Science.gov

Sample records for marine mammal fauna

  1. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  2. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  3. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  4. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine mammals... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  5. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  6. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  7. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...: The subject amendment to Permit No. 13602 was requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C...

  8. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. ADDRESSES... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  9. 76 FR 75524 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XO45 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The application and related documents are available for... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  10. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  11. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  12. Morbilliviruses in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Hall, A J

    1995-01-01

    Two of the three recently discovered aquatic morbilliviruses have been responsible for mass mortalities among marine mammals; both affect more than one host species, but susceptibility to infection varies considerably between species. Apparent differences between the dynamics of aquatic morbilliviruses and their terrestrial counterparts may be a consequence of high levels of interspecific transmission.

  13. Osmoregulation in marine mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Osmoregulation in marine mammals has been investigated for over a century; however, a review of recent advances in our understanding of water and electrolyte balance and of renal function in marine mammals is warranted. The following topics are discussed: (i) kidney structure and urine concentrating ability, (ii) sources of water, (iii) the effects of feeding, fasting and diving, (iv) the renal responses to infusions of varying salinity and (v) hormonal regulation. The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are reniculate in structure, unlike those of terrestrial mammals (except bears), but this difference does not confer any greater concentrating ability. Pinnipeds, cetaceans, manatees and sea otters can concentrate their urine above the concentration of sea water, but only pinnipeds and otters have been shown to produce urine concentrations of Na+ and Cl- that are similar to those in sea water. This could afford them the capacity to drink sea water and not lose fresh water. However, with few exceptions, drinking is not a common behavior in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Water balance is maintained in these animals via metabolic and dietary water, while incidental ingestion and dietary salt may help maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Unlike most other aquatic mammals, sea otters commonly drink sea water and manatees frequently drink fresh water. Among the various taxonomic groups of marine mammals, the sensitivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be influenced by the availability of Na+. The antidiuretic role of vasopressin remains inconclusive in marine mammals, while the natriuretic function of atrial natriuretic peptide has yet to be examined. Ideas on the direction of future studies are presented.

  14. 76 FR 72681 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Mammal Laboratory, (Responsible Party: Dr. John Bengtson, Director), Seattle, WA, has applied for an amendment to Scientific Research Permit No. 15126-01 for studies of marine mammals in Alaska. DATES: Written...

  15. Earliest known Australian Tertiary mammal fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godthelp, Henk; Archer, Michael; Cifelli, Richard; Hand, Suzanne J.; Gilkeson, Coral F.

    1992-04-01

    REMAINS of Early Eocene vertebrates from freshwater clays near Murgon, southeastern Queensland, represent Australia's oldest marsupials, bats, non-volant placentals, frogs, madtsoiid snakes, trionychid turtles1and birds. Radiometric dating of illites forming part of the matrix of the mammal-bearing zone has given a minimum age estimate of 54.6 +/- 0.05 x 106 years, which is roughly twice as old as any marsupials previously known from Australia2 and well before the 38 million year (Myr) separation of Australia from Antarctica/South America3. All marsupials so far known from the Tingamarra Local Fauna are more derived (being dilambdodont) than peradectids. None of them is clearly a member of a previously known Australian family, but some could be uniquely plesiomorphic dasyuroids or perameloids. Another is autapomorphically specialized and indicative of at least partial isolation of the Australian portion of Gondwana. Here we report on the discovery of a tooth of the earliest non-volant placental known from Australia, Tingamarra porterorum gen.et sp. nov., which seems to be a condylarth-like placental mammal. The presence of non-volant placentals in the Early Tertiary of Australia challenges a common presumption that marsupials dominated Australia's therian assemblages because of failure of such placentals to reach Australia before the Late Tertiary.

  16. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Westgate, J.W. )

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Canderlaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan, The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone 16 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  17. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westgate, James W.

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Candelaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan. The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone I6 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  18. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has been issued a permit to conduct ] scientific research on marine mammal parts. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available...

  19. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of...

  20. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal...

  1. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal...

  2. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal...

  3. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal...

  4. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal...

  5. 75 FR 27294 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Mammal Stranding Report/Marine Mammal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Mammal Stranding Report/Marine Mammal Rehabilitation Disposition Report AGENCY: National Oceanic and... mammal stranding report provides information on strandings so that the National Marine Fisheries Service... facilities. This information is submitted primarily by volunteer members of the marine mammal...

  6. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...

  7. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...

  8. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...

  9. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...

  10. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...

  11. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply: (1...

  12. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply: (1...

  13. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply: (1...

  14. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply: (1...

  15. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply: (1...

  16. Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: Decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement

    PubMed Central

    Woinarski, John C. Z.; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Harrison, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    The highly distinctive and mostly endemic Australian land mammal fauna has suffered an extraordinary rate of extinction (>10% of the 273 endemic terrestrial species) over the last ∼200 y: in comparison, only one native land mammal from continental North America became extinct since European settlement. A further 21% of Australian endemic land mammal species are now assessed to be threatened, indicating that the rate of loss (of one to two extinctions per decade) is likely to continue. Australia’s marine mammals have fared better overall, but status assessment for them is seriously impeded by lack of information. Much of the loss of Australian land mammal fauna (particularly in the vast deserts and tropical savannas) has been in areas that are remote from human population centers and recognized as relatively unmodified at global scale. In contrast to general patterns of extinction on other continents where the main cause is habitat loss, hunting, and impacts of human development, particularly in areas of high and increasing human population pressures, the loss of Australian land mammals is most likely due primarily to predation by introduced species, particularly the feral cat, Felis catus, and European red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and changed fire regimes. PMID:25675493

  17. Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement.

    PubMed

    Woinarski, John C Z; Burbidge, Andrew A; Harrison, Peter L

    2015-04-14

    The highly distinctive and mostly endemic Australian land mammal fauna has suffered an extraordinary rate of extinction (>10% of the 273 endemic terrestrial species) over the last ∼200 y: in comparison, only one native land mammal from continental North America became extinct since European settlement. A further 21% of Australian endemic land mammal species are now assessed to be threatened, indicating that the rate of loss (of one to two extinctions per decade) is likely to continue. Australia's marine mammals have fared better overall, but status assessment for them is seriously impeded by lack of information. Much of the loss of Australian land mammal fauna (particularly in the vast deserts and tropical savannas) has been in areas that are remote from human population centers and recognized as relatively unmodified at global scale. In contrast to general patterns of extinction on other continents where the main cause is habitat loss, hunting, and impacts of human development, particularly in areas of high and increasing human population pressures, the loss of Australian land mammals is most likely due primarily to predation by introduced species, particularly the feral cat, Felis catus, and European red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and changed fire regimes.

  18. Hydrodynamic Flow Control in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-06

    Hydrodynamic flow control in marine mammals Frank E. Fish,1,* Laurens E. Howle† and Mark M. Murray§ Department of Biology, West Chester University...the flow of water around the body dictates the performance of marine mammals in the aquatic environment. Morphological specializations of marine mammals ...and maneuverability. The morphological features of marine mammals for flow control can be utilized in the biomimetic design of engineered structures

  19. A new early Oligocene mammal fauna from the Sirt Basin, central Libya: Biostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Pauline M. C.; Beard, K. Christopher; Salem, Mustafa J.; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Brunet, Michel; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    We report the discovery of a new early Oligocene vertebrate fauna from the vicinity of Zallah Oasis in the Sirt Basin of central Libya. The Zallah Incision local fauna has been recovered from the base of a fluvial channel within a rock unit that has been mapped as "Continental and Transitional Marine Deposits." This rock unit has produced fossil vertebrates sporadically since the 1960s, but the Zallah Incision local fauna is the most diverse assemblage of fossil mammals currently known from this unit. In addition to lower vertebrates, the fauna includes an indeterminate sirenian, the anthracothere Bothriogenys, a new species of the hyracoid genus Thyrohyrax, new species of the hystricognathous rodent genera Metaphiomys and Neophiomys, Metaphiomys schaubi, and a new species of the parapithecid primate genus Apidium. The Zallah Incision local fauna from Libya appears to be close in age to Fayum quarries V and G in the Jebel Qatrani Formation of Egypt and the Taqah locality in the Ashawq Formation of Oman. Considered together, these early Oligocene faunas support a modest level of faunal provincialism across the northern part of Afro-Arabia during the early Oligocene.

  20. Early Cenozoic Differentiation of Polar Marine Faunas

    PubMed Central

    Crame, J. Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene – Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene) neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability. PMID:23342090

  1. Early cenozoic differentiation of polar marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Crame, J Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene) neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability.

  2. 75 FR 38991 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ..., Conservation and Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315... is likely to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption...

  3. 77 FR 51773 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC139 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Bird Mitigation Research in the Farallon National Wildlife Refuge AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  4. Lung Mechanics in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    lung mechanics in vivo during spontaneous breathing (dynamic) and mechanical ventilation (static), and the static compliance of the excised lung after...to depth. Physiological Zoology, 1982. 55(1): p. 105-111. 6. Fahlman, A., et al., Estimating the effect of lung collapse and pulmonary shunt on gas...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Lung Mechanics in Marine Mammals Andreas Fahlman

  5. Marine Mammals and Stress Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    measuring indicators of stress, and 3) identify scientific or regional topics for future stress-related research involving marine mammals, including...concentrations vary by region of capture in free- ranging Steller sea lion pups”. Bechshoft, T., Sonne, C., Meyer, J.S., Novak, M.A., Henchey, E., Riget, F.F...concentrations vary by region of capture in free-ranging Steller sea lion pups.” 7. Bechshøft, Thea - “Cortisol in polar bear hair; results and applications

  6. 76 FR 41486 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility off...

  7. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  8. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired by...

  9. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired by...

  10. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired by...

  11. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired by take or...

  12. Health risks for marine mammal workers.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tania D; Ziccardi, Michael H; Gulland, Frances M D; Yochem, Pamela K; Hird, David W; Rowles, Teresa; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2008-08-19

    Marine mammals can be infected with zoonotic pathogens and show clinical signs of disease, or be asymptomatic carriers of such disease agents. While isolated cases of human disease from contact with marine mammals have been reported, no evaluation of the risks associated with marine mammal work has been attempted. Therefore, we designed a survey to estimate the risk of work-related injuries and illnesses in marine mammal workers and volunteers. The 17-question survey asked respondents to describe their contact with marine mammals, injuries sustained, and/or illnesses acquired during their period of marine mammal exposure. Most respondents, 88% (423/483), were researchers and rehabilitators. Of all respondents, 50% (243/483) reported suffering an injury caused by a marine mammal, and 23% (110/483) reported having a skin rash or reaction. Marine mammal work-related illnesses commonly reported included: 'seal finger' (Mycoplasma spp. or Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae), conjunctivitis, viral dermatitis, bacterial dermatitis, and non-specific contact dermatitis. Although specific diagnoses could not be confirmed by a physician through this study, severe illnesses were reported and included tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis, and serious sequelae to seal finger. Risk factors associated with increased odds of injury and illness included prolonged and frequent exposure to marine mammals; direct contact with live marine mammals; and contact with tissue, blood, and excretions. Diagnosis of zoonotic disease was often aided by veterinarians; therefore, workers at risk should be encouraged to consult with a marine mammal veterinarian as well as a physician, especially if obtaining a definitive diagnosis for an illness becomes problematic.

  13. MARINE MAMMAL DISEASES: PATHOGENS AND PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide a concise overview of the pathogens and processes that alter the health of marine mammals. Viral disease is the most common etiology of significant mortality events in marine mammals. Discussion of viral disease focuses on effects in the ...

  14. MARINE MAMMAL DISEASES: PATHOGENS AND PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide a concise overview of the pathogens and processes that alter the health of marine mammals. Viral disease is the most common etiology of significant mortality events in marine mammals. Discussion of viral disease focuses on effects in the ...

  15. 76 FR 39386 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ..., from June 29 through November 19, 2010, trained graduate and undergraduate marine biology students... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project AGENCY: National Marine...

  16. Report on marine mammal stranding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released a report on 27 April indicating that U.S. Navy sonar transmissions may have played a role in the stranding of more than 150 melon-headed whales on 3 July 2004 off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii. At the time of the stranding, which resulted in one whale death, the Navy was preparing to conduct sonar activities as part of a military exercise. The report notes that six naval surface vessels transiting to the area on the previous night intermittenly transmitted mid-frequency active sonar. That activity is ``a plausible, if not likely, contributing factor'' to the stranding event. There was no significant weather, natural oceanographic event, or known biological factors that would explain the animals' movement into the bay nor the group's continued presence in the bay, according to report lead author Teri Rowles, NOAA marine mammal veterinarian.

  17. 77 FR 50289 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... implement. SAG members will include recognized marine biology and marine bio-acoustic scientific subject... Part 218 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations... Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed...

  18. Sound's effects on marine mammals need investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David M.

    Protecting marine mammals and conducting certain types of marine research, in particular, those that use sound in the ocean, have categorically come into conflict because of our lack of knowledge of the effects of low-frequency sound on marine mammals. Despite its intentions to improve Earth's overall environment, the proposed Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) project, and by implication, other uses of sound in the ocean by oceanographers, are now under fire because of the dearth of data on this very issue.By passing the 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act, the United States acknowledged that marine mammals are indeed a valuable national resource. Since World War II, the United States has developed and maintained a high-quality marine science research effort.

  19. 78 FR 28411 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Gulf of Mexico Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment only, incidental to a marine surveys program in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the open water season of 2013. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by Level B harassment, 13 species of marine mammals during the specified activity.

  20. 77 FR 49921 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ...NMFS received an application from ION Geophysical (ION) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment only, incidental to a proposed marine seismic survey in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, Alaska, between October and December 2012. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to ION to take, by harassment, nine species of marine mammals during the specified activity.

  1. 76 FR 9250 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... the general goals listed below: (1) Avoidance or minimization of injury or death of marine mammals... mammals to levels of sound likely to result in injury or death of marine mammals; (3) several cautionary... injured or killed and the injury or death could be associated with the Navy's activity. The injury...

  2. Marine mammals from the Miocene of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhen, Mark D.; Coates, Anthony G.; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Montes, Camilo; Pimiento, Catalina; Rincon, Aldo; Strong, Nikki; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Panama has produced an abundance of Neogene marine fossils both invertebrate (mollusks, corals, microfossils etc.) and vertebrate (fish, land mammals etc.), but marine mammals have not been previously reported. Here we describe a cetacean thoracic vertebra from the late Miocene Tobabe Formation, a partial cetacean rib from the late Miocene Gatun Formation, and a sirenian caudal vertebra and rib fragments from the early Miocene Culebra Formation. These finds suggest that Central America may yet provide additional fossil marine mammal specimens that will help us to understand the evolution, and particularly the biogeography of these groups.

  3. 78 FR 35507 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...NMFS received an application from TGS-NOPEC Geophysical Company ASA (TGS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment only, incidental to a marine 2- dimensional (2D) seismic survey program in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the open water season of 2013. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal......

  4. 78 FR 47495 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Gulf of Mexico Inc. (Shell) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 13 species of marine mammals incidental to a marine survey program in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2013 Arctic open-water season. Pursuant to......

  5. 76 FR 330 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Polar Bear Captures AGENCY: National Marine...) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to a capture- recapture program of polar bears in...-recapture program of polar bears in the U.S. Chukchi Sea. NMFS reviewed the USFWS' application...

  6. 78 FR 37209 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC564 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea,...

  7. 76 FR 51352 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... mammals by harassment incidental to the U.S. Navy's operation of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor...

  8. 77 FR 51969 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... mammals by harassment incidental to the U.S. Navy's operation of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor...

  9. 75 FR 51443 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... mammals by harassment incidental to the U.S. Navy's operation of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor...

  10. 75 FR 38465 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... graduate and undergraduate marine biology students conducted approximately 783 hours of scientific... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XQ80 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project AGENCY:...

  11. Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Koistinen, J; Beckmen, K; Evans, T; Gorzelany, J F; Hansen, K J; Jones, P D; Helle, E; Nyman, M; Giesy, J P

    2001-04-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluorinated molecule that has recently been identified in the sera of nonindustrially exposed humans. In this study, 247 tissue samples from 15 species of marine mammals collected from Florida, California, and Alaskan coastal waters; and northern Baltic Sea; the Arctic (Spitsbergen); and Sable Island in Canada were analyzed for PFOS. PFOS was detected in liver and blood of marine mammals from most locations including those from Arctic waters. The greatest concentrations of PFOS found in liver and blood were 1520 ng/g wet wt in a bottlenose dolphin from Sarasota Bay, FL, and 475 ng/mL in a ringed seal from the northern Baltic Sea (Bothnian Sea), respectively. No age-dependent increase in PFOS concentrations in marine mammals was observed in the samples analyzed. The occurrence of PFOS in marine mammals from the Arctic waters suggests widespread global distribution of PFOS including remote locations.

  12. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    PubMed

    Magera, Anna M; Mills Flemming, Joanna E; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B; Lotze, Heike K

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased study of

  13. Recovery Trends in Marine Mammal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Magera, Anna M.; Mills Flemming, Joanna E.; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B.; Lotze, Heike K.

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased

  14. 78 FR 57368 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar within the northwest...

  15. 76 FR 35995 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ..., upon application from Neptune LNG LLC (Neptune), issued regulations pursuant to the Marine Mammal... and recordkeeping requirements, Seafood, Transportation. Dated: June 14, 2011. John Oliver, Deputy...

  16. 77 FR 47045 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16580

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... receive, import and export marine mammal parts for scientific research. ADDRESSES: The permit and related... specimens for scientific research had been submitted by the above-named applicant. The requested permit has... authorized marine mammal research for all marine mammal species under NMFS jurisdiction. Marine mammal parts...

  17. 76 FR 35856 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued a one-year Letter of Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to... Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore...

  18. Establishing a Marine Mammal Stranding Network in the Bahamas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Marine Mammal Stranding Network in the Bahamas Diane Elaine Claridge Bahamas Marine Mammal Research Organisation P.O. Box AB...are to establish a marine mammal stranding network in the Bahamas to better understand the conservation needs of marine mammals in the Bahamas, with...well as the biology of marine mammals . The stranding network will be structured so that it will become self-sufficient and able to continue into

  19. 77 FR 25145 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ....D., Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua... conduct acoustic studies on captive marine mammals at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology through May... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA37 Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857...

  20. 78 FR 66336 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC956 Marine Mammals; File No. 17030 AGENCY...., Oregon State University, Marine Mammal Institute, Hatfield Marine Science Center, 2030 SE ] Marine... marine mammals specimens for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must be...

  1. 77 FR 48967 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17350

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... marine mammals of the following species: bearded seal (Erignathus ] barbatus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC067 Marine Mammals; File No. 17350 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  2. 77 FR 27283 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska.

  3. 77 FR 27321 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Gulf of Mexico Inc. (Shell) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska.

  4. 78 FR 80385 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...NMFS received an application from Apache Alaska Corporation (Apache) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to a proposed 3D seismic survey in Cook Inlet, Alaska, between March 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS requests comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Apache to take,......

  5. 76 FR 46729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Statoil USA E&P Inc. (Statoil) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 13 species of marine mammals incidental to shallow hazards and geotechnical surveys in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2011 Arctic open-water season.

  6. 77 FR 2040 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... NMFS modify these LOAs to include taking of marine mammals incidental to mine neutralization training...; CHPT: 74 FR 28370). The potential effects of mine neutralization training on marine mammals were... neutralization training has been included in the specified activity in the associated 2009, 2010, and 2011 LOAs...

  7. 77 FR 67797 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... mortality of pinnipeds. Any harassment resulting from the bird mitigation research trial is expected to be...' research trial may result in the incidental take of small numbers of marine mammals, by Level B harassment... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Bird Mitigation Research in the Farallon National...

  8. 78 FR 18965 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi Sea... harassment, incidental to conducting offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in... small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting offshore exploration...

  9. 77 FR 31333 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises in Three East Coast Range Complexes AGENCY: National...-2012 marine mammal monitoring report and the Navy's 2011-2012 exercise report are available by writing... training exercises. For detailed information on these actions, please refer to the June 15, 2009...

  10. Influenza Virus Infection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, Sasan; Munoz, Olga; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; De Nardi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Interspecies transmission may play a key role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. The importance of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 influenza viruses is not well understood. The fact that influenza viruses are some of the few zoonotic pathogens known to have caused infection in marine mammals, evidence for direct transmission of influenza A virus H7N7 subtype from seals to man, transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses to seals and also limited evidence for long-term persistence of influenza B viruses in seal populations without significant genetic change, makes monitoring of influenza viruses in marine mammal populations worth being performed. In addition, such monitoring studies could be a great tool to better understand the ecology of influenza viruses in nature.

  11. 77 FR 74507 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal... Gary Benmark 77 FR 41198; July 12, 2012 August 18, 2012. 045532 NOAA/National Marine 77 FR 41198;...

  12. 76 FR 32222 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal.... 27787A Virginia Aquarium & 76 FR 2408; January February 15, 2011. Marine Science 13, 2011. Center....

