Science.gov

Sample records for marine mammal fauna

  1. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  2. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  3. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine mammals... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  4. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. ADDRESSES... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  5. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  6. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  7. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  8. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as...

  9. Morbilliviruses in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Hall, A J

    1995-01-01

    Two of the three recently discovered aquatic morbilliviruses have been responsible for mass mortalities among marine mammals; both affect more than one host species, but susceptibility to infection varies considerably between species. Apparent differences between the dynamics of aquatic morbilliviruses and their terrestrial counterparts may be a consequence of high levels of interspecific transmission.

  10. Osmoregulation in marine mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Osmoregulation in marine mammals has been investigated for over a century; however, a review of recent advances in our understanding of water and electrolyte balance and of renal function in marine mammals is warranted. The following topics are discussed: (i) kidney structure and urine concentrating ability, (ii) sources of water, (iii) the effects of feeding, fasting and diving, (iv) the renal responses to infusions of varying salinity and (v) hormonal regulation. The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are reniculate in structure, unlike those of terrestrial mammals (except bears), but this difference does not confer any greater concentrating ability. Pinnipeds, cetaceans, manatees and sea otters can concentrate their urine above the concentration of sea water, but only pinnipeds and otters have been shown to produce urine concentrations of Na+ and Cl- that are similar to those in sea water. This could afford them the capacity to drink sea water and not lose fresh water. However, with few exceptions, drinking is not a common behavior in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Water balance is maintained in these animals via metabolic and dietary water, while incidental ingestion and dietary salt may help maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Unlike most other aquatic mammals, sea otters commonly drink sea water and manatees frequently drink fresh water. Among the various taxonomic groups of marine mammals, the sensitivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be influenced by the availability of Na+. The antidiuretic role of vasopressin remains inconclusive in marine mammals, while the natriuretic function of atrial natriuretic peptide has yet to be examined. Ideas on the direction of future studies are presented.

  11. Earliest known Australian Tertiary mammal fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godthelp, Henk; Archer, Michael; Cifelli, Richard; Hand, Suzanne J.; Gilkeson, Coral F.

    1992-04-01

    REMAINS of Early Eocene vertebrates from freshwater clays near Murgon, southeastern Queensland, represent Australia's oldest marsupials, bats, non-volant placentals, frogs, madtsoiid snakes, trionychid turtles1and birds. Radiometric dating of illites forming part of the matrix of the mammal-bearing zone has given a minimum age estimate of 54.6 +/- 0.05 x 106 years, which is roughly twice as old as any marsupials previously known from Australia2 and well before the 38 million year (Myr) separation of Australia from Antarctica/South America3. All marsupials so far known from the Tingamarra Local Fauna are more derived (being dilambdodont) than peradectids. None of them is clearly a member of a previously known Australian family, but some could be uniquely plesiomorphic dasyuroids or perameloids. Another is autapomorphically specialized and indicative of at least partial isolation of the Australian portion of Gondwana. Here we report on the discovery of a tooth of the earliest non-volant placental known from Australia, Tingamarra porterorum gen.et sp. nov., which seems to be a condylarth-like placental mammal. The presence of non-volant placentals in the Early Tertiary of Australia challenges a common presumption that marsupials dominated Australia's therian assemblages because of failure of such placentals to reach Australia before the Late Tertiary.

  12. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westgate, James W.

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Candelaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan. The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone I6 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  13. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Westgate, J.W. )

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Canderlaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan, The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone 16 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  14. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  15. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Williams, Long Marine Lab, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California at Santa Cruz, 100...: The subject amendment to Permit No. 13602 was requested under the authority of the Marine...

  16. 75 FR 27294 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Mammal Stranding Report/Marine Mammal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Mammal Stranding Report/Marine Mammal Rehabilitation Disposition Report AGENCY: National Oceanic and... mammal stranding report provides information on strandings so that the National Marine Fisheries Service... facilities. This information is submitted primarily by volunteer members of the marine mammal...

  17. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in...

  18. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in...

  19. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in...

  20. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section...

  1. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section...

  2. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  3. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  4. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  5. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  6. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  7. 76 FR 35995 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility of Massachusetts; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  8. Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement.

    PubMed

    Woinarski, John C Z; Burbidge, Andrew A; Harrison, Peter L

    2015-04-14

    The highly distinctive and mostly endemic Australian land mammal fauna has suffered an extraordinary rate of extinction (>10% of the 273 endemic terrestrial species) over the last ∼200 y: in comparison, only one native land mammal from continental North America became extinct since European settlement. A further 21% of Australian endemic land mammal species are now assessed to be threatened, indicating that the rate of loss (of one to two extinctions per decade) is likely to continue. Australia's marine mammals have fared better overall, but status assessment for them is seriously impeded by lack of information. Much of the loss of Australian land mammal fauna (particularly in the vast deserts and tropical savannas) has been in areas that are remote from human population centers and recognized as relatively unmodified at global scale. In contrast to general patterns of extinction on other continents where the main cause is habitat loss, hunting, and impacts of human development, particularly in areas of high and increasing human population pressures, the loss of Australian land mammals is most likely due primarily to predation by introduced species, particularly the feral cat, Felis catus, and European red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and changed fire regimes.

  9. Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: Decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement

    PubMed Central

    Woinarski, John C. Z.; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Harrison, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    The highly distinctive and mostly endemic Australian land mammal fauna has suffered an extraordinary rate of extinction (>10% of the 273 endemic terrestrial species) over the last ∼200 y: in comparison, only one native land mammal from continental North America became extinct since European settlement. A further 21% of Australian endemic land mammal species are now assessed to be threatened, indicating that the rate of loss (of one to two extinctions per decade) is likely to continue. Australia’s marine mammals have fared better overall, but status assessment for them is seriously impeded by lack of information. Much of the loss of Australian land mammal fauna (particularly in the vast deserts and tropical savannas) has been in areas that are remote from human population centers and recognized as relatively unmodified at global scale. In contrast to general patterns of extinction on other continents where the main cause is habitat loss, hunting, and impacts of human development, particularly in areas of high and increasing human population pressures, the loss of Australian land mammals is most likely due primarily to predation by introduced species, particularly the feral cat, Felis catus, and European red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and changed fire regimes. PMID:25675493

  10. Hydrodynamic Flow Control in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-06

    Hydrodynamic flow control in marine mammals Frank E. Fish,1,* Laurens E. Howle† and Mark M. Murray§ Department of Biology, West Chester University...the flow of water around the body dictates the performance of marine mammals in the aquatic environment. Morphological specializations of marine mammals ...and maneuverability. The morphological features of marine mammals for flow control can be utilized in the biomimetic design of engineered structures

  11. A new early Oligocene mammal fauna from the Sirt Basin, central Libya: Biostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Pauline M. C.; Beard, K. Christopher; Salem, Mustafa J.; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Brunet, Michel; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    We report the discovery of a new early Oligocene vertebrate fauna from the vicinity of Zallah Oasis in the Sirt Basin of central Libya. The Zallah Incision local fauna has been recovered from the base of a fluvial channel within a rock unit that has been mapped as "Continental and Transitional Marine Deposits." This rock unit has produced fossil vertebrates sporadically since the 1960s, but the Zallah Incision local fauna is the most diverse assemblage of fossil mammals currently known from this unit. In addition to lower vertebrates, the fauna includes an indeterminate sirenian, the anthracothere Bothriogenys, a new species of the hyracoid genus Thyrohyrax, new species of the hystricognathous rodent genera Metaphiomys and Neophiomys, Metaphiomys schaubi, and a new species of the parapithecid primate genus Apidium. The Zallah Incision local fauna from Libya appears to be close in age to Fayum quarries V and G in the Jebel Qatrani Formation of Egypt and the Taqah locality in the Ashawq Formation of Oman. Considered together, these early Oligocene faunas support a modest level of faunal provincialism across the northern part of Afro-Arabia during the early Oligocene.

  12. 75 FR 38991 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ..., Conservation and Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315... is likely to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption...

  13. 77 FR 23547 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Columbia River Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Part 217 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Columbia River... Incidental to Columbia River Crossing Project, Washington and Oregon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Transit Authority (FTA) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), on behalf of the Columbia...

  14. Early cenozoic differentiation of polar marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Crame, J Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene) neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability.

  15. Early Cenozoic Differentiation of Polar Marine Faunas

    PubMed Central

    Crame, J. Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene – Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene) neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability. PMID:23342090

  16. Lung Mechanics in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    lung mechanics in vivo during spontaneous breathing (dynamic) and mechanical ventilation (static), and the static compliance of the excised lung after...to depth. Physiological Zoology, 1982. 55(1): p. 105-111. 6. Fahlman, A., et al., Estimating the effect of lung collapse and pulmonary shunt on gas...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Lung Mechanics in Marine Mammals Andreas Fahlman

  17. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products. 216.25 Section 216.25 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE...

  18. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products. 216.25 Section 216.25 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE...

  19. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products. 216.25 Section 216.25 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE...

  20. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products. 216.25 Section 216.25 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE...

  1. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products. 216.25 Section 216.25 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE...

  2. Marine Mammals and Stress Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    measuring indicators of stress, and 3) identify scientific or regional topics for future stress-related research involving marine mammals, including...concentrations vary by region of capture in free- ranging Steller sea lion pups”. Bechshoft, T., Sonne, C., Meyer, J.S., Novak, M.A., Henchey, E., Riget, F.F...concentrations vary by region of capture in free-ranging Steller sea lion pups.” 7. Bechshøft, Thea - “Cortisol in polar bear hair; results and applications

  3. 76 FR 41486 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility off...

  4. 76 FR 11205 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of a Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port in the... marine mammal species incidental to construction and operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG)...

  5. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  6. Health risks for marine mammal workers.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tania D; Ziccardi, Michael H; Gulland, Frances M D; Yochem, Pamela K; Hird, David W; Rowles, Teresa; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2008-08-19

    Marine mammals can be infected with zoonotic pathogens and show clinical signs of disease, or be asymptomatic carriers of such disease agents. While isolated cases of human disease from contact with marine mammals have been reported, no evaluation of the risks associated with marine mammal work has been attempted. Therefore, we designed a survey to estimate the risk of work-related injuries and illnesses in marine mammal workers and volunteers. The 17-question survey asked respondents to describe their contact with marine mammals, injuries sustained, and/or illnesses acquired during their period of marine mammal exposure. Most respondents, 88% (423/483), were researchers and rehabilitators. Of all respondents, 50% (243/483) reported suffering an injury caused by a marine mammal, and 23% (110/483) reported having a skin rash or reaction. Marine mammal work-related illnesses commonly reported included: 'seal finger' (Mycoplasma spp. or Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae), conjunctivitis, viral dermatitis, bacterial dermatitis, and non-specific contact dermatitis. Although specific diagnoses could not be confirmed by a physician through this study, severe illnesses were reported and included tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis, and serious sequelae to seal finger. Risk factors associated with increased odds of injury and illness included prolonged and frequent exposure to marine mammals; direct contact with live marine mammals; and contact with tissue, blood, and excretions. Diagnosis of zoonotic disease was often aided by veterinarians; therefore, workers at risk should be encouraged to consult with a marine mammal veterinarian as well as a physician, especially if obtaining a definitive diagnosis for an illness becomes problematic.

  7. MARINE MAMMAL DISEASES: PATHOGENS AND PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide a concise overview of the pathogens and processes that alter the health of marine mammals. Viral disease is the most common etiology of significant mortality events in marine mammals. Discussion of viral disease focuses on effects in the ...

  8. 76 FR 9250 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... marine mammal and sound research (funded by the Navy or otherwise) Any verified information which reveals... the shelf break, sea surface temperature (SST), and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration was formulated... mammals to levels of sound likely to result in injury or death of marine mammals; (3) several...

  9. 77 FR 25145 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ....D., Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua... conduct acoustic studies on captive marine mammals at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology through...

  10. Marine mammals from the Miocene of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhen, Mark D.; Coates, Anthony G.; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Montes, Camilo; Pimiento, Catalina; Rincon, Aldo; Strong, Nikki; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Panama has produced an abundance of Neogene marine fossils both invertebrate (mollusks, corals, microfossils etc.) and vertebrate (fish, land mammals etc.), but marine mammals have not been previously reported. Here we describe a cetacean thoracic vertebra from the late Miocene Tobabe Formation, a partial cetacean rib from the late Miocene Gatun Formation, and a sirenian caudal vertebra and rib fragments from the early Miocene Culebra Formation. These finds suggest that Central America may yet provide additional fossil marine mammal specimens that will help us to understand the evolution, and particularly the biogeography of these groups.

  11. 78 FR 37209 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC564 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea,...

  12. 75 FR 49709 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 8 species of marine mammals incidental to a marine survey program, which includes site clearance and shallow hazards, ice gouge, and strudel scour surveys,......

  13. 75 FR 49759 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Statoil USA E&P Inc. (Statoil) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 12 species of marine mammals incidental to a marine seismic survey program in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2010 Arctic open water...

  14. 76 FR 13130 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Polar Bear Captures AGENCY: National Marine..., incidental to a capture-recapture program of polar bears in the U.S. Chukchi Sea. DATES: Effective March 14... taking, by harassment, of marine mammals incidental to a capture-recapture program of polar bears in...

  15. 76 FR 330 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Polar Bear Captures AGENCY: National Marine...) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to a capture- recapture program of polar bears in...-recapture program of polar bears in the U.S. Chukchi Sea. NMFS reviewed the USFWS' application...

  16. 77 FR 65059 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to ION Geophysical (ION) to take, by harassment, small numbers of nine species of marine mammals incidental to in-ice marine seismic surveys in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, Alaska, during the fall and winter of...

  17. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    PubMed

    Magera, Anna M; Mills Flemming, Joanna E; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B; Lotze, Heike K

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased study of

  18. Recovery Trends in Marine Mammal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Magera, Anna M.; Mills Flemming, Joanna E.; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B.; Lotze, Heike K.

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased

  19. Establishing a Marine Mammal Stranding Network in the Bahamas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Marine Mammal Stranding Network in the Bahamas Diane Elaine Claridge Bahamas Marine Mammal Research Organisation P.O. Box AB...are to establish a marine mammal stranding network in the Bahamas to better understand the conservation needs of marine mammals in the Bahamas, with...well as the biology of marine mammals . The stranding network will be structured so that it will become self-sufficient and able to continue into

  20. 76 FR 28423 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14259

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA150 Marine Mammals; File No. 14259 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., analyze, and archive marine mammal parts for scientific research. ADDRESSES: The permit and...

  1. 75 FR 23241 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... harvests; from marine mammals caught incidental to fisheries; or from animals in foreign countries... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW11 Marine Mammals; File No. 14514 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  2. 78 FR 23746 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17298

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC218 Marine Mammals; File No. 17298 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., export, and receive marine mammal parts for scientific research. ADDRESSES: The permit and...

  3. 77 FR 19649 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648- XA938 Marine Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... 59851 to receive, import, export, and possess marine mammal specimens for scientific research....

  4. 77 FR 48967 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17350

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... marine mammals of the following species: bearded seal (Erignathus ] barbatus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC067 Marine Mammals; File No. 17350 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  5. 78 FR 18965 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi Sea... harassment, incidental to conducting offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in... small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting offshore exploration...

  6. 76 FR 68974 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  7. 78 FR 12541 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...NMFS received an application from ConocoPhillips Company (COP) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to COP to take, by......

  8. 77 FR 40007 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BP) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 10 species of marine mammals incidental to ocean bottom cable (OBC) seismic surveys in the Simpson Lagoon area of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, during the......

  9. 76 FR 46729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Statoil USA E&P Inc. (Statoil) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 13 species of marine mammals incidental to shallow hazards and geotechnical surveys in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2011 Arctic open-water...

  10. 78 FR 57368 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... accordance with regulations issued under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, as amended, we hereby give... Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar within the northwest...

  11. 77 FR 51969 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), as amended, and implementing regulations... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar operations to the Chief of Naval Operations, Department...

  12. 75 FR 51443 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), as amended, and implementing regulations... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar operations to the Chief of Naval Operations, Department...

  13. 76 FR 51352 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), as amended, and implementing regulations... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar operations to the Chief of Naval Operations, Department...

  14. 77 FR 27321 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Gulf of Mexico Inc. (Shell) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea,...

  15. 77 FR 27283 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Beaufort Sea,...

  16. 76 FR 32222 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal.... 27787A Virginia Aquarium & 76 FR 2408; January February 15, 2011. Marine Science 13, 2011. Center....

  17. 77 FR 74507 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal... Gary Benmark 77 FR 41198; July 12, 2012 August 18, 2012. 045532 NOAA/National Marine 77 FR 41198;...

  18. 77 FR 56613 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ...-XB042 Marine Mammals; File No. 16325 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Holway Avenue, Provincetown, MA 02657 to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act...

  19. Influenza Virus Infection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, Sasan; Munoz, Olga; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; De Nardi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Interspecies transmission may play a key role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. The importance of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 influenza viruses is not well understood. The fact that influenza viruses are some of the few zoonotic pathogens known to have caused infection in marine mammals, evidence for direct transmission of influenza A virus H7N7 subtype from seals to man, transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses to seals and also limited evidence for long-term persistence of influenza B viruses in seal populations without significant genetic change, makes monitoring of influenza viruses in marine mammal populations worth being performed. In addition, such monitoring studies could be a great tool to better understand the ecology of influenza viruses in nature.

  20. 77 FR 21539 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Sturgeon Research in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB094 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Sturgeon Research in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... of marine mammals incidental to conducting sturgeon research in the Gulf of Mexico, over the...

  1. Molecular profiling of marine fauna: integration of omics with environmental assessment of the world's oceans.

    PubMed

    Veldhoen, Nik; Ikonomou, Michael G; Helbing, Caren C

    2012-02-01

    Many species that contribute to the commercial and ecological richness of our marine ecosystems are harbingers of environmental change. The ability of organisms to rapidly detect and respond to changes in the surrounding environment represents the foundation for application of molecular profiling technologies towards marine sentinel species in an attempt to identify signature profiles that may reside within the transcriptome, proteome, or metabolome and that are indicative of a particular environmental exposure event. The current review highlights recent examples of the biological information obtained for marine sentinel teleosts, mammals, and invertebrates. While in its infancy, such basal information can provide a systems biology framework in the detection and evaluation of environmental chemical contaminant effects on marine fauna. Repeated evaluation across different seasons and local marine environs will lead to discrimination between signature profiles representing normal variation within the complex milieu of environmental factors that trigger biological response in a given sentinel species and permit a greater understanding of normal versus anthropogenic-associated modulation of biological pathways, which prove detrimental to marine fauna. It is anticipated that incorporation of contaminant-specific molecular signatures into current risk assessment paradigms will lead to enhanced wildlife management strategies that minimize the impacts of our industrialized society on marine ecosystems.

  2. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Sipuncula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Edward B.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Key to Sipuncula (Peanut Worms); (3) Annotated Systematic List of Species;…

  3. 77 FR 29969 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...As required by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS has incorporated public comments into revisions of marine mammal stock assessment reports (SARs). The 2011 reports are final and available to the...

  4. Predictive Spatial Analysis of Marine Mammal Habitats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED... type of platform, begin/end date and number of marine mammals observed. Provider identifiers correspond to Dalhousie University (DU), Duke University...select the preferred color-coding option from “Output type .”........................................................................................43

  5. Classification and identification of marine mammals by their click signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goo, Gee-In

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, the author presents recent findings of applying passive Broadband Bionic Sonar technique to same data files with marine mammal "clicks". Using a resonance detection technique, a number of data files with mammal clicks were analyzed. From these data files, many unique mammal "click" signatures were observed. These results seem to indicate that individual marine mammals can be classified and possibly identified.

  6. 75 FR 16754 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air... testing and training during Precision Strike Weapons (PSW) tests in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), a...

  7. 76 FR 7548 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air... testing and training during Precision Strike Weapons (PSW) testing and training in the Gulf of Mexico...

  8. Improving Visual Survey Capabilities for Marine Mammal Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Improving visual survey capabilities for marine mammal...information on the occurrence, abundance, and status of marine mammals is typically derived from visual surveys, and data from such surveys are most often...ONR Marine Mammals and Biology (MMB) program has funded a project to conduct marine mammal visual surveys in the Bay of Bengal as part of the ONR

  9. Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pompa, Sandra; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    We identified 20 global key conservation sites for all marine (123) and freshwater (6) mammal species based on their geographic ranges. We created geographic range maps for all 129 species and a Geographic Information System database for a 46,184 1° x 1° grid-cells, ∼10,000-km2. Patterns of species richness, endemism, and risk were variable among all species and species groups. Interestingly, marine mammal species richness was correlated strongly with areas of human impact across the oceans. Key conservation sites in the global geographic grid were determined either by their species richness or by their irreplaceability or uniqueness, because of the presence of endemic species. Nine key conservation sites, comprising the 2.5% of the grid cells with the highest species richness, were found, mostly in temperate latitudes, and hold 84% of marine mammal species. In addition, we identified 11 irreplaceable key conservation sites, six of which were found in freshwater bodies and five in marine regions. These key conservation sites represent critical areas of conservation value at a global level and can serve as a first step for adopting global strategies with explicit geographic conservation targets for Marine Protected Areas. PMID:21808012

  10. 76 FR 57758 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Service (Service), have issued the following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish...

  11. 75 FR 12734 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... repair and maintenance; and emergency and oil spill response training. Sections 1 and 2 of BP's... occurrence of oil spills. Petroleum development and associated activities in marine waters introduce sound... NMFS, BP requests authorization to take marine mammals incidental to operation of offshore oil and...

  12. 78 FR 25703 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Fisheries Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... (off the U.S. west coast), the Eastern Tropical Pacific Research Area, and the Antarctic Research Area (in the Antarctic Scotia Sea). It is possible that marine mammals may interact with fishing gear (e.g... and treaties related to the management of living marine resources in international waters outside...

  13. 76 FR 43639 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Liquefied Natural Gas Port Facility in Massachusetts Bay AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to operating a liquefied natural gas (LNG) port facility... diameter natural gas pipeline which interconnects the Port to an offshore natural gas pipeline known as...

  14. 76 FR 7824 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1791

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ...D, Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, Hawaii... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA197 Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1791 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  15. 77 FR 13295 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... E. Nachtigall, Ph.D., Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA384 Marine Mammals; File No. 16053 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  16. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE...

  17. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE...

  18. Marine Mammals in the Mediterranean Sea: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Notarbartolo di Sciara, G

    Despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the Mediterranean Sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. Species currently recognised as regular in the Mediterranean-the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus; Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis; long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas; Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus; killer whale, Orcinus orca; striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba; rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis; common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus; harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena relicta) have adapted well to the region's environmental conditions, but their coexistence with humans is problematic. All the regular species are represented in the Mediterranean by populations genetically distinct from their North Atlantic relatives. Seventeen other species (three pinnipeds and 14 cetaceans) occur or have occurred in the Mediterranean as vagrants from adjacent regions. Impacts on the conservation status of marine mammals in the region deriving from a variety of threats include: (a) mortality caused by deliberate killing (to a large extent resulting from fisheries interactions), naval sonar, ship strikes, epizootics, fisheries bycatch, chemical pollution and ingestion of solid debris; (b) short-term redistribution caused by naval sonar, seismic surveys, vessel disturbance and vessel noise; and (c) long-term redistribution caused by fishery-induced food depletion, coastal development and possibly climate change. Accordingly, seven of the 12 marine mammals regular in the Mediterranean region are listed as Threatened on IUCN's Red List; regrettably, three are Data Deficient and two remain unassessed.

