  15. Small Marine Protected Areas in Fiji Provide Refuge for Reef Fish Assemblages, Feeding Groups, and Corals

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Mathias M.; Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; Hoey, Andrew S.; Hay, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs is a common management strategy for conserving the diversity, abundance, and biomass of reef organisms. Generally, well-managed and enforced MPAs can increase or maintain the diversity and function of the enclosed coral reef, with some of the benefits extending to adjacent non-protected reefs. A fundamental question in coral reef conservation is whether these benefits arise within small MPAs (<1 km2), because larval input of reef organisms is largely decoupled from local adult reproduction. We examined the structure of fish assemblages, composition of fish feeding groups, benthic cover, and key ecosystem processes (grazing, macroalgal browsing, and coral replenishment) in three small (0.5–0.8 km2) no-take MPAs and adjacent areas where fisheries are allowed (non-MPAs) on coral reefs in Fiji. The MPAs exhibited greater species richness, density, and biomass of fishes than non-MPAs. Furthermore, MPAs contained a greater abundance and biomass of grazing herbivores and piscivores as well as a greater abundance of cleaners than fished areas. We also found differences in fish associations when foraging, with feeding groups being generally more diverse and having greater biomass within MPAs than adjacent non-MPAs. Grazing by parrotfishes was 3–6 times greater, and macroalgal browsing was 3–5 times greater in MPAs than in non-MPAs. On average, MPAs had 260–280% as much coral cover and only 5–25% as much macroalgal cover as their paired non-MPA sites. Finally, two of the three MPAs had three-fold more coral recruits than adjacent non-MPAs. The results of this study indicate that small MPAs benefit not only populations of reef fishes, but also enhance ecosystem processes that are critical to reef resilience within the MPAs. PMID:28122006

  16. Small Marine Protected Areas in Fiji Provide Refuge for Reef Fish Assemblages, Feeding Groups, and Corals.

    PubMed

    Bonaldo, Roberta M; Pires, Mathias M; Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; Hoey, Andrew S; Hay, Mark E

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs is a common management strategy for conserving the diversity, abundance, and biomass of reef organisms. Generally, well-managed and enforced MPAs can increase or maintain the diversity and function of the enclosed coral reef, with some of the benefits extending to adjacent non-protected reefs. A fundamental question in coral reef conservation is whether these benefits arise within small MPAs (<1 km2), because larval input of reef organisms is largely decoupled from local adult reproduction. We examined the structure of fish assemblages, composition of fish feeding groups, benthic cover, and key ecosystem processes (grazing, macroalgal browsing, and coral replenishment) in three small (0.5-0.8 km2) no-take MPAs and adjacent areas where fisheries are allowed (non-MPAs) on coral reefs in Fiji. The MPAs exhibited greater species richness, density, and biomass of fishes than non-MPAs. Furthermore, MPAs contained a greater abundance and biomass of grazing herbivores and piscivores as well as a greater abundance of cleaners than fished areas. We also found differences in fish associations when foraging, with feeding groups being generally more diverse and having greater biomass within MPAs than adjacent non-MPAs. Grazing by parrotfishes was 3-6 times greater, and macroalgal browsing was 3-5 times greater in MPAs than in non-MPAs. On average, MPAs had 260-280% as much coral cover and only 5-25% as much macroalgal cover as their paired non-MPA sites. Finally, two of the three MPAs had three-fold more coral recruits than adjacent non-MPAs. The results of this study indicate that small MPAs benefit not only populations of reef fishes, but also enhance ecosystem processes that are critical to reef resilience within the MPAs.

  17. Comparative analysis of the humoral immunity of skin mucus from several marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuesta, Alberto; Abellán, Emilia; Meseguer, José; Esteban, María A

    2014-09-01

    Fish skin mucus contains several immune substances that provide the first line of defence against a broad spectrum of pathogens although they are poorly studied to date. Terminal carbohydrate composition and levels of total IgM antibodies, several immune-related enzymes (lysozyme, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, esterases, proteases and antiproteases) as well as the bactericidal activity (against fish pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio angillarum, Photobacterium damselae and non-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Shewanella putrefaciens) were identified and measured in the skin mucus of five marine teleosts: gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa), common dentex (Dentex dentex) and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus). First, lectin binding results suggests that skin mucus contain, in order of abundance, N-acetylneuraminic acid, glucose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, galactose and fucose residues. Second, results showed that while some immune activities were very similar in the studied fish (e.g. IgM and lysozyme activity) other such as protease, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase, esterase and peroxidase activities varied depending on the fish species. High levels of peroxidase and protease activity were found in U. cirrosa respect to the values obtained in the other species while E. marginatus and S. aurata showed the highest levels of alkaline phosphatase and esterase activities, respectively. Moreover, skin mucus of S. aurata revealed higher bactericidal activity against pathogenic bacteria, contrarily, to what happened with non-pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, B. subtilis). Thus, study of the variations in the carbohydrate profile and immune-related components of the fish skin mucus could help to understand the fish resistance as well as the presence and distribution of pathogens and magnitude of infections, aspects that are of major importance for the

  18. Use of fish parasite species richness indices in analyzing anthropogenically impacted coastal marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzikowski, R.; Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.

    2003-10-01

    The diversity of fish parasite life history strategies makes these species sensitive bioindicators of aquatic ecosystem health. While monoxenous (single-host) species may persist in highly perturbed, extreme environments, this is not necessarily true for heteroxenous (multiple-host) species. As many parasites possess complex life cycles and are transmitted through a chain of host species, their dependency on the latter to complete their life cycles renders them sensitive to perturbed environments. In the present study, parasite communities of grey mullet Liza aurata and Liza ramada (Mugilidae) were investigated at two Mediterranean coastal sites in northern Israel: the highly polluted Kishon Harbor (KH) and the relatively unspoiled reference site, Ma'agan Michael (MM). Both are estuarine sites in which grey mullet are one of the most common fish species. The results indicate that fish at the polluted site had significantly less trematode metacercariae than fish at the reference site. Heteroxenous gut helminths were completely absent at the polluted sampling site. Consequently, KH fish displayed lower mean parasite species richness. At the same time, KH fish mean monoxenous parasite richness was higher, although the prevalence of different monoxenous taxa was variable. Copepods had an increased prevalence while monogenean prevalence was significantly reduced at the polluted site. This variability may be attributed to the differential susceptibility of the parasites to the toxicity of different pollutants, their concentration, the exposure time and possible synergistic effects. In this study, we used the cumulative species curve model that extrapolates "true" species richness of a given habitat as a function of increasing sample size. We considered the heteroxenous and monoxenous species separately for each site, and comparison of curves yielded significant results. It is proposed to employ this approach, originally developed for estimating the "true" parasite

  19. Toxic metals in commercial marine fish in Oman with reference to national and international standards.

    PubMed

    Al-Busaidi, M; Yesudhason, P; Al-Mughairi, S; Al-Rahbi, W A K; Al-Harthy, K S; Al-Mazrooei, N A; Al-Habsi, S H

    2011-09-01

    Commercially important fresh (581) and frozen (292) marine fish samples of 10 species were collected from seafood factories and evaluated using AAS and ICP-OES. Metal levels significantly (p<0.05) varied within and between species. However, there were no significant correlations among metals. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and yellowfin tuna had the highest level of cadmium and mercury however, red seabream had maximum numbers above the standards. The metal accumulation significantly varied between bottom feeders of intermediately size locally caught fish. The mean cadmium level ranged from 0.0049 to 0.036 mg kg(-1) and 1.37% of the total samples exceeded the EU and FAO standards. Mean lead content varied between 0.029 and 0.196 mg kg(-1), few samples crossed the EU (2.63%) and FAO (1.6%) limits. Mean mercury level ranged from 0.015 to 0.101 mg kg(-1) and none of the samples exceeded the EU limit. Of the total samples analyzed red seabream (2.06%), yellowfin tuna (1.14%), emperor (0.34%), santer bream (0.22%), king fish (0.11%) and skipjack tuna (0.11%) samples crossed the EU limits. In general, fish from these regions are within the safety levels recommended by various organizations and do not pose a health risk in terms of human diet.

  20. Susceptibility of cultured juveniles of several marine fish to the sevenband grouper nervous necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, S; Kuriyama, I; Nakai, T; Miyazaki, T

    2003-02-01

    Piscine nodaviruses (betanodaviruses) have been tentatively divided into four genotypes (SJNNV, RGNNV, TPNNV and BFNNV) and it is suggested that host specificity is different among these genotypes. In the present study, a betanodavirus [sevenband grouper nervous necrosis virus (SGNNV)] belonging to the redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype, to which most betanodaviruses from warm water fish are identified, was evaluated for its pathogenicity to hatchery-reared juveniles of several marine fish species. When challenged with the virus by a bath method (10(5.1) TCID50 mL(-1)), sevenband grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus, Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes, displayed behavioural abnormalities and mortalities with distinct histopathological signs of viral nervous necrosis and heavily immunostained cells were observed in the central nervous tissues and retina. Bath-challenged rock fish, Sebastiscus marmoratus, and a hybrid of sevenband grouper and kelp grouper, E. moara, did not display any behavioural abnormality or mortality during the experimental period, although many fish showed slight signs of viral infection in nerve cells. Kelp grouper and red sea bream, Pagrus major, showed no behavioural abnormality, mortality or immunohistopathological changes after the virus challenge. These results are, in part, consistent with the natural host range of RGNNV, indicating the complexity in the host specificity of betanodaviruses.