  13. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14329

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; File No. 14329 AGENCY: National Marine... has been issued to the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium (NPUMMRC... applicant. The requested permit amendment has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal...

  14. 77 FR 19004 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16621

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ...-XA915 Marine Mammals; File No. 16621 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The permit...

  15. 77 FR 25963 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...-XC010 Marine Mammals; File No. 14325 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  16. 78 FR 33811 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17941

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Marine Mammals; File No. 17941 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 17941 authorizes two...

  17. 76 FR 34053 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16314

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; File No. 16314 AGENCY: National Marine.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests a five-year permit to conduct photo...

  18. 77 FR 45592 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17157

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Administration RIN 0648-XC033 Marine Mammals; File No. 17157 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... University, 101 Bagby Ave, Waco, TX 76706 to receive, import and export marine mammal parts for scientific... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  19. 77 FR 6771 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor... harassment, incidental to conducting operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System (SURTASS)...

  20. Molecular profiling of marine fauna: integration of omics with environmental assessment of the world's oceans.

    PubMed

    Veldhoen, Nik; Ikonomou, Michael G; Helbing, Caren C

    2012-02-01

    Many species that contribute to the commercial and ecological richness of our marine ecosystems are harbingers of environmental change. The ability of organisms to rapidly detect and respond to changes in the surrounding environment represents the foundation for application of molecular profiling technologies towards marine sentinel species in an attempt to identify signature profiles that may reside within the transcriptome, proteome, or metabolome and that are indicative of a particular environmental exposure event. The current review highlights recent examples of the biological information obtained for marine sentinel teleosts, mammals, and invertebrates. While in its infancy, such basal information can provide a systems biology framework in the detection and evaluation of environmental chemical contaminant effects on marine fauna. Repeated evaluation across different seasons and local marine environs will lead to discrimination between signature profiles representing normal variation within the complex milieu of environmental factors that trigger biological response in a given sentinel species and permit a greater understanding of normal versus anthropogenic-associated modulation of biological pathways, which prove detrimental to marine fauna. It is anticipated that incorporation of contaminant-specific molecular signatures into current risk assessment paradigms will lead to enhanced wildlife management strategies that minimize the impacts of our industrialized society on marine ecosystems.

  1. 77 FR 25829 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ...NMFS received an application from BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BP) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment only, incidental to a proposed 3- dimensional (3D) ocean bottom cable (OBC) seismic survey in the Simpson Lagoon area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea during the open water season of 2012. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to BP to take, by Level B harassment, 11 species of marine mammals during the specified activity.

  2. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Sipuncula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Edward B.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Key to Sipuncula (Peanut Worms); (3) Annotated Systematic List of Species;…

  3. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Sipuncula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Edward B.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Key to Sipuncula (Peanut Worms); (3) Annotated Systematic List of Species;…

  4. 78 FR 23746 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17298

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ..., export, and receive marine mammal parts for scientific research. ADDRESSES: The permit and related... research on marine mammals parts had been submitted by the above-named applicant. The requested permit has...

  5. 76 FR 68974 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... aircraft. Shell has requested an authorization to take 11 marine mammal species by Level B harassment... Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM, formerly the Minerals Management Service) Alaska OCS...

  6. 75 FR 16754 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air... testing and training during Precision Strike Weapons (PSW) tests in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), a...

  7. 76 FR 7548 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air... testing and training during Precision Strike Weapons (PSW) testing and training in the Gulf of Mexico...

  8. 78 FR 63396 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... knowledge of the species and of the level of taking or impacts on populations of marine mammals that are... hours of the discovery. The Holder shall provide photographs or video footage or other documentation of...

  9. Classification and identification of marine mammals by their click signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goo, Gee-In

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, the author presents recent findings of applying passive Broadband Bionic Sonar technique to same data files with marine mammal "clicks". Using a resonance detection technique, a number of data files with mammal clicks were analyzed. From these data files, many unique mammal "click" signatures were observed. These results seem to indicate that individual marine mammals can be classified and possibly identified.

  10. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Marine Mammal Monitoring Eva-Marie Nosal Department of Ocean and Resources Engineering University of Hawaii at Manoa 2540 Dole Street Holmes...tracking marine mammals. When possible, tracking results are used to study marine mammal behavior and bioacoustics. OBJECTIVES The first...and applicability of model-based passive acoustic tracking methods for marine mammals: 1) Invert for sound speed profiles, hydrophone position and

  11. Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pompa, Sandra; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    We identified 20 global key conservation sites for all marine (123) and freshwater (6) mammal species based on their geographic ranges. We created geographic range maps for all 129 species and a Geographic Information System database for a 46,184 1° x 1° grid-cells, ∼10,000-km2. Patterns of species richness, endemism, and risk were variable among all species and species groups. Interestingly, marine mammal species richness was correlated strongly with areas of human impact across the oceans. Key conservation sites in the global geographic grid were determined either by their species richness or by their irreplaceability or uniqueness, because of the presence of endemic species. Nine key conservation sites, comprising the 2.5% of the grid cells with the highest species richness, were found, mostly in temperate latitudes, and hold 84% of marine mammal species. In addition, we identified 11 irreplaceable key conservation sites, six of which were found in freshwater bodies and five in marine regions. These key conservation sites represent critical areas of conservation value at a global level and can serve as a first step for adopting global strategies with explicit geographic conservation targets for Marine Protected Areas. PMID:21808012

  12. 77 FR 43109 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal...

  13. 75 FR 75490 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal...

  14. 76 FR 65208 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  15. 78 FR 62648 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ] ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  16. 76 FR 60863 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Species and Marine Mammal. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  17. 78 FR 34120 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  18. 78 FR 14819 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammal; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammal; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  19. 77 FR 19313 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  20. 78 FR 54481 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  1. 75 FR 65506 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ..., marine mammals or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  2. 76 FR 12991 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... species and marine mammals. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  3. 78 FR 17709 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... species, marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  4. 76 FR 27660 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  5. 77 FR 38653 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  6. 77 FR 58406 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  7. 78 FR 113 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  8. 76 FR 51051 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  9. 75 FR 69703 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife...-2010-N254; 96300-1671-0000-P5] Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  10. 76 FR 57758 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  11. 75 FR 57979 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and...

  12. 76 FR 18533 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15324

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA341 Marine Mammals; File No. 15324 AGENCY... research on marine mammals in Alaska. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments must be received on or... INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972...

  13. 77 FR 20793 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16599

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals; File No. 16599 AGENCY... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16...

  14. 76 FR 10560 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15530

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA160 Marine Mammals; File No. 15530 AGENCY... Research, 218 W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  15. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16998

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA914 Marine Mammals; File No. 16998 AGENCY... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered...

  16. 76 FR 81916 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16685

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA772 Marine Mammals; File No. 16685 AGENCY... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of... marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The permit authorizes photo-identification, behavioral studies and...

  17. 75 FR 16077 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15430

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV58 Marine Mammals; File No. 15430 AGENCY... requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The...

  18. 78 FR 51146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17429

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC766 Marine Mammals; File No. 17429 AGENCY... requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the...

  19. 75 FR 8303 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13430

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK26 Marine Mammals; File No. 13430 AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice; issuance of permit. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that NMFS National Marine Mammal... conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available for review...

  20. 76 FR 72178 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14334

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals; File No. 14334 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  1. 75 FR 16076 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15206

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV57 Marine Mammals; File No. 15206 AGENCY... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests authorization...

  2. 77 FR 34352 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB139 Marine Mammals; File No. 17178 AGENCY... 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 to import marine mammal parts for scientific research... (77 FR 19646) that a request for a permit to import marine mammal parts for scientific research had...

  3. 77 FR 40859 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14097

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX47 Marine Mammals; File No. 14097 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  4. 78 FR 51146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14535

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB161 Marine Mammals; File No. 14535 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.); and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 14535-02 authorizes the...

  5. 77 FR 58357 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17355

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC239 Marine Mammals; File No. 17355 AGENCY... to conduct research on marine mammals and sea turtles. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments... INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972...

  6. 77 FR 4765 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15142

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA963 Marine Mammals; File No. 15142 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant proposes to collect...

  7. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA288 Marine Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY... Alaska SeaLife Center (ASLC), Seward, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit... request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals had been ] submitted by the above-named...

  8. 76 FR 19976 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648- XA352 Marine Mammals; File No. 15537 AGENCY... public display permit application received from the Institute for Marine Mammal Studies (IMMS), P.O. Box... permit was received by the above-named applicant under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act...

  9. 76 FR 67151 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13927

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA774 Marine Mammals; File No. 13927 AGENCY... the activities requested by the applicant has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C...

  10. 78 FR 29117 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17005

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC439 Marine Mammals; File No. 17005 AGENCY... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). In...

  11. 75 FR 39665 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14791

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX38 Marine Mammals; File No. 14791 AGENCY... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973...

  12. 77 FR 3744 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA938 Marine Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY... applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, export, possess, and conduct analyses marine mammal... is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U...

  13. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15682

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA888 Marine Mammals; File No. 15682 AGENCY... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR ] part 216), the...

  14. 77 FR 60107 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17298

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC218 Marine Mammals; File No. 17298 AGENCY..., Connecticut 06355 , has applied in due form for a permit to collect, import, export, and receive marine mammal... requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361...

  15. 76 FR 329 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14330

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA122 Marine Mammals; File No. 14330 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  16. 77 FR 55456 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17410

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC210 Marine Mammals; File No. 17410 AGENCY... applied in due form for a permit to import, export, collect, and receive marine mammal parts for.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  17. 78 FR 56219 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC100 Marine Mammals; File No. 17115 AGENCY... permit amendment has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals...

  18. 77 FR 19646 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB139 Marine Mammals; File No. 17178 AGENCY... permit to import marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  19. 77 FR 54902 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17278

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC095 Marine Mammals; File No. 17278 AGENCY... 02215, to import and receive marine mammal parts for scientific research. ADDRESSES: The permit and... permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U...

  20. 77 FR 72829 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16305

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA807-X Marine Mammals; File No. 16305 AGENCY..., Portland, ME 04104-9300, to receive, import, and export marine mammal and sea turtle biological samples for... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  1. 75 FR 39665 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14534

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals; File No. 14534 AGENCY... research on marine mammals in the North Pacific Ocean. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are... research on a variety of marine mammals had been submitted by the above-named applicant. The requested...

  2. 77 FR 19649 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648- XA938 Marine Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY... 59851 to receive, import, export, and possess marine mammal specimens for scientific research. ADDRESSES... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the...

  3. 76 FR 48146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15330

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA160 Marine Mammals; File No. 15330 AGENCY... Robin Baird, PhD, Cascadia Research, 218\\1/2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501 to take marine mammals in... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  4. 76 FR 45232 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16443

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA597 Marine Mammals; File No. 16443 AGENCY... analyses marine mammal specimens for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments... the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  5. 77 FR 36488 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17350

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC067 Marine Mammals; File No. 17350 AGENCY... receive marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must be... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  6. 77 FR 51519 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17403

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC184 Marine Mammals; File No. 17403 AGENCY... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Section...

  7. 77 FR 19648 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16094

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA599 Marine Mammals; File No. 16094 AGENCY... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 16094, issued...

  8. 76 FR 2888 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16000

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA148 Marine Mammals; File No. 16000 AGENCY... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals...

  9. 77 FR 32081 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17236

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC050 Marine Mammals; File No. 17236 AGENCY.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The purpose of the research is to evaluate how environmental...

  10. 77 FR 26513 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15777

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC014 Marine Mammals; File No. 15777 AGENCY... to take marine mammals during scientific research in coastal waters and adjacent waters off the... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  11. 77 FR 58358 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14097

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX47 Marine Mammals; File No. 14097 AGENCY... has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  12. 77 FR 16539 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB084 Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico...

  13. 75 FR 20344 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Rocket Launches from...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Rocket Launches from Kodiak, AK AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... (Eumetopias jubatus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) incidental to rocket launches from... Steller sea lions and harbor seals, by harassment, incidental to rocket launches at KLC, became effective...

  14. 78 FR 25703 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Fisheries Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... (off the U.S. west coast), the Eastern Tropical Pacific Research Area, and the Antarctic Research Area (in the Antarctic Scotia Sea). It is possible that marine mammals may interact with fishing gear (e.g... and treaties related to the management of living marine resources in international waters outside...

  15. 75 FR 12734 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... repair and maintenance; and emergency and oil spill response training. Sections 1 and 2 of BP's... occurrence of oil spills. Petroleum development and associated activities in marine waters introduce sound... NMFS, BP requests authorization to take marine mammals incidental to operation of offshore oil and gas...

  16. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE...

  17. 76 FR 7824 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1791

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ...D, Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, Hawaii... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA197 Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1791 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  18. 76 FR 28422 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ..., Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, Hawaii 96734... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA384 Marine Mammals; File No. 16053 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  19. 77 FR 13295 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... E. Nachtigall, Ph.D., Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA384 Marine Mammals; File No. 16053 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  20. 75 FR 49465 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14682

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Whitlow Au, Ph.D., University of Hawaii, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Marine Mammal Research... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY09 Marine Mammals; File No. 14682 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  1. Marine Mammals in the Mediterranean Sea: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Notarbartolo di Sciara, G

    Despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the Mediterranean Sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. Species currently recognised as regular in the Mediterranean-the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus; Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis; long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas; Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus; killer whale, Orcinus orca; striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba; rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis; common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus; harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena relicta) have adapted well to the region's environmental conditions, but their coexistence with humans is problematic. All the regular species are represented in the Mediterranean by populations genetically distinct from their North Atlantic relatives. Seventeen other species (three pinnipeds and 14 cetaceans) occur or have occurred in the Mediterranean as vagrants from adjacent regions. Impacts on the conservation status of marine mammals in the region deriving from a variety of threats include: (a) mortality caused by deliberate killing (to a large extent resulting from fisheries interactions), naval sonar, ship strikes, epizootics, fisheries bycatch, chemical pollution and ingestion of solid debris; (b) short-term redistribution caused by naval sonar, seismic surveys, vessel disturbance and vessel noise; and (c) long-term redistribution caused by fishery-induced food depletion, coastal development and possibly climate change. Accordingly, seven of the 12 marine mammals regular in the Mediterranean region are listed as Threatened on IUCN's Red List; regrettably, three are Data Deficient and two remain unassessed.

  2. Studies of Noise Compensation in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    were fully tested by collecting data of exhibit noise and calls from beluga whales at the Mystic Aquarium to determine if captive beluga whales ...sound by marine mammals. OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this project is to test hypotheses regarding right whale vocal adjustment to...compensate for noise with data from Southern right whales (Eubalaena australis). APPROACH The approach for this study is to test hypotheses

  3. A comparative analysis of marine mammal tracheas.

    PubMed

    Moore, Colby; Moore, Michael; Trumble, Stephen; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; McLellan, William; Costidis, Alexander; Fahlman, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In 1940, Scholander suggested that stiffened upper airways remained open and received air from highly compressible alveoli during marine mammal diving. There are few data available on the structural and functional adaptations of the marine mammal respiratory system. The aim of this research was to investigate the anatomical (gross) and structural (compliance) characteristics of excised marine mammal tracheas. Here, we defined different types of tracheal structures, categorizing pinniped tracheas by varying degrees of continuity of cartilage (categories 1-4) and cetacean tracheas by varying compliance values (categories 5A and 5B). Some tracheas fell into more than one category along their length; for example, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) demonstrated complete rings cranially, and as the trachea progressed caudally, tracheal rings changed morphology. Dolphins and porpoises had less stiff, more compliant spiraling rings while beaked whales had very stiff, less compliant spiraling rings. The pressure-volume (P-V) relationships of isolated tracheas from different species were measured to assess structural differences between species. These findings lend evidence for pressure-induced collapse and re-inflation of lungs, perhaps influencing variability in dive depth or ventilation rates of the species investigated.

  4. 77 FR 31585 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16388

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB154 Marine Mammals; File No. 16388 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  5. 78 FR 53732 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC010 Marine Mammals; File No. 14325 AGENCY... amendment to Permit No. 14325-02 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of... mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), the...

  6. 78 FR 21113 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17845

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC599 Marine Mammals; File No. 17845 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  7. 77 FR 33444 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17217

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB159 Marine Mammals; File No. 17217 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). In compliance with the National Environmental...

  8. 76 FR 32144 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ51 Marine Mammals; File No. 15543 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The permit authorizes annual takes of up to 15...

  9. 77 FR 50472 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA288 Marine Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The amended permit authorizes takes of 35...

  10. 77 FR 19645 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16111

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA626 Marine Mammals; File No. 16111 AGENCY... form for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the...

  11. 78 FR 17639 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17941

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC544 Marine Mammals; File No. 17941 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant is requesting...

  12. 77 FR 27441 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13927

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA774 Marine Mammals; File No. 13927 AGENCY... amendment to Permit No. 13927 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972... mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and...

  13. Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, C. B.; Finlayson, J. C.; Barton, R. N. E.; Fernández-Jalvo, Y.; Cáceres, I.; Sabin, R. C.; Rhodes, E. J.; Currant, A. P.; Rodríguez-Vidal, J.; Giles-Pacheco, F.; Riquelme-Cantal, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two coastal sites in Gibraltar, Vanguard and Gorham's Caves, located at Governor's Beach on the eastern side of the Rock, are especially relevant to the study of Neanderthals. Vanguard Cave provides evidence of marine food supply (mollusks, seal, dolphin, and fish). Further evidence of marine mammal remains was also found in the occupation levels at Gorham's Cave associated with Upper Paleolithic and Mousterian technologies [Finlayson C, et al. (2006) Nature 443:850–853]. The stratigraphic sequence of Gibraltar sites allows us to compare behaviors and subsistence strategies of Neanderthals during the Middle Paleolithic observed at Vanguard and Gorham's Cave sites. This evidence suggests that such use of marine resources was not a rare behavior and represents focused visits to the coast and estuaries. PMID:18809913

  14. Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied.

  15. 77 FR 23547 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Columbia River Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ...NMFS has received a request from the Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Authority (FTA) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), on behalf of the Columbia River Crossing project (CRC), for authorization to take marine mammals incidental to bridge construction and demolition activities at the Columbia River and North Portland Harbor, Washington and Oregon, over the course of 5 years from approximately July 2013 through June 2018. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is proposing regulations to govern that take and requests information, suggestions, and comments on these proposed regulations.

  16. 75 FR 54851 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY75 Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico...

  17. 75 FR 28566 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW34 Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico...

  18. 75 FR 31423 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW70 Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico...

  19. 78 FR 42041 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC100 Marine Mammals; File No. 17115 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...-00 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16...

  20. 77 FR 4013 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15126

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals; File No. 15126 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Permit No. 15126-01 has been issued to NMFS National Marine Mammal Laboratory (Responsible Party:...

  1. 75 FR 10216 - Marine Mammals; File No. 358-1787

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...: 2010-4683] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR83 Marine Mammals; File No. 358-1787 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The amended permit allows an increase in the...

  2. 77 FR 73988 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17152

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC136 Marine Mammals; File No. 17152 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and...

  3. 75 FR 55738 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15654

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY93 Marine Mammals; File No. 15654 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16...

  4. 76 FR 59663 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16472

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA576 Marine Mammals; File No. 16472 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., (Responsible Party: George Watters, PhD, Director) to take marine mammals for scientific research....

  5. 76 FR 4867 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15453

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA172 Marine Mammals; File No. 15453 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16...

  6. 75 FR 14425 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14486

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT56 Marine Mammals; File No. 14486 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... issued a permit to receive, import, and export marine mammal parts for purposes of scientific...

  7. 75 FR 76956 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15415

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA076 Marine Mammals; File No. 15415 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  8. 76 FR 70418 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16124

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA817 Marine Mammals; File No. 16124 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  9. 76 FR 43988 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14525

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ86 Marine Mammals; File No. 14525 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...), 16111 Plummer St., North Hills, CA 91343, to import and export marine mammal specimens for...

  10. 76 FR 51002 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16553

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA641 Marine Mammals; File No. 16553 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  11. 77 FR 73986 - Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC371 Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Scientific Research on marine mammals. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for a list of names and address...

  12. 77 FR 3495 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...; FXIA16710900000P5-123-FF09A30000] Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), have issued the following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine...

  13. 75 FR 65005 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ53 Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). This affirmative finding will allow yellowfin tuna...

  14. [Problems of disposal of dead marine mammals].

    PubMed

    Stede, M

    1997-07-01

    Feasibilities and limits to dispose stranded large whales and the risk of the staff during the salvage and dissection of these animals are described here. The influence on the environment by leaving large marine mammals in the place of stranding are exemplary discussed in connection with the accumulation of toxins of Clostridium botulinum in the food chain as a source of danger for water fowls of the coastal region. Therefore carcasses of whales must be removed from the shore after their stranding. Under special circumstances the carcasses could be lowered into a dune.