  19. Studies of Noise Compensation in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    sound by marine mammals. OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this project is to test hypotheses regarding right whale vocal adjustment to...were fully tested by collecting data of exhibit noise and calls from beluga whales at the Mystic Aquarium to determine if captive beluga whales ...measurements have been obtained for the noise floor for the each recorder. Recordings of beluga whales were collected at Mystic Aquarium in 2010 (Figure 1

  20. 76 FR 19976 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648- XA352 Marine Mammals; File No. 15537 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of an Environmental Assessment. SUMMARY: The National Marine...

  1. 75 FR 40776 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14097

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX47 Marine Mammals; File No. 14097 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; issuance of permit. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that National Marine...

  2. A comparative analysis of marine mammal tracheas.

    PubMed

    Moore, Colby; Moore, Michael; Trumble, Stephen; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; McLellan, William; Costidis, Alexander; Fahlman, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In 1940, Scholander suggested that stiffened upper airways remained open and received air from highly compressible alveoli during marine mammal diving. There are few data available on the structural and functional adaptations of the marine mammal respiratory system. The aim of this research was to investigate the anatomical (gross) and structural (compliance) characteristics of excised marine mammal tracheas. Here, we defined different types of tracheal structures, categorizing pinniped tracheas by varying degrees of continuity of cartilage (categories 1-4) and cetacean tracheas by varying compliance values (categories 5A and 5B). Some tracheas fell into more than one category along their length; for example, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) demonstrated complete rings cranially, and as the trachea progressed caudally, tracheal rings changed morphology. Dolphins and porpoises had less stiff, more compliant spiraling rings while beaked whales had very stiff, less compliant spiraling rings. The pressure-volume (P-V) relationships of isolated tracheas from different species were measured to assess structural differences between species. These findings lend evidence for pressure-induced collapse and re-inflation of lungs, perhaps influencing variability in dive depth or ventilation rates of the species investigated.

  3. Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, C. B.; Finlayson, J. C.; Barton, R. N. E.; Fernández-Jalvo, Y.; Cáceres, I.; Sabin, R. C.; Rhodes, E. J.; Currant, A. P.; Rodríguez-Vidal, J.; Giles-Pacheco, F.; Riquelme-Cantal, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two coastal sites in Gibraltar, Vanguard and Gorham's Caves, located at Governor's Beach on the eastern side of the Rock, are especially relevant to the study of Neanderthals. Vanguard Cave provides evidence of marine food supply (mollusks, seal, dolphin, and fish). Further evidence of marine mammal remains was also found in the occupation levels at Gorham's Cave associated with Upper Paleolithic and Mousterian technologies [Finlayson C, et al. (2006) Nature 443:850–853]. The stratigraphic sequence of Gibraltar sites allows us to compare behaviors and subsistence strategies of Neanderthals during the Middle Paleolithic observed at Vanguard and Gorham's Cave sites. This evidence suggests that such use of marine resources was not a rare behavior and represents focused visits to the coast and estuaries. PMID:18809913

  4. 75 FR 78228 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Columbia River Crossing Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ..., Permits, Conservation and Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries... to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of...

  5. Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied.

  6. 77 FR 3495 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...; FXIA16710900000P5-123-FF09A30000] Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), have issued the following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine...

  7. 77 FR 19004 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16621

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ...-XA915 Marine Mammals; File No. 16621 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... is hereby given that a permit has been issued to Alejandro Acevedo-Guti[eacute]rrez, Ph.D., Biology... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...

  8. 77 FR 73988 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17152

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC136 Marine Mammals; File No. 17152 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and...

  9. 75 FR 55738 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15654

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY93 Marine Mammals; File No. 15654 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16...

  10. 77 FR 20793 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16599

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals; File No. 16599 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego,...

  11. 77 FR 36488 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17350

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC067 Marine Mammals; File No. 17350 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... receive marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must...

  12. 76 FR 59663 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16472

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA576 Marine Mammals; File No. 16472 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., (Responsible Party: George Watters, PhD, Director) to take marine mammals for scientific research....

  13. 77 FR 32081 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17236

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC050 Marine Mammals; File No. 17236 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal...

  14. 76 FR 4867 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15453

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA172 Marine Mammals; File No. 15453 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16...

  15. 76 FR 48146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15330

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA160 Marine Mammals; File No. 15330 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Robin Baird, PhD, Cascadia Research, 218\\1/2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501 to take marine mammals...

  16. 75 FR 14425 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14486

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT56 Marine Mammals; File No. 14486 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... issued a permit to receive, import, and export marine mammal parts for purposes of scientific...

  17. 75 FR 76956 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15415

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA076 Marine Mammals; File No. 15415 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  18. 77 FR 19648 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16094

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA599 Marine Mammals; File No. 16094 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and...

  19. 77 FR 19645 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16111

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA626 Marine Mammals; File No. 16111 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... form for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email...

  20. 76 FR 70418 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16124

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA817 Marine Mammals; File No. 16124 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  1. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF...

  2. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF...

  3. 76 FR 43988 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14525

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ86 Marine Mammals; File No. 14525 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...), 16111 Plummer St., North Hills, CA 91343, to import and export marine mammal specimens for...

  4. 75 FR 28239 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... marine mammal public display facility in the states of Mississippi and Alabama. The receiving facility... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW51 Marine Mammals; File No. 15537 AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Institute for Marine...

  5. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF...

  6. 78 FR 42041 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC100 Marine Mammals; File No. 17115 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...-00 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16...

  7. 77 FR 4013 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15126

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals; File No. 15126 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Permit No. 15126-01 has been issued to NMFS National Marine Mammal Laboratory (Responsible Party:...

  8. Viruses and virus diseases of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Skilling, D E

    1979-11-01

    Poxvirus and several serotypes of calicivirus cause recognizable disease in marine mammals. Pox lesions in pinnipeds are raised and proliferative and are seen most frequently after confinement in captivity. In cetaceans, a poxvirus is associated with a much more benign and chronic lesion called a "tattoo." Numerous caliciviruses of differing antigenic types have been isolated from vesicular lesions and aborted fetuses of northern fur seals and California sea lions as well as from clinically normal and orphaned northern elephant seal pups. An adenovirus has been isolated from a sei whale and an enterovirus has been isolated from a gray whale.

  9. [Problems of disposal of dead marine mammals].

    PubMed

    Stede, M

    1997-07-01

    Feasibilities and limits to dispose stranded large whales and the risk of the staff during the salvage and dissection of these animals are described here. The influence on the environment by leaving large marine mammals in the place of stranding are exemplary discussed in connection with the accumulation of toxins of Clostridium botulinum in the food chain as a source of danger for water fowls of the coastal region. Therefore carcasses of whales must be removed from the shore after their stranding. Under special circumstances the carcasses could be lowered into a dune.

  10. 78 FR 56659 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...NMFS has received a request from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for authorization to take marine mammals incidental to construction activities as part of a pier maintenance project. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting public comment on its proposal to issue an incidental harassment authorization (IHA) to the Navy to take, by harassment only, two species of marine......

  11. 75 FR 5045 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... of detecting differences in temperature from thermal energy (heat) radiated from living bodies or... combination with remotely sensed habitat parameters (i.e., sea surface temperature and chlorophyll), these... DPI to marine mammals is considered highly unlikely. Therefore, the risk of injury or mortality is...

  12. 76 FR 3092 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Mission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Mission Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City... Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division (NSWC PCD) to the Commander, U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division, 110 Vernon Avenue, Panama City, FL 32407-7001 and persons...

  13. 76 FR 4093 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Exploration Drilling Programs in the Chukchi and.... (Shell) incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the... IHAs were not issued, and Shell did not conduct the proposed exploration drilling programs in...

  14. 78 FR 24731 - Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi Sea... drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2014 open-water... exploration drilling in the Chukchi Sea during the 2014 open- ] water season. NMFS published a Notice...

  15. 77 FR 46733 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... incidental to mine neutralization training using Time Delay Firing Devices (TDFDs) within the MIRC, along...). The potential effects of mine neutralization training on marine mammals were comprehensively analyzed in the final regulations for this Range Complex and mine neutralization training has been included...

  16. 75 FR 41440 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... vessels will cease any movement in the area if a marine mammal other than a right whale is sighted within... cease any movement in the construction area if a right whale is sighted within or approaching to a... movement. (D) The material barges and tugs used for repair work shall transit from the operations dock...

  17. 76 FR 43267 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... by causing disruption of natural behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration... optical and electronic sensors are also employed for target clearance. If any marine mammals are detected... sensors (IR), and visual means. An alternative area would be selected if any cetaceans or vessels...

  18. 75 FR 34428 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... explosives. Summary of Activity under the 2009 LOA As described in the Navy's exercise reports, in 2009, the... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises in Three East Coast Range Complexes AGENCY: National... the U.S. Navy's training activities within the Navy's Virginia Capes (VACAPES), Jacksonville...

  19. 76 FR 33266 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... exercise reports for VACAPES, JAX, and CHPT Range Complexes, in 2010, the training activities conducted by... detailed description of the Navy's 2010 training activities can be found in the exercise reports posted on... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises in Three East Coast Range Complexes AGENCY:...

  20. 78 FR 22095 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... marine mammals because sound levels would not reach NMFS threshold criteria underwater and there are no... reduce sound levels by up to 10 decibels (dB). The concrete pilings installed landward of the temporary... Puget Sound. The inner bay receives fresh water from the Duwamish River and most of the...

  1. 77 FR 51773 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... retinal injury. Biosonics Up to three Bird-Guard broadcasting units (bird distress calls) could be used to... distress and predator calls could be used. The bird calls are naturally occurring sounds and are not... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Bird Mitigation Research in the Farallon...

  2. 78 FR 35851 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Sources The acoustic sources of primary concern are the airguns that will be deployed from the seismic... on Marine Mammals Operating active acoustic sources such as airgun arrays, navigational sonars, and... desirable acoustic environment; and Cease feeding or social interaction. For example, at the Guerreo...

  3. 75 FR 28587 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    .... The launch azimuths caused the vehicles to pass over or near various pinniped monitoring and acoustic measurement sites where Autonomous Terrestrial Acoustic Recorders (ATARs) and video systems had been deployed... operations from SNI on marine mammals involve both acoustic and non-acoustic effects. Acoustic effects...

  4. 76 FR 39705 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... continuing operations at Northstar on marine mammals involve both non-acoustic and acoustic effects. Potential non-acoustic effects could result from the physical presence of personnel, structures and... production activities at Northstar, sounds and non-acoustic stimuli will be generated by vehicle...

  5. 77 FR 9628 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Mission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... sea turtle species during pre-test, during-test, and post-test monitoring for both sonar events. No stranded or injured marine mammals or sea turtles were observed during either aerial monitoring effort... Atlantic spotted dolphins; and seven groups of unidentified dolphins. The second monitoring event...

  6. 77 FR 23463 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch Operations at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska... two species of pinnipeds incidental to space vehicle and missile launch operations at the Kodiak... vitulina) (adults by harassment and pups by injury or mortality), incidental to space vehicle and...

  7. 78 FR 43861 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...-range ballistic target missiles, and other smaller missile systems at the KLC. The AAC has complied with... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch Operations at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska... two species of pinnipeds incidental to space vehicle and missile launch operations at the...

  8. 77 FR 73986 - Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    .... Other marine mammals that may be harassed during surveys include: California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), harbor seals, common dolphins (Delphinus delphis and D. capensis), and Risso's dolphins...

  9. Bacteria and fungi of marine mammals: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R

    2000-01-01

    A list of the different bacterial and fungal agents isolated from marine mammals in different parts of the world is presented. Importance is given to some of the most recently identified bacterial agents, including Actinobacillus delphinicola, A. scotiae, and Brucella spp. A list, in alphabetical order, of bacteria recovered from different tissues or organs from marine mammals is presented for the integumentary, respiratory, digestive, genitourinary, and reticuloendothelial systems. Infectious bacterial agents associated with abscesses and with cases of septicemia are also listed. Information about the different fungal agents recovered from marine mammals is summarized. A section covering some of the zoonotic infectious agents recovered from marine mammals is included. PMID:10723596

  10. 77 FR 31835 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16580

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... objectives of the proposed research are to examine reproductive, nutritional and stress physiology, and... scientists in academic, federal, and state institutions involved in legally authorized marine mammal...

  11. 77 FR 3233 - National Policy for Distinguishing Serious From Non-Serious Injuries of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...-serious injuries of marine mammals. The Directives provide technical guidance for analyzing marine mammal... results into marine mammal stock assessment reports and marine mammal conservation management regimes (e.g... technical guidance for analyzing marine mammal injury reports and incorporating the results into...

  12. 75 FR 50748 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW11 Marine Mammals; File No. 14514 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., Aquatic Animal Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 (Ruth...

  13. 76 FR 81916 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16685

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA772 Marine Mammals; File No. 16685 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  14. 77 FR 33197 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14334

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals; File No. 14334 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  15. 77 FR 54902 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17278

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC095 Marine Mammals; File No. 17278 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  16. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14329

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; File No. 14329 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION:...

  17. 78 FR 39713 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17751

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC580 Marine Mammals; File No. 17751 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  18. 78 FR 28809 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17410

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC210 Marine Mammals; File No. 17410 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  19. 77 FR 34352 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB139 Marine Mammals; File No. 17178 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  20. 78 FR 42757 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17411

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC541 Marine Mammals; File No. 17411 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  1. 76 FR 32144 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ51 Marine Mammals; File No. 15543 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  2. 78 FR 25425 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16388

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB154 Marine Mammals; File No. 16388 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  3. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15682

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA888 Marine Mammals; File No. 15682 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  4. 75 FR 49465 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14682

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY09 Marine Mammals; File No. 14682 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  5. 75 FR 39665 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14791

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX38 Marine Mammals; File No. 14791 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  6. 78 FR 33071 - Marine Mammals; File No. 10018

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA833 Marine Mammals; File No. 10018 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  7. 77 FR 72829 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16305

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA807-X Marine Mammals; File No. 16305 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  8. 77 FR 38587 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC010 Marine Mammals; File No. 14325 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  9. 77 FR 50472 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA288 Marine Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  10. 78 FR 51146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14535

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB161 Marine Mammals; File No. 14535 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  11. 77 FR 33198 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17159

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB110 Marine Mammals; File No. 17159 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  12. 77 FR 21753 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA936 Marine Mammals; File No. 17011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  13. 77 FR 47045 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16580

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB158 Marine Mammals; File No. 16580 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  14. 75 FR 36064 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14186

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XM26 Marine Mammals; File No. 14186 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  15. 76 FR 67151 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13927

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA774 Marine Mammals; File No. 13927 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  16. 75 FR 39665 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14534

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals; File No. 14534 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  17. 75 FR 67347 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14326

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA009 Marine Mammals; File No. 14326 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  18. 75 FR 8303 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13430

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK26 Marine Mammals; File No. 13430 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  19. 78 FR 49479 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17996

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC614 Marine Mammals; File No. 17996 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  20. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA288 Marine Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  1. 77 FR 58357 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17355

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC239 Marine Mammals; File No. 17355 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the National...

  2. 76 FR 37063 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16510

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA503 Marine Mammals; File No. 16510 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...-8401. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the...

  3. 76 FR 13605 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15616

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA123 Marine Mammals; File No. 15616 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  4. Predation selectively culls medium-sized species from island mammal faunas.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Emily; Cardillo, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Globally, elevated extinction risk in mammals is strongly associated with large body size. However, in regions where introduced predators exert strong top-down pressure on mammal populations, the selectivity of extinctions may be skewed towards species of intermediate body size, leading to a hump-shaped relationship between size and extinction risk. The existence of this kind of extinction pattern, and its link to predation, has been contentious and difficult to demonstrate. Here, we test the hypothesis of a hump-shaped body size-extinction relationship, using a database of 927 island mammal populations. We show that the size-selectivity of extinctions on many islands has exceeded that expected under null models. On islands with introduced predators, extinctions are biased towards intermediate body sizes, but this bias does not occur on islands without predators. Hence, on islands with a large-bodied mammal fauna, predators are selectively culling species from the lower end of the size distribution, and on islands with a small-bodied fauna they are culling species from the upper end. These findings suggest that it will be difficult to use predictable generalizations about extinction patterns, such as a positive body size-extinction risk association, to anticipate future species declines and plan conservation strategies accordingly.

  5. Marine mammal zoonoses: a review of disease manifestations.

    PubMed

    Waltzek, T B; Cortés-Hinojosa, G; Wellehan, J F X; Gray, Gregory C

    2012-12-01

    Marine mammals evoke strong public affection as well as considerable scientific interest. However, the resultant close contact with marine wildlife poses human health risks, including traumatic injury and zoonotic disease transmission. The majority of zoonotic marine mammal diseases result in localized skin infections in man that resolve spontaneously or with appropriate medical therapy. However, other marine mammal zoonoses, if left untreated, induce life-threatening systemic diseases that could pose public health risks. As the number of zoonotic diseases rises, the diagnosis of and treatment for these emerging pathogens pose special challenges requiring the expertise of physicians, veterinarians and wildlife biologists. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the bacterial, viral and fungal marine mammal zoonotic diseases that we hope will be utilized by public health professionals, physicians, veterinarians and wildlife biologists to better understand, diagnose and prevent marine mammal zoonotic diseases.

  6. Bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora and fauna.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen-Fang; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2012-09-01

    In recent decades, the pharmaceutical application potential of marine natural products has attracted much interest from both natural product chemists and pharmacologists. Our group has long been engaged in the search for bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora (such as mangroves and algae) and fauna (including sponges, soft corals, and mollusks), resulting in the isolation and characterization of numerous novel secondary metabolites spanning a wide range of structural classes and various biosynthetic origins. Of particular interest is the fact that many of these compounds show promising biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, and enzyme inhibitory effects. By describing representative studies, this review presents a comprehensive summary regarding the achievements and progress made by our group in the past decade. Several interesting examples are discussed in detail.

  7. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna

    PubMed Central

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I.; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L. Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-01-01

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic–biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night. PMID:27680661

  8. 76 FR 7823 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13602

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals; File No. 13602 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., Long Marine Lab, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California at Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer...

  9. 75 FR 28236 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13602

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals; File No. 13602 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce.... Terrie Williams, Long Marine Lab, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California at Santa...

  10. 77 FR 300 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have issued the following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act...

  11. 78 FR 39258 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17355

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...; Principal Investigator: Peter Corkeron] to conduct research on marine mammals and sea turtles. ADDRESSES... (77 FR 58357) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals and sea turtles had... turtles in the U.S. EEZ from Florida to Maine and Canadian waters in the Bay of Fundy and Scotian...

  12. 78 FR 1941 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339, 24 hours a day... potential to injure a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild'' [the MMPA calls this Level A..., breeding, feeding, or sheltering'' [the MMPA calls this Level B harassment] (16 U.S.C. 1362). The...

  13. 78 FR 15669 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... fjords that do not have specific rules regarding approaches to seals, and a recent study indicates that... regulations for vessel approaches to marine mammals, pursuant sections 112(a) of the MMPA and 11(f) of the ESA... the regulations. To date, NMFS has regulated close vessel approaches to marine mammals in...

  14. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals.

  15. Round table on morbilliviruses in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Barrett, T; Blixenkrone-Møller, M; Domingo, M; Harder, T; Have, P; Liess, B; Orvell, C; Osterhaus, A D; Plana, J; Svansson, V

    1992-11-01

    Since 1988 morbilliviruses have been increasingly recognized and held responsible for mass mortality amongst harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and other seal species. Virus isolations and characterization proved that morbilliviruses from seals in Northwest Europe were genetically distinct from other known members of this group including canine distemper virus (CDV), rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus and measles virus. An epidemic in Baikal seals in 1987 was apparently caused by a morbillivirus closely related to CDV so that two morbilliviruses have now been identified in two geographically distant seal populations, with only the group of isolates from Northwest Europe forming a new member of the genus morbillivirus: phocid distemper virus (PDV). Because of distemper-like disease, the Baikal seal morbillivirus was tentatively named PDV-2 in spite of its possible identity with CDV. The appearance of morbilliviruses in the Mediterranean Sea causing high mortality amongst dolphins should further increase the research activities on protection strategies for endangered species of marine mammals.

  16. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (< 0.1 microgram/g), followed by ringed seal, (0.1-1 microgram/g range). Levels are an order of magnitude higher in beluga and narwhal (1-10 micrograms/g range). It appears that metabolism and excretion of S-DDT and PCBs may be less efficient in cetaceans, leading to greater biomagnification. Polar bears have similar levels of PCBs as cetaceans (1-10 micrograms/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are lowest in polar bear, indicating rapid metabolism. Effects of age and sex on residue levels are found for all species where this was measured. Among cetaceans and ringed seal, sexually mature females have lower levels than males due to lactation. Although PCB levels in adult male polar bears are about twice as high as females, there is only a trivial age effect in either sex apart from an initial decrease from birth to sexual maturity (age 0-5). Comparison of levels of S-DDT and PCBs in Arctic beluga and ringed seal with those in beluga in the Gulf of St

  17. Marine mammal harvests and other interactions with humans.

    PubMed

    Hovelsrud, Grete K; McKenna, Meghan; Huntington, Henry P

    2008-03-01

    The Arctic is currently undergoing rapid social and environmental changes, and while the peoples of the north have a long history of adapting, the current changes in climate pose unprecedented challenges to the marine mammal-human interactions in the Arctic regions. Arctic marine mammals have been and remain an important resource for many of the indigenous and nonindigenous people of the north. Changes in climate are likely to bring about profound changes to the environment in which these animals live and subsequently to the hunting practices and livelihoods of the people who hunt them. Climate change will lead to reduction in the sea ice extent and thickness and will likely increase shipping through the Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage and oil and gas activities in Arctic areas previously inaccessible. Such activities will lead to more frequent interactions between humans and marine mammals. These activities may also change the distribution of marine mammals, affecting the hunters. This paper has three parts. First, an overview of marine mammal harvesting activities in the different circumpolar regions provides a snapshot of current practices and conditions. Second, case studies of selected Arctic regions, indigenous groups, and species provide insight into the manner in which climate change is already impacting marine mammal harvesting activities in the Arctic. Third, we describe how climate change is likely to affect shipping and oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Arctic and describe the possible implications of these changes for the marine mammal populations. We conclude that many of the consequences of climate change are likely to be negative for marine mammal hunters and for marine mammals. Lack of adequate baseline data, however, makes it difficult to identify specific causal mechanisms and thus to develop appropriate conservation measures. Nonetheless, the future of Arctic marine mammals and human uses of them depends on

  18. Marine mammal audibility of selected shallow-water survey sources.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, Alexander O; Racca, Roberto; Li, Zizheng

    2014-01-01

    Most attention about the acoustic effects of marine survey sound sources on marine mammals has focused on airgun arrays, with other common sources receiving less scrutiny. Sound levels above hearing threshold (sensation levels) were modeled for six marine mammal species and seven different survey sources in shallow water. The model indicated that odontocetes were most likely to hear sounds from mid-frequency sources (fishery, communication, and hydrographic systems), mysticetes from low-frequency sources (sub-bottom profiler and airguns), and pinnipeds from both mid- and low-frequency sources. High-frequency sources (side-scan and multibeam) generated the lowest estimated sensation levels for all marine mammal species groups.

  19. Annual report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1984. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-31

    Contents include: reauthorization and amendment of the Marine Mammal Protection Act; research and studies program; international aspects of marine mammal protection and conservation; marine mammal/fishery interactions; incidental take of marine mammals in the course of commercial fishing operations; species of special concern; marine mammal management in Alaska; Outer Continental Shelf oil, gas, and hard minerals development; marine mammal maintenance standards and regulations; permit process.