  1. Large scale, synchronous variability of marine fish populations driven by commercial exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kenneth T.; Petrie, Brian; Leggett, William C.; Boyce, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous variations in the abundance of geographically distinct marine fish populations are known to occur across spatial scales on the order of 1,000 km and greater. The prevailing assumption is that this large-scale coherent variability is a response to coupled atmosphere–ocean dynamics, commonly represented by climate indexes, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation. On the other hand, it has been suggested that exploitation might contribute to this coherent variability. This possibility has been generally ignored or dismissed on the grounds that exploitation is unlikely to operate synchronously at such large spatial scales. Our analysis of adult fishing mortality and spawning stock biomass of 22 North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks revealed that both the temporal and spatial scales in fishing mortality and spawning stock biomass were equivalent to those of the climate drivers. From these results, we conclude that greater consideration must be given to the potential of exploitation as a driving force behind broad, coherent variability of heavily exploited fish species. PMID:27382163

  2. Terrestrial and marine trophic pathways support young-of-year growth in a nearshore Arctic fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (δ15N and δ13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average δ13C for all individuals was −25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted δ13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average δ15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.

  3. Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species.

    PubMed

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation.

  4. Potential consequences of climate change for primary production and fish production in large marine ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Julia L.; Jennings, Simon; Holmes, Robert; Harle, James; Merino, Gorka; Allen, J. Icarus; Holt, Jason; Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Barange, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Existing methods to predict the effects of climate change on the biomass and production of marine communities are predicated on modelling the interactions and dynamics of individual species, a very challenging approach when interactions and distributions are changing and little is known about the ecological mechanisms driving the responses of many species. An informative parallel approach is to develop size-based methods. These capture the properties of food webs that describe energy flux and production at a particular size, independent of species' ecology. We couple a physical–biogeochemical model with a dynamic, size-based food web model to predict the future effects of climate change on fish biomass and production in 11 large regional shelf seas, with and without fishing effects. Changes in potential fish production are shown to most strongly mirror changes in phytoplankton production. We project declines of 30–60% in potential fish production across some important areas of tropical shelf and upwelling seas, most notably in the eastern Indo-Pacific, the northern Humboldt and the North Canary Current. Conversely, in some areas of the high latitude shelf seas, the production of pelagic predators was projected to increase by 28–89%. PMID:23007086

  5. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, A W

    2005-05-01

    The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka, spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s, and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Currently, 45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually, with an import value of US$28-44 million. The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines, followed by Brazil, Maldives, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Hawaii. In the tropical Western Atlantic, 16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S. (Florida and Puerto Rico). The U.S. is the world's largest buyer, followed by the European Union and Japan. The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes, of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale. Damselfish, anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50% of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses, blennies, gobies, triggerfish, filcfish, hawkfishes, groupers and basselets account for 31% of the trade, and the remaining 16% is represented by 33 families. The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species), seahorses (two species), royal gramma, jawfish, queen triggerfish, redlip blenny, puddingwife, bluehead wrasse, and blue chromis. The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species, but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries. It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced, and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region.

  6. Butter composition and texture from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions fed fish oil or roasted soybeans.

    PubMed

    Bobe, G; Zimmerman, S; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Porter, P A; Luhman, C M; Beitz, D C

    2007-06-01

    Changing the milk fatty acid composition can improve the nutritional and physical properties of dairy products and their acceptability to consumers. A more healthful milk fatty acid composition can be achieved by altering the cow's diet, for example, by feeding supplemental fish oil (FO) or roasted soybeans (RSB), or by selecting cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition. We examined whether feeding supplemental FO or RSB to cows that had a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition acted additively to produce butter with improved fatty acid composition and texture. Using a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 2 replications, we fed diets to multiparous Holstein cows (60 to 200 DIM) chosen for producing either more or less unsaturated milk fatty acid composition (n = 6 for each group) for three 3-wk periods. The control diet contained 3.7% crude fat and the 2 experimental diets contained, on a dry matter basis, 0.8% of additional lipids in the form of 0.9% of FO or 5% of RSB. The milk, collected in the third week of feeding, was used to make butter, which was analyzed for its fatty acid composition and physical properties. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not significantly affected by cow diet or by cow selection. Cows that produced a more unsaturated and healthful milk fat prior to the feeding study, according to a "health-promoting index" [HPI = (sum of % of unsaturated fatty acids)/ (%12:0 + 4 x %14:0 + %16:0)], maintained a higher HPI in their butter during the feeding study than did cows with a low HPI. Milk from cows fed supplemental FO or RSB yielded more unsaturated butters with a higher HPI. This butter also was softer when the cows were fed RSB. Feeding RSB to cows chosen for their high milk HPI yielded the most unsaturated butter with the highest HPI and softest texture. Thus, selecting cows with a more health-promoting milk fatty acid composition and feeding supplemental RSB can be used in combination to produce butter

  7. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    PubMed

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers.

  8. The year-class phenomenon and the storage effect in marine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secor, David H.

    2007-02-01

    Factors contributing to population growth through strong year-class formation have driven a century of directed research in fisheries science. A central discovery of Hjort's paradigm was that multiple generations overlap and longevity is matched with frequency of strong recruitments. Here, I elaborate on this tenet by examining how intra-population modalities in spawning and early habitat use favour population resiliency. A modern theory that has application is the storage effect [Warner, R.R., Chesson, P.L., 1985. Coexistence mediated by recruitment fluctuations - a field guide to the storage effect. Am. Nat. 125, 769-787], whereby spawning stock biomass accumulates each year so that when early survival conditions are favourable, stored egg production can result in explosive population growth. I review two early life history behaviours that contribute to the storage effect: split cohorts (i.e., seasonal pulses of eggs and larvae) and contingent behaviour (i.e., dispersive and retentive patterns in early dispersal). Episodic and pulsed production of larvae is a common feature for marine fishes, well documented through otolith microstructure and hatch-date analyses. In temperate and boreal fishes, early and late spawned cohorts of larvae and juveniles may have differing fates dependent upon seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in weather and climate. Often, a coastal fish may spawn for a protracted period, yet only a few days' egg production will result in successful recruitment. In these and other instances, it is clear that diversity in spawning behaviour can confer resilience against temporal variations in early survival conditions. Although many factors contribute to intra-population spawning modalities, size and age structure of adults play an important role. Contingent structure, an idea dating to Hjort (herring contingents) and Gilbert (salmon contingents), has been resurrected to describe the diversity of intra-population modalities observed through

  9. Residual levels of DDTs and PAHs in freshwater and marine fish from Hong Kong markets and their health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K C; Leung, H M; Kong, K Y; Wong, M H

    2007-01-01

    Axial and ventral muscle from 10 each species of freshwater and marine fish purchased from markets in Hong Kong were analyzed for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (total DDTs including DDE, DDD and DDT) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Among the 10 freshwater fish species, rice field eel (Monopterus albus) showed significantly higher levels of DDTs in both ventral (125 ng/g wet wt) and axial muscle (127 ng/g wet wt) than the other species. The highest concentration of PAHs was detected in catfish (Clarias fuscus), with 24.8 ng/g in ventral muscle and 9.1 ng/g in axial muscle. As to marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) showed significantly higher levels of DDT and its metabolites (1018 ng/g in ventral and 409 ng/g wet wt in axial tissues) than all other marine fish species. The overall concentrations of PAHs in marine fish species were 15.5-57.0 ng/g (axial muscle) and 18.1-118 ng/g wet wt (ventral muscle) where yellow seafin (Acanthopeyrus latus) and golden threadfin bream (Nemipterus virgatus) exhibited the highest concentrations of PAHs in the axial and ventral muscles, respectively. In general, results showed that levels of PAHs in Hong Kong market fish was low and do not expect to cause any concern for human consumption. However, the levels of DDTs in fish samples ranged from 1.10 to 1018 ng/g wet wt, and based on a fish consumption rate of 142.2g/day to calculate the screening value of 14.4 ng/g wet wt for human consumption (USEPA, 2000. Guidance for assessing chemical contaminant, data for use in fish advisories, vol. 1: fish sampling and analysis, third ed. EPA 823-R-95-007. Office of Water, Washington, DC), there were 9 out of 20 (45%) muscle samples of freshwater fish species and 14 out of 20 (70%) muscle samples of marine fish species had elevated levels of DDTs exceeded the screening value. It was also suggested to use ventral muscle for detecting concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in fish.

  10. Fatty acid profiles, growth, and immune responses of neonatal lambs fed milk replacer and supplemented with fish oil or safflower oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diets supplemented with long-chain, n-3 (e.g., marine fish oil) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have improved the health and performance of neonatal and growing animals. This study was conducted with lambs that were orphaned at approximately 1 day of age to determine whether supplementing milk re...