  15. Viruses and virus diseases of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Skilling, D E

    1979-11-01

    Poxvirus and several serotypes of calicivirus cause recognizable disease in marine mammals. Pox lesions in pinnipeds are raised and proliferative and are seen most frequently after confinement in captivity. In cetaceans, a poxvirus is associated with a much more benign and chronic lesion called a "tattoo." Numerous caliciviruses of differing antigenic types have been isolated from vesicular lesions and aborted fetuses of northern fur seals and California sea lions as well as from clinically normal and orphaned northern elephant seal pups. An adenovirus has been isolated from a sei whale and an enterovirus has been isolated from a gray whale.

  16. Improving Visual Survey Capabilities for Marine Mammal Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    ONR Marine Mammals and Biology (MMB) program has funded a project to conduct marine mammal visual surveys in the Bay of Bengal as part of the ONR...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Improving visual survey capabilities for marine mammal...studies Mark Baumgartner Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Biology Department, MS #33 266 Woods Hole Road Woods Hole, MA 02543 phone: (508

  17. 76 FR 37066 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... table with incorrect information regarding the occurrence and densities of marine mammals that may occur... densities of marine mammals that may occur in or near the proposed seismic survey area. Accordingly, Table 2...

  18. 76 FR 3092 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Mission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Mission Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City... Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division (NSWC PCD) to the Commander, U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division, 110 Vernon Avenue, Panama City, FL 32407-7001 and persons...

  19. 75 FR 28587 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    .... The launch azimuths caused the vehicles to pass over or near various pinniped monitoring and acoustic measurement sites where Autonomous Terrestrial Acoustic Recorders (ATARs) and video systems had been deployed... operations from SNI on marine mammals involve both acoustic and non-acoustic effects. Acoustic effects...

  20. 75 FR 41440 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... submerged buoy system to dock specifically designed LNG carriers approximately 22 mi (35 km) northeast of... to two SRVs will temporarily moor at the Port by means of a submerged unloading buoy system. Two... Mandatory Ship Reporting System (MSRS), the USCG, or the marine mammal observers (MMOs) at the repair site...

  1. 77 FR 46733 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... incidental to mine neutralization training using Time Delay Firing Devices (TDFDs) within the MIRC, along...). The potential effects of mine neutralization training on marine mammals were comprehensively analyzed in the final regulations for this Range Complex and mine neutralization training has been included in...

  2. 78 FR 51147 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... monitoring systems; and (5) exacting funds from TGS to support accelerated mitigation research in this area... Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2013 Arctic open-water season. DATES: Effective August 14, 2013, through... harassment of small numbers of marine mammals incidental to conducting an open-water 2D seismic survey in the...

  3. 77 FR 9628 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Mission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... sea turtle species during pre-test, during-test, and post-test monitoring for both sonar events. No stranded or injured marine mammals or sea turtles were observed during either aerial monitoring effort... Atlantic spotted dolphins; and seven groups of unidentified dolphins. The second monitoring event...

  4. 76 FR 4093 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Exploration Drilling Programs in the Chukchi and.... (Shell) incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the... IHAs were not issued, and Shell did not conduct the proposed exploration drilling programs in...

  5. 78 FR 24731 - Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi Sea... drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2014 open-water... exploration drilling in the Chukchi Sea during the 2014 open- ] water season. NMFS published a Notice...

  6. 77 FR 23463 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch Operations at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska... two species of pinnipeds incidental to space vehicle and missile launch operations at the Kodiak... vitulina) (adults by harassment and pups by injury or mortality), incidental to space vehicle and...

  7. 78 FR 43861 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...-range ballistic target missiles, and other smaller missile systems at the KLC. The AAC has complied with... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch Operations at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska... two species of pinnipeds incidental to space vehicle and missile launch operations at the...

  8. 76 FR 34157 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... LNG LLC (Neptune), is issuing regulations pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) to... viewing at http://www.regulations.gov by entering the search words ``Neptune LNG.'' FOR FURTHER... the construction phase of the Neptune LNG Port Facility. In June 2008, NMFS issued a 1-year Incidental...

  9. 77 FR 31537 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... sight and sound of commercial fireworks. Fireworks displays are limited in duration by MBNMS... year and, as a result, marine mammals will be exposed to elevated levels of sound as well as increased... six of these species are likely to be present in the acute impact area (the area where sound, light...

  10. Bacteria and fungi of marine mammals: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R

    2000-01-01

    A list of the different bacterial and fungal agents isolated from marine mammals in different parts of the world is presented. Importance is given to some of the most recently identified bacterial agents, including Actinobacillus delphinicola, A. scotiae, and Brucella spp. A list, in alphabetical order, of bacteria recovered from different tissues or organs from marine mammals is presented for the integumentary, respiratory, digestive, genitourinary, and reticuloendothelial systems. Infectious bacterial agents associated with abscesses and with cases of septicemia are also listed. Information about the different fungal agents recovered from marine mammals is summarized. A section covering some of the zoonotic infectious agents recovered from marine mammals is included. PMID:10723596

  11. Pyrethroids: a new threat to marine mammals?

    PubMed

    Alonso, Mariana B; Feo, Maria Luisa; Corcellas, Cayo; Vidal, Lara G; Bertozzi, Carolina P; Marigo, Juliana; Secchi, Eduardo R; Bassoi, Manuela; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Dorneles, Paulo R; Torres, João Paulo M; Lailson-Brito, José; Malm, Olaf; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2012-10-15

    The present study constitutes the first investigation to demonstrate pyrethroid bioaccumulation in marine mammals, despite the assumption that these insecticides are converted to non-toxic metabolites by hydrolysis in mammals. Twelve pyrethroids were determined in liver samples from 23 male franciscana dolphins from Brazil. The median concentration values for total pyrethroids were 7.04 and 68.4 ng/g lw in adults and calves, respectively. Permethrin was the predominant compound, contributing for 55% of the total pyrethroids. Results showed a distinct metabolic balance of pyrethroids through dolphin life. High loads are received at the beginning of their lives and, when they reach sexual maturity, these mammals seem to degrade/metabolize pyrethroids. Maternal transfer of these compounds was also evaluated through the analysis of breast milk and placenta samples. Pyrethroids were detected in both matrices, with values between 2.53-4.77 ng/g lw and 331-1812 ng/g lw, respectively. Therefore, for the first time, a study shows mother-to-calf transfer of pyrethroids by both gestational and lactation pathways in dolphins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 78 FR 30873 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to construction activities as part of a pier replacement project. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to the Navy to take, by Level B Harassment only, four species of marine mammals during the specified activity.

  13. 76 FR 6406 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to construction activities as part of a pile replacement project. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to the Navy to take, by Level B Harassment only, five species of marine mammals during the specified activity.

  14. 78 FR 29705 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to construction activities as part of a wharf construction project. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to the Navy to take, by Level B Harassment only, six species of marine mammals during the specified activity.

  15. 78 FR 28809 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17410

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC210 Marine Mammals; File No. 17410 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...

  16. 78 FR 42757 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17411

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC541 Marine Mammals; File No. 17411 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce.... Jennifer Burns, University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, Anchorage, AK, to conduct research...

  17. 78 FR 49479 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17996

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC614 Marine Mammals; File No. 17996 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  18. 77 FR 33198 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17159

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB110 Marine Mammals; File No. 17159 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  19. 76 FR 13605 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15616

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA123 Marine Mammals; File No. 15616 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  20. Predation selectively culls medium-sized species from island mammal faunas.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Emily; Cardillo, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Globally, elevated extinction risk in mammals is strongly associated with large body size. However, in regions where introduced predators exert strong top-down pressure on mammal populations, the selectivity of extinctions may be skewed towards species of intermediate body size, leading to a hump-shaped relationship between size and extinction risk. The existence of this kind of extinction pattern, and its link to predation, has been contentious and difficult to demonstrate. Here, we test the hypothesis of a hump-shaped body size-extinction relationship, using a database of 927 island mammal populations. We show that the size-selectivity of extinctions on many islands has exceeded that expected under null models. On islands with introduced predators, extinctions are biased towards intermediate body sizes, but this bias does not occur on islands without predators. Hence, on islands with a large-bodied mammal fauna, predators are selectively culling species from the lower end of the size distribution, and on islands with a small-bodied fauna they are culling species from the upper end. These findings suggest that it will be difficult to use predictable generalizations about extinction patterns, such as a positive body size-extinction risk association, to anticipate future species declines and plan conservation strategies accordingly.

  1. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna

    PubMed Central

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I.; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L. Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-01-01

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic–biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night. PMID:27680661

  2. Bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora and fauna.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen-Fang; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2012-09-01

    In recent decades, the pharmaceutical application potential of marine natural products has attracted much interest from both natural product chemists and pharmacologists. Our group has long been engaged in the search for bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora (such as mangroves and algae) and fauna (including sponges, soft corals, and mollusks), resulting in the isolation and characterization of numerous novel secondary metabolites spanning a wide range of structural classes and various biosynthetic origins. Of particular interest is the fact that many of these compounds show promising biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, and enzyme inhibitory effects. By describing representative studies, this review presents a comprehensive summary regarding the achievements and progress made by our group in the past decade. Several interesting examples are discussed in detail.

  3. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna.

    PubMed

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-09-29

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic-biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night.

  4. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    understand how marine mammals respond to 3 climate variability and anthropogenic stressors. Dr. Crocker received a Ph.D. in Biology from University of...California, Santa Cruz. Dr. James E. Estes (NAS)—University of California, Santa Cruz Dr. Estes is a professor of ecology and marine biology at the...behavior, and/or physiology; marine mammal health (e.g., toxicology); terrestrial and/or marine population biology ; quantitative ecology; population

  5. Marine mammal zoonoses: a review of disease manifestations.

    PubMed

    Waltzek, T B; Cortés-Hinojosa, G; Wellehan, J F X; Gray, Gregory C

    2012-12-01

    Marine mammals evoke strong public affection as well as considerable scientific interest. However, the resultant close contact with marine wildlife poses human health risks, including traumatic injury and zoonotic disease transmission. The majority of zoonotic marine mammal diseases result in localized skin infections in man that resolve spontaneously or with appropriate medical therapy. However, other marine mammal zoonoses, if left untreated, induce life-threatening systemic diseases that could pose public health risks. As the number of zoonotic diseases rises, the diagnosis of and treatment for these emerging pathogens pose special challenges requiring the expertise of physicians, veterinarians and wildlife biologists. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the bacterial, viral and fungal marine mammal zoonotic diseases that we hope will be utilized by public health professionals, physicians, veterinarians and wildlife biologists to better understand, diagnose and prevent marine mammal zoonotic diseases. 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH

  6. Multispecies mass mortality of marine fauna linked to a toxic dinoflagellate bloom

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Michel; Lair, Stéphane; Michaud, Sonia; Scarratt, Michael; Quilliam, Michael; Lefaivre, Denis; Robert, Michel; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Michaud, Robert; Ménard, Nadia; Sauvé, Gilbert; Lessard, Sylvie; Béland, Pierre; Measures, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Following heavy precipitation, we observed an intense algal bloom in the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) that coincided with an unusually high mortality of several species of marine fish, birds and mammals, including species designated at risk. The algal species was identified as Alexandrium tamarense and was determined to contain a potent mixture of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Significant levels of PST were found in the liver and/or gastrointestinal contents of several carcasses tested as well as in live planktivorous fish, molluscs and plankton samples collected during the bloom. This provided strong evidence for the trophic transfer of PST resulting in mortalities of multiple wildlife species. This conclusion was strengthened by the sequence of mortalities, which followed the drift of the bloom along the coast of the St. Lawrence Estuary. No other cause of mortality was identified in the majority of animals examined at necropsy. Reports of marine fauna presenting signs of neurological dysfunction were also supportive of exposure to these neurotoxins. The event reported here represents the first well-documented case of multispecies mass mortality of marine fish, birds and mammals linked to a PST-producing algal bloom. PMID:28472048

  7. 78 FR 69825 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... (southern stock) animals, which are currently considered unnamed subspecies (Committee on Taxonomy, 2012... biological importance to marine mammals present in the marine waters in the vicinity of the project area...

  8. 76 FR 7823 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13602

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals; File No. 13602 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., Long Marine Lab, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California at Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer...

  9. 75 FR 28236 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13602

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals; File No. 13602 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce.... Terrie Williams, Long Marine Lab, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California at Santa...

  10. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut ...Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  11. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut ...REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

  12. 78 FR 12780 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have issued the following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA).

  13. 77 FR 300 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have issued the following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act...

  14. Marine Mammal Transmitter for porpoise tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, W. G.

    The Marine Mammal Transmitter (MMT) forms part of the equipment to be used in a worldwide Porpoise Tracking System. Knowledge of porpoise migration, distribution characteristics, and population estimates are needed to aid in protection of the porpoise. A major problem is suffocation of porpoises when they are caught in tuna purse seine fishing nets. Location of the porpoise can be determined to within + or - 5 kilometers. The MMT utilizes low power CMOS integrated circuits in timing and control circuits to extend battery life. The MMT with battery pack is contained in two cylinders which are two inches in diameter and 8.5 inches long. The unit is mounted to the porpoise's dorsal fin with a vertical quarter wave monopole antenna extending from one of the cylinders. A signal from the MMT is transmitted to the Nimbus satellite. From there the information is later transmitted to a ground receiver and a data processing facility.

  15. Round table on morbilliviruses in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Barrett, T; Blixenkrone-Møller, M; Domingo, M; Harder, T; Have, P; Liess, B; Orvell, C; Osterhaus, A D; Plana, J; Svansson, V

    1992-11-01

    Since 1988 morbilliviruses have been increasingly recognized and held responsible for mass mortality amongst harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and other seal species. Virus isolations and characterization proved that morbilliviruses from seals in Northwest Europe were genetically distinct from other known members of this group including canine distemper virus (CDV), rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus and measles virus. An epidemic in Baikal seals in 1987 was apparently caused by a morbillivirus closely related to CDV so that two morbilliviruses have now been identified in two geographically distant seal populations, with only the group of isolates from Northwest Europe forming a new member of the genus morbillivirus: phocid distemper virus (PDV). Because of distemper-like disease, the Baikal seal morbillivirus was tentatively named PDV-2 in spite of its possible identity with CDV. The appearance of morbilliviruses in the Mediterranean Sea causing high mortality amongst dolphins should further increase the research activities on protection strategies for endangered species of marine mammals.

  16. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (< 0.1 microgram/g), followed by ringed seal, (0.1-1 microgram/g range). Levels are an order of magnitude higher in beluga and narwhal (1-10 micrograms/g range). It appears that metabolism and excretion of S-DDT and PCBs may be less efficient in cetaceans, leading to greater biomagnification. Polar bears have similar levels of PCBs as cetaceans (1-10 micrograms/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are lowest in polar bear, indicating rapid metabolism. Effects of age and sex on residue levels are found for all species where this was measured. Among cetaceans and ringed seal, sexually mature females have lower levels than males due to lactation. Although PCB levels in adult male polar bears are about twice as high as females, there is only a trivial age effect in either sex apart from an initial decrease from birth to sexual maturity (age 0-5). Comparison of levels of S-DDT and PCBs in Arctic beluga and ringed seal with those in beluga in the Gulf of St

  17. Marine mammal audibility of selected shallow-water survey sources.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, Alexander O; Racca, Roberto; Li, Zizheng

    2014-01-01

    Most attention about the acoustic effects of marine survey sound sources on marine mammals has focused on airgun arrays, with other common sources receiving less scrutiny. Sound levels above hearing threshold (sensation levels) were modeled for six marine mammal species and seven different survey sources in shallow water. The model indicated that odontocetes were most likely to hear sounds from mid-frequency sources (fishery, communication, and hydrographic systems), mysticetes from low-frequency sources (sub-bottom profiler and airguns), and pinnipeds from both mid- and low-frequency sources. High-frequency sources (side-scan and multibeam) generated the lowest estimated sensation levels for all marine mammal species groups.

  18. Marine mammal harvests and other interactions with humans.

    PubMed

    Hovelsrud, Grete K; McKenna, Meghan; Huntington, Henry P

    2008-03-01

    The Arctic is currently undergoing rapid social and environmental changes, and while the peoples of the north have a long history of adapting, the current changes in climate pose unprecedented challenges to the marine mammal-human interactions in the Arctic regions. Arctic marine mammals have been and remain an important resource for many of the indigenous and nonindigenous people of the north. Changes in climate are likely to bring about profound changes to the environment in which these animals live and subsequently to the hunting practices and livelihoods of the people who hunt them. Climate change will lead to reduction in the sea ice extent and thickness and will likely increase shipping through the Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage and oil and gas activities in Arctic areas previously inaccessible. Such activities will lead to more frequent interactions between humans and marine mammals. These activities may also change the distribution of marine mammals, affecting the hunters. This paper has three parts. First, an overview of marine mammal harvesting activities in the different circumpolar regions provides a snapshot of current practices and conditions. Second, case studies of selected Arctic regions, indigenous groups, and species provide insight into the manner in which climate change is already impacting marine mammal harvesting activities in the Arctic. Third, we describe how climate change is likely to affect shipping and oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Arctic and describe the possible implications of these changes for the marine mammal populations. We conclude that many of the consequences of climate change are likely to be negative for marine mammal hunters and for marine mammals. Lack of adequate baseline data, however, makes it difficult to identify specific causal mechanisms and thus to develop appropriate conservation measures. Nonetheless, the future of Arctic marine mammals and human uses of them depends on

  19. Dynamic Energy Budgets and Bioaccumulation: A Model for Marine Mammals and Marine Mammal Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    extensively used in medicine to determine proper drug dosage (e.g. Levin et al 1982, Nestorov 2003 (review)) and ecology to determine effects of exposure to...5 2.9.3 Pharmacokinetics (DLs and CI) ...................... 85 3 Bioaccumulation and effects of exposure in marine mammal popu- lations 87 3.1...97 3.2.4 The individual-based model ...... ................... 98 3.3 Results ......... ................................... 103 3.3.1 Effects of

  20. Annual report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1984. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-31

    Contents include: reauthorization and amendment of the Marine Mammal Protection Act; research and studies program; international aspects of marine mammal protection and conservation; marine mammal/fishery interactions; incidental take of marine mammals in the course of commercial fishing operations; species of special concern; marine mammal management in Alaska; Outer Continental Shelf oil, gas, and hard minerals development; marine mammal maintenance standards and regulations; permit process.

  1. 77 FR 4765 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA879 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Northwest Pacific Ocean, March Through April 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  2. 77 FR 3233 - National Policy for Distinguishing Serious From Non-Serious Injuries of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... results into marine mammal stock assessment reports and marine mammal conservation management regimes (e.g... Directives for distinguishing serious from non-serious injuries of marine mammals, and NMFS' responses to... mammal stock assessment reports and marine mammal conservation management regimes. Dated: January 17...

  3. 78 FR 54867 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, Level A Stranding and Rehabilitation Disposition Data Sheet... mammals while in rehabilitation status. The data from the marine mammal rehabilitation disposition report...

  4. Differential extinction and the contrasting structure of polar marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Krug, Andrew Z; Jablonski, David; Roy, Kaustuv; Beu, Alan G

    2010-12-22

    The low taxonomic diversity of polar marine faunas today reflects both the failure of clades to colonize or diversify in high latitudes and regional extinctions of once-present clades. However, simple models of polar evolution are made difficult by the strikingly different faunal compositions and community structures of the two poles. A comparison of early Cenozoic Arctic and Antarctic bivalve faunas with modern ones, within the framework of a molecular phylogeny, shows that while Arctic losses were randomly distributed across the tree, Antarctic losses were significantly concentrated in more derived families, resulting in communities dominated by basal lineages. Potential mechanisms for the phylogenetic structure to Antarctic extinctions include continental isolation, changes in primary productivity leading to turnover of both predators and prey, and the effect of glaciation on shelf habitats. These results show that phylogenetic consequences of past extinctions can vary substantially among regions and thus shape regional faunal structures, even when due to similar drivers, here global cooling, and provide the first phylogenetic support for the "retrograde" hypothesis of Antarctic faunal evolution.

  5. Differential Extinction and the Contrasting Structure of Polar Marine Faunas

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Andrew Z.; Jablonski, David; Roy, Kaustuv; Beu, Alan G.

    2010-01-01

    Background The low taxonomic diversity of polar marine faunas today reflects both the failure of clades to colonize or diversify in high latitudes and regional extinctions of once-present clades. However, simple models of polar evolution are made difficult by the strikingly different faunal compositions and community structures of the two poles. Methodology/Principal Findings A comparison of early Cenozoic Arctic and Antarctic bivalve faunas with modern ones, within the framework of a molecular phylogeny, shows that while Arctic losses were randomly distributed across the tree, Antarctic losses were significantly concentrated in more derived families, resulting in communities dominated by basal lineages. Potential mechanisms for the phylogenetic structure to Antarctic extinctions include continental isolation, changes in primary productivity leading to turnover of both predators and prey, and the effect of glaciation on shelf habitats. Conclusions/Significance These results show that phylogenetic consequences of past extinctions can vary substantially among regions and thus shape regional faunal structures, even when due to similar drivers, here global cooling, and provide the first phylogenetic support for the “retrograde” hypothesis of Antarctic faunal evolution. PMID:21203524

  6. Marine Mammals and Noise-Progress Since 1995

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals & Noise - Progress Since 1995 Christine...Erbe Centre for Marine Science & Technology Curtin University GPO Box U1987 Perth, WA 6845, Australia phone: +61-8-9266 7380 email: c.erbe...effects of underwater noise on marine mammals has grown steadily over the last few decades. Results and information are scattered across the peer

  7. 75 FR 38988 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14636

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV90 Marine Mammals; File No. 14636 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...., University of California at Santa Cruz, Long Marine Laboratory, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA has...