  20. 76 FR 53884 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... Array Sensor System (SURTASS) Low Frequency Active (LFA) sonar for the period beginning August 2012 and ending August 2017. Pursuant to the implementing regulations of the Marine Mammal Protection Act...

  1. Dynamic Energy Budgets and Bioaccumulation: A Model for Marine Mammals and Marine Mammal Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    extensively used in medicine to determine proper drug dosage (e.g. Levin et al 1982, Nestorov 2003 (review)) and ecology to determine effects of exposure to...5 2.9.3 Pharmacokinetics (DLs and CI) ...................... 85 3 Bioaccumulation and effects of exposure in marine mammal popu- lations 87 3.1...97 3.2.4 The individual-based model ...... ................... 98 3.3 Results ......... ................................... 103 3.3.1 Effects of

  2. Assessment of Vocal Adaptations for Noise Compensation in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    provide effective means of improving signal transmission in a noisy marine environment and for assessing the impact of man- made sounds on the use of... sound by marine mammals. OBJECTIVES The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) generate testable hypotheses of general vocal responses of marine...mammals to particular noise types; and 2) test these hypotheses with data from two low-frequency baleen whale species in coastal shallow water

  3. Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    of marine anthropogenic sound in Bristol , United Kingdom, in February 2012 and a workshop on managing risk to marine mammals from marine renewables...collecting data on bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay , Florida in 1970. Eight databases contain information that may inform models of population-level

  4. 75 FR 1029 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14486

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...: 2010-139] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT56 Marine Mammals; File No. 14486 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., Responsible Party), has applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, and export marine...

  5. 77 FR 58358 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14097

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX47 Marine Mammals; File No. 14097 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Permit No. 14097-01 has been issued to National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries...

  6. 77 FR 3744 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA938 Marine Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, export, possess, and conduct analyses marine...

  7. 76 FR 10560 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15530

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA160 Marine Mammals; File No. 15530 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Research, 218 W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine...

  8. 77 FR 60107 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17298

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC218 Marine Mammals; File No. 17298 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., Connecticut 06355 , has applied in due form for a permit to collect, import, export, and receive marine...

  9. 75 FR 38988 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14636

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV90 Marine Mammals; File No. 14636 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...., University of California at Santa Cruz, Long Marine Laboratory, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA has...

  10. 75 FR 10463 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15126

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals; File No. 15126 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that NMFS National Marine...

  11. New magnetochronology of Late Miocene mammal fauna, NE Tibetan Plateau, China: Mammal migration and paleoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Dekkers, Mark J.; Roberts, Andrew P.; An, Zhisheng; Li, Yongxiang; Lu, Fengyan; Lin, Shan; Li, Xingwen

    2016-01-01

    Lanzhou Basin lies on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in western China and is a rich source of Oligocene-Miocene mammalian fossils. Obtaining precise age determinations for these fossils is important to address key questions concerning mammalian and environmental evolution in Asia associated with stepwise Tibetan Plateau uplift. Here we report a new magnetostratigraphic record for the Xingjiawan fluvio-lacustrine section from the northwestern margin of Lanzhou Basin that can be correlated to the geomagnetic polarity timescale with two options. The Late Miocene Xingjiawan Fauna is located either at the boundary between reversed polarity chron C4r.1r and normal polarity chron C4n.2n or at the boundary between subchrons C5r.1r and C5n.2n, with an estimated age of at least ∼8 Ma or perhaps as early as ∼11 Ma. Both age estimations imply that the fossil Stegodon in the Lanzhou Basin is the oldest known record of Stegodon worldwide; it predates the formerly oldest Stegodon find from Africa by at least one million years and perhaps by as many as four million years. This provides new evidence for an Asian origin of Stegodon. Together with other faunal components, a mixed woodland/grassland setting existed in the Lanzhou Basin during the Late Miocene, in contrast to its modern arid environment.

  12. Reconstructing the palaeoenvironments of the early Pleistocene mammal faunas from the pollen preserved on fossil bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzi, Cesare; Pini, Roberta; Breda, Marzia

    2009-12-01

    We carried out a systematic investigation on the pollen content of sediment adhering to skeletal elements of large mammals which originate from the long lacustrine record of Leffe (Early Pleistocene of the Italian Alps). Three local faunas were discovered during mining activities along the intermediate part (spanning from 1.5 to 0.95 Ma) of the basin succession. The excellent pollen preservation allowed testing the reproducibility of the pollen signal from single skeletons. A clear palaeoenvironmental patterning, consistent with the ecological preferences of the considered mammal species, emerged from the canonical correspondence analysis of pollen types diagnostic for vegetation communities. Edaphic factors related to seasonal river activity changes and to the development of swamp forests in the riverbanks are significantly associated to the occurrences of Hippopotamus cf. antiquus, whereas finds of Mammuthus meridionalis belong to fully forested landscapes dominated by conifer or mixed forests of oceanic, warm to cool-temperate climate. Rhinoceros habitats include variable forest cover under different climate states. Distinct cool-temperate, partially open vegetation could be recognized for large deer included Cervalces cf carnutorum. A palynostratigraphic correlation between individual spectra and a reference palynostratigraphic record allowed assignment of many fossil remains to a precise stratigraphic position. This procedure also shown that the Leffe local faunas include specimens accumulated under different environmental and climate states, as a consequence of high-frequency climate changes characterizing the Late Villafranchian Early Pleistocene.

  13. 77 FR 87 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... significant potential to injure a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild [Level A Harassment]; or (ii) Any act that disturbs or is likely to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild... training, including bombing, strafing, special (laser systems) weapons; surface fires using...

  14. 75 FR 39335 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Seismic Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine seismic survey in the Arctic Ocean during August to September, 2010. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS requests comments on its proposal to authorize USGS to......

  15. Morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    de Swart, R L; Harder, T C; Ross, P S; Vos, H W; Osterhaus, A D

    1995-09-01

    In recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. The first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously unrecognized phocine distemper virus (PDV) caused the death of 20,000 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in northwestern Europe. A similar epizootic among Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica) in Siberia in 1987 was later attributed to infection with canine distemper virus (CDV). A morbillivirus isolated from stranded harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) between 1988 and 1990 proved to be yet another new member of the genus Morbillivirus, distinct from PDV and CDV and more closely related to rinderpest virus and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus: porpoise morbillivirus. A similar virus, dolphin morbillivirus, was the primary cause of mass mortality among striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Mediterranean from 1990 to 1992. In this review, current knowledge of the genetic and antigenic relationships of these viruses is presented, and the origin and epizootiological aspects of the newly discovered morbilliviruses are discussed. In addition, the possible contributory role of environmental contaminant-related immunosuppression in the severity and extent of the different disease outbreaks is discussed.

  16. 77 FR 29981 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17086

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... research on marine mammals in the Atlantic Ocean. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... 27 species of cetaceans in U.S. and international waters of the Atlantic Ocean from Virginia...

  17. 77 FR 58406 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted permit would... Zoo and 77 FR 46514; August 3, August 27, 2012. Garden. 2012. Marine Mammals Receipt of...

  18. 76 FR 60863 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted permit would... September 22, 2011. Society dba Gladys 17, 2011. Porter Zoo. Marine Mammals 48293A Red Rock Films 76...

  19. 76 FR 63286 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from the National Marine Mammal Stranding Response Program for... releasable stranded California sea lions (two males and six females) from west coast stranding facilities...

  20. 77 FR 37878 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16163

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... biopsied, dart, and/or suction-cup tagged. Ultrasound sampling will be directed at killer whales including... killer whales. Import and export of marine mammal prey specimens, skin and blubber, sloughed skin,...

  1. 76 FR 12991 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish...

  2. 78 FR 17709 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits. ] SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and... Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish...

  3. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  4. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section...

  5. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  6. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  7. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  8. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  9. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  10. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  11. Assessment Of Acoustic Adaptations For Noise Compensation In Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    sounds on the use of sound by marine mammals. OBJECTIVES The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) generate testable hypotheses of...general vocal responses of marine mammals to particular noise types; and 2) test these hypotheses with data from two low-frequency baleen whale species...in coastal shallow water environments using existing data from North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) acoustic tag recordings (Digital

  12. Assessment of Acoustic Adaptations for Noise Compensation in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    made sounds on the use of sound by marine mammals. OBJECTIVES The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) generate testable hypotheses...of general vocal responses of marine mammals to particular noise types; and 2) test these hypotheses with data from two low-frequency baleen whale ...species in coastal shallow water environments using existing data from North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) acoustic tag recordings

  13. Assessment of Acoustic Adaptations for Noise Compensation in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    made sounds on the use of sound by marine mammals. OBJECTIVES The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) generate testable hypotheses...of general vocal responses of marine mammals to particular noise types; and 2) test these hypotheses with data from two low-frequency baleen whale ...species in coastal shallow water environments using existing data from North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) acoustic tag recordings

  14. Toxicology of Marine Mammals: New Developments and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Zaccaroni, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that marine mammals are exposed to a wide variety of pollutants, with a weight of evidence indicating impacts on their health. Since hundreds of new chemicals enter the global market every year,the methods, approaches and technologies used to characterize pollution levels or impacts are also in a constant state of flux. However, legal and ethical constraints often limit the type and extent of toxicological research being carried out in marine mammals. Nevertheless, new and emerging in vivo, in vitro as well as in silico research opportunities abound in the field of marine mammal toxicology. In the application of findings to population-, species-, or habitat-related risk assessments, the identification of causal relationships which inform source apportionment is important. This, in turn, is informed by a comprehensive understanding of contaminant classes, profiles and fate overspace and time. Such considerations figure prominently in the design and interpretation of marine mammal (eco)-toxicology research. This mini-review attempts to follow the evolution behind marine mammal toxicology until now,highlight some of the research that has been done and suggest opportunities for future research. This Special Issue will showcase new developments in marine mammal toxicology, approaches for exposure-effect research in risk assessment as well as future opportunities.

  15. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and are therefore a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and de novo assembled the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome, and that a subset were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that while convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare. PMID:25621460

  16. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.

  17. 77 FR 39485 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    .... Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of annual LOAs,...

  18. 78 FR 69072 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Elliott Bay Seawall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... either regulations are issued. Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill, or attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill marine mammals. Authorization for incidental...

  19. 77 FR 45341 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... issued. Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of...

  20. 78 FR 13865 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... issued. Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of...

  1. 77 FR 10481 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... regulations are issued. Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in...

  2. 78 FR 22517 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of annual LOAs,...

  3. Stratification, composition, and function of marine mammal blubber: the ecology of fatty acids in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Ursula; Käkelä, Anne; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M; Grahl-Nielsen, Otto; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Käkelä, Reijo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study of vertical fatty acid profiles, based on analysis of 58 fatty acids sampled at 3-mm intervals throughout the blubber column of a model marine mammal, the ringed seal (Pusa hispida), revealed three chemically distinct layers. The average depths of the outer and inner layers were quite consistent (approximately 1.5 and approximately 1 cm, respectively). Consequently, the middle layer varied greatly in thickness, from being virtually absent in the thinnest animals to 2.5 cm thick in the fattest. The relative consistencies of the thickness and composition of the layers as well as the nature of the fatty acids making up each layer support the generally assumed function of the various layers: (1) the outer layer is primarily structural and thermoregulatory, (2) the inner layer is metabolically active with a fatty acid composition that is strongly affected by recent/ongoing lipid mobilization/deposition, and (3) the middle layer is a storage site that contracts and expands with food availability/consumption. The remarkable dynamics of the middle layer along with the discrete pattern of stratification found in the vertical fatty acid profiles have important implications for methodological sampling design for studies of foraging ecology and toxicology based on analyses of blubber of marine mammals.

  4. 78 FR 8111 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test Flight Activities From Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA... mammals, by harassment, incidental to space vehicle and test flight activities at VAFB. Summary of... of authorization (LOA) has been issued to the 30th Space Wing, U.S. Air Force (USAF), to take...

  5. 77 FR 6771 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor... harassment, incidental to conducting operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System (SURTASS) Low... days for public input. In response to a request from the Natural Resources Defense Council, NMFS...

  6. 78 FR 30273 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to construction activities as part of a barge mooring project. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to the Navy to take, by Level B Harassment only, four species......

  7. Drivers and hotspots of extinction risk in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ana D; Boyer, Alison G; Kim, Hwahwan; Pompa-Mansilla, Sandra; Hamilton, Marcus J; Costa, Daniel P; Ceballos, Gerardo; Brown, James H

    2012-02-28

    The world's oceans are undergoing profound changes as a result of human activities. However, the consequences of escalating human impacts on marine mammal biodiversity remain poorly understood. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identifies 25% of marine mammals as at risk of extinction, but the conservation status of nearly 40% of marine mammals remains unknown due to insufficient data. Predictive models of extinction risk are crucial to informing present and future conservation needs, yet such models have not been developed for marine mammals. In this paper, we: (i) used powerful machine-learning and spatial-modeling approaches to understand the intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of marine mammal extinction risk; (ii) used this information to predict risk across all marine mammals, including IUCN "Data Deficient" species; and (iii) conducted a spatially explicit assessment of these results to understand how risk is distributed across the world's oceans. Rate of offspring production was the most important predictor of risk. Additional predictors included taxonomic group, small geographic range area, and small social group size. Although the interaction of both intrinsic and extrinsic variables was important in predicting risk, overall, intrinsic traits were more important than extrinsic variables. In addition to the 32 species already on the IUCN Red List, our model identified 15 more species, suggesting that 37% of all marine mammals are at risk of extinction. Most at-risk species occur in coastal areas and in productive regions of the high seas. We identify 13 global hotspots of risk and show how they overlap with human impacts and Marine Protected Areas.

  8. A Preliminary Report of Changing Quaternary Mammal Faunas in Subalpine New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Geoffrey; Flannery, Tim; Boeardi

    1993-07-01

    The faunas found in the mountains of central Irian Jaya have experienced dramatic changes through the late Quaternary. Remains of two previously unknown species of large marsupial, Maokopia ronaldi and Protemnodon hopei, have been recovered from unrelated cave and fluvial deposits which today occur in dense upper montane forest. Direct dating of the finds has not as yet been possible, but stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and palynologic evidence indicates that these species lived near a climatic treeline in subalpine grassland in the late Pleistocene. At higher altitudes a rockshelter provided the second known mid-Holocene record of Thylogale christenseni and Thylogale sp. cf. brunii, apparently extinct grassland wallabies. The two largest remaining subalpine mammal species are being locally exterminated by hunting, leaving only a large murid, Mallomys gunung, which weighs less than 2.0 kg. The area thus records the disappearance of a grassland-adapted fauna. The possum Pseudocheirops cupreus dominates in modem hunting returns, although this species is totally absent from the local fossil records. It may thus be in the process of invading a vacated and disturbed niche from the upper montane forest.

  9. 75 FR 64247 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... (Principal Investigator), Sarasota Dolphin Research Program, c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson... dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments must be received on or before... marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests a five-year permit to take bottlenose...

  10. 77 FR 63296 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC100 Marine Mammals; File No. 17115 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... James Lloyd-Smith, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los...

  11. 76 FR 4091 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15510

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals; File No. 15510 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has applied in...

  12. 78 FR 14984 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17411

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC541 Marine Mammals; File No. 17411 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, Anchorage, AK, has applied in due form for a permit...

  13. 78 FR 33811 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17941

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 108 (Wednesday, June 5, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 33811] [FR Doc No: 2013-13289] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC544 Marine Mammals; File No. 17941 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  14. 75 FR 38781 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15430

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 128 (Tuesday, July 6, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 38781] [FR Doc No: 2010-16377] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW98 Marine Mammals; File No. 15430 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  15. 77 FR 36999 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16160

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... 0648-XA626 Marine Mammals; File No. 16160 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Permits for Protected Species home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 16160... submitted by facsimile to (301) 713-0376, or by email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the...

  16. 77 FR 60966 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16239

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC268 Marine Mammals; File No. 16239 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...) 427-8401. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the...

  17. 76 FR 71938 - Marine Mammals; File No. 10018

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA833 Marine Mammals; File No. 10018 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... INFORMATION: The subject amendment to Permit No. 10018-01 is requested under the authority of the...

  18. 77 FR 33444 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17217

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB159 Marine Mammals; File No. 17217 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... display at the St. Louis Zoo. The requested permit has been granted under the authority of the...

  19. 77 FR 19646 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB139 Marine Mammals; File No. 17178 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Virginia Institute of...

  20. 78 FR 57133 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... whales) and 100 animals per year within the order Pinnipedia (sea lions and seals but excluding walruses... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW11 Marine Mammals; File No. 14514 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  1. 78 FR 56219 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC100 Marine Mammals; File No. 17115 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., 2017. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.),...

  2. 78 FR 37796 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17952

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC554 Marine Mammals; File No. 17952 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... authorized. The permit expires June 7, 2018. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of...

  3. 78 FR 56218 - Marine Mammals; File No. 18171

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC862 Marine Mammals; File No. 18171 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), an initial determination...

  4. Human pathogens in marine mammal meat – a northern perspective.

    PubMed

    Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T

    2014-09-01

    Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat.

  5. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys.

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Surveying Marine Fauna: A Dugong Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species’ habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km2 area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as ‘certain’ (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

  7. Tracking marine mammals using passive acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosal, Eva-Marie

    2007-12-01

    It is difficult to study the behavior and physiology of marine mammals or to understand and mitigate human impact on them because much of their lives are spent underwater. Since sound propagates for long distances in the ocean and since many cetaceans are vocal, passive acoustics is a valuable tool for studying and monitoring their behavior. After a brief introduction to and review of passive acoustic tracking methods, this dissertation develops and applies two new methods. Both methods use widely-spaced (tens of kilometers) bottom-mounted hydrophone arrays, as well as propagation models that account for depth-dependent sound speed profiles. The first passive acoustic tracking method relies on arrival times of direct and surface-reflected paths. It is used to track a sperm whale using 5 at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) and gives position estimates that are accurate to within 10 meters. With such accuracy, the whale's pitch and yaw are estimated by assuming that its main axis (which points from the tail to the rostrum) is parallel to its velocity. Roll is found by fitting the details of the pulses within each sperm whale click to the so-called bent horn model of sperm whale sound production. Finally, given the position and orientation of the whale, its beam pattern is reconstructed and found to be highly directional with an intense forward directed component. Pair-wise spectrogram (PWS) processing is the second passive acoustic tracking method developed in this dissertation. Although it is computationally more intensive, PWS has several advantages over arrival-time tracking methods, especially in shallow water environments, for long duration calls, and for multiple-animal datasets, as is the case for humpback whales on Hawaiian breeding grounds. Results of simulations with realistic noise conditions and environmental mismatch are given and compared to other passive localization techniques. When applied to the AUTEC sperm whale dataset, PWS

  8. Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health.

    PubMed

    Bossart, G D

    2011-05-01

    The long-term consequences of climate change and potential environmental degradation are likely to include aspects of disease emergence in marine plants and animals. In turn, these emerging diseases may have epizootic potential, zoonotic implications, and a complex pathogenesis involving other cofactors such as anthropogenic contaminant burden, genetics, and immunologic dysfunction. The concept of marine sentinel organisms provides one approach to evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. Such sentinels are barometers for current or potential negative impacts on individual- and population-level animal health. In turn, using marine sentinels permits better characterization and management of impacts that ultimately affect animal and human health associated with the oceans. Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. Marine mammals may be exposed to environmental stressors such as chemical pollutants, harmful algal biotoxins, and emerging or resurging pathogens. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. Finally, marine mammals are charismatic megafauna that typically stimulate an exaggerated human behavioral response and are thus more likely to be observed.

  9. Improving Visual Survey Capabilities for Marine Mammal Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Improving Visual Survey Capabilities for Marine Mammal ...ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 2 19a. NAME OF... Mammal Studies Mark Baumgartner Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Biology Department, MS #33 266 Woods Hole Road Woods Hole, MA 02543 phone

  10. The Marine Mammal Protection Act at 40: status, recovery, and future of U.S. marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Roman, Joe; Altman, Irit; Dunphy-Daly, Meagan M; Campbell, Caitlin; Jasny, Michael; Read, Andrew J

    2013-05-01

    Passed in 1972, the Marine Mammal Protection Act has two fundamental objectives: to maintain U.S. marine mammal stocks at their optimum sustainable populations and to uphold their ecological role in the ocean. The current status of many marine mammal populations is considerably better than in 1972. Take reduction plans have been largely successful in reducing direct fisheries bycatch, although they have not been prepared for all at-risk stocks, and fisheries continue to place marine mammals as risk. Information on population trends is unknown for most (71%) stocks; more stocks with known trends are improving than declining: 19% increasing, 5% stable, and 5% decreasing. Challenges remain, however, and the act has generally been ineffective in treating indirect impacts, such as noise, disease, and prey depletion. Existing conservation measures have not protected large whales from fisheries interactions or ship strikes in the northwestern Atlantic. Despite these limitations, marine mammals within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone appear to be faring better than those outside, with fewer species in at-risk categories and more of least concern.

  11. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae and Sphyriidae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ju-Shey

    This report is part of a sub-series to aid biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers, and informed laymen in the identification and study of marine flora and fauna of the Northeastern United States. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Glossary; (3) Key to the marine lernaeopodoid copepods of the Northeastern United…

  12. Phenotypic and molecular characterisation of Brucella isolates from marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Claire E; Stubberfield, Emma J; Perrett, Lorraine L; King, Amanda C; Whatmore, Adrian M; Bashiruddin, John B; Stack, Judy A; MacMillan, Alastair P

    2008-01-01

    Background Bacteria of the genus Brucella are the causative organisms of brucellosis in animals and man. Previous characterisation of Brucella strains originating from marine mammals showed them to be distinct from the terrestrial species and likely to comprise one or more new taxa. Recently two new species comprising Brucella isolates from marine mammals, B. pinnipedialis and B. ceti, were validly published. Here we report on an extensive study of the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of marine mammal Brucella isolates and on how these characteristics relate to the newly described species. Results In this study, 102 isolates of Brucella originating from eleven species of marine mammals were characterised. Results obtained by analysis using the Infrequent Restriction Site (IRS)-Derivative PCR, PCR-RFLP of outer membrane protein genes (omp) and IS711 fingerprint profiles showed good consistency with isolates originating from cetaceans, corresponding to B. ceti, falling into two clusters. These correspond to isolates with either dolphins or porpoises as their preferred host. Isolates originating predominantly from seals, and corresponding to B. pinnipedialis, cluster separately on the basis of IS711 fingerprinting and other molecular approaches and can be further subdivided, with isolates from hooded seals comprising a distinct group. There was little correlation between phenotypic characteristics used in classical Brucella biotyping and these groups. Conclusion Molecular approaches are clearly valuable in the division of marine mammal Brucella into subtypes that correlate with apparent ecological divisions, whereas conventional bioyping is of less value. The data presented here confirm that there are significant subtypes within the newly described marine mammal Brucella species and add to a body of evidence that could lead to the recognition of additional species or sub-species within this group. PMID:19091076

  13. The relationship of the Indian and western Australian Permian marine faunas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickins, J. M.; Shah, S. C.

    At Gondwana Five, Wellington, New Zealand, 1980, the relationship of the Permian Peninsular and Himalayan India fauna and flora was explored. The authors concluded that Peninsular India could not have been far from southern Asia during the Permian. This conclusion has been confirmed by data presented at the Symposium on the Tibet Plateau, Beijing, China, 1980, and the recent discovery of Eurydesma and the Eurydesma fauna in northwest Tibet. The relationship of the marine faunas of Peninsular and Himalayan India with those of the western Australian region and the climatic implications have now been considered by the authors. Although the Lower Permian Gondwana cold- and cold-temperate-water faunas of both areas have important similarities, significant differences can be tabulated. Such differences are not apparent in the faunas from within the Peninsular-Himalayan Indian region, so that the faunas of this region are closer to each other than they are to the faunas of the western Australian region. In India the early faunas are overlain by warm-water faunas, whereas in the western Australian region temperate-water conditions prevail. Only in the Upper Permian, when the world as a whole became warmer, are closer faunal links established between the two areas. It is concluded that Western Australia was unlikely to have been close to India during the Permian, and that the faunal relationships indicate India cannot be placed alongside Western Australia. This conclusion is supported by the different geological development in the two areas during the Permian.

