Science.gov

Sample records for marine mammal fauna

  1. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  2. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  3. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities. PMID:26611003

  4. Osmoregulation in marine mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Osmoregulation in marine mammals has been investigated for over a century; however, a review of recent advances in our understanding of water and electrolyte balance and of renal function in marine mammals is warranted. The following topics are discussed: (i) kidney structure and urine concentrating ability, (ii) sources of water, (iii) the effects of feeding, fasting and diving, (iv) the renal responses to infusions of varying salinity and (v) hormonal regulation. The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are reniculate in structure, unlike those of terrestrial mammals (except bears), but this difference does not confer any greater concentrating ability. Pinnipeds, cetaceans, manatees and sea otters can concentrate their urine above the concentration of sea water, but only pinnipeds and otters have been shown to produce urine concentrations of Na+ and Cl- that are similar to those in sea water. This could afford them the capacity to drink sea water and not lose fresh water. However, with few exceptions, drinking is not a common behavior in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Water balance is maintained in these animals via metabolic and dietary water, while incidental ingestion and dietary salt may help maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Unlike most other aquatic mammals, sea otters commonly drink sea water and manatees frequently drink fresh water. Among the various taxonomic groups of marine mammals, the sensitivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be influenced by the availability of Na+. The antidiuretic role of vasopressin remains inconclusive in marine mammals, while the natriuretic function of atrial natriuretic peptide has yet to be examined. Ideas on the direction of future studies are presented.

  5. Earliest known Australian Tertiary mammal fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godthelp, Henk; Archer, Michael; Cifelli, Richard; Hand, Suzanne J.; Gilkeson, Coral F.

    1992-04-01

    REMAINS of Early Eocene vertebrates from freshwater clays near Murgon, southeastern Queensland, represent Australia's oldest marsupials, bats, non-volant placentals, frogs, madtsoiid snakes, trionychid turtles1and birds. Radiometric dating of illites forming part of the matrix of the mammal-bearing zone has given a minimum age estimate of 54.6 +/- 0.05 x 106 years, which is roughly twice as old as any marsupials previously known from Australia2 and well before the 38 million year (Myr) separation of Australia from Antarctica/South America3. All marsupials so far known from the Tingamarra Local Fauna are more derived (being dilambdodont) than peradectids. None of them is clearly a member of a previously known Australian family, but some could be uniquely plesiomorphic dasyuroids or perameloids. Another is autapomorphically specialized and indicative of at least partial isolation of the Australian portion of Gondwana. Here we report on the discovery of a tooth of the earliest non-volant placental known from Australia, Tingamarra porterorum gen.et sp. nov., which seems to be a condylarth-like placental mammal. The presence of non-volant placentals in the Early Tertiary of Australia challenges a common presumption that marsupials dominated Australia's therian assemblages because of failure of such placentals to reach Australia before the Late Tertiary.

  6. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westgate, James W.

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Candelaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan. The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone I6 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  7. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Westgate, J.W. )

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Canderlaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan, The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone 16 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  8. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 14334, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  9. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Register (75 FR 39915) that a request for a permit to conduct research on gray whales (Eschrictius robustus... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine...

  10. 76 FR 72681 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... (75 FR 27300), authorizes the permit holder to take ribbon seals (Phoca fasciata), spotted seals (P... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Mammal Laboratory, (Responsible Party: Dr. John Bengtson, Director), Seattle, WA, has applied for...

  11. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  12. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  13. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  14. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  15. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  16. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  17. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  18. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  19. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  20. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  1. Marine mammal neoplasia: a review.

    PubMed

    Newman, S J; Smith, S A

    2006-11-01

    A review of the published literature indicates that marine mammal neoplasia includes the types and distributions of tumors seen in domestic species. A routine collection of samples from marine mammal species is hampered, and, hence, the literature is principally composed of reports from early whaling expeditions, captive zoo mammals, and epizootics that affect larger numbers of animals from a specific geographic location. The latter instances are most important, because many of these long-lived, free-ranging marine mammals may act as environmental sentinels for the health of the oceans. Examination of large numbers of mortalities reveals incidental proliferative and neoplastic conditions and, less commonly, identifies specific malignant cancers that can alter population dynamics. The best example of these is the presumptive herpesvirus-associated metastatic genital carcinomas found in California sea lions. Studies of tissues from St. Lawrence estuary beluga whales have demonstrated a high incidence of neoplasia and produced evidence that environmental contamination with high levels of polychlorinated biphenols and dichlorophenyl trichloroethane might be the cause. In addition, viruses are suspected to be the cause of gastric papillomas in belugas and cutaneous papillomas in Florida manatees and harbor porpoises. While experimental laboratory procedures can further elucidate mechanisms of neoplasia, continued pathologic examination of marine mammals will also be necessary to follow trends in wild populations. PMID:17099143

  2. Blood Rheology in Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, Michael A.; Baskurt, Oguz; Castellini, Judith M.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    The field of blood oxygen transport and delivery to tissues has been studied by comparative physiologists for many decades. Within this general area, the particular differences in oxygen delivery between marine and terrestrial mammals has focused mainly on oxygen supply differences and delivery to the tissues under low blood flow diving conditions. Yet, the study of the inherent flow properties of the blood itself (hemorheology) is rarely discussed when addressing diving. However, hemorheology is important to the study of marine mammals because of the critical nature of the oxygen stores that are carried in the blood during diving periods. This review focuses on the essential elements of hemorheology, how they are defined and on fundamental rheological applications to marine mammals. While the comparative rationale used throughout the review is much broader than the particular problems associated with diving, the basic concepts focus on how changes in the flow properties of whole blood would be critical to oxygen delivery during diving. This review introduces the reader to most of the major rheological concepts that are relevant to the unique and unusual aspects of the diving physiology of marine mammals. PMID:21423386

  3. Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement.

    PubMed

    Woinarski, John C Z; Burbidge, Andrew A; Harrison, Peter L

    2015-04-14

    The highly distinctive and mostly endemic Australian land mammal fauna has suffered an extraordinary rate of extinction (>10% of the 273 endemic terrestrial species) over the last ∼200 y: in comparison, only one native land mammal from continental North America became extinct since European settlement. A further 21% of Australian endemic land mammal species are now assessed to be threatened, indicating that the rate of loss (of one to two extinctions per decade) is likely to continue. Australia's marine mammals have fared better overall, but status assessment for them is seriously impeded by lack of information. Much of the loss of Australian land mammal fauna (particularly in the vast deserts and tropical savannas) has been in areas that are remote from human population centers and recognized as relatively unmodified at global scale. In contrast to general patterns of extinction on other continents where the main cause is habitat loss, hunting, and impacts of human development, particularly in areas of high and increasing human population pressures, the loss of Australian land mammals is most likely due primarily to predation by introduced species, particularly the feral cat, Felis catus, and European red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and changed fire regimes.

  4. Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement.

    PubMed

    Woinarski, John C Z; Burbidge, Andrew A; Harrison, Peter L

    2015-04-14

    The highly distinctive and mostly endemic Australian land mammal fauna has suffered an extraordinary rate of extinction (>10% of the 273 endemic terrestrial species) over the last ∼200 y: in comparison, only one native land mammal from continental North America became extinct since European settlement. A further 21% of Australian endemic land mammal species are now assessed to be threatened, indicating that the rate of loss (of one to two extinctions per decade) is likely to continue. Australia's marine mammals have fared better overall, but status assessment for them is seriously impeded by lack of information. Much of the loss of Australian land mammal fauna (particularly in the vast deserts and tropical savannas) has been in areas that are remote from human population centers and recognized as relatively unmodified at global scale. In contrast to general patterns of extinction on other continents where the main cause is habitat loss, hunting, and impacts of human development, particularly in areas of high and increasing human population pressures, the loss of Australian land mammals is most likely due primarily to predation by introduced species, particularly the feral cat, Felis catus, and European red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and changed fire regimes. PMID:25675493

  5. Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: Decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement

    PubMed Central

    Woinarski, John C. Z.; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Harrison, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    The highly distinctive and mostly endemic Australian land mammal fauna has suffered an extraordinary rate of extinction (>10% of the 273 endemic terrestrial species) over the last ∼200 y: in comparison, only one native land mammal from continental North America became extinct since European settlement. A further 21% of Australian endemic land mammal species are now assessed to be threatened, indicating that the rate of loss (of one to two extinctions per decade) is likely to continue. Australia’s marine mammals have fared better overall, but status assessment for them is seriously impeded by lack of information. Much of the loss of Australian land mammal fauna (particularly in the vast deserts and tropical savannas) has been in areas that are remote from human population centers and recognized as relatively unmodified at global scale. In contrast to general patterns of extinction on other continents where the main cause is habitat loss, hunting, and impacts of human development, particularly in areas of high and increasing human population pressures, the loss of Australian land mammals is most likely due primarily to predation by introduced species, particularly the feral cat, Felis catus, and European red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and changed fire regimes. PMID:25675493

  6. Reproductive cycles of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, P

    2011-04-01

    Marine mammals conform to the general mammalian reproductive system centered on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Most marine mammals are long-lived and of large body size with lesser reproductive rates than many other animals, a consequence of their interaction with the marine environment where the demands of acquiring resources from the ocean must be balanced with the need for bearing offspring in a suitable place for survival. The degree of spatial and temporal separation of these life history phases in many species is a key feature of their ecology. The reproductive physiology of pinnipeds, cetaceans, sirenians, sea otters and polar bears has been more thoroughly characterized for the more accessible species.

  7. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  8. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  9. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  10. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  11. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  12. A new early Oligocene mammal fauna from the Sirt Basin, central Libya: Biostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Pauline M. C.; Beard, K. Christopher; Salem, Mustafa J.; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Brunet, Michel; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    We report the discovery of a new early Oligocene vertebrate fauna from the vicinity of Zallah Oasis in the Sirt Basin of central Libya. The Zallah Incision local fauna has been recovered from the base of a fluvial channel within a rock unit that has been mapped as "Continental and Transitional Marine Deposits." This rock unit has produced fossil vertebrates sporadically since the 1960s, but the Zallah Incision local fauna is the most diverse assemblage of fossil mammals currently known from this unit. In addition to lower vertebrates, the fauna includes an indeterminate sirenian, the anthracothere Bothriogenys, a new species of the hyracoid genus Thyrohyrax, new species of the hystricognathous rodent genera Metaphiomys and Neophiomys, Metaphiomys schaubi, and a new species of the parapithecid primate genus Apidium. The Zallah Incision local fauna from Libya appears to be close in age to Fayum quarries V and G in the Jebel Qatrani Formation of Egypt and the Taqah locality in the Ashawq Formation of Oman. Considered together, these early Oligocene faunas support a modest level of faunal provincialism across the northern part of Afro-Arabia during the early Oligocene.

  13. Optical detection of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobna, Yuliya; Schoonmaker, Jon; Boucher, Cynthia; Oakley, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Advanced Coherent Technologies, LLC (ACT) is using a multi-spectral, multi-channel imaging system to detect and monitor marine mammals. The system, designed with US Navy funding, is intended to monitor mammals on US Navy submarine training ranges prior to and during Navy active acoustic training activities. ACT has conducted system tests and data collection activities at the St. Lawrence Seaway (Quebec, Canada), at Ma'alaea Bay (Maui, Hawaii), and from the Coronado Bay Bridge (San Diego, California). A description of the imaging system and the results of the data collections are discussed and presented.

  14. Early cenozoic differentiation of polar marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Crame, J Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene) neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability.

  15. Early cenozoic differentiation of polar marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Crame, J Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene) neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability. PMID:23342090

  16. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired...

  17. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired...

  18. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired...

  19. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired by take...

  20. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired by take...

  1. Health risks for marine mammal workers.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tania D; Ziccardi, Michael H; Gulland, Frances M D; Yochem, Pamela K; Hird, David W; Rowles, Teresa; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2008-08-19

    Marine mammals can be infected with zoonotic pathogens and show clinical signs of disease, or be asymptomatic carriers of such disease agents. While isolated cases of human disease from contact with marine mammals have been reported, no evaluation of the risks associated with marine mammal work has been attempted. Therefore, we designed a survey to estimate the risk of work-related injuries and illnesses in marine mammal workers and volunteers. The 17-question survey asked respondents to describe their contact with marine mammals, injuries sustained, and/or illnesses acquired during their period of marine mammal exposure. Most respondents, 88% (423/483), were researchers and rehabilitators. Of all respondents, 50% (243/483) reported suffering an injury caused by a marine mammal, and 23% (110/483) reported having a skin rash or reaction. Marine mammal work-related illnesses commonly reported included: 'seal finger' (Mycoplasma spp. or Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae), conjunctivitis, viral dermatitis, bacterial dermatitis, and non-specific contact dermatitis. Although specific diagnoses could not be confirmed by a physician through this study, severe illnesses were reported and included tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis, and serious sequelae to seal finger. Risk factors associated with increased odds of injury and illness included prolonged and frequent exposure to marine mammals; direct contact with live marine mammals; and contact with tissue, blood, and excretions. Diagnosis of zoonotic disease was often aided by veterinarians; therefore, workers at risk should be encouraged to consult with a marine mammal veterinarian as well as a physician, especially if obtaining a definitive diagnosis for an illness becomes problematic.

  2. MARINE MAMMAL DISEASES: PATHOGENS AND PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide a concise overview of the pathogens and processes that alter the health of marine mammals. Viral disease is the most common etiology of significant mortality events in marine mammals. Discussion of viral disease focuses on effects in the ...

  3. Marine mammals of Puerto Rico: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.F.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography is the product of a literature survey on marine mammals at a proposed OTEC site near Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico. Included are reports of mammal sightings and strandings from Puerto Rico and adjacent Caribbean islands, reports containing information on distribution and abundance migration routes, and feeding ecology of those species known from the area. A few works on the general biology of marine mammals are also included. 96 references.

  4. Report on marine mammal stranding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released a report on 27 April indicating that U.S. Navy sonar transmissions may have played a role in the stranding of more than 150 melon-headed whales on 3 July 2004 off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii. At the time of the stranding, which resulted in one whale death, the Navy was preparing to conduct sonar activities as part of a military exercise. The report notes that six naval surface vessels transiting to the area on the previous night intermittenly transmitted mid-frequency active sonar. That activity is ``a plausible, if not likely, contributing factor'' to the stranding event. There was no significant weather, natural oceanographic event, or known biological factors that would explain the animals' movement into the bay nor the group's continued presence in the bay, according to report lead author Teri Rowles, NOAA marine mammal veterinarian.

  5. Marine mammals from the Miocene of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhen, Mark D.; Coates, Anthony G.; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Montes, Camilo; Pimiento, Catalina; Rincon, Aldo; Strong, Nikki; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Panama has produced an abundance of Neogene marine fossils both invertebrate (mollusks, corals, microfossils etc.) and vertebrate (fish, land mammals etc.), but marine mammals have not been previously reported. Here we describe a cetacean thoracic vertebra from the late Miocene Tobabe Formation, a partial cetacean rib from the late Miocene Gatun Formation, and a sirenian caudal vertebra and rib fragments from the early Miocene Culebra Formation. These finds suggest that Central America may yet provide additional fossil marine mammal specimens that will help us to understand the evolution, and particularly the biogeography of these groups.

  6. 77 FR 49921 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ...NMFS received an application from ION Geophysical (ION) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment only, incidental to a proposed marine seismic survey in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, Alaska, between October and December 2012. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to ION to......

  7. 78 FR 37209 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC564 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea,...

  8. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    PubMed

    Magera, Anna M; Mills Flemming, Joanna E; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B; Lotze, Heike K

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased study of

  9. Recovery Trends in Marine Mammal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Magera, Anna M.; Mills Flemming, Joanna E.; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B.; Lotze, Heike K.

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased

  10. 76 FR 30309 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16087

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... the Federal Register (76 FR 13603) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA292 Marine Mammals; File No. 16087 AGENCY... National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Seattle, WA, to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES:...

  11. 75 FR 20344 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Rocket Launches from...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Rocket Launches from Kodiak, AK AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of a Letter of... (Eumetopias jubatus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) incidental to rocket launches...

  12. 75 FR 49465 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14682

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Register (74 FR 58243) that a request for a permit to conduct scientific research on marine mammals had... Whitlow Au, Ph.D., University of Hawaii, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Marine Mammal...

  13. 76 FR 7824 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1791

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The original permit, issued on February 9, 2006 (71 FR 8279...D, Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua,...

  14. 78 FR 57133 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... July 28, 2010 (75 FR 50748), authorizes the University of Florida to receive, import, and export marine... studies; development of a marine mammal histology database and atlas and marine mammal cell lines;...

  15. The changing focus of marine mammal conservation.

    PubMed

    Hofman, R J

    1995-11-01

    Overexploitation has been the principal focus of marine mammal conservation. Less attention has been paid to bycatch in commercial fisheries; entanglement in lost and discarded fishing gear; food shortages owing to climate change and/or overharvesting of essential prey; point and non-point source pollution; and diseases. Also, relatively little attention has been paid to situations where marine mammals pose threats to the existence and human uses of other marine species. As overexploitation is addressed, focus must be shifted to these problems that are no less significant.

  16. 75 FR 25729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  17. 78 FR 12541 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...NMFS received an application from ConocoPhillips Company (COP) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to COP to take, by......

  18. 75 FR 80773 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch... to launching space launch vehicles, long-range ballistic target missiles, and other smaller missile... small numbers of marine mammals incidental to launching space launch vehicles, long-range...

  19. 77 FR 27321 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... of an incidental harassment authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Gulf of Mexico Inc. (Shell) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental...

  20. Arterial Windkessels in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Shadwick, R E; Gosline, J M

    1995-01-01

    In marine mammals, the aortic arch is enlarged relative to the descending aorta to varying degrees in different species. The ratio of maximal diameter of the arch to that of the thoracic aorta is about 2.3 in the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina), 3.6 in the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddelli) and 3.2 in the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), compared with only 1.4 in the dog. This anatomical specialisation probably provides increased volume capacitance in the arterial circulation as an adaptation to diving bradycardia. Data on the morphometric and mechanical properties of aortic tissues from seals and fin whale are compared. In the harbour seal, more than 80% of the volume change in the entire thoracic aorta that results from a pressure pulse occurs in the bulbous arch, and this is more than 90% in the Weddell seal and fin whale. The enhanced capacitance of the arch in the harbour seal is primarily due to its larger diameter, as the relative wall thickness and elasticity of the arch and thoracic aorta are the same. A similar situation appears to exist in the larger Weddell seal, although extrapolation of the pressure-volume curves suggests that the arch might be somewhat less stiff than the thoracic aorta. In addition to being greatly expanded, the aortic arch of the fin whale is also much more distensible than the relatively thin-walled and much stiffer descending aorta. At the estimated mean blood pressure, the elastic modulus of this vessel is 12 MPa, or 30 times that of the aortic arch. The major haemodynamic consequence of this type of arterial modification is that the aortic arch acts as a Windkessel, i.e. the capacitance of the aorta is increased significantly close to the heart, leading to a reduced characteristic impedance and probably reduced pulsatility in the descending aorta. In the extreme case of the whale, the arterial capacitance is shifted entirely to the arch, and the impedance change at the entrance to the thoracic aorta is so high that this

  1. Influenza Virus Infection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, Sasan; Munoz, Olga; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; De Nardi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Interspecies transmission may play a key role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. The importance of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 influenza viruses is not well understood. The fact that influenza viruses are some of the few zoonotic pathogens known to have caused infection in marine mammals, evidence for direct transmission of influenza A virus H7N7 subtype from seals to man, transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses to seals and also limited evidence for long-term persistence of influenza B viruses in seal populations without significant genetic change, makes monitoring of influenza viruses in marine mammal populations worth being performed. In addition, such monitoring studies could be a great tool to better understand the ecology of influenza viruses in nature. PMID:25231137

  2. 76 FR 34053 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16314

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; File No. 16314 AGENCY: National Marine.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests a five-year permit to conduct...

  3. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). On May 20, 2010 (75 FR 28236), notice was published that an amendment to Permit No. 13602, issued on September 4, 2009 (74 FR 46569), had been requested by the permit... Williams, Long Marine Lab, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California at Santa Cruz,...

  4. Spectral detection and monitoring of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon; Wells, Tami; Gilbert, Gary; Podobna, Yuliya; Petrosyuk, Irina; Dirbas, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    This note presents an airborne spectral imaging system and methodology used to detect, track and monitor marine mammal populations. The system is a four band multispectral imaging system using spectral bands tailored for maritime imaging. This low cost, low volume, imaging sensor can be deployed on either a small unmanned air vehicle (UAV) or any other cost efficient aircraft. Results of recent multispectral data collects over marine mammals in St. Lawrence Seaway are presented. Species present included beluga whales as well as various species of larger baleen whales.

  5. 75 FR 50748 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 23241) that a request for a permit to import and export marine mammal parts for... histology database and atlas and marine mammal cell lines; and comparative morphology studies. The permit...

  6. 75 FR 23241 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... brevetoxin studies; develop a marine mammal histology database and atlas, marine mammal cell lines; and... subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting a public hearing should submit a...

  7. Knowledge of Brazilian benthic marine fauna throughout time.

    PubMed

    Longo, Leila de Lourdes; Amado Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2014-01-01

    The ecosystems of Brazil's continental shelf and oceanic islands comprise a variety of environments that display unique geomorphological and geophysical features and biotic components. The quest to attain knowledge of Brazilian marine fauna is hampered by coastline length, biodiversity, a high rate of endemism, and a shortage of specialized researchers. Based on a systematic bibliographic review, the article offers an overview of the history, current knowledge, and outlook for the field of marine biodiversity in Brazil. Our findings show that government initiatives have afforded greater knowledge of Brazilian marine fauna species and opened new perspectives, including reliance on complex tools to describe benthic marine habitats in terms of their geological, geophysical, and biotic composition.

  8. Molecular profiling of marine fauna: integration of omics with environmental assessment of the world's oceans.

    PubMed

    Veldhoen, Nik; Ikonomou, Michael G; Helbing, Caren C

    2012-02-01

    Many species that contribute to the commercial and ecological richness of our marine ecosystems are harbingers of environmental change. The ability of organisms to rapidly detect and respond to changes in the surrounding environment represents the foundation for application of molecular profiling technologies towards marine sentinel species in an attempt to identify signature profiles that may reside within the transcriptome, proteome, or metabolome and that are indicative of a particular environmental exposure event. The current review highlights recent examples of the biological information obtained for marine sentinel teleosts, mammals, and invertebrates. While in its infancy, such basal information can provide a systems biology framework in the detection and evaluation of environmental chemical contaminant effects on marine fauna. Repeated evaluation across different seasons and local marine environs will lead to discrimination between signature profiles representing normal variation within the complex milieu of environmental factors that trigger biological response in a given sentinel species and permit a greater understanding of normal versus anthropogenic-associated modulation of biological pathways, which prove detrimental to marine fauna. It is anticipated that incorporation of contaminant-specific molecular signatures into current risk assessment paradigms will lead to enhanced wildlife management strategies that minimize the impacts of our industrialized society on marine ecosystems. PMID:22036265

  9. 78 FR 77433 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... one elephant seal has been observed at Pigeon Point. California Sea Lion California sea lions are not... to PISCO to take marine mammals incidental to these same proposed activities (77 FR 72327, December...

  10. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Sipuncula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Edward B.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Key to Sipuncula (Peanut Worms); (3) Annotated Systematic List of Species; (4)…

  11. 76 FR 35995 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 34157; FR Doc. 2011-14614). The period of effectiveness in that notice is listed... preamble, FR Doc. 2011-14614, published June 13, 2011, at 76 FR 34157, is corrected as follows: 0 1. On... Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied...

  12. Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Pompa, Sandra; Ehrlich, Paul R; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2011-08-16

    We identified 20 global key conservation sites for all marine (123) and freshwater (6) mammal species based on their geographic ranges. We created geographic range maps for all 129 species and a Geographic Information System database for a 46,184 1° x 1° grid-cells, ∼10,000-km(2). Patterns of species richness, endemism, and risk were variable among all species and species groups. Interestingly, marine mammal species richness was correlated strongly with areas of human impact across the oceans. Key conservation sites in the global geographic grid were determined either by their species richness or by their irreplaceability or uniqueness, because of the presence of endemic species. Nine key conservation sites, comprising the 2.5% of the grid cells with the highest species richness, were found, mostly in temperate latitudes, and hold 84% of marine mammal species. In addition, we identified 11 irreplaceable key conservation sites, six of which were found in freshwater bodies and five in marine regions. These key conservation sites represent critical areas of conservation value at a global level and can serve as a first step for adopting global strategies with explicit geographic conservation targets for Marine Protected Areas.

  13. Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pompa, Sandra; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    We identified 20 global key conservation sites for all marine (123) and freshwater (6) mammal species based on their geographic ranges. We created geographic range maps for all 129 species and a Geographic Information System database for a 46,184 1° x 1° grid-cells, ∼10,000-km2. Patterns of species richness, endemism, and risk were variable among all species and species groups. Interestingly, marine mammal species richness was correlated strongly with areas of human impact across the oceans. Key conservation sites in the global geographic grid were determined either by their species richness or by their irreplaceability or uniqueness, because of the presence of endemic species. Nine key conservation sites, comprising the 2.5% of the grid cells with the highest species richness, were found, mostly in temperate latitudes, and hold 84% of marine mammal species. In addition, we identified 11 irreplaceable key conservation sites, six of which were found in freshwater bodies and five in marine regions. These key conservation sites represent critical areas of conservation value at a global level and can serve as a first step for adopting global strategies with explicit geographic conservation targets for Marine Protected Areas. PMID:21808012

  14. 77 FR 26513 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15777

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC014 Marine Mammals; File No. 15777 AGENCY... to take marine mammals during scientific research in coastal waters and adjacent waters off the... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  15. 77 FR 19646 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB139 Marine Mammals; File No. 17178 AGENCY... permit to import marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal...

  16. 75 FR 16076 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15206

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV57 Marine Mammals; File No. 15206 AGENCY... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests...

  17. 77 FR 32081 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17236

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC050 Marine Mammals; File No. 17236 AGENCY.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The purpose of the research is to evaluate how...

  18. 77 FR 60107 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17298

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC218 Marine Mammals; File No. 17298 AGENCY..., Connecticut 06355 , has applied in due form for a permit to collect, import, export, and receive marine mammal... requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C....

  19. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16998

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA914 Marine Mammals; File No. 16998 AGENCY... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the...

  20. 75 FR 27300 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15126

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals; File No. 15126 AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice; issuance of permit. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that NMFS National Marine Mammal... conduct research on marine mammals. ] ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available for...

  1. 75 FR 10463 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15126

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals; File No. 15126 AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that NMFS National Marine Mammal... conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments must...

  2. 77 FR 12009 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16991

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB033 Marine Mammals; File No. 16991 AGENCY... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216)....

  3. 75 FR 15685 - Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV53 Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY... Scientific Research on marine mammals. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for a list of names and address of...) have been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16...

  4. 75 FR 1029 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14486

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT56 Marine Mammals; File No. 14486 AGENCY...), has applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, and export marine mammal specimens for... requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C....

  5. 75 FR 54094 - Marine Mammals; File No. 486-1790

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... ecology, and behavior of pinnipeds in California. Marine mammals may be captured by a variety of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY74 Marine Mammals; File No. 486-1790 AGENCY...: The requested amendment has been granted under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act...

  6. 78 FR 25703 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Fisheries Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... (off the U.S. west coast), the Eastern Tropical Pacific Research Area, and the Antarctic Research Area (in the Antarctic Scotia Sea). It is possible that marine mammals may interact with fishing gear (e.g... and treaties related to the management of living marine resources in international waters outside...

  7. 75 FR 12734 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... repair and maintenance; and emergency and oil spill response training. Sections 1 and 2 of BP's... occurrence of oil spills. Petroleum development and associated activities in marine waters introduce sound... NMFS, BP requests authorization to take marine mammals incidental to operation of offshore oil and...

  8. 77 FR 25145 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... part 216). The original permit, issued on May 17, 2007 (72 FR 29127) authorizes the permit holder to conduct acoustic studies on captive marine mammals at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology through May....D., Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106,...

  9. A comparative analysis of marine mammal tracheas.

    PubMed

    Moore, Colby; Moore, Michael; Trumble, Stephen; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; McLellan, William; Costidis, Alexander; Fahlman, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In 1940, Scholander suggested that stiffened upper airways remained open and received air from highly compressible alveoli during marine mammal diving. There are few data available on the structural and functional adaptations of the marine mammal respiratory system. The aim of this research was to investigate the anatomical (gross) and structural (compliance) characteristics of excised marine mammal tracheas. Here, we defined different types of tracheal structures, categorizing pinniped tracheas by varying degrees of continuity of cartilage (categories 1-4) and cetacean tracheas by varying compliance values (categories 5A and 5B). Some tracheas fell into more than one category along their length; for example, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) demonstrated complete rings cranially, and as the trachea progressed caudally, tracheal rings changed morphology. Dolphins and porpoises had less stiff, more compliant spiraling rings while beaked whales had very stiff, less compliant spiraling rings. The pressure-volume (P-V) relationships of isolated tracheas from different species were measured to assess structural differences between species. These findings lend evidence for pressure-induced collapse and re-inflation of lungs, perhaps influencing variability in dive depth or ventilation rates of the species investigated.

  10. 77 FR 19645 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16111

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA626 Marine Mammals; File No. 16111 AGENCY... form for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  11. Mid-Pleistocene Change in Large Mammal Faunas of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Richard; Deino, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Single-crystal 40Ar/ 39Ar age estimates of 392,000 ± 4000 to 330,000 ± 6000 yr from Lainyamok, a middle Pleistocene fossil locality in the southern Kenya rift, document the oldest evidence from sub-Saharan Africa of a diverse, large mammal fauna consisting entirely of extant species. The inferred age of this fauna implies an upper limit for extinction of species that characterize well-calibrated, mid-Pleistocene fossil assemblages in East Africa. For its age and species richness, the Lainyamok fauna is surprising for its lack of extinct forms (e.g., the bovine Pelorovis) well documented in later faunal assemblages of East and South Africa. Definitive presence of the South African blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas) is also unexpected, especially as this alcelaphine bovid is the dominant large mammal in the Lainyamok fauna. These age estimates and the faunal composition at Lainyamok indicate that geographic ranges and taxonomic associations of extant largebodied mammals were susceptible to wide fluctuations in sub-Saharan Africa over the past 330,000 yr. This inference is consistent with the hypothesis of nonanalogue, or ephemeral, biotas believed to characterize late Quaternary ecosystems of northern continents.