  8. 75 FR 10463 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15126

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals; File No. 15126 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that NMFS National Marine...

  9. 78 FR 21112 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16992 and 14535

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ..., Ph.D., Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, HI 96734, has... of Marine Biology in Kaneohe, HI. Researchers would conduct hearing measurements using suction cup... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB161 Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16992 and...

  10. 78 FR 37796 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17952

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Daniel P. Costa, Ph.D., Department of Biology and Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC554 Marine Mammals; File No. 17952 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  11. 78 FR 42935 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16992

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... Nachtigall, Ph.D., Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, HI 96734... Marine Biology in Kaneohe, Hawaii. Researchers will conduct hearing measurements using suction cup... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB161 Marine Mammals; File No. 16992...

  12. 78 FR 15933 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17952

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ...., Department of Biology and Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, has... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC554 Marine Mammals; File No. 17952 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  13. 75 FR 1029 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14486

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...: 2010-139] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT56 Marine Mammals; File No. 14486 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., Responsible Party), has applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, and export marine...

  14. New magnetochronology of Late Miocene mammal fauna, NE Tibetan Plateau, China: Mammal migration and paleoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Dekkers, Mark J.; Roberts, Andrew P.; An, Zhisheng; Li, Yongxiang; Lu, Fengyan; Lin, Shan; Li, Xingwen

    2016-01-01

    Lanzhou Basin lies on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in western China and is a rich source of Oligocene-Miocene mammalian fossils. Obtaining precise age determinations for these fossils is important to address key questions concerning mammalian and environmental evolution in Asia associated with stepwise Tibetan Plateau uplift. Here we report a new magnetostratigraphic record for the Xingjiawan fluvio-lacustrine section from the northwestern margin of Lanzhou Basin that can be correlated to the geomagnetic polarity timescale with two options. The Late Miocene Xingjiawan Fauna is located either at the boundary between reversed polarity chron C4r.1r and normal polarity chron C4n.2n or at the boundary between subchrons C5r.1r and C5n.2n, with an estimated age of at least ∼8 Ma or perhaps as early as ∼11 Ma. Both age estimations imply that the fossil Stegodon in the Lanzhou Basin is the oldest known record of Stegodon worldwide; it predates the formerly oldest Stegodon find from Africa by at least one million years and perhaps by as many as four million years. This provides new evidence for an Asian origin of Stegodon. Together with other faunal components, a mixed woodland/grassland setting existed in the Lanzhou Basin during the Late Miocene, in contrast to its modern arid environment.

  15. Reconstructing the palaeoenvironments of the early Pleistocene mammal faunas from the pollen preserved on fossil bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzi, Cesare; Pini, Roberta; Breda, Marzia

    2009-12-01

    We carried out a systematic investigation on the pollen content of sediment adhering to skeletal elements of large mammals which originate from the long lacustrine record of Leffe (Early Pleistocene of the Italian Alps). Three local faunas were discovered during mining activities along the intermediate part (spanning from 1.5 to 0.95 Ma) of the basin succession. The excellent pollen preservation allowed testing the reproducibility of the pollen signal from single skeletons. A clear palaeoenvironmental patterning, consistent with the ecological preferences of the considered mammal species, emerged from the canonical correspondence analysis of pollen types diagnostic for vegetation communities. Edaphic factors related to seasonal river activity changes and to the development of swamp forests in the riverbanks are significantly associated to the occurrences of Hippopotamus cf. antiquus, whereas finds of Mammuthus meridionalis belong to fully forested landscapes dominated by conifer or mixed forests of oceanic, warm to cool-temperate climate. Rhinoceros habitats include variable forest cover under different climate states. Distinct cool-temperate, partially open vegetation could be recognized for large deer included Cervalces cf carnutorum. A palynostratigraphic correlation between individual spectra and a reference palynostratigraphic record allowed assignment of many fossil remains to a precise stratigraphic position. This procedure also shown that the Leffe local faunas include specimens accumulated under different environmental and climate states, as a consequence of high-frequency climate changes characterizing the Late Villafranchian Early Pleistocene.

  16. Comparative review of marine mammal guidance implemented during naval exercises.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Sarah J; Weir, Caroline R; Jasny, Michael

    2009-04-01

    This article reviews the types and effectiveness of marine mammal mitigation measures used during some naval activities worldwide. The three main standard methods used to mitigate the potential impacts of naval sonar sound on marine mammals are (1) time/area planning (of exercises/active sonar use) to avoid marine mammals; (2) implementation of operational procedures (e.g. 'soft start' - where sound levels are gradually increased over time); and (3) monitoring of animals for the purpose of maintaining an 'exclusion zone' around the sound source. Suggestions towards a minimum worldwide mitigation standard are made.

  17. Morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    de Swart, R L; Harder, T C; Ross, P S; Vos, H W; Osterhaus, A D

    1995-09-01

    In recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. The first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously unrecognized phocine distemper virus (PDV) caused the death of 20,000 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in northwestern Europe. A similar epizootic among Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica) in Siberia in 1987 was later attributed to infection with canine distemper virus (CDV). A morbillivirus isolated from stranded harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) between 1988 and 1990 proved to be yet another new member of the genus Morbillivirus, distinct from PDV and CDV and more closely related to rinderpest virus and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus: porpoise morbillivirus. A similar virus, dolphin morbillivirus, was the primary cause of mass mortality among striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Mediterranean from 1990 to 1992. In this review, current knowledge of the genetic and antigenic relationships of these viruses is presented, and the origin and epizootiological aspects of the newly discovered morbilliviruses are discussed. In addition, the possible contributory role of environmental contaminant-related immunosuppression in the severity and extent of the different disease outbreaks is discussed.

  18. 77 FR 29981 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17086

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... research on marine mammals in the Atlantic Ocean. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... 27 species of cetaceans in U.S. and international waters of the Atlantic Ocean from Virginia to...

  19. 76 FR 37063 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16510

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... under the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131- 59). The permit would expire five years after the date of... represent any unnecessary risks to the health and welfare of marine mammals; that the proposed activity by...

  20. 76 FR 63286 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from the National Marine Mammal Stranding Response Program for... releasable stranded California sea lions (two males and six females) from west coast stranding facilities...

  1. 76 FR 68719 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16553

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... given that a permit has been issued to Brent Stewart, Ph.D., J.D., Hubbs SeaWorld Research Institute... marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 16553 authorizes Dr. Stewart to continue a long term study...

  2. 77 FR 37878 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16163

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... biopsied, dart, and/or suction-cup tagged. Ultrasound sampling will be directed at killer whales including... killer whales. Import and export of marine mammal prey specimens, skin and blubber, sloughed skin,...

  3. 77 FR 29969 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... interactions mentioned in paragraph 3 of the ``annual human-caused serious injury and mortality'' section. The... and trends, the stock's Potential Biological Removal (PBR) level, estimates of annual human-caused... mammal interactions through the Marine Mammal Take Reduction Program, enhanced observer coverage and...

  4. New Approaches to Studying Auditory Processing in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. New Approaches to Studying Auditory Processing in...mammals process and respond to complex, real-world sounds by developing new experimental approaches to studying marine mammal auditory perception...The results of this study would provide new methodologies to enable the study of more complex features of auditory perception such as subjective

  5. 75 FR 36064 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14186

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XM26 Marine Mammals; File No. 14186 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972 as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.). Permit No. 14186 authorizes Sea...

  6. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    relative size of different tissues in various marine mammal species, as well as our understanding of their different morphological and physiological...available for the relative size of different tissues in various marine mammal species, as well as our understanding of the different morphological and...with a consistent methodology. Therefore there is a need to consistently measure the relative size of the different tissues: such as skin

  7. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-02

    of the Final Report for the grant entitled: “Improvements to passive acoustic tracking methods for marine mammal monitoring”. Sincerely, Eva... acoustic tracking methods for marine mammal monitoring Eva-Marie Nosal University of Hawaii 2530 Dole Street, Sakamaki D-200 Honolulu. Hl 96822 Office...project investigated and implement several methods to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and applicability of model- based passive acoustic methods to

  8. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-02

    34Improvements to passive acoustic tracking methods for marine mammal monitoring". Sincerely, Eva-Marie Nosal Associate Professor 2540 Dole S!reet...COVERED (From- To) 02/05/2016 Final 01 Jan2012-31 Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Improvements to passive acoustic tracking...several methods to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and applicability of model- based passive acoustic methods to track marine mammals. Methods were

  9. Assessment Of Acoustic Adaptations For Noise Compensation In Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    sounds on the use of sound by marine mammals. OBJECTIVES The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) generate testable hypotheses of...general vocal responses of marine mammals to particular noise types; and 2) test these hypotheses with data from two low-frequency baleen whale species...in coastal shallow water environments using existing data from North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) acoustic tag recordings (Digital

  10. Assessment of Acoustic Adaptations for Noise Compensation in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    made sounds on the use of sound by marine mammals. OBJECTIVES The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) generate testable hypotheses...of general vocal responses of marine mammals to particular noise types; and 2) test these hypotheses with data from two low-frequency baleen whale ...species in coastal shallow water environments using existing data from North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) acoustic tag recordings

  11. Assessment of Acoustic Adaptations for Noise Compensation in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    made sounds on the use of sound by marine mammals. OBJECTIVES The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) generate testable hypotheses...of general vocal responses of marine mammals to particular noise types; and 2) test these hypotheses with data from two low-frequency baleen whale ...species in coastal shallow water environments using existing data from North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) acoustic tag recordings

  12. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Koopman, H.N. and A.J. Westgate, Solubility of nitrogen in marine mammal blubber depends on its lipid composition. Journal of Experimental Biology ...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine ...Mammals Michael Moore Biology Department Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, MA 02543 phone: (508) 289-3228 fax: (508) 457

  13. A killer appetite: metabolic consequences of carnivory in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Williams, T M; Haun, J; Davis, R W; Fuiman, L A; Kohin, S

    2001-07-01

    Among terrestrial mammals, the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract reflects the metabolic demands of the animal and individual requirements for processing, distributing, and absorbing nutrients. To determine if gastrointestinal tract morphology is similarly correlated with metabolic requirements in marine mammals, we examined the relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and small intestinal length in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Oxygen consumption was measured for resting bottlenose dolphins and Weddell seals, and the results combined with data for four additional species of carnivorous marine mammal. Data for small intestinal length were obtained from previously published reports. Similar analyses were conducted for five species of carnivorous terrestrial mammal, for which BMR and intestinal length were known. The results indicate that the BMRs of Weddell seals and dolphins resting on the water surface are 1.6 and 2.3 times the predicted levels for similarly sized domestic terrestrial mammals, respectively. Small intestinal lengths for carnivorous marine mammals depend on body size and are comparatively longer than those of terrestrial carnivores. The relationship between basal metabolic rate (kcal day(-1)) and small intestinal length (m) for both marine and terrestrial carnivores was, BMR=142.5 intestinal length(1.20) (r(2)=0.83). We suggest that elevated metabolic rates among marine mammal carnivores are associated with comparatively large alimentary tracts that are presumably required for supporting the energetic demands of an aquatic lifestyle and for feeding on vertebrate and invertebrate prey.

  14. Arsenic in marine mammals, seabirds, and sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Kunito, Takashi; Kubota, Reiji; Fujihara, Junko; Agusa, Tetsuro; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on arsenic in low-trophic-level marine organisms, few studies exist on arsenic in marine mammals, seabirds, and sea turtles. Studies on arsenic species and their concentrations in these animals are needed to evaluate their possible health effects and to deepen our understanding of how arsenic behaves and cycles in marine ecosystems. Most arsenic in the livers of marine mammals, seabirds, and sea turtles is AB, but this form is absent or occurs at surprisingly low levels in the dugong. Although arsenic levels were low in marine mammals, some seabirds, and some sea turtles, the black-footed albatross and hawksbill and loggerhead turtles showed high concentrations, comparable to those in marine organisms at low trophic levels. Hence, these animals may have a specific mechanism for accumulating arsenic. Osmoregulation in these animals may play a role in the high accumulation of AB. Highly toxic inorganic arsenic is found in some seabirds and sea turtles, and some evidence suggests it may act as an endocrine disruptor, requiring new and more detailed studies for confirmation. Furthermore, DMA(V) and arsenosugars, which are commonly found in marine animals and marine algae, respectively, might pose risks to highly exposed animals because of their tendency to form reactive oxygen species. In marine mammals, arsenic is thought to be mainly stored in blubber as lipid-soluble arsenicals. Because marine mammals occupy the top levels of their food chain, work to characterize the lipid-soluble arsenicals and how they cycle in marine ecosystems is needed. These lipid-soluble arsenicals have DMA precursors, the exact structures of which remain to be determined. Because many more arsenicals are assumed to be present in the marine environment, further advances in analytical capabilities can and will provide useful future information on the transformation and cycling of arsenic in the marine environment.

  15. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section 102(e...

  16. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section 102(e...

  17. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken prior...

  18. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected from...

  19. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.47 Access to marine mammal tissue...

  20. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected from...

  1. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section 102(e...

  2. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken prior...

  3. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected from...

  4. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.47 Access to marine mammal tissue...

  5. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected from...

  6. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken prior...

  7. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected from...

  8. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken prior...

  9. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section 102(e...

  10. Toxicology of Marine Mammals: New Developments and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Zaccaroni, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that marine mammals are exposed to a wide variety of pollutants, with a weight of evidence indicating impacts on their health. Since hundreds of new chemicals enter the global market every year,the methods, approaches and technologies used to characterize pollution levels or impacts are also in a constant state of flux. However, legal and ethical constraints often limit the type and extent of toxicological research being carried out in marine mammals. Nevertheless, new and emerging in vivo, in vitro as well as in silico research opportunities abound in the field of marine mammal toxicology. In the application of findings to population-, species-, or habitat-related risk assessments, the identification of causal relationships which inform source apportionment is important. This, in turn, is informed by a comprehensive understanding of contaminant classes, profiles and fate overspace and time. Such considerations figure prominently in the design and interpretation of marine mammal (eco)-toxicology research. This mini-review attempts to follow the evolution behind marine mammal toxicology until now,highlight some of the research that has been done and suggest opportunities for future research. This Special Issue will showcase new developments in marine mammal toxicology, approaches for exposure-effect research in risk assessment as well as future opportunities.

  11. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and are therefore a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and de novo assembled the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome, and that a subset were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that while convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare. PMID:25621460

  12. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.

  13. Stratification, composition, and function of marine mammal blubber: the ecology of fatty acids in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Ursula; Käkelä, Anne; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M; Grahl-Nielsen, Otto; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Käkelä, Reijo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study of vertical fatty acid profiles, based on analysis of 58 fatty acids sampled at 3-mm intervals throughout the blubber column of a model marine mammal, the ringed seal (Pusa hispida), revealed three chemically distinct layers. The average depths of the outer and inner layers were quite consistent (approximately 1.5 and approximately 1 cm, respectively). Consequently, the middle layer varied greatly in thickness, from being virtually absent in the thinnest animals to 2.5 cm thick in the fattest. The relative consistencies of the thickness and composition of the layers as well as the nature of the fatty acids making up each layer support the generally assumed function of the various layers: (1) the outer layer is primarily structural and thermoregulatory, (2) the inner layer is metabolically active with a fatty acid composition that is strongly affected by recent/ongoing lipid mobilization/deposition, and (3) the middle layer is a storage site that contracts and expands with food availability/consumption. The remarkable dynamics of the middle layer along with the discrete pattern of stratification found in the vertical fatty acid profiles have important implications for methodological sampling design for studies of foraging ecology and toxicology based on analyses of blubber of marine mammals.

  14. 76 FR 53884 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... Array Sensor System (SURTASS) Low Frequency Active (LFA) sonar for the period beginning August 2012...

  15. 75 FR 38078 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: These authorizations are... of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico...

  16. 77 FR 39485 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    .... Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of annual LOAs,...

  17. 78 FR 69072 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Elliott Bay Seawall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... either regulations are issued. Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill, or attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill marine mammals. Authorization for incidental...

  18. 77 FR 45341 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... issued. Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of...

  19. 78 FR 22517 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of annual LOAs,...

  20. Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES): Pilot Project - Marine Mammal Tagging and Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES): Pilot Project...inter-relationships of biophysical and chemical parameters on living resources, including marine mammals that use this ecosystem . This larger picture

  1. 78 FR 8111 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test Flight Activities From Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA... mammals, by harassment, incidental to space vehicle and test flight activities at VAFB. Summary of... of authorization (LOA) has been issued to the 30th Space Wing, U.S. Air Force (USAF), to take...

  2. 76 FR 79409 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to construction activities as part of a wharf construction project. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to the Navy to take, by Level B Harassment only, six......

  3. Drivers and hotspots of extinction risk in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ana D; Boyer, Alison G; Kim, Hwahwan; Pompa-Mansilla, Sandra; Hamilton, Marcus J; Costa, Daniel P; Ceballos, Gerardo; Brown, James H

    2012-02-28

    The world's oceans are undergoing profound changes as a result of human activities. However, the consequences of escalating human impacts on marine mammal biodiversity remain poorly understood. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identifies 25% of marine mammals as at risk of extinction, but the conservation status of nearly 40% of marine mammals remains unknown due to insufficient data. Predictive models of extinction risk are crucial to informing present and future conservation needs, yet such models have not been developed for marine mammals. In this paper, we: (i) used powerful machine-learning and spatial-modeling approaches to understand the intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of marine mammal extinction risk; (ii) used this information to predict risk across all marine mammals, including IUCN "Data Deficient" species; and (iii) conducted a spatially explicit assessment of these results to understand how risk is distributed across the world's oceans. Rate of offspring production was the most important predictor of risk. Additional predictors included taxonomic group, small geographic range area, and small social group size. Although the interaction of both intrinsic and extrinsic variables was important in predicting risk, overall, intrinsic traits were more important than extrinsic variables. In addition to the 32 species already on the IUCN Red List, our model identified 15 more species, suggesting that 37% of all marine mammals are at risk of extinction. Most at-risk species occur in coastal areas and in productive regions of the high seas. We identify 13 global hotspots of risk and show how they overlap with human impacts and Marine Protected Areas.

  4. Drivers and hotspots of extinction risk in marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Ana D.; Boyer, Alison G.; Kim, Hwahwan; Pompa-Mansilla, Sandra; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ceballos, Gerardo; Brown, James H.

    2012-01-01

    The world's oceans are undergoing profound changes as a result of human activities. However, the consequences of escalating human impacts on marine mammal biodiversity remain poorly understood. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identifies 25% of marine mammals as at risk of extinction, but the conservation status of nearly 40% of marine mammals remains unknown due to insufficient data. Predictive models of extinction risk are crucial to informing present and future conservation needs, yet such models have not been developed for marine mammals. In this paper, we: (i) used powerful machine-learning and spatial-modeling approaches to understand the intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of marine mammal extinction risk; (ii) used this information to predict risk across all marine mammals, including IUCN “Data Deficient” species; and (iii) conducted a spatially explicit assessment of these results to understand how risk is distributed across the world's oceans. Rate of offspring production was the most important predictor of risk. Additional predictors included taxonomic group, small geographic range area, and small social group size. Although the interaction of both intrinsic and extrinsic variables was important in predicting risk, overall, intrinsic traits were more important than extrinsic variables. In addition to the 32 species already on the IUCN Red List, our model identified 15 more species, suggesting that 37% of all marine mammals are at risk of extinction. Most at-risk species occur in coastal areas and in productive regions of the high seas. We identify 13 global hotspots of risk and show how they overlap with human impacts and Marine Protected Areas. PMID:22308490

  5. A Preliminary Report of Changing Quaternary Mammal Faunas in Subalpine New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Geoffrey; Flannery, Tim; Boeardi

    1993-07-01

    The faunas found in the mountains of central Irian Jaya have experienced dramatic changes through the late Quaternary. Remains of two previously unknown species of large marsupial, Maokopia ronaldi and Protemnodon hopei, have been recovered from unrelated cave and fluvial deposits which today occur in dense upper montane forest. Direct dating of the finds has not as yet been possible, but stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and palynologic evidence indicates that these species lived near a climatic treeline in subalpine grassland in the late Pleistocene. At higher altitudes a rockshelter provided the second known mid-Holocene record of Thylogale christenseni and Thylogale sp. cf. brunii, apparently extinct grassland wallabies. The two largest remaining subalpine mammal species are being locally exterminated by hunting, leaving only a large murid, Mallomys gunung, which weighs less than 2.0 kg. The area thus records the disappearance of a grassland-adapted fauna. The possum Pseudocheirops cupreus dominates in modem hunting returns, although this species is totally absent from the local fossil records. It may thus be in the process of invading a vacated and disturbed niche from the upper montane forest.