  14. Marine mammal and habitat monitoring: Requirements; principles; needs; and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, S.L.; Hofman, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    The paper discusses the intents and provisions of section 101(a)(5) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act which allows the Secretaries of the Interior and Commerce to authorize the unintentional taking of small numbers of marine mammals incidental to offshore oil and gas development and other such activities. It explains the rationale for and describes the types of site-specific and population monitoring programs required to document the manner and level of take and to verify that the take has negligible effects on the distribution, size, and productivity of the affected species and populations.

  15. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result.

  16. Invasive mammals and habitat modification interact to generate unforeseen outcomes for indigenous fauna.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Grant; Byrom, Andrea; Pech, Roger; Smith, James; Clarke, Dean; Anderson, Dean; Forrester, Guy

    2013-10-01

    Biotic invasions and habitat modification are two drivers of global change predicted to have detrimental impacts on the persistence of indigenous biota worldwide. Few studies have investigated how they operate synergistically to alter trophic interactions among indigenous and nonindigenous species in invaded ecosystems. We experimentally manipulated a suite of interacting invasive mammals, including top predators (cat Felis catus, ferret Mustela furo, stoat M. erminea), herbivores (rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, hare Lepus europaeus), and an insectivore (hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus occidentalis), and measured their effects on indigenous lizards and invertebrates and on an invasive mesopredator (house mouse Mus musculus). The work was carried out in a grassland/shrubland ecosystem that had been subjected to two types of habitat modification (widespread introduction of high-seed-producing pasture species, and areas of land use intensification by fertilization and livestock grazing). We also quantified food productivity for indigenous and invasive fauna by measuring pasture biomass, as well as seed and fruit production by grasses and shrubs. Indigenous fauna did not always increase following top-predator suppression: lizards increased on one of two sites; invertebrates did not increase on either site. Mesopredator release of mice was evident at the site where lizards did not increase, suggesting negative effects of mice on lizard populations. High mouse abundance occurred only on the predator-suppression site with regular production of pasture seed, indicating that this food resource was the main driver of mouse populations. Removal of herbivores increased pasture and seed production, which further enhanced ecological release of mice, particularly where pasture swards were overtopped by shrubs. An effect of landscape supplementation was also evident where nearby fertilized pastures boosted rabbit numbers and the associated top predators. Other studies have shown that

  17. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  18. Cold-seep mollusks are older than the general marine mollusk fauna.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Steffen; Little, Crispin T S

    2006-09-08

    The origin and possible antiquity of faunas at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and seeps have been debated since their discovery. We used the fossil record of seep mollusks to show that the living seep genera have significantly longer geologic ranges than the marine mollusks in general, but have ranges similar to those of deep-sea taxa, suggesting that seep faunas may be shaped by the factors that drive the evolution of life in the deep sea in general. Our data indicate that deep-sea anoxic/dysoxic events did not affect seep faunas, casting doubt on the suggested anoxic nature and/or global extent of these events.

  19. Utilizing new Mammal faunas for calibration of paleomagnetostratigraphy in the Kochkor basin, Kyrgyzstan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, W. N. F.; Weldon, R. J.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Hopkins, S. S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active nation in the world, owning to the uplift of the Tien Shan mountain range. This record of faulting is far from simple though, with different dates of initiation spanning tens of millions of years in the published literature. Differentiating between these extremes is vital in terms of constructing earthquake hazard maps for the country. Much of the high degree of uncertainty comes from a lack of datable rocks within the time frame associated with the faulting. While paleomagnetic stratigraphic analyses provide highly accurate ages, they in turn need calibration points to preclude multiple possible matches to a global geochronological framework. Herein I provide the first description of Neogene fossil mammal faunas to act as biostratigraphic control for the paleomagnetic data. Dominating the faunal assemblage is rhinoceros species, Chilotherium anderssoni. This taxon is globally only known from 8.7-5.3 million years ago, constraining much of the stratigraphy to the latest Miocene to Pliocene. Additional taxa include Gazella, Samotherium, Hipparion, Hyaenaictithirium, Paleolagus, and Pliocervidae. As fossils are limited to the Miocene/Pliocene Chu Formation, we have also collected additional paleomagnetic samples from the lower Shamsi Formation to extend the age range covered and constraint the initiation of faulting.

  20. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subpart: (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected from a beach or from... imported. (d) No person may purchase, sell or trade for commercial purposes any marine mammal...

  1. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subpart: (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected from a beach or from... imported. (d) No person may purchase, sell or trade for commercial purposes any marine mammal...

  2. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subpart: (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected from a beach or from... imported. (d) No person may purchase, sell or trade for commercial purposes any marine mammal...

  3. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subpart: (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected from a beach or from... imported. (d) No person may purchase, sell or trade for commercial purposes any marine mammal...

  4. Passive Acoustic Monitoring for the Detection and Identification of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    species in a species detection task,” Intl. Workshop on the Detection and Classification of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics, Pavia , Italy...the Detection and Classification of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics, Pavia , Italy, September 2009.

  5. Passive Acoustic Monitoring for the Detection and Identification of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    detection task,” Intl. Workshop on the Detection and Classification of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics, Pavia , Italy, September 2009. M. A. Roch...Classification of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics, Pavia , Italy, September 2009.

  6. 78 FR 18322 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17751

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... killer whales in Alaskan waters, including the Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Arctic Ocean... killer whales in the area. The marine mammal research is part of a larger study on the reduction of sea ice in the Arctic with the goal of developing predictive ecosystem models. Research methods...

  7. 78 FR 35363 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA), and its implementing regulations, we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we), are finalizing regulations that authorize the nonlethal, incidental, unintentional take of small numbers of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during oil and gas Industry......

  8. 78 FR 54481 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    .......... 78 FR 37563; June 21, 2013...... August 8, 2013. 08815B William Tones 78 FR 37562; June 21, 2013...... August 8, 2013. 09161B John Alexander......... 78 FR 40762; July 8, 2013....... August 9, 2013. 99464A Donald Lepp 78 FR 19732; April 2, 2013...... June 7, 2013. Marine Mammals Receipt of application...

  9. 78 FR 62648 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    .... Applicant Federal Register notice Permit issuance date Endangered Species 10814B Larry Bell 78 FR 45954; July 30, September 12, 2013. 2013. 13216B Anthony Gaglio 78 FR 50083; August 16, September 25, 2013. 2013. 13270B Shane Erving 78 FR 50083; August 16, September 25, 2013. 2013. Marine Mammals 056326...

  10. 75 FR 12732 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14142

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 109 South Observatory Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029, has been issued a scientific research permit to import marine mammal specimens for scientific research. ] ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available for review upon...

  11. 77 FR 3450 - Guidelines for Assessing Marine Mammal Stocks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ....gov . Mail: Send comments to: Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Office of... guidelines specify that when biological information is sufficient to identify the stock from which a dead or..., foreign fisheries on the high seas) should be clearly distinguished from U.S. commercial...

  12. 75 FR 58352 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14535

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... potential impacts of human noise on marine mammals. The amendment is for the duration of the permit, which... Blvd., Suite 4200, Long Beach, CA 90802-4213; phone (562)980-4001; fax (562)980-4018. FOR FURTHER... from the requirement to prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement....

  13. 75 FR 37388 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14535

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... pinnipeds and to assess potential impacts of human noise on marine mammals. The proposed amendment is for... Blvd., Suite 4200, Long Beach, CA 90802-4213; phone (562)980-4001; fax (562)980-4018. Written comments... excluded from the requirement to prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact...

  14. 77 FR 50086 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16109

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... significantly impact the quality of the human environment and that preparation of an environmental impact... endangered species; and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section 2 of the...

  15. Effects of climate change on Arctic marine mammal health.

    PubMed

    Burek, Kathy A; Gulland, Frances M D; O'Hara, Todd M

    2008-03-01

    The lack of integrated long-term data on health, diseases, and toxicant effects in Arctic marine mammals severely limits our ability to predict the effects of climate change on marine mammal health. The overall health of an individual animal is the result of complex interactions among immune status, body condition, pathogens and their pathogenicity, toxicant exposure, and the various environmental conditions that interact with these factors. Climate change could affect these interactions in several ways. There may be direct effects of loss of the sea ice habitat, elevations of water and air temperature, and increased occurrence of severe weather. Some of the indirect effects of climate change on animal health will likely include alterations in pathogen transmission due to a variety of factors, effects on body condition due to shifts in the prey base/food web, changes in toxicant exposures, and factors associated with increased human habitation in the Arctic (e.g., chemical and pathogen pollution in the runoff due to human and domestic-animal wastes and chemicals and increased ship traffic with the attendant increased risks of ship strike, oil spills, ballast pollution, and possibly acoustic injury). The extent to which climate change will impact marine mammal health will also vary among species, with some species more sensitive to these factors than others. Baseline data on marine mammal health parameters along with matched data on the population and climate change trends are needed to document these changes.

  16. 78 FR 32377 - Draft 2012 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ...) publication was to categorize stranding mortalities into broad diagnoses such as disease, human-interaction... annual human-caused mortality and serious injury from all sources, descriptions of the fisheries with... term strategic stock means a marine mammal stock: (A) For which the level of direct...

  17. 75 FR 38457 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15511

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... California for the purpose of public display. This animal was rescued by the Southern Caribbean Cetacean... 93-C- 0069, issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. Sec... and does not represent any unnecessary risks to the health and welfare of marine mammals; that...

  18. Marine Mammal Active Sonar Test 2004 (MAST 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Peter J.; Vandiver, Amy; Edelson, Geoffrey S.; Frankel, Adam S.; Clark, Christopher W.

    2004-05-01

    The Marine Mammal Active Sonar Test was conducted in January 2004 off the central California coast during the gray whale migration. The purpose of the test was to collect data to significantly advance active sonar detection, classification, and tracking of marine mammals out to ranges of 1 mile. The R/V NEW HORIZON was moored in the migration path. Two different sonar systems operating between 210 and 220 dB were deployed off the vessel, the IMAPS phased array sonar system that operates from 20-30 kHz and the MAST mechanical system that uses rotating parabolic transducers operating from 30 to 40 kHz. Marine mammal observers were deployed on the bluffs overlooking the experiment and aboard the NEW HORIZON. The observers tracked the whales using electronic theodelites, providing ground truth for the sonar systems. They also looked for any severe reactions from the animals, and called for a shutdown if any marine mammals were observed within 100 m of the sonar. Here, we discuss the experiment and the results to date, including any reaction of the whales to the sonar system. We will also touch on the legal battle to conduct the experiment, and lessons learned.

  19. 76 FR 16442 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have issued the following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered...

  20. 76 FR 35410 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14326

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    .... ACTION: Notice; issuance of permit amendment. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a major amendment to Permit No. 14326 has been issued to NMFS National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Seattle, WA. ADDRESSES: The permit amendment and related documents are available for review upon written request or by appointment...

  1. 76 FR 27307 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit Application No. 16360

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA426 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit..., Auckland, New Zealand has applied in due form for a permit to conduct commercial/educational photography of... for photography for educational or commercial purposes involving non-endangered and...

  2. 76 FR 40338 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360 AGENCY..., Auckland, New Zealand to conduct commercial/educational photography of cetaceans off Hawaii. ADDRESSES: The... request for a permit to conduct commercial/educational photography on 12 cetacean species had...

  3. 77 FR 24470 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No... conduct commercial/educational photography in Alaska. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are.../educational photography had been submitted by the above- named applicant. The requested permit has been...

  4. 77 FR 2037 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No... for a permit to conduct commercial or educational photography on killer (Orcinus orca) and...

  5. 77 FR 51519 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17403

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... conduct commercial/educational photography on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). DATES: Written... 104(c)(6) provides for photography for educational or commercial purposes involving non-endangered and non-threatened marine mammals in the wild. ] Mr. Pilley requests a five-year photography permit...

  6. 78 FR 69049 - Marine Mammals; File No. 18171

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... ez, PR 00682, to conduct commercial or educational photography of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops... for a permit to conduct commercial or educational photography had been submitted by the above-named... vessel-based filming and photography of marine mammals in waters off Puerto Rico. Footage will be used...

  7. 76 FR 45232 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16443

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA597 Marine Mammals; File No. 16443 AGENCY... Applications and Permits for Protected Species home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File... . Please include File No. 16433 in the subject line of the e-mail comment. Those individuals requesting...

  8. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16998

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA914 Marine Mammals; File No. 16998 AGENCY... Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No...-0376, or by email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of...

  9. 78 FR 7755 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17754

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC477 Marine Mammals; File No. 17754 AGENCY... email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. 17754 in the subject line of the...

  10. 78 FR 48655 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17324

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC137 Marine Mammals; File No. 17324 AGENCY... display permit (File No. 17324) submitted by the Georgia Aquarium Inc., 225 Baker Street, Atlanta,...

  11. 78 FR 53732 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC010 Marine Mammals; File No. 14325 AGENCY... Applications and Permits for Protected Species home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File...-0376, or by email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of...

  12. 77 FR 48130 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17152

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC136 Marine Mammals; File No. 17152 AGENCY....Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those...

  13. 75 FR 47537 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14352

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX98 Marine Mammals; File No. 14352 AGENCY... . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting...

  14. 77 FR 55456 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17410

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC210 Marine Mammals; File No. 17410 AGENCY... (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 17410 from the list of....Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those...

  15. 78 FR 70920 - Marine Mammals; File No. 18182

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XD002 Marine Mammals; File No. 18182 AGENCY... (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 18182 from the list of... email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the...

  16. 77 FR 267 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16621

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA915 Marine Mammals; File No. 16621 AGENCY... selecting File No. 16621 from the list of available applications. These documents are also available upon... . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting...

  17. 77 FR 4765 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15142

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA963 Marine Mammals; File No. 15142 AGENCY...://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 15142 from the list of available applications. These....Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include ``File No. 15142'' in the subject line of the email comment....

  18. 77 FR 2513 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA936 Marine Mammals; File No. 17011 AGENCY... submitted by facsimile to (301) 713-0376, or by email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include File...

  19. 78 FR 42756 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14330

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA122 Marine Mammals; File No. 14330 AGENCY... , and then selecting File No. 14330 from the list of available applications. These documents are also... . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting...

  20. 77 FR 40859 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14097

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX47 Marine Mammals; File No. 14097 AGENCY... Applications and Permits for Protected Species home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File....Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those...

  1. 75 FR 16077 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15430

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV58 Marine Mammals; File No. 15430 AGENCY... by email toNMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the...

  2. 78 FR 66336 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC956 Marine Mammals; File No. 17030 AGENCY... Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No... submitted by facsimile to (301)713-0376, or by email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include File...

  3. 77 FR 38774 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB160 Marine Mammals; File No. 16193 AGENCY...://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 16193 from the list of available applications. These....Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. 16193 in the subject line of the email comment....

  4. 77 FR 27441 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13927

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA774 Marine Mammals; File No. 13927 AGENCY... Permits for Protected Species home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 13927...-0376, or by email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of...

  5. 76 FR 51002 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16553

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA641 Marine Mammals; File No. 16553 AGENCY... selecting File No. 16553 from the list of available applications. These documents are also available upon...@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the e-mail comment. Those...

  6. 78 FR 51146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17429

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC766 Marine Mammals; File No. 17429 AGENCY... (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 17429 from the list of...-0376, or by email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include File No. 17429 in the subject line...

  7. 77 FR 39999 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17278

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC095 Marine Mammals; File No. 17278 AGENCY...://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 17278 from the list of available applications. These... . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting...

  8. 75 FR 39915 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15483

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals; File No. 15483 AGENCY... Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 15483 from the... include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting a...

  9. 76 FR 329 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14330

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA122 Marine Mammals; File No. 14330 AGENCY... , and then selecting File No. 14330 from the list of available applications. These documents are also... . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting...

  10. 78 FR 17639 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17941

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC544 Marine Mammals; File No. 17941 AGENCY....Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those...

  11. 75 FR 16076 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15206

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV57 Marine Mammals; File No. 15206 AGENCY....Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those...

  12. 76 FR 72178 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14334

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals; File No. 14334 AGENCY... selecting File No. 14334 from the list of available applications. These documents are also available upon... include the File No. in the subject line of the email comment. Those individuals requesting a...

  13. 75 FR 76703 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15750

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals; File No. 15750 AGENCY... page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 15750 from the list of available...-mail to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the...

  14. 78 FR 23538 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17312

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC628 Marine Mammals; File No. 17312 AGENCY....gov , and then selecting File No. 17312 from the list of available applications. These documents are... email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. in the subject line of the...

  15. 77 FR 52694 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17324

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC137 Marine Mammals; File No. 17324 AGENCY...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF...

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive mari...

  17. 78 FR 19446 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... biodiversity conservation, aimed at developing a plan to reduce the risk of whale ship strikes. NMFS staff are... reports to: Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources... would improve the SARs and inform conservation decisions, resources for surveys and observer...

  18. 78 FR 21597 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BB71 Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats... measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal habitats in Alaska (78 FR 15669; March 12, 2013). During the workshops NMFS will present information regarding harbor seal habitat usage and...

  19. 77 FR 26777 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and...

  20. 76 FR 65208 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and...

  1. 76 FR 30309 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15324

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... given that a permit has been issued to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Wildlife Conservation, Juneau, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents..., Conservation and Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315 East-West Highway, Room...

  2. Marine Mammals and Noise-Progress Since 1995

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    and sounds produced by marine mammals. Underwater noise emitted by anthropogenic activities will be summarised. The four co-PIs are leading various...review. We have started drafting sections of the review, including noise impacts, underwater noise emission, sound production and hearing. RESULTS

  3. 77 FR 12815 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16998

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), 200 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 10 killer whales (Orcinus orca... Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for Steller Sea Lion and Northern Fur Seal Research (NMFS... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA914 Marine Mammals; File No. 16998...

  4. 77 FR 14506 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Ecuador under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). This affirmative finding renewal will allow... renewal was based on review of documentary evidence submitted by the Government of Ecuador and obtained... Administrator considered documentary evidence submitted by the Government of Ecuador or obtained from the...

  5. 50 CFR 224.103 - Special prohibitions for endangered marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... marine mammals. 224.103 Section 224.103 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS ENDANGERED MARINE... approach is authorized by the National Marine Fisheries Service through a permit issued under part...

  6. 76 FR 37066 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... in or near the proposed seismic survey areas. This document presents a new table with corrections... densities of marine mammals that may occur in or near the proposed seismic survey area. Accordingly, Table...

  7. Immunodiagnostic Approaches to Diseases in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    and guinea pigs, and used to develop the single radial immunodiffusion (RID) immunoblot, and ELISA techniques. The base-line level of IgG and 1gM in...mammals. The IgG and IgM of cetaceans and pinnipeds were isolated, antisera produced in rabbits and guinea pigs, and used to develop the single radial ... immunodiffusion (RID) immunoblot, and ELISA techniques. The base-line level of IgG and IgM in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the sea

  8. Palaeoenvironmental and chronological constraints on the Early Pleistocene mammal fauna from loess deposits in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zan, Jinbo; Fang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Weilin; Yan, Maodu; Zhang, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The Longdan mammal fauna from the central part of Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau, is the first Early Pleistocene fauna in China in which the fossils are derived loess deposits, and it provides an excellent opportunity to document mammalian and environmental evolution in Asia. However, the precise age and palaeoenvironmental setting of the fauna are controversial due to the poor exposure of the outcrop section. In the present study, a 105-m-long drill core was obtained from Longdan village and used for detailed magnetostratigraphic dating. The results demonstrate that the late Pliocene- Pleistocene loess deposits in the Longdan section deposited since ca. 3 Ma and that the Longdan fauna has an age range of 2.5-2.2 Ma. In addition, the results of lithological and rock magnetic analyses demonstrate that paleosols are weakly developed throughout the whole core and that in the lower and middle parts the core the magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence are relatively low and uniform. These observations, combined with the ecological characteristics of the Longdan fauna, indicate that during the Early Pleistocene the climate in the Longdan area, and even in the Linxia Basin, was sub-humid and that the aeolian dust was frequently subjected to post-depositional reworking by water.

  9. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. 18.26 Section 18.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  10. 78 FR 52966 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) prohibit activities with listed species... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and the Marine Mammal Protection Act of... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for......

  11. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... the animals, their handlers, or other persons. (d) Marine mammals transported in the same primary... used. Within the primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals, the animals will be maintained...

  12. 76 FR 30386 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ...; 96300-1671-0000-P5] Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY: Fish... conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) prohibits activities with listed...

  13. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale...

  14. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale...

  15. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale...

  16. 76 FR 79409 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... environmental reasons (such as presence of marine mammals). Pile driving would typically take place 6 days per... underwater acoustic environment consists of ambient sound, defined as environmental background sound levels... reduction in sound levels. Both environmental conditions and the characteristics of the sound...

  17. 76 FR 6448 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test Flight Activities From Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA... harassment, incidental to space vehicle and test flight activities at VAFB. Summary of Activity and... incidental to space vehicle and test flight activities at VAFB. Issuance of this LOA is based on...

  18. 77 FR 6086 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test Flight Activities from Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA... harassment, incidental to space vehicle and test flight activities at VAFB. Summary of Activity and... space vehicle and test flight activities at VAFB. Issuance of this LOA is based on findings described...

  19. 76 FR 35856 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: The... taking. Regulations governing the taking of marine mammals incidental to EROS were published on June 19... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins...

  20. 75 FR 31423 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: These authorizations are... taking. Regulations governing the taking of marine mammals incidental to EROS were published on June 19... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins...

  1. 77 FR 16539 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: These authorizations are effective from March... taking. Regulations governing the taking of marine mammals incidental to EROS were published on June 19... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins...

  2. 75 FR 28566 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: These authorizations are... taking. Regulations governing the taking of marine mammals incidental to EROS were published on June 19... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins...

  3. 75 FR 38078 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: These authorizations are... taking. Regulations governing the taking of marine mammals incidental to EROS were published on June 19... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins...

  4. 75 FR 54851 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: These authorizations are... taking. Regulations governing the taking of marine mammals incidental to EROS were published on June 19... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins...

  5. 77 FR 841 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... speed of sound in seawater varies directly with depth, temperature, and salinity). The sonar operators... incidentally take marine mammals present within the Navy's operation areas by exposing them to sound from low... submarines. Because low-frequency (LF) sound travels in seawater for greater distances than higher...

  6. 78 FR 52148 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    .... Effects to marine mammals from the specified activity are expected to result from underwater sound... southward parallel to the coast. Sea surface temperatures range from around 16 C in winter to 28 C in summer... to the St. Johns River by a 500-ft-wide entrance channel, will largely contain sound produced...

  7. 77 FR 42279 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus; an ESA-listed bird under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish... source, was estimated as so-called ``practical spreading loss''. This model follows a geometric... marine mammals and implement shutdown or delay procedures when applicable by calling for the shutdown...

  8. 76 FR 6406 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... marine mammals transiting the project area. Transmission loss (TL) underwater is the decrease in acoustic intensity as an acoustic pressure wave propagates out from a source. TL parameters vary with frequency.... There is a lack of empirical data regarding the acoustic output of chipping hammers. As a...