  12. Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, C. B.; Finlayson, J. C.; Barton, R. N. E.; Fernández-Jalvo, Y.; Cáceres, I.; Sabin, R. C.; Rhodes, E. J.; Currant, A. P.; Rodríguez-Vidal, J.; Giles-Pacheco, F.; Riquelme-Cantal, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two coastal sites in Gibraltar, Vanguard and Gorham's Caves, located at Governor's Beach on the eastern side of the Rock, are especially relevant to the study of Neanderthals. Vanguard Cave provides evidence of marine food supply (mollusks, seal, dolphin, and fish). Further evidence of marine mammal remains was also found in the occupation levels at Gorham's Cave associated with Upper Paleolithic and Mousterian technologies [Finlayson C, et al. (2006) Nature 443:850–853]. The stratigraphic sequence of Gibraltar sites allows us to compare behaviors and subsistence strategies of Neanderthals during the Middle Paleolithic observed at Vanguard and Gorham's Cave sites. This evidence suggests that such use of marine resources was not a rare behavior and represents focused visits to the coast and estuaries. PMID:18809913

  13. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14329

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 21703) that a request for an amendment to Permit No. 14329 to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; File No. 14329 AGENCY: National Marine... has been issued to the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium...

  14. 76 FR 34054 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ..., Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine... and record bycatch of sea turtles and marine mammals that interact with the fishery. NMFS is preparing... public review and comment (75 FR 46912, August 4, 2010). The MMPA also specifies that the comment...

  15. 76 FR 70418 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16124

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA817 Marine Mammals; File No. 16124 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  16. 77 FR 73986 - Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC371 Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Scientific Research on marine mammals. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for a list of names and address...

  17. 76 FR 51002 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16553

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA641 Marine Mammals; File No. 16553 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  18. Viruses and virus diseases of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Skilling, D E

    1979-11-01

    Poxvirus and several serotypes of calicivirus cause recognizable disease in marine mammals. Pox lesions in pinnipeds are raised and proliferative and are seen most frequently after confinement in captivity. In cetaceans, a poxvirus is associated with a much more benign and chronic lesion called a "tattoo." Numerous caliciviruses of differing antigenic types have been isolated from vesicular lesions and aborted fetuses of northern fur seals and California sea lions as well as from clinically normal and orphaned northern elephant seal pups. An adenovirus has been isolated from a sei whale and an enterovirus has been isolated from a gray whale. PMID:230170

  19. 76 FR 41463 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ...NMFS has received an application from the University of Alaska Geophysics Institute (UAGI) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine geophysical seismic survey in the Arctic Ocean during September- October 2011. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to......

  20. 76 FR 43267 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... USAF's activities are considered military readiness activities. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal... geographical region'' provisions and amended the definition of ``harassment'' as it applies to a ``military... Notice of Proposed IHA and request for 30-day public comment published on January 23, 2006 (71 FR...

  1. 76 FR 330 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... ringed seal (75 FR 77476) and a notice of proposed threatened and not warranted status for subspecies and distinct population segments of the bearded seal (75 FR 77496) in the Federal Register. Neither species is... supports a diverse assemblage of marine mammals, including: Bowhead, gray, beluga, killer, minke,...

  2. 77 FR 65059 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... FR 49922). That notice described, in detail, ION's proposed activity, the marine mammal species that... Register notice for the proposed IHA (77 FR 49922; August 17, 2012), ION would start its seismic survey... proposed IHA (77 FR 49922; August 17, 2012), ION's in-ice seismic survey would be performed in a...

  3. 78 FR 18965 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... on OCS leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2014 open-water season (78 FR 12542). NMFS... whether to issue an IHA. NMFS refers the reader to the February 22, 2013, Federal Register notice (78 FR... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi...

  4. 78 FR 24731 - Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Proposed IHA, initiating a 30- day public comment period, on February 22, 2013 (78 FR 12542). We then published a notice extending the comment period by 45 days on March 28, 2013 (78 FR 18965). On April 22... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi...

  5. 76 FR 4093 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... comment periods in the Federal Register on April 19, 2010 (74 FR 20482) for the Beaufort Sea request and May 7, 2010 (74 FR 25730) for the Chukchi Sea request. On May 27, 2010, following the April 20, 2010... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Exploration Drilling Programs in the Chukchi...

  6. 78 FR 63396 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... (78 FR 22096, April 12, 2013). In summary, SDOT proposes to replace the Elliott Bay Seawall from South... result in the take of marine mammals. This area includes the proposed construction zone, Elliott Bay, and... frequently referred to in this rulemaking (78 FR 22096, pages 22099-22102). This section also includes...

  7. 77 FR 51773 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... on monitoring of marine mammal reactions to rocket launches at Vandenberg Air Force Base. In those... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; proposed incidental harassment authorization; request for... non-target species, if such an alternative action is chosen, during a proposed house mouse...

  8. 77 FR 23463 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch Operations at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska... two species of pinnipeds incidental to space vehicle and missile launch operations at the Kodiak... launch operations at the KLC, were issued on March 22, 2011 (76 FR 16311, March 23, 2011), and remain...

  9. 75 FR 49709 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 27708). That notice described, in detail, Shell's proposed activity, the marine mammal... application, the notice of proposed IHA (75 FR 27708; May 18, 2010) and this document), NMFS determined that... the proposed IHA (75 FR 27708; May 18, 2010), the EA for the issuance of IHAs to Shell and Statoil...

  10. 77 FR 27720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 58473) discussing the effects on marine mammals and making... the proposed IHA (76 FR 58473, September 21, 2011). The activities to be conducted have not changed... should refer to the proposed IHA notice (76 FR 58473, September 21, 2011), the IHA application...

  11. 78 FR 12720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... in Cook Inlet (77 FR 27720). On December 10, 2012, NMFS published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 73434) discussing the effects on marine mammals and making preliminary determinations regarding.... In the notice of the proposed IHA (77 FR 73434, December 10, 2012), NMFS described the second area...

  12. 75 FR 49759 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... FR 32379). That notice described, in detail, Statoil's proposed activity, the marine mammal species... application, the notice of proposed IHA (75 FR 32379; June 8, 2010) and this document), NMFS determined that... in the proposed IHA (75 FR 32379; June 18, 2010), the EA for the issuance of IHAs to Shell...

  13. 78 FR 57368 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... operations of SURTASS LFA sonar are in effect through August 15, 2017 (77 FR 50290, August 20, 2012) and are... issued on August 15, 2012 (77 FR 51969, August 28, 2012), for the taking of marine mammals incidental to... the north-central Pacific Ocean under the regulations issued on August 15, 2012 (77 FR 50290,...

  14. 76 FR 27308 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... vehicle and missile launch operations at the KLC, were issued on March 22, 2011 (76 FR 16311, March 23... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch Operations at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska... Kodiak Launch Complex (KLC) in Kodiak, Alaska. DATES: Effective from April 30, 2011, through April...

  15. 78 FR 28411 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Mexico Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by... not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering . Summary of Request.... For example, at the Guerreo Negro Lagoon in Baja California, Mexico, which is one of the...

  16. Bacteria and fungi of marine mammals: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R

    2000-01-01

    A list of the different bacterial and fungal agents isolated from marine mammals in different parts of the world is presented. Importance is given to some of the most recently identified bacterial agents, including Actinobacillus delphinicola, A. scotiae, and Brucella spp. A list, in alphabetical order, of bacteria recovered from different tissues or organs from marine mammals is presented for the integumentary, respiratory, digestive, genitourinary, and reticuloendothelial systems. Infectious bacterial agents associated with abscesses and with cases of septicemia are also listed. Information about the different fungal agents recovered from marine mammals is summarized. A section covering some of the zoonotic infectious agents recovered from marine mammals is included. PMID:10723596

  17. 77 FR 25963 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... August 17, 2009 (74 FR 44822), authorizes taking of marine mammals during continuation of a long-term... collection; capture for instrument attachment, branding, capture method development, physiological...

  18. 77 FR 13295 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 28422) that a request for a permit to conduct research on... E. Nachtigall, Ph.D., Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O....

  19. Marine mammal zoonoses: a review of disease manifestations.

    PubMed

    Waltzek, T B; Cortés-Hinojosa, G; Wellehan, J F X; Gray, Gregory C

    2012-12-01

    Marine mammals evoke strong public affection as well as considerable scientific interest. However, the resultant close contact with marine wildlife poses human health risks, including traumatic injury and zoonotic disease transmission. The majority of zoonotic marine mammal diseases result in localized skin infections in man that resolve spontaneously or with appropriate medical therapy. However, other marine mammal zoonoses, if left untreated, induce life-threatening systemic diseases that could pose public health risks. As the number of zoonotic diseases rises, the diagnosis of and treatment for these emerging pathogens pose special challenges requiring the expertise of physicians, veterinarians and wildlife biologists. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the bacterial, viral and fungal marine mammal zoonotic diseases that we hope will be utilized by public health professionals, physicians, veterinarians and wildlife biologists to better understand, diagnose and prevent marine mammal zoonotic diseases.

  20. Predation selectively culls medium-sized species from island mammal faunas.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Emily; Cardillo, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Globally, elevated extinction risk in mammals is strongly associated with large body size. However, in regions where introduced predators exert strong top-down pressure on mammal populations, the selectivity of extinctions may be skewed towards species of intermediate body size, leading to a hump-shaped relationship between size and extinction risk. The existence of this kind of extinction pattern, and its link to predation, has been contentious and difficult to demonstrate. Here, we test the hypothesis of a hump-shaped body size-extinction relationship, using a database of 927 island mammal populations. We show that the size-selectivity of extinctions on many islands has exceeded that expected under null models. On islands with introduced predators, extinctions are biased towards intermediate body sizes, but this bias does not occur on islands without predators. Hence, on islands with a large-bodied mammal fauna, predators are selectively culling species from the lower end of the size distribution, and on islands with a small-bodied fauna they are culling species from the upper end. These findings suggest that it will be difficult to use predictable generalizations about extinction patterns, such as a positive body size-extinction risk association, to anticipate future species declines and plan conservation strategies accordingly.

  1. Predation selectively culls medium-sized species from island mammal faunas

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Emily; Cardillo, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Globally, elevated extinction risk in mammals is strongly associated with large body size. However, in regions where introduced predators exert strong top-down pressure on mammal populations, the selectivity of extinctions may be skewed towards species of intermediate body size, leading to a hump-shaped relationship between size and extinction risk. The existence of this kind of extinction pattern, and its link to predation, has been contentious and difficult to demonstrate. Here, we test the hypothesis of a hump-shaped body size–extinction relationship, using a database of 927 island mammal populations. We show that the size-selectivity of extinctions on many islands has exceeded that expected under null models. On islands with introduced predators, extinctions are biased towards intermediate body sizes, but this bias does not occur on islands without predators. Hence, on islands with a large-bodied mammal fauna, predators are selectively culling species from the lower end of the size distribution, and on islands with a small-bodied fauna they are culling species from the upper end. These findings suggest that it will be difficult to use predictable generalizations about extinction patterns, such as a positive body size–extinction risk association, to anticipate future species declines and plan conservation strategies accordingly. PMID:24694691

  2. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna

    PubMed Central

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I.; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L. Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-01-01

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic–biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night. PMID:27680661

  3. 76 FR 19976 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... INFORMATION: On May 20, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 28239) that a request for a... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648- XA352 Marine Mammals; File No. 15537 AGENCY... public display permit application received from the Institute for Marine Mammal Studies (IMMS), P.O....

  4. 76 FR 81916 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16685

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ..., notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 65697) that a request for a permit to conduct... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA772 Marine Mammals; File No. 16685 AGENCY... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act...

  5. 77 FR 58358 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14097

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... INFORMATION: On July 11, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 40859) that a request for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX47 Marine Mammals; File No. 14097 AGENCY... has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16...

  6. 78 FR 3402 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16919

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 27717) that a request for a permit to conduct research on... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB173 Marine Mammals; File No. 16919 AGENCY... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...

  7. 77 FR 20793 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16599

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... the Federal Register (77 FR 2512) that a request for a permit to conduct research on all species of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals; File No. 16599 AGENCY... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego,...

  8. 76 FR 48146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15330

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On February 25, 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 10560) that... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA160 Marine Mammals; File No. 15330 AGENCY... Robin Baird, PhD, Cascadia Research, 218\\1/2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501 to take marine mammals...

  9. 76 FR 43988 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14525

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 64986) that a request for a permit to import northern fur seal (Callorhinus... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ86 Marine Mammals; File No. 14525 AGENCY...), 16111 Plummer St., North Hills, CA 91343, to import and export marine mammal specimens for...

  10. 77 FR 34352 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... (77 FR 19646) that a request for a permit to import marine mammal parts for scientific research had... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB139 Marine Mammals; File No. 17178...

  11. 78 FR 70067 - Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... with marine mammals. With some exceptions, Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) prohibits activities... allow us to authenticate any scientific or commercial data you include. The comments and recommendations... including your address, phone number, email address, or other personal identifying information in...

  12. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals.

  13. Marine Mammal Transmitter for porpoise tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, W. G.

    The Marine Mammal Transmitter (MMT) forms part of the equipment to be used in a worldwide Porpoise Tracking System. Knowledge of porpoise migration, distribution characteristics, and population estimates are needed to aid in protection of the porpoise. A major problem is suffocation of porpoises when they are caught in tuna purse seine fishing nets. Location of the porpoise can be determined to within + or - 5 kilometers. The MMT utilizes low power CMOS integrated circuits in timing and control circuits to extend battery life. The MMT with battery pack is contained in two cylinders which are two inches in diameter and 8.5 inches long. The unit is mounted to the porpoise's dorsal fin with a vertical quarter wave monopole antenna extending from one of the cylinders. A signal from the MMT is transmitted to the Nimbus satellite. From there the information is later transmitted to a ground receiver and a data processing facility.

  14. Round table on morbilliviruses in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Barrett, T; Blixenkrone-Møller, M; Domingo, M; Harder, T; Have, P; Liess, B; Orvell, C; Osterhaus, A D; Plana, J; Svansson, V

    1992-11-01

    Since 1988 morbilliviruses have been increasingly recognized and held responsible for mass mortality amongst harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and other seal species. Virus isolations and characterization proved that morbilliviruses from seals in Northwest Europe were genetically distinct from other known members of this group including canine distemper virus (CDV), rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus and measles virus. An epidemic in Baikal seals in 1987 was apparently caused by a morbillivirus closely related to CDV so that two morbilliviruses have now been identified in two geographically distant seal populations, with only the group of isolates from Northwest Europe forming a new member of the genus morbillivirus: phocid distemper virus (PDV). Because of distemper-like disease, the Baikal seal morbillivirus was tentatively named PDV-2 in spite of its possible identity with CDV. The appearance of morbilliviruses in the Mediterranean Sea causing high mortality amongst dolphins should further increase the research activities on protection strategies for endangered species of marine mammals.

  15. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (< 0.1 microgram/g), followed by ringed seal, (0.1-1 microgram/g range). Levels are an order of magnitude higher in beluga and narwhal (1-10 micrograms/g range). It appears that metabolism and excretion of S-DDT and PCBs may be less efficient in cetaceans, leading to greater biomagnification. Polar bears have similar levels of PCBs as cetaceans (1-10 micrograms/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are lowest in polar bear, indicating rapid metabolism. Effects of age and sex on residue levels are found for all species where this was measured. Among cetaceans and ringed seal, sexually mature females have lower levels than males due to lactation. Although PCB levels in adult male polar bears are about twice as high as females, there is only a trivial age effect in either sex apart from an initial decrease from birth to sexual maturity (age 0-5). Comparison of levels of S-DDT and PCBs in Arctic beluga and ringed seal with those in beluga in the Gulf of St

  16. Marine mammal harvests and other interactions with humans.

    PubMed

    Hovelsrud, Grete K; McKenna, Meghan; Huntington, Henry P

    2008-03-01

    The Arctic is currently undergoing rapid social and environmental changes, and while the peoples of the north have a long history of adapting, the current changes in climate pose unprecedented challenges to the marine mammal-human interactions in the Arctic regions. Arctic marine mammals have been and remain an important resource for many of the indigenous and nonindigenous people of the north. Changes in climate are likely to bring about profound changes to the environment in which these animals live and subsequently to the hunting practices and livelihoods of the people who hunt them. Climate change will lead to reduction in the sea ice extent and thickness and will likely increase shipping through the Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage and oil and gas activities in Arctic areas previously inaccessible. Such activities will lead to more frequent interactions between humans and marine mammals. These activities may also change the distribution of marine mammals, affecting the hunters. This paper has three parts. First, an overview of marine mammal harvesting activities in the different circumpolar regions provides a snapshot of current practices and conditions. Second, case studies of selected Arctic regions, indigenous groups, and species provide insight into the manner in which climate change is already impacting marine mammal harvesting activities in the Arctic. Third, we describe how climate change is likely to affect shipping and oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Arctic and describe the possible implications of these changes for the marine mammal populations. We conclude that many of the consequences of climate change are likely to be negative for marine mammal hunters and for marine mammals. Lack of adequate baseline data, however, makes it difficult to identify specific causal mechanisms and thus to develop appropriate conservation measures. Nonetheless, the future of Arctic marine mammals and human uses of them depends on

  17. Marine mammal harvests and other interactions with humans.

    PubMed

    Hovelsrud, Grete K; McKenna, Meghan; Huntington, Henry P

    2008-03-01

    The Arctic is currently undergoing rapid social and environmental changes, and while the peoples of the north have a long history of adapting, the current changes in climate pose unprecedented challenges to the marine mammal-human interactions in the Arctic regions. Arctic marine mammals have been and remain an important resource for many of the indigenous and nonindigenous people of the north. Changes in climate are likely to bring about profound changes to the environment in which these animals live and subsequently to the hunting practices and livelihoods of the people who hunt them. Climate change will lead to reduction in the sea ice extent and thickness and will likely increase shipping through the Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage and oil and gas activities in Arctic areas previously inaccessible. Such activities will lead to more frequent interactions between humans and marine mammals. These activities may also change the distribution of marine mammals, affecting the hunters. This paper has three parts. First, an overview of marine mammal harvesting activities in the different circumpolar regions provides a snapshot of current practices and conditions. Second, case studies of selected Arctic regions, indigenous groups, and species provide insight into the manner in which climate change is already impacting marine mammal harvesting activities in the Arctic. Third, we describe how climate change is likely to affect shipping and oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Arctic and describe the possible implications of these changes for the marine mammal populations. We conclude that many of the consequences of climate change are likely to be negative for marine mammal hunters and for marine mammals. Lack of adequate baseline data, however, makes it difficult to identify specific causal mechanisms and thus to develop appropriate conservation measures. Nonetheless, the future of Arctic marine mammals and human uses of them depends on

  18. Marine mammal audibility of selected shallow-water survey sources.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, Alexander O; Racca, Roberto; Li, Zizheng

    2014-01-01

    Most attention about the acoustic effects of marine survey sound sources on marine mammals has focused on airgun arrays, with other common sources receiving less scrutiny. Sound levels above hearing threshold (sensation levels) were modeled for six marine mammal species and seven different survey sources in shallow water. The model indicated that odontocetes were most likely to hear sounds from mid-frequency sources (fishery, communication, and hydrographic systems), mysticetes from low-frequency sources (sub-bottom profiler and airguns), and pinnipeds from both mid- and low-frequency sources. High-frequency sources (side-scan and multibeam) generated the lowest estimated sensation levels for all marine mammal species groups.

  19. Biochemical aspects of pressure tolerance in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Michael A; Rivera, Patricia M; Castellini, Judith M

    2002-11-01

    Some marine mammals can dive to depths approaching 2000 m. At these hydrostatic pressures (200 atm), some fish species show alterations in enzyme structure and function that make them pressure-tolerant. Do marine mammals also possess biochemical adaptations to withstand such pressures? In theory, biochemical alterations might occur at the control of enzymatic pathways, by impacting cell membrane fluidity changes or at a higher level, such as cellular metabolism. Studies of marine mammal tissues show evidence of all of these changes, but the results are not consistent across species or diving depth. This review discusses whether the elevated body temperature of marine mammals imparts pressure tolerance at the biochemical level, whether there are cell membrane structural differences in marine mammals and whether whole, living cells from marine mammals alter their metabolism when pressure stressed. We conclude that temperature alone is probably not protective against pressure and that cell membrane composition data are not conclusive. Whole cell studies suggest that marine mammals either respond positively to pressure or are not impacted by pressure. However, the range of tissue types and enzyme systems that have been studied is extremely limited and needs to be expanded before more general conclusions about how these mammals tolerate elevated pressures on a biochemical level can be drawn.

  20. Annual report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1984. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-31

    Contents include: reauthorization and amendment of the Marine Mammal Protection Act; research and studies program; international aspects of marine mammal protection and conservation; marine mammal/fishery interactions; incidental take of marine mammals in the course of commercial fishing operations; species of special concern; marine mammal management in Alaska; Outer Continental Shelf oil, gas, and hard minerals development; marine mammal maintenance standards and regulations; permit process.

  1. 78 FR 15933 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17952

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ...., Department of Biology and Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, has... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC554 Marine Mammals; File No. 17952 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  2. Comparative review of marine mammal guidance implemented during naval exercises.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Sarah J; Weir, Caroline R; Jasny, Michael

    2009-04-01

    This article reviews the types and effectiveness of marine mammal mitigation measures used during some naval activities worldwide. The three main standard methods used to mitigate the potential impacts of naval sonar sound on marine mammals are (1) time/area planning (of exercises/active sonar use) to avoid marine mammals; (2) implementation of operational procedures (e.g. 'soft start' - where sound levels are gradually increased over time); and (3) monitoring of animals for the purpose of maintaining an 'exclusion zone' around the sound source. Suggestions towards a minimum worldwide mitigation standard are made.

  3. New magnetochronology of Late Miocene mammal fauna, NE Tibetan Plateau, China: Mammal migration and paleoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Dekkers, Mark J.; Roberts, Andrew P.; An, Zhisheng; Li, Yongxiang; Lu, Fengyan; Lin, Shan; Li, Xingwen

    2016-01-01

    Lanzhou Basin lies on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in western China and is a rich source of Oligocene-Miocene mammalian fossils. Obtaining precise age determinations for these fossils is important to address key questions concerning mammalian and environmental evolution in Asia associated with stepwise Tibetan Plateau uplift. Here we report a new magnetostratigraphic record for the Xingjiawan fluvio-lacustrine section from the northwestern margin of Lanzhou Basin that can be correlated to the geomagnetic polarity timescale with two options. The Late Miocene Xingjiawan Fauna is located either at the boundary between reversed polarity chron C4r.1r and normal polarity chron C4n.2n or at the boundary between subchrons C5r.1r and C5n.2n, with an estimated age of at least ∼8 Ma or perhaps as early as ∼11 Ma. Both age estimations imply that the fossil Stegodon in the Lanzhou Basin is the oldest known record of Stegodon worldwide; it predates the formerly oldest Stegodon find from Africa by at least one million years and perhaps by as many as four million years. This provides new evidence for an Asian origin of Stegodon. Together with other faunal components, a mixed woodland/grassland setting existed in the Lanzhou Basin during the Late Miocene, in contrast to its modern arid environment.

  4. 77 FR 87 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... significant potential to injure a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild [Level A Harassment]; or (ii) Any act that disturbs or is likely to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild... December 1, 2011 (75 FR 72807; November 26, 2010). Weapon delivery training will occur at two BTs:...

  5. Reconstructing the palaeoenvironments of the early Pleistocene mammal faunas from the pollen preserved on fossil bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzi, Cesare; Pini, Roberta; Breda, Marzia

    2009-12-01

    We carried out a systematic investigation on the pollen content of sediment adhering to skeletal elements of large mammals which originate from the long lacustrine record of Leffe (Early Pleistocene of the Italian Alps). Three local faunas were discovered during mining activities along the intermediate part (spanning from 1.5 to 0.95 Ma) of the basin succession. The excellent pollen preservation allowed testing the reproducibility of the pollen signal from single skeletons. A clear palaeoenvironmental patterning, consistent with the ecological preferences of the considered mammal species, emerged from the canonical correspondence analysis of pollen types diagnostic for vegetation communities. Edaphic factors related to seasonal river activity changes and to the development of swamp forests in the riverbanks are significantly associated to the occurrences of Hippopotamus cf. antiquus, whereas finds of Mammuthus meridionalis belong to fully forested landscapes dominated by conifer or mixed forests of oceanic, warm to cool-temperate climate. Rhinoceros habitats include variable forest cover under different climate states. Distinct cool-temperate, partially open vegetation could be recognized for large deer included Cervalces cf carnutorum. A palynostratigraphic correlation between individual spectra and a reference palynostratigraphic record allowed assignment of many fossil remains to a precise stratigraphic position. This procedure also shown that the Leffe local faunas include specimens accumulated under different environmental and climate states, as a consequence of high-frequency climate changes characterizing the Late Villafranchian Early Pleistocene.

  6. Plio-Pleistocene climatic change in the Turkana Basin (East Africa): evidence from large mammal faunas.

    PubMed

    Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Vrba, Elisabeth S

    2006-06-01

    We investigated palaeoclimatic change in the Turkana Basin during the Pliocene climatic shift toward increased aridity in Africa. We analyzed the palaeoecology of this area using mammal faunas as environmental indicators. Twenty Plio-Pleistocene fossil assemblages and a comparative dataset of 16 modern localities covering a wide range of climatic and ecological conditions across Africa were analyzed. We constructed community profiles using taxonomic variables which reflect ecological information. Principal component analysis and bivariate correlation were used to study changes in the community structure of these mammalian faunas and to draw palaeoenvironmental inferences. Subsequently, least-squares regressions yielded climatic estimates (annual rainfall and drought length) for the studied period. An additional set of 8 modern faunas was used to validate these regression models. The climatic estimates showed a drying trend throughout the sequence. The biomes in the Turkana Basin changed from semi-evergreen rain forest to deciduous woodland and savanna during the middle-late Pliocene. This was the most important climatic shift detected in our study. Evidence suggests a continuous presence of savannas from 2.5 million years ago onwards. This pattern of climatic change is consistent with isotopic evidence on global climate, and with independently derived regional palaeoenvironmental evidence (i.e., micromammals, palaeovegetation, soil carbonates and palaeosols).

  7. 76 FR 45514 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16094

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Fish and Game, Juneau, AK, has applied in due form for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals... (lactating females), blubber, muscle, skin, muscle, hair, mucus membrane swabs, stomach lavage, tooth...

  8. 75 FR 65005 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    .... ACTION: Notice; annual affirmative finding renewal. SUMMARY: The Assistant Administrator for Fisheries, NMFS, (Assistant Administrator) has renewed the affirmative finding for the Government of El Salvador under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). This affirmative finding will allow yellowfin...

  9. 77 FR 72829 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16305

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ..., 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 68718) that a request for a permit to receive... and conduct DNA analysis and pathology studies in marine mammal and sea turtles species;...

  10. 76 FR 60863 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ..... 76 FR 51051; August September 22, 2011. 17, 2011. 48645A Valley Zoological 76 FR 51051; August September 22, 2011. Society dba Gladys 17, 2011. Porter Zoo. Marine Mammals 48293A Red Rock Films 76...

  11. Effects of noise on marine mammals: Executive Summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, W.J.

    1991-02-01

    The report entitled 'Effects of Noise on Marine Mammals' by W.J. Richardson, C.R. Greene Jr., C.I. Malme and D.H. Thomson (OCS Study MMS 90-0093, LGL Report TA834-1), is a review of published and unpublished literature concerning the effects of manmade noise on marine mammals. Emphasis is given to underwater sounds, but airborne sounds are considered as well. Special attention is given to noise-emitting activities associated, directly or indirectly, with offshore hydrocarbon exploration and development, since that is a dominant interest of the U.S. Minerals Management Service, sponsor of the review. However, reactions of marine mammals to noise from all types of human activities are considered. Special attention is given to species of marine mammals and types of human activities that occur in waters around the United States. However, relevant literature from elsewhere is reviewed.

  12. Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement.

    PubMed

    Pérez Lapeña, B; Wijnberg, K M; Stein, A; Hulscher, S J M H

    2011-10-01

    Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved.

  13. Hazards of disease transfer from marine mammals to land mammals: review and recent findings.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Vedros, N A; Akers, T G; Gilmartin, W G

    1978-11-01

    In a 5-year study (1972-1977) of microbial agents isolated from both clinically normal and diseased marine mammals, it was shown that certain disease agents are widespread in a diversity of ocean populations and that some are also transmissible to a number of terrestrial mammal species. Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona has been isolated repeatedly from 2 species of pinnipeds (Zalophus californianus califonianus and Callorhinus ursinus). Some of the more important bacterial pathogens for land mammals that were isolated from wild marine mammals are Pseudomonas mallei, Clostridium chauvoei, C novyi, Neisseria mucosa var heidelbergensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp, and Pasteurella multocida. Numerous serotypes of viruses classified as caliciviruses were isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Some of these are known to infect several land mammal species including swine horses, and primates. For this reason., precautions should be taken to ensure that disease agents shed by captive marine mammals are not transmitted to susceptible terrestrial mammals, including animal handlers and other human beings. PMID:738931

  14. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  15. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  16. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  17. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section...

  18. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  19. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  20. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  1. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section...

  2. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section...

  3. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section...

  4. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section...