  11. Control of voluntary feed intake in fish: a role for dietary oxygen demand in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with different macronutrient profiles.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Figueiredo-Silva, A C; Kaushik, S J; Haidar, M N; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W

    2012-10-28

    It has been hypothesised that, at non-limiting water oxygen conditions, voluntary feed intake (FI) in fish is limited by the maximal physiological capacity of oxygen use (i.e. an 'oxystatic control of FI in fish'). This implies that fish will adjust FI when fed diets differing in oxygen demand, resulting in identical oxygen consumption. Therefore, FI, digestible energy (DE) intake, energy balance and oxygen consumption were monitored at non-limiting water oxygen conditions in Nile tilapia fed diets with contrasting macronutrient composition. Diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial design in order to create contrasts in oxygen demand: two ratios of digestible protein (DP):DE ('high' v. 'low'); and a contrast in the type of non-protein energy source ('starch' v. 'fat'). Triplicate groups of tilapia were fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 48 d. FI (g DM/kg(0·8) per d) was significantly lower (9·5%) in tilapia fed the starch diets relative to the fat diets. The DP:DE ratio affected DE intakes (P < 0·05), being 11% lower with 'high' than with 'low' DP:DE ratio diets, which was in line with the 11·9% higher oxygen demand of these diets. Indeed, DE intakes of fish showed an inverse linear relationship with dietary oxygen demand (DOD; R 2 0·81, P < 0·001). As hypothesised ('oxystatic' theory), oxygen consumption of fish was identical among three out of the four diets. Altogether, these results demonstrate the involvement of metabolic oxygen use and DOD in the control of FI in tilapia.

  12. Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from Korean coastal fish markets.

    PubMed

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-06-01

    The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the bivalves and crabs than in the gastropods and cephalopods. However, the concentrations of these metals in all samples were within the regulatory limits set by Korea and other countries. The EDE was compared with the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans.

  13. Fossil-based comparative analyses reveal ancient marine ancestry erased by extinction in ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Ortí, Guillermo; Pyron, Robert Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The marine-freshwater boundary is a major biodiversity gradient and few groups have colonised both systems successfully. Fishes have transitioned between habitats repeatedly, diversifying in rivers, lakes and oceans over evolutionary time. However, their history of habitat colonisation and diversification is unclear based on available fossil and phylogenetic data. We estimate ancestral habitats and diversification and transition rates using a large-scale phylogeny of extant fish taxa and one containing a massive number of extinct species. Extant-only phylogenetic analyses indicate freshwater ancestry, but inclusion of fossils reveal strong evidence of marine ancestry in lineages now restricted to freshwaters. Diversification and colonisation dynamics vary asymmetrically between habitats, as marine lineages colonise and flourish in rivers more frequently than the reverse. Our study highlights the importance of including fossils in comparative analyses, showing that freshwaters have played a role as refuges for ancient fish lineages, a signal erased by extinction in extant-only phylogenies.

  14. Metallothionein, oxidative stress and trace metals in gills and liver of demersal and pelagic fish species from Kuwaits' marine area.

    PubMed

    Beg, M U; Al-Jandal, N; Al-Subiai, S; Karam, Q; Husain, S; Butt, S A; Ali, A; Al-Hasan, E; Al-Dufaileej, S; Al-Husaini, M

    2015-11-30

    Two fish species yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) were collected from two locations in Kuwait's territorial waters in non-reproductive periods and used as bio-indicator organism for the assessment of metals in the marine environment. Species variation in fish was observed; seabream contained high metal content and metallothionein in liver and gill tissues compared to tonguesole, especially from Kuwait Bay area. Oxidative injury was registered in the gills of both species, but in tonguesole liver was also involved. Consequently, antioxidant enzyme catalase was elevated in tonguesole enabling bottom dwelling fish to combat oxidative assault. The study provided information about the current status of metals in marine sediment and levels of metals accumulated in representative species along with oxidative damage in exposed tissues and the range of biomarker protein metallothionein and enzymes of antioxidant defence mechanism enhancing our understanding about the biological response to the existing marine environment in Kuwait.

  15. Paleoecological studies on variability in marine fish populations: A long-term perspective on the impacts of climatic change on marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, Bruce P.; Alheit, Jürgen; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Field, David B.; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Struck, Ulrich

    2010-02-01

    reorganizations in the earth's climate system. Additional sedimentary records of marine fish abundance and corresponding paleoenvironmental conditions are likely to further enhance our understanding of marine ecosystem dynamics.

  16. Two new genera and species of cystidicolids (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2010-06-01

    Two new nematode species of the family Cystidicolidae, each representing a new genus, were recovered from marine perciform fishes off New Caledonia, South Pacific: Ascarophisnema tridentatum n. gen., n. sp. from the stomach of the Japanese large-eye bream, Gymnocranius euanus (Günther) (Lethrinidae) and Metabronemoides mirabilis n. gen., n. sp. from the stomach of the painted sweetlip, Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) (Haemulidae). Ascarophisnema is characterized mainly by its cephalic structures (presence of two tooth-like projections on either side of the base of each pseudolabium, dorsal and ventral inner extensions of each pseudolabium recurved laterally in apical view, and submedian sublabia fused together dorsally and ventrally) and the presence of trident-like deirids, and Metabronemoides by its unique cephalic structures (presence of one dorsal and one ventral labium and four large dorsolateral and ventrolateral labia, and absence of sublabia). Rhabdochona gymnocranius (considered a species inquirenda) is provisionally transferred to the former genus as Ascarophisnema gymnocranius (Yamaguti, 1935) n. comb. To date, a total of seven species of cystidicolids are reported from marine fishes off New Caledonia.

  17. Stochastic population dynamics and life-history variation in marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Bjørkvoll, Eirin; Grøtan, Vidar; Aanes, Sondre; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Aanes, Ronny

    2012-09-01

    We examined whether differences in life-history characteristics can explain interspecific variation in stochastic population dynamics in nine marine fish species living in the Barents Sea system. After observation errors in population estimates were accounted for, temporal variability in natural mortality rate, annual recruitment, and population growth rate was negatively related to generation time. Mean natural mortality rate, annual recruitment, and population growth rate were lower in long-lived species than in short-lived species. Thus, important species-specific characteristics of the population dynamics were related to the species position along the slow-fast continuum of life-history variation. These relationships were further associated with interspecific differences in ecology: species at the fast end were mainly pelagic, with short generation times and high natural mortality, annual recruitment, and population growth rates, and also showed high temporal variability in those demographic traits. In contrast, species at the slow end were long-lived, deepwater species with low rates and reduced temporal variability in the same demographic traits. These interspecific relationships show that the life-history characteristics of a species can predict basic features of interspecific variation in population dynamical characteristics of marine fish, which should have implications for the choice of harvest strategy to facilitate sustainable yields.

  18. Habitat Discontinuities Separate Genetically Divergent Populations of a Rocky Shore Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has been suggested to be responsible for major genetic differentiations in a range of marine organisms. In this study, we combined genetic data and environmental information to unravel the relative role of geography and habitat heterogeneity on patterns of genetic population structure of corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops), a rocky shore species at the northern limit of its distribution range in Scandinavia. Our results revealed a major genetic break separating populations inhabiting the western and southern coasts of Norway. This genetic break coincides with the longest stretch of sand in the whole study area, suggesting habitat fragmentation as a major driver of genetic differentiation of this obligate rocky shore benthic fish in Scandinavia. The complex fjords systems extending along the western coast of Norway appeared responsible for further regional genetic structuring. Our findings indicate that habitat discontinuities may lead to significant genetic fragmentation over short geographical distances, even for marine species with a pelagic larval phase, as for this rocky shore fish. PMID:27706178

  19. Ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Matt

    2009-03-31

    Despite the attention focused on mass extinction events in the fossil record, patterns of extinction in the dominant group of marine vertebrates-fishes-remain largely unexplored. Here, I demonstrate ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction, based on a genus-level dataset that accounts for lineages predicted on the basis of phylogeny but not yet sampled in the fossil record. Two ecologically relevant anatomical features are considered: body size and jaw-closing lever ratio. Extinction intensity is higher for taxa with large body sizes and jaws consistent with speed (rather than force) transmission; resampling tests indicate that victims represent a nonrandom subset of taxa present in the final stage of the Cretaceous. Logistic regressions of the raw data reveal that this nonrandom distribution stems primarily from the larger body sizes of victims relative to survivors. Jaw mechanics are also a significant factor for most dataset partitions but are always less important than body size. When data are corrected for phylogenetic nonindependence, jaw mechanics show a significant correlation with extinction risk, but body size does not. Many modern large-bodied, predatory taxa currently suffering from overexploitation, such billfishes and tunas, first occur in the Paleocene, when they appear to have filled the functional space vacated by some extinction victims.

  20. A century later: Long-term change of an inshore temperate marine fish assemblage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, Matthew; Sims, David W.; Partridge, Julian C.; Genner, Martin J.

    2011-02-01

    There is compelling evidence that European marine fish assemblages have undergone extensive changes in composition over the last century. However, our knowledge of which species have changed in abundance and body size distributions, and the reasons for these changes, is limited due to a paucity of historical data. Here we report a study of long-term change in a marine fish assemblage from the inshore waters of the Western English Channel, near Plymouth. We compiled data from historic trawls undertaken between 1913 and 1922, and resurveyed those sites in 2008 and 2009. Our results revealed highly significant temporal differences in assemblage composition, but the scale of change was not consistent among taxonomic groups. Dramatic changes were recorded within the elasmobranchs, characterised by a reduction in abundance of all skate (Rajiidae) species, apparent extirpation of the angel shark ( Squatina squatina), and large increases in the abundance of lesser-spotted catshark ( Scyliorhinus canicula). By contrast we observed less evidence of change among 'flatfishes' (Pleuronectiformes) or 'roundfishes' (other teleosts). Changes were also observed in length-frequency distributions, with a significant decline in the size distribution of elasmobranchs (excluding S. canicula), but no significant change in size distributions of either group of teleosts. These data provide further evidence that larger, slow-maturing species have undergone declines in UK waters over the last century, and form useful benchmarks for assessment of future changes in this coastal faunal assemblage.