  9. 77 FR 50289 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... and passive acoustic components. The Navy will use the system for long-range detection of quiet, hard... sonar operations to protect marine mammals; Required visual, passive acoustic and active acoustic... incidental take. In the Navy's application, their acoustic analyses predict that less than 0.0001 percent...

  10. 78 FR 44539 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... vibratory hammer for their initial embedment depths and finished with an impact hammer for proofing, as... to marine mammals. Description of Sound Sources and Distances to Thresholds An in-depth description...) Physical environment: shallow depth (less than 100 ft ). Representative data for pile driving SPLs...

  11. Marine Mammal Impacts in Exploited Ecosystems: Would Large Scale Culling Benefit Fisheries?

    PubMed Central

    Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy; Pauly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Competition between marine mammals and fisheries for marine resources—whether real or perceived—has become a major issue for several countries and in international fora. We examined trophic interactions between marine mammals and fisheries based on a resource overlap index, using seven Ecopath models including marine mammal groups. On a global scale, most food consumed by marine mammals consisted of prey types that were not the main target of fisheries. For each ecosystem, the primary production required (PPR) to sustain marine mammals was less than half the PPR to sustain fisheries catches. We also developed an index representing the mean trophic level of marine mammal's consumption (TLQ) and compared it with the mean trophic level of fisheries' catches (TLC). Our results showed that overall TLQ was lower than TLC (2.88 versus 3.42). As fisheries increasingly exploit lower-trophic level species, the competition with marine mammals may become more important. We used mixed trophic impact analysis to evaluate indirect trophic effects of marine mammals, and in some cases found beneficial effects on some prey. Finally, we assessed the change in the trophic structure of an ecosystem after a simulated extirpation of marine mammal populations. We found that this lead to alterations in the structure of the ecosystems, and that there was no clear and direct relationship between marine mammals' predation and the potential catch by fisheries. Indeed, total biomass, with no marine mammals in the ecosystem, generally remained surprisingly similar, or even decreased for some species. PMID:22970153

  12. Characterization of phylogenetically diverse astroviruses of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Rebecca; Nollens, Hendrik H; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Gulland, Frances M D; Wellehan, James F X

    2010-01-01

    Astroviruses are small, non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses. Previously studied mammalian astroviruses have been associated with diarrhoeal disease. Knowledge of astrovirus diversity is very limited, with only six officially recognized astrovirus species from mammalian hosts and, in addition, one human and some bat astroviruses were recently described. We used consensus PCR techniques for initial identification of five astroviruses of marine mammals: three from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), one from a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) and one from a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Bayesian and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis found that these viruses showed significant diversity at a level consistent with novel species. Astroviruses that we identified from marine mammals were found across the mamastrovirus tree and did not form a monophyletic group. Recombination analysis found that a recombination event may have occurred between a human and a California sea lion astrovirus, suggesting that both lineages may have been capable of infecting the same host at one point. The diversity found amongst marine mammal astroviruses and their similarity to terrestrial astroviruses suggests that the marine environment plays an important role in astrovirus ecology.

  13. Current and future patterns of global marine mammal biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kaschner, Kristin; Tittensor, Derek P; Ready, Jonathan; Gerrodette, Tim; Worm, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial distribution of taxa is an important prerequisite for the preservation of biodiversity, and can provide a baseline against which to measure the impacts of climate change. Here we analyse patterns of marine mammal species richness based on predictions of global distributional ranges for 115 species, including all extant pinnipeds and cetaceans. We used an environmental suitability model specifically designed to address the paucity of distributional data for many marine mammal species. We generated richness patterns by overlaying predicted distributions for all species; these were then validated against sightings data from dedicated long-term surveys in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Northeast Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. Model outputs correlated well with empirically observed patterns of biodiversity in all three survey regions. Marine mammal richness was predicted to be highest in temperate waters of both hemispheres with distinct hotspots around New Zealand, Japan, Baja California, the Galapagos Islands, the Southeast Pacific, and the Southern Ocean. We then applied our model to explore potential changes in biodiversity under future perturbations of environmental conditions. Forward projections of biodiversity using an intermediate Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) temperature scenario predicted that projected ocean warming and changes in sea ice cover until 2050 may have moderate effects on the spatial patterns of marine mammal richness. Increases in cetacean richness were predicted above 40° latitude in both hemispheres, while decreases in both pinniped and cetacean richness were expected at lower latitudes. Our results show how species distribution models can be applied to explore broad patterns of marine biodiversity worldwide for taxa for which limited distributional data are available.

  14. Comparative pathology of nocardiosis in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    St Leger, J A; Begeman, L; Fleetwood, M; Frasca, S; Garner, M M; Lair, S; Trembley, S; Linn, M J; Terio, K A

    2009-03-01

    Nocardia spp. infections in mammals cause pyogranulomatous lesions in a variety of organs, most typically the lung. Members of the Nocardia asteroides complex are the most frequently recognized pathogens. Nine cases of nocardiosis in free-ranging pinnipeds and 10 cases of nocardiosis in cetaceans were evaluated. Host species included the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata, n = 8), leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx, n = 1), Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, n = 4), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas, n = 4), and killer whale (Orcinus orca, n = 2). The most common presentation of nocardiosis in both pinnipeds and cetaceans was the systemic form, involving 2 or more organs. Organs most frequently affected were lung and thoracic lymph nodes in 7 of 9 cases in pinnipeds and 8 of 10 cases in cetaceans. Molecular identification and bacterial isolation demonstrated a variety of pathogenic species. N. asteroides, N. farcinica, N. brasiliensis, and N. otitisdiscaviarum are pathogenic for pinnipeds. In cetaceans N. asteroides, N. farcinica, N. brasiliensis, N. cyriacigeorgica, and N. levis are pathogenic. Hematoxylin and eosin and acid fast staining failed to reveal bacteria in every case, whereas modified acid fast and Grocott's methenamine silver consistently demonstrated the characteristic organisms. In both pinnipeds and cetaceans, juvenile animals were affected more often than adults. Hooded seals demonstrated more cases of nocardiosis than other pinnipeds.

  15. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  16. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  17. 50 CFR 224.103 - Special prohibitions for endangered marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mammals. 224.103 Section 224.103 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS ENDANGERED MARINE AND... approach is authorized by the National Marine Fisheries Service through a permit issued under part...

  18. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Echinodermata: Holothuroidea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawson, David L.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Morphology; (3) Systematic Characters; (4) Examination Procedures; (5)…

  19. Large-scale marine ecosystem change and the conservation of marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Odell, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Papers in this Special Feature stem from a symposium on large-scale ecosystem change and the conservation of marine mammals convened at the 86th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mammalogists in June 2006. Major changes are occurring in multiple aspects of the marine environment at unprecedented rates, within the life spans of some individual marine mammals. Drivers of change include shifts in climate, acoustic pollution, disturbances to trophic structure, fisheries interactions, harmful algal blooms, and environmental contaminants. This Special Feature provides an in-depth examination of 3 issues that are particularly troublesome. The 1st article notes the huge spatial and temporal scales of change to which marine mammals are showing ecological responses, and how these species can function as sentinels of such change. The 2nd paper describes the serious problems arising from conflicts with fisheries, and the 3rd contribution reviews the growing issues associated with underwater noise. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  20. Relationship between marine mammal stranding events and offshore earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Rachel; Savirina, Anna; Hoppit, Will

    2014-05-01

    The causes of marine mammal stranding events are largely unknown, but may relate to ocean currents, severe weather, anthropogenic noise pollution, and other factors. Large stranding events have been suggested to occur as a result of offshore earthquakes but there is little evidence as yet to support this hypothesis. Stranding events occur in hotspots, which are sometimes areas of high seismic activity, such as Taiwan, and other times, in areas that are removed from seismic zones, such as Cape Cod. We analyse a large and robust dataset of marine mammal stranding data collected off the coast of Washington and Oregon from 1999 to 2010, to look for statistical connections to offshore earthquakes. We looked forward, as well as backward in time from significant seismic events, to ascertain whether stranding occurrences, if connected to earthquakes, are a result of the earthquake preparation period or the earthquake itself. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  1. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for...www.soest.hawaii.edu/ore/faculty/nosal LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is to improve model-based passive acoustic methods for...and applicability of model-based passive acoustic tracking methods for marine mammals: 1) Invert for sound speed profiles, hydrophone position and

  2. Marine Mammals Ashore: A Field Guide for Strandings. Second Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    evidence of calicivirus infection in Atlantic marine mammals󈧨 . Poxvirus ( parapox ) skin lesions are common in stranded pinnipeds, particularly pups, and...poxvirus--a parapox virus that typically causes raised nodules on the head, neck, and flippers of infected animals-can cause painful, nodular skin...dolphin (Stenella North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena allenuata), 79, 83, 306 japonica), 79, 83, 287 Parapox . See Poxvirus Northern bottlenose whale

  3. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-02

    11 “unknown” of interest is sound speed (hence temperature and salinity) while in this project it is source location. REFERENCES Cato, DH...track marine mammals. Methods were developed and tested that: 1) Invert for sound speed profiles, hydrophone position and hydrophone timing offset...in addition to animal position. 2) Use improve maximization schemes in model-based tracking. 3) Use received sound pressure levels in addition to

  4. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    the “unknown” of interest is sound speed (hence temperature and salinity) while in this project it is source location. 7 REFERENCES...and applicability of model-based passive acoustic tracking methods for marine mammals: 1) Invert for sound speed profiles, hydrophone position and...animal position(s). Arrival time predictions are made using a sound propagation model, which in turn uses information about the environment

  5. Marine Mammal Habitat in Ecuador: Seasonal Abundance and Environmental Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    surveys will investigate the distribution of marine mammals inhabiting the oceanic areas between the Ecuadorian mainland and around the Galápagos Islands ...concentrations of chlorophyll off the West coast of the Galápagos Islands . Here, upwelling driven productivity (which is initiated by the subsurface...derived macronutrients) is enhanced by iron inputs derived from the island platform. The confluence of the Equatorial Undercurrent and Peru Current

  6. 75 FR 69295 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Navy Training Activities Conducted Within the Northwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... physiological effects (such as threshold shift), acoustic masking, impaired communications, stress responses... on Hearing of Marine Animals, and Passive Acoustic Detection, Classification, and Tracking of Marine... acoustic monitoring of marine mammals. The workshops brought together acoustic experts and...

  7. Marine birds and mammals of the Pacific Subarctic Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A. M.; Piatt, J. F.; Shuntov, V. P.; Van Vliet, G. B.; Vladimirov, V. L.; Kuzin, A. E.; Perlov, A. S.

    1999-03-01

    The importance of the subarctic gyres of the North Pacific Ocean to marine birds and mammals is poorly known because of a paucity of data spanning appropriate scales of time and space. The little information that is available indicates the western subarctic gyre (WSAG) is more productive than the eastern subarctic gyre (ESAG). In summer the WSAG supports a greater density and higher biomass of seabirds than the ESAG, including at least two species that are more abundant at nesting colonies in the eastern subarctic. Perhaps most revealing of the seabird distributions in this regard is that of southern hemisphere shearwaters ( Puffinus spp. ) that overwinter in the North Pacific. Their biomass is an order of magnitude greater than that of any northern hemisphere species and is three-fold greater in the WSAG than in the ESAG. Several species of cetaceans also appear to be, or to have been prior to commercial depletions, more abundant in the WSA. Among the many prey species consumed by marine birds and mammals, squids and fishes in the family Myctophidae predominate overall. Other forage species, notably euphausiids, Pacific saury ( Cololabis saira) and Atka mackerel ( Pleurogrammus monopterygius) are important at times to certain species. The principal exceptions to this generalization are baleen whales and small seabirds that consume zooplankton. Interannual and decadal-scale variability in the physical environment and food web production affect seabirds and marine mammals at sea and at coastal breeding locations around the margins of the gyres.

  8. Absorption and ocular deposition of dietary lutein in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Schmitt, Todd; Colitz, Carmen M H; Mazzaro, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Cataracts and ocular disease are common lesions of marine mammals in zoological collections. Lutein, an oxygenated carotenoid, may have therapeutic or prophylactic effects on ocular disorder. Therefore, this study examined the ability of marine mammals to absorb dietary lutein. Two preliminary trials examined lutein in two forms (beadlet or ester) in a small sample size of marine mammals representing pinnipeds and cetaceans. Lutein was fed daily in tablets providing 0.89-3.6 mg lutein/kg body weight(0.75) per day for 15 days to 2 years. A third study was conducted using lutein beadlet fed at 3.6 mg lutein/kg body weight(0.75) per day for 15-21 days. Blood was analyzed for lutein pre- and postsupplementation. In the preliminary trials, lutein beadlet was observed to result in greater blood lutein levels than lutein esters, and cetaceans had more noticeable responses than pinnipeds. In Study 3, serum lutein and zeaxanthin increased postsupplementation in beluga whales (P < 0.05), and serum lutein tended to increase postsupplementation in dolphins (P < 0.10), but little change was seen in serum lutein in pinnipeds or manatee. Opportunistic retinal samples demonstrated some detectable lutein in the retina of a dolphin and several harp seals. The lutein levels in dolphins after supplementation are similar to those reported in free-ranging animals. Ocular lutein in harp seals demonstrates that ocular deposition occurs despite low circulating lutein levels.

  9. Marine birds and mammals of the Pacific Subarctic Gyres

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springer, A.M.; Piatt, J.F.; Shuntov, V.P.; Van Vliet, Gus B.; Vladimirov, V.L.; Kuzin, A.E.; Perlov, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of the subarctic gyres of the North Pacific Ocean to marine birds and mammals is poorly known because of a paucity of data spanning appropriate scales of time and space. The little information that is available indicates the western subarctic gyre (WSAG) is more productive than the eastern subarctic gyre (ESAG). In summer the WSAG supports a greater density and higher biomass of seabirds than the ESAG, including at least two species that are more abundant at nesting colonies in the eastern subarctic. Perhaps most revealing of the seabird distributions in this regard is that of southern hemisphere shearwaters (Puffinus spp.) that overwinter in the North Pacific. Their biomass is an order of magnitude greater than that of any northern hemisphere species and is three-fold greater in the WSAG than in the ESAG. Several species of cetaceans also appear to be, or to have been prior to commercial depletions, more abundant in the WSA. Among the many prey species consumed by marine birds and mammals, squids and fishes in the family Myctophidae predominate overall. Other forage species, notably euphausiids, Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius) are important at times to certain species. The principal exceptions to this generalization are baleen whales and small seabirds that consume zooplankton. Interannual and decadal-scale variability in the physical environment and food web production affect seabirds and marine mammals at sea and at coastal breeding locations around the margins of the gyres.

  10. 77 FR 19242 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...NMFS has received an application from Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (L-DEO), a part of Columbia University, for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine geophysical survey in the central Pacific Ocean, May through June, 2012. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting......

  11. 75 FR 54095 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Seismic Survey in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...NMFS has received an application from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) of the University of California for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine seismic survey. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to SIO to take, by......

  12. A Late Pleistocene transgression in Thailand: A marine molluscan fauna from Ban Praksa (Samut Prakan Province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, Mauro Pietro

    2012-01-01

    A Late Pleistocene molluscan fauna sampled at Ban Praksa, near the Chao Phraya River mouth (Lower Central Plain of Bangkok, Thailand) is herein analyzed and paleoecologically characterized, revealing a shallow infralittoral, coarse/hard-bottomed environment. The comparison of the Ban Praksa association with several coeval ones recovered from Phra Pradaeng Formation seems to be evidence of a 10,000 year hiatus between two separate groups of marine faunas, possibly belonging to different interstadial transgressive peaks that occurred during the long-term sea-level regression following the Last Interglacial.

  13. Monitoring the marine environment using marine mammal tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Day, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Marine environments, both inshore and open ocean, receive numerous inputs of anthropogenic chemicals. Cetaceans provide a valuable resource for monitoring the low level contamination of marine environments with persistent organic contaminants. Comparative studies using inshore and offshore southern ocean cetaceans have revealed significant differences in the types of contamination in these two environments. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) deposited in the southern oceans are characterized by an abundance of lower chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are not present at significant concentrations in cetaceans from the open southern ocean. In contrast significant concentrations of PCDD/F congeners are detected in the blubber of the inshore living Hector`s dolphin. This species lives close to the shore and has a very small home range (approximately 30 km) for a cetacean. Analysis of tissue PCDD/F and PCB profiles from different populations and their food sources will be presented. The data are being used to determine if there are local variations in the contamination of the New Zealand inshore marine environment.

  14. 77 FR 64961 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION...: NMFS has received a request from the Seattle Department of Transportation (SDOT), on behalf of the City of Seattle (City), for authorization for the take, by Level B harassment, of marine...

  15. 76 FR 7580 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... record comments we receive after the close of the comment period (see DATES) or comments delivered to an... Mammals and Marine Mammals Applicant: U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, AK;...

  16. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216.14 Section 216.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING...

  17. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216.14 Section 216.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING...

  18. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216.14 Section 216.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING...

  19. 78 FR 52753 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 229 RIN 0648-BD43 Taking of Marine Mammals... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... 118(f) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) to reduce the level of serious injury and...

  20. Consumption by marine mammals on the Northeast U.S. continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laurel A; Link, Jason S; Cadrin, Steven X; Palka, Debra L

    2015-03-01

    The economic and ecological impacts of fish consumption by marine mammals, the associated interactions with commercial fish stocks, and the forage demands of these marine mammal populations are largely unknown. Consumption estimates are often either data deficient or not fully evaluated in a rigorous, quantitative manner. Although consumption estimates exist for the Northeast United States (NEUS) Large Marine Ecosystem, there is considerable uncertainty in those estimates. We examined consumption estimates for 12 marine mammal species inhabiting the regional ecosystem. We used sensitivity analyses to examine metabolically driven daily individual consumption rates, resulting in a suite of feasible parameter-pair ranges for each of three taxonomic groups: mysticetes, odontocetes, and pinnipeds. We expanded daily individual consumption to annual consumption based on abundance estimates of marine mammals found on the NEUS continental shelf coupled with estimates of annual residence time for each species. To examine consumptive removals for specific prey, diet compositions were summarized into major prey categories, and predatory removals by marine mammal species as well as for total marine mammal consumption were estimated for each prey taxa. Bounds on consumption estimates for each marine mammal species were determined using Monte Carlo resampling simulations. Our results suggest that consumption for these 12 marine mammal species combined may be similar in magnitude to commercial fishery landings for small pelagic and groundfish prey groups. Consumption by marine mammals warrants consideration both as a source of mortality in assessments of prey-stocks, and to determine marine mammal forage demands in ecosystem assessment models. The approach that we present represents a rigorous, quantitative method to scope the bounds of the biomass that marine mammals are expected to consume, and is appropriate for use in other ecosystems where the interaction between marine

  1. Annual report of the Marine Mammal Commission, calendar year 1992. Report to the Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-31

    This is the 20th Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors on Marine Mammals. The Commission was established under Title II of the Marine Mammal Protection Act to provide an independent source of guidance on Federal activities and policies, both domestic and international, affecting marine mammal protection and conservation. Each year, the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors devote particular attention to marine mammal species or populations that are or may be in jeopardy. Chapter III describes efforts to conserve: sea otters in California and Alaska; Steller sea lions; Hawaiian monk seals; harbor seals; northern fur seals; Pacific walruses; northern right whales; humpback whales; gray whales; bowhead whales; harbor porpoises; vaquitas or Gulf of California harbor porpoises; bottlenose dolphins; killer whales; and polar bears. Activities related to West Indian manatees, Hawaiian monk seals, vaquitas, and gray whales are summarized.

  2. The occurrence and ecology of Trichinella in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Forbes, L B

    2000-12-01

    Trichinella in marine mammals has a circumpolar arctic distribution and a narrow range of host species. It is commonly found in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), and increasingly in walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) where it presents a significant zoonotic hazard. This has resulted in the implementation of food safety programs in some arctic communities to test harvested walrus meat for Trichinella larvae prior to consumption. Trichinella has been reported infrequently in bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida), and was once observed in a Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Cannibalism is probably the most important factor in maintaining a Trichinella cycle in polar bears. Arctic carnivores such as polar bears, arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have a high prevalence of Trichinella infection and the carcasses of at least some of these animals are deposited in the ocean. Scavenging of these carcasses by walruses probably occurs, but may not account for the high prevalence the parasite seen in this host species. Predation, carrion feeding and cannibalism have been documented for walruses and a sylvatic cycle similar to that of bears may exist in walrus populations. Seals and whales are likely infected through infrequent exposure to infected carcasses, either directly by scavenging or indirectly by consuming amphipods or fish that have fed on infected carcasses. The inefficiency of this mechanism may account for the low prevalence of Trichinella in seals and whales. It is known that isolates from marine mammals are cold tolerant, and infectious for man, and have been identified as Trichinella nativa (T2). Molecular and other phylogenetic studies would be useful to facilitate studies on the inter-relationship of Trichinella cycles involving marine and terrestrial mammals in the arctic and subarctic, and in the investigation of human outbreaks of trichinellosis in these areas.

  3. Marine mammals as global pollution indicators for organochlorines.

    PubMed

    Mössner, S; Ballschmiter, K

    1997-01-01

    Blubber tissues of the following marine mammals differing in their geographic distribution (North Atlantic, North Pacific, Bering Sea/Arctic Ocean), trophic level, and feeding habits were analyzed for their organochlorine contents: two seal species (harbor seals--Phoca vitulina, northern fur seals--Callorhinus ursinus), three toothed whale species (belukha whales--Delphinapterus leucas, one common dolphin--Delphinus delphis, one pilot whale--Globicephala melaena), and one baleen whale species (a bowhead whale--Balaena mysticetus). As xenobiotics were quantified the seven indicator congeners of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180), three isomers of the hexachlorocyclohexanes (alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH) as well as six components of the DDT-group (4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, 2,4'-DDT, 2,4'-DDD, and 2,4'-DDE). When comparing the xenobiotic levels of these marine mammals, it showed that the animals from the western North Atlantic were contaminated about 15 times more with organochlorines than the animals from the eastern North Pacific and the Bering Sea/Arctic Ocean. The total organochlorine burden, the 4,4'-DDE-percentage as well as the metabolic PCB patterns correlate with the trophic levels of the marine mammals studied. The quantitative analyses were done by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (HRGC/ECD) whereas the analyses of the metabolic PCB patterns were done by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and mass selective detection (HRGC/MSD).

  4. Influenza A virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores.

    PubMed

    Harder, Timm C; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Vahlenkamp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV), members of the Orthomyxoviridae, cover a wide host spectrum comprising a plethora of avian and, in comparison, a few mammalian species. The viral reservoir and gene pool are kept in metapopulations of aquatic wild birds. The mammalian-adapted IAVs originally arose by transspecies transmission from avian sources. In swine, horse and man, species-adapted IAV lineages circulate independently of the avian reservoir and cause predominantly respiratory disease of highly variable severity. Sporadic outbreaks of IAV infections associated with pneumonic clinical signs have repeatedly occurred in marine mammals (harbour seals [Phoca vitulina]) off the New England coast of the U.S.A. due to episodic transmission of avian IAV. However, no indigenous marine mammal IAV lineages are described. In contrast to marine mammals, avian- and equine-derived IAVs have formed stable circulating lineages in terrestrial carnivores: IAVs of subtype H3N2 and H3N8 are found in canine populations in South Korea, China, and the U.S.A. Experimental infections revealed that dogs and cats can be infected with an even wider range of avian IAVs. Cats, in particular, also proved susceptible to native infection with human pandemic H1N1 viruses and, according to serological data, may be vulnerable to infection with further human-adapted IAVs. Ferrets are susceptible to a variety of avian and mammalian IAVs and are an established animal model of human IAV infection. Thus, a potential role of pet cats, dogs and ferrets as mediators of avian-derived viruses to the human population does exist. A closer observation for influenza virus infections and transmissions at this animal-human interface is indicated.