  5. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  6. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  7. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  8. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  9. Toxicology of Marine Mammals: New Developments and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Zaccaroni, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that marine mammals are exposed to a wide variety of pollutants, with a weight of evidence indicating impacts on their health. Since hundreds of new chemicals enter the global market every year,the methods, approaches and technologies used to characterize pollution levels or impacts are also in a constant state of flux. However, legal and ethical constraints often limit the type and extent of toxicological research being carried out in marine mammals. Nevertheless, new and emerging in vivo, in vitro as well as in silico research opportunities abound in the field of marine mammal toxicology. In the application of findings to population-, species-, or habitat-related risk assessments, the identification of causal relationships which inform source apportionment is important. This, in turn, is informed by a comprehensive understanding of contaminant classes, profiles and fate overspace and time. Such considerations figure prominently in the design and interpretation of marine mammal (eco)-toxicology research. This mini-review attempts to follow the evolution behind marine mammal toxicology until now,highlight some of the research that has been done and suggest opportunities for future research. This Special Issue will showcase new developments in marine mammal toxicology, approaches for exposure-effect research in risk assessment as well as future opportunities. PMID:26499130

  10. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W C; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E; Hunter, Margaret E; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B W; Hahn, Matthew W; Muzny, Donna M; Worley, Kim C; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Gibbs, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare. PMID:25621460

  11. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.

  12. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and are therefore a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and de novo assembled the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome, and that a subset were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that while convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare. PMID:25621460

  13. 77 FR 21539 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Sturgeon Research in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... dolphins in 2011 as a result of entanglement and subsequent asphyxiation in gill nets deployed for sturgeon.... Although entanglement of marine mammals in gill nets deployed for sturgeon research is extremely rare,...

  14. 77 FR 6771 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS refers the reader to the January 6, 2012, Federal Register notice (77 FR 842... Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor... harassment, incidental to conducting operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System (SURTASS)...

  15. Drivers and hotspots of extinction risk in marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Ana D.; Boyer, Alison G.; Kim, Hwahwan; Pompa-Mansilla, Sandra; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ceballos, Gerardo; Brown, James H.

    2012-01-01

    The world's oceans are undergoing profound changes as a result of human activities. However, the consequences of escalating human impacts on marine mammal biodiversity remain poorly understood. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identifies 25% of marine mammals as at risk of extinction, but the conservation status of nearly 40% of marine mammals remains unknown due to insufficient data. Predictive models of extinction risk are crucial to informing present and future conservation needs, yet such models have not been developed for marine mammals. In this paper, we: (i) used powerful machine-learning and spatial-modeling approaches to understand the intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of marine mammal extinction risk; (ii) used this information to predict risk across all marine mammals, including IUCN “Data Deficient” species; and (iii) conducted a spatially explicit assessment of these results to understand how risk is distributed across the world's oceans. Rate of offspring production was the most important predictor of risk. Additional predictors included taxonomic group, small geographic range area, and small social group size. Although the interaction of both intrinsic and extrinsic variables was important in predicting risk, overall, intrinsic traits were more important than extrinsic variables. In addition to the 32 species already on the IUCN Red List, our model identified 15 more species, suggesting that 37% of all marine mammals are at risk of extinction. Most at-risk species occur in coastal areas and in productive regions of the high seas. We identify 13 global hotspots of risk and show how they overlap with human impacts and Marine Protected Areas. PMID:22308490

  16. Drivers and hotspots of extinction risk in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ana D; Boyer, Alison G; Kim, Hwahwan; Pompa-Mansilla, Sandra; Hamilton, Marcus J; Costa, Daniel P; Ceballos, Gerardo; Brown, James H

    2012-02-28

    The world's oceans are undergoing profound changes as a result of human activities. However, the consequences of escalating human impacts on marine mammal biodiversity remain poorly understood. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identifies 25% of marine mammals as at risk of extinction, but the conservation status of nearly 40% of marine mammals remains unknown due to insufficient data. Predictive models of extinction risk are crucial to informing present and future conservation needs, yet such models have not been developed for marine mammals. In this paper, we: (i) used powerful machine-learning and spatial-modeling approaches to understand the intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of marine mammal extinction risk; (ii) used this information to predict risk across all marine mammals, including IUCN "Data Deficient" species; and (iii) conducted a spatially explicit assessment of these results to understand how risk is distributed across the world's oceans. Rate of offspring production was the most important predictor of risk. Additional predictors included taxonomic group, small geographic range area, and small social group size. Although the interaction of both intrinsic and extrinsic variables was important in predicting risk, overall, intrinsic traits were more important than extrinsic variables. In addition to the 32 species already on the IUCN Red List, our model identified 15 more species, suggesting that 37% of all marine mammals are at risk of extinction. Most at-risk species occur in coastal areas and in productive regions of the high seas. We identify 13 global hotspots of risk and show how they overlap with human impacts and Marine Protected Areas.

  17. Drivers and hotspots of extinction risk in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ana D; Boyer, Alison G; Kim, Hwahwan; Pompa-Mansilla, Sandra; Hamilton, Marcus J; Costa, Daniel P; Ceballos, Gerardo; Brown, James H

    2012-02-28

    The world's oceans are undergoing profound changes as a result of human activities. However, the consequences of escalating human impacts on marine mammal biodiversity remain poorly understood. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identifies 25% of marine mammals as at risk of extinction, but the conservation status of nearly 40% of marine mammals remains unknown due to insufficient data. Predictive models of extinction risk are crucial to informing present and future conservation needs, yet such models have not been developed for marine mammals. In this paper, we: (i) used powerful machine-learning and spatial-modeling approaches to understand the intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of marine mammal extinction risk; (ii) used this information to predict risk across all marine mammals, including IUCN "Data Deficient" species; and (iii) conducted a spatially explicit assessment of these results to understand how risk is distributed across the world's oceans. Rate of offspring production was the most important predictor of risk. Additional predictors included taxonomic group, small geographic range area, and small social group size. Although the interaction of both intrinsic and extrinsic variables was important in predicting risk, overall, intrinsic traits were more important than extrinsic variables. In addition to the 32 species already on the IUCN Red List, our model identified 15 more species, suggesting that 37% of all marine mammals are at risk of extinction. Most at-risk species occur in coastal areas and in productive regions of the high seas. We identify 13 global hotspots of risk and show how they overlap with human impacts and Marine Protected Areas. PMID:22308490

  18. 77 FR 33443 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16473

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... FR 76950) that a request for a permit to conduct research on humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), fin... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA861 Marine Mammals; File No. 16473 AGENCY.... Ann Pabst, Ph.D., University of North Carolina Wilmington, to conduct research on marine...

  19. 75 FR 64247 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... (Principal Investigator), Sarasota Dolphin Research Program, c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson... dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments must be received on or before... marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests a five-year permit to take bottlenose...

  20. 76 FR 16442 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... FR 62139; October March 10, 2011. Wildlife. 07, 2010. 781606 Wildlife Conservation 75 FR 82409; December March 8, 2011. Society. 30, 2010. 25983A Mote Marine Laboratory. 75 FR 82409; December March 11... 76 FR 7580; February March 17, 2011. 10, 2011. Marine Mammals 046081 U.S. Fish and Wildlife 75...

  1. 77 FR 47043 - Draft 2012 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... . Mail: Send comments or requests for copies of reports to: Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315 East-West Highway... were reviewed and considered for updating for 2012: Steller sea lion (western and eastern...

  2. 75 FR 12498 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ..., Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine... comment (74 FR 30527, June 26, 2009). The MMPA also specifies that the comment period on draft SARs must... conservation efforts can be terminated so that the resources supporting them can be redirected. Such...

  3. 78 FR 21347 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17344

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC588 Marine Mammals; File No. 17344 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...., University of Washington, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 351800, Seattle, WA 98195, has applied in due...

  4. 78 FR 14984 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17411

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC541 Marine Mammals; File No. 17411 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, Anchorage, AK, has applied in due form for a permit...

  5. 76 FR 4091 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15510

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals; File No. 15510 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has applied in...

  6. 75 FR 72794 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14628

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX08 Marine Mammals; File No. 14628 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... History, Smithsonian Institution (Charles W. Potter, Responsible Party), P.O. Box 37012, Washington,...

  7. 76 FR 3615 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14259

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA150 Marine Mammals; File No. 14259 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... History and Culture (Julie Stein, Responsible Party), University of Washington, Box 353010, 17th Ave...

  8. A Preliminary Report of Changing Quaternary Mammal Faunas in Subalpine New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Geoffrey; Flannery, Tim; Boeardi

    1993-07-01

    The faunas found in the mountains of central Irian Jaya have experienced dramatic changes through the late Quaternary. Remains of two previously unknown species of large marsupial, Maokopia ronaldi and Protemnodon hopei, have been recovered from unrelated cave and fluvial deposits which today occur in dense upper montane forest. Direct dating of the finds has not as yet been possible, but stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and palynologic evidence indicates that these species lived near a climatic treeline in subalpine grassland in the late Pleistocene. At higher altitudes a rockshelter provided the second known mid-Holocene record of Thylogale christenseni and Thylogale sp. cf. brunii, apparently extinct grassland wallabies. The two largest remaining subalpine mammal species are being locally exterminated by hunting, leaving only a large murid, Mallomys gunung, which weighs less than 2.0 kg. The area thus records the disappearance of a grassland-adapted fauna. The possum Pseudocheirops cupreus dominates in modem hunting returns, although this species is totally absent from the local fossil records. It may thus be in the process of invading a vacated and disturbed niche from the upper montane forest.

  9. Human pathogens in marine mammal meat – a northern perspective.

    PubMed

    Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T

    2014-09-01

    Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat.

  10. Human pathogens in marine mammal meat – a northern perspective.

    PubMed

    Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T

    2014-09-01

    Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat. PMID:24344685

  11. Tracking marine mammals using passive acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosal, Eva-Marie

    2007-12-01

    It is difficult to study the behavior and physiology of marine mammals or to understand and mitigate human impact on them because much of their lives are spent underwater. Since sound propagates for long distances in the ocean and since many cetaceans are vocal, passive acoustics is a valuable tool for studying and monitoring their behavior. After a brief introduction to and review of passive acoustic tracking methods, this dissertation develops and applies two new methods. Both methods use widely-spaced (tens of kilometers) bottom-mounted hydrophone arrays, as well as propagation models that account for depth-dependent sound speed profiles. The first passive acoustic tracking method relies on arrival times of direct and surface-reflected paths. It is used to track a sperm whale using 5 at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) and gives position estimates that are accurate to within 10 meters. With such accuracy, the whale's pitch and yaw are estimated by assuming that its main axis (which points from the tail to the rostrum) is parallel to its velocity. Roll is found by fitting the details of the pulses within each sperm whale click to the so-called bent horn model of sperm whale sound production. Finally, given the position and orientation of the whale, its beam pattern is reconstructed and found to be highly directional with an intense forward directed component. Pair-wise spectrogram (PWS) processing is the second passive acoustic tracking method developed in this dissertation. Although it is computationally more intensive, PWS has several advantages over arrival-time tracking methods, especially in shallow water environments, for long duration calls, and for multiple-animal datasets, as is the case for humpback whales on Hawaiian breeding grounds. Results of simulations with realistic noise conditions and environmental mismatch are given and compared to other passive localization techniques. When applied to the AUTEC sperm whale dataset, PWS

  12. Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health.

    PubMed

    Bossart, G D

    2011-05-01

    The long-term consequences of climate change and potential environmental degradation are likely to include aspects of disease emergence in marine plants and animals. In turn, these emerging diseases may have epizootic potential, zoonotic implications, and a complex pathogenesis involving other cofactors such as anthropogenic contaminant burden, genetics, and immunologic dysfunction. The concept of marine sentinel organisms provides one approach to evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. Such sentinels are barometers for current or potential negative impacts on individual- and population-level animal health. In turn, using marine sentinels permits better characterization and management of impacts that ultimately affect animal and human health associated with the oceans. Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. Marine mammals may be exposed to environmental stressors such as chemical pollutants, harmful algal biotoxins, and emerging or resurging pathogens. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. Finally, marine mammals are charismatic megafauna that typically stimulate an exaggerated human behavioral response and are thus more likely to be observed.

  13. Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health.

    PubMed

    Bossart, G D

    2011-05-01

    The long-term consequences of climate change and potential environmental degradation are likely to include aspects of disease emergence in marine plants and animals. In turn, these emerging diseases may have epizootic potential, zoonotic implications, and a complex pathogenesis involving other cofactors such as anthropogenic contaminant burden, genetics, and immunologic dysfunction. The concept of marine sentinel organisms provides one approach to evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. Such sentinels are barometers for current or potential negative impacts on individual- and population-level animal health. In turn, using marine sentinels permits better characterization and management of impacts that ultimately affect animal and human health associated with the oceans. Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. Marine mammals may be exposed to environmental stressors such as chemical pollutants, harmful algal biotoxins, and emerging or resurging pathogens. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. Finally, marine mammals are charismatic megafauna that typically stimulate an exaggerated human behavioral response and are thus more likely to be observed. PMID:21160025

  14. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys.

  15. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

  16. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Surveying Marine Fauna: A Dugong Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species’ habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km2 area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as ‘certain’ (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

  17. Ocean acoustics research figures in debate about protecting marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent U.S. Senate committee hearing about the re-authorization of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 focused on one word; harassment.Concern about whether anthropogenically produced underwater noise actually harasses or even may be involved in the deaths of some marine mammals has become a heated issue which has led to recent lawsuits and court rulings to halt or restrict some scientific research and U.S. naval operations. (See Eos, 29 April 2003).At a 16 July hearing, Sen. Olympia Snowe (R-Maine), chair of the Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Oceans, Fisheries, and Coast Guard, said a balance needs to be found between research needs and military readiness on one hand, and protection of marine mammals on the other hand.

  18. The Marine Mammal Protection Act at 40: status, recovery, and future of U.S. marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Roman, Joe; Altman, Irit; Dunphy-Daly, Meagan M; Campbell, Caitlin; Jasny, Michael; Read, Andrew J

    2013-05-01

    Passed in 1972, the Marine Mammal Protection Act has two fundamental objectives: to maintain U.S. marine mammal stocks at their optimum sustainable populations and to uphold their ecological role in the ocean. The current status of many marine mammal populations is considerably better than in 1972. Take reduction plans have been largely successful in reducing direct fisheries bycatch, although they have not been prepared for all at-risk stocks, and fisheries continue to place marine mammals as risk. Information on population trends is unknown for most (71%) stocks; more stocks with known trends are improving than declining: 19% increasing, 5% stable, and 5% decreasing. Challenges remain, however, and the act has generally been ineffective in treating indirect impacts, such as noise, disease, and prey depletion. Existing conservation measures have not protected large whales from fisheries interactions or ship strikes in the northwestern Atlantic. Despite these limitations, marine mammals within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone appear to be faring better than those outside, with fewer species in at-risk categories and more of least concern.

  19. The Marine Mammal Protection Act at 40: status, recovery, and future of U.S. marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Roman, Joe; Altman, Irit; Dunphy-Daly, Meagan M; Campbell, Caitlin; Jasny, Michael; Read, Andrew J

    2013-05-01

    Passed in 1972, the Marine Mammal Protection Act has two fundamental objectives: to maintain U.S. marine mammal stocks at their optimum sustainable populations and to uphold their ecological role in the ocean. The current status of many marine mammal populations is considerably better than in 1972. Take reduction plans have been largely successful in reducing direct fisheries bycatch, although they have not been prepared for all at-risk stocks, and fisheries continue to place marine mammals as risk. Information on population trends is unknown for most (71%) stocks; more stocks with known trends are improving than declining: 19% increasing, 5% stable, and 5% decreasing. Challenges remain, however, and the act has generally been ineffective in treating indirect impacts, such as noise, disease, and prey depletion. Existing conservation measures have not protected large whales from fisheries interactions or ship strikes in the northwestern Atlantic. Despite these limitations, marine mammals within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone appear to be faring better than those outside, with fewer species in at-risk categories and more of least concern. PMID:23521536

  20. Phenotypic and molecular characterisation of Brucella isolates from marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Claire E; Stubberfield, Emma J; Perrett, Lorraine L; King, Amanda C; Whatmore, Adrian M; Bashiruddin, John B; Stack, Judy A; MacMillan, Alastair P

    2008-01-01

    Background Bacteria of the genus Brucella are the causative organisms of brucellosis in animals and man. Previous characterisation of Brucella strains originating from marine mammals showed them to be distinct from the terrestrial species and likely to comprise one or more new taxa. Recently two new species comprising Brucella isolates from marine mammals, B. pinnipedialis and B. ceti, were validly published. Here we report on an extensive study of the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of marine mammal Brucella isolates and on how these characteristics relate to the newly described species. Results In this study, 102 isolates of Brucella originating from eleven species of marine mammals were characterised. Results obtained by analysis using the Infrequent Restriction Site (IRS)-Derivative PCR, PCR-RFLP of outer membrane protein genes (omp) and IS711 fingerprint profiles showed good consistency with isolates originating from cetaceans, corresponding to B. ceti, falling into two clusters. These correspond to isolates with either dolphins or porpoises as their preferred host. Isolates originating predominantly from seals, and corresponding to B. pinnipedialis, cluster separately on the basis of IS711 fingerprinting and other molecular approaches and can be further subdivided, with isolates from hooded seals comprising a distinct group. There was little correlation between phenotypic characteristics used in classical Brucella biotyping and these groups. Conclusion Molecular approaches are clearly valuable in the division of marine mammal Brucella into subtypes that correlate with apparent ecological divisions, whereas conventional bioyping is of less value. The data presented here confirm that there are significant subtypes within the newly described marine mammal Brucella species and add to a body of evidence that could lead to the recognition of additional species or sub-species within this group. PMID:19091076

  1. Marine mammal and habitat monitoring: Requirements; principles; needs; and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, S.L.; Hofman, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    The paper discusses the intents and provisions of section 101(a)(5) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act which allows the Secretaries of the Interior and Commerce to authorize the unintentional taking of small numbers of marine mammals incidental to offshore oil and gas development and other such activities. It explains the rationale for and describes the types of site-specific and population monitoring programs required to document the manner and level of take and to verify that the take has negligible effects on the distribution, size, and productivity of the affected species and populations.

  2. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result. PMID:26611006

  3. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result.

  4. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  5. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  6. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae and Sphyriidae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ju-Shey

    This report is part of a sub-series to aid biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers, and informed laymen in the identification and study of marine flora and fauna of the Northeastern United States. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Glossary; (3) Key to the marine lernaeopodoid copepods of the Northeastern United…

  7. Utilizing new Mammal faunas for calibration of paleomagnetostratigraphy in the Kochkor basin, Kyrgyzstan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, W. N. F.; Weldon, R. J.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Hopkins, S. S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active nation in the world, owning to the uplift of the Tien Shan mountain range. This record of faulting is far from simple though, with different dates of initiation spanning tens of millions of years in the published literature. Differentiating between these extremes is vital in terms of constructing earthquake hazard maps for the country. Much of the high degree of uncertainty comes from a lack of datable rocks within the time frame associated with the faulting. While paleomagnetic stratigraphic analyses provide highly accurate ages, they in turn need calibration points to preclude multiple possible matches to a global geochronological framework. Herein I provide the first description of Neogene fossil mammal faunas to act as biostratigraphic control for the paleomagnetic data. Dominating the faunal assemblage is rhinoceros species, Chilotherium anderssoni. This taxon is globally only known from 8.7-5.3 million years ago, constraining much of the stratigraphy to the latest Miocene to Pliocene. Additional taxa include Gazella, Samotherium, Hipparion, Hyaenaictithirium, Paleolagus, and Pliocervidae. As fossils are limited to the Miocene/Pliocene Chu Formation, we have also collected additional paleomagnetic samples from the lower Shamsi Formation to extend the age range covered and constraint the initiation of faulting.

  8. 75 FR 14424 - Marine Mammals; File No. 87-1743

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 87-1743-05, issued on September 29, 2009 (74 FR... public comment period for the application (75 FR 13257), pursuant to 50 CFR 216.33(e)(6). NMFS has.... ACTION: Notice; issuance of permit amendment. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Daniel P. Costa,...

  9. 75 FR 38988 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14636

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On April 20, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 20565) that a.... ACTION: Notice; issuance of permit. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Daniel P. Costa, Ph.D... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The permit authorizes Dr. Costa to continue long-term...

  10. 77 FR 51519 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17403

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... conduct commercial/educational photography on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). DATES: Written... 104(c)(6) provides for photography for educational or commercial purposes involving non-endangered and non-threatened marine mammals in the wild. ] Mr. Pilley requests a five-year photography permit...

  11. 76 FR 40338 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 11, 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 27307) that a... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360 AGENCY..., Auckland, New Zealand to conduct commercial/educational photography of cetaceans off Hawaii. ADDRESSES:...

  12. 78 FR 56218 - Marine Mammals; File No. 18171

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... applied in due form for a permit to conduct commercial or educational photography of bottlenose dolphins... photography for educational or commercial purposes involving non-endangered and non-threatened marine mammals in the wild. Wessley Merten requests a two-year photography permit to film and photograph...

  13. 76 FR 27307 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit Application No. 16360

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA426 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit..., Auckland, New Zealand has applied in due form for a permit to conduct commercial/educational photography of... for photography for educational or commercial purposes involving non-endangered and...

  14. 77 FR 2037 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No... for a permit to conduct commercial or educational photography on killer (Orcinus orca) and...

  15. 77 FR 2513 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... form for a permit to conduct commercial or educational photography of Eastern North Pacific gray whales... marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Section 104(c)(6) provides for photography for educational or... requests a photography permit to film gray whale and killer whale interactions in the Aleutian Islands...

  16. 77 FR 24470 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 2037) that a request for a permit for commercial... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No... conduct commercial/educational photography in Alaska. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive mari...

  18. 77 FR 14506 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Ecuador under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). This affirmative finding renewal will allow... renewal was based on review of documentary evidence submitted by the Government of Ecuador and obtained... Administrator considered documentary evidence submitted by the Government of Ecuador or obtained from the...

  19. 78 FR 66336 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC956 Marine Mammals; File No. 17030 AGENCY... Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No... submitted by facsimile to (301)713-0376, or by email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include File...

  20. 75 FR 30383 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14610

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ..., notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 20565) that a request for a permit to conduct... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV92 Marine Mammals; File No. 14610...

  1. 76 FR 13603 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA288 Marine Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY... page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 15748 from the list of available...-mail to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the...

  2. 76 FR 28422 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA384 Marine Mammals; File No. 16053 AGENCY...) 713-0376, or by e-mail to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . ] Please include File No. 16053 in the...

  3. 77 FR 55456 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17410

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC210 Marine Mammals; File No. 17410 AGENCY... (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 17410 from the list of....Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those...

  4. 77 FR 27441 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13927

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 13927, issued on October 19, 2011 (76 FR 67151), authorizes the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA774 Marine Mammals; File No. 13927 AGENCY... Permits for Protected Species home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No....

  5. 77 FR 31836 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15240

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ..., 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 78890) that a request for a permit to conduct... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA874 Marine Mammals; File No. 15240...

  6. 75 FR 76703 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15750

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals; File No. 15750 AGENCY... page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 15750 from the list of available...-mail to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the...

  7. 77 FR 47045 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16580

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... published in the Federal Register (77 FR 31835) that a request for a permit to receive, import and export... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB158 Marine Mammals; File No. 16580...

  8. 75 FR 39915 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15483

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals; File No. 15483 AGENCY... Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 15483 from the... include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting a...

  9. 77 FR 26747 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... on May 25, 2011 (76 FR 31942), authorizes the permit holder to capture and harass free-living Weddell... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA288 Marine Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY..., https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 15748 from the list of available...

  10. 77 FR 33199 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14534

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... INFORMATION: On December 9, 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 76949) that the above... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals; File No. 14534...

  11. 76 FR 18533 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15682

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA342 Marine Mammals; File No. 15682 AGENCY... Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No... include the File No. in the subject line of the e-mail comment. Those individuals requesting a...

  12. 78 FR 39713 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17751

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 18322) that a request for a permit to conduct research on the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC580 Marine Mammals; File No. 17751...

  13. 78 FR 7755 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17754

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC477 Marine Mammals; File No. 17754 AGENCY... email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. 17754 in the subject line of the...

  14. 77 FR 30508 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16991

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On February 28, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 12009) that... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB033 Marine Mammals; File No. 16991...

  15. 78 FR 51146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17429

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC766 Marine Mammals; File No. 17429 AGENCY... (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 17429 from the list of...-0376, or by email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include File No. 17429 in the subject line...

  16. 76 FR 28423 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14259

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... INFORMATION: On January 20, 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 3615) that a request for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA150 Marine Mammals; File No. 14259...

  17. 76 FR 13605 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15616

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ..., 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 542) that a request for a permit to conduct... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA123 Marine Mammals; File No. 15616...

  18. 77 FR 267 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16621

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA915 Marine Mammals; File No. 16621 AGENCY... selecting File No. 16621 from the list of available applications. These documents are also available upon... . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting...

  19. 78 FR 48655 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17324

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 30, 2012, a notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 52694) that... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC137 Marine Mammals; File No. 17324 AGENCY... display permit (File No. 17324) submitted by the Georgia Aquarium Inc., 225 Baker Street, Atlanta,...

  20. 78 FR 23538 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17312

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC628 Marine Mammals; File No. 17312 AGENCY....gov , and then selecting File No. 17312 from the list of available applications. These documents are... email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the...

  1. 77 FR 31835 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16580

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB158 Marine Mammals; File No. 16580 AGENCY....gov , and then selecting File No. 16580 from the list of available applications. These documents are... submitted by facsimile to (301)713-0376, or by email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the...

  2. 77 FR 50472 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 7, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 26747) that a... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA288 Marine Mammals; File No. 15748...

  3. 78 FR 51146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14535

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... INFORMATION: On April 9, 2013, notice was published in the Federal Register (78 FR 21112) that a request for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB161 Marine Mammals; File No. 14535...

  4. 75 FR 47537 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14352

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX98 Marine Mammals; File No. 14352 AGENCY... . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting...

  5. 78 FR 28809 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17410

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... INFORMATION: On September 10, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 55456) that a request... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC210 Marine Mammals; File No. 17410...

  6. 77 FR 38587 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ..., notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 25963) that a request for an amendment to Permit No... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC010 Marine Mammals; File No. 14325...

  7. 76 FR 28421 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15646

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA386 Marine Mammals; File No. 15646 AGENCY...://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 15646 from the list of available applications. These...- 0376, or by e-mail to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include File No. 15646 in the subject line...

  8. 77 FR 52694 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17324

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC137 Marine Mammals; File No. 17324 AGENCY...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF...

  9. 78 FR 33071 - Marine Mammals; File No. 10018

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Register (76 FR 71938) that a request for an amendment Permit No. 10018-01 to conduct research on humpback... 222-226). Permit No. 10018, issued on June 18, 2008 (73 FR 36042) and amended on July 14, 2010 (75 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA833 Marine Mammals; File No. 10018...

  10. 75 FR 69633 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15206

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...: On March 31, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (73 FR 29111) that a request for a... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV57 Marine Mammals; File No. 15206...

  11. 76 FR 13603 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16087

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA292 Marine Mammals; File No. 16087 AGENCY...://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 16087 from the list of available applications. These... to (301) 713-0376, or by e- mail to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in...

  12. 77 FR 36999 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16160

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... (77 FR 35657), authorizes takes of eight species of cetaceans in the inland waters of Washington State... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA626 Marine Mammals; File No. 16160 AGENCY....nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 16160 from the list of available applications....

  13. 77 FR 48130 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17152

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC136 Marine Mammals; File No. 17152 AGENCY....Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those...

  14. 75 FR 67347 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14326

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... August 31, 2009, notice was published in the Federal Register (74 FR 44822) that Permit No. 14326 to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA009 Marine Mammals; File No. 14326...

  15. 78 FR 70920 - Marine Mammals; File No. 18182

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XD002 Marine Mammals; File No. 18182 AGENCY... (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 18182 from the list of... email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the...

  16. 77 FR 39999 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17278

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC095 Marine Mammals; File No. 17278 AGENCY...://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 17278 from the list of available applications. These... . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting...

  17. 78 FR 42756 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14330

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 14330, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR 44822... (76 FR 329), to include authorization for harassment of additional Steller sea lions and harbor seals... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA122 Marine Mammals; File No. 14330...

  18. 77 FR 4765 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15142

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ...-01 (75 FR 58352) and will provide quantitative measurements of the amphibious hearing capabilities of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA963 Marine Mammals; File No. 15142 AGENCY...://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 15142 from the list of available applications....

  19. 75 FR 18160 - Marine Mammals; File No. 1100-1849

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Register (74 FR 49858) that an amendment to Permit No. 1100-1849 had been requested by the above-named... of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 1100-1849, issued March 22, 2007 (72 FR 14525.... ACTION: Notice; issuance of permit amendment. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Shane Moore,...

  20. 77 FR 29981 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17086

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... research on marine mammals in the Atlantic Ocean. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 9627) that a request for a permit to conduct research on 27 species of cetaceans in U.S. and international waters of the Atlantic Ocean from Virginia...

  1. 78 FR 18322 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17751

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... killer whales in Alaskan waters, including the Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Arctic Ocean... killer whales in the area. The marine mammal research is part of a larger study on the reduction of sea ice in the Arctic with the goal of developing predictive ecosystem models. Research methods...

  2. 78 FR 53732 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... August 17, 2009 (74 FR 44822), authorizes taking of marine mammals during continuation of a long-term... Investigator from Dr. Lorrie Rea to Michael Rehberg. The permit was amended on July 12, 2012 (77 FR 38587), to... collection; capture for instrument attachment, branding, capture method development, physiological...

  3. 76 FR 56167 - Marine Mammals; Pinniped Removal Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... pinniped predation on listed salmonids, NMFS' past authorizations of lethal removal at Bonneville Dam... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA681 Marine Mammals; Pinniped Removal Authority... relevant information related to pinniped predation at Bonneville Dam. DATES: Comments and information...

  4. 77 FR 2040 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14676

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... November 7, 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 68719) that a request for an... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT82 Marine Mammals; File No. 14676...