  1. Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish.

    PubMed

    Bonito, Lindsay T; Hamdoun, Amro; Sandin, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Although persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (PBTs) are well-studied individually, their distribution and variability on a global scale are largely unknown, particularly in marine fish. Using 2,662 measurements collected from peer-reviewed literature spanning 1969-2012, we examined variability of five classes of PBTs, considering effects of geography, habitat, and trophic level on observed concentrations. While we see large-scale spatial patterning in some PBTs (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls), habitat type and trophic level did not contribute to significant patterning, with the exception of mercury. We further examined patterns of change in PBT concentration as a function of sampling year. All PBTs showed significant declines in concentration levels through time, ranging from 15-30% reduction per decade across PBT groups. Despite consistent evidence of reductions, variation in pollutant concentration remains high, indicating ongoing consumer risk of exposure to fish with pollutant levels exceeding EPA screening values. The temporal trends indicate that mitigation programs are effective, but that global levels decline slowly. In order for monitoring efforts to provide more targeted assessments of risk to PBT exposure, these data highlight an urgent need for improved replication and standardization of pollutant monitoring protocols for marine finfish.

  2. Molecular characterization of larval anisakid nematodes from marine fishes off the Moroccan and Mauritanian coasts.

    PubMed

    Farjallah, Sarra; Busi, Marina; Mahjoub, Mohamed Ould; Slimane, Badreddine Ben; Paggi, Lia; Said, Khaled; D'Amelio, Stefano

    2008-12-01

    A total of 242 larval forms of Anisakis collected from marine fishes at different sites off the Moroccan and Mauritanian coasts, recognised as belonging to Type I and Type II larvae, were identified by PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms) of the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacers) region (ITS-1, 5.8 subunit rRNA gene and ITS-2), using a previously established molecular key. The Type I larvae were found with a frequency of 98.34% and were identified as belonging to the following species: A. simplex s.str., A. pegreffii, A. simplex s.str/A. pegreffii heterozygote genotypes, A. typica, A. ziphidarum and Anisakis sp. A. The Type II larvae were found to belong to A. physeteris, with the frequency of 1.65%. The results reported in the present study provide further epizootiological and biological data on the Anisakis spp. in marine fishes off the Moroccan and Mauritanian coasts, improving the picture of the occurrence of these species in the central Atlantic coasts.

  3. Vitrification of Sperm from Marine Fishes: Effect on Motility and Membrane Integrity.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Chesney, Edward J; Daly, Jonathan; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2015-06-01

    Our goal was to develop a standardized approach for sperm vitrification of marine fishes that can be applied generally in aquatic species. The objectives were to: 1) estimate acute toxicity of cryoprotectants over a range of concentrations; 2) evaluate the properties of vitrification solutions (VS); 3) evaluate different thawing solutions, and 4) evaluate sperm quality after thawing by examination of motility and membrane integrity. Sperm were collected from red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). A total of 29 combinations of cryoprotectants were evaluated for toxicity and glass formation. Samples were loaded onto 10-µL polystyrene loops and plunged into liquid nitrogen. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in post-thaw motility among VS and among species when using the same VS. The sperm in VS of 15% DMSO + 15% ethylene glycol + 10% glycerol + 1% X-1000™ + 1% Z-1000™ had an average post-thaw motility of 58% and membrane integrity of 19% for spotted seatrout, 38% and 9% for red snapper, and 30% and 19% for red drum. Adaptations by marine fish to high osmotic pressures could explain the survival in the high cryoprotectant concentrations. Vitrification offers an alternative to conventional cryopreservation.

  4. Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani

    2012-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters.

  5. Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    Although persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (PBTs) are well-studied individually, their distribution and variability on a global scale are largely unknown, particularly in marine fish. Using 2,662 measurements collected from peer-reviewed literature spanning 1969–2012, we examined variability of five classes of PBTs, considering effects of geography, habitat, and trophic level on observed concentrations. While we see large-scale spatial patterning in some PBTs (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls), habitat type and trophic level did not contribute to significant patterning, with the exception of mercury. We further examined patterns of change in PBT concentration as a function of sampling year. All PBTs showed significant declines in concentration levels through time, ranging from 15–30% reduction per decade across PBT groups. Despite consistent evidence of reductions, variation in pollutant concentration remains high, indicating ongoing consumer risk of exposure to fish with pollutant levels exceeding EPA screening values. The temporal trends indicate that mitigation programs are effective, but that global levels decline slowly. In order for monitoring efforts to provide more targeted assessments of risk to PBT exposure, these data highlight an urgent need for improved replication and standardization of pollutant monitoring protocols for marine finfish. PMID:26839747

  6. Distribution of plasma phosphatidylcholine molecular species in rabbits fed fish oil is modulated by dietary n-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Koba, K; Horrobin, D F; DeMarco, A C; Ni, I H; Huang, Y S

    1995-12-01

    The present study examined the distribution of plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species in rabbits fed a chow diet supplemented with fish oil (FO) in combination with either hydrogenated coconut oil or the n-6 fatty acid-rich evening primrose oil (EPO) for 4 weeks. Significant proportions of plasma PC molecular species contained long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Addition of EPO to the FO supplemented diet increased the incorporation of n-6 fatty acids into plasma PC molecules; it also raised the proportions of 16:0-18:2, n-6, 18:1-18:2, n-6, 18:2, n-6-18:2, n-6, and 16:0-20:4, n-6. The increase of n-6 fatty acid-containing PC was at the expense of n-3 fatty acid containing PC species. However, feeding n-6 fatty acids did not affect the distribution of PC molecular species based on total carbon chain length. The most interesting observation was that dietary suplementation with EPO, raised the ratio of 22:6, n-3-containing to 20:5, n-3-containing molecular species, suggesting an enhanced conversion of 20:5, n-3 to 22:6, n-3.

  7. Dietary fish oil positively regulates plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in sucrose-fed, insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Andrea S; Lombardo, Yolanda B; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Chicco, Adriana G; Rouault, Christine; Slama, Gérard; Rizkalla, Salwa W

    2005-08-01

    Insulin resistance and adiposity induced by a long-term sucrose-rich diet (SRD) in rats could be reversed by fish oil (FO). Regulation of plasma leptin and adiponectin levels, as well as their gene expression, by FO might be implicated in these findings. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term regulation of leptin and adiponectin by dietary FO in a dietary model of insulin resistance induced by long-term SRD in rats and to determine their impact on adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Rats were randomized to consume a control diet (CD; n = 25) or an SRD (n = 50) for 7 mo. Subsequently, the SRD-fed rats were randomized to consume SRD+FO or to continue on SRD for an additional 2 mo. Long-term SRD induced overweight and decreased both plasma leptin and adiponectin levels without change in gene expression. Dyslipidemia, adiposity, and insulin resistance accompanied these modifications. Shifting the source of fat to FO for 2 mo increased plasma levels of both adipokines, reversed insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, and improved adiposity. These results were not associated with modifications in gene expression. These results suggest that increasing both adipokines by dietary FO might play an essential role in the normalization of insulin resistance and adiposity in dietary-induced, insulin-resistant models.

  8. Toxicity of cigarette butts, and their chemical components, to marine and freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Elli; Gersberg, Richard M; Watanabe, Kayo; Rudolph, John; Stransky, Chris; Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-05-01

    Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter, as an estimated 4.5 trillion cigarette butts are thrown away every year worldwide. Many chemical products are used during the course of growing tobacco and manufacturing cigarettes, the residues of which may be found in cigarettes prepared for consumption. Additionally, over 4000 chemicals may also be introduced to the environment via cigarette particulate matter (tar) and mainstream smoke. Using US Environmental Protection Agency standard acute fish bioassays, cigarette butt-derived leachate was analysed for aquatic toxicity. Survival was the single endpoint and data were analysed using Comprehensive Environmental Toxicity Information System to identify the LC50 of cigarette butt leachate to fish. The LC50 for leachate from smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco) was approximately one cigarette butt/l for both the marine topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and the freshwater fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Leachate from smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco), was less toxic, with LC50 values of 1.8 and 4.3 cigarette butts/l, respectively for both fish species. Unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) were also found to be toxic, with LC50 values of 5.1 and 13.5 cigarette butts/l, respectively, for both fish species. Toxicity of cigarette butt leachate was found to increase from unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco). This study represents the first in the literature to investigate and affirm the toxicity of cigarette butts to fish, and will assist in assessing the potential ecological risks of cigarette butts to the aquatic environment.