  5. [Mammal flea (Siphonaptera) fauna in the interfluve of the Malaya Laba and Belaya Laba rivers].

    PubMed

    Kotti, B K; Kotova, E G

    2014-01-01

    The mammals in the interfluve of the Malaya Laba and Belaya Laba rivers were found to have fleas of 35 species; the main hosts for 2 of them were birds. Few hosts harbored most of animal parasites. The species composition and structure of fleas on small mammals greatly varies with high-altitude zones.

  6. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Jennifer L. Miksis-Olds Applied Research Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University PO...signals impact marine mammal prey and resulting marine mammal habitat use. This is especially critical in areas like the Bering Sea where global climate...animal presence and habitat use. Objective 1: What effect do changing sea ice dynamics have on zooplankton populations? a) How does zooplankton

  7. Ocean Basin Impact of Ambient Noise on Marine Mammal Detectability, Distribution, and Acoustic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-06

    Technical Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ocean Basin Impact of Ambient Noise on Marine Mammal Distribution, and Acoustic Communication 3. DATES...ultimate goal of this research is to enhance the understanding of global ocean noise and how variability in sound level impacts marine mammal acoustic...it relates to marine mammal active acoustic space and acoustic communication. This work increases the spatial range and time scale of prior

  8. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    beluga whales at the Barren Islands, Alaska, the Bering Sea Acoustic Report, Marine Mammal Monitoring for NW Fisheries, and Monitoring killer whale ...distribution, physical oceanographic process, and sound levels to marine mammal habitat use on the eastern Bering Sea shelf. Integrated data such...individual parameters. 3) A mixed-model analysis will be performed to identify relationships between marine mammal presence and environmental sound

  9. Marine mammal impacts in exploited ecosystems: would large scale culling benefit fisheries?

    PubMed

    Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy; Pauly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Competition between marine mammals and fisheries for marine resources-whether real or perceived-has become a major issue for several countries and in international fora. We examined trophic interactions between marine mammals and fisheries based on a resource overlap index, using seven Ecopath models including marine mammal groups. On a global scale, most food consumed by marine mammals consisted of prey types that were not the main target of fisheries. For each ecosystem, the primary production required (PPR) to sustain marine mammals was less than half the PPR to sustain fisheries catches. We also developed an index representing the mean trophic level of marine mammal's consumption (TL(Q)) and compared it with the mean trophic level of fisheries' catches (TL(C)). Our results showed that overall TL(Q) was lower than TL(C) (2.88 versus 3.42). As fisheries increasingly exploit lower-trophic level species, the competition with marine mammals may become more important. We used mixed trophic impact analysis to evaluate indirect trophic effects of marine mammals, and in some cases found beneficial effects on some prey. Finally, we assessed the change in the trophic structure of an ecosystem after a simulated extirpation of marine mammal populations. We found that this lead to alterations in the structure of the ecosystems, and that there was no clear and direct relationship between marine mammals' predation and the potential catch by fisheries. Indeed, total biomass, with no marine mammals in the ecosystem, generally remained surprisingly similar, or even decreased for some species.

  10. 78 FR 80385 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... areas (see Figure 2 in Apache's application). Vessels will lay and retrieve nodal sensors on the sea... the intertidal and marine environment. For the land operator, a single-component sensor land node will... submersible multi-component system made up of three velocity sensors and a hydrophone (see Figure 5...

  11. 78 FR 77433 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Structure Monitoring, Intertidal Biodiversity Surveys, Marine Protected Area Baseline Monitoring, Intertidal... application (see ADDRESSES). Biodiversity Surveys, which are part of a long-term monitoring project and are... measurements. Table 2 in PISCO's application (see ADDRESSES) lists established biodiversity sites in Oregon...

  12. 77 FR 64320 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... monitoring projects include Community Structure Monitoring, Intertidal Biodiversity Surveys, Marine Protected... Table 1 in PISCO's application (see ADDRESSES). Biodiversity Surveys, which are part of a long-term... biodiversity sites in Oregon and California. In September 2007, the state of California began establishing...

  13. 77 FR 72327 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Biodiversity Surveys, Marine Protected Area Baseline Monitoring, Intertidal Recruitment Monitoring, and Ocean... each site are presented in Table 1 in PISCO's application (see ADDRESSES). Biodiversity Surveys, which... ADDRESSES) lists established biodiversity sites in Oregon and California. In September 2007, the state...

  14. 76 FR 62778 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in the Massachusetts Bay for a period of 1 year. DATES: This... Natural Gas Port Facility in Massachusetts Bay AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...) long, 24-inch (61-centimeter) outside diameter natural gas pipeline which interconnects the Port to...

  15. 77 FR 50990 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... approaches if pinnipeds are hauled out directly in the study plots or while biologists walk from one location... vicinity of the permanent abalone study plots. Disturbance may result in reactions ranging from an animal... associated with the proposed activity is the quadrat locations being marked with marine epoxy. The...

  16. 78 FR 47495 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... and weather conditions will influence when and where the open- water marine surveys will be conducted... sub-seafloor) using acoustic methods. The ice gouge surveys will be conducted using the conventional survey method where the acoustic instrumentation will be towed behind the survey vessel. These...

  17. Conservation of Arctic marine mammals faced with climate change.

    PubMed

    Ragen, Timothy J; Huntington, Henry P; Hovelsrud, Grete K

    2008-03-01

    On a daily basis, societies are making decisions that will influence the effects of climate change for decades or even centuries to come. To promote informed management of the associated risks, we review available conservation measures for Arctic marine mammals, a group that includes some of the most charismatic species on earth. The majority of available conservation measures (e.g., restrictions on hunting, protection of essential habitat areas from development, reduction of incidental take) are intended to address the effects of increasing human activity in the Arctic that are likely to follow decreasing sea ice and rising temperatures. As important as those measures will be in the effort to conserve Arctic marine mammals and ecosystems, they will not address the primary physical manifestations of climate change, such as loss of sea ice. Short of actions to prevent climate change, there are no known conservation measures that can be used to ensure the long-term persistence of these species and ecosystems as we know them today.

  18. 76 FR 14924 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management Activities AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... incidental to Russian River estuary management activities. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA... Channel Adaptive Management Plan. NMFS' Environmental Assessment (2010) and associated Finding of...

  19. New data on mammoth fauna mammals in the central Lena River basin (Yakutia, Lenskie Stolby National Nature Park and adjacent areas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeskorov, G. G.; Nogovitsyn, P. R.; Mashchenko, E. N.; Belolyubsky, I. N.; Stepanov, A. D.; Plotnikov, V. V.; Protopopov, A. V.; Shchelchkova, M. V.; van der Plicht, J.; Solomonov, N. G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers the data on new findings of mammoth fauna remains in the Middle Lena basin used to specify the species composition of large Late Neopleistocene mammals represented by eleven species. The obtained range of radiocarbon dates made it possible to state that mass burials of Pleistocene mammal remains were formed in the region during the Karginsk Interstadial (24 000-55 000 years ago).

  20. Arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sue E; Huntington, Henry P

    2008-03-01

    Evolutionary selection has refined the life histories of seven species (three cetacean [narwhal, beluga, and bowhead whales], three pinniped [walrus, ringed, and bearded seals], and the polar bear) to spatial and temporal domains influenced by the seasonal extremes and variability of sea ice, temperature, and day length that define the Arctic. Recent changes in Arctic climate may challenge the adaptive capability of these species. Nine other species (five cetacean [fin, humpback, minke, gray, and killer whales] and four pinniped [harp, hooded, ribbon, and spotted seals]) seasonally occupy Arctic and subarctic habitats and may be poised to encroach into more northern latitudes and to remain there longer, thereby competing with extant Arctic species. A synthesis of the impacts of climate change on all these species hinges on sea ice, in its role as: (1) platform, (2) marine ecosystem foundation, and (3) barrier to non-ice-adapted marine mammals and human commercial activities. Therefore, impacts are categorized for: (1) ice-obligate species that rely on sea ice platforms, (2) ice-associated species that are adapted to sea ice-dominated ecosystems, and (3) seasonally migrant species for which sea ice can act as a barrier. An assessment of resilience is far more speculative, as any number of scenarios can be envisioned, most of them involving potential trophic cascades and anticipated human perturbations. Here we provide resilience scenarios for the three ice-related species categories relative to four regions defined by projections of sea ice reductions by 2050 and extant shelf oceanography. These resilience scenarios suggest that: (1) some populations of ice-obligate marine mammals will survive in two regions with sea ice refugia, while other stocks may adapt to ice-free coastal habitats, (2) ice-associated species may find suitable feeding opportunities within the two regions with sea ice refugia and, if capable of shifting among available prey, may benefit from

  1. The Gut Bacterial Community of Mammals from Marine and Terrestrial Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Tiffanie M.; Rogers, Tracey L.; Brown, Mark V.

    2013-01-01

    After birth, mammals acquire a community of bacteria in their gastro-intestinal tract, which harvests energy and provides nutrients for the host. Comparative studies of numerous terrestrial mammal hosts have identified host phylogeny, diet and gut morphology as primary drivers of the gut bacterial community composition. To date, marine mammals have been excluded from these comparative studies, yet they represent distinct examples of evolutionary history, diet and lifestyle traits. To provide an updated understanding of the gut bacterial community of mammals, we compared bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data generated from faecal material of 151 marine and terrestrial mammal hosts. This included 42 hosts from a marine habitat. When compared to terrestrial mammals, marine mammals clustered separately and displayed a significantly greater average relative abundance of the phylum Fusobacteria. The marine carnivores (Antarctic and Arctic seals) and the marine herbivore (dugong) possessed significantly richer gut bacterial community than terrestrial carnivores and terrestrial herbivores, respectively. This suggests that evolutionary history and dietary items specific to the marine environment may have resulted in a gut bacterial community distinct to that identified in terrestrial mammals. Finally we hypothesize that reduced marine trophic webs, whereby marine carnivores (and herbivores) feed directly on lower trophic levels, may expose this group to high levels of secondary metabolites and influence gut microbial community richness. PMID:24386245

  2. The gut bacterial community of mammals from marine and terrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Tiffanie M; Rogers, Tracey L; Brown, Mark V

    2013-01-01

    After birth, mammals acquire a community of bacteria in their gastro-intestinal tract, which harvests energy and provides nutrients for the host. Comparative studies of numerous terrestrial mammal hosts have identified host phylogeny, diet and gut morphology as primary drivers of the gut bacterial community composition. To date, marine mammals have been excluded from these comparative studies, yet they represent distinct examples of evolutionary history, diet and lifestyle traits. To provide an updated understanding of the gut bacterial community of mammals, we compared bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data generated from faecal material of 151 marine and terrestrial mammal hosts. This included 42 hosts from a marine habitat. When compared to terrestrial mammals, marine mammals clustered separately and displayed a significantly greater average relative abundance of the phylum Fusobacteria. The marine carnivores (Antarctic and Arctic seals) and the marine herbivore (dugong) possessed significantly richer gut bacterial community than terrestrial carnivores and terrestrial herbivores, respectively. This suggests that evolutionary history and dietary items specific to the marine environment may have resulted in a gut bacterial community distinct to that identified in terrestrial mammals. Finally we hypothesize that reduced marine trophic webs, whereby marine carnivores (and herbivores) feed directly on lower trophic levels, may expose this group to high levels of secondary metabolites and influence gut microbial community richness.

  3. 6th International workshop on the Detection, Classification, Localization and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Classification, Localization and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Dr Douglas Gillespie Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of St Andrews, Scottish Oceans Institute,Sea Mammal

  4. Improving the Navys Passive Underwater Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammal Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    marine mammal species using passive acoustic monitoring, with application to obtaining density estimates of transiting humpback whale populations in...by propagation of humpback calls west of Kauai, Hawaii, and 4) to conduct spatial statistical analyses and correlation analyses of marine mammal and

  5. Advanced Methods for Passive Acoustic Detection, Classification, and Localization of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    marine mammal vocalizations and ultimately, in some cases, provide data for estimating the population density of the species present. In recent years...pose significant challenges. In this project, we are developing improved methods for detection, classification, and localization of many types of marine mammal sounds.

  6. 77 FR 25435 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ...), Eglin Air Force Base (Eglin AFB) to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to Naval... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB109 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida AGENCY:...

  7. Selected marine mammals of Alaska: species accounts with research and management recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This book is the result of a need seen by the Marine Mammal Commission for a current summary of the biology and status of ten species of Alaskan marine mammals, including recommendations for research and management. Its purpose is to serve as a reference and working document as conservation and management plans are developed and implemented for the ten species.

  8. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. 18.26 Section 18.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of...

  9. 77 FR 12010 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division (NSWC PCD). Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its......

  10. 77 FR 12010 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 1076-1789 and 14502

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB040 Marine Mammals; File Nos. 1076-1789 and... to Scientific Research Permit Nos. 1076-1789 and 14502. ADDRESSES: The amendment and related... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 1076-1789: This permit, issued on March 13,...

  11. 76 FR 33721 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ..., 120 36.580' W. Acoustic and visual stimuli generated by the use of heavy equipment during the Delta...). Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Acoustic and visual stimuli generated by: The use of heavy equipment.... This disturbance from acoustic and visual stimuli is the principal means of marine mammal...

  12. Development and Validation of a Mobile, Autonomous, Broadband Passive Acoustic Monitoring System for Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    of Marine Mammals using Passive Acoustics, Pavia , Sept. 2009. Gordon, J., Gillespie, D., Caillat, M., Claridge, D., Moretti, D.,Dalgaard Balle, J...International Workshop on Detection, Classification and Localization of Marine Mammals using Passive Acoustics, Pavia , Sept. 2009. Ward, J., Morrissey, R

  13. [Land and marine fauna constituting a threat for recreational divers in the tropics].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-09-01

    Due to intensively growing international tourism, increasing numbers of people leave for countries with hot climates, where various threats for human health and life exist. Besides climatic and sanitary conditions, a rich fauna, represented by predators and venomous animals, can be included. Based on available world literature and their own observations, the authors present the threats that a tourist can possibly encounter whilst relaxing on the beach or during recreational diving in tropical waters. When staying in water, a large threat is posed by marine fish of prey (sharks, barracuda, muraena), Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, anemones) and venomous animals (fish, sea snakes). On land, on the other hand, a threat can be posed by venomous arthropods (scorpions, spiders) and Hymenoptera insects. The study presents the most important representatives of fauna present in coastal areas frequently visited by diving enthusiasts. Also, clinical image and conduct in the case of body injures are discussed.

  14. 78 FR 33369 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine geophysical (i.e., seismic) survey in the deep water of the Gulf of Mexico, April to May...

  15. 78 FR 11821 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine geophysical (seismic) survey in the Gulf of Mexico, April to May, 2013. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to......

  16. Regional variability in food availability for Arctic marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Bodil A; Gradinger, Rolf

    2008-03-01

    This review provides an overview of prey preferences of seven core Arctic marine mammal species (AMM) and four non-core species on a pan-Arctic scale with regional examples. Arctic marine mammal species exploit prey resources close to the sea ice, in the water column, and at the sea floor, including lipid-rich pelagic and benthic crustaceans and pelagic and ice-associated schooling fishes such as capelin and Arctic cod. Prey preferred by individual species range from cephalopods and benthic bivalves to Greenland halibut. A few AMM are very prey-, habitat-, and/or depth-specific (e.g., walrus, polar bear), while others are rather opportunistic and, therefore, likely less vulnerable to change (e.g., beluga, bearded seal). In the second section, we review prey distribution patterns and current biomass hotspots in the three major physical realms (sea ice, water column, and seafloor), highlighting relations to environmental parameters such as advection patterns and the sea ice regime. The third part of the contribution presents examples of documented changes in AMM prey distribution and biomass and, subsequently, suggests three potential scenarios of large-scale biotic change, based on published observations and predictions of environmental change. These scenarios discuss (1) increased pelagic primary and, hence, secondary production, particularly in the central Arctic, during open-water conditions in the summer (based on surplus nutrients currently unutilized); (2) reduced benthic and pelagic biomass in coastal/shelf areas (due to increased river runoff and, hence, changed salinity and turbidity conditions); and (3) increased pelagic grazing and recycling in open-water conditions at the expense of the current tight benthic-pelagic coupling in part of the ice-covered shelf regions (due to increased pelagic consumption vs. vertical flux). Should those scenarios hold true, pelagic-feeding and generalist AMM might be advantaged, while the range for benthic shelf

  17. Investigations of the marine flora and fauna of the Islands of Palau.

    PubMed

    John Faulkner, D; Newman, David J; Cragg, Gordon M

    2004-02-01

    The Islands of Palau have proven to be an excellent source of bioactive marine natural products primarily as a result of the systematic studies from the late 1970s by the research groups of Scheuer at the University of Hawaii, Faulkner at the Scripps Oceanographic Institution/University of California at San Diego, and Paul at the University of Guam. Their efforts were materially aided by the excellent facilities provided by the Government of Palau and for the last 10 years, those of the NCI's shallow water collection contractor, the Coral Reef Research Foundation. This review covers the structures and biological activities where noted, of the multitudinous marine-derived natural products isolated from the marine flora and fauna of this nation and demonstrates the enormous variety of novel structures elaborated by these organisms.

  18. Fulfilling EU Laws to Ensure Marine Mammal Protection During Marine Renewable Construction Operations in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Sarah J; Green, Mick; Gregerson, Sarah; Weir, Caroline R

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale offshore renewable energy infrastructure construction in Scottish waters is anticipated in coming decades. An approach being pursued, with a view to preventing short-range marine mammal injury, is the introduction of additional noise sources to intentionally disturb and displace animals from renewable sites over the construction period. To date, no full and transparent consideration has been given to the long-term cost benefits of noise reduction compared with noise-inducing mitigation techniques. It has yet to be determined if the introduction of additional noise is consistent with the objectives of the EU Habitats Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  19. Land-based infrared imagery for marine mammal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graber, Joseph; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian; Jessup, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    A land-based infrared (IR) camera is used to detect endangered Southern Resident killer whales in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. The observations are motivated by a proposed tidal energy pilot project, which will be required to monitor for environmental effects. Potential monitoring methods also include visual observation, passive acoustics, and active acoustics. The effectiveness of observations in the infrared spectrum is compared to observations in the visible spectrum to assess the viability of infrared imagery for cetacean detection and classification. Imagery was obtained at Lime Kiln Park, Washington from 7/6/10-7/9/10 using a FLIR Thermovision A40M infrared camera (7.5-14μm, 37°HFOV, 320x240 pixels) under ideal atmospheric conditions (clear skies, calm seas, and wind speed 0-4 m/s). Whales were detected during both day (9 detections) and night (75 detections) at distances ranging from 42 to 162 m. The temperature contrast between dorsal fins and the sea surface ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 °C. Differences in emissivity from sea surface to dorsal fin are shown to aid detection at high incidence angles (near grazing). A comparison to theory is presented, and observed deviations from theory are investigated. A guide for infrared camera selection based on site geometry and desired target size is presented, with specific considerations regarding marine mammal detection. Atmospheric conditions required to use visible and infrared cameras for marine mammal detection are established and compared with 2008 meteorological data for the proposed tidal energy site. Using conservative assumptions, infrared observations are predicted to provide a 74% increase in hours of possible detection, compared with visual observations.

  20. Methylmercury and total mercury in tissues of arctic marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Wagemann, R; Trebacz, E; Boila, G; Lockhart, W L

    1998-07-11

    Concentrations of methylmercury, total mercury and selenium in marine mammal tissues were determined in liver, muscle, skin (muktuk) and blubber of belugas, ringed seals and narwhal, using atomic absorption and capillary gas chromatography with ECD detection. Mean MeHg levels in the types of tissues analysed, except blubber, generally exceeded the Canadian Federal Consumption Guideline for mercury in fish (0.5 micrograms/g wet wt.). A spatial trend of higher MeHg levels in western compared to eastern Arctic belugas and ringed seals was found which followed a similar trend observed for total mercury. Factors which could explain this trend are discussed. Robust linear regression of MeHg on total Hg and MeHg on age of animals was performed and a strong correlation between the two variables was found in each case. The ratio of MeHg to total mercury as indicated by the regression coefficients was close to one for muscle and skin (muktuk) while for liver it was < 1. The mean percentage of MeHg in the liver of marine mammals was 3-12% of the total Hg in this tissue depending on species and location. It is postulated that the formation and deposition of mercuric selenide in the liver is part of the demethylation process in this tissue. This is based on the relatively low fraction of MeHg in the liver not withstanding the fact that the predominant form of mercury taken up via food is MeHg. The long half-life for total mercury and the relatively short half-life for MeHg in this organ are in accord with this postulate as is the 1:1 stoichiometric relationship between mercury and selenium in the liver.

  1. Organotins in marine mammals and seabirds from Norwegian territory.

    PubMed

    Berge, John Arthur; Brevik, Einar M; Bjørge, Arne; Følsvik, Norunn; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Wolkers, Hans

    2004-02-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that marine mammals and some seabirds are exposed to organotins. However, results from northern and Arctic areas are few. Here results from analysis of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), diphenyltin (DPhT) and monophenyltin (MPhT) in harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), common seal (Phoca vitulina), ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Norwegian territory are presented. Relatively high concentrations of DBT, TBT and MBT were observed in muscle, kidney and liver from harbour porpoises caught in northern Norway in 1988, just before restrictions on the use of tributyltin (TBT)(mainly on small boats) were introduced in several European countries. The concentrations in harbour porpoise muscle tissue were reduced significantly 11 years later, possibly as a result of the introduced restrictions. Considerably lower concentrations of butyltins were observed in the seals compared to porpoises. The lowest levels of organotins were found in ringed seals from Spitsbergen, where only traces of dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) were observed. Traces of DBT and MBT were also found in some individual glaucous gulls from Bear Island. The sum of the degradation products MBT and DBT in liver samples from all analysed species were generally higher than TBT itself. Triphenyltin (TPhT) was observed in all porpoise samples and in livers of common seals. Also the sum of the degradation products MPhT and DPhT in liver samples from porpoise and common seals were higher than TPhT. No traces of phenyltins were found in ringed seals from Spitsbergen or in glaucous gulls from Bear Island. The limited data available indicate low to moderate exposure to organotins in northern areas (Spitsbergen and Bear Island). Marine mammals are however more exposed further south along the Norwegian Coast.

  2. Revised age estimates for the later Paleogene mammal faunas of Egypt and Oman

    PubMed Central

    Seiffert, Erik R.