  5. 77 FR 4013 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15126

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... in the Federal Register (76 FR 72681) that a request for an amendment Permit No. 15126-01 to conduct... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals; File No. 15126...

  6. 76 FR 65697 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16685

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA772 Marine Mammals; File No. 16685 AGENCY....gov , and then selecting File No. 16685 from the list of available applications. These documents are....Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the e-mail comment....

  7. 75 FR 57979 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ...; May 21, July 30, 2010 Alaska Science Center. 2010. 134907 North Slope Borough 75 FR 44987; July 30... application Permit number Applicant Federal Register notice Permit issuance date 00588A Frank Pohl 75 FR 34766... Alvin Filpula 75 FR 34767; June 18, August 19, 2010 2010. ] Marine Mammals Receipt of application...

  8. 76 FR 68206 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... date notice 773494 Florida Fish and 75 FR 62139; October October 20, 2011. Wildlife. 7, 2010... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and...

  9. 77 FR 43109 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and ]...

  10. 78 FR 3399 - Draft 2012 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... for copies of reports to: Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Office of..., 2012 (77 FR 47043); the 90-day public comment period closed on November 5, 2012. Subsequent to.... The 2011 abundance estimate for fin whale, western North Atlantic stock, in the draft 2012 SAR (77...

  11. 77 FR 3450 - Guidelines for Assessing Marine Mammal Stocks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ....gov . Mail: Send comments to: Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Office of..., along with the initial draft SARs, for public review and comment (59 FR 40527, August 9, 1994) and were finalized August 25, 1995 (60 FR 44308). In 1996, NMFS convened a second workshop (referred to as...

  12. 75 FR 46912 - Draft 2010 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... requests for copies of reports to: Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Office of... Caribbean Sea. The abundance estimate for the Western North Atlantic stock of harbor seals became outdated... conservation issues (Perrin et al. 2009). The former Hawaii stock of spinner dolphin was renamed as the...

  13. 77 FR 25692 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16479

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... FR 72389) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals had been submitted by the above-named applicant. The Pacific Whale Foundation proposes to conduct vessel based research on... Pacific Whale Foundation , 300 Maalaea Road, Suite 211, Wailuku, HI 96793, has requested a change...

  14. 75 FR 23242 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 15498 and 15500

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Society - Brookfield Zoo, 3300 Golf Road, Brookfield, IL 60513, and Georgia Aquarium, 225 Baker Street, NW... Zoo, Brookfield, IL, for the purpose of public display. The Brookfield Zoo is: (1) open to the public... Marine Mammal Parks and Aquariums and the Association of Zoos and Aquariums; and (3) holds an...

  15. 75 FR 75490 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Kevin Slaughter....... 75 FR 62139; October 7, November 9, 2010. 2010. Marine Mammals 107933 EcoHealth... Service, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Room 212, Arlington, VA 22203; fax (703) 558-7725; or e-mail DMAFR@fws... FR 62139; October 7, November 9, 2010. 2010. 21605A Steven Louis 75 FR 57977; September 23,...

  16. 77 FR 12815 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16160

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 68161) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals had been submitted by the above-named applicant. The Whale Museum proposes to monitor and record vessel activities... Whale Museum (Responsible Party: Jenny Atkinson), P.O. Box 945, Friday Harbor, WA 98250 has requested...

  17. 76 FR 68719 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14676

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 14676, issued on January 13, 2010 (75 FR 4046), authorizes the permit holder to capture up to 10 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) annually on... the role of blood oxygen store depletion in the dive behavior and foraging ecology of California...

  18. 76 FR 40701 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Salvador under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). This affirmative finding will allow yellowfin tuna... on review of documentary evidence submitted by the Government of El Salvador and obtained from the... Assistant Administrator considered documentary evidence submitted by the Government of El Salvador...

  19. Cold-seep mollusks are older than the general marine mollusk fauna.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Steffen; Little, Crispin T S

    2006-09-01

    The origin and possible antiquity of faunas at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and seeps have been debated since their discovery. We used the fossil record of seep mollusks to show that the living seep genera have significantly longer geologic ranges than the marine mollusks in general, but have ranges similar to those of deep-sea taxa, suggesting that seep faunas may be shaped by the factors that drive the evolution of life in the deep sea in general. Our data indicate that deep-sea anoxic/dysoxic events did not affect seep faunas, casting doubt on the suggested anoxic nature and/or global extent of these events.

  20. Cold-seep mollusks are older than the general marine mollusk fauna.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Steffen; Little, Crispin T S

    2006-09-01

    The origin and possible antiquity of faunas at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and seeps have been debated since their discovery. We used the fossil record of seep mollusks to show that the living seep genera have significantly longer geologic ranges than the marine mollusks in general, but have ranges similar to those of deep-sea taxa, suggesting that seep faunas may be shaped by the factors that drive the evolution of life in the deep sea in general. Our data indicate that deep-sea anoxic/dysoxic events did not affect seep faunas, casting doubt on the suggested anoxic nature and/or global extent of these events. PMID:16960004

  1. 76 FR 10623 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY... the Federal Register, we are forwarding copies of the above application to the Marine Mammal... conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. With some exceptions,...

  2. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Collection of certain marine mammal parts... SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.26 Collection...

  3. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Collection of certain marine mammal parts... SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.26 Collection...

  4. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Collection of certain marine mammal parts... SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.26 Collection...

  5. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of certain marine mammal parts... SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.26 Collection...

  6. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collection of certain marine mammal parts... SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.26 Collection...

  7. 75 FR 67951 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Piling and Structure Removal in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... respect to the ecology and life history of potentially affected marine mammals (e.g., will harassment... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities... implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), as amended, notification is hereby given that...

  8. 75 FR 80471 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ...), for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment incidental to... incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, four species of marine mammals during the specified activity... intentional, taking by harassment of small numbers of marine mammals of a species or population stock,...

  9. 78 FR 67184 - Proposed Information Collection; Marine Mammal Marking, Tagging, and Reporting Certificates, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Marine Mammal Marking, Tagging, and Reporting Certificates, and Registration of Certain Dead Marine Mammal Hard Parts AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Under section 101(b) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972...

  10. 77 FR 39485 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this action.... Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of annual LOAs,...

  11. 77 FR 45341 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this action... issued. Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of...

  12. 78 FR 22517 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this action... the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of annual LOAs,...

  13. 75 FR 38465 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... driving were issued on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 35136), and remain in effect until July 14, 2014. These... (APU) to implement a NMFS-approved scientific monitoring plan. The scientific marine mammal monitoring.... The APU observers conducted scientific monitoring from the Cairn Point Station on Elmendorf Air...

  14. 78 FR 8111 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... February 1, 2012 (77 FR 4917), NMFS issued final regulations that revised the number of missile and rocket.... ACTION: Notice of issuance of a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal... species of seals and sea lions incidental to rocket and missile launches on Vandenberg Air Force...

  15. 78 FR 73794 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Air Force Launches...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...), Commerce. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS has received a request from the U.S... in take of marine mammals from noise or visual disturbance from rocket and missile launches, as well... missile launch frequency will not exceed a combined total of 50 launches (35 rockets and 15 missiles)...

  16. 77 FR 6086 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... February 1, 2012 (77 FR 4917), NMFS issued final regulations that revised the number of missile and rocket.... ACTION: Notice of issuance of a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal... species of seals and sea lions incidental to rocket and missile launches on Vandenberg Air Force...

  17. 78 FR 71566 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... authorization (78 FR 52148; August 22, 2013; hereafter, the FR notice); please see that document or the Navy's... provided in the FR notice (78 FR 52148; August 22, 2013). Significant sound- producing in-water... in disturbance to marine mammals in the project area. Please see the FR notice (78 FR 52148;...

  18. 76 FR 6448 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test Flight Activities From Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA... of authorization (LOA) has been issued to the 30th Space Wing, U.S. Air Force (USAF), to take four..., aircraft flight test operations, and helicopter operations at VAFB, were issued on February 6, 2009 (74...

  19. 76 FR 6406 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ...; proposed incidental harassment authorization; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to construction activities as part of a pile replacement project....

  20. 76 FR 79409 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...; proposed incidental harassment authorization; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to construction activities as part of a wharf construction...

  1. 77 FR 25408 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ...; proposed incidental harassment authorization; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to construction activities as part of a pile replacement project....

  2. 76 FR 4300 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...; proposed incidental harassment authorization; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to pile driving activities as part of a test pile program. Pursuant to...

  3. 76 FR 53884 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... 2007 on July 16, 2002 (67 FR 46712), and published the second rule effective from August 2007 through August 2012 on August 21, 2007 (72 FR 46846). For this third rule making, the Navy is proposing to... Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low...

  4. 76 FR 12070 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... EROS were published on June 19, 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For... of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico... removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: These authorizations...

  5. 78 FR 29705 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals....noaa.gov/pr/permits/incidental.htm . Supplemental documents provided by the U.S. Navy may be found at..., (301) 427-8401. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Sections 101(a)(5)(A) and (D) of the MMPA (16...

  6. 78 FR 56659 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... U.S. waters and just south of the U.S.-Mexico border, and animals belonging to this population may... from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for authorization to take marine mammals incidental to construction..., NMFS, (301) 427-8401. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Availability A copy of the Navy's application and...

  7. Palaeoenvironmental and chronological constraints on the Early Pleistocene mammal fauna from loess deposits in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zan, Jinbo; Fang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Weilin; Yan, Maodu; Zhang, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The Longdan mammal fauna from the central part of Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau, is the first Early Pleistocene fauna in China in which the fossils are derived loess deposits, and it provides an excellent opportunity to document mammalian and environmental evolution in Asia. However, the precise age and palaeoenvironmental setting of the fauna are controversial due to the poor exposure of the outcrop section. In the present study, a 105-m-long drill core was obtained from Longdan village and used for detailed magnetostratigraphic dating. The results demonstrate that the late Pliocene- Pleistocene loess deposits in the Longdan section deposited since ca. 3 Ma and that the Longdan fauna has an age range of 2.5-2.2 Ma. In addition, the results of lithological and rock magnetic analyses demonstrate that paleosols are weakly developed throughout the whole core and that in the lower and middle parts the core the magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence are relatively low and uniform. These observations, combined with the ecological characteristics of the Longdan fauna, indicate that during the Early Pleistocene the climate in the Longdan area, and even in the Linxia Basin, was sub-humid and that the aeolian dust was frequently subjected to post-depositional reworking by water.

  8. Characterization of phylogenetically diverse astroviruses of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Rebecca; Nollens, Hendrik H; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Gulland, Frances M D; Wellehan, James F X

    2010-01-01

    Astroviruses are small, non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses. Previously studied mammalian astroviruses have been associated with diarrhoeal disease. Knowledge of astrovirus diversity is very limited, with only six officially recognized astrovirus species from mammalian hosts and, in addition, one human and some bat astroviruses were recently described. We used consensus PCR techniques for initial identification of five astroviruses of marine mammals: three from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), one from a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) and one from a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Bayesian and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis found that these viruses showed significant diversity at a level consistent with novel species. Astroviruses that we identified from marine mammals were found across the mamastrovirus tree and did not form a monophyletic group. Recombination analysis found that a recombination event may have occurred between a human and a California sea lion astrovirus, suggesting that both lineages may have been capable of infecting the same host at one point. The diversity found amongst marine mammal astroviruses and their similarity to terrestrial astroviruses suggests that the marine environment plays an important role in astrovirus ecology.

  9. Marine Mammal Impacts in Exploited Ecosystems: Would Large Scale Culling Benefit Fisheries?

    PubMed Central

    Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy; Pauly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Competition between marine mammals and fisheries for marine resources—whether real or perceived—has become a major issue for several countries and in international fora. We examined trophic interactions between marine mammals and fisheries based on a resource overlap index, using seven Ecopath models including marine mammal groups. On a global scale, most food consumed by marine mammals consisted of prey types that were not the main target of fisheries. For each ecosystem, the primary production required (PPR) to sustain marine mammals was less than half the PPR to sustain fisheries catches. We also developed an index representing the mean trophic level of marine mammal's consumption (TLQ) and compared it with the mean trophic level of fisheries' catches (TLC). Our results showed that overall TLQ was lower than TLC (2.88 versus 3.42). As fisheries increasingly exploit lower-trophic level species, the competition with marine mammals may become more important. We used mixed trophic impact analysis to evaluate indirect trophic effects of marine mammals, and in some cases found beneficial effects on some prey. Finally, we assessed the change in the trophic structure of an ecosystem after a simulated extirpation of marine mammal populations. We found that this lead to alterations in the structure of the ecosystems, and that there was no clear and direct relationship between marine mammals' predation and the potential catch by fisheries. Indeed, total biomass, with no marine mammals in the ecosystem, generally remained surprisingly similar, or even decreased for some species. PMID:22970153

  10. Current and Future Patterns of Global Marine Mammal Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Kaschner, Kristin; Tittensor, Derek P.; Ready, Jonathan; Gerrodette, Tim; Worm, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial distribution of taxa is an important prerequisite for the preservation of biodiversity, and can provide a baseline against which to measure the impacts of climate change. Here we analyse patterns of marine mammal species richness based on predictions of global distributional ranges for 115 species, including all extant pinnipeds and cetaceans. We used an environmental suitability model specifically designed to address the paucity of distributional data for many marine mammal species. We generated richness patterns by overlaying predicted distributions for all species; these were then validated against sightings data from dedicated long-term surveys in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Northeast Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. Model outputs correlated well with empirically observed patterns of biodiversity in all three survey regions. Marine mammal richness was predicted to be highest in temperate waters of both hemispheres with distinct hotspots around New Zealand, Japan, Baja California, the Galapagos Islands, the Southeast Pacific, and the Southern Ocean. We then applied our model to explore potential changes in biodiversity under future perturbations of environmental conditions. Forward projections of biodiversity using an intermediate Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) temperature scenario predicted that projected ocean warming and changes in sea ice cover until 2050 may have moderate effects on the spatial patterns of marine mammal richness. Increases in cetacean richness were predicted above 40° latitude in both hemispheres, while decreases in both pinniped and cetacean richness were expected at lower latitudes. Our results show how species distribution models can be applied to explore broad patterns of marine biodiversity worldwide for taxa for which limited distributional data are available. PMID:21625431

  11. Brevetoxicosis: red tides and marine mammal mortalities.

    PubMed

    Flewelling, Leanne J; Naar, Jerome P; Abbott, Jay P; Baden, Daniel G; Barros, Nélio B; Bossart, Gregory D; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine D; Hammond, Daniel G; Haubold, Elsa M; Heil, Cynthia A; Henry, Michael S; Jacocks, Henry M; Leighfield, Tod A; Pierce, Richard H; Pitchford, Thomas D; Rommel, Sentiel A; Scott, Paula S; Steidinger, Karen A; Truby, Earnest W; Van Dolah, Frances M; Landsberg, Jan H

    2005-06-01

    Potent marine neurotoxins known as brevetoxins are produced by the 'red tide' dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. They kill large numbers of fish and cause illness in humans who ingest toxic filter-feeding shellfish or inhale toxic aerosols. The toxins are also suspected of having been involved in events in which many manatees and dolphins died, but this has usually not been verified owing to limited confirmation of toxin exposure, unexplained intoxication mechanisms and complicating pathologies. Here we show that fish and seagrass can accumulate high concentrations of brevetoxins and that these have acted as toxin vectors during recent deaths of dolphins and manatees, respectively. Our results challenge claims that the deleterious effects of a brevetoxin on fish (ichthyotoxicity) preclude its accumulation in live fish, and they reveal a new vector mechanism for brevetoxin spread through food webs that poses a threat to upper trophic levels. PMID:15944690

  12. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  13. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  14. 75 FR 72807 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... mammals by harassment. Section 101(a)(5)(D) establishes a 45-day time limit for NMFS review of an... for this action (75 FR 32398; June 8, 2010). Description of Marine Mammals in the Area of the... action (75 FR 32398; June 8, 2010). Effects on Marine Mammals As mentioned previously, with respect...

  15. Large-scale marine ecosystem change and the conservation of marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Odell, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Papers in this Special Feature stem from a symposium on large-scale ecosystem change and the conservation of marine mammals convened at the 86th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mammalogists in June 2006. Major changes are occurring in multiple aspects of the marine environment at unprecedented rates, within the life spans of some individual marine mammals. Drivers of change include shifts in climate, acoustic pollution, disturbances to trophic structure, fisheries interactions, harmful algal blooms, and environmental contaminants. This Special Feature provides an in-depth examination of 3 issues that are particularly troublesome. The 1st article notes the huge spatial and temporal scales of change to which marine mammals are showing ecological responses, and how these species can function as sentinels of such change. The 2nd paper describes the serious problems arising from conflicts with fisheries, and the 3rd contribution reviews the growing issues associated with underwater noise. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  16. Relationship between marine mammal stranding events and offshore earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Rachel; Savirina, Anna; Hoppit, Will

    2014-05-01

    The causes of marine mammal stranding events are largely unknown, but may relate to ocean currents, severe weather, anthropogenic noise pollution, and other factors. Large stranding events have been suggested to occur as a result of offshore earthquakes but there is little evidence as yet to support this hypothesis. Stranding events occur in hotspots, which are sometimes areas of high seismic activity, such as Taiwan, and other times, in areas that are removed from seismic zones, such as Cape Cod. We analyse a large and robust dataset of marine mammal stranding data collected off the coast of Washington and Oregon from 1999 to 2010, to look for statistical connections to offshore earthquakes. We looked forward, as well as backward in time from significant seismic events, to ascertain whether stranding occurrences, if connected to earthquakes, are a result of the earthquake preparation period or the earthquake itself. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  17. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Echinodermata: Holothuroidea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawson, David L.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Morphology; (3) Systematic Characters; (4) Examination Procedures; (5) Glossary; (6)…

  18. Marine birds and mammals of the Pacific Subarctic Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A. M.; Piatt, J. F.; Shuntov, V. P.; Van Vliet, G. B.; Vladimirov, V. L.; Kuzin, A. E.; Perlov, A. S.

    1999-03-01

    The importance of the subarctic gyres of the North Pacific Ocean to marine birds and mammals is poorly known because of a paucity of data spanning appropriate scales of time and space. The little information that is available indicates the western subarctic gyre (WSAG) is more productive than the eastern subarctic gyre (ESAG). In summer the WSAG supports a greater density and higher biomass of seabirds than the ESAG, including at least two species that are more abundant at nesting colonies in the eastern subarctic. Perhaps most revealing of the seabird distributions in this regard is that of southern hemisphere shearwaters ( Puffinus spp. ) that overwinter in the North Pacific. Their biomass is an order of magnitude greater than that of any northern hemisphere species and is three-fold greater in the WSAG than in the ESAG. Several species of cetaceans also appear to be, or to have been prior to commercial depletions, more abundant in the WSA. Among the many prey species consumed by marine birds and mammals, squids and fishes in the family Myctophidae predominate overall. Other forage species, notably euphausiids, Pacific saury ( Cololabis saira) and Atka mackerel ( Pleurogrammus monopterygius) are important at times to certain species. The principal exceptions to this generalization are baleen whales and small seabirds that consume zooplankton. Interannual and decadal-scale variability in the physical environment and food web production affect seabirds and marine mammals at sea and at coastal breeding locations around the margins of the gyres.

  19. Absorption and ocular deposition of dietary lutein in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Schmitt, Todd; Colitz, Carmen M H; Mazzaro, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Cataracts and ocular disease are common lesions of marine mammals in zoological collections. Lutein, an oxygenated carotenoid, may have therapeutic or prophylactic effects on ocular disorder. Therefore, this study examined the ability of marine mammals to absorb dietary lutein. Two preliminary trials examined lutein in two forms (beadlet or ester) in a small sample size of marine mammals representing pinnipeds and cetaceans. Lutein was fed daily in tablets providing 0.89-3.6 mg lutein/kg body weight(0.75) per day for 15 days to 2 years. A third study was conducted using lutein beadlet fed at 3.6 mg lutein/kg body weight(0.75) per day for 15-21 days. Blood was analyzed for lutein pre- and postsupplementation. In the preliminary trials, lutein beadlet was observed to result in greater blood lutein levels than lutein esters, and cetaceans had more noticeable responses than pinnipeds. In Study 3, serum lutein and zeaxanthin increased postsupplementation in beluga whales (P < 0.05), and serum lutein tended to increase postsupplementation in dolphins (P < 0.10), but little change was seen in serum lutein in pinnipeds or manatee. Opportunistic retinal samples demonstrated some detectable lutein in the retina of a dolphin and several harp seals. The lutein levels in dolphins after supplementation are similar to those reported in free-ranging animals. Ocular lutein in harp seals demonstrates that ocular deposition occurs despite low circulating lutein levels. PMID:22753123

  20. Marine birds and mammals of the Pacific Subarctic Gyres

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springer, A.M.; Piatt, J.F.; Shuntov, V.P.; Van Vliet, G. B.; Vladimirov, V.L.; Kuzin, A.E.; Perlov, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of the subarctic gyres of the North Pacific Ocean to marine birds and mammals is poorly known because of a paucity of data spanning appropriate scales of time and space. The little information that is available indicates the western subarctic gyre (WSAG) is more productive than the eastern subarctic gyre (ESAG). In summer the WSAG supports a greater density and higher biomass of seabirds than the ESAG, including at least two species that are more abundant at nesting colonies in the eastern subarctic. Perhaps most revealing of the seabird distributions in this regard is that of southern hemisphere shearwaters (Puffinus spp.) that overwinter in the North Pacific. Their biomass is an order of magnitude greater than that of any northern hemisphere species and is three-fold greater in the WSAG than in the ESAG. Several species of cetaceans also appear to be, or to have been prior to commercial depletions, more abundant in the WSA. Among the many prey species consumed by marine birds and mammals, squids and fishes in the family Myctophidae predominate overall. Other forage species, notably euphausiids, Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius) are important at times to certain species. The principal exceptions to this generalization are baleen whales and small seabirds that consume zooplankton. Interannual and decadal-scale variability in the physical environment and food web production affect seabirds and marine mammals at sea and at coastal breeding locations around the margins of the gyres.

  1. 75 FR 70903 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... requested from Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources...: Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division. Mail: Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle... within 60 days. Dated: November 16, 2010. David Cottingham, Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea...

  2. 77 FR 19242 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...NMFS has received an application from Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (L-DEO), a part of Columbia University, for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine geophysical survey in the central Pacific Ocean, May through June, 2012. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting......

  3. Effects of expected global climate change on marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Fields, P A; Graham, J B; Rosenblatt, R H; Somero, G N

    1993-10-01

    Anthropogenically induced global climate change is likely to have a major impact on marine ecosystems, affecting both biodiversity and productivity. These changes will, in turn, have a large impact on humankind's interactions with the sea. By examining the effects of past climate changes on the ocean, as well as by determining how shifts in physical parameters of the ocean may affect physiology, biochemistry and community interactions, scientists are beginning to explore the possible effects of global climate change on marine biota.

  4. A Late Pleistocene transgression in Thailand: A marine molluscan fauna from Ban Praksa (Samut Prakan Province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, Mauro Pietro

    2012-01-01

    A Late Pleistocene molluscan fauna sampled at Ban Praksa, near the Chao Phraya River mouth (Lower Central Plain of Bangkok, Thailand) is herein analyzed and paleoecologically characterized, revealing a shallow infralittoral, coarse/hard-bottomed environment. The comparison of the Ban Praksa association with several coeval ones recovered from Phra Pradaeng Formation seems to be evidence of a 10,000 year hiatus between two separate groups of marine faunas, possibly belonging to different interstadial transgressive peaks that occurred during the long-term sea-level regression following the Last Interglacial.

  5. Monitoring the marine environment using marine mammal tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Day, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Marine environments, both inshore and open ocean, receive numerous inputs of anthropogenic chemicals. Cetaceans provide a valuable resource for monitoring the low level contamination of marine environments with persistent organic contaminants. Comparative studies using inshore and offshore southern ocean cetaceans have revealed significant differences in the types of contamination in these two environments. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) deposited in the southern oceans are characterized by an abundance of lower chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are not present at significant concentrations in cetaceans from the open southern ocean. In contrast significant concentrations of PCDD/F congeners are detected in the blubber of the inshore living Hector`s dolphin. This species lives close to the shore and has a very small home range (approximately 30 km) for a cetacean. Analysis of tissue PCDD/F and PCB profiles from different populations and their food sources will be presented. The data are being used to determine if there are local variations in the contamination of the New Zealand inshore marine environment.

  6. 77 FR 12246 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... mammals incidental to black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) research surveys. The first of five IHAs for the specified activities was issued to VanBlaricom on September 23, 2003 (68 FR 57427; October 3, 2003); the most recent of these was issued on January 18, 2008 (73 FR 4841; January 28, 2008),...

  7. 76 FR 34157 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... mammals, including: The North Atlantic right whale; blue whale; fin whale; sei whale; minke whale... species. Of the species listed here, the North Atlantic right, blue, fin, sei, humpback, and sperm whales... of their rarity in the Massachusetts Bay area (blue whale, sperm whale, harp seal, hooded...

  8. 78 FR 51147 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ..., not NMFS. The goals of the workshop, as stated in the Web site of the workshop, were to (1) Review and... mammals in the Chukchi Sea are discussed in the Federal Register (78 FR 35508; June 12, 2013) notice for... in the Federal Register (78 FR 35508; June 12, 2013) notice for the proposed IHA. No changes...

  9. 75 FR 32379 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... mammals, readers are encouraged to review NMFS' response to comments on this matter found in 69 FR 74905 (December 14, 2004), 71 FR 43112 (July 31, 2006), 71 FR 50027 (August 24, 2006), and 71 FR 49418 (August 23... of 26 active airguns in 13 clusters. The difference in discharge volume would lead to an...

  10. 78 FR 52135 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... AFB, published in the Federal Register on June 4, 2013 (78 FR 33357). During the 30-day public comment... mammal takes was fully explained in the IHA application, the Notice of Proposed IHA (78 FR 33357, June 4..., and those straddling the 200 meter isobath were clipped to remove deep water areas. In...

  11. 76 FR 7580 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... sport- hunted trophy of one male bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus pygargus) culled from a captive herd... Mammals and Marine Mammals Applicant: U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, AK;...

  12. Consumption by marine mammals on the Northeast U.S. continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laurel A; Link, Jason S; Cadrin, Steven X; Palka, Debra L

    2015-03-01

    The economic and ecological impacts of fish consumption by marine mammals, the associated interactions with commercial fish stocks, and the forage demands of these marine mammal populations are largely unknown. Consumption estimates are often either data deficient or not fully evaluated in a rigorous, quantitative manner. Although consumption estimates exist for the Northeast United States (NEUS) Large Marine Ecosystem, there is considerable uncertainty in those estimates. We examined consumption estimates for 12 marine mammal species inhabiting the regional ecosystem. We used sensitivity analyses to examine metabolically driven daily individual consumption rates, resulting in a suite of feasible parameter-pair ranges for each of three taxonomic groups: mysticetes, odontocetes, and pinnipeds. We expanded daily individual consumption to annual consumption based on abundance estimates of marine mammals found on the NEUS continental shelf coupled with estimates of annual residence time for each species. To examine consumptive removals for specific prey, diet compositions were summarized into major prey categories, and predatory removals by marine mammal species as well as for total marine mammal consumption were estimated for each prey taxa. Bounds on consumption estimates for each marine mammal species were determined using Monte Carlo resampling simulations. Our results suggest that consumption for these 12 marine mammal species combined may be similar in magnitude to commercial fishery landings for small pelagic and groundfish prey groups. Consumption by marine mammals warrants consideration both as a source of mortality in assessments of prey-stocks, and to determine marine mammal forage demands in ecosystem assessment models. The approach that we present represents a rigorous, quantitative method to scope the bounds of the biomass that marine mammals are expected to consume, and is appropriate for use in other ecosystems where the interaction between marine

  13. Consumption by marine mammals on the Northeast U.S. continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laurel A; Link, Jason S; Cadrin, Steven X; Palka, Debra L

    2015-03-01

    The economic and ecological impacts of fish consumption by marine mammals, the associated interactions with commercial fish stocks, and the forage demands of these marine mammal populations are largely unknown. Consumption estimates are often either data deficient or not fully evaluated in a rigorous, quantitative manner. Although consumption estimates exist for the Northeast United States (NEUS) Large Marine Ecosystem, there is considerable uncertainty in those estimates. We examined consumption estimates for 12 marine mammal species inhabiting the regional ecosystem. We used sensitivity analyses to examine metabolically driven daily individual consumption rates, resulting in a suite of feasible parameter-pair ranges for each of three taxonomic groups: mysticetes, odontocetes, and pinnipeds. We expanded daily individual consumption to annual consumption based on abundance estimates of marine mammals found on the NEUS continental shelf coupled with estimates of annual residence time for each species. To examine consumptive removals for specific prey, diet compositions were summarized into major prey categories, and predatory removals by marine mammal species as well as for total marine mammal consumption were estimated for each prey taxa. Bounds on consumption estimates for each marine mammal species were determined using Monte Carlo resampling simulations. Our results suggest that consumption for these 12 marine mammal species combined may be similar in magnitude to commercial fishery landings for small pelagic and groundfish prey groups. Consumption by marine mammals warrants consideration both as a source of mortality in assessments of prey-stocks, and to determine marine mammal forage demands in ecosystem assessment models. The approach that we present represents a rigorous, quantitative method to scope the bounds of the biomass that marine mammals are expected to consume, and is appropriate for use in other ecosystems where the interaction between marine

  14. Annual report of the Marine Mammal Commission, calendar year 1992. Report to the Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-31

    This is the 20th Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors on Marine Mammals. The Commission was established under Title II of the Marine Mammal Protection Act to provide an independent source of guidance on Federal activities and policies, both domestic and international, affecting marine mammal protection and conservation. Each year, the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors devote particular attention to marine mammal species or populations that are or may be in jeopardy. Chapter III describes efforts to conserve: sea otters in California and Alaska; Steller sea lions; Hawaiian monk seals; harbor seals; northern fur seals; Pacific walruses; northern right whales; humpback whales; gray whales; bowhead whales; harbor porpoises; vaquitas or Gulf of California harbor porpoises; bottlenose dolphins; killer whales; and polar bears. Activities related to West Indian manatees, Hawaiian monk seals, vaquitas, and gray whales are summarized.