  9. Three novel myxobolid species of genera Henneguya and Myxobolus (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) from marine fish in Japan.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi; Kamata, Yoichi; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2012-08-01

    Myxosporean genera Henneguya and Myxobolus (Bivalvulida: Myxobolidae) are closely related in morphology and molecular phylogeny, speciose with approximately 1,000 nominal species. The majority of them are recorded from freshwater fish worldwide, and few are known from marine fish. In this study, three myxobolid spp. are described from marine fish around Japan. Two novel Henneguya spp., Henneguya ogawai sp. n. and Henneguya yokoyamai sp. n., are described from two black sea breams (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) fished in the Inland Sea (Setonaikai), Japan. Plasmodia of the former species were localized in the esophageal or intestinal wall, and those of the latter species were in the wall of the gall bladder and peritoneum. Spore development in plasmodia of these two species was synchronous. The spore body of H. ogawai sp. n. was 11.0 (8.9-12.2) μm in length, 6.9 (6.3-7.5) μm in width, 5.9 (5.2-6.6) μm in thickness, with a bifurcated caudal process of equal length, 10.0 (8.4-12.7) μm long; total spore length, 21.1 (19.2-23.4) μm. It contained two polar capsule, 4.3 (3.8-5.2) × 1.9 (1.4-2.3) μm. The spore body of H. yokoyamai sp. n. was 11.0 (10.1-13.7) μm in length, 7.1 (6.6-7.5) μm in width, and 5.6 (4.5-6.4) μm in thickness, with a bifurcated caudal process of equal length, 14.1 (10.8-17.0) μm long; total spore length, 25.0 (21.9-29.2) μm. It contained two polar capsules, 3.7 (3.1-4.2) × 2.0 (1.8-2.4) μm. A novel Myxobolus sp., Myxobolus machidai sp. n., is described from a spotted knifejaw (Oplegnathus punctatus) fished in the Sea of Japan, off Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Plasmodia were embedded in the esophageal wall. Its round spore was small in size, 9.0 (8.1-9.4) μm in length, 7.8 (7.5-8.3) μm in width, and 5.5 (5.1-6.0) μm in thickness. It contained two polar capsules, 3.5 (3.2-3.8) × 2.3 (2.2-2.5) μm. Spore development in a plasmodium was asynchronous. Nucleotide sequencing of the small

  10. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  11. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Jelks, Howard L.

    2014-01-01

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

  12. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist.

    PubMed

    Smith-Vaniz, William F; Jelks, Howard L

    2014-05-29

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

  13. Parasites as biological tags for stock discrimination in marine fish from South American Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Timi, Juan T

    2007-06-01

    The use of parasites as biological tags in population studies of marine fish in the south-western Atlantic has proved to be a successful tool for discriminating stocks for all species to which it has been applied, namely: Scomber japonicus, Engraulis anchoita, Merluccius hubbsi and Cynoscion guatucupa, the latter studied on a broader geographic scale, including samples from Uruguayan and Brazilian waters. The distribution patterns of marine parasites are determined mainly by temperature-salinity profiles and by their association with specific masses of water. Analyses of distribution patterns of some parasite species in relation to gradients in environmental (oceanographic) conditions showed that latitudinal gradients in parasite distribution are common in the study area, and are probably directly related to water temperature. Indeed, temperature, which is a good predictor of latitudinal gradients of richness and diversity of species, shows a latitudinal pattern in south-western Atlantic coasts, decreasing southwards, due to the influence of subtropical and subantarctic marine currents flowing along the edge of the continental slope. This pattern also determines the distribution of zooplankton, with a characteristic specific composition in different water masses. The gradient in the distribution of parasites determines differential compositions of their communities at different latitudes, which makes possible the identification of different stocks of their fish hosts. Other features of the host-parasite systems contributing to the success of the parasitological method are: (1) parasites identified as good biological tags (i.e. anisakids) are widely distributed in the local fauna; (2) many of these species show low specificity and use paratenic hosts; and (3) the structure of parasite communities are, to a certain degree, predictable in time and space.

  14. Can otolith elemental chemistry retrospectively track migrations in fully marine fishes?

    PubMed

    Sturrock, A M; Trueman, C N; Darnaude, A M; Hunter, E

    2012-07-01

    Otolith microchemistry can provide valuable information about stock structure and mixing patterns when the magnitude of environmental differences among areas is greater than the cumulative influence of any vital effects. Here, the current understanding of the underlying mechanisms governing element incorporation into the otolith is reviewed. Hard and soft acid and base (HSAB) theory is employed to explore the differences in chemical behaviours, distributions and affinities between elements. Hard acid cations (e.g. Mg(2+) , Li(+) and Ba(2+) ) tend to be less physiologically influenced and accepted more readily into the otolith crystal lattice but are relatively homogeneous in seawater. Soft acid cations (e.g. Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) ) on the other hand, exhibit more varied distributions in seawater, but are more likely to be bound to blood proteins and less available for uptake into the otolith. The factors influencing the geographical distribution of elements in the sea, and their incorporation into the otoliths of marine fishes are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on examining physiological processes, including gonad development, on the uptake of elements commonly used in population studies, notably Sr. Finally, case studies are presented that either directly or indirectly compare population structuring or movements inferred by otolith elemental fingerprints with the patterns indicated by additional, alternative proxies. The main obstacle currently limiting the application of otolith elemental microchemistry to infer movements of marine fishes appears to lie in the largely homogeneous distribution of those elements most reliably measured in the otolith. Evolving technologies will improve the discriminatory power of otolith chemistry by allowing measurement of spatially explicit, low level elements; however, for the time being, the combination of otolith minor and trace element fingerprints with alternative proxies and stable isotopic ratios can greatly extend the

  15. Tracking Three-Dimensional Fish Behavior with a New Marine Acoustic Telemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosnan, Ian G.; McGarry, Louise P.; Greene, Charles H.; Steig, Tracey W.; Johnston, Samuel V.; Ehrenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The persistent monitoring capability provided by acoustic telemetry systems allows us to study behavior, movement, and resource selection of mobile marine animals. Current marine acoustic telemetry systems are challenged by localization errors and limits in the number of animals that can be tracked simultaneously. We designed a new system to provide detection ranges of up to 1 km, to reduce localization errors to less than 1 m, and to increase to 500 the number of unique tags simultaneously tracked. The design builds on HTIs experience of more than a decade developing acoustic telemetry systems for freshwater environments. A field trial of the prototype system was conducted at the University of Washingtons Friday Harbor Marine Laboratory (Friday Harbor, WA). Copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus) were selected for field trials of this new system because their high site-fidelity and small home ranges provide ample opportunity to track individual fish behavior while testing our ability to characterize the movements of a species of interest to management authorities.

  16. The antioxidant effects of complexes of tilapia fish skin collagen and different marine oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shuwen; Li, Jing; Guan, Huashi

    2010-12-01

    An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to a variety of chronic health problems. As potent antioxidants, marine bioactive extracts containing oligosaccharides and peptides have been extensively studied. Recently, there is a growing interest in protein-polysaccharide complexes because of their potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. However, only few studies are available on the antioxidant activities of such complexes, in terms of their ROS scavenging capability. In this study, we combined different marine oligosaccharides (isolated and purified) with collagen peptides derived from tilapia fish skin, and evaluated the antioxidant activity of the marine peptide-oligosaccharide complexes vis-à-vis the activity of their original component molecules. Biochemical and cellular assays were performed to measure the scavenging effects on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and to evaluate the influences on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in UV-induced photoaging models. The results indicated that the antioxidant activities of all the complexes were stronger than those of their individual components. Among the 11 complexes tested, two complexes, namely MA1000+CP and κ-ca3000+CP, turned out to be highly effective antioxidants. Although the detailed mechanisms of this improved scavenging ability are not fully understood, this work provides insights into the design of highly efficient peptide-oligosaccharide complexes for potential applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  17. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Alice E.; Lindgren, Elise A.; Hermsmeier, Maiko C.; Rogowski, Peter A.; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment. PMID:26308928

  18. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Alice E; Lindgren, Elise A; Hermsmeier, Maiko C; Rogowski, Peter A; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment.

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from Yongxing Island, South China Sea: levels, composition profiles and human dietary exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Long; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine organisms from South China Sea (SCS). Five marine fish species were collected from Yongxing Island, SCS to investigate the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs concentrations ranged from 2.0-117, 6.3-199, and 9.7-5831 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. In general, contaminants measured in this study were at the lower end of the global range. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated in fish samples, implying that PBDEs are as prevalent as PCBs in Yongxing Island. Among the five fish species studied, yellow striped goatfish had the highest concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs, probably attributed to its different living and feeding habits. The contaminant distribution pattern indicated that agrochemical source is more important than industrial source in Yongxing Island, SCS. The average estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs via fish consumption by local residents in the coastal areas of South China ranged from 1.42-5.91, 3.20-13.3, and 8.08-33.6 ng d(-1), which were lower than those in previous studies, suggesting that consumption of marine fish in Yongxing Island, SCS, might not subject local residents to significant health risk as far as POPs are concerned. This is the first study to report the occurrence of POPs in marine biota from SCS.

  20. Ascaridoidea: a simple DNA assay for identification of 11 species infecting marine and freshwater fish, mammals, and fish-eating birds.

    PubMed

    Kijewska, Agnieszka; Rokicki, Jerzy; Sitko, Jiri; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2002-05-01

    Eleven species belonging to superfamily Ascaridoidea, which infect marine and freshwater fish, mammals, and fish-eating birds, were analyzed using a PCR-RFLP method. The following species were investigated: Anisakis pegreffi, A. physeteris, and A. simplex (parasites of fish and mammals), Contracaecum osculatum, C. radiatum, and C. rudolphi (parasites of mammals and fish-eating birds), Hysterothylacium aduncum (a parasite of fish), Porrocaecum angusticolle, P. crassum, P. depressum, and P. ensicaudatum (parasites of fish-eating birds). PCR-amplified rDNA regions encompassing ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS2 produced on templates of genomic DNA isolated from all investigated species were digested with TaqI, AluI, BsuRI, and RsaI endonucleases. Restriction patterns showed that endonuclease TaqI is the most useful enzyme for identification of all investigated species. No variations in restriction patterns within each species were detected. Therefore, we propose that the PCR-RFLP assay described in this report may be used for identification of marine and freshwater parasites from superfamily Ascaridoidea.