    2006-01-01

    The Jebel Qatrani Formation of northern Egypt has produced Afro-Arabia’s primary record of Paleogene mammalian evolution, including the world’s most complete remains of early anthropoid primates. Recent studies of Fayum mammals have assumed that the Jebel Qatrani Formation contains a significant Eocene component (≈150 of 340 m), and that most taxa from that succession are between 35.4 and 33.3 million years old (Ma), i.e., latest Eocene to earliest Oligocene in age. Reanalysis of the chronological evidence shared by later Paleogene strata exposed in Egypt and Oman (Taqah and Thaytiniti areas, Dhofar Province) reveals that this hypothesis is no longer tenable. Revised correlation of the Fayum and Dhofar magnetostratigraphies indicates that (i) only the lowest 48 m of the Jebel Qatrani Formation are likely to be Eocene in age; (ii) the youngest Fayum anthropoids, including well known species such as Aegyptopithecus zeuxis and Apidium phiomense, are probably between 30.2 and 29.5 Ma, ≈3–4 Ma younger than previously thought; (iii) oligopithecid anthropoids did not go extinct at the Eocene–Oligocene boundary but rather persisted for at least another 2.5 Ma; (iv) propliopithecid anthropoids first appear in the Fayum area at ≈31.5 Ma, long after the Eocene–Oligocene boundary; and (v) the youngest Fayum mammals may be only ≈1 Ma older than the 28- to 27-Ma mammals from Chilga, Ethiopia, and not 4–5 Ma older, as previously thought. Whatever gap exists in the Oligocene record of Afro-Arabian mammal evolution is now limited primarily to a poorly sampled 27- to 23-Ma window in the latest Oligocene. PMID:16549773

  3. Revised age estimates for the later Paleogene mammal faunas of Egypt and Oman.

    PubMed

    Seiffert, Erik R

    2006-03-28

    The Jebel Qatrani Formation of northern Egypt has produced Afro-Arabia's primary record of Paleogene mammalian evolution, including the world's most complete remains of early anthropoid primates. Recent studies of Fayum mammals have assumed that the Jebel Qatrani Formation contains a significant Eocene component ( approximately 150 of 340 m), and that most taxa from that succession are between 35.4 and 33.3 million years old (Ma), i.e., latest Eocene to earliest Oligocene in age. Reanalysis of the chronological evidence shared by later Paleogene strata exposed in Egypt and Oman (Taqah and Thaytiniti areas, Dhofar Province) reveals that this hypothesis is no longer tenable. Revised correlation of the Fayum and Dhofar magnetostratigraphies indicates that (i) only the lowest 48 m of the Jebel Qatrani Formation are likely to be Eocene in age; (ii) the youngest Fayum anthropoids, including well known species such as Aegyptopithecus zeuxis and Apidium phiomense, are probably between 30.2 and 29.5 Ma, approximately 3-4 Ma younger than previously thought; (iii) oligopithecid anthropoids did not go extinct at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary but rather persisted for at least another 2.5 Ma; (iv) propliopithecid anthropoids first appear in the Fayum area at approximately 31.5 Ma, long after the Eocene-Oligocene boundary; and (v) the youngest Fayum mammals may be only approximately 1 Ma older than the 28- to 27-Ma mammals from Chilga, Ethiopia, and not 4-5 Ma older, as previously thought. Whatever gap exists in the Oligocene record of Afro-Arabian mammal evolution is now limited primarily to a poorly sampled 27- to 23-Ma window in the latest Oligocene.

  4. Sequence variation in the Tbx4 gene in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Onbe, Kaori; Nishida, Shin; Sone, Emi; Kanda, Naohisa; Goto, Mutsuo; Pastene, Luis A; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Koike, Hiroko

    2007-05-01

    The amino-acid sequences of the T-domain region of the Tbx4 gene, which is required for hindlimb development, are 100% identical in humans and mice. Cetaceans have lost most of their hindlimb structure, although hindlimb buds are present in very early cetacean embryos. To examine whether the Tbx4 gene has the same function in cetaceans as in other mammals, we analyzed Tbx4 sequences from cetaceans, dugong, artiodactyls and marine carnivores. A total of 39 primers were designed using human and dog Tbx4 nucleotide sequences. Exons 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 of the Tbx4 genes from cetaceans, artiodactyls, and marine carnivores were sequenced. Non-synonymous substitution sites were detected in the T-domain regions from some cetacean species, but were not detected in those from artiodactyls, the dugong, or the carnivores. The C-terminal regions contained a number of non-synonymous substitutions. Although some indels were present, they were in groups of three nucleotides and therefore did not cause frame shifts. The dN/dS values for the T-domain and C-terminal regions of the cetacean and artiodactylous Tbx4 genes were much lower than 1, indicating that the Tbx4 gene maintains it function in cetaceans, although full expression leading to hindlimb development is suppressed.

  5. Evolutionary dynamics at high latitudes: speciation and extinction in polar marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Crame, J Alistair

    2010-11-27

    Ecologists have long been fascinated by the flora and fauna of extreme environments. Physiological studies have revealed the extent to which lifestyle is constrained by low temperature but there is as yet no consensus on why the diversity of polar assemblages is so much lower than many tropical assemblages. The evolution of marine faunas at high latitudes has been influenced strongly by oceanic cooling during the Cenozoic and the associated onset of continental glaciations. Glaciation eradicated many shallow-water habitats, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, and the cooling has led to widespread extinction in some groups. While environmental conditions at glacial maxima would have been very different from those existing today, fossil evidence indicates that some lineages extend back well into the Cenozoic. Oscillations of the ice-sheet on Milankovitch frequencies will have periodically eradicated and exposed continental shelf habitat, and a full understanding of evolutionary dynamics at high latitude requires better knowledge of the links between the faunas of the shelf, slope and deep-sea. Molecular techniques to produce phylogenies, coupled with further palaeontological work to root these phylogenies in time, will be essential to further progress.

  6. Evolutionary dynamics at high latitudes: speciation and extinction in polar marine faunas

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Andrew; Crame, J. Alistair

    2010-01-01

    Ecologists have long been fascinated by the flora and fauna of extreme environments. Physiological studies have revealed the extent to which lifestyle is constrained by low temperature but there is as yet no consensus on why the diversity of polar assemblages is so much lower than many tropical assemblages. The evolution of marine faunas at high latitudes has been influenced strongly by oceanic cooling during the Cenozoic and the associated onset of continental glaciations. Glaciation eradicated many shallow-water habitats, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, and the cooling has led to widespread extinction in some groups. While environmental conditions at glacial maxima would have been very different from those existing today, fossil evidence indicates that some lineages extend back well into the Cenozoic. Oscillations of the ice-sheet on Milankovitch frequencies will have periodically eradicated and exposed continental shelf habitat, and a full understanding of evolutionary dynamics at high latitude requires better knowledge of the links between the faunas of the shelf, slope and deep-sea. Molecular techniques to produce phylogenies, coupled with further palaeontological work to root these phylogenies in time, will be essential to further progress. PMID:20980314

  7. Marine mammals harbor unique microbiotas shaped by and yet distinct from the sea

    PubMed Central

    Bik, Elisabeth M.; Costello, Elizabeth K.; Switzer, Alexandra D.; Callahan, Benjamin J.; Holmes, Susan P.; Wells, Randall S.; Carlin, Kevin P.; Jensen, Eric D.; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Relman, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals play crucial ecological roles in the oceans, but little is known about their microbiotas. Here we study the bacterial communities in 337 samples from 5 body sites in 48 healthy dolphins and 18 healthy sea lions, as well as those of adjacent seawater and other hosts. The bacterial taxonomic compositions are distinct from those of other mammals, dietary fish and seawater, are highly diverse and vary according to body site and host species. Dolphins harbour 30 bacterial phyla, with 25 of them in the mouth, several abundant but poorly characterized Tenericutes species in gastric fluid and a surprisingly paucity of Bacteroidetes in distal gut. About 70% of near-full length bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequences from dolphins are unique. Host habitat, diet and phylogeny all contribute to variation in marine mammal distal gut microbiota composition. Our findings help elucidate the factors structuring marine mammal microbiotas and may enhance monitoring of marine mammal health. PMID:26839246

  8. Marine mammals harbor unique microbiotas shaped by and yet distinct from the sea.

    PubMed

    Bik, Elisabeth M; Costello, Elizabeth K; Switzer, Alexandra D; Callahan, Benjamin J; Holmes, Susan P; Wells, Randall S; Carlin, Kevin P; Jensen, Eric D; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Relman, David A

    2016-02-03

    Marine mammals play crucial ecological roles in the oceans, but little is known about their microbiotas. Here we study the bacterial communities in 337 samples from 5 body sites in 48 healthy dolphins and 18 healthy sea lions, as well as those of adjacent seawater and other hosts. The bacterial taxonomic compositions are distinct from those of other mammals, dietary fish and seawater, are highly diverse and vary according to body site and host species. Dolphins harbour 30 bacterial phyla, with 25 of them in the mouth, several abundant but poorly characterized Tenericutes species in gastric fluid and a surprisingly paucity of Bacteroidetes in distal gut. About 70% of near-full length bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequences from dolphins are unique. Host habitat, diet and phylogeny all contribute to variation in marine mammal distal gut microbiota composition. Our findings help elucidate the factors structuring marine mammal microbiotas and may enhance monitoring of marine mammal health.

  9. Permian biogeography of the Indian subcontinent with special reference to the marine fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Trilochan

    Permian biogeography of the Indian subcontinent is discussed in the light of brachiopods and associated fossils from different localities. The discussion is based primarily on the Permian "biome" concept of Waterhouse and Bonham-Carter (1975), wherein three biomes are proposed: group A of subpolar, group B of temperate, and group C of tropical character. Data on the occurrence of Permian brachiopods and associated fossils are given for the Salt Range, Karakoram, and Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, and Peninsular India with respect to the age of the fauna. Marine Permian localities of the Himalayan region include those of Ladakh, Zanskar, Lahaul and Spiti, Kashmir, Bhadarwah-Bhallesh-Chamba, Kinnaur, Garhwal, Kumaun, Darjeeling, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh. Permian marine localities of Peninsular India, which forms a part of central Gondwanaland, include those of Bap, Badhaura, Umaria, Manendragarh, and Daltonganj, where marine transgression occurred in Early Permian time. The faunas of these localities are discussed with respect to their age, which falls into two groups, Early and Late Permian. It is suggested that widespread colder climatic conditions prevailed in the Indian subcontinent during the early Early Permian. Similar conditions continued in most of the localities until the late Early Permian, except at west Karakoram (Shaksgam valley), Zanskar, north Tibet (central and western part), and the Salt Range. However, during the Late Permian, climatic conditions were varied. Cold climatic conditions prevailed in north Tibet (central part), Kumaun Tethyan Himalaya, and south Tibet; temperate conditions occurred in west Karakoram (Shaksgam valley), Zanskar, Lahaul and Spiti, Bhadarwah-Bhallesh-Chamba, north Nepal, and north Sikkim; and tropical conditions occurred in the Salt Range, east Karakoram, Ladakh, Kashmir, and north Tibet (western and eastern parts). At a few localities there appear to be some anomalies that might be due to lack of

  10. Sarmatian vertebrate marine fauna assemblage from Dacian Basin with Paratethyan affinities - a comparative case study between Buzau Land (Carpathian Foredeep) and South Dobrogea, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftode, Silvia Gabriela; Stoica, Marius

    2015-04-01

    At the Badenian/Sarmatian boundary (12.7 Ma), the Paratethys domain experienced a new moment in its evolution. Restricted connections between the Paratethys and the open seas (Mediterranean or/alternatively Indian Ocean) that occured at this boundary interval led to the decreasing of water salinity, strong faunal endemism and the onset of anoxic/disoxic conditions in the internal parts of Paratethyan Basins (like the actual Black Sea). The low oxigen bottom conditions in the Volhynian - Early Bessarabian favorised the preservation of fish and mammal marine fauna like Cetaceans, Pinnipeds and Sirenids. The purpose of this study is to compare both areas - Buzău Land and South Dobrogea, Romania taking into account the palaecological changes in the Eastern Paratethys Basin. This aspect can be very well noticed in the Carpathian Foredeep zone (Buzău - Rîmnicului - Milcov Valleys, Buzău Land) where fish and cetaceans (Cetotherium sp.) remains are frequent in thick sandstone and blackish shale deposits. Several terrestrial mammal remains were also found in Kherssonian (the late Sarmatian - senso lato) terrestrial deposits, related to a regressive moment. In South Dobrogea we have studied Lower Bessarabian deposits formed in shallow marginal facies, close to the shoreline or around small islands. The littoral sandy facies preserved a rich fossil assemblage composed of seal and marine birds remains. Vertebrate marine fauna dominated by pinnipeds - Phoca pontica, cetaceans - Delphinidae, Cetotheriidae, teleost fish and pelagic birds were also found near Credința and Ciobănița localities. Based on the fossil assemblage found so far in the Lower Bessarabian formations from Buzău Land and South Dobrogea, the environments were similar in both areas. Part of the research leading to these results has received funding from EEA Financial Mecanism 2009 - 2014 under the GeoSust project contract no 22 SEE/30.06.2014.

  11. The tardigrade fauna of Australian marine caves: with descriptions of nine new species of Arthrotardigrada.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Aslak; Boesgaard, Tom M; Møbjerg, Nadja; Kristensen, Reinhardt M

    2014-05-28

    Marine caves are known to support a rich macrofauna; however, few studies have focused on meiofauna. Marine cave meiofaunal tardigrades have been reported from Japan and the Mediterranean Sea and a preliminary list of species including a redescription of Actinarctus neretinus Grimaldi de Zio, D'Addabbo Gallo, Morone De Lucia, Vaccarella and Grimaldi, 1982 was reported from Fish Rock Cave and Jim's Cave on the coast of Australia. This study is the fourth in a series describing the unique meiofauna in two Australian submarine caves located off the coast of New South Wales, describing nine new species.        Only 67 tardigrades were collected from the two caves, yet these contained a high diversity of at least 16 different species which are quite different in the two caves. The fauna includes nine arthrotardigrade genera: Actinarctus, Batillipes, Dipodarctus, Halechiniscus, Raiarctus, Styraconyx, Tanarctus, Tholoarctus, and Wingstrandarctus. This fauna is different from that reported for the high energy beaches along the East Coast of Australia.        We describe nine new species comprising a single batillipedid and eight halechiniscids: Batillipes solitarius nov. sp., Dipodarctus australiensis nov. sp., Dipodarctus susannae nov. sp., Raiarctus jesperi nov. sp., Raiarctus katrinae nov. sp., Tanarctus hirsutospinosus nov. sp., Tholoarctus oleseni nov. sp., Wingstrandarctus stinae nov. sp. and Wingstrandarctus unsculptus nov. sp.

  12. Arctic biogeography: The paradox of the marine benthic fauna and flora.

    PubMed

    Dunton, K

    1992-06-01

    The marine benthic fauna and flora that inhabit the shallow arctic sublittoral zone comprise a relatively young marine assemblage characterized by species of either Pacific or Atlantic affinity and notably few endemics. The young character of nearshore arctic communities, as well as their biogeographical composition, is largely a product of the Pleistocene glaciation. However, analysis of more recent collections and comparison between the origins of the benthic fauna and flora present some interesting paradoxes to biogeographers. One enigma is the low frequency of algal species with Pacific affinities in the Arctic, especially in the Chukchi, Beaufort and East Siberian Seas of the Eastern Arctic, which receive direct inputs of northward-flowing Pacific waters. In contrast, animal species with Pacific affinities are found throughout the nearshore regions of the Arctic, reaching their highest frequency in the marginal seas between the New Siberian Islands and the Canadian Archipelago. Organization of published and unpublished data, additional field collections, and the use of cladistics and molecular DNA techniques by systematists are a high priority for future research in reconstructing the evolution of the arctic biotic assemblage.

  13. A molecular forensic method for identifying species composition of processed marine mammal meats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Yao, Chiou-Ju; Yu, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Yun-Chih; Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2014-03-01

    We used universal primers designed for the cytochrome oxidase I (CO I) sequence of the order Cetacea and the family Phocidae to prove that meat fritters sold in Taiwan contained meat from two seal, six cetacean, and one pig species. The sequence information for CO I obtained in this study was limited and population genetics data for the eight sampled marine mammalian species was insufficient to deduce where these marine mammals were hunted. Regardless of the geographic origins of the marine mammal flesh, sale and consumption of marine mammals in Taiwan violates the Wildlife Conservation Act. This study provides PCR primers that could enable government testing of suspect meats to curtail the illegal trade in marine mammal products.

  14. Near-complete extinction of native small mammal fauna 25 years after forest fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Luke; Lynam, Antony J; Bradshaw, Corey J A; He, Fangliang; Bickford, David P; Woodruff, David S; Bumrungsri, Sara; Laurance, William F

    2013-09-27

    Tropical forests continue to be felled and fragmented around the world. A key question is how rapidly species disappear from forest fragments and how quickly humans must restore forest connectivity to minimize extinctions. We surveyed small mammals on forest islands in Chiew Larn Reservoir in Thailand 5 to 7 and 25 to 26 years after isolation and observed the near-total loss of native small mammals within 5 years from <10-hectare (ha) fragments and within 25 years from 10- to 56-ha fragments. Based on our results, we developed an island biogeographic model and estimated mean extinction half-life (50% of resident species disappearing) to be 13.9 years. These catastrophic extinctions were probably partly driven by an invasive rat species; such biotic invasions are becoming increasingly common in human-modified landscapes. Our results are thus particularly relevant to other fragmented forest landscapes and suggest that small fragments are potentially even more vulnerable to biodiversity loss than previously thought.

  15. 76 FR 50457 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities and Research Conducted Within...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA567 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of issuance of a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine...

  16. 50 CFR 216.26 - Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Collection of certain marine mammal parts without prior authorization. 216.26 Section 216.26 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  17. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal.

    PubMed

    Tift, Michael S; Ponganis, Paul J; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-05-15

    Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from heme-proteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. The mean (± s.e.m.) value in adult seals was 8.7 ± 0.3% (N=6), while juveniles and pups (with lower heme-protein contents) had lower mean COHb values of 7.6 ± 0.2% and 7.1 ± 0.3%, respectively (N=9 and N=9, respectively). Serial samples over several hours revealed little to no fluctuation in COHb values. This consistent elevation in COHb suggests that the magnitude and/or rate of heme-protein turnover is much higher than in terrestrial mammals. The maximum COHb values from this study decrease total body O2 stores by 7%, thereby reducing the calculated aerobic dive limit for this species. However, the constant presence of elevated CO in blood may also protect against potential ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with the extreme breath-holds of elephant seals. We suggest the elephant seal represents an ideal model for understanding the potential cytoprotective effects, mechanisms of action and evolutionary adaptation associated with chronically elevated concentrations of endogenously produced CO.

  18. Monitoring Seabirds and Marine Mammals by Georeferenced Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, G.; Weidauer, A.; Coppack, T.

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species. The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers. Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher (safer) flight altitudes (beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines) have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost. At a flight altitude of 425 m, a focal length of 110 mm, implemented forward motion compensation (FMC) and exposure times ranging between 1/1600 and 1/1000 s, the twin-camera system generates high quality 16 bit RGB images with a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 2 cm and an image footprint of 155 x 410 m. The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by purpose-programmed software

  19. Marine macrophytes directly enhance abundances of sandy beach fauna through provision of food and habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, Rebecca; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Lavery, Paul S.; Vanderklift, Mathew A.

    2007-08-01

    Beach-cast wrack is a prominent feature of beaches of south-western Australia. We examined the fauna of these beaches to explore the generalisation [Polis, G.A., Hurd, S.D., 1995. Extraordinarily high spider densities on islands: flow of energy from the marine to terrestrial food webs and the absence of predation. Ecology 92, 4382-4386] that beach-cast wrack from highly productive marine ecosystems subsidises low productivity of terrestrial ecosystems, to establish whether this generalisation is relevant to oligotrophic marine systems. We sampled three beaches with high and three beaches with low volumes of beach-cast wrack to determine if: (1) the presence of wrack influences the abundance of macroinvertebrates; (2) wrack acts as a food source for beach macroinvertebrates; and (3) the influence of wrack varies between zones above the high water mark. We measured wrack volume and composition, sediment characteristics, the abundance of different epibenthic and infaunal macroinvertebrates taxa, and δ13C and δ15N of macrophytes and macroinvertebrates. The mean volume of wrack on high-wrack beaches was 0.27-1.07 m 3 wrack m -2 compared to 0.00-0.09 m 3 wrack m -2 on low-wrack beaches. There were no significant differences in sediment grain size, moisture content or loss on ignition between the two types of beaches or zones. Epibenthic fauna and infauna were consistently abundant on high-wrack beaches (20-291 and 0.5-3.5 individuals 0.64 m -2, respectively), but either absent or extremely rare in low-wrack beaches (0-3 and 0-0.1 individuals 0.64 m -2, respectively). Within high-wrack beaches, there were no significant differences in the abundance of epifauna or infauna among beaches or between zones. The δ13C values of macroinvertebrates at all sites were most similar to red and brown algae, with the exception of beetles from two beaches, which were closest to seagrasses. Mixing model (Isosource) results for mesograzing amphipods and dipteran flies suggested carbon

  20. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  1. Model-based localization and tracking of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abawi, Ahmad T.; Porter, Michael B.; Siderius, Martin; Hildebrand, John; Wiggins, Sean

    2004-05-01

    Data from the August 2003 experiment conducted by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Southern California Offshore Range (SCORE) are used to localize and track marine mammals. SCORE is a naval training area near the island of San Clemente located in relatively shallow water. The water depth where the experiment was conducted is around 360 m. Data were recorded on a 100-m, eight-element vertical array deployed from the Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP) and four bottom-mounted seismometers deployed in an area covering approximately three square kilometers. During the course of the 7-day experiment continuous recording of the ocean environment was made. The recordings contain numerous blue and fin whale calls. Matched field processing was used on the vertical array data to localize and track singing whales. The differences between different animal calls (extended, low frequency calls in the case of blue whales and short, impulsive calls in the case of fin whales) are exploited to track different animal species. Animals were also independently tracked by comparing the predicted (computed using a propagation model) and measured difference in time of arrival recorded in each seismometer pairs. The tracking results obtained from the two techniques are compared.

  2. Model-based localization and tracking of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abawi, Ahmad T.; Porter, Michael B.; Siderius, Martin; Hildebrand, John; Wiggins, Sean

    2001-05-01

    Data from the August 2003 experiment conducted by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Southern California Offshore Range (SCORE) are used to localize and track marine mammals. SCORE is a naval training area near the island of San Clemente located in relatively shallow water. The water depth where the experiment was conducted is around 360 m. Data were recorded on a 100-m, eight-element vertical array deployed from the Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP) and four bottom-mounted seismometers deployed in an area covering approximately three square kilometers. During the course of the 7-day experiment continuous recording of the ocean environment was made. The recordings contain numerous blue and fin whale calls. Matched field processing was used on the vertical array data to localize and track singing whales. The differences between different animal calls (extended, low frequency calls in the case of blue whales and short, impulsive calls in the case of fin whales) are exploited to track different animal species. Animals were also independently tracked by comparing the predicted (computed using a propagation model) and measured difference in time of arrival recorded in each seismometer pairs. The tracking results obtained from the two techniques are compared.

  3. Factors which influence acoustic surveys of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Tracey L.; Ciaglia, Michaela B.; Cato, Douglas H.

    2005-09-01

    Traditionally, many marine mammal populations have been estimated by visual surveys. These count the animals that are available-either seals hauled-out on the ice or whales at the water's surface. Corrections are then made to include the animals that were not seen either because they were in (seals) or under (whales) the water. However when the majority of the animals in a population are not available to a visual survey this approach may be less effective. So we investigated whether acoustic surveys offered promise for estimating the distribution and abundance of Antarctic pack-ice seals. Four acoustic surveys were conducted (October 1996, 1997; December 1997, 1999) between longitudes 600E and 1500E. Surveys were bounded to the south by fast-ice, shelf-ice or the Antarctic continent and to the north by the edge of the pack-ice. No crabeater seals were heard. Leopard and Ross seals were highly vociferous in December coinciding with their breeding season. To predict the area surveyed we modeled transmission loss and measurements of received background levels. To identify the number of seals calling we modeled calling behavior. A preliminary estimate of 0.13 male leopard seals/km2 was calculated which is in the high-density range described from the literature.