  15. Influenza A virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores.

    PubMed

    Harder, Timm C; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Vahlenkamp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV), members of the Orthomyxoviridae, cover a wide host spectrum comprising a plethora of avian and, in comparison, a few mammalian species. The viral reservoir and gene pool are kept in metapopulations of aquatic wild birds. The mammalian-adapted IAVs originally arose by transspecies transmission from avian sources. In swine, horse and man, species-adapted IAV lineages circulate independently of the avian reservoir and cause predominantly respiratory disease of highly variable severity. Sporadic outbreaks of IAV infections associated with pneumonic clinical signs have repeatedly occurred in marine mammals (harbour seals [Phoca vitulina]) off the New England coast of the U.S.A. due to episodic transmission of avian IAV. However, no indigenous marine mammal IAV lineages are described. In contrast to marine mammals, avian- and equine-derived IAVs have formed stable circulating lineages in terrestrial carnivores: IAVs of subtype H3N2 and H3N8 are found in canine populations in South Korea, China, and the U.S.A. Experimental infections revealed that dogs and cats can be infected with an even wider range of avian IAVs. Cats, in particular, also proved susceptible to native infection with human pandemic H1N1 viruses and, according to serological data, may be vulnerable to infection with further human-adapted IAVs. Ferrets are susceptible to a variety of avian and mammalian IAVs and are an established animal model of human IAV infection. Thus, a potential role of pet cats, dogs and ferrets as mediators of avian-derived viruses to the human population does exist. A closer observation for influenza virus infections and transmissions at this animal-human interface is indicated. PMID:24511825

  16. Influenza A virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores.

    PubMed

    Harder, Timm C; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Vahlenkamp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV), members of the Orthomyxoviridae, cover a wide host spectrum comprising a plethora of avian and, in comparison, a few mammalian species. The viral reservoir and gene pool are kept in metapopulations of aquatic wild birds. The mammalian-adapted IAVs originally arose by transspecies transmission from avian sources. In swine, horse and man, species-adapted IAV lineages circulate independently of the avian reservoir and cause predominantly respiratory disease of highly variable severity. Sporadic outbreaks of IAV infections associated with pneumonic clinical signs have repeatedly occurred in marine mammals (harbour seals [Phoca vitulina]) off the New England coast of the U.S.A. due to episodic transmission of avian IAV. However, no indigenous marine mammal IAV lineages are described. In contrast to marine mammals, avian- and equine-derived IAVs have formed stable circulating lineages in terrestrial carnivores: IAVs of subtype H3N2 and H3N8 are found in canine populations in South Korea, China, and the U.S.A. Experimental infections revealed that dogs and cats can be infected with an even wider range of avian IAVs. Cats, in particular, also proved susceptible to native infection with human pandemic H1N1 viruses and, according to serological data, may be vulnerable to infection with further human-adapted IAVs. Ferrets are susceptible to a variety of avian and mammalian IAVs and are an established animal model of human IAV infection. Thus, a potential role of pet cats, dogs and ferrets as mediators of avian-derived viruses to the human population does exist. A closer observation for influenza virus infections and transmissions at this animal-human interface is indicated.

  17. Understanding the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance for Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Harwood, John; King, Stephanie; Booth, Cormac; Donovan, Carl; Schick, Robert S; Thomas, Len; New, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Loud anthropogenic underwater noise, such as that associated with sonar operations, pile driving, or seismic surveys, can cause behavioral and physiological disturbance to many animals that may affect their survival or ability to breed. However, no formal framework for assessing the population-level consequences of this disturbance is currently available. We describe an interim version of a framework developed by a working group on the population consequences of disturbance, funded by the US Office of Naval Research through the University of California, that can be used to assess the effects of offshore renewable energy developments on marine mammal populations. PMID:26610986

  18. Understanding the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance for Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Harwood, John; King, Stephanie; Booth, Cormac; Donovan, Carl; Schick, Robert S; Thomas, Len; New, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Loud anthropogenic underwater noise, such as that associated with sonar operations, pile driving, or seismic surveys, can cause behavioral and physiological disturbance to many animals that may affect their survival or ability to breed. However, no formal framework for assessing the population-level consequences of this disturbance is currently available. We describe an interim version of a framework developed by a working group on the population consequences of disturbance, funded by the US Office of Naval Research through the University of California, that can be used to assess the effects of offshore renewable energy developments on marine mammal populations.

  19. 76 FR 33705 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Register (76 FR 18167) disclosing the effects on marine mammals, making preliminary determinations and... for the proposed IHA (76 FR 18167, April 1, 2011). The activities to be conducted have not changed... reader should refer to the proposed IHA notice (76 FR 18167, April 1, 2011), the IHA application...

  20. 75 FR 64996 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... 21 species of marine mammals. These species include: Bryde's whale; blue whale; sperm whale; humpback... blue (Balaenoptera musculus) whales. NMFS has presented a more detailed discussion of the status of... whale, blue whale, Mesoplodon spp., rough-toothed, bottlenose, pantropical spotted, spinner,...

  1. 76 FR 20325 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 6430) disclosing the effects on marine mammals, making preliminary... outlined the purpose of the program in a previous notice for the proposed IHA (76 FR 6430, February 4, 2011... vessel and acoustic source specifications, the reader should refer to the proposed IHA notice (76 FR...

  2. 77 FR 6065 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... subducting and bending Pacific plate. The objective is to understand the water cycle within subduction-zone... notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 8652) with preliminary determinations and a proposed IHA. Ship... the Federal Register (76 FR 77782) disclosing the effects on marine mammals, making...

  3. Simple measures reduce marine mammal injuries during platform removal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-12

    The US National Research Council's Marine Board predicts that, between 1990 and 2000, 100--130 oil production platforms will be removed around the world. Through his research at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History in Santa Barbara, Calif., Dr. Charles D. Woodhouse has developed a set of simple guidelines that can prevent injury to marine mammals during such activities. In an unpublished study, Woodhouse reports that the information base regarding animal deaths and injuries caused by underwater explosions and other activities is probably sufficient to assess the impacts related to the abandonment and removal of offshore structures. The paper discusses the affected species, explosives use, abandonment versus removal, and mitigation of effects.

  4. 77 FR 73434 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... IHA to Apache for their first season of seismic acquisition in Cook Inlet (77 FR 27720). Except for... densities or deeper waters (76 FR 20180, April 11, 2011). Cetaceans Beluga Whales--Cook Inlet beluga whales... acoustic research in Cook Inlet by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game and the National Marine...

  5. 78 FR 47495 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Register on May 14, 2012 (78 FR 28412). That notice described, in detail, Shell's proposed activity, the... serious injury (60 FR 28381, May 31, 1995). A private citizen further states that the marine survey is... limited to only those that may involve non-serious injury (60 FR 28379; May 31, 1995). While the...

  6. 77 FR 40007 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... of 3D seismic images requires the deployment of many parallel cables spaced close together over the... on May 1, 2012 (77 FR 25830). That notice described, in detail, BP's proposed activity, the marine... that the language is consistent with that referenced in the main body of the Federal Register...

  7. 77 FR 27283 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...) for the onset of Level B harassment from pulsed sound sources. The Notice of Proposed IHA (76 FR 68974... harassment. Bowheads may engage in avoidance behavior preventing their exposure to these levels of sound, and...; issuance of an incidental harassment authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine...

  8. 78 FR 20800 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... animal(s). PSOs will be on watch at all times during daylight hours when in water operations are being... permissible) sufficient for discernment of moving targets at the water's surface with ability to estimate... Deepwater Port in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  9. 77 FR 23547 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Columbia River Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... April 19, 2012 Part II Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR..., April 19, 2012 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Incidental to Columbia River Crossing Project, Washington and Oregon AGENCY: National Marine...

  10. Marine mammal impacts in exploited ecosystems: would large scale culling benefit fisheries?

    PubMed

    Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy; Pauly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Competition between marine mammals and fisheries for marine resources-whether real or perceived-has become a major issue for several countries and in international fora. We examined trophic interactions between marine mammals and fisheries based on a resource overlap index, using seven Ecopath models including marine mammal groups. On a global scale, most food consumed by marine mammals consisted of prey types that were not the main target of fisheries. For each ecosystem, the primary production required (PPR) to sustain marine mammals was less than half the PPR to sustain fisheries catches. We also developed an index representing the mean trophic level of marine mammal's consumption (TL(Q)) and compared it with the mean trophic level of fisheries' catches (TL(C)). Our results showed that overall TL(Q) was lower than TL(C) (2.88 versus 3.42). As fisheries increasingly exploit lower-trophic level species, the competition with marine mammals may become more important. We used mixed trophic impact analysis to evaluate indirect trophic effects of marine mammals, and in some cases found beneficial effects on some prey. Finally, we assessed the change in the trophic structure of an ecosystem after a simulated extirpation of marine mammal populations. We found that this lead to alterations in the structure of the ecosystems, and that there was no clear and direct relationship between marine mammals' predation and the potential catch by fisheries. Indeed, total biomass, with no marine mammals in the ecosystem, generally remained surprisingly similar, or even decreased for some species.

  11. Commercial fishing and the study of marine fauna in Argentina, 1890-1930.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Susana V

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the development of commercial maritime fishing and the study of marine fauna in Argentina between the end of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century. It analyzes ichthyological research, the commercialization of fresh maritime products and the opportunities that urban markets offered for the creation of collections. It also focuses on the beginnings of deep-sea fishing, which would make it possible to capture and study new species as well as gather information about the marine environment.

  12. 78 FR 61379 - Proposed Information Collection; Incidental Take of Marine Mammals During Specified Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... their incidental taking of polar bears and Pacific walruses in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. The Marine... and Pacific walruses and the availability of those marine mammals for subsistence purposes of...

  13. Arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sue E; Huntington, Henry P

    2008-03-01

    Evolutionary selection has refined the life histories of seven species (three cetacean [narwhal, beluga, and bowhead whales], three pinniped [walrus, ringed, and bearded seals], and the polar bear) to spatial and temporal domains influenced by the seasonal extremes and variability of sea ice, temperature, and day length that define the Arctic. Recent changes in Arctic climate may challenge the adaptive capability of these species. Nine other species (five cetacean [fin, humpback, minke, gray, and killer whales] and four pinniped [harp, hooded, ribbon, and spotted seals]) seasonally occupy Arctic and subarctic habitats and may be poised to encroach into more northern latitudes and to remain there longer, thereby competing with extant Arctic species. A synthesis of the impacts of climate change on all these species hinges on sea ice, in its role as: (1) platform, (2) marine ecosystem foundation, and (3) barrier to non-ice-adapted marine mammals and human commercial activities. Therefore, impacts are categorized for: (1) ice-obligate species that rely on sea ice platforms, (2) ice-associated species that are adapted to sea ice-dominated ecosystems, and (3) seasonally migrant species for which sea ice can act as a barrier. An assessment of resilience is far more speculative, as any number of scenarios can be envisioned, most of them involving potential trophic cascades and anticipated human perturbations. Here we provide resilience scenarios for the three ice-related species categories relative to four regions defined by projections of sea ice reductions by 2050 and extant shelf oceanography. These resilience scenarios suggest that: (1) some populations of ice-obligate marine mammals will survive in two regions with sea ice refugia, while other stocks may adapt to ice-free coastal habitats, (2) ice-associated species may find suitable feeding opportunities within the two regions with sea ice refugia and, if capable of shifting among available prey, may benefit from

  14. Arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sue E; Huntington, Henry P

    2008-03-01

    Evolutionary selection has refined the life histories of seven species (three cetacean [narwhal, beluga, and bowhead whales], three pinniped [walrus, ringed, and bearded seals], and the polar bear) to spatial and temporal domains influenced by the seasonal extremes and variability of sea ice, temperature, and day length that define the Arctic. Recent changes in Arctic climate may challenge the adaptive capability of these species. Nine other species (five cetacean [fin, humpback, minke, gray, and killer whales] and four pinniped [harp, hooded, ribbon, and spotted seals]) seasonally occupy Arctic and subarctic habitats and may be poised to encroach into more northern latitudes and to remain there longer, thereby competing with extant Arctic species. A synthesis of the impacts of climate change on all these species hinges on sea ice, in its role as: (1) platform, (2) marine ecosystem foundation, and (3) barrier to non-ice-adapted marine mammals and human commercial activities. Therefore, impacts are categorized for: (1) ice-obligate species that rely on sea ice platforms, (2) ice-associated species that are adapted to sea ice-dominated ecosystems, and (3) seasonally migrant species for which sea ice can act as a barrier. An assessment of resilience is far more speculative, as any number of scenarios can be envisioned, most of them involving potential trophic cascades and anticipated human perturbations. Here we provide resilience scenarios for the three ice-related species categories relative to four regions defined by projections of sea ice reductions by 2050 and extant shelf oceanography. These resilience scenarios suggest that: (1) some populations of ice-obligate marine mammals will survive in two regions with sea ice refugia, while other stocks may adapt to ice-free coastal habitats, (2) ice-associated species may find suitable feeding opportunities within the two regions with sea ice refugia and, if capable of shifting among available prey, may benefit from

  15. The Gut Bacterial Community of Mammals from Marine and Terrestrial Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Tiffanie M.; Rogers, Tracey L.; Brown, Mark V.

    2013-01-01

    After birth, mammals acquire a community of bacteria in their gastro-intestinal tract, which harvests energy and provides nutrients for the host. Comparative studies of numerous terrestrial mammal hosts have identified host phylogeny, diet and gut morphology as primary drivers of the gut bacterial community composition. To date, marine mammals have been excluded from these comparative studies, yet they represent distinct examples of evolutionary history, diet and lifestyle traits. To provide an updated understanding of the gut bacterial community of mammals, we compared bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data generated from faecal material of 151 marine and terrestrial mammal hosts. This included 42 hosts from a marine habitat. When compared to terrestrial mammals, marine mammals clustered separately and displayed a significantly greater average relative abundance of the phylum Fusobacteria. The marine carnivores (Antarctic and Arctic seals) and the marine herbivore (dugong) possessed significantly richer gut bacterial community than terrestrial carnivores and terrestrial herbivores, respectively. This suggests that evolutionary history and dietary items specific to the marine environment may have resulted in a gut bacterial community distinct to that identified in terrestrial mammals. Finally we hypothesize that reduced marine trophic webs, whereby marine carnivores (and herbivores) feed directly on lower trophic levels, may expose this group to high levels of secondary metabolites and influence gut microbial community richness. PMID:24386245

  16. New data on mammoth fauna mammals in the central Lena River basin (Yakutia, Lenskie Stolby National Nature Park and adjacent areas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeskorov, G. G.; Nogovitsyn, P. R.; Mashchenko, E. N.; Belolyubsky, I. N.; Stepanov, A. D.; Plotnikov, V. V.; Protopopov, A. V.; Shchelchkova, M. V.; van der Plicht, J.; Solomonov, N. G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers the data on new findings of mammoth fauna remains in the Middle Lena basin used to specify the species composition of large Late Neopleistocene mammals represented by eleven species. The obtained range of radiocarbon dates made it possible to state that mass burials of Pleistocene mammal remains were formed in the region during the Karginsk Interstadial (24 000-55 000 years ago).

  17. Genus age, provincial area and the taxonomic structure of marine faunas

    PubMed Central

    Harnik, Paul G.; Jablonski, David; Krug, Andrew Z.; Valentine, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Species are unevenly distributed among genera within clades and regions, with most genera species-poor and few species-rich. At regional scales, this structure to taxonomic diversity is generated via speciation, extinction and geographical range dynamics. Here, we use a global database of extant marine bivalves to characterize the taxonomic structure of climate zones and provinces. Our analyses reveal a general, Zipf–Mandelbrot form to the distribution of species among genera, with faunas from similar climate zones exhibiting similar taxonomic structure. Provinces that contain older taxa and/or encompass larger areas are expected to be more species-rich. Although both median genus age and provincial area correlate with measures of taxonomic structure, these relationships are interdependent, nonlinear and driven primarily by contrasts between tropical and extra-tropical faunas. Provincial area and taxonomic structure are largely decoupled within climate zones. Counter to the expectation that genus age and species richness should positively covary, diverse and highly structured provincial faunas are dominated by young genera. The marked differences between tropical and temperate faunas suggest strong spatial variation in evolutionary rates and invasion frequencies. Such variation contradicts biogeographic models that scale taxonomic diversity to geographical area. PMID:20534619

  18. Genus age, provincial area and the taxonomic structure of marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Harnik, Paul G; Jablonski, David; Krug, Andrew Z; Valentine, James W

    2010-11-22

    Species are unevenly distributed among genera within clades and regions, with most genera species-poor and few species-rich. At regional scales, this structure to taxonomic diversity is generated via speciation, extinction and geographical range dynamics. Here, we use a global database of extant marine bivalves to characterize the taxonomic structure of climate zones and provinces. Our analyses reveal a general, Zipf-Mandelbrot form to the distribution of species among genera, with faunas from similar climate zones exhibiting similar taxonomic structure. Provinces that contain older taxa and/or encompass larger areas are expected to be more species-rich. Although both median genus age and provincial area correlate with measures of taxonomic structure, these relationships are interdependent, nonlinear and driven primarily by contrasts between tropical and extra-tropical faunas. Provincial area and taxonomic structure are largely decoupled within climate zones. Counter to the expectation that genus age and species richness should positively covary, diverse and highly structured provincial faunas are dominated by young genera. The marked differences between tropical and temperate faunas suggest strong spatial variation in evolutionary rates and invasion frequencies. Such variation contradicts biogeographic models that scale taxonomic diversity to geographical area. PMID:20534619

  19. Selected marine mammals of Alaska: species accounts with research and management recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This book is the result of a need seen by the Marine Mammal Commission for a current summary of the biology and status of ten species of Alaskan marine mammals, including recommendations for research and management. Its purpose is to serve as a reference and working document as conservation and management plans are developed and implemented for the ten species.

  20. 76 FR 71940 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Physical Oceanographic Studies in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ...NMFS has received an application from the United States Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting physical oceanographic studies in the southwest Indian Ocean, January through February, 2012. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to the......

  1. 77 FR 11493 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Eastern U.S. stock of Steller sea lions (75 FR 81972). Along with issuing the permit, NMFS made a final... of Steller sea lions (December 29, 2010; 75 FR 81972). Recovery Plans A Recovery Plan for Steller sea... Marine Mammals Incidental to Fishing Operations Fishery Category Marine mammal stock HI deep-set...

  2. 77 FR 3233 - National Policy for Distinguishing Serious From Non-Serious Injuries of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Directives may also be requested from Chief, Division of Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation, Office of...: Chief, Division of Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation, Office of Protected Resources, (301) 427... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 3233] [FR...

  3. 76 FR 42116 - National Policy for Distinguishing Serious From Non-Serious Injuries of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...) Mail: Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Attn: Policy for distinguishing... need for a nationally consistent and transparent process for effective conservation of marine mammal... conservation management regimes (e.g., MMPA List of Fisheries (LOF), take reduction plans (TRP), ship...

  4. 76 FR 79157 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...), for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment incidental to... SGRLPS to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, four species of marine mammals during the... Commerce to authorize, upon request, the incidental, but not intentional, taking by harassment of...

  5. 75 FR 17382 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Federal Register (74 FR 58248) for the take of marine mammals incidental to Estuary water level management... notice (74 FR 58248). In summary, harbor seals are the most abundant marine mammal found at the mouth of... published on November 12, 2009 (74 FR 58248). During the 30-day public comment period, six members of...

  6. 77 FR 12010 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 1076-1789 and 14502

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... (72 FR 13092), authorized the receipt, import and export of marine mammal specimens (cetaceans and... June 17, 2011 (72 FR 13092), authorized the importation of samples from Risso's (Grampus griseus... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB040 Marine Mammals; File Nos. 1076-1789...

  7. 75 FR 42698 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Installation of Meteorological Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Mexico stock(s). Because these species are difficult to differentiate at sea, seasonal abundance...). Potential Effects on Marine Mammals NMFS has preliminarily determined that open-water impact pile driving of... throughout the world's oceans. Marine mammals produce sounds in various contexts and use sound for...

  8. [Land and marine fauna constituting a threat for recreational divers in the tropics].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-09-01

    Due to intensively growing international tourism, increasing numbers of people leave for countries with hot climates, where various threats for human health and life exist. Besides climatic and sanitary conditions, a rich fauna, represented by predators and venomous animals, can be included. Based on available world literature and their own observations, the authors present the threats that a tourist can possibly encounter whilst relaxing on the beach or during recreational diving in tropical waters. When staying in water, a large threat is posed by marine fish of prey (sharks, barracuda, muraena), Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, anemones) and venomous animals (fish, sea snakes). On land, on the other hand, a threat can be posed by venomous arthropods (scorpions, spiders) and Hymenoptera insects. The study presents the most important representatives of fauna present in coastal areas frequently visited by diving enthusiasts. Also, clinical image and conduct in the case of body injures are discussed. PMID:19112854

  9. Investigations of the marine flora and fauna of the Islands of Palau.

    PubMed

    John Faulkner, D; Newman, David J; Cragg, Gordon M

    2004-02-01

    The Islands of Palau have proven to be an excellent source of bioactive marine natural products primarily as a result of the systematic studies from the late 1970s by the research groups of Scheuer at the University of Hawaii, Faulkner at the Scripps Oceanographic Institution/University of California at San Diego, and Paul at the University of Guam. Their efforts were materially aided by the excellent facilities provided by the Government of Palau and for the last 10 years, those of the NCI's shallow water collection contractor, the Coral Reef Research Foundation. This review covers the structures and biological activities where noted, of the multitudinous marine-derived natural products isolated from the marine flora and fauna of this nation and demonstrates the enormous variety of novel structures elaborated by these organisms.

  10. Land-based infrared imagery for marine mammal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graber, Joseph; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian; Jessup, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    A land-based infrared (IR) camera is used to detect endangered Southern Resident killer whales in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. The observations are motivated by a proposed tidal energy pilot project, which will be required to monitor for environmental effects. Potential monitoring methods also include visual observation, passive acoustics, and active acoustics. The effectiveness of observations in the infrared spectrum is compared to observations in the visible spectrum to assess the viability of infrared imagery for cetacean detection and classification. Imagery was obtained at Lime Kiln Park, Washington from 7/6/10-7/9/10 using a FLIR Thermovision A40M infrared camera (7.5-14μm, 37°HFOV, 320x240 pixels) under ideal atmospheric conditions (clear skies, calm seas, and wind speed 0-4 m/s). Whales were detected during both day (9 detections) and night (75 detections) at distances ranging from 42 to 162 m. The temperature contrast between dorsal fins and the sea surface ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 °C. Differences in emissivity from sea surface to dorsal fin are shown to aid detection at high incidence angles (near grazing). A comparison to theory is presented, and observed deviations from theory are investigated. A guide for infrared camera selection based on site geometry and desired target size is presented, with specific considerations regarding marine mammal detection. Atmospheric conditions required to use visible and infrared cameras for marine mammal detection are established and compared with 2008 meteorological data for the proposed tidal energy site. Using conservative assumptions, infrared observations are predicted to provide a 74% increase in hours of possible detection, compared with visual observations.

  11. Fulfilling EU Laws to Ensure Marine Mammal Protection During Marine Renewable Construction Operations in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Sarah J; Green, Mick; Gregerson, Sarah; Weir, Caroline R

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale offshore renewable energy infrastructure construction in Scottish waters is anticipated in coming decades. An approach being pursued, with a view to preventing short-range marine mammal injury, is the introduction of additional noise sources to intentionally disturb and displace animals from renewable sites over the construction period. To date, no full and transparent consideration has been given to the long-term cost benefits of noise reduction compared with noise-inducing mitigation techniques. It has yet to be determined if the introduction of additional noise is consistent with the objectives of the EU Habitats Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  12. Fulfilling EU Laws to Ensure Marine Mammal Protection During Marine Renewable Construction Operations in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Sarah J; Green, Mick; Gregerson, Sarah; Weir, Caroline R

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale offshore renewable energy infrastructure construction in Scottish waters is anticipated in coming decades. An approach being pursued, with a view to preventing short-range marine mammal injury, is the introduction of additional noise sources to intentionally disturb and displace animals from renewable sites over the construction period. To date, no full and transparent consideration has been given to the long-term cost benefits of noise reduction compared with noise-inducing mitigation techniques. It has yet to be determined if the introduction of additional noise is consistent with the objectives of the EU Habitats Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. PMID:26610963

  13. Legacies of land use and recent climatic change: the small mammal fauna in the mountains of Utah.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Rebecca J

    2007-08-01

    Climate warming will continue alongside human modification of the landscape. Therefore, studying systems modified by land use may highlight factors that mitigate or exacerbate predicted biological responses to ongoing climate warming. Using historical museum specimen records and recent field surveys, I examine temporal patterns in the ecological dynamics of the small mammal fauna on five mountain ranges in central Utah over time intervals of 27-53 years during the past century. This landscape was heavily modified by livestock grazing early in the twentieth century and since then has witnessed a steady decline in grazing intensity. In general, at regional and landscape scales, species preferring mesic habitats increased in percent abundance, rank abundance, and rank occurrence over time. This result is opposite that predicted from regional climate trends and probably represents the recovery of forest conditions following a release over time from earlier periods of severe overgrazing. Decreased grazing intensity may thus mitigate the predicted biological effects of climatically driven environmental change for small mammals. This work also illustrates that abundance data gleaned from natural history collections can be an appropriate tool for assessing temporal changes in composition, especially when comparisons are drawn using time- and space-averaged data sets. PMID:17874375

  14. Revised age estimates for the later Paleogene mammal faunas of Egypt and Oman

    PubMed Central

    Seiffert, Erik R.

    2006-01-01

    The Jebel Qatrani Formation of northern Egypt has produced Afro-Arabia’s primary record of Paleogene mammalian evolution, including the world’s most complete remains of early anthropoid primates. Recent studies of Fayum mammals have assumed that the Jebel Qatrani Formation contains a significant Eocene component (≈150 of 340 m), and that most taxa from that succession are between 35.4 and 33.3 million years old (Ma), i.e., latest Eocene to earliest Oligocene in age. Reanalysis of the chronological evidence shared by later Paleogene strata exposed in Egypt and Oman (Taqah and Thaytiniti areas, Dhofar Province) reveals that this hypothesis is no longer tenable. Revised correlation of the Fayum and Dhofar magnetostratigraphies indicates that (i) only the lowest 48 m of the Jebel Qatrani Formation are likely to be Eocene in age; (ii) the youngest Fayum anthropoids, including well known species such as Aegyptopithecus zeuxis and Apidium phiomense, are probably between 30.2 and 29.5 Ma, ≈3–4 Ma younger than previously thought; (iii) oligopithecid anthropoids did not go extinct at the Eocene–Oligocene boundary but rather persisted for at least another 2.5 Ma; (iv) propliopithecid anthropoids first appear in the Fayum area at ≈31.5 Ma, long after the Eocene–Oligocene boundary; and (v) the youngest Fayum mammals may be only ≈1 Ma older than the 28- to 27-Ma mammals from Chilga, Ethiopia, and not 4–5 Ma older, as previously thought. Whatever gap exists in the Oligocene record of Afro-Arabian mammal evolution is now limited primarily to a poorly sampled 27- to 23-Ma window in the latest Oligocene. PMID:16549773

  15. Marine mammals harbor unique microbiotas shaped by and yet distinct from the sea

    PubMed Central

    Bik, Elisabeth M.; Costello, Elizabeth K.; Switzer, Alexandra D.; Callahan, Benjamin J.; Holmes, Susan P.; Wells, Randall S.; Carlin, Kevin P.; Jensen, Eric D.; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Relman, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals play crucial ecological roles in the oceans, but little is known about their microbiotas. Here we study the bacterial communities in 337 samples from 5 body sites in 48 healthy dolphins and 18 healthy sea lions, as well as those of adjacent seawater and other hosts. The bacterial taxonomic compositions are distinct from those of other mammals, dietary fish and seawater, are highly diverse and vary according to body site and host species. Dolphins harbour 30 bacterial phyla, with 25 of them in the mouth, several abundant but poorly characterized Tenericutes species in gastric fluid and a surprisingly paucity of Bacteroidetes in distal gut. About 70% of near-full length bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequences from dolphins are unique. Host habitat, diet and phylogeny all contribute to variation in marine mammal distal gut microbiota composition. Our findings help elucidate the factors structuring marine mammal microbiotas and may enhance monitoring of marine mammal health. PMID:26839246

  16. Marine mammals harbor unique microbiotas shaped by and yet distinct from the sea.

    PubMed

    Bik, Elisabeth M; Costello, Elizabeth K; Switzer, Alexandra D; Callahan, Benjamin J; Holmes, Susan P; Wells, Randall S; Carlin, Kevin P; Jensen, Eric D; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Relman, David A

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals play crucial ecological roles in the oceans, but little is known about their microbiotas. Here we study the bacterial communities in 337 samples from 5 body sites in 48 healthy dolphins and 18 healthy sea lions, as well as those of adjacent seawater and other hosts. The bacterial taxonomic compositions are distinct from those of other mammals, dietary fish and seawater, are highly diverse and vary according to body site and host species. Dolphins harbour 30 bacterial phyla, with 25 of them in the mouth, several abundant but poorly characterized Tenericutes species in gastric fluid and a surprisingly paucity of Bacteroidetes in distal gut. About 70% of near-full length bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequences from dolphins are unique. Host habitat, diet and phylogeny all contribute to variation in marine mammal distal gut microbiota composition. Our findings help elucidate the factors structuring marine mammal microbiotas and may enhance monitoring of marine mammal health. PMID:26839246

  17. Marine mammals harbor unique microbiotas shaped by and yet distinct from the sea.

    PubMed

    Bik, Elisabeth M; Costello, Elizabeth K; Switzer, Alexandra D; Callahan, Benjamin J; Holmes, Susan P; Wells, Randall S; Carlin, Kevin P; Jensen, Eric D; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Relman, David A

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals play crucial ecological roles in the oceans, but little is known about their microbiotas. Here we study the bacterial communities in 337 samples from 5 body sites in 48 healthy dolphins and 18 healthy sea lions, as well as those of adjacent seawater and other hosts. The bacterial taxonomic compositions are distinct from those of other mammals, dietary fish and seawater, are highly diverse and vary according to body site and host species. Dolphins harbour 30 bacterial phyla, with 25 of them in the mouth, several abundant but poorly characterized Tenericutes species in gastric fluid and a surprisingly paucity of Bacteroidetes in distal gut. About 70% of near-full length bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequences from dolphins are unique. Host habitat, diet and phylogeny all contribute to variation in marine mammal distal gut microbiota composition. Our findings help elucidate the factors structuring marine mammal microbiotas and may enhance monitoring of marine mammal health.