  1. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: radionuclide concentrations in fish and clams and estimated doses via the marine pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Eagle, R.J.

    1981-08-18

    The survey consisted, in part, of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates. As a secondary phase, terrestrial and marine samples were collected to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to atoll inhabitants. The marine sample collection, processing, and dose assessment methodology are presented as well as the concentration data for /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and any of the other gamma emitters in fish and clam muscle tissue from the different species collected. Doses are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in fish and clam muscle tissue assuming an average daily intake of 200 and 10 g, respectivelty. The /sup 90/Sr concentration in muscle tissue is very low and there is little difference in the average concentrations from the different fish from different atolls or islands. The /sup 239 +240/Pu concentration in the muscle tissue of all reef species, however, is higher than that in pelagic lagoon fish. In contrast, /sup 137/Cs concentrations are lowest in the muscle tissue of the bottom-feeding reef species and highest in pelagic logoon fish. Recent measurements of radionuclide concentrations in fish muscle tissue and other marine dietary items from international sources show that the average concentrations in species from the Marshall Islands are comparable to those in fish typically consumed as food in the United States and are generally lower than those in most international marine dietary items. The whole-body dose rates based on continuous consumption of 200 g/d of fish range from 0.028 to 0.1 mrem/y; the bone-marrow dose rates range from 0.029 to 0.12 mrem/y. The dose commitment, or 30-y integral doses, range from 0.00063 to 0.0022 rem for the whole body and from 0.00065 to 0.0032 rem for the bone marrow. (ERB)

  2. Peripatric differentiation among adjacent marine lake and lagoon populations of a coastal fish, Sphaeramia orbicularis (Apogonidae, Perciformes, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Ryo O; Sekimoto, Hidekatsu; Chiba, Satoru N; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2009-08-01

    The effect of geographical isolation on speciation, particularly within short geographical ranges, is poorly understood among marine organisms. Focusing on marine lakes of the Palau Islands, we investigated the effect of geographical isolation on Sphaeramia orbicularis, a coastal fish inhabiting marine lakes and lagoons. We collected a total of 157 individuals from three meromictic marine lakes and three lagoon sites, and analyzed the genetic diversity and differentiation of the populations based on complete sequences of the mitochondrial control region (824 bp). The analyses show that the genetic diversity of marine lake populations is much lower than that of lagoon populations. Moreover, a mismatch distribution analysis suggests that marine lake populations have experienced a decrease followed by a rapid expansion of their population size. These results reveal that marine lake populations have experienced severe founder and/or bottleneck events during the last thousand to tens of thousand years. Pairwise Phi(ST )values ranged from 0.531 to 0.848 between marine lake and lagoon populations and from 0.429 to 0.870 among marine lake populations, indicating a high degree of genetic differentiation. We speculate that such peripatric differentiation between marine lake and lagoon populations was caused by a small number of individuals colonizing the lakes from the lagoon (founder event) followed by repetitive bottleneck events, such as those generated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). So far, such high genetic divergences in extremely short geographical ranges (approximately 150-250 m) have scarcely been reported for marine organisms. We suggest that the marine lake is one of the good model of geographical isolation in marine organisms and each marine lake population is in the early stages of speciation.

  3. Ordinary and Extraordinary Movement Behaviour of Small Resident Fish within a Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Aspillaga, Eneko; Bartumeus, Frederic; Linares, Cristina; Starr, Richard M.; López-Sanz, Àngel; Díaz, David; Zabala, Mikel; Hereu, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    It is important to account for the movement behaviour of fishes when designing effective marine protected areas (MPAs). Fish movements occur across different spatial and temporal scales and understanding the variety of movements is essential to make correct management decisions. This study describes in detail the movement patterns of an economically and commercially important species, Diplodus sargus, within a well-enforced Mediterranean MPA. We monitored horizontal and vertical movements of 41 adult individuals using passive acoustic telemetry for up to one year. We applied novel analysis and visualization techniques to get a comprehensive view of a wide range of movements. D. sargus individuals were highly territorial, moving within small home ranges (< 1 km2), inside which they displayed repetitive diel activity patterns. Extraordinary movements beyond the ordinary home range were observed under two specific conditions. First, during stormy events D. sargus presented a sheltering behaviour, moving to more protected places to avoid the disturbance. Second, during the spawning season they made excursions to deep areas (> 50 m), where they aggregated to spawn. This study advances our understanding about the functioning of an established MPA and provides important insights into the biology and management of a small sedentary species, suggesting the relevance of rare but important fish behaviours. PMID:27437692

  4. Propensity of marine reserves to reduce the evolutionary effects of fishing in a migratory species.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Erin S; Baskett, Marissa L; Heino, Mikko; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-08-01

    Evolutionary effects of fishing can have unwanted consequences diminishing a fishery's value and sustainability. Reserves, or no-take areas, have been proposed as a management tool for reducing fisheries-induced selection, but their effectiveness for migratory species has remained unexplored. Here we develop an eco-genetic model to predict the effects of marine reserves on fisheries-induced evolution under migration. To represent a stock that undergoes an annual migration between feeding and spawning grounds, we draw model parameters from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the northern part of its range. Our analysis leads to the following conclusions: (i) a reserve in a stock's feeding grounds, protecting immature and mature fish alike, reduces fisheries-induced evolution, even though protected and unprotected population components mix on the spawning grounds; (ii) in contrast, a reserve in a stock's spawning grounds, protecting only mature fish, has little mitigating effects on fisheries-induced evolution and can sometimes even exacerbate its magnitude; (iii) evolutionary changes that are already underway may be difficult to reverse with a reserve; (iv) directly after a reserve is created or enlarged, most reserve scenarios result in yield losses; and (v) timescale is very important: short-term yield losses immediately after a reserve's creation can give way to long-term gains.

  5. Occurrence of tumour (odontoma) in marine fish Sphyraena jello from the southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, R; Gopalakrishnan, A; Raja, K; Sinduja, K

    2014-02-04

    We examined the occurrence of odontoma in the marine fish Sphyraena jello sourced from 3 different landing centers (Cuddalore, Parangipettai and Nagapattinam) in Tamil Nadu (southeast India). A total of 19783 fishes were examined for odontoma presence, of which 2393 were affected with odontoma. The overall prevalence was 12.1% among the 3 stations. Fish landed at Parangipettai showed the highest peak prevalence of odontoma (16.8%) during the pre-monsoon, followed by Nagapatinam (9.1%) during summer 2011. The tumour lengths in premaxilla, supermaxilla and dentary bone were 1.1-3.6, 1.4-5.9 and 1.2-4.1 cm, respectively, and tumour widths were 0.3-1.9, 0.7-3.1 and 0.5-1.9 cm. Higher prevalence (0.206%) of tongue tumour along with odontoma was observed at Nagapattinam whereas it was lower (0.162%) at Cuddalore. Odontoma histopathology showed dense fibrous tissue with fine teeth roots. TEM analysis showed virus-like particles associated with odontoma. Radiography of the odontoma showed that the tumour masses were bony in nature and tissues were merged with upper and lower jaw.

  6. Assembling and auditing a comprehensive DNA barcode reference library for European marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L M; Knebelsberger, T; Landi, M; Soares, P; Raupach, M J; Costa, F O

    2016-12-01

    A large-scale comprehensive reference library of DNA barcodes for European marine fishes was assembled, allowing the evaluation of taxonomic uncertainties and species genetic diversity that were otherwise hidden in geographically restricted studies. A total of 4118 DNA barcodes were assigned to 358 species generating 366 Barcode Index Numbers (BIN). Initial examination revealed as much as 141 BIN discordances (more than one species in each BIN). After implementing an auditing and five-grade (A-E) annotation protocol, the number of discordant species BINs was reduced to 44 (13% grade E), while concordant species BINs amounted to 271 (78% grades A and B) and 14 other had insufficient data (grade D). Fifteen species displayed comparatively high intraspecific divergences ranging from 2·6 to 18·5% (grade C), which is biologically paramount information to be considered in fish species monitoring and stock assessment. On balance, this compilation contributed to the detection of 59 European fish species probably in need of taxonomic clarification or re-evaluation. The generalized implementation of an auditing and annotation protocol for reference libraries of DNA barcodes is recommended.