  6. 78 FR 57133 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... whales) and 100 animals per year within the order Pinnipedia (sea lions and seals but excluding walruses... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW11 Marine Mammals; File No. 14514 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  7. 77 FR 60966 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16239

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC268 Marine Mammals; File No. 16239 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...) 427-8401. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the...

  8. 78 FR 14984 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17411

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC541 Marine Mammals; File No. 17411 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, Anchorage, AK, has applied in due form for a permit...

  9. 78 FR 21347 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17344

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC588 Marine Mammals; File No. 17344 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...., University of Washington, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 351800, Seattle, WA 98195, has applied in due...

  10. 77 FR 267 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16621

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA915 Marine Mammals; File No. 16621 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., Ph.D., Biology Department, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA has applied in due form...

  11. 76 FR 4091 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15510

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals; File No. 15510 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has applied in...

  12. 78 FR 25425 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16388

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB154 Marine Mammals; File No. 16388 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Baumgartner, Ph.D., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MS 33 Biology Department, Woods Hole, MA 02543,...

  13. 77 FR 63296 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC100 Marine Mammals; File No. 17115 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... James Lloyd-Smith, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los...

  14. 75 FR 38781 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15430

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 128 (Tuesday, July 6, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 38781] [FR Doc No: 2010-16377] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW98 Marine Mammals; File No. 15430 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  15. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    RESULTS No results are yet available. IMPACT/APPLICATIONS Prior work has suggested that marine mammals are commonly supersaturated with gas...ascended bycatch do indeed show evidence of postmortem decompression from a supersaturated state (Bernaldo de Quirós et al., 2013). How do marine

  16. 75 FR 64247 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... (Principal Investigator), Sarasota Dolphin Research Program, c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson... dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments must be received on or before... marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests a five-year permit to take bottlenose...

  17. 76 FR 71940 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Physical Oceanographic Studies in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA792 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to..., 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting physical...

  18. Status of marine mammals in the North sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijnders, P. J. H.; Lankester, K.

    Information on the population status of marine mammals in the North Sea is rather scarce. For Grey Seals and Common Seals, which regularly come ashore, fairly accurate population estimates exist. However for whale species, even the more commonly observed dolphins and Harbour porpoise, no reliable data on stock areas or stock sizes can be provided. Nevertheless, it is assumed that most whale populations have decreased in numbers. And only after cessation of hunting, seal stocks have been increasing in most areas. Major recent and potential threats to marine mammals are interactions with fisheries and pollution. Several aspects of interactions considered are: drowning in nets, damage to nets or catch, 'competition' for fish and marine mammals as hosts for parasites. Most of these issues can only be answered by more intense population studies combined with multispecies fisheries assessments. Observer netwoeks and stranding data can provide useful indices for qualitative occurrence of marine mammals, but are of limited use for proper population analyses. Adequate management of an ecosystem requires understanding of interspecies relationships and the vulnerability of its components to changes in environmental conditions. Data on the status of marine mammals are urgently required to evaluate their role in the marine ecosystem.

  19. Human pathogens in marine mammal meat – a northern perspective.

    PubMed

    Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T

    2014-09-01

    Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat.

  20. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Surveying Marine Fauna: A Dugong Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species’ habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km2 area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as ‘certain’ (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

  2. Tracking marine mammals using passive acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosal, Eva-Marie

    2007-12-01

    It is difficult to study the behavior and physiology of marine mammals or to understand and mitigate human impact on them because much of their lives are spent underwater. Since sound propagates for long distances in the ocean and since many cetaceans are vocal, passive acoustics is a valuable tool for studying and monitoring their behavior. After a brief introduction to and review of passive acoustic tracking methods, this dissertation develops and applies two new methods. Both methods use widely-spaced (tens of kilometers) bottom-mounted hydrophone arrays, as well as propagation models that account for depth-dependent sound speed profiles. The first passive acoustic tracking method relies on arrival times of direct and surface-reflected paths. It is used to track a sperm whale using 5 at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) and gives position estimates that are accurate to within 10 meters. With such accuracy, the whale's pitch and yaw are estimated by assuming that its main axis (which points from the tail to the rostrum) is parallel to its velocity. Roll is found by fitting the details of the pulses within each sperm whale click to the so-called bent horn model of sperm whale sound production. Finally, given the position and orientation of the whale, its beam pattern is reconstructed and found to be highly directional with an intense forward directed component. Pair-wise spectrogram (PWS) processing is the second passive acoustic tracking method developed in this dissertation. Although it is computationally more intensive, PWS has several advantages over arrival-time tracking methods, especially in shallow water environments, for long duration calls, and for multiple-animal datasets, as is the case for humpback whales on Hawaiian breeding grounds. Results of simulations with realistic noise conditions and environmental mismatch are given and compared to other passive localization techniques. When applied to the AUTEC sperm whale dataset, PWS

  3. Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health.

    PubMed

    Bossart, G D

    2011-05-01

    The long-term consequences of climate change and potential environmental degradation are likely to include aspects of disease emergence in marine plants and animals. In turn, these emerging diseases may have epizootic potential, zoonotic implications, and a complex pathogenesis involving other cofactors such as anthropogenic contaminant burden, genetics, and immunologic dysfunction. The concept of marine sentinel organisms provides one approach to evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. Such sentinels are barometers for current or potential negative impacts on individual- and population-level animal health. In turn, using marine sentinels permits better characterization and management of impacts that ultimately affect animal and human health associated with the oceans. Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. Marine mammals may be exposed to environmental stressors such as chemical pollutants, harmful algal biotoxins, and emerging or resurging pathogens. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. Finally, marine mammals are charismatic megafauna that typically stimulate an exaggerated human behavioral response and are thus more likely to be observed.

  4. 50 CFR 18.27 - Regulations governing small takes of marine mammals incidental to specified activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... marine mammals incidental to specified activities. 18.27 Section 18.27 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.27 Regulations governing small takes of marine mammals incidental to...) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1371(a)(5), which provides a...

  5. 50 CFR 18.27 - Regulations governing small takes of marine mammals incidental to specified activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... marine mammals incidental to specified activities. 18.27 Section 18.27 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.27 Regulations governing small takes of marine mammals incidental to...) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1371(a)(5), which provides a...

  6. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae and Sphyriidae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ju-Shey

    This report is part of a sub-series to aid biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers, and informed laymen in the identification and study of marine flora and fauna of the Northeastern United States. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Glossary; (3) Key to the marine lernaeopodoid copepods of the Northeastern United…

  8. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae and Sphyriidae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ju-Shey

    This report is part of a sub-series to aid biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers, and informed laymen in the identification and study of marine flora and fauna of the Northeastern United States. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Glossary; (3) Key to the marine lernaeopodoid copepods of the Northeastern United…

  9. The relationship of the Indian and western Australian Permian marine faunas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickins, J. M.; Shah, S. C.

    At Gondwana Five, Wellington, New Zealand, 1980, the relationship of the Permian Peninsular and Himalayan India fauna and flora was explored. The authors concluded that Peninsular India could not have been far from southern Asia during the Permian. This conclusion has been confirmed by data presented at the Symposium on the Tibet Plateau, Beijing, China, 1980, and the recent discovery of Eurydesma and the Eurydesma fauna in northwest Tibet. The relationship of the marine faunas of Peninsular and Himalayan India with those of the western Australian region and the climatic implications have now been considered by the authors. Although the Lower Permian Gondwana cold- and cold-temperate-water faunas of both areas have important similarities, significant differences can be tabulated. Such differences are not apparent in the faunas from within the Peninsular-Himalayan Indian region, so that the faunas of this region are closer to each other than they are to the faunas of the western Australian region. In India the early faunas are overlain by warm-water faunas, whereas in the western Australian region temperate-water conditions prevail. Only in the Upper Permian, when the world as a whole became warmer, are closer faunal links established between the two areas. It is concluded that Western Australia was unlikely to have been close to India during the Permian, and that the faunal relationships indicate India cannot be placed alongside Western Australia. This conclusion is supported by the different geological development in the two areas during the Permian.

  10. Improving Visual Survey Capabilities for Marine Mammal Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Improving Visual Survey Capabilities for Marine Mammal ...ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 2 19a. NAME OF... Mammal Studies Mark Baumgartner Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Biology Department, MS #33 266 Woods Hole Road Woods Hole, MA 02543 phone

  11. Ocean acoustics research figures in debate about protecting marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent U.S. Senate committee hearing about the re-authorization of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 focused on one word; harassment.Concern about whether anthropogenically produced underwater noise actually harasses or even may be involved in the deaths of some marine mammals has become a heated issue which has led to recent lawsuits and court rulings to halt or restrict some scientific research and U.S. naval operations. (See Eos, 29 April 2003).At a 16 July hearing, Sen. Olympia Snowe (R-Maine), chair of the Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Oceans, Fisheries, and Coast Guard, said a balance needs to be found between research needs and military readiness on one hand, and protection of marine mammals on the other hand.

  12. The Marine Mammal Protection Act at 40: status, recovery, and future of U.S. marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Roman, Joe; Altman, Irit; Dunphy-Daly, Meagan M; Campbell, Caitlin; Jasny, Michael; Read, Andrew J

    2013-05-01

    Passed in 1972, the Marine Mammal Protection Act has two fundamental objectives: to maintain U.S. marine mammal stocks at their optimum sustainable populations and to uphold their ecological role in the ocean. The current status of many marine mammal populations is considerably better than in 1972. Take reduction plans have been largely successful in reducing direct fisheries bycatch, although they have not been prepared for all at-risk stocks, and fisheries continue to place marine mammals as risk. Information on population trends is unknown for most (71%) stocks; more stocks with known trends are improving than declining: 19% increasing, 5% stable, and 5% decreasing. Challenges remain, however, and the act has generally been ineffective in treating indirect impacts, such as noise, disease, and prey depletion. Existing conservation measures have not protected large whales from fisheries interactions or ship strikes in the northwestern Atlantic. Despite these limitations, marine mammals within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone appear to be faring better than those outside, with fewer species in at-risk categories and more of least concern. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Phenotypic and molecular characterisation of Brucella isolates from marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Claire E; Stubberfield, Emma J; Perrett, Lorraine L; King, Amanda C; Whatmore, Adrian M; Bashiruddin, John B; Stack, Judy A; MacMillan, Alastair P

    2008-01-01

    Background Bacteria of the genus Brucella are the causative organisms of brucellosis in animals and man. Previous characterisation of Brucella strains originating from marine mammals showed them to be distinct from the terrestrial species and likely to comprise one or more new taxa. Recently two new species comprising Brucella isolates from marine mammals, B. pinnipedialis and B. ceti, were validly published. Here we report on an extensive study of the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of marine mammal Brucella isolates and on how these characteristics relate to the newly described species. Results In this study, 102 isolates of Brucella originating from eleven species of marine mammals were characterised. Results obtained by analysis using the Infrequent Restriction Site (IRS)-Derivative PCR, PCR-RFLP of outer membrane protein genes (omp) and IS711 fingerprint profiles showed good consistency with isolates originating from cetaceans, corresponding to B. ceti, falling into two clusters. These correspond to isolates with either dolphins or porpoises as their preferred host. Isolates originating predominantly from seals, and corresponding to B. pinnipedialis, cluster separately on the basis of IS711 fingerprinting and other molecular approaches and can be further subdivided, with isolates from hooded seals comprising a distinct group. There was little correlation between phenotypic characteristics used in classical Brucella biotyping and these groups. Conclusion Molecular approaches are clearly valuable in the division of marine mammal Brucella into subtypes that correlate with apparent ecological divisions, whereas conventional bioyping is of less value. The data presented here confirm that there are significant subtypes within the newly described marine mammal Brucella species and add to a body of evidence that could lead to the recognition of additional species or sub-species within this group. PMID:19091076

  14. Invasive mammals and habitat modification interact to generate unforeseen outcomes for indigenous fauna.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Grant; Byrom, Andrea; Pech, Roger; Smith, James; Clarke, Dean; Anderson, Dean; Forrester, Guy

    2013-10-01

    Biotic invasions and habitat modification are two drivers of global change predicted to have detrimental impacts on the persistence of indigenous biota worldwide. Few studies have investigated how they operate synergistically to alter trophic interactions among indigenous and nonindigenous species in invaded ecosystems. We experimentally manipulated a suite of interacting invasive mammals, including top predators (cat Felis catus, ferret Mustela furo, stoat M. erminea), herbivores (rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, hare Lepus europaeus), and an insectivore (hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus occidentalis), and measured their effects on indigenous lizards and invertebrates and on an invasive mesopredator (house mouse Mus musculus). The work was carried out in a grassland/shrubland ecosystem that had been subjected to two types of habitat modification (widespread introduction of high-seed-producing pasture species, and areas of land use intensification by fertilization and livestock grazing). We also quantified food productivity for indigenous and invasive fauna by measuring pasture biomass, as well as seed and fruit production by grasses and shrubs. Indigenous fauna did not always increase following top-predator suppression: lizards increased on one of two sites; invertebrates did not increase on either site. Mesopredator release of mice was evident at the site where lizards did not increase, suggesting negative effects of mice on lizard populations. High mouse abundance occurred only on the predator-suppression site with regular production of pasture seed, indicating that this food resource was the main driver of mouse populations. Removal of herbivores increased pasture and seed production, which further enhanced ecological release of mice, particularly where pasture swards were overtopped by shrubs. An effect of landscape supplementation was also evident where nearby fertilized pastures boosted rabbit numbers and the associated top predators. Other studies have shown that

  15. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result.

  16. Marine mammal and habitat monitoring: Requirements; principles; needs; and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, S.L.; Hofman, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    The paper discusses the intents and provisions of section 101(a)(5) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act which allows the Secretaries of the Interior and Commerce to authorize the unintentional taking of small numbers of marine mammals incidental to offshore oil and gas development and other such activities. It explains the rationale for and describes the types of site-specific and population monitoring programs required to document the manner and level of take and to verify that the take has negligible effects on the distribution, size, and productivity of the affected species and populations.

  17. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  18. 77 FR 58255 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... September 19, 2012 Part III Department of Commerce Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey off the Central Coast of California, November to December, 2012; Notice...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC072 Takes of Marine...

  19. 78 FR 17359 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC461 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, June to July, 2013 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  20. Cold-seep mollusks are older than the general marine mollusk fauna.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Steffen; Little, Crispin T S

    2006-09-08

    The origin and possible antiquity of faunas at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and seeps have been debated since their discovery. We used the fossil record of seep mollusks to show that the living seep genera have significantly longer geologic ranges than the marine mollusks in general, but have ranges similar to those of deep-sea taxa, suggesting that seep faunas may be shaped by the factors that drive the evolution of life in the deep sea in general. Our data indicate that deep-sea anoxic/dysoxic events did not affect seep faunas, casting doubt on the suggested anoxic nature and/or global extent of these events.

  1. Studies of Noise Compensation in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    Mystic Aquarium to determine if captive beluga whales modify their calling behavior in increased noise during the summer of 2010. RESULTS Each of...mammals. OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this project is to test hypotheses regarding right whale vocal adjustment to compensate for noise with data...from Southern right whales (Eubalaena australis). APPROACH The approach for this study is to test hypotheses about common mechanisms of noise

  2. Utilizing new Mammal faunas for calibration of paleomagnetostratigraphy in the Kochkor basin, Kyrgyzstan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, W. N. F.; Weldon, R. J.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Hopkins, S. S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active nation in the world, owning to the uplift of the Tien Shan mountain range. This record of faulting is far from simple though, with different dates of initiation spanning tens of millions of years in the published literature. Differentiating between these extremes is vital in terms of constructing earthquake hazard maps for the country. Much of the high degree of uncertainty comes from a lack of datable rocks within the time frame associated with the faulting. While paleomagnetic stratigraphic analyses provide highly accurate ages, they in turn need calibration points to preclude multiple possible matches to a global geochronological framework. Herein I provide the first description of Neogene fossil mammal faunas to act as biostratigraphic control for the paleomagnetic data. Dominating the faunal assemblage is rhinoceros species, Chilotherium anderssoni. This taxon is globally only known from 8.7-5.3 million years ago, constraining much of the stratigraphy to the latest Miocene to Pliocene. Additional taxa include Gazella, Samotherium, Hipparion, Hyaenaictithirium, Paleolagus, and Pliocervidae. As fossils are limited to the Miocene/Pliocene Chu Formation, we have also collected additional paleomagnetic samples from the lower Shamsi Formation to extend the age range covered and constraint the initiation of faulting.

  3. Marine Mammal Active Sonar Test 2004 (MAST 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Peter J.; Vandiver, Amy; Edelson, Geoffrey S.; Frankel, Adam S.; Clark, Christopher W.

    2004-05-01

    The Marine Mammal Active Sonar Test was conducted in January 2004 off the central California coast during the gray whale migration. The purpose of the test was to collect data to significantly advance active sonar detection, classification, and tracking of marine mammals out to ranges of 1 mile. The R/V NEW HORIZON was moored in the migration path. Two different sonar systems operating between 210 and 220 dB were deployed off the vessel, the IMAPS phased array sonar system that operates from 20-30 kHz and the MAST mechanical system that uses rotating parabolic transducers operating from 30 to 40 kHz. Marine mammal observers were deployed on the bluffs overlooking the experiment and aboard the NEW HORIZON. The observers tracked the whales using electronic theodelites, providing ground truth for the sonar systems. They also looked for any severe reactions from the animals, and called for a shutdown if any marine mammals were observed within 100 m of the sonar. Here, we discuss the experiment and the results to date, including any reaction of the whales to the sonar system. We will also touch on the legal battle to conduct the experiment, and lessons learned.

  4. 76 FR 68206 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Doc No: 2011-28530] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-IA-2011-N232; 96300-1671-0000-P5] Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service...

  5. 75 FR 30383 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14610

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ..., Ph.D.) has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and... research on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), endangered bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), gray.... 1531 et seq.). The permit is valid through May 31, 2015, for research activities including aerial...

  6. 78 FR 1941 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA), and its implementing regulations, we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we), propose regulations that authorize the nonlethal, incidental, unintentional take of small numbers of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during oil and gas industry (Industry)......

  7. 78 FR 35363 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA), and its implementing regulations, we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we), are finalizing regulations that authorize the nonlethal, incidental, unintentional take of small numbers of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during oil and gas Industry......

  8. 77 FR 37000 - Marine Mammals; File No. 814-1899

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ....), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The original permit... (Phoca larga), ribbon seal (Phoca fasciata), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), beluga whale...

  9. 76 FR 28423 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14259

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... History and Culture (Julie Stein, Responsible Party), University of Washington, Box 353010, 17th Ave., NE..., analyze, and archive marine mammal parts for scientific research. ADDRESSES: The permit and related... scientific research had been submitted by the above-named applicant. The requested permit has been issued...

  10. 75 FR 11131 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14534

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... involving studies of sound production, diving and other ] behavior, and responses to sound of marine mammals... tags to measure vocalization, behavior, and physiological parameters as well as sound exposure. Behavior will be measured before, during, and after carefully controlled exposures of sound in conventional...

  11. 77 FR 12815 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16998

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), 200 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 10 killer whales (Orcinus orca... Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for Steller Sea Lion and Northern Fur Seal Research (NMFS... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA914 Marine Mammals; File No. 16998...

  12. Effects of climate change on Arctic marine mammal health.

    PubMed

    Burek, Kathy A; Gulland, Frances M D; O'Hara, Todd M

    2008-03-01

    The lack of integrated long-term data on health, diseases, and toxicant effects in Arctic marine mammals severely limits our ability to predict the effects of climate change on marine mammal health. The overall health of an individual animal is the result of complex interactions among immune status, body condition, pathogens and their pathogenicity, toxicant exposure, and the various environmental conditions that interact with these factors. Climate change could affect these interactions in several ways. There may be direct effects of loss of the sea ice habitat, elevations of water and air temperature, and increased occurrence of severe weather. Some of the indirect effects of climate change on animal health will likely include alterations in pathogen transmission due to a variety of factors, effects on body condition due to shifts in the prey base/food web, changes in toxicant exposures, and factors associated with increased human habitation in the Arctic (e.g., chemical and pathogen pollution in the runoff due to human and domestic-animal wastes and chemicals and increased ship traffic with the attendant increased risks of ship strike, oil spills, ballast pollution, and possibly acoustic injury). The extent to which climate change will impact marine mammal health will also vary among species, with some species more sensitive to these factors than others. Baseline data on marine mammal health parameters along with matched data on the population and climate change trends are needed to document these changes.

  13. 76 FR 16442 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have issued the following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered...

  14. 75 FR 11132 - Marine Mammals; File No. 555-1870

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... space as required by Animal Welfare Act regulations for the humane handling, care and treatment of... applicant. One project in the requested permit amendment (increasing the number of animals taken in the wild... did not present any unnecessary risks to the health and welfare of the marine mammals (50 CFR 216.34(1...

  15. 78 FR 48655 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17324

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC137 Marine Mammals; File No. 17324 AGENCY... display permit (File No. 17324) submitted by the Georgia Aquarium Inc., 225 Baker Street, Atlanta, GA...