  18. Evolutionary dynamics at high latitudes: speciation and extinction in polar marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Crame, J Alistair

    2010-11-27

    Ecologists have long been fascinated by the flora and fauna of extreme environments. Physiological studies have revealed the extent to which lifestyle is constrained by low temperature but there is as yet no consensus on why the diversity of polar assemblages is so much lower than many tropical assemblages. The evolution of marine faunas at high latitudes has been influenced strongly by oceanic cooling during the Cenozoic and the associated onset of continental glaciations. Glaciation eradicated many shallow-water habitats, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, and the cooling has led to widespread extinction in some groups. While environmental conditions at glacial maxima would have been very different from those existing today, fossil evidence indicates that some lineages extend back well into the Cenozoic. Oscillations of the ice-sheet on Milankovitch frequencies will have periodically eradicated and exposed continental shelf habitat, and a full understanding of evolutionary dynamics at high latitude requires better knowledge of the links between the faunas of the shelf, slope and deep-sea. Molecular techniques to produce phylogenies, coupled with further palaeontological work to root these phylogenies in time, will be essential to further progress.

  19. Evolutionary dynamics at high latitudes: speciation and extinction in polar marine faunas

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Andrew; Crame, J. Alistair

    2010-01-01

    Ecologists have long been fascinated by the flora and fauna of extreme environments. Physiological studies have revealed the extent to which lifestyle is constrained by low temperature but there is as yet no consensus on why the diversity of polar assemblages is so much lower than many tropical assemblages. The evolution of marine faunas at high latitudes has been influenced strongly by oceanic cooling during the Cenozoic and the associated onset of continental glaciations. Glaciation eradicated many shallow-water habitats, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, and the cooling has led to widespread extinction in some groups. While environmental conditions at glacial maxima would have been very different from those existing today, fossil evidence indicates that some lineages extend back well into the Cenozoic. Oscillations of the ice-sheet on Milankovitch frequencies will have periodically eradicated and exposed continental shelf habitat, and a full understanding of evolutionary dynamics at high latitude requires better knowledge of the links between the faunas of the shelf, slope and deep-sea. Molecular techniques to produce phylogenies, coupled with further palaeontological work to root these phylogenies in time, will be essential to further progress. PMID:20980314

  20. Indications for both host-specific and introduced genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Cornelis E; Boelens, Hélène A M; van Belkum, Alex; Foster, Geoffrey; Kuiken, Thijs

    2012-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is present in the marine environment and causes disease in marine mammals. To determine whether marine mammals are colonized by host-specific strains or by strains originating from other species, we performed multi-locus sequence typing on ten S. aureus strains isolated from marine mammals in the U.K., the Netherlands, and the Antarctic. Four new sequence types of S. aureus were discovered. S. aureus strains from a southern elephant seal (n=1) and harbour porpoises (n=2) did not cluster with known S. aureus strains, suggesting that they may be host species-specific. In contrast, S. aureus strains from harbour seals (n=3), other harbour porpoises (n=3), and a grey seal (n=1) clustered with S. aureus strains previously isolated from domestic ruminants, humans, or birds, suggesting that these S. aureus strains in marine mammals were introduced from terrestrial species. PMID:22112853

  1. A molecular forensic method for identifying species composition of processed marine mammal meats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Yao, Chiou-Ju; Yu, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Yun-Chih; Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2014-03-01

    We used universal primers designed for the cytochrome oxidase I (CO I) sequence of the order Cetacea and the family Phocidae to prove that meat fritters sold in Taiwan contained meat from two seal, six cetacean, and one pig species. The sequence information for CO I obtained in this study was limited and population genetics data for the eight sampled marine mammalian species was insufficient to deduce where these marine mammals were hunted. Regardless of the geographic origins of the marine mammal flesh, sale and consumption of marine mammals in Taiwan violates the Wildlife Conservation Act. This study provides PCR primers that could enable government testing of suspect meats to curtail the illegal trade in marine mammal products.

  2. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal

    PubMed Central

    Tift, Michael S.; Ponganis, Paul J.; Crocker, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from heme-proteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. The mean (±s.e.m.) value in adult seals was 8.7±0.3% (N=6), while juveniles and pups (with lower heme-protein contents) had lower mean COHb values of 7.6±0.2% and 7.1±0.3%, respectively (N=9 and N=9, respectively). Serial samples over several hours revealed little to no fluctuation in COHb values. This consistent elevation in COHb suggests that the magnitude and/or rate of heme-protein turnover is much higher than in terrestrial mammals. The maximum COHb values from this study decrease total body O2 stores by 7%, thereby reducing the calculated aerobic dive limit for this species. However, the constant presence of elevated CO in blood may also protect against potential ischemia–reperfusion injury associated with the extreme breath-holds of elephant seals. We suggest the elephant seal represents an ideal model for understanding the potential cytoprotective effects, mechanisms of action and evolutionary adaptation associated with chronically elevated concentrations of endogenously produced CO. PMID:24829326

  3. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal.

    PubMed

    Tift, Michael S; Ponganis, Paul J; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-05-15

    Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from heme-proteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. The mean (± s.e.m.) value in adult seals was 8.7 ± 0.3% (N=6), while juveniles and pups (with lower heme-protein contents) had lower mean COHb values of 7.6 ± 0.2% and 7.1 ± 0.3%, respectively (N=9 and N=9, respectively). Serial samples over several hours revealed little to no fluctuation in COHb values. This consistent elevation in COHb suggests that the magnitude and/or rate of heme-protein turnover is much higher than in terrestrial mammals. The maximum COHb values from this study decrease total body O2 stores by 7%, thereby reducing the calculated aerobic dive limit for this species. However, the constant presence of elevated CO in blood may also protect against potential ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with the extreme breath-holds of elephant seals. We suggest the elephant seal represents an ideal model for understanding the potential cytoprotective effects, mechanisms of action and evolutionary adaptation associated with chronically elevated concentrations of endogenously produced CO. PMID:24829326

  4. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal.

    PubMed

    Tift, Michael S; Ponganis, Paul J; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-05-15

    Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from heme-proteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. The mean (± s.e.m.) value in adult seals was 8.7 ± 0.3% (N=6), while juveniles and pups (with lower heme-protein contents) had lower mean COHb values of 7.6 ± 0.2% and 7.1 ± 0.3%, respectively (N=9 and N=9, respectively). Serial samples over several hours revealed little to no fluctuation in COHb values. This consistent elevation in COHb suggests that the magnitude and/or rate of heme-protein turnover is much higher than in terrestrial mammals. The maximum COHb values from this study decrease total body O2 stores by 7%, thereby reducing the calculated aerobic dive limit for this species. However, the constant presence of elevated CO in blood may also protect against potential ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with the extreme breath-holds of elephant seals. We suggest the elephant seal represents an ideal model for understanding the potential cytoprotective effects, mechanisms of action and evolutionary adaptation associated with chronically elevated concentrations of endogenously produced CO.

  5. An Anvilian (early pleistocene) marine fauna from western Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, D.M.; Rowland, R.W.; Echols, R.E.; Valentine, P.C.

    1974-01-01

    Cover sediments of the York Terrace exposed near the California River, western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, yield mollusks, ostracodes, and foraminifera that lived during the Anvilian transgression of early Pleistocene age. The fossiliferous sediments lie at the inner edge of the York Terrace, a deformed wave-cut platform that extends eastward from Bering Strait along much of the southern coast of Seward Peninsula. The seaward margin is truncated by the little-deformed Lost River Terrace, carved during the Pelukian (Sangamonian) transgression. The early Pleistocene sediments seem to have been deposited between the first and second of four glaciations for which evidence can be found in the California River area. The California River fauna includes several extinct species and several species now confined to areas as remote as the northwestern Pacific and north Atlantic. The fauna probably lived in water temperatures much like those of the present time but deeper water on the Bering Shelf is suggested. The presence of an early Pleistocene fauna at the inner edge of the York Terrace at California River shows that the terrace was largely carved before and during early Pleistocene time. However, a marine fauna apparently of middle Pleistocene age is found on the York Terrace near Cassiterite Peak, and this seems to indicate that the terrace remained low until middle Pleistocene time. Uplift of the York Terrace probably was accompanied by uplift of Bering Strait. The strait may have been deeper, and there may have been no land bridge between the Seward Peninsula of Alaksa and the Chukotka Peninsula of Siberia during most of early and middle Pleistocene time. ?? 1974.

  6. Sarmatian vertebrate marine fauna assemblage from Dacian Basin with Paratethyan affinities - a comparative case study between Buzau Land (Carpathian Foredeep) and South Dobrogea, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftode, Silvia Gabriela; Stoica, Marius

    2015-04-01

    At the Badenian/Sarmatian boundary (12.7 Ma), the Paratethys domain experienced a new moment in its evolution. Restricted connections between the Paratethys and the open seas (Mediterranean or/alternatively Indian Ocean) that occured at this boundary interval led to the decreasing of water salinity, strong faunal endemism and the onset of anoxic/disoxic conditions in the internal parts of Paratethyan Basins (like the actual Black Sea). The low oxigen bottom conditions in the Volhynian - Early Bessarabian favorised the preservation of fish and mammal marine fauna like Cetaceans, Pinnipeds and Sirenids. The purpose of this study is to compare both areas - Buzău Land and South Dobrogea, Romania taking into account the palaecological changes in the Eastern Paratethys Basin. This aspect can be very well noticed in the Carpathian Foredeep zone (Buzău - Rîmnicului - Milcov Valleys, Buzău Land) where fish and cetaceans (Cetotherium sp.) remains are frequent in thick sandstone and blackish shale deposits. Several terrestrial mammal remains were also found in Kherssonian (the late Sarmatian - senso lato) terrestrial deposits, related to a regressive moment. In South Dobrogea we have studied Lower Bessarabian deposits formed in shallow marginal facies, close to the shoreline or around small islands. The littoral sandy facies preserved a rich fossil assemblage composed of seal and marine birds remains. Vertebrate marine fauna dominated by pinnipeds - Phoca pontica, cetaceans - Delphinidae, Cetotheriidae, teleost fish and pelagic birds were also found near Credința and Ciobănița localities. Based on the fossil assemblage found so far in the Lower Bessarabian formations from Buzău Land and South Dobrogea, the environments were similar in both areas. Part of the research leading to these results has received funding from EEA Financial Mecanism 2009 - 2014 under the GeoSust project contract no 22 SEE/30.06.2014.

  7. The tardigrade fauna of Australian marine caves: with descriptions of nine new species of Arthrotardigrada.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Aslak; Boesgaard, Tom M; Møbjerg, Nadja; Kristensen, Reinhardt M

    2014-05-28

    Marine caves are known to support a rich macrofauna; however, few studies have focused on meiofauna. Marine cave meiofaunal tardigrades have been reported from Japan and the Mediterranean Sea and a preliminary list of species including a redescription of Actinarctus neretinus Grimaldi de Zio, D'Addabbo Gallo, Morone De Lucia, Vaccarella and Grimaldi, 1982 was reported from Fish Rock Cave and Jim's Cave on the coast of Australia. This study is the fourth in a series describing the unique meiofauna in two Australian submarine caves located off the coast of New South Wales, describing nine new species.        Only 67 tardigrades were collected from the two caves, yet these contained a high diversity of at least 16 different species which are quite different in the two caves. The fauna includes nine arthrotardigrade genera: Actinarctus, Batillipes, Dipodarctus, Halechiniscus, Raiarctus, Styraconyx, Tanarctus, Tholoarctus, and Wingstrandarctus. This fauna is different from that reported for the high energy beaches along the East Coast of Australia.        We describe nine new species comprising a single batillipedid and eight halechiniscids: Batillipes solitarius nov. sp., Dipodarctus australiensis nov. sp., Dipodarctus susannae nov. sp., Raiarctus jesperi nov. sp., Raiarctus katrinae nov. sp., Tanarctus hirsutospinosus nov. sp., Tholoarctus oleseni nov. sp., Wingstrandarctus stinae nov. sp. and Wingstrandarctus unsculptus nov. sp.

  8. The tardigrade fauna of Australian marine caves: with descriptions of nine new species of Arthrotardigrada.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Aslak; Boesgaard, Tom M; Møbjerg, Nadja; Kristensen, Reinhardt M

    2014-01-01

    Marine caves are known to support a rich macrofauna; however, few studies have focused on meiofauna. Marine cave meiofaunal tardigrades have been reported from Japan and the Mediterranean Sea and a preliminary list of species including a redescription of Actinarctus neretinus Grimaldi de Zio, D'Addabbo Gallo, Morone De Lucia, Vaccarella and Grimaldi, 1982 was reported from Fish Rock Cave and Jim's Cave on the coast of Australia. This study is the fourth in a series describing the unique meiofauna in two Australian submarine caves located off the coast of New South Wales, describing nine new species.        Only 67 tardigrades were collected from the two caves, yet these contained a high diversity of at least 16 different species which are quite different in the two caves. The fauna includes nine arthrotardigrade genera: Actinarctus, Batillipes, Dipodarctus, Halechiniscus, Raiarctus, Styraconyx, Tanarctus, Tholoarctus, and Wingstrandarctus. This fauna is different from that reported for the high energy beaches along the East Coast of Australia.        We describe nine new species comprising a single batillipedid and eight halechiniscids: Batillipes solitarius nov. sp., Dipodarctus australiensis nov. sp., Dipodarctus susannae nov. sp., Raiarctus jesperi nov. sp., Raiarctus katrinae nov. sp., Tanarctus hirsutospinosus nov. sp., Tholoarctus oleseni nov. sp., Wingstrandarctus stinae nov. sp. and Wingstrandarctus unsculptus nov. sp. PMID:24871022

  9. Monitoring Seabirds and Marine Mammals by Georeferenced Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, G.; Weidauer, A.; Coppack, T.

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species. The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers. Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher (safer) flight altitudes (beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines) have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost. At a flight altitude of 425 m, a focal length of 110 mm, implemented forward motion compensation (FMC) and exposure times ranging between 1/1600 and 1/1000 s, the twin-camera system generates high quality 16 bit RGB images with a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 2 cm and an image footprint of 155 x 410 m. The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by purpose-programmed software

  10. Lifetime pharmacokinetic model for hydrophobic contaminants in marine mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Hickie, B.E.; Mackay, D.; Koning, J. de

    1999-11-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model is developed that describes the uptake and release of a hydrophobic organic chemical by a marine mammal over its entire lifetime, i.e., from birth to death. This model is applied to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). The processes treated are growth; uptake from food, milk, and air; disposition of the chemical among arterial and venous blood, liver, muscle, blubber, and rapidly perfused tissues; and losses by metabolism, release in exhaled air; and by egestion. A separate model is developed for females, which includes pregnancy, birth, and lactation. Food consumption is deduced from size, growth, and from activity-dependent bioenergetic data. The results obtained by simulating continuous PCB exposure over a 30-year period are in accordance with reported concentrations and show the importance of milk transfer to both mother and progeny and the tendency for continued accumulation over the animal's lifetime. Implications of the results are discussed, especially the need for improved data on diets, gut absorption characteristics, and various physiological parameters used in the model.

  11. Factors which influence acoustic surveys of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Tracey L.; Ciaglia, Michaela B.; Cato, Douglas H.

    2005-09-01

    Traditionally, many marine mammal populations have been estimated by visual surveys. These count the animals that are available-either seals hauled-out on the ice or whales at the water's surface. Corrections are then made to include the animals that were not seen either because they were in (seals) or under (whales) the water. However when the majority of the animals in a population are not available to a visual survey this approach may be less effective. So we investigated whether acoustic surveys offered promise for estimating the distribution and abundance of Antarctic pack-ice seals. Four acoustic surveys were conducted (October 1996, 1997; December 1997, 1999) between longitudes 600E and 1500E. Surveys were bounded to the south by fast-ice, shelf-ice or the Antarctic continent and to the north by the edge of the pack-ice. No crabeater seals were heard. Leopard and Ross seals were highly vociferous in December coinciding with their breeding season. To predict the area surveyed we modeled transmission loss and measurements of received background levels. To identify the number of seals calling we modeled calling behavior. A preliminary estimate of 0.13 male leopard seals/km2 was calculated which is in the high-density range described from the literature.

  12. A source separation approach to enhancing marine mammal vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Gur, M Berke; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    A common problem in passive acoustic based marine mammal monitoring is the contamination of vocalizations by a noise source, such as a surface vessel. The conventional approach in improving the vocalization signal to noise ratio (SNR) is to suppress the unwanted noise sources by beamforming the measurements made using an array. In this paper, an alternative approach to multi-channel underwater signal enhancement is proposed. Specifically, a blind source separation algorithm that extracts the vocalization signal from two-channel noisy measurements is derived and implemented. The proposed algorithm uses a robust decorrelation criterion to separate the vocalization from background noise, and hence is suitable for low SNR measurements. To overcome the convergence limitations resulting from temporally correlated recordings, the supervised affine projection filter update rule is adapted to the unsupervised source separation framework. The proposed method is evaluated using real West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) vocalizations and watercraft emitted noise measurements made within a typical manatee habitat in Florida. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm can improve the detection range of a passive acoustic detector five times on average (for input SNR between -10 and 5 dB) using only two receivers. PMID:20000920

  13. Model-based localization and tracking of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abawi, Ahmad T.; Porter, Michael B.; Siderius, Martin; Hildebrand, John; Wiggins, Sean

    2001-05-01

    Data from the August 2003 experiment conducted by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Southern California Offshore Range (SCORE) are used to localize and track marine mammals. SCORE is a naval training area near the island of San Clemente located in relatively shallow water. The water depth where the experiment was conducted is around 360 m. Data were recorded on a 100-m, eight-element vertical array deployed from the Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP) and four bottom-mounted seismometers deployed in an area covering approximately three square kilometers. During the course of the 7-day experiment continuous recording of the ocean environment was made. The recordings contain numerous blue and fin whale calls. Matched field processing was used on the vertical array data to localize and track singing whales. The differences between different animal calls (extended, low frequency calls in the case of blue whales and short, impulsive calls in the case of fin whales) are exploited to track different animal species. Animals were also independently tracked by comparing the predicted (computed using a propagation model) and measured difference in time of arrival recorded in each seismometer pairs. The tracking results obtained from the two techniques are compared.

  14. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  15. 78 FR 54867 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, Level A Stranding and Rehabilitation Disposition Data...

  16. The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Joe; McCarthy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×104 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward “whale pump” played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities. PMID:20949007

  17. 77 FR 35657 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16163, 16160, and 15569

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... FR 213) that a request for permits to conduct research on marine mammals had been submitted by the... Party) , P.O. Box 945, Friday Harbor, WA 98250; and The Center for Whale Research (CWR; Kenneth...

  18. Stress physiology in marine mammals: how well do they fit the terrestrial model?

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Shannon; Crocker, Daniel; Houser, Dorian; Mashburn, Kendall

    2015-07-01

    Stressors are commonly accepted as the causal factors, either internal or external, that evoke physiological responses to mediate the impact of the stressor. The majority of research on the physiological stress response, and costs incurred to an animal, has focused on terrestrial species. This review presents current knowledge on the physiology of the stress response in a lesser studied group of mammals, the marine mammals. Marine mammals are an artificial or pseudo grouping from a taxonomical perspective, as this group represents several distinct and diverse orders of mammals. However, they all are fully or semi-aquatic animals and have experienced selective pressures that have shaped their physiology in a manner that differs from terrestrial relatives. What these differences are and how they relate to the stress response is an efflorescent topic of study. The identification of the many facets of the stress response is critical to marine mammal management and conservation efforts. Anthropogenic stressors in marine ecosystems, including ocean noise, pollution, and fisheries interactions, are increasing and the dramatic responses of some marine mammals to these stressors have elevated concerns over the impact of human-related activities on a diverse group of animals that are difficult to monitor. This review covers the physiology of the stress response in marine mammals and places it in context of what is known from research on terrestrial mammals, particularly with respect to mediator activity that diverges from generalized terrestrial models. Challenges in conducting research on stress physiology in marine mammals are discussed and ways to overcome these challenges in the future are suggested.

  19. Stress physiology in marine mammals: how well do they fit the terrestrial model?

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Shannon; Crocker, Daniel; Houser, Dorian; Mashburn, Kendall

    2015-07-01

    Stressors are commonly accepted as the causal factors, either internal or external, that evoke physiological responses to mediate the impact of the stressor. The majority of research on the physiological stress response, and costs incurred to an animal, has focused on terrestrial species. This review presents current knowledge on the physiology of the stress response in a lesser studied group of mammals, the marine mammals. Marine mammals are an artificial or pseudo grouping from a taxonomical perspective, as this group represents several distinct and diverse orders of mammals. However, they all are fully or semi-aquatic animals and have experienced selective pressures that have shaped their physiology in a manner that differs from terrestrial relatives. What these differences are and how they relate to the stress response is an efflorescent topic of study. The identification of the many facets of the stress response is critical to marine mammal management and conservation efforts. Anthropogenic stressors in marine ecosystems, including ocean noise, pollution, and fisheries interactions, are increasing and the dramatic responses of some marine mammals to these stressors have elevated concerns over the impact of human-related activities on a diverse group of animals that are difficult to monitor. This review covers the physiology of the stress response in marine mammals and places it in context of what is known from research on terrestrial mammals, particularly with respect to mediator activity that diverges from generalized terrestrial models. Challenges in conducting research on stress physiology in marine mammals are discussed and ways to overcome these challenges in the future are suggested. PMID:25913694

  20. Marine macrophytes directly enhance abundances of sandy beach fauna through provision of food and habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, Rebecca; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Lavery, Paul S.; Vanderklift, Mathew A.

    2007-08-01

    Beach-cast wrack is a prominent feature of beaches of south-western Australia. We examined the fauna of these beaches to explore the generalisation [Polis, G.A., Hurd, S.D., 1995. Extraordinarily high spider densities on islands: flow of energy from the marine to terrestrial food webs and the absence of predation. Ecology 92, 4382-4386] that beach-cast wrack from highly productive marine ecosystems subsidises low productivity of terrestrial ecosystems, to establish whether this generalisation is relevant to oligotrophic marine systems. We sampled three beaches with high and three beaches with low volumes of beach-cast wrack to determine if: (1) the presence of wrack influences the abundance of macroinvertebrates; (2) wrack acts as a food source for beach macroinvertebrates; and (3) the influence of wrack varies between zones above the high water mark. We measured wrack volume and composition, sediment characteristics, the abundance of different epibenthic and infaunal macroinvertebrates taxa, and δ13C and δ15N of macrophytes and macroinvertebrates. The mean volume of wrack on high-wrack beaches was 0.27-1.07 m 3 wrack m -2 compared to 0.00-0.09 m 3 wrack m -2 on low-wrack beaches. There were no significant differences in sediment grain size, moisture content or loss on ignition between the two types of beaches or zones. Epibenthic fauna and infauna were consistently abundant on high-wrack beaches (20-291 and 0.5-3.5 individuals 0.64 m -2, respectively), but either absent or extremely rare in low-wrack beaches (0-3 and 0-0.1 individuals 0.64 m -2, respectively). Within high-wrack beaches, there were no significant differences in the abundance of epifauna or infauna among beaches or between zones. The δ13C values of macroinvertebrates at all sites were most similar to red and brown algae, with the exception of beetles from two beaches, which were closest to seagrasses. Mixing model (Isosource) results for mesograzing amphipods and dipteran flies suggested carbon

  1. The evolution of cost efficient swimming in marine mammals: limits to energetic optimization

    PubMed Central

    Williams, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    Mammals re-entered the oceans less than 60 million years ago. The transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic lifestyle required extreme morphological and behavioural modifications concomitant with fundamentally different locomotor mechanisms for moving on land and through water. Energetic transport costs typically reflect such different locomotor modes, but can not be discerned from the fossil record. In this study the energetic challenges associated with changing from terrestrial to aquatic locomotion in primitive marine mammals are examined by comparing the transport, maintenance and locomotor costs of extant mammals varying in degree of aquatic specialization. The results indicate that running and swimming specialists have converged on an energetic optimum for locomotion. An allometric expression, COTTOT = 7.79 mass-0.29 (r2 = 0.83, n = 6 species), describes the total cost of transport in J kg-1m-1 for swimming marine mammals ranging in size from 21 kg to 15,000 kg. This relation is indistinguishable from that describing total transport costs in running mammals. In contrast, the transitional lifestyle of semi-aquatic mammals, similar to that of ancestral marine mammals, incurs costs that are 2.4 to 5.1 times higher than locomotor specialists. These patterns suggest that primitive marine mammals confronted an energetic hurdle before returning to costs reminiscent of their terrestrial ancestry, and may have reached an evolutionary limit for energetic optimization during swimming.

  2. Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive marine mammals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Sánchez-Okrucky, R; Dubey, J P

    2012-03-23

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Serological evidence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive marine mammals from four facilities in southern and central geographical regions in Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT, 1:25 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 55 (87.3%) of 63 Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), 3 of 3 Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus gillii), 2 of 4 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), but not in 3 West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus), and 2 Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Seropositive marine mammals were found in all 4 (100%) facilities sampled. All marine mammals were healthy and there has not been any case of clinical toxoplasmosis in the facilities sampled for at least the last 15 years. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in marine mammals of the same species did not vary significantly with respect to sex and age. This is the first report on the detection of antibodies to T. gondii in marine mammals in Mexico.

  3. Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive marine mammals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Sánchez-Okrucky, R; Dubey, J P

    2012-03-23

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Serological evidence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive marine mammals from four facilities in southern and central geographical regions in Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT, 1:25 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 55 (87.3%) of 63 Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), 3 of 3 Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus gillii), 2 of 4 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), but not in 3 West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus), and 2 Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Seropositive marine mammals were found in all 4 (100%) facilities sampled. All marine mammals were healthy and there has not been any case of clinical toxoplasmosis in the facilities sampled for at least the last 15 years. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in marine mammals of the same species did not vary significantly with respect to sex and age. This is the first report on the detection of antibodies to T. gondii in marine mammals in Mexico. PMID:21944844

  4. The Early Origin of the Antarctic Marine Fauna and Its Evolutionary Implications

    PubMed Central

    Crame, J. Alistair; Beu, Alan G.; Ineson, Jon R.; Francis, Jane E.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Bowman, Vanessa C.

    2014-01-01

    The extensive Late Cretaceous – Early Paleogene sedimentary succession of Seymour Island, N.E. Antarctic Peninsula offers an unparalleled opportunity to examine the evolutionary origins of a modern polar marine fauna. Some 38 modern Southern Ocean molluscan genera (26 gastropods and 12 bivalves), representing approximately 18% of the total modern benthic molluscan fauna, can now be traced back through at least part of this sequence. As noted elsewhere in the world, the balance of the molluscan fauna changes sharply across the Cretaceous – Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, with gastropods subsequently becoming more diverse than bivalves. A major reason for this is a significant radiation of the Neogastropoda, which today forms one of the most diverse clades in the sea. Buccinoidea is the dominant neogastropod superfamily in both the Paleocene Sobral Formation (SF) (56% of neogastropod genera) and Early - Middle Eocene La Meseta Formation (LMF) (47%), with the Conoidea (25%) being prominent for the first time in the latter. This radiation of Neogastropoda is linked to a significant pulse of global warming that reached at least 65°S, and terminates abruptly in the upper LMF in an extinction event that most likely heralds the onset of global cooling. It is also possible that the marked Early Paleogene expansion of neogastropods in Antarctica is in part due to a global increase in rates of origination following the K/Pg mass extinction event. The radiation of this and other clades at ∼65°S indicates that Antarctica was not necessarily an evolutionary refugium, or sink, in the Early – Middle Eocene. Evolutionary source – sink dynamics may have been significantly different between the Paleogene greenhouse and Neogene icehouse worlds. PMID:25493546

  5. The Early Origin of the Antarctic Marine Fauna and Its Evolutionary Implications.

    PubMed

    Crame, J Alistair; Beu, Alan G; Ineson, Jon R; Francis, Jane E; Whittle, Rowan J; Bowman, Vanessa C

    2014-01-01

    The extensive Late Cretaceous - Early Paleogene sedimentary succession of Seymour Island, N.E. Antarctic Peninsula offers an unparalleled opportunity to examine the evolutionary origins of a modern polar marine fauna. Some 38 modern Southern Ocean molluscan genera (26 gastropods and 12 bivalves), representing approximately 18% of the total modern benthic molluscan fauna, can now be traced back through at least part of this sequence. As noted elsewhere in the world, the balance of the molluscan fauna changes sharply across the Cretaceous - Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, with gastropods subsequently becoming more diverse than bivalves. A major reason for this is a significant radiation of the Neogastropoda, which today forms one of the most diverse clades in the sea. Buccinoidea is the dominant neogastropod superfamily in both the Paleocene Sobral Formation (SF) (56% of neogastropod genera) and Early - Middle Eocene La Meseta Formation (LMF) (47%), with the Conoidea (25%) being prominent for the first time in the latter. This radiation of Neogastropoda is linked to a significant pulse of global warming that reached at least 65°S, and terminates abruptly in the upper LMF in an extinction event that most likely heralds the onset of global cooling. It is also possible that the marked Early Paleogene expansion of neogastropods in Antarctica is in part due to a global increase in rates of origination following the K/Pg mass extinction event. The radiation of this and other clades at ∼65°S indicates that Antarctica was not necessarily an evolutionary refugium, or sink, in the Early - Middle Eocene. Evolutionary source - sink dynamics may have been significantly different between the Paleogene greenhouse and Neogene icehouse worlds. PMID:25493546

  6. An Analysis of Marine Mammal Self-Reports and Observer Reports from 1996-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two decades commercial fishing vessel owners have been reporting their interactions with marine mammals in accordance with Section 118 of the Marine Mammal Protection Act. The objective of this study is to analyze marine mammal fisheries interactions data from fishermen self-reports and observer reports. We analyzed self-reports from 1996 - 2014 and Pacific Islands observer data from 2001 - 2014, and Northeast observer data from 1996 - 2014. We identify trends in the national marine mammal mortality/injury (M/I) self-report dataset; identify presence of complementary reports between self-reports and observer reports; and determine the compliance rate of self-reports and observer reports. The results of the self-report analysis indicate that the Greater Atlantic Region (GAR) receives the most M/I reports of the five National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) regional offices. The rate of animals reported as killed is three times higher than the rate for animals injured. Dolphins and porpoises are the most frequently reported species and gillnets are the most frequently reported gear type. This study will provide fisheries managers a greater understanding of the effectiveness of the requirement for fishermen to report moralities and injuries of marine mammals incidentally taken during commercial fishing operations. Refinements to the Marine Mammal Authorization Program (MMAP) reporting form will provide more accurate estimates of the M/I rate of marine mammals in each region and will help address the challenges with collecting self-reported incidental take data. Furthermore, the results can be used by managers to determine if self-reporting is informative and should be continued, with form improvements made to increase accuracy, or if the corresponding observer reports serve as sufficient data by themselves.