  7. Why pair? Evidence of aggregative mating in a socially monogamous marine fish (Siganus doliatus, Siganidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Rebecca J.; Bellwood, David R.; Jennions, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Many species live in stable pairs, usually to breed and raise offspring together, but this cannot be assumed. Establishing whether pairing is based on mating, or an alternative cooperative advantage, can be difficult, especially where species show no obvious sexual dimorphism and where the act of reproduction itself is difficult to observe. In the tropical marine fishes known as rabbitfish (Siganidae), half of extant species live in socially monogamous, territorial pairs. It has been assumed that partnerships are for mating, but the reproductive mode of pairing rabbitfish is currently unconfirmed. Using passive acoustic telemetry to track movements of fishes belonging to one such species (Siganus doliatus), we provide the first evidence that paired adult fish undertake highly synchronized migrations with multiple conspecifics on a monthly cycle. All tagged individuals migrated along the same route in three consecutive months and were absent from home territories for 2–3 days just after the new moon. The timing and directionality of migrations suggest that S. doliatus may form spawning aggregations, offering the potential for exposure to multiple reproductive partners. The finding raises fundamental questions about the basis of pairing, mate choice and partnership longevity in this family. PMID:26473049

  8. Propensity of marine reserves to reduce the evolutionary effects of fishing in a migratory species

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Erin S; Baskett, Marissa L; Heino, Mikko; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary effects of fishing can have unwanted consequences diminishing a fishery's value and sustainability. Reserves, or no-take areas, have been proposed as a management tool for reducing fisheries-induced selection, but their effectiveness for migratory species has remained unexplored. Here we develop an eco-genetic model to predict the effects of marine reserves on fisheries-induced evolution under migration. To represent a stock that undergoes an annual migration between feeding and spawning grounds, we draw model parameters from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the northern part of its range. Our analysis leads to the following conclusions: (i) a reserve in a stock's feeding grounds, protecting immature and mature fish alike, reduces fisheries-induced evolution, even though protected and unprotected population components mix on the spawning grounds; (ii) in contrast, a reserve in a stock's spawning grounds, protecting only mature fish, has little mitigating effects on fisheries-induced evolution and can sometimes even exacerbate its magnitude; (iii) evolutionary changes that are already underway may be difficult to reverse with a reserve; (iv) directly after a reserve is created or enlarged, most reserve scenarios result in yield losses; and (v) timescale is very important: short-term yield losses immediately after a reserve's creation can give way to long-term gains. PMID:25567887

  9. Development of sperm vitrification protocols for freshwater fish (Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis) and marine fish (European eel, Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Kása, Eszter; Bernáth, Gergely; Kollár, Tímea; Żarski, Daniel; Lujić, Jelena; Marinović, Zoran; Bokor, Zoltán; Hegyi, Árpád; Urbányi, Béla; Vílchez, M Carmen; Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Pérez, Luz; Asturiano, Juan F; Horváth, Ákos

    2017-05-01

    Vitrification was successfully applied to the sperm of two fish species, the freshwater Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and marine European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Sperm was collected, diluted in species-specific non-activating media and cryoprotectants and vitrified by plunging directly into liquid nitrogen without pre-cooling in its vapor. Progressive motility of fresh and vitrified-thawed sperm was evaluated with computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Additional sperm quality parameters such as sperm head morphometry parameters (in case of European eel) and fertilizing capacity (in case of Eurasian perch) were carried out to test the effectiveness of vitrification. The vitrification method for Eurasian perch sperm resulting the highest post-thaw motility (14±1.6%) was as follows: 1:5 dilution ratio, Tanaka extender, 30% cryoprotectant (15% methanol+15% propylene-glycol), cooling device: Cryotop, 2μl droplets, and for European eel sperm: dilution ratio 1:1, with 40% cryoprotectant (20% MeOH and 20% PG), and 10% FBS, cooling device: Cryotop, with 2μl of sperm suspension. Viable embryos were produced by fertilization with vitrified Eurasian perch sperm (neurulation: 2.54±1.67%). According to the ASMA analysis, no significant decrease in head area and perimeter of vitrified European eel spermatozoa were found when compared to fresh spermatozoa.

  10. The effects of eating marine- or vegetable-fed farmed trout on the human plasma proteome profiles of healthy men.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Maria L; Lametsch, René; Bügel, Susanne; Jessen, Flemming; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-02-28

    Most human intervention studies have examined the effects on a subset of risk factors, some of which may require long-term exposure. The plasma proteome may reflect the underlying changes in protein expression and activation, and this could be used to identify early risk markers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of regular fish intake on the plasma proteome. We recruited thirty healthy men aged 40 to 70 years, who were randomly allocated to a daily meal of chicken or trout raised on vegetable or marine feeds. Blood samples were collected before and after 8 weeks of intervention, and after the removal of the twelve most abundant proteins, plasma proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots < 66 kDa with a pI > 4·3 visualised by silver staining were matched by two-dimensional imaging software. Within-subject changes in spots were compared between the treatment groups. Differentially affected spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight/time of flight MS and the human Swiss-Prot database. We found 23/681 abundant plasma protein spots, which were up- or down-regulated by the dietary treatment (P < 0·05, q < 0·30), and eighteen of these were identified. In each trout group, ten spots differed from those in subjects given the chicken meal, but only three of these were common, and only one spot differed between the two trout groups. In both groups, the affected plasma proteins were involved in biological processes such as regulation of vitamin A and haem transport, blood fibrinolysis and oxidative defence. Thus, regular fish intake affects the plasma proteome, and the changes may indicate novel mechanisms of effect.

  11. Robustness of fossil fish teeth for seawater neodymium isotope reconstructions under variable redox conditions in an ancient shallow marine setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, Claire E.; van de Flierdt, Tina; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Bohaty, Steven M.; Röhl, Ursula; Hammond, Samantha J.

    2016-03-01

    Fossil fish teeth from pelagic open ocean settings are considered a robust archive for preserving the neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition of ancient seawater. However, using fossil fish teeth as an archive to reconstruct seawater Nd isotopic compositions in different sedimentary redox environments and in terrigenous-dominated, shallow marine settings is less proven. To address these uncertainties, fish tooth and sediment samples from a middle Eocene section deposited proximal to the East Antarctic margin at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1356 were analyzed for major and trace element geochemistry, and Nd isotopes. Major and trace element analyses of the sediments reveal changing redox conditions throughout deposition in a shallow marine environment. However, variations in the Nd isotopic composition and rare earth element (REE) patterns of the associated fish teeth do not correspond to redox changes in the sediments. REE patterns in fish teeth at Site U1356 carry a typical mid-REE-enriched signature. However, a consistently positive Ce anomaly marks a deviation from a pure authigenic origin of REEs to the fish tooth. Neodymium isotopic compositions of cleaned and uncleaned fish teeth fall between modern seawater and local sediments and hence could be authigenic in nature, but could also be influenced by sedimentary fluxes. We conclude that the fossil fish tooth Nd isotope proxy is not sensitive to moderate changes in pore water oxygenation. However, combined studies on sediments, pore waters, fish teeth, and seawater are needed to fully understand processes driving the reconstructed signature from shallow marine sections in proximity to continental sources.

  12. Evaluation of marine subareas of Europe using life history parameters and trophic levels of selected fish populations.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R P Prabath K; Amarasinghe, Upali S; Newton, Alice

    2015-12-01

    European marine waters include four regional seas that provide valuable ecosystem services to humans, including fish and other seafood. However, these marine environments are threatened by pressures from multiple anthropogenic activities and climate change. The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was adopted in 2008 to achieve good environmental status (GEnS) in European Seas by year 2020, using an Ecosystem Approach. GEnS is to be assessed using 11 descriptors and up to 56 indicators. In the present analysis two descriptors namely "commercially exploited fish and shellfish populations" and "food webs" were used to evaluate the status of subareas of FAO 27 area. Data on life history parameters, trophic levels and fisheries related data of cod, haddock, saithe, herring, plaice, whiting, hake and sprat were obtained from the FishBase online database and advisory reports of International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Subareas inhabited by r and K strategists were identified using interrelationships of life history parameters of commercially important fish stocks. Mean trophic level (MTL) of fish community each subarea was calculated and subareas with species of high and low trophic level were identified. The Fish in Balance (FiB) index was computed for each subarea and recent trends of FiB indices were analysed. The overall environmental status of each subarea was evaluated considering life history trends, MTL and FiB Index. The analysis showed that subareas I, II, V, VIII and IX were assessed as "good" whereas subareas III, IV, VI and VII were assessed as "poor". The subareas assessed as "good" were subject to lower environmental pressures, (less fishing pressure, less eutrophication and more water circulation), while the areas with "poor" environment experienced excessive fishing pressure, eutrophication and disturbed seabed. The evaluation was based on two qualitative descriptors ("commercially exploited fish and shellfish

  13. Assessing Fishing and Marine Biodiversity Changes Using Fishers' Perceptions: The Spanish Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Coll, Marta; Carreras, Marta; Ciércoles, Cristina; Cornax, Maria-José; Gorelli, Giulia; Morote, Elvira; Sáez, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Background The expansion of fishing activities has intensively transformed marine ecosystems worldwide. However, available time series do not frequently cover historical periods. Methodology Fishers' perceptions were used to complement data and characterise changes in fishing activity and exploited ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. Fishers' interviews were conducted in 27 fishing harbours of the area, and included 64 fishers from ages between 20 to >70 years old to capture the experiences and memories of various generations. Results are discussed in comparison with available independent information using stock assessments and international convention lists. Principal Findings According to fishers, fishing activity substantially evolved in the area with time, expanding towards deeper grounds and towards areas more distant from the coast. The maximum amount of catch ever caught and the weight of the largest species ever captured inversely declined with time. Fishers (70%) cited specific fishing grounds where depletion occurred. They documented ecological changes of marine biodiversity during the last half of the century: 94% reported the decline of commercially important fish and invertebrates and 61% listed species that could have been extirpated, with frequent mentions to cartilaginous fish. Declines and extirpations were in line with available quantitative evaluations from stock assessments and international conventions, and were likely linked to fishing impacts. Conversely, half of interviewed fishers claimed that several species had proliferated, such as cephalopods, jellyfish, and small-sized fish. These changes were likely related to trophic cascades due to fishing and due to climate change effects. The species composition of depletions, local extinctions and proliferations showed differences by region suggesting that regional dynamics are important when analysing biodiversity changes. Conclusions/Significance Using fishers

  14. Assessing fishing and marine biodiversity changes using fishers' perceptions: the Spanish Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz case study.