  16. 75 FR 12732 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14142

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... 48109-2029, has been issued a scientific research permit to import marine mammal specimens for scientific research. ] ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available for review upon written... Federal Register (74 FR 4945) that a request for a scientific research permit had been submitted by the...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive mari...

  18. 75 FR 23241 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ..., Aquatic Animal Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 (Ruth Francis-Floyd... for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments must be received on or before... research are to study various aspects of disease afflicting marine mammals including viral pathogens and...

  19. 77 FR 26777 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ...; August October 21, 2011. Wildlife 24, 2011. Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute..., 2011. 57273A University of 76 FR 78308; February 6, 2012. Georgia Research December 16, 2011..., 2012. Tennessee, College 2, 2012. of Veterinary Medicine. Marine Mammals 791721 U.S. Geological 76 FR...

  20. 76 FR 27307 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit Application No. 16360

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA426 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit..., Auckland, New Zealand has applied in due form for a permit to conduct commercial/educational photography of... for photography for educational or commercial purposes involving non-endangered and non-threatened...

  1. 77 FR 24470 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No... conduct commercial/educational photography in Alaska. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are.../educational photography had been submitted by the above- named applicant. The requested permit has been...

  2. 77 FR 2037 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No... for a permit to conduct commercial or educational photography on killer (Orcinus orca) and...

  3. 78 FR 69049 - Marine Mammals; File No. 18171

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... ez, PR 00682, to conduct commercial or educational photography of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops... for a permit to conduct commercial or educational photography had been submitted by the above-named... vessel-based filming and photography of marine mammals in waters off Puerto Rico. Footage will be used...

  4. 78 FR 18322 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17751

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... conduct research on gray (Eschrichtius robustus) and killer (Orcinus orca) whales. DATES: Written... killer whales in Alaskan waters, including the Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Arctic Ocean... killer whales in the area. The marine mammal research is part of a larger study on the reduction of sea...

  5. 75 FR 58352 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14535

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... potential impacts of human noise on marine mammals. The amendment is for the duration of the permit, which... Blvd., Suite 4200, Long Beach, CA 90802-4213; phone (562)980-4001; fax (562)980-4018. FOR FURTHER... from the requirement to prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement....

  6. 75 FR 37388 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14535

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... pinnipeds and to assess potential impacts of human noise on marine mammals. The proposed amendment is for... Blvd., Suite 4200, Long Beach, CA 90802-4213; phone (562)980-4001; fax (562)980-4018. Written comments... excluded from the requirement to prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact...

  7. 76 FR 30309 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15324

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... given that a permit has been issued to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Wildlife Conservation, Juneau, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents..., Conservation and Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315 East-West Highway, Room 13705...

  8. 78 FR 32377 - Draft 2012 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ...) publication was to categorize stranding mortalities into broad diagnoses such as disease, human-interaction... annual human-caused mortality and serious injury from all sources, descriptions of the fisheries with... term strategic stock means a marine mammal stock: (A) For which the level of direct...

  9. 78 FR 21597 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BB71 Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats... measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal habitats in Alaska (78 FR 15669; March 12, 2013). During the workshops NMFS will present information regarding harbor seal habitat usage and available...

  10. 77 FR 48130 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17152

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC136 Marine Mammals; File No. 17152 AGENCY....Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those...

  11. 78 FR 7755 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17754

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC477 Marine Mammals; File No. 17754 AGENCY... email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. 17754 in the subject line of the...

  12. 75 FR 47537 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14352

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX98 Marine Mammals; File No. 14352 AGENCY... . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting...

  13. 75 FR 39915 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15483

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals; File No. 15483 AGENCY... Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 15483 from the... include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting a...

  14. 78 FR 70920 - Marine Mammals; File No. 18182

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XD002 Marine Mammals; File No. 18182 AGENCY... (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 18182 from the list of... email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the...

  15. 77 FR 50086 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16109

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... significantly impact the quality of the human environment and that preparation of an environmental impact... endangered species; and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section 2 of the...

  16. 78 FR 19446 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ...., blue whales, humpback whales, etc.), there is no mention made of this. This assurance should be... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... prompted the agency to revise the SARs for the following marine mammal stocks: fin whale, western North...

  17. Effects of Disturbance on Populations of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    develop transferable models of the population-level effects of anthropogenic and natural disturbances on marine mammals. Disturbances can affect the...dynamics and interactions with tourism in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. Ecological Modelling 282:44–58. [published, refereed] Harwood, J., S. King

  18. 75 FR 42121 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... loss of habitat function and a decrease in estuarine biodiversity. A detailed description of the... Reserve in northern Monterey County, California. In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal... Reserve in northern Monterey County, California. Under the proposed action, the Applicant would...

  19. 77 FR 14506 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Ecuador under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). This affirmative finding renewal will allow... renewal was based on review of documentary evidence submitted by the Government of Ecuador and obtained... Administrator considered documentary evidence submitted by the Government of Ecuador or obtained from the...

  20. Passive Acoustic Monitoring for the Detection and Identification of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    species in a species detection task,” Intl. Workshop on the Detection and Classification of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics, Pavia , Italy...the Detection and Classification of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics, Pavia , Italy, September 2009.

  1. Passive Acoustic Monitoring for the Detection and Identification of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    detection task,” Intl. Workshop on the Detection and Classification of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics, Pavia , Italy, September 2009. M. A. Roch...Classification of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics, Pavia , Italy, September 2009.

  2. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subpart: (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected from a beach or from... imported. (d) No person may purchase, sell or trade for commercial purposes any marine mammal...

  3. Immunodiagnostic Approaches to Diseases in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    and guinea pigs, and used to develop the single radial immunodiffusion (RID) immunoblot, and ELISA techniques. The base-line level of IgG and 1gM in...mammals. The IgG and IgM of cetaceans and pinnipeds were isolated, antisera produced in rabbits and guinea pigs, and used to develop the single radial ... immunodiffusion (RID) immunoblot, and ELISA techniques. The base-line level of IgG and IgM in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the sea

  4. Palaeoenvironmental and chronological constraints on the Early Pleistocene mammal fauna from loess deposits in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zan, Jinbo; Fang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Weilin; Yan, Maodu; Zhang, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The Longdan mammal fauna from the central part of Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau, is the first Early Pleistocene fauna in China in which the fossils are derived loess deposits, and it provides an excellent opportunity to document mammalian and environmental evolution in Asia. However, the precise age and palaeoenvironmental setting of the fauna are controversial due to the poor exposure of the outcrop section. In the present study, a 105-m-long drill core was obtained from Longdan village and used for detailed magnetostratigraphic dating. The results demonstrate that the late Pliocene- Pleistocene loess deposits in the Longdan section deposited since ca. 3 Ma and that the Longdan fauna has an age range of 2.5-2.2 Ma. In addition, the results of lithological and rock magnetic analyses demonstrate that paleosols are weakly developed throughout the whole core and that in the lower and middle parts the core the magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence are relatively low and uniform. These observations, combined with the ecological characteristics of the Longdan fauna, indicate that during the Early Pleistocene the climate in the Longdan area, and even in the Linxia Basin, was sub-humid and that the aeolian dust was frequently subjected to post-depositional reworking by water.

  5. 75 FR 62139 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY... conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) prohibits activities with listed species...

  6. 77 FR 24510 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY... conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) prohibit activities with listed...

  7. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    improving the protection of marine mammals during naval operations. OBJECTIVES We are testing the hypothesis that extreme behaviors requiring...arrhythmias and physiological instability in diving marine mammals . Specifically, we will determine which factors or combination of factors act as the primary...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals : Linking

  8. 77 FR 58405 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) prohibit activities with listed species... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and the Marine Mammal Protection Act of... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY...

  9. 77 FR 66476 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) prohibit activities with listed species... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and the Marine Mammal Protection Act of... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY...

  10. 78 FR 52966 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) prohibit activities with listed species... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and the Marine Mammal Protection Act of... species section 10(a)(1)(A) and as per section 109(h)/112(c) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act. The...

  11. 75 FR 74687 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the Parsons Slough...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... is possible when marine mammals are exposed to very loud sounds. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) and permanent threshold shift (PTS). Relationships between TTS and PTS have not been studied in marine mammals... for onset of PTS in any marine mammal, therefore, PTS- onset must be estimated from TTS-onset...

  12. 76 FR 18239 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY... conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) prohibits activities with listed species...

  13. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale...

  14. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale...

  15. 76 FR 30386 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ...; 96300-1671-0000-P5] Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY: Fish... conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) prohibits activities with listed...

  16. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mammal populations in the wild; to correlate the health of marine mammals and marine mammal populations... interlaboratory comparisons and the development of control materials and standard reference materials for marine... animal; and (ix) Agreement that credit and acknowledgment will be given to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  17. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mammal populations in the wild; to correlate the health of marine mammals and marine mammal populations... interlaboratory comparisons and the development of control materials and standard reference materials for marine... animal; and (ix) Agreement that credit and acknowledgment will be given to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  18. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mammal populations in the wild; to correlate the health of marine mammals and marine mammal populations... interlaboratory comparisons and the development of control materials and standard reference materials for marine... animal; and (ix) Agreement that credit and acknowledgment will be given to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  19. 78 FR 67184 - Proposed Information Collection; Marine Mammal Marking, Tagging, and Reporting Certificates, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Marine Mammal Marking, Tagging, and Reporting Certificates, and Registration of Certain Dead Marine Mammal Hard Parts AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Under section 101(b) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972...

  20. YIP Expansion: Ocean Basin Impact of Ambient Noise on Marine Mammal Detectability, Distribution, and Acoustic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    oceanography, signal processing, marine mammal biology , propagation modelling, and statistics. Familiarity and previously established access and... Marine Mammal Detectability, Distribution, and Acoustic Communication Jennifer L. Miksis-Olds Applied Research Laboratory The Pennsylvania State...debate on the effect of noise on marine mammals. Application of the most optimal automatic detectors to density estimation efforts over time, examined

  1. Predicting the Ability of Marine Mammal Populations to Compensate for Behavioral Disturbances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FINAL REPORT PREDICTING THE ABILITY OF MARINE MAMMAL...help determine the ability of marine mammal populations to respond to behavioral disturbances. These tools are to be generic and applicable in a...population scale consequences. OBJECTIVES  Develop simple, generic measures that allow the estimation of marine mammal populations and individuals

  2. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Collection of certain marine mammal parts... SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.26 Collection of...

  3. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Collection of certain marine mammal parts... SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.26 Collection of...

  4. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale shall...

  5. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale shall...

  6. Workshop on the Detection, Classification, Localization and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics - 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics - 2015 John A. Hildebrand Scripps Institution of Oceanography UCSD La Jolla...classification, localization and density estimation of marine mammals using passive acoustics, and by doing so advance the state of the art in this field...OBJECTIVES The Seventh International Workshop on Detection, Classification, Localization, and Density Estimation (DCLDE) of Marine Mammals Using

  7. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of certain marine mammal parts... SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.26 Collection of...

  8. 75 FR 5056 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... species of seals and ] sea lions incidental to rocket and missile launches on Vandenberg Air Force Base... californianus), and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), by harassment, incidental to missile and rocket... requirements for the incidental take of marine mammals during missile and rocket launches at VAFB. This LOA is...

  9. 76 FR 6448 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... species of seals and sea lions incidental to rocket and missile launches on Vandenberg Air Force Base... northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), by harassment, incidental to missile and rocket launches... the incidental take of marine mammals during missile and rocket launches at VAFB. This LOA is...

  10. 77 FR 21539 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Sturgeon Research in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... of 5 years from the date of issuance. Pursuant to regulations implementing the Marine Mammal....htm#applications . Background Sections 101(a)(5)(A) and (D) of the MMPA (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq... collaboration with USFWS. The requested regulations would be valid for 5 years from the date of issuance. As...

  11. 77 FR 6086 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test Flight Activities from Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA... harassment, incidental to space vehicle and test flight activities at VAFB. Summary of Activity and... space vehicle and test flight activities at VAFB. Issuance of this LOA is based on findings described...

  12. 76 FR 71535 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) requesting authorization to take marine mammals incidental to various training exercises at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Cherry Point Range Complex, North Carolina. The USMC's activities are considered military readiness activities pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), as amended by the National Defense......

  13. 76 FR 68720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... 0648-XA507 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Geophysical Survey in the Western Tropical Pacific Ocean, November to December 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... of an incidental take authorization (ITA). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal...

  14. 78 FR 33811 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... 0648-XC624 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Geophysical Survey in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean, September to October 2013 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting...

  15. Characterization of phylogenetically diverse astroviruses of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Rebecca; Nollens, Hendrik H; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Gulland, Frances M D; Wellehan, James F X

    2010-01-01

    Astroviruses are small, non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses. Previously studied mammalian astroviruses have been associated with diarrhoeal disease. Knowledge of astrovirus diversity is very limited, with only six officially recognized astrovirus species from mammalian hosts and, in addition, one human and some bat astroviruses were recently described. We used consensus PCR techniques for initial identification of five astroviruses of marine mammals: three from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), one from a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) and one from a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Bayesian and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis found that these viruses showed significant diversity at a level consistent with novel species. Astroviruses that we identified from marine mammals were found across the mamastrovirus tree and did not form a monophyletic group. Recombination analysis found that a recombination event may have occurred between a human and a California sea lion astrovirus, suggesting that both lineages may have been capable of infecting the same host at one point. The diversity found amongst marine mammal astroviruses and their similarity to terrestrial astroviruses suggests that the marine environment plays an important role in astrovirus ecology.

  16. Marine Mammal Impacts in Exploited Ecosystems: Would Large Scale Culling Benefit Fisheries?

    PubMed Central

    Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy; Pauly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Competition between marine mammals and fisheries for marine resources—whether real or perceived—has become a major issue for several countries and in international fora. We examined trophic interactions between marine mammals and fisheries based on a resource overlap index, using seven Ecopath models including marine mammal groups. On a global scale, most food consumed by marine mammals consisted of prey types that were not the main target of fisheries. For each ecosystem, the primary production required (PPR) to sustain marine mammals was less than half the PPR to sustain fisheries catches. We also developed an index representing the mean trophic level of marine mammal's consumption (TLQ) and compared it with the mean trophic level of fisheries' catches (TLC). Our results showed that overall TLQ was lower than TLC (2.88 versus 3.42). As fisheries increasingly exploit lower-trophic level species, the competition with marine mammals may become more important. We used mixed trophic impact analysis to evaluate indirect trophic effects of marine mammals, and in some cases found beneficial effects on some prey. Finally, we assessed the change in the trophic structure of an ecosystem after a simulated extirpation of marine mammal populations. We found that this lead to alterations in the structure of the ecosystems, and that there was no clear and direct relationship between marine mammals' predation and the potential catch by fisheries. Indeed, total biomass, with no marine mammals in the ecosystem, generally remained surprisingly similar, or even decreased for some species. PMID:22970153

  17. Current and Future Patterns of Global Marine Mammal Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Kaschner, Kristin; Tittensor, Derek P.; Ready, Jonathan; Gerrodette, Tim; Worm, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial distribution of taxa is an important prerequisite for the preservation of biodiversity, and can provide a baseline against which to measure the impacts of climate change. Here we analyse patterns of marine mammal species richness based on predictions of global distributional ranges for 115 species, including all extant pinnipeds and cetaceans. We used an environmental suitability model specifically designed to address the paucity of distributional data for many marine mammal species. We generated richness patterns by overlaying predicted distributions for all species; these were then validated against sightings data from dedicated long-term surveys in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Northeast Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. Model outputs correlated well with empirically observed patterns of biodiversity in all three survey regions. Marine mammal richness was predicted to be highest in temperate waters of both hemispheres with distinct hotspots around New Zealand, Japan, Baja California, the Galapagos Islands, the Southeast Pacific, and the Southern Ocean. We then applied our model to explore potential changes in biodiversity under future perturbations of environmental conditions. Forward projections of biodiversity using an intermediate Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) temperature scenario predicted that projected ocean warming and changes in sea ice cover until 2050 may have moderate effects on the spatial patterns of marine mammal richness. Increases in cetacean richness were predicted above 40° latitude in both hemispheres, while decreases in both pinniped and cetacean richness were expected at lower latitudes. Our results show how species distribution models can be applied to explore broad patterns of marine biodiversity worldwide for taxa for which limited distributional data are available. PMID:21625431

  18. Current and future patterns of global marine mammal biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kaschner, Kristin; Tittensor, Derek P; Ready, Jonathan; Gerrodette, Tim; Worm, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial distribution of taxa is an important prerequisite for the preservation of biodiversity, and can provide a baseline against which to measure the impacts of climate change. Here we analyse patterns of marine mammal species richness based on predictions of global distributional ranges for 115 species, including all extant pinnipeds and cetaceans. We used an environmental suitability model specifically designed to address the paucity of distributional data for many marine mammal species. We generated richness patterns by overlaying predicted distributions for all species; these were then validated against sightings data from dedicated long-term surveys in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Northeast Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. Model outputs correlated well with empirically observed patterns of biodiversity in all three survey regions. Marine mammal richness was predicted to be highest in temperate waters of both hemispheres with distinct hotspots around New Zealand, Japan, Baja California, the Galapagos Islands, the Southeast Pacific, and the Southern Ocean. We then applied our model to explore potential changes in biodiversity under future perturbations of environmental conditions. Forward projections of biodiversity using an intermediate Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) temperature scenario predicted that projected ocean warming and changes in sea ice cover until 2050 may have moderate effects on the spatial patterns of marine mammal richness. Increases in cetacean richness were predicted above 40° latitude in both hemispheres, while decreases in both pinniped and cetacean richness were expected at lower latitudes. Our results show how species distribution models can be applied to explore broad patterns of marine biodiversity worldwide for taxa for which limited distributional data are available.

  19. Comparative pathology of nocardiosis in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    St Leger, J A; Begeman, L; Fleetwood, M; Frasca, S; Garner, M M; Lair, S; Trembley, S; Linn, M J; Terio, K A

    2009-03-01

    Nocardia spp. infections in mammals cause pyogranulomatous lesions in a variety of organs, most typically the lung. Members of the Nocardia asteroides complex are the most frequently recognized pathogens. Nine cases of nocardiosis in free-ranging pinnipeds and 10 cases of nocardiosis in cetaceans were evaluated. Host species included the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata, n = 8), leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx, n = 1), Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, n = 4), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas, n = 4), and killer whale (Orcinus orca, n = 2). The most common presentation of nocardiosis in both pinnipeds and cetaceans was the systemic form, involving 2 or more organs. Organs most frequently affected were lung and thoracic lymph nodes in 7 of 9 cases in pinnipeds and 8 of 10 cases in cetaceans. Molecular identification and bacterial isolation demonstrated a variety of pathogenic species. N. asteroides, N. farcinica, N. brasiliensis, and N. otitisdiscaviarum are pathogenic for pinnipeds. In cetaceans N. asteroides, N. farcinica, N. brasiliensis, N. cyriacigeorgica, and N. levis are pathogenic. Hematoxylin and eosin and acid fast staining failed to reveal bacteria in every case, whereas modified acid fast and Grocott's methenamine silver consistently demonstrated the characteristic organisms. In both pinnipeds and cetaceans, juvenile animals were affected more often than adults. Hooded seals demonstrated more cases of nocardiosis than other pinnipeds.

  20. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Echinodermata: Holothuroidea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawson, David L.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Morphology; (3) Systematic Characters; (4) Examination Procedures; (5)…

  1. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Echinodermata: Holothuroidea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawson, David L.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Morphology; (3) Systematic Characters; (4) Examination Procedures; (5)…

  2. 78 FR 19224 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...We have received an application from the U.S. Marine Corps (Marine Corps) requesting an incidental harassment authorization (Authorization) to take marine mammals incidental to various training exercises at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Cherry Point Range Complex, North Carolina for a period of one year. The Marine Corps' activities are military readiness activities pursuant to the Marine......

  3. Brevetoxicosis: red tides and marine mammal mortalities.

    PubMed

    Flewelling, Leanne J; Naar, Jerome P; Abbott, Jay P; Baden, Daniel G; Barros, Nélio B; Bossart, Gregory D; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine D; Hammond, Daniel G; Haubold, Elsa M; Heil, Cynthia A; Henry, Michael S; Jacocks, Henry M; Leighfield, Tod A; Pierce, Richard H; Pitchford, Thomas D; Rommel, Sentiel A; Scott, Paula S; Steidinger, Karen A; Truby, Earnest W; Van Dolah, Frances M; Landsberg, Jan H

    2005-06-09

    Potent marine neurotoxins known as brevetoxins are produced by the 'red tide' dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. They kill large numbers of fish and cause illness in humans who ingest toxic filter-feeding shellfish or inhale toxic aerosols. The toxins are also suspected of having been involved in events in which many manatees and dolphins died, but this has usually not been verified owing to limited confirmation of toxin exposure, unexplained intoxication mechanisms and complicating pathologies. Here we show that fish and seagrass can accumulate high concentrations of brevetoxins and that these have acted as toxin vectors during recent deaths of dolphins and manatees, respectively. Our results challenge claims that the deleterious effects of a brevetoxin on fish (ichthyotoxicity) preclude its accumulation in live fish, and they reveal a new vector mechanism for brevetoxin spread through food webs that poses a threat to upper trophic levels.