  7. Methods to examine reproductive biology in free-ranging, fully-marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, Janet M; Burgess, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Historical overexploitation of marine mammals, combined with present-day pressures, has resulted in severely depleted populations, with many species listed as threatened or endangered. Understanding breeding patterns of threatened marine mammals is crucial to assessing population viability, potential recovery and conservation actions. However, determining reproductive parameters of wild fully-marine mammals (cetaceans and sirenians) is challenging due to their wide distributions, high mobility, inaccessible habitats, cryptic lifestyles and in many cases, large body size and intractability. Consequently, reproductive biologists employ an innovative suite of methods to collect useful information from these species. This chapter reviews historic, recent and state-of-the-art methods to examine diverse aspects of reproduction in fully-aquatic mammals.

  8. 75 FR 39206 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 87-1851 and 555-1870

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... No. 87-1851- 02, issued December 28, 2009 (75 FR 106) and Permit No. 555-1870-01, issued February 24, 2010 (75 FR 11132) is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as... hereby given that Daniel P. Costa, PhD, University of California at Santa Cruz, Long Marine...

  9. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... facilitate the collection and dissemination of reference data on marine mammals and health trends of marine... environmental trends of contaminants and other analytes of interest and that will provide the highest quality... (USFWS), US Geologic Service (USGS), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the...

  10. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... facilitate the collection and dissemination of reference data on marine mammals and health trends of marine... environmental trends of contaminants and other analytes of interest and that will provide the highest quality... (USFWS), US Geologic Service (USGS), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the...

  11. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... facilitate the collection and dissemination of reference data on marine mammals and health trends of marine... environmental trends of contaminants and other analytes of interest and that will provide the highest quality... (USFWS), US Geologic Service (USGS), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the...

  12. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... facilitate the collection and dissemination of reference data on marine mammals and health trends of marine... environmental trends of contaminants and other analytes of interest and that will provide the highest quality... (USFWS), US Geologic Service (USGS), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the...

  13. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... facilitate the collection and dissemination of reference data on marine mammals and health trends of marine... environmental trends of contaminants and other analytes of interest and that will provide the highest quality... (USFWS), US Geologic Service (USGS), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the...

  14. Ancient DNA from marine mammals: studying long-lived species over ecological and evolutionary timescales.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Phillip A

    2012-01-20

    Marine mammals have long generation times and broad, difficult to sample distributions, which makes inferring evolutionary and demographic changes using field studies of extant populations challenging. However, molecular analyses from sub-fossil or historical materials of marine mammals such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an opportunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such 'presence only' studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also discuss studies reconstructing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating for the marine reservoir effect when radiocarbon-dating such wide-ranging species. PMID:21652193

  15. Ancient DNA from marine mammals: studying long-lived species over ecological and evolutionary timescales.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Phillip A

    2012-01-20

    Marine mammals have long generation times and broad, difficult to sample distributions, which makes inferring evolutionary and demographic changes using field studies of extant populations challenging. However, molecular analyses from sub-fossil or historical materials of marine mammals such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an opportunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such 'presence only' studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also discuss studies reconstructing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating for the marine reservoir effect when radiocarbon-dating such wide-ranging species.

  16. Environmental contamination and marine mammals in coastal waters from Argentina: an overview.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, J E; Gerpe, M S; Bastida, R O; Rodríguez, D H; Morón, S G

    1994-09-16

    Environmental contamination become an increasing global problem. Different scientific strategies have been developed in order to assess the impact of pollutants on marine ecosystems. The distribution of toxic contaminants in tissues of different marine mammal species--both cetaceans and pinnipeds--has been studied in many ecosystems, as well as several related ecological processes, like pollutant accumulation or transfer through the food web. A research program directed towards evaluating the occurrence of pollutants in marine mammals from the coastal waters of Argentina (southwestern Atlantic Ocean) has been developed since 1985, and includes the study of heavy metal contents in stranded or incidentally caught animals. The marine mammal species studied during this period were: the seals Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis, and small cetaceans Tursiops gephyreus, Pontoporia blainvillei, Kogia breviceps and Ziphius cavirostris. In most of the cases, high contents of heavy metals (total mercury, cadmium, zinc, and copper) have been recorded. Moreover, liver showed the maximum capability for accumulation of heavy metals in all studied species. The biological and ecological characteristics of each species of the above-mentioned marine mammals (feeding habits, age, migratory pathways, or sex) contributed to the understanding of the metal sources. Considering the results as obtained during the study period it can be assumed that: (1) The global distribution of toxic contaminants also affects the southwestern Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, and (2) Marine mammals could be appropriate bioindicator species in order to assess this kind of environmental problem. PMID:7973603

  17. Environmental contamination and marine mammals in coastal waters from Argentina: an overview.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, J E; Gerpe, M S; Bastida, R O; Rodríguez, D H; Morón, S G

    1994-09-16

    Environmental contamination become an increasing global problem. Different scientific strategies have been developed in order to assess the impact of pollutants on marine ecosystems. The distribution of toxic contaminants in tissues of different marine mammal species--both cetaceans and pinnipeds--has been studied in many ecosystems, as well as several related ecological processes, like pollutant accumulation or transfer through the food web. A research program directed towards evaluating the occurrence of pollutants in marine mammals from the coastal waters of Argentina (southwestern Atlantic Ocean) has been developed since 1985, and includes the study of heavy metal contents in stranded or incidentally caught animals. The marine mammal species studied during this period were: the seals Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis, and small cetaceans Tursiops gephyreus, Pontoporia blainvillei, Kogia breviceps and Ziphius cavirostris. In most of the cases, high contents of heavy metals (total mercury, cadmium, zinc, and copper) have been recorded. Moreover, liver showed the maximum capability for accumulation of heavy metals in all studied species. The biological and ecological characteristics of each species of the above-mentioned marine mammals (feeding habits, age, migratory pathways, or sex) contributed to the understanding of the metal sources. Considering the results as obtained during the study period it can be assumed that: (1) The global distribution of toxic contaminants also affects the southwestern Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, and (2) Marine mammals could be appropriate bioindicator species in order to assess this kind of environmental problem.

  18. Marine mammals and ocean noise: future directions and information needs with respect to science, policy and law in Canada.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Ashe, Erin; Blight, Louise; Jasny, Michael; Nowlan, Linda

    2014-09-15

    Marine mammals are ecologically and culturally important species, and various countries have specific legislation to protect the welfare of individual marine mammals and the conservation of their populations. Anthropogenic noise represents a particular challenge for conservation and management. There is a large and growing body of research to support the conclusion that anthropogenic noise can affect marine mammal behavior, energetics, and physiology. The legal, policy, and management issues surrounding marine mammals and noise are similarly complex. Our objective is twofold. First, we discuss how policy and legal frameworks in Canada have some important differences from other jurisdictions covered in previous reviews, and provide a useful general case study. Secondly, we highlight some priority research areas that will improve marine mammal conservation and management. Our examples focus on the research needed to meet stated conservation objectives for marine mammal species in waters under Canadian jurisdiction.

  19. 75 FR 28236 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13602

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... No. 13602, issued on September 4, 2009 (74 FR 46569), authorizes the permit holder to conduct.... Terrie Williams, Long Marine Lab, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California at Santa...

  20. Determining Effects of Diagenesis on Geochemical Dating of Plio-Pleistocene Shallow Marine Fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandstrom, R. M.; Cai, Y.; Raymo, M. E.; Goldstein, S. L.; Inglis, J. D.; Mata, R.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate dating of fossil shorelines is essential for establishing chronology related to paleo sea level changes, providing insight into past climates, paleo ice volumes and local dynamic topography. Biogenic carbonate is a particularly useful tool for dating marine terraces, as they record chemical signatures of seawater at the time of formation. However, the primary geochemical methods (marine Sr isotopes, U-series disequilibrium, and U-Pb dating) used to date shallow water fauna older than the late Pleistocene are often subject to open system effects, such as diagenesis (recrystallization and meteoric weathering). This is especially problematic for Sr isotope dating during the Mid-Pliocene, when the 87Sr/86Sr seawater calibration curve shows small changes over time, and small variations in 87Sr/86Sr ratios correspond to large uncertainties in ages. To identify pristine carbonate material that generates reliable seawater Sr isotope ratios, we examined different species of Plio-Pleistocene bivalves and corals from various geographic locations and environments by combining optical images, scanning electron microscope (SEM), cathodoluminescence and x-ray diffraction (XRD) with elemental and Sr isotope analyses of micro-drilled calcite and aragonite layers within individual organisms. The results from this study will help to evaluate the effect of secondary diagenesis and recrystallization on trace element abundances and Sr isotope ratios. Using these methods, we show that reliable ages can be achieved using the Sr isotope seawater curve.

  1. Hundreds of Genes Experienced Convergent Shifts in Selective Pressure in Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Chikina, Maria; Robinson, Joseph D; Clark, Nathan L

    2016-09-01

    Mammal species have made the transition to the marine environment several times, and their lineages represent one of the classical examples of convergent evolution in morphological and physiological traits. Nevertheless, the genetic mechanisms of their phenotypic transition are poorly understood, and investigations into convergence at the molecular level have been inconclusive. While past studies have searched for convergent changes at specific amino acid sites, we propose an alternative strategy to identify those genes that experienced convergent changes in their selective pressures, visible as changes in evolutionary rate specifically in the marine lineages. We present evidence of widespread convergence at the gene level by identifying parallel shifts in evolutionary rate during three independent episodes of mammalian adaptation to the marine environment. Hundreds of genes accelerated their evolutionary rates in all three marine mammal lineages during their transition to aquatic life. These marine-accelerated genes are highly enriched for pathways that control recognized functional adaptations in marine mammals, including muscle physiology, lipid-metabolism, sensory systems, and skin and connective tissue. The accelerations resulted from both adaptive evolution as seen in skin and lung genes, and loss of function as in gustatory and olfactory genes. In regard to sensory systems, this finding provides further evidence that reduced senses of taste and smell are ubiquitous in marine mammals. Our analysis demonstrates the feasibility of identifying genes underlying convergent organism-level characteristics on a genome-wide scale and without prior knowledge of adaptations, and provides a powerful approach for investigating the physiological functions of mammalian genes.

  2. Marine mammals and debris in coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Ashe, Erin; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2011-06-01

    Entanglement in and ingestion of synthetic marine debris is increasingly recognized worldwide as an important stressor for marine wildlife, including marine mammals. Studying its impact on wildlife populations is complicated by the inherently cryptic nature of the problem. The coastal waters of British Columbia (BC), Canada provide important habitat for marine mammal species, many of which have unfavorable conservation status in the US and Canada. As a priority-setting exercise, we used data from systematic line-transect surveys and spatial modeling methods to map at-sea distribution of debris and 11 marine mammal species in BC waters, and to identify areas of overlap. We estimated abundance of 36,000 (CIs: 23,000-56,600) pieces of marine debris in the region. Areas of overlap were often far removed from urban centers, suggesting that the extent of marine mammal-debris interactions would be underestimated from opportunistic sightings and stranding records, and that high-overlap areas should be prioritized by stranding response networks. PMID:21665015

  3. Mortality of Inshore Marine Mammals in Eastern Australia Is Predicted by Freshwater Discharge and Air Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Meager, Justin J.; Limpus, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding environmental and climatic drivers of natural mortality of marine mammals is critical for managing populations effectively and for predicting responses to climate change. Here we use a 17-year dataset to demonstrate a clear relationship between environmental forcing and natural mortality of inshore marine mammals across a subtropical-tropical coastline spanning a latitudinal gradient of 13° (>2000 km of coastline). Peak mortality of inshore dolphins and dugongs followed sustained periods of elevated freshwater discharge (9 months) and low air temperature (3 months). At a regional scale, these results translated into a strong relationship between annual mortality and an index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The number of cyclones crossing the coastline had a comparatively weak effect on inshore marine mammal mortality, and only in the tropics. Natural mortality of offshore/migratory cetaceans was not predicted by freshwater discharge, but was related to lagged air temperature. These results represent the first quantitative link between environmental forcing and marine mammal mortality in the tropics, and form the basis of a predictive tool for managers to prepare responses to periods of elevated marine mammal mortality. PMID:24740149

  4. 75 FR 54599 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the Knik Arm Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... through 2017. Marine mammals, particularly Cook Inlet beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), would be... Level B harassment, Cook Inlet beluga whales, harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), harbor porpoise...

  5. Examining predator–prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator–prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator–prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator–prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  6. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities.

  7. Potential effects of oil spills and other chemical pollutants on marine mammals occurring in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The outer continental shelf report describes and assesses the potential effects of oil spills and other contaminants on marine mammals that occur in Alaskan waters, assuming that a spill or contamination occurs. The report focuses primarily on the potential direct and indirect effects of oil spills on marine mammals and addresses both short-term effects that may occur at the time of contact with oil, and long-term effects that may occur long after contact with oil. The report also briefly reviews the literature on the potential effects of other contaminants such as heavy metals and organochlorines (DDT and PCB's) on marine mammals. The assessment concludes that sea otters, polar bears, fur seals, and very young seal pups could suffer serious or lethal effects if contact with oil occurred.

  8. Zinc Isotope Ratios as Indicators of Diet and Trophic Level in Arctic Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Jaouen, Klervia; Szpak, Paul; Richards, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of bone collagen are an established method for dietary reconstruction, but this method is limited by the protein preservation. Zinc (Zn) is found in bioapatite and the isotopic compositions of this element constitute a very promising dietary indicator. The extent of fractionation of Zn isotopes in marine environments, however, remains unknown. We report here on the measurement of zinc, carbon and nitrogen isotopes in 47 marine mammals from the archaeological site of Arvik in the Canadian Arctic. We undertook this study to test and demonstrate the utility of Zn isotopes in recent mammal bone minerals as a dietary indicator by comparing them to other isotopic dietary tracers. We found a correlation between δ66Zn values and trophic level for most species, with the exception of walruses, which may be caused by their large seasonal movements. δ6Zn values can therefore be used as a dietary indicator in marine ecosystems for both modern and recent mammals.

  9. 78 FR 78822 - Draft Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals-Acoustic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Portal http://www.regulations.gov . Mail: Send comments to: Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315 East-West...

  10. Phosphatidylcholine composition of pulmonary surfactant from terrestrial and marine diving mammals.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Danielle B; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardner, Manuela; Kleinhenz, Danielle; Piscitelli, Marina; Raverty, Stephen; Haulena, Martin; Zimba, Paul V

    2015-06-01

    Marine mammals are repeatedly exposed to elevated extra-thoracic pressure and alveolar collapse during diving and readily experience alveolar expansion upon inhalation - a unique capability as compared to terrestrial mammals. How marine mammal lungs overcome the challenges of frequent alveolar collapse and recruitment remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that pinniped lung surfactant has more anti-adhesive components compared to terrestrial mammals, which would aid in alveolar opening. However, pulmonary surfactant composition has not yet been investigated in odontocetes, whose physiology and diving behavior differ from pinnipeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phosphatidylcholine (PC) composition of lung surfactants from various marine mammals and compare these to a terrestrial mammal. We found an increase in anti-adhesive PC species in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) compared to dog (Canus lupus familiaris), as well as an increase in the fluidizing PCs 16:0/14:0 and 16:0/16:1 in pinnipeds compared to odontocetes. The harbor porpoise (a representative of the odontocetes) did not have higher levels of fluidizing PCs compared to dog. Our preliminary results support previous findings that pinnipeds may have adapted unique surfactant compositions that allow them to dive at high pressures for extended periods without adverse effects. Future studies will need to investigate the differences in other surfactant components to fully assess the surfactant composition in odontocetes.

  11. Phosphatidylcholine composition of pulmonary surfactant from terrestrial and marine diving mammals

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Danielle B.; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardner, Manuela; Kleinhenz, Danielle; Piscitelli, Marina; Raverty, Stephen; Haulena, Martin; Zimba, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals are repeatedly exposed to elevated extra-thoracic pressure and alveolar collapse during diving and readily experience alveolar expansion upon inhalation – a unique capability as compared to terrestrial mammals. How marine mammal lungs overcome the challenges of frequent alveolar collapse and recruitment remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that pinniped lung surfactant has more anti-adhesive components compared to terrestrial mammals, which would aid in alveolar opening. However, pulmonary surfactant composition has not yet been investigated in odontocetes, whose physiology and diving behavior differ from pinnipeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phosphatidylcholine (PC) composition of lung surfactants from various marine mammals and compare these to a terrestrial mammal. We found an increase in anti-adhesive PC species in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) compared to dog (Canus lupus familiaris), as well as an increase in the fluidizing PCs 16:0/14:0 and 16:0/16:1 in pinnipeds compared to odontocetes. The harbor porpoise (a representative of the odontocetes) did not have higher levels of fluidizing PCs compared to dog. Our preliminary results support previous findings that pinnipeds may have adapted unique surfactant compositions that allow them to dive at high pressures for extended periods without adverse effects. Future studies will need to investigate the differences in other surfactant components to fully assess the surfactant composition in odontocetes. PMID:25812797

  12. Phosphatidylcholine composition of pulmonary surfactant from terrestrial and marine diving mammals.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Danielle B; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardner, Manuela; Kleinhenz, Danielle; Piscitelli, Marina; Raverty, Stephen; Haulena, Martin; Zimba, Paul V

    2015-06-01

    Marine mammals are repeatedly exposed to elevated extra-thoracic pressure and alveolar collapse during diving and readily experience alveolar expansion upon inhalation - a unique capability as compared to terrestrial mammals. How marine mammal lungs overcome the challenges of frequent alveolar collapse and recruitment remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that pinniped lung surfactant has more anti-adhesive components compared to terrestrial mammals, which would aid in alveolar opening. However, pulmonary surfactant composition has not yet been investigated in odontocetes, whose physiology and diving behavior differ from pinnipeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phosphatidylcholine (PC) composition of lung surfactants from various marine mammals and compare these to a terrestrial mammal. We found an increase in anti-adhesive PC species in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) compared to dog (Canus lupus familiaris), as well as an increase in the fluidizing PCs 16:0/14:0 and 16:0/16:1 in pinnipeds compared to odontocetes. The harbor porpoise (a representative of the odontocetes) did not have higher levels of fluidizing PCs compared to dog. Our preliminary results support previous findings that pinnipeds may have adapted unique surfactant compositions that allow them to dive at high pressures for extended periods without adverse effects. Future studies will need to investigate the differences in other surfactant components to fully assess the surfactant composition in odontocetes. PMID:25812797

  13. C-values of seven marine mammal species determined by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Bo; Wang, Ding

    2006-11-01

    C-values, which estimate genome size, have puzzled geneticists for years because they bear no relationship to organismal complexity. Though C-values have been estimated for thousands of species, considerably more data are required in order to better understanding genome evolution. This is particularly true for mammals, in which C-values are known for less than 8% of the total number of mammalian species. Among marine mammals, a C-value has been estimated only for the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Thus examination of additional species of marine mammals is necessary for comparative purposes. It will enable a better understanding of marine mammal genome evolution, and it is also relevant to conservation, because larger genome size has been linked to increased likelihood of extinction in some plant and animal groups. Our study presents C-values of seven marine mammal species, including five cetacean species that are endangered to varying degrees. Similarly to the results for other groups, our results suggest that larger genome size in cetaceans is related to an increased likelihood of extinction. PMID:17189914

  14. First Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene basal Sparnacian facies of Europe: fauna, flora, paleoenvironment and (bio)stratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thierry; Quesnel, Florence; De Plöeg, Gaël; De Franceschi, Dario; Métais, Grégoire; De Bast, Eric; Solé, Floréal; Folie, Annelise; Boura, Anaïs; Claude, Julien; Dupuis, Christian; Gagnaison, Cyril; Iakovleva, Alina; Martin, Jeremy; Maubert, François; Prieur, Judicaël; Roche, Emile; Storme, Jean-Yves; Thomas, Romain; Tong, Haiyan; Yans, Johan; Buffetaut, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is correlated with the first occurrences of earliest modern mammals in the Northern Hemisphere. The latest Paleocene Clarkforkian North American Land Mammal Age, that has yielded rodents and carnivorans, is the only exception to this rule. However, until now no pre-PETM localities have yielded modern mammals in Europe or Asia. We report the first Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene deposits of the basal Sparnacian facies at Rivecourt, in the north-central part of the Paris Basin. The new terrestrial vertebrate and macroflora assemblages are analyzed through a multidisciplinary study including sedimentologic, stratigraphic, isotopic, and palynological aspects in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and to evaluate biochronologic and paleogeographic implications. The mammals are moderately diverse and not abundant, contrary to turtles and champsosaurs. The macroflora is exceptional in preservation and diversity with numerous angiosperms represented by flowers, fruits, seeds and wood preserved as lignite material, revealing an abundance of Arecaceae, Betulaceae, Icacinaceae, Menispermaceae, Vitaceae and probably Cornaceae. Results indicate a Late Paleocene age based on carbon isotope data, palynology and vertebrate occurrences such as the choristoderan Champsosaurus, the arctocyonid Arctocyon, and the plesiadapid Plesiadapis tricuspidens. However, several mammal species compare better with the earliest Eocene. Among these, the particular louisinid Teilhardimys musculus, also recorded from the latest Paleocene of the Spanish Pyrenees, suggests a younger age than the typical MP6 reference level. Nevertheless, the most important aspect of the Rivecourt fauna is the presence of dental remains of a rodent and a "miacid" carnivoran, attesting to the presence of two modern mammalian orders in the latest Paleocene of Europe. Interestingly, these two groups are also the only modern groups recorded

  15. First Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene basal Sparnacian facies of Europe: fauna, flora, paleoenvironment and (bio)stratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thierry; Quesnel, Florence; De Plöeg, Gaël; De Franceschi, Dario; Métais, Grégoire; De Bast, Eric; Solé, Floréal; Folie, Annelise; Boura, Anaïs; Claude, Julien; Dupuis, Christian; Gagnaison, Cyril; Iakovleva, Alina; Martin, Jeremy; Maubert, François; Prieur, Judicaël; Roche, Emile; Storme, Jean-Yves; Thomas, Romain; Tong, Haiyan; Yans, Johan; Buffetaut, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is correlated with the first occurrences of earliest modern mammals in the Northern Hemisphere. The latest Paleocene Clarkforkian North American Land Mammal Age, that has yielded rodents and carnivorans, is the only exception to this rule. However, until now no pre-PETM localities have yielded modern mammals in Europe or Asia. We report the first Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene deposits of the basal Sparnacian facies at Rivecourt, in the north-central part of the Paris Basin. The new terrestrial vertebrate and macroflora assemblages are analyzed through a multidisciplinary study including sedimentologic, stratigraphic, isotopic, and palynological aspects in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and to evaluate biochronologic and paleogeographic implications. The mammals are moderately diverse and not abundant, contrary to turtles and champsosaurs. The macroflora is exceptional in preservation and diversity with numerous angiosperms represented by flowers, fruits, seeds and wood preserved as lignite material, revealing an abundance of Arecaceae, Betulaceae, Icacinaceae, Menispermaceae, Vitaceae and probably Cornaceae. Results indicate a Late Paleocene age based on carbon isotope data, palynology and vertebrate occurrences such as the choristoderan Champsosaurus, the arctocyonid Arctocyon, and the plesiadapid Plesiadapis tricuspidens. However, several mammal species compare better with the earliest Eocene. Among these, the particular louisinid Teilhardimys musculus, also recorded from the latest Paleocene of the Spanish Pyrenees, suggests a younger age than the typical MP6 reference level. Nevertheless, the most important aspect of the Rivecourt fauna is the presence of dental remains of a rodent and a "miacid" carnivoran, attesting to the presence of two modern mammalian orders in the latest Paleocene of Europe. Interestingly, these two groups are also the only modern groups recorded

  16. First Clarkforkian Equivalent Land Mammal Age in the Latest Paleocene Basal Sparnacian Facies of Europe: Fauna, Flora, Paleoenvironment and (Bio)stratigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thierry; Quesnel, Florence; De Plöeg, Gaël; De Franceschi, Dario; Métais, Grégoire; De Bast, Eric; Solé, Floréal; Folie, Annelise; Boura, Anaïs; Claude, Julien; Dupuis, Christian; Gagnaison, Cyril; Iakovleva, Alina; Martin, Jeremy; Maubert, François; Prieur, Judicaël; Roche, Emile; Storme, Jean-Yves; Thomas, Romain; Tong, Haiyan; Yans, Johan; Buffetaut, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is correlated with the first occurrences of earliest modern mammals in the Northern Hemisphere. The latest Paleocene Clarkforkian North American Land Mammal Age, that has yielded rodents and carnivorans, is the only exception to this rule. However, until now no pre-PETM localities have yielded modern mammals in Europe or Asia. We report the first Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene deposits of the basal Sparnacian facies at Rivecourt, in the north-central part of the Paris Basin. The new terrestrial vertebrate and macroflora assemblages are analyzed through a multidisciplinary study including sedimentologic, stratigraphic, isotopic, and palynological aspects in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and to evaluate biochronologic and paleogeographic implications. The mammals are moderately diverse and not abundant, contrary to turtles and champsosaurs. The macroflora is exceptional in preservation and diversity with numerous angiosperms represented by flowers, fruits, seeds and wood preserved as lignite material, revealing an abundance of Arecaceae, Betulaceae, Icacinaceae, Menispermaceae, Vitaceae and probably Cornaceae. Results indicate a Late Paleocene age based on carbon isotope data, palynology and vertebrate occurrences such as the choristoderan Champsosaurus, the arctocyonid Arctocyon, and the plesiadapid Plesiadapis tricuspidens. However, several mammal species compare better with the earliest Eocene. Among these, the particular louisinid Teilhardimys musculus, also recorded from the latest Paleocene of the Spanish Pyrenees, suggests a younger age than the typical MP6 reference level. Nevertheless, the most important aspect of the Rivecourt fauna is the presence of dental remains of a rodent and a “miacid” carnivoran, attesting to the presence of two modern mammalian orders in the latest Paleocene of Europe. Interestingly, these two groups are also the only modern groups recorded

  17. 78 FR 21112 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16992 and 14535

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... amendment to Permit No. 14535-01 (75 FR 58352) to allow the addition of TTS studies to the currently..., Ph.D., Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, HI 96734, has... of Marine Biology in Kaneohe, HI. Researchers would conduct hearing measurements using suction...

  18. 78 FR 42935 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16992

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 21112) that a request for a permit to conduct research on captive... Nachtigall, Ph.D., Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, HI 96734... Marine Biology in Kaneohe, Hawaii. Researchers will conduct hearing measurements using suction...

  19. 76 FR 63609 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16443

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... David Honig, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University Marine Laboratory, 135 Marine Lab Road... specimens for scientific research. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available for review upon... Federal Register (76 FR 45232) that a request for a permit to collect and import specimens for...

  20. [The possibility of using high resolution satellite images for detection of marine mammals].

    PubMed

    Platonov, N G; Mordvintsev, I N; Rozhnov, V V

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of using modern systems of remote sensing in the optical range from high spatial resolution satellites for detection of marine mammals and traces of their activity is investigated. An image obtained by the GeoEye satellite within the FEAC project was used for the analysis. The image covers Herald Island and adjacent waters, which are a part of the Wrangel Island Reserve, during the seasonal thaw (June 2009). It is shown that marine mammals (polar bears, walruses, and whales) can be identified on such images. The absence of synchronous ground truth observations reduces the reliability of the results. PMID:23789427

  1. Alaskan marine mammal tissue archival project: a project description including collection protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Koster, B.J.; Zeisler, R.

    1988-03-01

    The Alaskan Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project was initiated in 1987. Although the emphasis is on the collection of tissues for analysis of contaminants that may be associated with the petroleum industry, the development of an archive of marine mammal tissues collected and stored using carefully controlled procedures provides an important resource addressing questions concerning the transport of elements and compounds (contaminants and non-contaminants) throughout the polar ecosystem. The document provides the basic information on Project objectives and management, justification for the species, tissues, and contaminants of interest, and specific instructions for collecting, handling, and storing samples.