    PubMed

    Coll, Marta; Carreras, Marta; Ciércoles, Cristina; Cornax, Maria-José; Gorelli, Giulia; Morote, Elvira; Sáez, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of fishing activities has intensively transformed marine ecosystems worldwide. However, available time series do not frequently cover historical periods. Fishers' perceptions were used to complement data and characterise changes in fishing activity and exploited ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. Fishers' interviews were conducted in 27 fishing harbours of the area, and included 64 fishers from ages between 20 to >70 years old to capture the experiences and memories of various generations. Results are discussed in comparison with available independent information using stock assessments and international convention lists. According to fishers, fishing activity substantially evolved in the area with time, expanding towards deeper grounds and towards areas more distant from the coast. The maximum amount of catch ever caught and the weight of the largest species ever captured inversely declined with time. Fishers (70%) cited specific fishing grounds where depletion occurred. They documented ecological changes of marine biodiversity during the last half of the century: 94% reported the decline of commercially important fish and invertebrates and 61% listed species that could have been extirpated, with frequent mentions to cartilaginous fish. Declines and extirpations were in line with available quantitative evaluations from stock assessments and international conventions, and were likely linked to fishing impacts. Conversely, half of interviewed fishers claimed that several species had proliferated, such as cephalopods, jellyfish, and small-sized fish. These changes were likely related to trophic cascades due to fishing and due to climate change effects. The species composition of depletions, local extinctions and proliferations showed differences by region suggesting that regional dynamics are important when analysing biodiversity changes. Using fishers' perceptions, fishing and ecological changes in the study area were

  15. Fish oil supplementation to rats fed high-fat diet during pregnancy prevents development of impaired insulin sensitivity in male adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Derraik, José G B; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2017-07-17

    We examined whether maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy could prevent development of insulin resistance in adult male offspring of rat dams fed a high-fat diet. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rat dams were randomised into four treatment groups: Con-Con, dams fed a control diet (fat: 15% kcal) and administered water by gavage; Con-FO, control diet with unoxidised fish oil by gavage; HF-Con, high-fat diet (fat: 45% kcal) and water by gavage; and HF-FO, high-fat diet and unoxidised fish oil by gavage. Dams were fed the allocated diet ad libitum during pregnancy and lactation, but daily gavage occurred only during pregnancy. After weaning, male offspring consumed a chow diet ad libitum until adulthood. Maternal high-fat diet led to increased food consumption, adiposity, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides and plasma leptin in adult HF-Con offspring. HF-Con offspring also exhibited lower insulin sensitivity than Con-Con rats. Male offspring from HF-FO group were similar to HF-Con regarding food consumption and most metabolic parameters. However, insulin sensitivity in the HF-FO group was improved relative to the HF-Con offspring. Supplementation with unoxidised n-3 PUFA rich oils in the setting of a maternal obesogenic diet improved insulin sensitivity, but had no impact on body composition of adult male offspring.

  16. Host ontogeny and the temporal decay of similarity in parasite communities of marine fish.

    PubMed

    Timi, Juan T; Luque, José L; Poulin, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Geographical distances between host populations are key determinants of how many parasite species they share. In principle, decay in similarity should also occur with increasing distance along any other dimension that characterizes some form of separation between communities. Here, we apply the biogeographical concept of distance decay in similarity to ontogenetic changes in the metazoan parasite communities of three species of marine fish from the Atlantic coast of South America. Using differences in body length between all possible pairs of size classes as measures of ontogenetic distances, we find that, using an index of similarity (Bray-Curtis) that takes into account the abundance of each parasite species, the similarity in parasite communities showed a very clear decay pattern; using an index (Jaccard) based on presence/absence of species only, we obtained slightly weaker but nevertheless similar patterns. As we predicted, the slope of the decay relationship was significantly steeper in the fish Cynoscion guatucupa, which goes through clear ontogenetic changes in diet and therefore in exposure to parasites, than in the other species, Engraulis anchoita and Micropogonias furnieri, which maintain a roughly similar diet throughout their lives. In addition, we found that for any given ontogenetic distance, i.e. for a given length difference between two size classes, the similarity in parasite communities was almost always higher if they were adult size classes, and almost always lower if they were juvenile size classes. This, combined with comparisons among individual fish within size classes, shows that parasite communities in juvenile fish are variable and subject to stochastic effects. We propose the distance decay approach as a rigorous and quantitative method to measure rates of community change as a function of host age, and for comparisons across host species to elucidate the role of host ecology in the development of parasite assemblages. 2010 Australian

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in marine fishes as a specific biomarker to indicate PAH pollution in the marine coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin H; Hong, Hua S; Mu, Jing L; Lin, Jian Q; Wang, Shong H

    2008-02-15

    In this study, analysis methods for the PAH metabolites of naphthalene (Na), pyrene (Py) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) with different benzo-rings (2-4-5 rings respectively) were developed and the metabolism kinetics of Py and BaP in marine fishes were studied. Two PAH metabolites of Na and Py, namely 1-naphthol (1-OH Na) and 1-hydroxy pyrene (1-OH Py), were determined using the fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) method, and the BaP metabolite, 3-hydroxy benzo(a)pyrene (3-OH BaP), was determined using reverse-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. The dose- and time-response of Lateolabrax japonicus to Py metabolites and Sparus macrocephalus to BaP metabolites were studied in order to evaluate the use of PAH metabolites as a means of assessing exposure to PAHs. The results showed that both fishes could be induced to metabolize and eliminate their metabolites in vivo with increasing Py and BaP exposure concentrations in seawater. As Py and BaP concentrations increased, metabolite concentrations in the fish bile also increased. A significant dose-response of biliary PAH metabolites was observed after exposure for 1, 3 and 7 days for Py and 2, 4 and 7 days for BaP, respectively. These results provide the proof necessary for using PAH metabolites in marine fishes as a specific biomarker or early warning signal of PAH pollution in the marine coastal environment.

  18. A survey of wild marine fish identifies a potential origin of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse, Labridae, used as cleaner fish on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms.

    PubMed

    Wallace, I S; Donald, K; Munro, L A; Murray, W; Pert, C C; Stagg, H; Hall, M; Bain, N

    2015-06-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from five species of wrasse (Labridae) used as biological controls for parasitic sea lice predominantly, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms in Shetland. As part of the epidemiological investigation, 1400 wild marine fish were caught and screened in pools of 10 for VHSV using virus isolation. Eleven pools (8%) were confirmed VHSV positive from: grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus L.; Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L.; Norway pout, Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson); plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L.; sprat, Sprattus sprattus L. and whiting, Merlangius merlangus L. The isolation of VHSV from grey gurnard is the first documented report in this species. Nucleic acid sequencing of the partial nucleocapsid (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes was carried out for viral characterization. Sequence analysis confirmed that all wild isolates were genotype III the same as the wrasse and there was a close genetic similarity between the isolates from wild fish and wrasse on the farms. Infection from these local wild marine fish is the most likely source of VHSV isolated from wrasse on the fish farms. © 2014 Crown Copyright. Journal of Fish Diseases © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Tiny estimates of the Ne /N ratio in marine fishes: Are they real?

    PubMed

    Waples, R S

    2016-12-01

    Theory and empirical estimates agree that the ratio of effective size (Ne ) to census size (N) falls roughly in the range 0·1-0·5 for most populations. In a number of marine species, however, genetic estimates of contemporary Ne /N are as much as 5-6 orders of magnitude lower. Although some mechanisms that could produce such tiny Ne /N ratios have been proposed, the subject remains controversial. This issue is important to resolve: if Ne /N can be 10(-3) or smaller, marine fish populations that are quite large could be at genetic risk. Based on a recently-improved understanding of factors that influence Ne and Ne /N in species with overlapping generations, this paper evaluates conditions necessary to produce tiny Ne /N ratios in actual populations. These analyses show that although increased longevity, fecundity and variance in reproductive success that increase with age, and increased egg quality with age [the big old fat fecund female fish (BOFFFF) hypothesis] all reduce Ne /N, extreme scenarios are required to reduce Ne /N below about 0·01. Therefore, tiny Ne /N ratios require some version of Hedgecock's 'sweepstakes' hypothesis, whereby only a few families reproduce successfully. Simulations using common genetically-based estimators show that, when true Ne is very large (≥10(6) ), a substantial fraction of point estimates of Ne /N can be 10(-3) or smaller. These results mean that tiny, genetically-based point estimates of Ne /N in large marine populations are expected to be quite common, even when the true Ne /N ratio is 'normal' (∼0·1 or higher). Very large samples of individuals can reduce, but not eliminate, this problem. The simulation results also emphasize the importance of considering deviations from model assumptions (e.g. non-random sampling; weak selection or migration) that may be relatively small (and hence can generally be ignored when the signal is strong) but can lead to substantial biases when the drift signal is weak, as is likely for

  20. Shared Physiological and Molecular Responses in Marine Fish and Invertebrates to Environmental Hypoxia: Potential Biomarkers of Adverse Impacts on Marine Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P.; Rahman, S.

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the effects of environmental exposure to hypoxia (dissolved oxygen: <2 mg/L) on critical physiological functions such as reproduction, growth and metabolism in both fish and invertebrates is essential for accurate predictions of its chronic impacts on marine communities. Marked disruption of reproduction and its endocrine control was observed in Atlantic croaker collected from the hypoxic region in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Recent research has shown that growth and its physiological upregulation is also impaired in hypoxia-exposed marine fish. Expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP), which inhibits growth, was increased in croaker livers, whereas plasma levels of IGF, the primary regulator of growth, were decreased in snapper after hypoxia exposure. In addition, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which regulates changes