  4. Early-Middle Cenozoic Andean mammal faunas: Integrated analyses of biochronology, geochronology, and paleoecology (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    For almost two centuries, understanding of the South American Cenozoic terrestrial biota was derived largely from the extensive but gap-riddled record from Patagonia and nearby lowland, high-latitude sites. But discoveries and analyses of Andean and tropical fossil mammal assemblages have increased substantially in recent years, and integrating these new paleontological data with those typically used in geochronologic and tectonic studies can yield new or deeper insights into the timing, origin, and magnitude of biotic responses to environmental, climatic and other physical changes, including the influences of regional (e.g., tectonism) versus global (e.g., climate change) events. More than two decades of collaborative research with R. Charrier (U. Chile), A. Wyss and P. Gans (UC-Santa Barbara), D. Croft (Case Western), the National Museum of Chile, and other investigators in the Main Range of the Chilean Andes is creating one of the premier archives of early-middle Cenozoic terrestrial mammal fossils. The active margin setting and thick volcaniclastic sequences accumulating in Andean extensional basins foster preservation of a unique record of mammalian evolution, and development of a more precise and reliable terrestrial geochronology integrating biochronology, magnetostratigraphy and high-precision radioisotopic dating, including the first calibration for some South American Land Mammal “Ages” (SALMAs). Intensive work within the Andes of Chile (particularly the Abanico Fm. and its equivalents, from 33°-38°30’S) has yielded more than 3,000 specimens from > 2 dozen sets of localities, spanning some 30° of latitude and ranging in age from at least 40 to 10 Ma (late Eocene to late Miocene). Exemplar “case-studies” illustrate how these new fossils and dates provide key data for understanding mammalian evolution and paleoecology, documenting faunal change through time (during periods of profound environmental and biotic restructuring), assessing

  5. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  6. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  7. Large-scale marine ecosystem change and the conservation of marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Odell, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Papers in this Special Feature stem from a symposium on large-scale ecosystem change and the conservation of marine mammals convened at the 86th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mammalogists in June 2006. Major changes are occurring in multiple aspects of the marine environment at unprecedented rates, within the life spans of some individual marine mammals. Drivers of change include shifts in climate, acoustic pollution, disturbances to trophic structure, fisheries interactions, harmful algal blooms, and environmental contaminants. This Special Feature provides an in-depth examination of 3 issues that are particularly troublesome. The 1st article notes the huge spatial and temporal scales of change to which marine mammals are showing ecological responses, and how these species can function as sentinels of such change. The 2nd paper describes the serious problems arising from conflicts with fisheries, and the 3rd contribution reviews the growing issues associated with underwater noise. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  8. Relationship between marine mammal stranding events and offshore earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Rachel; Savirina, Anna; Hoppit, Will

    2014-05-01

    The causes of marine mammal stranding events are largely unknown, but may relate to ocean currents, severe weather, anthropogenic noise pollution, and other factors. Large stranding events have been suggested to occur as a result of offshore earthquakes but there is little evidence as yet to support this hypothesis. Stranding events occur in hotspots, which are sometimes areas of high seismic activity, such as Taiwan, and other times, in areas that are removed from seismic zones, such as Cape Cod. We analyse a large and robust dataset of marine mammal stranding data collected off the coast of Washington and Oregon from 1999 to 2010, to look for statistical connections to offshore earthquakes. We looked forward, as well as backward in time from significant seismic events, to ascertain whether stranding occurrences, if connected to earthquakes, are a result of the earthquake preparation period or the earthquake itself. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  9. Chemical Characterization of Compounds Released by Marine Mammals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    NOTES IS. KEY WORDS (Cmtinue on revere side It necesary and identtt by block number) Chemoreception Toxicity Gas Chromatography Glandular Extracts Mass...Identl b block mmber) .)£xcretions, secretions and glandular extracts from marine mammals were analyzed chemically by gas chromatography and mass...ex- traction and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectro- metry (ref 11, 12). Details of the technique are described in a report obtained

  10. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for...www.soest.hawaii.edu/ore/faculty/nosal LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is to improve model-based passive acoustic methods for...and applicability of model-based passive acoustic tracking methods for marine mammals: 1) Invert for sound speed profiles, hydrophone position and

  11. 78 FR 66686 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Seabird and Pinniped Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC837 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Conservation Science), requesting an Incidental Harassment Authorization (Authorization) to take marine...

  12. Absorption and ocular deposition of dietary lutein in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Schmitt, Todd; Colitz, Carmen M H; Mazzaro, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Cataracts and ocular disease are common lesions of marine mammals in zoological collections. Lutein, an oxygenated carotenoid, may have therapeutic or prophylactic effects on ocular disorder. Therefore, this study examined the ability of marine mammals to absorb dietary lutein. Two preliminary trials examined lutein in two forms (beadlet or ester) in a small sample size of marine mammals representing pinnipeds and cetaceans. Lutein was fed daily in tablets providing 0.89-3.6 mg lutein/kg body weight(0.75) per day for 15 days to 2 years. A third study was conducted using lutein beadlet fed at 3.6 mg lutein/kg body weight(0.75) per day for 15-21 days. Blood was analyzed for lutein pre- and postsupplementation. In the preliminary trials, lutein beadlet was observed to result in greater blood lutein levels than lutein esters, and cetaceans had more noticeable responses than pinnipeds. In Study 3, serum lutein and zeaxanthin increased postsupplementation in beluga whales (P < 0.05), and serum lutein tended to increase postsupplementation in dolphins (P < 0.10), but little change was seen in serum lutein in pinnipeds or manatee. Opportunistic retinal samples demonstrated some detectable lutein in the retina of a dolphin and several harp seals. The lutein levels in dolphins after supplementation are similar to those reported in free-ranging animals. Ocular lutein in harp seals demonstrates that ocular deposition occurs despite low circulating lutein levels.

  13. Marine birds and mammals of the Pacific Subarctic Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A. M.; Piatt, J. F.; Shuntov, V. P.; Van Vliet, G. B.; Vladimirov, V. L.; Kuzin, A. E.; Perlov, A. S.

    1999-03-01

    The importance of the subarctic gyres of the North Pacific Ocean to marine birds and mammals is poorly known because of a paucity of data spanning appropriate scales of time and space. The little information that is available indicates the western subarctic gyre (WSAG) is more productive than the eastern subarctic gyre (ESAG). In summer the WSAG supports a greater density and higher biomass of seabirds than the ESAG, including at least two species that are more abundant at nesting colonies in the eastern subarctic. Perhaps most revealing of the seabird distributions in this regard is that of southern hemisphere shearwaters ( Puffinus spp. ) that overwinter in the North Pacific. Their biomass is an order of magnitude greater than that of any northern hemisphere species and is three-fold greater in the WSAG than in the ESAG. Several species of cetaceans also appear to be, or to have been prior to commercial depletions, more abundant in the WSA. Among the many prey species consumed by marine birds and mammals, squids and fishes in the family Myctophidae predominate overall. Other forage species, notably euphausiids, Pacific saury ( Cololabis saira) and Atka mackerel ( Pleurogrammus monopterygius) are important at times to certain species. The principal exceptions to this generalization are baleen whales and small seabirds that consume zooplankton. Interannual and decadal-scale variability in the physical environment and food web production affect seabirds and marine mammals at sea and at coastal breeding locations around the margins of the gyres.

  14. Marine birds and mammals of the Pacific Subarctic Gyres

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springer, A.M.; Piatt, J.F.; Shuntov, V.P.; Van Vliet, Gus B.; Vladimirov, V.L.; Kuzin, A.E.; Perlov, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of the subarctic gyres of the North Pacific Ocean to marine birds and mammals is poorly known because of a paucity of data spanning appropriate scales of time and space. The little information that is available indicates the western subarctic gyre (WSAG) is more productive than the eastern subarctic gyre (ESAG). In summer the WSAG supports a greater density and higher biomass of seabirds than the ESAG, including at least two species that are more abundant at nesting colonies in the eastern subarctic. Perhaps most revealing of the seabird distributions in this regard is that of southern hemisphere shearwaters (Puffinus spp.) that overwinter in the North Pacific. Their biomass is an order of magnitude greater than that of any northern hemisphere species and is three-fold greater in the WSAG than in the ESAG. Several species of cetaceans also appear to be, or to have been prior to commercial depletions, more abundant in the WSA. Among the many prey species consumed by marine birds and mammals, squids and fishes in the family Myctophidae predominate overall. Other forage species, notably euphausiids, Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius) are important at times to certain species. The principal exceptions to this generalization are baleen whales and small seabirds that consume zooplankton. Interannual and decadal-scale variability in the physical environment and food web production affect seabirds and marine mammals at sea and at coastal breeding locations around the margins of the gyres.

  15. Reducing marine mammal bycatch in global fisheries: An economics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lent, Rebecca; Squires, Dale

    2017-06-01

    The broader ecosystem impacts of fishing continue to present a challenge to scientists and resource managers around the world. Bycatch is of greatest concern for marine mammals, for which fishery bycatch and entanglement is the number one cause of direct mortality. Climate change will only add to the challenge, as marine species and fishing practices adapt to a changing environment, creating a dynamic pattern of overlap between fishing and species (both target and bycatch). Economists suggest policy instruments for reducing bycatch that move away from top-down, command-and-control measures (e.g. effort reduction, time/area closures, gear restrictions, bycatch quotas) towards an approach that creates incentives to reduce bycatch (e.g. transferable bycatch allowances, taxes, and other measures). The advantages of this flexible, incentive-oriented approach are even greater in a changing and increasingly variable environment, as regulatory measures would have to be adapted constantly to keep up with climate change. Unlike the regulatory process, individual operators in the fishery sector can make adjustments to their harvesting practices as soon as the incentives for such changes are apparent and inputs or operations can be modified. This paper explores policy measures that create economic incentives not only to reduce marine mammal bycatch, but also to increase compliance and induce technological advances by fishery operators. Economists also suggest exploration of direct economic incentives as have been used in other conservation programs, such as payments for economic services, in an approach that addresses marine mammal bycatch as part of a larger conservation strategy. Expanding the portfolio of mandatory and potentially, voluntary, measures to include novel approaches will provide a broader array of opportunities for successful stewardship of the marine environment.

  16. A Late Pleistocene transgression in Thailand: A marine molluscan fauna from Ban Praksa (Samut Prakan Province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, Mauro Pietro

    2012-01-01

    A Late Pleistocene molluscan fauna sampled at Ban Praksa, near the Chao Phraya River mouth (Lower Central Plain of Bangkok, Thailand) is herein analyzed and paleoecologically characterized, revealing a shallow infralittoral, coarse/hard-bottomed environment. The comparison of the Ban Praksa association with several coeval ones recovered from Phra Pradaeng Formation seems to be evidence of a 10,000 year hiatus between two separate groups of marine faunas, possibly belonging to different interstadial transgressive peaks that occurred during the long-term sea-level regression following the Last Interglacial.

  17. Monitoring the marine environment using marine mammal tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Day, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Marine environments, both inshore and open ocean, receive numerous inputs of anthropogenic chemicals. Cetaceans provide a valuable resource for monitoring the low level contamination of marine environments with persistent organic contaminants. Comparative studies using inshore and offshore southern ocean cetaceans have revealed significant differences in the types of contamination in these two environments. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) deposited in the southern oceans are characterized by an abundance of lower chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are not present at significant concentrations in cetaceans from the open southern ocean. In contrast significant concentrations of PCDD/F congeners are detected in the blubber of the inshore living Hector`s dolphin. This species lives close to the shore and has a very small home range (approximately 30 km) for a cetacean. Analysis of tissue PCDD/F and PCB profiles from different populations and their food sources will be presented. The data are being used to determine if there are local variations in the contamination of the New Zealand inshore marine environment.

  18. 77 FR 64961 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION...: NMFS has received a request from the Seattle Department of Transportation (SDOT), on behalf of the City of Seattle (City), for authorization for the take, by Level B harassment, of marine...

  19. 77 FR 27720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...) establishes a 45-day time limit for NMFS review of an application followed by a 30-day public notice and...-water noise levels from explosive detonations onshore will not rise to a level of that would be... mammals close to underwater detonations of high explosive can be killed or severely injured, and...

  20. 78 FR 52753 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 229 RIN 0648-BD43 Taking of Marine Mammals... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... 118(f) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) to reduce the level of serious injury and...

  1. 78 FR 71576 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... contribute to the basic knowledge of marine mammal biology on NWSR. Negligible Impact and Small Numbers... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC350 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Norte County, California AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  2. 78 FR 47282 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC497 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Warfare Center Panama City Division AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and.... SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is...

  3. Consumption by marine mammals on the Northeast U.S. continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laurel A; Link, Jason S; Cadrin, Steven X; Palka, Debra L

    2015-03-01

    The economic and ecological impacts of fish consumption by marine mammals, the associated interactions with commercial fish stocks, and the forage demands of these marine mammal populations are largely unknown. Consumption estimates are often either data deficient or not fully evaluated in a rigorous, quantitative manner. Although consumption estimates exist for the Northeast United States (NEUS) Large Marine Ecosystem, there is considerable uncertainty in those estimates. We examined consumption estimates for 12 marine mammal species inhabiting the regional ecosystem. We used sensitivity analyses to examine metabolically driven daily individual consumption rates, resulting in a suite of feasible parameter-pair ranges for each of three taxonomic groups: mysticetes, odontocetes, and pinnipeds. We expanded daily individual consumption to annual consumption based on abundance estimates of marine mammals found on the NEUS continental shelf coupled with estimates of annual residence time for each species. To examine consumptive removals for specific prey, diet compositions were summarized into major prey categories, and predatory removals by marine mammal species as well as for total marine mammal consumption were estimated for each prey taxa. Bounds on consumption estimates for each marine mammal species were determined using Monte Carlo resampling simulations. Our results suggest that consumption for these 12 marine mammal species combined may be similar in magnitude to commercial fishery landings for small pelagic and groundfish prey groups. Consumption by marine mammals warrants consideration both as a source of mortality in assessments of prey-stocks, and to determine marine mammal forage demands in ecosystem assessment models. The approach that we present represents a rigorous, quantitative method to scope the bounds of the biomass that marine mammals are expected to consume, and is appropriate for use in other ecosystems where the interaction between marine

  4. Annual report of the Marine Mammal Commission, calendar year 1992. Report to the Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-31

    This is the 20th Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors on Marine Mammals. The Commission was established under Title II of the Marine Mammal Protection Act to provide an independent source of guidance on Federal activities and policies, both domestic and international, affecting marine mammal protection and conservation. Each year, the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors devote particular attention to marine mammal species or populations that are or may be in jeopardy. Chapter III describes efforts to conserve: sea otters in California and Alaska; Steller sea lions; Hawaiian monk seals; harbor seals; northern fur seals; Pacific walruses; northern right whales; humpback whales; gray whales; bowhead whales; harbor porpoises; vaquitas or Gulf of California harbor porpoises; bottlenose dolphins; killer whales; and polar bears. Activities related to West Indian manatees, Hawaiian monk seals, vaquitas, and gray whales are summarized.

  5. Marine mammals as global pollution indicators for organochlorines.

    PubMed

    Mössner, S; Ballschmiter, K

    1997-01-01

    Blubber tissues of the following marine mammals differing in their geographic distribution (North Atlantic, North Pacific, Bering Sea/Arctic Ocean), trophic level, and feeding habits were analyzed for their organochlorine contents: two seal species (harbor seals--Phoca vitulina, northern fur seals--Callorhinus ursinus), three toothed whale species (belukha whales--Delphinapterus leucas, one common dolphin--Delphinus delphis, one pilot whale--Globicephala melaena), and one baleen whale species (a bowhead whale--Balaena mysticetus). As xenobiotics were quantified the seven indicator congeners of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180), three isomers of the hexachlorocyclohexanes (alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH) as well as six components of the DDT-group (4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, 2,4'-DDT, 2,4'-DDD, and 2,4'-DDE). When comparing the xenobiotic levels of these marine mammals, it showed that the animals from the western North Atlantic were contaminated about 15 times more with organochlorines than the animals from the eastern North Pacific and the Bering Sea/Arctic Ocean. The total organochlorine burden, the 4,4'-DDE-percentage as well as the metabolic PCB patterns correlate with the trophic levels of the marine mammals studied. The quantitative analyses were done by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (HRGC/ECD) whereas the analyses of the metabolic PCB patterns were done by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and mass selective detection (HRGC/MSD).

  6. The occurrence and ecology of Trichinella in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Forbes, L B

    2000-12-01

    Trichinella in marine mammals has a circumpolar arctic distribution and a narrow range of host species. It is commonly found in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), and increasingly in walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) where it presents a significant zoonotic hazard. This has resulted in the implementation of food safety programs in some arctic communities to test harvested walrus meat for Trichinella larvae prior to consumption. Trichinella has been reported infrequently in bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida), and was once observed in a Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Cannibalism is probably the most important factor in maintaining a Trichinella cycle in polar bears. Arctic carnivores such as polar bears, arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have a high prevalence of Trichinella infection and the carcasses of at least some of these animals are deposited in the ocean. Scavenging of these carcasses by walruses probably occurs, but may not account for the high prevalence the parasite seen in this host species. Predation, carrion feeding and cannibalism have been documented for walruses and a sylvatic cycle similar to that of bears may exist in walrus populations. Seals and whales are likely infected through infrequent exposure to infected carcasses, either directly by scavenging or indirectly by consuming amphipods or fish that have fed on infected carcasses. The inefficiency of this mechanism may account for the low prevalence of Trichinella in seals and whales. It is known that isolates from marine mammals are cold tolerant, and infectious for man, and have been identified as Trichinella nativa (T2). Molecular and other phylogenetic studies would be useful to facilitate studies on the inter-relationship of Trichinella cycles involving marine and terrestrial mammals in the arctic and subarctic, and in the investigation of human outbreaks of trichinellosis in these areas.

  7. Influenza A virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores.

    PubMed

    Harder, Timm C; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Vahlenkamp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV), members of the Orthomyxoviridae, cover a wide host spectrum comprising a plethora of avian and, in comparison, a few mammalian species. The viral reservoir and gene pool are kept in metapopulations of aquatic wild birds. The mammalian-adapted IAVs originally arose by transspecies transmission from avian sources. In swine, horse and man, species-adapted IAV lineages circulate independently of the avian reservoir and cause predominantly respiratory disease of highly variable severity. Sporadic outbreaks of IAV infections associated with pneumonic clinical signs have repeatedly occurred in marine mammals (harbour seals [Phoca vitulina]) off the New England coast of the U.S.A. due to episodic transmission of avian IAV. However, no indigenous marine mammal IAV lineages are described. In contrast to marine mammals, avian- and equine-derived IAVs have formed stable circulating lineages in terrestrial carnivores: IAVs of subtype H3N2 and H3N8 are found in canine populations in South Korea, China, and the U.S.A. Experimental infections revealed that dogs and cats can be infected with an even wider range of avian IAVs. Cats, in particular, also proved susceptible to native infection with human pandemic H1N1 viruses and, according to serological data, may be vulnerable to infection with further human-adapted IAVs. Ferrets are susceptible to a variety of avian and mammalian IAVs and are an established animal model of human IAV infection. Thus, a potential role of pet cats, dogs and ferrets as mediators of avian-derived viruses to the human population does exist. A closer observation for influenza virus infections and transmissions at this animal-human interface is indicated.

  8. [Mammal flea (Siphonaptera) fauna in the interfluve of the Malaya Laba and Belaya Laba rivers].

    PubMed

    Kotti, B K; Kotova, E G

    2014-01-01

    The mammals in the interfluve of the Malaya Laba and Belaya Laba rivers were found to have fleas of 35 species; the main hosts for 2 of them were birds. Few hosts harbored most of animal parasites. The species composition and structure of fleas on small mammals greatly varies with high-altitude zones.

  9. Derelict fishing nets in Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits: patterns and threats to marine fauna.

    PubMed

    Good, Thomas P; June, Jeffrey A; Etnier, Michael A; Broadhurst, Ginny

    2010-01-01

    Derelict fishing gear remains in the marine environment for years, entangling, and killing marine organisms worldwide. Since 2002, hundreds of derelict nets containing over 32,000 marine animals have been recovered from Washington's inland waters. Analysis of 870 gillnets found many were derelict for years; most were recovered from northern Puget Sound and high-relief rocky habitats and were relatively small, of recent construction, in good condition, stretched open, and in relatively shallow water. Marine organisms documented in recovered gillnets included 31,278 invertebrates (76 species), 1036 fishes (22 species), 514 birds (16 species), and 23 mammals (4 species); 56% of invertebrates, 93% of fish, and 100% of birds and mammals were dead when recovered. For all taxa, mortality was generally associated with gillnet effectiveness (total area, age and condition, and suspension in the water). Mortality from derelict fishing gear is underestimated at recovery and may be important for species of economic and conservation concern. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Understanding the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance for Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Harwood, John; King, Stephanie; Booth, Cormac; Donovan, Carl; Schick, Robert S; Thomas, Len; New, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Loud anthropogenic underwater noise, such as that associated with sonar operations, pile driving, or seismic surveys, can cause behavioral and physiological disturbance to many animals that may affect their survival or ability to breed. However, no formal framework for assessing the population-level consequences of this disturbance is currently available. We describe an interim version of a framework developed by a working group on the population consequences of disturbance, funded by the US Office of Naval Research through the University of California, that can be used to assess the effects of offshore renewable energy developments on marine mammal populations.