  2. Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Verfuss, Ursula K; Sparling, Carol E; Arnot, Charlie; Judd, Adrian; Coyle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and mitigation reports from 19 UK and 9 other European Union (EU) offshore wind farm (OWF) developments were reviewed, providing a synthesis of the evidence associated with the observed environmental impact on marine mammals. UK licensing conditions were largely concerned with mitigation measures reducing the risk of physical and auditory injury from pile driving. At the other EU sites, impact monitoring was conducted along with mitigation measures. Noise-mitigation measures were developed and tested in UK and German waters in German government-financed projects. We highlight some of the review's findings and lessons learned with regard to noise impact on marine mammals. PMID:26611084

  3. [The possibility of using high resolution satellite images for detection of marine mammals].

    PubMed

    Platonov, N G; Mordvintsev, I N; Rozhnov, V V

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of using modern systems of remote sensing in the optical range from high spatial resolution satellites for detection of marine mammals and traces of their activity is investigated. An image obtained by the GeoEye satellite within the FEAC project was used for the analysis. The image covers Herald Island and adjacent waters, which are a part of the Wrangel Island Reserve, during the seasonal thaw (June 2009). It is shown that marine mammals (polar bears, walruses, and whales) can be identified on such images. The absence of synchronous ground truth observations reduces the reliability of the results.

  4. Causes of death in marine mammals stranded along the Oregon coast.

    PubMed

    Stroud, R K; Roffe, T J

    1979-01-01

    Sixty-eight marine mammals stranded on the Oregon beaches were examined at necropsy. Gunshot was the primary cause of death in 30% of the pinnipeds examined. Bacterial infections (27%) and parasitism (27%) were also of major importance in the death and debilitation of Oregon marine mammals. Traumatic death or debilitation other than gunshot was observed in 11 animals (16%). Predation, starvation due to neonatal abandonment, viral encephalitis (presumptive diagnosis), dystocia and neoplasia were diagnosed as primary or contributory causes of stranding. PMID:582322

  5. Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Verfuss, Ursula K; Sparling, Carol E; Arnot, Charlie; Judd, Adrian; Coyle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and mitigation reports from 19 UK and 9 other European Union (EU) offshore wind farm (OWF) developments were reviewed, providing a synthesis of the evidence associated with the observed environmental impact on marine mammals. UK licensing conditions were largely concerned with mitigation measures reducing the risk of physical and auditory injury from pile driving. At the other EU sites, impact monitoring was conducted along with mitigation measures. Noise-mitigation measures were developed and tested in UK and German waters in German government-financed projects. We highlight some of the review's findings and lessons learned with regard to noise impact on marine mammals.

  6. 78 FR 21915 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17996

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... commercial or educational photography of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). DATES: Written, telefaxed... mammals (50 CFR part 216). Section 104(c)(6) provides for photography for educational or commercial... requests a two-year photography permit to film bottlenose dolphin strand-feeding events in the...

  7. 77 FR 41171 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... mammals (50 CFR part 216). To better understand the dynamics of leptospirosis in the California sea lions... leptospirosis in this species, with the long-term goal of understanding the mechanisms underlying recurrent and deadly epizootics of leptospirosis in California sea lions. By analyzing data collected from wild...

  8. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L'Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2)adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2)adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  9. Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-15

    The potential impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability in baseline noise levels often constrains efforts to manage these impacts. This paper characterises natural and anthropogenic contributors to underwater noise at two sites in the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-development baseline, and to develop ship noise monitoring methods using Automatic Identification System (AIS) and time-lapse video to record trends in noise levels and shipping activity. Our results detail the noise levels currently experienced by a locally protected bottlenose dolphin population, explore the relationship between broadband sound exposure levels and the indicators proposed in response to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and provide a ship noise assessment toolkit which can be applied in other coastal marine environments. PMID:24279956

  10. Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-15

    The potential impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability in baseline noise levels often constrains efforts to manage these impacts. This paper characterises natural and anthropogenic contributors to underwater noise at two sites in the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-development baseline, and to develop ship noise monitoring methods using Automatic Identification System (AIS) and time-lapse video to record trends in noise levels and shipping activity. Our results detail the noise levels currently experienced by a locally protected bottlenose dolphin population, explore the relationship between broadband sound exposure levels and the indicators proposed in response to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and provide a ship noise assessment toolkit which can be applied in other coastal marine environments.

  11. 75 FR 13257 - Marine Mammals; File No. 87-1743

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 87-1743-05, issued on September 29, 2009 (74 FR 52184), authorizes the... P. Costa, Ph.D., Long Marine Laboratory, University of California at Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer...

  12. 78 FR 37796 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17952

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... in the Federal Register (78 FR 15933) that a request for a permit to conduct research on the species... Daniel P. Costa, Ph.D., Department of Biology and Institute of Marine Sciences, University of...

  13. 75 FR 58352 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14535

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ....D., University of California at Santa Cruz, Long Marine Laboratory, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA..., 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 37388) that a request for a permit...

  14. 77 FR 50086 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16109

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 33198) that a request for an amendment to Permit No... Permit No. 16109 has been issued to GeoMarine, Inc. (Responsible Party: Suzanne Bates), 2201 K...

  15. 75 FR 11132 - Marine Mammals; File No. 555-1870

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ..., notice was published in the Federal Register (74 FR 64686) that a request for an amendment to Permit No.... Harvey, Ph.D., Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 8272 Moss Landing Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039, has...

  16. 75 FR 54093 - Marine Mammals; File No. 555-1870

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ..., notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 39206) that a request for an amendment to Permit No...., Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 8272 Moss Landing Road, Moss Landing, CA ] 95039, has been issued...

  17. Marine Mammals and Climate Change in the Pacific Arctic: Impacts & Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme reductions in Arctic sea ice extent and thickness have become a hallmark of climate change, but impacts to the marine ecosystem are poorly understood. As top predators, marine mammals must adapt to biological responses to physical forcing and thereby become sentinels to ecosystem variability and reorganization. Recent sea ice retreats have influenced the ecology of marine mammals in the Pacific Arctic sector. Walruses now often haul out by the thousands along the NW Alaska coast in late summer, and reports of harbor porpoise, humpback, fin and minke whales in the Chukchi Sea demonstrate that these temperate species routinely occur there. In 2010, satellite tagged bowhead whales from Atlantic and Pacific populations met in the Northwest Passage, an overlap thought precluded by sea ice since the Holocene. To forage effectively, baleen whales must target dense patches of zooplankton and small fishes. In the Pacific Arctic, bowhead and gray whales appear to be responding to enhanced prey availability delivered both by new production and advection pathways. Two programs, the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) and the Synthesis of Arctic Research (SOAR), include tracking of marine mammal and prey species' responses to ecosystem shifts associated with sea ice loss. Both programs provide an integrated-ecosystem baseline in support of the development of a web-based Marine Mammal Health Map, envisioned as a component of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). An overarching goal is to identify ecological patterns for marine mammals in the 'new' Arctic, as a foundation for integrative research, local response and adaptive management.

  18. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Jameson, R.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammlas. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982-1983 was the dominate influence in terms of interannual variation in carcassdeposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specificand were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach subtrate type and local patterns of san deposition influenced the location of carcass carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  19. 50 CFR 18.27 - Regulations governing small takes of marine mammals incidental to specified activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contained in the Act and in 50 CFR 18.3 and unless the context otherwise requires, in this section: Citizens.... (Complete definition of take is contained in 50 CFR 18.3.) Negligible impact is an impact resulting from the... marine mammals incidental to specified activities. 18.27 Section 18.27 Wildlife and Fisheries...

  20. 50 CFR 18.27 - Regulations governing small takes of marine mammals incidental to specified activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contained in the Act and in 50 CFR 18.3 and unless the context otherwise requires, in this section: Citizens.... (Complete definition of take is contained in 50 CFR 18.3.) Negligible impact is an impact resulting from the... marine mammals incidental to specified activities. 18.27 Section 18.27 Wildlife and Fisheries...

  1. 50 CFR 18.27 - Regulations governing small takes of marine mammals incidental to specified activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contained in the Act and in 50 CFR 18.3 and unless the context otherwise requires, in this section: Citizens.... (Complete definition of take is contained in 50 CFR 18.3.) Negligible impact is an impact resulting from the... marine mammals incidental to specified activities. 18.27 Section 18.27 Wildlife and Fisheries...

  2. A quantitative framework for estimating risk of collision between marine mammals and boats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; Sabatier, Quentin; Gowan, Timothy A.; Giraud, Christophe; Gurarie, Eliezer; Calleson, Scott; Ortega-Ortiz, Joel G.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Rycyk, Athena; Koslovsky, Stacie M.

    2016-01-01

    By applying encounter rate theory to the case of boat collisions with marine mammals, we gained new insights about encounter processes between wildlife and watercraft. Our work emphasizes the importance of considering uncertainty when estimating wildlife mortality. Finally, our findings are relevant to other systems and ecological processes involving the encounter between moving agents.

  3. 77 FR 25435 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida AGENCY: National... been issued to the U.S. Department of the Air Force, Headquarters 96th Air Base Wing (U.S. Air Force), Eglin Air Force Base (Eglin AFB) to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to...

  4. 75 FR 8677 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Seabird and Pinniped Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... of the activity in the notice of the proposed IHA (74 FR 61109, November 23, 2009). No changes have..., 2009 (74 FR 61109). During the 30-day comment period, NMFS received a letter from the Marine Mammal... coordinating visits to the island) as described in NMFS' November 23, 2009 (74 FR 61109), notice of...

  5. 75 FR 78228 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Columbia River Crossing Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... authorization to take marine mammals incidental to bridge construction and demolition activities at the Columbia... (MMPA), NMFS is announcing receipt of CRC's request for the development and implementation of... activities: Replacement of the existing Columbia River bridges with two new structures; Widening of...

  6. 77 FR 4014 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Physical Oceanographic Studies in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ...-listed marine mammals that may potentially occur in the survey area, blue and southern right whale... well known in the southern hemisphere. However, no take of blue whales was requested because of the low... the blue, fin, humpback, sei, southern right, and sperm whales. Under section 7 of the ESA, the...

  7. 78 FR 40698 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Office of Naval Research Acoustic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... depleted under the MMPA: blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), gray whale... Their Status Common name Scientific name ESA and MMPA status Mysticetes Blue Whale Balaenoptera musculus... Marine mammal species harassment harassment Level B harassment Mysticetes Blue Whale 0.0000 0.0156...

  8. 76 FR 46724 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Seabird and Pinniped Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... areas of the national park. Description of the Specified Activity PRBO will conduct seabird and pinniped... Seashore The National Park Service in collaboration with PRBO monitors seabird breeding and roosting... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA534 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental...

  9. 76 FR 10564 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... of a report with a data table, any other significant observations related to marine mammals, and a... notice for the proposed IHA (75 FR 80471 December 22, 2010). The planned activities have not changed... reader should refer to the proposed IHA notice (75 FR 8047, December 22, 2010). Comments and...

  10. 77 FR 47603 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction and Race Event...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Federal Register notice of proposed authorization (hereafter, the FR notice; 77 FR 32573; June 1, 2012... greater detail in the FR notice. Temporary floating docks will be installed utilizing 18-in steel pipe... provided in the FR notice. Because we do not plan to authorize take of marine mammals incidental to...

  11. 75 FR 68767 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... proposed 2011 MMPA List of Fisheries (LOF) (75 FR 36318, June 25, 2010), the draft 2010 marine mammal stock... (e.g., proposed for CNP humpback whales in 75 FR 8305, February 24, 2010 and final in 75 FR 29984... relevant to incidental take permits (64 FR 28800, May 27, 1999): (1) The threshold for...

  12. 77 FR 14736 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Placement for Fishermen's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... radius buffer zone around the proposed turbine locations. A total of 389 transects were surveyed totaling... measures to minimize adverse impacts to marine mammals: Exclusion Zone The purpose of an exclusion zone is... establish a preliminary 1,000-m exclusion zone around each pile driving site, based on the estimated...

  13. 77 FR 39999 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Placement for Fishermen's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ..., NMFS issued a notice in the Federal Register on March 13, 2012 (77 FR 14736), requesting comments from... specified activity may be found in NMFS' proposed IHA notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 14736, March 13... FR 14736). During the 30-day public comment period, the Marine Mammal Commission...

  14. 75 FR 8305 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... deep-set fishery operates year-round. Hawaii-based longline vessels vary their fishing grounds... equator and 40 N and longitudes 140 and 180 W; however, the vast majority of deep-set fishing occurs south... Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Proposed Permit AGENCY: National Marine...

  15. 75 FR 81972 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    .... stock of Steller sea lions incidental to commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on these... lions, and Eastern U.S. Steller sea lions incidental to commercial fishing will have a negligible impact... Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Issuance of Permit AGENCY: National Marine...

  16. 75 FR 21233 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Replacement and Repair of Fur...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... details regarding the authorized action were included in the proposed IHA notice (75 FR 11121, March 10..., 2010 (75 FR 11121). During the comment period, NMFS received comments from the Marine Mammal Commission... fur seal population depleted on June 17, 1988 (53 FR 17888) because it declined to less than...

  17. 78 FR 78824 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Rockaway Delivery Lateral Project off...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... proposes to expand its pipeline system to meet immediate and future demand for natural gas in the New York... have received an application from Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC (Transco) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to expanding a...

  18. 78 FR 1838 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... ] (Society), for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment... Harassment Authorization to the Society to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, four species of... limited to harassment. We shall grant authorization for the incidental taking of small numbers of...

  19. 78 FR 36527 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction at Bremerton Ferry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Ferry Terminal is provided in the Federal Register notice for the proposed IHA (78 FR 11844; February 20... Federal Register notice for the proposed IHA (78 FR 11844; February 20, 2013). Please refer to that... FR 11844). That notice described, in detail, WSDOT's activity, the marine mammal species that may...

  20. A List of the Marine Mammals of the World. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Dale W.

    This National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration publication lists 116 species of living and recently extinct marine mammals of the world. Included are 36 species of Order Carnivora (polar bear, sea otter, and 34 pinnipeds); 5 species of Order Sirenia; 10 of Order Mysticeti (baleen whales); and 65 species of Order Odontoceti (tooth whales).…

  1. 75 FR 18160 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Antioch Bridge Seismic Retrofit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... (74 FR 67856), requesting comments from the public on the proposed IHA. The Antioch Bridge was... December 21, 2009 (74 FR 67856). During the 30 day public comment period, the Marine Mammal Commission..., and all monitoring and mitigation measured described in the previous Federal Register notice (74...

  2. Medics and Marine Mammals - An Unlikely but Important Connection for Humanity's Survival.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Louisa Shobhini

    2014-03-01

    Marine mammals, as top predators in the marine food web, are sentinels of changes in the oceans and public health. Pollution in the sea and overfishing of seafood resources affects these organisms just as much as it affects human beings. Medics, especially doctors, have an influential reach to patients, and are in an ideal position to get better acquainted with ongoing marine environmental issues and subsequently disseminating such information to them. While seemingly an out-of-the-box approach, it is one that can help with environmental conservation and preservation for the future of humanity. PMID:24876801

  3. Medics and Marine Mammals – An Unlikely but Important Connection for Humanity’s Survival

    PubMed Central

    PONNAMPALAM, Louisa Shobhini

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammals, as top predators in the marine food web, are sentinels of changes in the oceans and public health. Pollution in the sea and overfishing of seafood resources affects these organisms just as much as it affects human beings. Medics, especially doctors, have an influential reach to patients, and are in an ideal position to get better acquainted with ongoing marine environmental issues and subsequently disseminating such information to them. While seemingly an out-of-the-box approach, it is one that can help with environmental conservation and preservation for the future of humanity. PMID:24876801

  4. Medics and Marine Mammals - An Unlikely but Important Connection for Humanity's Survival.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Louisa Shobhini

    2014-03-01

    Marine mammals, as top predators in the marine food web, are sentinels of changes in the oceans and public health. Pollution in the sea and overfishing of seafood resources affects these organisms just as much as it affects human beings. Medics, especially doctors, have an influential reach to patients, and are in an ideal position to get better acquainted with ongoing marine environmental issues and subsequently disseminating such information to them. While seemingly an out-of-the-box approach, it is one that can help with environmental conservation and preservation for the future of humanity.

  5. Marine Mammal Brucella Reference Strains Are Attenuated in a BALB/c Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Arias, Maykel A; Pardo, Julián; Álvarez, María Pilar; Alcaraz, Ana; Godfroid, Jacques; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution with numerous animal host species. Since the novel isolation of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in 1994 the bacteria have been isolated from various marine mammal hosts. The marine mammal reference strains Brucella pinnipedialis 12890 (harbour seal, Phoca vitulina) and Brucella ceti 12891 (harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena) were included in genus Brucella in 2007, however, their pathogenicity in the mouse model is pending. Herein this is evaluated in BALB/c mice with Brucella suis 1330 as a control. Both marine mammal strains were attenuated, however, B. ceti was present at higher levels than B. pinnipedialis in blood, spleen and liver throughout the infection, in addition B. suis and B. ceti were isolated from brains and faeces at times with high levels of bacteraemia. In B. suis-infected mice serum cytokines peaked at day 7. In B. pinnipedialis-infected mice, levels were similar, but peaked predominantly at day 3 and an earlier peak in spleen weight likewise implied an earlier response. The inflammatory response induced pathology in the spleen and liver. In B. ceti-infected mice, most serum cytokine levels were comparable to those in uninfected mice, consistent with a limited inflammatory response, which also was indicated by restricted spleen and liver pathology. Specific immune responses against all three strains were detected in vitro after stimulation of splenocytes from infected mice with the homologous heat-killed brucellae. Antibody responses in vivo were also induced by the three brucellae. The immunological pattern of B. ceti in combination with persistence in organs and limited pathology has heretofore not been described for other brucellae. These two marine mammal wildtype strains show an attenuated pattern in BALB/c mice only previously described for Brucella neotomea. PMID:26959235

  6. Marine Mammal Brucella Reference Strains Are Attenuated in a BALB/c Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H.; Arias, Maykel A.; Pardo, Julián; Álvarez, María Pilar; Alcaraz, Ana; Godfroid, Jacques; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution with numerous animal host species. Since the novel isolation of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in 1994 the bacteria have been isolated from various marine mammal hosts. The marine mammal reference strains Brucella pinnipedialis 12890 (harbour seal, Phoca vitulina) and Brucella ceti 12891 (harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena) were included in genus Brucella in 2007, however, their pathogenicity in the mouse model is pending. Herein this is evaluated in BALB/c mice with Brucella suis 1330 as a control. Both marine mammal strains were attenuated, however, B. ceti was present at higher levels than B. pinnipedialis in blood, spleen and liver throughout the infection, in addition B. suis and B. ceti were isolated from brains and faeces at times with high levels of bacteraemia. In B. suis-infected mice serum cytokines peaked at day 7. In B. pinnipedialis-infected mice, levels were similar, but peaked predominantly at day 3 and an earlier peak in spleen weight likewise implied an earlier response. The inflammatory response induced pathology in the spleen and liver. In B. ceti-infected mice, most serum cytokine levels were comparable to those in uninfected mice, consistent with a limited inflammatory response, which also was indicated by restricted spleen and liver pathology. Specific immune responses against all three strains were detected in vitro after stimulation of splenocytes from infected mice with the homologous heat-killed brucellae. Antibody responses in vivo were also induced by the three brucellae. The immunological pattern of B. ceti in combination with persistence in organs and limited pathology has heretofore not been described for other brucellae. These two marine mammal wildtype strains show an attenuated pattern in BALB/c mice only previously described for Brucella neotomea. PMID:26959235

  7. Marine Mammal Brucella Reference Strains Are Attenuated in a BALB/c Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Arias, Maykel A; Pardo, Julián; Álvarez, María Pilar; Alcaraz, Ana; Godfroid, Jacques; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution with numerous animal host species. Since the novel isolation of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in 1994 the bacteria have been isolated from various marine mammal hosts. The marine mammal reference strains Brucella pinnipedialis 12890 (harbour seal, Phoca vitulina) and Brucella ceti 12891 (harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena) were included in genus Brucella in 2007, however, their pathogenicity in the mouse model is pending. Herein this is evaluated in BALB/c mice with Brucella suis 1330 as a control. Both marine mammal strains were attenuated, however, B. ceti was present at higher levels than B. pinnipedialis in blood, spleen and liver throughout the infection, in addition B. suis and B. ceti were isolated from brains and faeces at times with high levels of bacteraemia. In B. suis-infected mice serum cytokines peaked at day 7. In B. pinnipedialis-infected mice, levels were similar, but peaked predominantly at day 3 and an earlier peak in spleen weight likewise implied an earlier response. The inflammatory response induced pathology in the spleen and liver. In B. ceti-infected mice, most serum cytokine levels were comparable to those in uninfected mice, consistent with a limited inflammatory response, which also was indicated by restricted spleen and liver pathology. Specific immune responses against all three strains were detected in vitro after stimulation of splenocytes from infected mice with the homologous heat-killed brucellae. Antibody responses in vivo were also induced by the three brucellae. The immunological pattern of B. ceti in combination with persistence in organs and limited pathology has heretofore not been described for other brucellae. These two marine mammal wildtype strains show an attenuated pattern in BALB/c mice only previously described for Brucella neotomea.

  8. 76 FR 52319 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ..., (Assistant Administrator) has renewed the affirmative finding for the Government of Spain under the Marine... submitted by the Government of Spain and obtained from the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC... evidence submitted by the Government of Spain and obtained from the IATTC and has determined that Spain...

  9. 75 FR 52722 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Administrator) has granted a request for an affirmative finding to the Government of Spain under the Marine... submitted by the Government of Spain and obtained from the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC... Administrator considered documentary evidence submitted by the Government of Spain and obtained from the...

  10. 77 FR 54567 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15142

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Colleen Reichmuth, Ph.D., University of California at Santa Cruz, Long Marine Laboratory, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA, to take pinnipeds for scientific research purposes. ADDRESSES: The permit and related... published in the Federal Register (77 FR 4765) that a request for a permit to take pinnipeds for...

  11. 75 FR 19943 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Administrator) has granted a request for an affirmative finding to the Government of Ecuador under the Marine... submitted by the Government of Ecuador and obtained from the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC... considered documentary evidence submitted by the Government of Ecuador or obtained from the IATTC and...

  12. 75 FR 66073 - Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Fiscal Year 2010. File No. 14579: Issued to Dr. Susan Shaw, Marine Environmental Research Institute, Blue... supersedes version 808- 1798-01, issued on May 1, 2009. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy... categorically excluded from the requirement to prepare an environmental assessment or environmental...

  13. 77 FR 3495 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... 15, 2011. Marine Science Center. 2011. 008519 Zoo Atlanta 75 FR 82409, December March 1, 2011. 30... Zoo..... 76 FR 18239, April 1, May 23, 2011. 2011. 013008 777 Ranch Inc 76 FR 7580, February July 11.... 37786A Minnesota Zoo 76 FR 18239, April 1, August 11, 2011. 2011. 42831A Saint Louis Zoo........ 76...

  14. 77 FR 59594 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16163

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Permit No. 16163 has been issued to the Northwest Fisheries Science Center (Dr. M. Bradley Hanson...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... (77 FR 37878) that a request for an amendment to Permit No. 16163 to conduct research on...

  15. Late Oligocene-Early Miocene compressional tectosedimentary episode and associated land-mammal faunas in the Andes of central Chile and adjacent Argentina (32 37°s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semper, Thierry; Marshall, Larry G.; Rivano, Sergio; Godoy, Estanislao

    1994-01-01

    A reassessment of the geologic and land-mammal fossil evidence used in attribution of a tectosedimentary episode in the Andes between 32 and 37°S to the Middle Eocene "Incaic tectonic phase" of Peru indicates that the episode occurred during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene times(~ 27-20 Ma). From west to east, three structural domains are recognized for this time span in the study area: a volcanic arc (Chile); a thin-skinned, E-verging fold-thrust belt (Cordillera Principal, Chile-Argentina border strip); and a foreland basin (Argentina). Initiation of thrusting in the Cordillera Principal fold-thrust belt produced the coeval initiation of sedimentation in the foreland basin of adjacent Argentina. This onset of foreland deposition postdates strata bearing a Divisaderan Land Mammal Age fauna (i.e. ~ 35-30 Ma) and is marked at ~ 36°30'S by the base of the "Rodados Lustrosos" conglomerates, which are conformably overlain by sedimentary rocks containing a Deseadan Land Mammal Age fauna (i.e. ~ 29-21 Ma). Geologic relationships between the thick volcanic Abanico (Coya-Machalí) and Farellones formations also demonstrate that this tectosedimentary episode practically ended at ~ 20 Ma at least in the volcanic arc, and was therefore roughly coeval with the major tectonic crisis (~ 27-19 Ma) known in northwestern Andean Bolivia some 1500 km to the north. This strongly suggests that a long, outstanding tectonic upheaval affected at least an extended 12-37°S segment of the Andean margin of South America during Late Oligocene and Early Miocene times.

  16. Marine Mammal Train Oil Production Methods: Experimental Reconstructions of Norwegian Iron Age Slab-Lined Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Gørill

    2016-08-01

    Seal hunting and whaling have played an important part of people's livelihoods throughout prehistory as evidenced by rock carvings, remains of bones, artifacts from aquatic animals and hunting tools. This paper focuses on one of the more elusive resources relating to such activities: marine mammal blubber. Although marine blubber easily decomposes, the organic material has been documented from the Mesolithic Period onwards. Of particular interest in this article are the many structures in Northern Norway from the Iron Age and in Finland on Kökar, Åland, from both the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in which these periods exhibited traits interpreted as being related to oil rendering from marine mammal blubber. The article discusses methods used in this oil production activity based on historical sources, archaeological investigations and experimental reconstruction of Iron Age slab-lined pits from Northern Norway.

  17. Sealpox Virus in Marine Mammal Rehabilitation Facilities, North America, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Roess, Amira A.; Levine, Rebecca S.; Barth, Laura; Monroe, Benjamin P.; Carroll, Darin S.; Damon, Inger K.

    2011-01-01

    Sealpox, a zoonotic disease affecting pinnipeds (seals and sea lions), can occur among captive and convalescing animals. We surveyed 1 worker each from 11 marine mammal centers and interviewed 31 other marine mammal workers to ascertain their knowledge of and experience with sealpox virus and to identify factors associated with sealpox virus outbreaks among pinnipeds in marine rehabilitation facilities. Demographic and health data were obtained for 1,423 pinnipeds at the 11 facilities. Among the 23 animals in which sealpox was clinically diagnosed, 4 arrived at the facility ill, 11 became ill <5 weeks after arrival, and 2 became ill >5 weeks after arrival; the timing of illness onset was unknown for 6 animals. Most infections occurred in pinnipeds <1 year of age. Nine affected animals were malnourished; 4 had additional illnesses. Sealpox had also occurred among workers at 2 facilities. Sealpox is a noteworthy zoonosis of rehabilitating convalescing pinnipeds; workplace education can help to minimize risks for human infection. PMID:22172454

  18. Sealpox virus in marine mammal rehabilitation facilities, North America, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Roess, Amira A; Levine, Rebecca S; Barth, Laura; Monroe, Benjamin P; Carroll, Darin S; Damon, Inger K; Reynolds, Mary G

    2011-12-01

    Sealpox, a zoonotic disease affecting pinnipeds (seals and sea lions), can occur among captive and convalescing animals. We surveyed 1 worker each from 11 marine mammal centers and interviewed 31 other marine mammal workers to ascertain their knowledge of and experience with sealpox virus and to identify factors associated with sealpox virus outbreaks among pinnipeds in marine rehabilitation facilities. Demographic and health data were obtained for 1,423 pinnipeds at the 11 facilities. Among the 23 animals in which sealpox was clinically diagnosed, 4 arrived at the facility ill, 11 became ill <5 weeks after arrival, and 2 became ill ≥5 weeks after arrival; the timing of illness onset was unknown for 6 animals. Most infections occurred in pinnipeds <1 year of age. Nine affected animals were malnourished; 4 had additional illnesses. Sealpox had also occurred among workers at 2 facilities. Sealpox is a noteworthy zoonosis of rehabilitating convalescing pinnipeds; workplace education can help to minimize risks for human infection.

  19. Marine litter in the upper São Vicente submarine canyon (SW Portugal): Abundance, distribution, composition and fauna interactions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Frederico; Monteiro, Pedro; Bentes, Luis; Henriques, Nuno Sales; Aguilar, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Jorge M S

    2015-08-15

    Marine litter has become a worldwide environmental problem, tainting all ocean habitats. The abundance, distribution and composition of litter and its interactions with fauna were evaluated in the upper S. Vicente canyon using video images from 3 remote operated vehicle exploratory dives. Litter was present in all dives and the abundance was as high as 3.31 items100m(-1). Mean abundance of litter over rock bottom was higher than on soft substrate. Mean litter abundance was slightly higher than reported for other canyons on the Portuguese margin, but lower in comparison to more urbanized coastal areas of the world. Lost fishing gear was the prevalent type of litter, indicating that the majority of litter originates from maritime sources, mainly fishing activity. Physical contact with sessile fauna and entanglement of specimens were the major impacts of lost fishing gear. Based on the importance of this region for the local fishermen, litter abundance is expected to increase. PMID:26051154

  20. Marine litter in the upper São Vicente submarine canyon (SW Portugal): Abundance, distribution, composition and fauna interactions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Frederico; Monteiro, Pedro; Bentes, Luis; Henriques, Nuno Sales; Aguilar, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Jorge M S

    2015-08-15

    Marine litter has become a worldwide environmental problem, tainting all ocean habitats. The abundance, distribution and composition of litter and its interactions with fauna were evaluated in the upper S. Vicente canyon using video images from 3 remote operated vehicle exploratory dives. Litter was present in all dives and the abundance was as high as 3.31 items100m(-1). Mean abundance of litter over rock bottom was higher than on soft substrate. Mean litter abundance was slightly higher than reported for other canyons on the Portuguese margin, but lower in comparison to more urbanized coastal areas of the world. Lost fishing gear was the prevalent type of litter, indicating that the majority of litter originates from maritime sources, mainly fishing activity. Physical contact with sessile fauna and entanglement of specimens were the major impacts of lost fishing gear. Based on the importance of this region for the local fishermen, litter abundance is expected to increase.