  11. 76 FR 4641 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...The Assistant Administrator for Fisheries, NMFS, (Assistant Administrator) has issued a 5-year affirmative finding for the Government of Guatemala under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). This affirmative finding will allow yellowfin tuna harvested in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP) in compliance with the International Dolphin Conservation Program (IDCP) by Guatemalan-flag purse seine vessels or purse seine vessels operating under Guatemalan jurisdiction to be imported into the United States. The affirmative finding was based on review of documentary evidence submitted by the Government of Guatemala and obtained from the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) and the U.S. Department of State.

  12. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    beluga whales at the Barren Islands, Alaska, the Bering Sea Acoustic Report, Marine Mammal Monitoring for NW Fisheries, and Monitoring killer whale ...distribution, physical oceanographic process, and sound levels to marine mammal habitat use on the eastern Bering Sea shelf. Integrated data such...individual parameters. 3) A mixed-model analysis will be performed to identify relationships between marine mammal presence and environmental sound

  13. Effect of Broadband Nature of Marine Mammal Echolocation Clicks on Click-Based Population Density Estimates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Effect of Broadband Nature of Marine Mammal Echolocation...modeled for different marine mammal species and detectors and assess the magnitude of error on the estimated density due to various commonly used...noise limited (von Benda-Beckmann et al. 2010). A three hour segment, previously audited by human operators to ensure no marine mammals were present in

  14. Quantifying Acoustic Uncertainty Due to Marine Mammals and Fish Near the Shelfbreak Front off Cape Hatteras

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. QuantifyingAcoustic Uncertainty Due to Marine Mammals and...LONG TERM GOALS The long term goals of our work on acoustic uncertainty due to fish and marine mammals are to: 1) understand the nature of low-to...medium frequency (100-2000 Hz) acoustic scattering (specifically reverberation and attenuation) by fish schools and larger marine mammals, 2) advance

  15. Ocean Basin Impact of Ambient Noise on Marine Mammal Detectability, Distribution, and Acoustic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    The ultimate goal of this research was to enhance the understanding of global ocean noise and how variability in sound level impacts marine mammal...detection as it relates to marine mammal active acoustic space and acoustic communication. This work increases the spatial range and time scale of prior...acoustic environment were then applied to the investigation of ocean noise issues related to general signal detection tasks, as well as marine mammal acoustic detection and impacts.

  16. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Jennifer L. Miksis-Olds Applied Research Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University PO...signals impact marine mammal prey and resulting marine mammal habitat use. This is especially critical in areas like the Bering Sea where global climate...animal presence and habitat use. Objective 1: What effect do changing sea ice dynamics have on zooplankton populations? a) How does zooplankton

  17. Ocean Basin Impact of Ambient Noise on Marine Mammal Detectability, Distribution, and Acoustic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-06

    Technical Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ocean Basin Impact of Ambient Noise on Marine Mammal Distribution, and Acoustic Communication 3. DATES...ultimate goal of this research is to enhance the understanding of global ocean noise and how variability in sound level impacts marine mammal acoustic...it relates to marine mammal active acoustic space and acoustic communication. This work increases the spatial range and time scale of prior

  18. Unmanned aerial vehicles for surveying marine fauna: assessing detection probability.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Amanda; Peel, David; Kelly, Natalie

    2017-06-01

    Aerial surveys are conducted for various fauna to assess abundance, distribution, and habitat use over large spatial scales. They are traditionally conducted using light aircraft with observers recording sightings in real time. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer an alternative with many potential advantages, including eliminating human risk. To be effective, this emerging platform needs to provide detection rates of animals comparable to traditional methods. UAVs can also acquire new types of information, and this new data requires a reevaluation of traditional analyses used in aerial surveys; including estimating the probability of detecting animals. We conducted 17 replicate UAV surveys of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) while simultaneously obtaining a 'census' of the population from land-based observations, to assess UAV detection probability. The ScanEagle UAV, carrying a digital SLR camera, continuously captured images (with 75% overlap) along transects covering the visual range of land-based observers. We also used ScanEagle to conduct focal follows of whale pods (n = 12, mean duration = 40 min), to assess a new method of estimating availability. A comparison of the whale detections from the UAV to the land-based census provided an estimated UAV detection probability of 0.33 (CV = 0.25; incorporating both availability and perception biases), which was not affected by environmental covariates (Beaufort sea state, glare, and cloud cover). According to our focal follows, the mean availability was 0.63 (CV = 0.37), with pods including mother/calf pairs having a higher availability (0.86, CV = 0.20) than those without (0.59, CV = 0.38). The follows also revealed (and provided a potential correction for) a downward bias in group size estimates from the UAV surveys, which resulted from asynchronous diving within whale pods, and a relatively short observation window of 9 s. We have shown that UAVs are an effective alternative to

  19. 76 FR 49737 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to take marine mammals, by... Seismic Research Funded by the National Science Foundation or Conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey... mitigation practices. During other low power seismic and seafloor mapping surveys, USGS successfully used...

  20. 77 FR 56613 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... activities. We expect these disturbances to be temporary and result in a temporary modification in behavior... animal within the relevant exclusion zone for 15 minutes for species with shorter dive times (i.e., small... observers detect animals during ramp-up. Description of the Marine Mammals in the Area of the Specified...

  1. 75 FR 64996 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... observations meaningful, for comparison of sighting rates and animal behavior during periods with vs. without... collection of meaningful baseline data on the distribution and behavior of marine mammals. Response: The... if an animal's maximum underwater time is 45 min, there is only a one in three chance that the last...

  2. 75 FR 44770 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... density of marine mammals, combined with the remote, deep water survey location, NMFS has determined that.... Response: As the Commission points out, several species of deep- diving cetaceans are capable of remaining... being equal and if deep-diving individuals happened to be in the area in the short time immediately...

  3. Bycatch of marine mammals in U.S. and global fisheries.

    PubMed

    Read, Andrew J; Drinker, Phebe; Northridge, Simon

    2006-02-01

    Fisheries bycatch poses a significant threat to many populations of marine mammals, but there are few published estimates of the magnitude of these catches. We estimated marine mammal bycatch in U.S. fisheries from 1990 to 1999 with data taken from the stock assessment reports required by the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act. The mean annual bycatch of marine mammals during this period was 6215 +/- 448 (SE). Bycatch of cetaceans and pinnipeds occurred in similar numbers. Most cetacean (84%) and pinniped (98%) bycatch occurred in gill-net fisheries. Marine mammal bycatch declined significantly over the decade, primarily because of a reduction in the bycatch of cetaceans. Total marine mammal bycatch was significantly lower after the implementation of take reduction measures in the latter half of the decade. We derived a crude first estimate of marine mammal bycatch in the world's fisheries by expanding U.S. bycatch with data on fleet composition from the Food and Agriculture Organization. The global bycatch of marine mammals is in the hundreds of thousands. Bycatch is likely to have significant demographic effects on many populations of marine mammals. Better data are urgently needed to fully understand the impact of these interactions.

  4. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS... collected or imported under this section. (e) The export of parts collected without prior authorization...

  5. 77 FR 68107 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ..., National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, telephoning the contact... been studied since 1992) to gain a better understanding of the abundance and health of the black... efforts to assess the status and health of the black abalone population on the South Farallon Islands may...

  6. 77 FR 50990 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... Farallon Islands, California AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... areas on the South Farallon Islands (beyond those that have been studied since 1992) to gain a better... abalone population on the South Farallon Islands may take several years, and perhaps decades,...

  7. 76 FR 27308 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of issuance of a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine... a Letter of Authorization (LOA) has been issued to the Alaska Aerospace Corporation (AAC) to take... created by ascending rockets launched from the KLC reach the Earth's surface over deep ocean, well...

  8. Marine mammal impacts in exploited ecosystems: would large scale culling benefit fisheries?

    PubMed

    Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy; Pauly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Competition between marine mammals and fisheries for marine resources-whether real or perceived-has become a major issue for several countries and in international fora. We examined trophic interactions between marine mammals and fisheries based on a resource overlap index, using seven Ecopath models including marine mammal groups. On a global scale, most food consumed by marine mammals consisted of prey types that were not the main target of fisheries. For each ecosystem, the primary production required (PPR) to sustain marine mammals was less than half the PPR to sustain fisheries catches. We also developed an index representing the mean trophic level of marine mammal's consumption (TL(Q)) and compared it with the mean trophic level of fisheries' catches (TL(C)). Our results showed that overall TL(Q) was lower than TL(C) (2.88 versus 3.42). As fisheries increasingly exploit lower-trophic level species, the competition with marine mammals may become more important. We used mixed trophic impact analysis to evaluate indirect trophic effects of marine mammals, and in some cases found beneficial effects on some prey. Finally, we assessed the change in the trophic structure of an ecosystem after a simulated extirpation of marine mammal populations. We found that this lead to alterations in the structure of the ecosystems, and that there was no clear and direct relationship between marine mammals' predation and the potential catch by fisheries. Indeed, total biomass, with no marine mammals in the ecosystem, generally remained surprisingly similar, or even decreased for some species.

  9. Radionuclides in marine mammals off the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Malta, Margarida; Carvalho, Fernando P

    2011-05-01

    Radionuclide analyses were performed in tissue samples including muscle, gonad, liver, mammary gland, and bone of marine mammals stranded on the Portuguese west coast during January-July 2006. Tissues were collected from seven dolphins (Delphinus delphis and Stenella coeruleoalba) and one pilot whale (Globicephala sp.). Samples were analyzed for (210)Po and (210)Pb by alpha spectrometry and for (137)Cs and (40)K by gamma spectrometry. Po-210 concentrations in common dolphin's muscle (D. delphis) averaged 56 ± 32 Bq kg(-1) wet weight (w.w.), while (210)Pb averaged 0.17 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1) w.w., (137)Cs averaged 0.29 ± 0.28 Bq kg(-1) w.w., and (40)K 129 ± 48 Bq kg(-1) w.w. Absorbed radiation doses due to these radionuclides for the internal organs of common dolphins were computed and attained a 1.50 μGy h(-1) on a whole body basis. (210)Po was the main contributor to the weighted absorbed dose, accounting for 97% of the dose from internally accumulated radionuclides. These computed radiation doses in dolphins are compared to radiation doses from (210)Po and other radionuclides reported for human tissues. Due to the high (210)Po activity concentration in dolphins, the internal radiation dose in these marine mammals is about three orders of magnitude higher than in man. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Conservation of Arctic marine mammals faced with climate change.

    PubMed

    Ragen, Timothy J; Huntington, Henry P; Hovelsrud, Grete K

    2008-03-01

    On a daily basis, societies are making decisions that will influence the effects of climate change for decades or even centuries to come. To promote informed management of the associated risks, we review available conservation measures for Arctic marine mammals, a group that includes some of the most charismatic species on earth. The majority of available conservation measures (e.g., restrictions on hunting, protection of essential habitat areas from development, reduction of incidental take) are intended to address the effects of increasing human activity in the Arctic that are likely to follow decreasing sea ice and rising temperatures. As important as those measures will be in the effort to conserve Arctic marine mammals and ecosystems, they will not address the primary physical manifestations of climate change, such as loss of sea ice. Short of actions to prevent climate change, there are no known conservation measures that can be used to ensure the long-term persistence of these species and ecosystems as we know them today.

  11. 75 FR 13498 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Dumbarton Bridge Seismic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Specified Activities; Dumbarton Bridge Seismic Retrofit Project, California AGENCY: National Marine... Dumbarton Bridge Seismic Retrofit Project. DATES: Effective August 15, 2010, through August 14, 2011..., NMFS received a request from Caltrans to harass marine mammals incidental to the Dumbarton Bridge...

  12. Arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sue E; Huntington, Henry P

    2008-03-01

    Evolutionary selection has refined the life histories of seven species (three cetacean [narwhal, beluga, and bowhead whales], three pinniped [walrus, ringed, and bearded seals], and the polar bear) to spatial and temporal domains influenced by the seasonal extremes and variability of sea ice, temperature, and day length that define the Arctic. Recent changes in Arctic climate may challenge the adaptive capability of these species. Nine other species (five cetacean [fin, humpback, minke, gray, and killer whales] and four pinniped [harp, hooded, ribbon, and spotted seals]) seasonally occupy Arctic and subarctic habitats and may be poised to encroach into more northern latitudes and to remain there longer, thereby competing with extant Arctic species. A synthesis of the impacts of climate change on all these species hinges on sea ice, in its role as: (1) platform, (2) marine ecosystem foundation, and (3) barrier to non-ice-adapted marine mammals and human commercial activities. Therefore, impacts are categorized for: (1) ice-obligate species that rely on sea ice platforms, (2) ice-associated species that are adapted to sea ice-dominated ecosystems, and (3) seasonally migrant species for which sea ice can act as a barrier. An assessment of resilience is far more speculative, as any number of scenarios can be envisioned, most of them involving potential trophic cascades and anticipated human perturbations. Here we provide resilience scenarios for the three ice-related species categories relative to four regions defined by projections of sea ice reductions by 2050 and extant shelf oceanography. These resilience scenarios suggest that: (1) some populations of ice-obligate marine mammals will survive in two regions with sea ice refugia, while other stocks may adapt to ice-free coastal habitats, (2) ice-associated species may find suitable feeding opportunities within the two regions with sea ice refugia and, if capable of shifting among available prey, may benefit from

  13. New data on mammoth fauna mammals in the central Lena River basin (Yakutia, Lenskie Stolby National Nature Park and adjacent areas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeskorov, G. G.; Nogovitsyn, P. R.; Mashchenko, E. N.; Belolyubsky, I. N.; Stepanov, A. D.; Plotnikov, V. V.; Protopopov, A. V.; Shchelchkova, M. V.; van der Plicht, J.; Solomonov, N. G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers the data on new findings of mammoth fauna remains in the Middle Lena basin used to specify the species composition of large Late Neopleistocene mammals represented by eleven species. The obtained range of radiocarbon dates made it possible to state that mass burials of Pleistocene mammal remains were formed in the region during the Karginsk Interstadial (24 000-55 000 years ago).

  14. The Gut Bacterial Community of Mammals from Marine and Terrestrial Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Tiffanie M.; Rogers, Tracey L.; Brown, Mark V.

    2013-01-01

    After birth, mammals acquire a community of bacteria in their gastro-intestinal tract, which harvests energy and provides nutrients for the host. Comparative studies of numerous terrestrial mammal hosts have identified host phylogeny, diet and gut morphology as primary drivers of the gut bacterial community composition. To date, marine mammals have been excluded from these comparative studies, yet they represent distinct examples of evolutionary history, diet and lifestyle traits. To provide an updated understanding of the gut bacterial community of mammals, we compared bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data generated from faecal material of 151 marine and terrestrial mammal hosts. This included 42 hosts from a marine habitat. When compared to terrestrial mammals, marine mammals clustered separately and displayed a significantly greater average relative abundance of the phylum Fusobacteria. The marine carnivores (Antarctic and Arctic seals) and the marine herbivore (dugong) possessed significantly richer gut bacterial community than terrestrial carnivores and terrestrial herbivores, respectively. This suggests that evolutionary history and dietary items specific to the marine environment may have resulted in a gut bacterial community distinct to that identified in terrestrial mammals. Finally we hypothesize that reduced marine trophic webs, whereby marine carnivores (and herbivores) feed directly on lower trophic levels, may expose this group to high levels of secondary metabolites and influence gut microbial community richness. PMID:24386245

  15. The gut bacterial community of mammals from marine and terrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Tiffanie M; Rogers, Tracey L; Brown, Mark V

    2013-01-01

    After birth, mammals acquire a community of bacteria in their gastro-intestinal tract, which harvests energy and provides nutrients for the host. Comparative studies of numerous terrestrial mammal hosts have identified host phylogeny, diet and gut morphology as primary drivers of the gut bacterial community composition. To date, marine mammals have been excluded from these comparative studies, yet they represent distinct examples of evolutionary history, diet and lifestyle traits. To provide an updated understanding of the gut bacterial community of mammals, we compared bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data generated from faecal material of 151 marine and terrestrial mammal hosts. This included 42 hosts from a marine habitat. When compared to terrestrial mammals, marine mammals clustered separately and displayed a significantly greater average relative abundance of the phylum Fusobacteria. The marine carnivores (Antarctic and Arctic seals) and the marine herbivore (dugong) possessed significantly richer gut bacterial community than terrestrial carnivores and terrestrial herbivores, respectively. This suggests that evolutionary history and dietary items specific to the marine environment may have resulted in a gut bacterial community distinct to that identified in terrestrial mammals. Finally we hypothesize that reduced marine trophic webs, whereby marine carnivores (and herbivores) feed directly on lower trophic levels, may expose this group to high levels of secondary metabolites and influence gut microbial community richness.

  16. [Land and marine fauna constituting a threat for recreational divers in the tropics].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-09-01

    Due to intensively growing international tourism, increasing numbers of people leave for countries with hot climates, where various threats for human health and life exist. Besides climatic and sanitary conditions, a rich fauna, represented by predators and venomous animals, can be included. Based on available world literature and their own observations, the authors present the threats that a tourist can possibly encounter whilst relaxing on the beach or during recreational diving in tropical waters. When staying in water, a large threat is posed by marine fish of prey (sharks, barracuda, muraena), Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, anemones) and venomous animals (fish, sea snakes). On land, on the other hand, a threat can be posed by venomous arthropods (scorpions, spiders) and Hymenoptera insects. The study presents the most important representatives of fauna present in coastal areas frequently visited by diving enthusiasts. Also, clinical image and conduct in the case of body injures are discussed.

  17. Investigations of the marine flora and fauna of the Islands of Palau.

    PubMed

    John Faulkner, D; Newman, David J; Cragg, Gordon M

    2004-02-01

    The Islands of Palau have proven to be an excellent source of bioactive marine natural products primarily as a result of the systematic studies from the late 1970s by the research groups of Scheuer at the University of Hawaii, Faulkner at the Scripps Oceanographic Institution/University of California at San Diego, and Paul at the University of Guam. Their efforts were materially aided by the excellent facilities provided by the Government of Palau and for the last 10 years, those of the NCI's shallow water collection contractor, the Coral Reef Research Foundation. This review covers the structures and biological activities where noted, of the multitudinous marine-derived natural products isolated from the marine flora and fauna of this nation and demonstrates the enormous variety of novel structures elaborated by these organisms.

  18. 6th International workshop on the Detection, Classification, Localization and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Classification, Localization and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Dr Douglas Gillespie Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of St Andrews, Scottish Oceans Institute,Sea Mammal

  19. Regional variability in food availability for Arctic marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Bodil A; Gradinger, Rolf

    2008-03-01

    This review provides an overview of prey preferences of seven core Arctic marine mammal species (AMM) and four non-core species on a pan-Arctic scale with regional examples. Arctic marine mammal species exploit prey resources close to the sea ice, in the water column, and at the sea floor, including lipid-rich pelagic and benthic crustaceans and pelagic and ice-associated schooling fishes such as capelin and Arctic cod. Prey preferred by individual species range from cephalopods and benthic bivalves to Greenland halibut. A few AMM are very prey-, habitat-, and/or depth-specific (e.g., walrus, polar bear), while others are rather opportunistic and, therefore, likely less vulnerable to change (e.g., beluga, bearded seal). In the second section, we review prey distribution patterns and current biomass hotspots in the three major physical realms (sea ice, water column, and seafloor), highlighting relations to environmental parameters such as advection patterns and the sea ice regime. The third part of the contribution presents examples of documented changes in AMM prey distribution and biomass and, subsequently, suggests three potential scenarios of large-scale biotic change, based on published observations and predictions of environmental change. These scenarios discuss (1) increased pelagic primary and, hence, secondary production, particularly in the central Arctic, during open-water conditions in the summer (based on surplus nutrients currently unutilized); (2) reduced benthic and pelagic biomass in coastal/shelf areas (due to increased river runoff and, hence, changed salinity and turbidity conditions); and (3) increased pelagic grazing and recycling in open-water conditions at the expense of the current tight benthic-pelagic coupling in part of the ice-covered shelf regions (due to increased pelagic consumption vs. vertical flux). Should those scenarios hold true, pelagic-feeding and generalist AMM might be advantaged, while the range for benthic shelf

  20. 75 FR 42698 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Installation of Meteorological Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... until that animal clears the area), ESA-listed marine mammals are not likely to be adversely affected by... significant reproductive, migratory and feeding habitat for any marine mammal. Animals will likely be... the Gulf of Mexico) have been defined. Animals within the action area may belong to either the...