  4. Lifetime pharmacokinetic model for hydrophobic contaminants in marine mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Hickie, B.E.; Mackay, D.; Koning, J. de

    1999-11-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model is developed that describes the uptake and release of a hydrophobic organic chemical by a marine mammal over its entire lifetime, i.e., from birth to death. This model is applied to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). The processes treated are growth; uptake from food, milk, and air; disposition of the chemical among arterial and venous blood, liver, muscle, blubber, and rapidly perfused tissues; and losses by metabolism, release in exhaled air; and by egestion. A separate model is developed for females, which includes pregnancy, birth, and lactation. Food consumption is deduced from size, growth, and from activity-dependent bioenergetic data. The results obtained by simulating continuous PCB exposure over a 30-year period are in accordance with reported concentrations and show the importance of milk transfer to both mother and progeny and the tendency for continued accumulation over the animal's lifetime. Implications of the results are discussed, especially the need for improved data on diets, gut absorption characteristics, and various physiological parameters used in the model.

  5. Marine mammals' influence on ecosystem processes affecting fisheries in the Barents Sea is trivial

    PubMed Central

    Corkeron, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Some interpretations of ecosystem-based fishery management include culling marine mammals as an integral component. The current Norwegian policy on marine mammal management is one example. Scientific support for this policy includes the Scenario Barents Sea (SBS) models. These modelled interactions between cod, Gadus morhua, herring, Clupea harengus, capelin, Mallotus villosus and northern minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Adding harp seals Phoca groenlandica into this top-down modelling approach resulted in unrealistic model outputs. Another set of models of the Barents Sea fish–fisheries system focused on interactions within and between the three fish populations, fisheries and climate. These model key processes of the system successfully. Continuing calls to support the SBS models despite their failure suggest a belief that marine mammal predation must be a problem for fisheries. The best available scientific evidence provides no justification for marine mammal culls as a primary component of an ecosystem-based approach to managing the fisheries of the Barents Sea. PMID:19126534

  6. The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Joe; McCarthy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×104 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward “whale pump” played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities. PMID:20949007

  7. 75 FR 21243 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XS60 Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of... accessible. Do not submit Confidential Business Information or otherwise sensitive or protected...

  8. The status of the world's land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Jan; Chanson, Janice S; Chiozza, Federica; Cox, Neil A; Hoffmann, Michael; Katariya, Vineet; Lamoreux, John; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Stuart, Simon N; Temple, Helen J; Baillie, Jonathan; Boitani, Luigi; Lacher, Thomas E; Mittermeier, Russell A; Smith, Andrew T; Absolon, Daniel; Aguiar, John M; Amori, Giovanni; Bakkour, Noura; Baldi, Ricardo; Berridge, Richard J; Bielby, Jon; Black, Patricia Ann; Blanc, J Julian; Brooks, Thomas M; Burton, James A; Butynski, Thomas M; Catullo, Gianluca; Chapman, Roselle; Cokeliss, Zoe; Collen, Ben; Conroy, Jim; Cooke, Justin G; da Fonseca, Gustavo A B; Derocher, Andrew E; Dublin, Holly T; Duckworth, J W; Emmons, Louise; Emslie, Richard H; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Foster, Matt; Foster, Sabrina; Garshelis, David L; Gates, Cormack; Gimenez-Dixon, Mariano; Gonzalez, Susana; Gonzalez-Maya, Jose Fernando; Good, Tatjana C; Hammerson, Geoffrey; Hammond, Philip S; Happold, David; Happold, Meredith; Hare, John; Harris, Richard B; Hawkins, Clare E; Haywood, Mandy; Heaney, Lawrence R; Hedges, Simon; Helgen, Kristofer M; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hussain, Syed Ainul; Ishii, Nobuo; Jefferson, Thomas A; Jenkins, Richard K B; Johnston, Charlotte H; Keith, Mark; Kingdon, Jonathan; Knox, David H; Kovacs, Kit M; Langhammer, Penny; Leus, Kristin; Lewison, Rebecca; Lichtenstein, Gabriela; Lowry, Lloyd F; Macavoy, Zoe; Mace, Georgina M; Mallon, David P; Masi, Monica; McKnight, Meghan W; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Medici, Patricia; Mills, Gus; Moehlman, Patricia D; Molur, Sanjay; Mora, Arturo; Nowell, Kristin; Oates, John F; Olech, Wanda; Oliver, William R L; Oprea, Monik; Patterson, Bruce D; Perrin, William F; Polidoro, Beth A; Pollock, Caroline; Powel, Abigail; Protas, Yelizaveta; Racey, Paul; Ragle, Jim; Ramani, Pavithra; Rathbun, Galen; Reeves, Randall R; Reilly, Stephen B; Reynolds, John E; Rondinini, Carlo; Rosell-Ambal, Ruth Grace; Rulli, Monica; Rylands, Anthony B; Savini, Simona; Schank, Cody J; Sechrest, Wes; Self-Sullivan, Caryn; Shoemaker, Alan; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; De Silva, Naamal; Smith, David E; Srinivasulu, Chelmala; Stephenson, Peter J; van Strien, Nico; Talukdar, Bibhab Kumar; Taylor, Barbara L; Timmins, Rob; Tirira, Diego G; Tognelli, Marcelo F; Tsytsulina, Katerina; Veiga, Liza M; Vié, Jean-Christophe; Williamson, Elizabeth A; Wyatt, Sarah A; Xie, Yan; Young, Bruce E

    2008-10-10

    Knowledge of mammalian diversity is still surprisingly disparate, both regionally and taxonomically. Here, we present a comprehensive assessment of the conservation status and distribution of the world's mammals. Data, compiled by 1700+ experts, cover all 5487 species, including marine mammals. Global macroecological patterns are very different for land and marine species but suggest common mechanisms driving diversity and endemism across systems. Compared with land species, threat levels are higher among marine mammals, driven by different processes (accidental mortality and pollution, rather than habitat loss), and are spatially distinct (peaking in northern oceans, rather than in Southeast Asia). Marine mammals are also disproportionately poorly known. These data are made freely available to support further scientific developments and conservation action.

  9. Marine mammals' influence on ecosystem processes affecting fisheries in the Barents Sea is trivial.

    PubMed

    Corkeron, Peter J

    2009-04-23

    Some interpretations of ecosystem-based fishery management include culling marine mammals as an integral component. The current Norwegian policy on marine mammal management is one example. Scientific support for this policy includes the Scenario Barents Sea (SBS) models. These modelled interactions between cod, Gadus morhua, herring, Clupea harengus, capelin, Mallotus villosus and northern minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Adding harp seals Phoca groenlandica into this top-down modelling approach resulted in unrealistic model outputs. Another set of models of the Barents Sea fish-fisheries system focused on interactions within and between the three fish populations, fisheries and climate. These model key processes of the system successfully. Continuing calls to support the SBS models despite their failure suggest a belief that marine mammal predation must be a problem for fisheries. The best available scientific evidence provides no justification for marine mammal culls as a primary component of an ecosystem-based approach to managing the fisheries of the Barents Sea.

  10. Stress physiology in marine mammals: how well do they fit the terrestrial model?

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Shannon; Crocker, Daniel; Houser, Dorian; Mashburn, Kendall

    2015-07-01

    Stressors are commonly accepted as the causal factors, either internal or external, that evoke physiological responses to mediate the impact of the stressor. The majority of research on the physiological stress response, and costs incurred to an animal, has focused on terrestrial species. This review presents current knowledge on the physiology of the stress response in a lesser studied group of mammals, the marine mammals. Marine mammals are an artificial or pseudo grouping from a taxonomical perspective, as this group represents several distinct and diverse orders of mammals. However, they all are fully or semi-aquatic animals and have experienced selective pressures that have shaped their physiology in a manner that differs from terrestrial relatives. What these differences are and how they relate to the stress response is an efflorescent topic of study. The identification of the many facets of the stress response is critical to marine mammal management and conservation efforts. Anthropogenic stressors in marine ecosystems, including ocean noise, pollution, and fisheries interactions, are increasing and the dramatic responses of some marine mammals to these stressors have elevated concerns over the impact of human-related activities on a diverse group of animals that are difficult to monitor. This review covers the physiology of the stress response in marine mammals and places it in context of what is known from research on terrestrial mammals, particularly with respect to mediator activity that diverges from generalized terrestrial models. Challenges in conducting research on stress physiology in marine mammals are discussed and ways to overcome these challenges in the future are suggested.

  11. The Early Origin of the Antarctic Marine Fauna and Its Evolutionary Implications.

    PubMed

    Crame, J Alistair; Beu, Alan G; Ineson, Jon R; Francis, Jane E; Whittle, Rowan J; Bowman, Vanessa C

    2014-01-01

    The extensive Late Cretaceous - Early Paleogene sedimentary succession of Seymour Island, N.E. Antarctic Peninsula offers an unparalleled opportunity to examine the evolutionary origins of a modern polar marine fauna. Some 38 modern Southern Ocean molluscan genera (26 gastropods and 12 bivalves), representing approximately 18% of the total modern benthic molluscan fauna, can now be traced back through at least part of this sequence. As noted elsewhere in the world, the balance of the molluscan fauna changes sharply across the Cretaceous - Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, with gastropods subsequently becoming more diverse than bivalves. A major reason for this is a significant radiation of the Neogastropoda, which today forms one of the most diverse clades in the sea. Buccinoidea is the dominant neogastropod superfamily in both the Paleocene Sobral Formation (SF) (56% of neogastropod genera) and Early - Middle Eocene La Meseta Formation (LMF) (47%), with the Conoidea (25%) being prominent for the first time in the latter. This radiation of Neogastropoda is linked to a significant pulse of global warming that reached at least 65°S, and terminates abruptly in the upper LMF in an extinction event that most likely heralds the onset of global cooling. It is also possible that the marked Early Paleogene expansion of neogastropods in Antarctica is in part due to a global increase in rates of origination following the K/Pg mass extinction event. The radiation of this and other clades at ∼65°S indicates that Antarctica was not necessarily an evolutionary refugium, or sink, in the Early - Middle Eocene. Evolutionary source - sink dynamics may have been significantly different between the Paleogene greenhouse and Neogene icehouse worlds.

  12. The Early Origin of the Antarctic Marine Fauna and Its Evolutionary Implications

    PubMed Central

    Crame, J. Alistair; Beu, Alan G.; Ineson, Jon R.; Francis, Jane E.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Bowman, Vanessa C.

    2014-01-01

    The extensive Late Cretaceous – Early Paleogene sedimentary succession of Seymour Island, N.E. Antarctic Peninsula offers an unparalleled opportunity to examine the evolutionary origins of a modern polar marine fauna. Some 38 modern Southern Ocean molluscan genera (26 gastropods and 12 bivalves), representing approximately 18% of the total modern benthic molluscan fauna, can now be traced back through at least part of this sequence. As noted elsewhere in the world, the balance of the molluscan fauna changes sharply across the Cretaceous – Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, with gastropods subsequently becoming more diverse than bivalves. A major reason for this is a significant radiation of the Neogastropoda, which today forms one of the most diverse clades in the sea. Buccinoidea is the dominant neogastropod superfamily in both the Paleocene Sobral Formation (SF) (56% of neogastropod genera) and Early - Middle Eocene La Meseta Formation (LMF) (47%), with the Conoidea (25%) being prominent for the first time in the latter. This radiation of Neogastropoda is linked to a significant pulse of global warming that reached at least 65°S, and terminates abruptly in the upper LMF in an extinction event that most likely heralds the onset of global cooling. It is also possible that the marked Early Paleogene expansion of neogastropods in Antarctica is in part due to a global increase in rates of origination following the K/Pg mass extinction event. The radiation of this and other clades at ∼65°S indicates that Antarctica was not necessarily an evolutionary refugium, or sink, in the Early – Middle Eocene. Evolutionary source – sink dynamics may have been significantly different between the Paleogene greenhouse and Neogene icehouse worlds. PMID:25493546

  13. Causes of death in marine mammals stranded along the Oregon coast.

    PubMed

    Stroud, R K; Roffe, T J

    1979-01-01

    Sixty-eight marine mammals stranded on the Oregon beaches were examined at necropsy. Gunshot was the primary cause of death in 30% of the pinnipeds examined. Bacterial infections (27%) and parasitism (27%) were also of major importance in the death and debilitation of Oregon marine mammals. Traumatic death or debilitation other than gunshot was observed in 11 animals (16%). Predation, starvation due to neonatal abandonment, viral encephalitis (presumptive diagnosis), dystocia and neoplasia were diagnosed as primary or contributory causes of stranding.

  14. Workshop on the Detection, Classification, Localization and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics - 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics - 2015 John A. Hildebrand Scripps Institution of Oceanography UCSD La Jolla...classification, localization and density estimation of marine mammals using passive acoustics , and by doing so advance the state of the art in this field...Passive Acoustics was organized and held at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) in July 2015. The objective of ONR support for the

  15. Enantiomer fractions of organic chlorinated pesticides in arctic marine ice fauna, zooplankton, and benthos.

    PubMed

    Borgå, Katrine; Bidleman, Terry F

    2005-05-15

    Stereoisomers of chiral chlorinated pesticides (alpha-HCH (HCH = hexachlorocyclohexane), trans- and cis-chlordane, MC5, o,p'-DDT) were quantified in arctic marine invertebrates (ice-associated amphipods Gammarus wilkitzkii, pelagic copepods Calanus hyperboreus, krill Thysanoessa inermis, and amphipods Themisto libellula, and benthic amphipods Paramphithoe hystrix). Enantiomer fractions (EFs) were calculated to investigate the influence of habitat, geographic area, and diet on selective bioaccumulation of the (-)- or (+)-enantiomer. Depletion of the (+)-alpha-HCH enantionmer increased from ice fauna to zooplankton to benthos, corresponding to previous reports of EF variations with depth. Chlordanes and o,p'-DDT also showed the strongest enantioselective bioaccumulation in benthic amphipods and less so in zooplankton and ice fauna, which had closer to racemic EFs. Neither diet nor geographic area explained EF differences among samples. Nonracemic EFs in benthos may be related to stereoselective biotransformation, but is most likely reflecting vertical distribution of EFs in the water column and sediments, as demonstrated earlier for alpha-HCH in the Canadian and European Arctic.

  16. Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive marine mammals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Sánchez-Okrucky, R; Dubey, J P

    2012-03-23

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Serological evidence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive marine mammals from four facilities in southern and central geographical regions in Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT, 1:25 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 55 (87.3%) of 63 Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), 3 of 3 Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus gillii), 2 of 4 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), but not in 3 West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus), and 2 Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Seropositive marine mammals were found in all 4 (100%) facilities sampled. All marine mammals were healthy and there has not been any case of clinical toxoplasmosis in the facilities sampled for at least the last 15 years. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in marine mammals of the same species did not vary significantly with respect to sex and age. This is the first report on the detection of antibodies to T. gondii in marine mammals in Mexico.

  17. Marine mammal strandings in the New Caledonia region, Southwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Borsa, Philippe

    2006-04-01

    Four hundred twenty three marine mammals, in 72 stranding events, were recorded between 1877 and 2005 in New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, and Vanuatu in the southwest Pacific. Sixteen species were represented in this count, including: minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (1 single stranding), sei whale, B. borealis (1 single stranding), blue whale, B. musculus (1 single stranding), humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (2 single strandings), giant sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus (18 single strandings, 2 pair strandings), pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps (5 single strandings), dwarf sperm whale, K. sima (2 single strandings, 1 triple stranding), Blainville's beaked whale, Mesoplodon densirostris (2 single strandings), short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus (4 strandings, 56 individuals), melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra (1 single stranding and 2 mass strandings totalling 231 individuals), common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (1 single stranding), spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris (1 pair stranding and 2 mass strandings of groups of approximately 30 individuals each), Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus (2 single strandings), dugong, Dugong dugon (14 single strandings), and New Zealand fur seal, Arctocephalus forsteri (3 single strandings). A stranded rorqual identified as an Antarctic minke whale (B. bonaerensis), with coloration patterns that did not match known descriptions, was also reported. Sei whale was recorded for the first time in the tropical Southwest Pacific region and Antarctic minke whale, melon-headed whale, and Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin were recorded for the first time in New Caledonia. Strandings of sperm whales were most frequent in the spring, but also occurred in autumn months, suggesting a seasonal pattern of occurrence possibly related to seasonal migration. One stranded humpback whale bore the scars of a killer whale's attack and one dugong was injured by a shark. Scars left by

  18. An Analysis of Marine Mammal Self-Reports and Observer Reports from 1996-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two decades commercial fishing vessel owners have been reporting their interactions with marine mammals in accordance with Section 118 of the Marine Mammal Protection Act. The objective of this study is to analyze marine mammal fisheries interactions data from fishermen self-reports and observer reports. We analyzed self-reports from 1996 - 2014 and Pacific Islands observer data from 2001 - 2014, and Northeast observer data from 1996 - 2014. We identify trends in the national marine mammal mortality/injury (M/I) self-report dataset; identify presence of complementary reports between self-reports and observer reports; and determine the compliance rate of self-reports and observer reports. The results of the self-report analysis indicate that the Greater Atlantic Region (GAR) receives the most M/I reports of the five National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) regional offices. The rate of animals reported as killed is three times higher than the rate for animals injured. Dolphins and porpoises are the most frequently reported species and gillnets are the most frequently reported gear type. This study will provide fisheries managers a greater understanding of the effectiveness of the requirement for fishermen to report moralities and injuries of marine mammals incidentally taken during commercial fishing operations. Refinements to the Marine Mammal Authorization Program (MMAP) reporting form will provide more accurate estimates of the M/I rate of marine mammals in each region and will help address the challenges with collecting self-reported incidental take data. Furthermore, the results can be used by managers to determine if self-reporting is informative and should be continued, with form improvements made to increase accuracy, or if the corresponding observer reports serve as sufficient data by themselves.

  19. Organochlorine residues in marine mammals from the northern hemisphere--a consideration of the composition of organochlorine residues in the blubber of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Vetter, W; Luckas, B; Heidemann, G; Skírnisson, K

    1996-07-16

    Levels of organochlorines (PCBs, sigma DDT, lindane and its isomers, HCB, chlordane, and toxaphene) were determined in blubber of marine mammals from the northern hemisphere. Differences in both levels and ratios of organochlorine compounds were detected in different species of marine mammals living in the same region, e.g. blubber of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) accumulated significantly lower levels of lindane, HCB, toxaphene, and DDT and its metabolites than harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Compared to such elementary differences in the organochlorine pattern in different marine mammals, the influence of age and sex on the results was only minimal. Varying ratios of contaminants in individual harbour porpoises were explained by migration. Constant PCB/DDT ratios were measured in harbour seals. Due to the sedentariness of harbour seals, even local sources of contaminants could be recognized. Careful evaluation of the organochlorine levels and ratios in marine mammals made it possible to monitor the transport of PCBs from the European continent to European Arctic regions.

  20. Methods to examine reproductive biology in free-ranging, fully-marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, Janet M; Burgess, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Historical overexploitation of marine mammals, combined with present-day pressures, has resulted in severely depleted populations, with many species listed as threatened or endangered. Understanding breeding patterns of threatened marine mammals is crucial to assessing population viability, potential recovery and conservation actions. However, determining reproductive parameters of wild fully-marine mammals (cetaceans and sirenians) is challenging due to their wide distributions, high mobility, inaccessible habitats, cryptic lifestyles and in many cases, large body size and intractability. Consequently, reproductive biologists employ an innovative suite of methods to collect useful information from these species. This chapter reviews historic, recent and state-of-the-art methods to examine diverse aspects of reproduction in fully-aquatic mammals.

  1. Unexpected Early Triassic marine ecosystem and the rise of the Modern evolutionary fauna

    PubMed Central

    Brayard, Arnaud; Krumenacker, L. J.; Botting, Joseph P.; Jenks, James F.; Bylund, Kevin G.; Fara, Emmanuel; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Goudemand, Nicolas; Saucède, Thomas; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Romano, Carlo; Doguzhaeva, Larisa; Thuy, Ben; Hautmann, Michael; Stephen, Daniel A.; Thomazo, Christophe; Escarguel, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, the Early Triassic (~251.9 to 247 million years ago) is portrayed as an environmentally unstable interval characterized by several biotic crises and heavily depauperate marine benthic ecosystems. We describe a new fossil assemblage—the Paris Biota—from the earliest Spathian (middle Olenekian, ~250.6 million years ago) of the Bear Lake area, southeastern Idaho, USA. This highly diversified assemblage documents a remarkably complex marine ecosystem including at least seven phyla and 20 distinct metazoan orders, along with algae. Most unexpectedly, it combines early Paleozoic and middle Mesozoic taxa previously unknown from the Triassic strata, among which are primitive Cambrian-Ordovician leptomitid sponges (a 200–million year Lazarus taxon) and gladius-bearing coleoid cephalopods, a poorly documented group before the Jurassic (~50 million years after the Early Triassic). Additionally, the crinoid and ophiuroid specimens show derived anatomical characters that were thought to have evolved much later. Unlike previous works that suggested a sluggish postcrisis recovery and a low diversity for the Early Triassic benthic organisms, the unexpected composition of this exceptional assemblage points toward an early and rapid post-Permian diversification for these clades. Overall, it illustrates a phylogenetically diverse, functionally complex, and trophically multileveled marine ecosystem, from primary producers up to top predators and potential scavengers. Hence, the Paris Biota highlights the key evolutionary position of Early Triassic fossil ecosystems in the transition from the Paleozoic to the Modern marine evolutionary fauna at the dawn of the Mesozoic era. PMID:28246643

  2. Unexpected Early Triassic marine ecosystem and the rise of the Modern evolutionary fauna.

    PubMed

    Brayard, Arnaud; Krumenacker, L J; Botting, Joseph P; Jenks, James F; Bylund, Kevin G; Fara, Emmanuel; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Goudemand, Nicolas; Saucède, Thomas; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Romano, Carlo; Doguzhaeva, Larisa; Thuy, Ben; Hautmann, Michael; Stephen, Daniel A; Thomazo, Christophe; Escarguel, Gilles

    2017-02-01

    In the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, the Early Triassic (~251.9 to 247 million years ago) is portrayed as an environmentally unstable interval characterized by several biotic crises and heavily depauperate marine benthic ecosystems. We describe a new fossil assemblage-the Paris Biota-from the earliest Spathian (middle Olenekian, ~250.6 million years ago) of the Bear Lake area, southeastern Idaho, USA. This highly diversified assemblage documents a remarkably complex marine ecosystem including at least seven phyla and 20 distinct metazoan orders, along with algae. Most unexpectedly, it combines early Paleozoic and middle Mesozoic taxa previously unknown from the Triassic strata, among which are primitive Cambrian-Ordovician leptomitid sponges (a 200-million year Lazarus taxon) and gladius-bearing coleoid cephalopods, a poorly documented group before the Jurassic (~50 million years after the Early Triassic). Additionally, the crinoid and ophiuroid specimens show derived anatomical characters that were thought to have evolved much later. Unlike previous works that suggested a sluggish postcrisis recovery and a low diversity for the Early Triassic benthic organisms, the unexpected composition of this exceptional assemblage points toward an early and rapid post-Permian diversification for these clades. Overall, it illustrates a phylogenetically diverse, functionally complex, and trophically multileveled marine ecosystem, from primary producers up to top predators and potential scavengers. Hence, the Paris Biota highlights the key evolutionary position of Early Triassic fossil ecosystems in the transition from the Paleozoic to the Modern marine evolutionary fauna at the dawn of the Mesozoic era.

  3. 78 FR 72655 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Bremerton Ferry Terminal Wingwall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Specified Activities; Bremerton Ferry Terminal Wingwall Replacement Project AGENCY: National Marine... terminal in Washington State. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting... replacement of wingwalls at the Bremerton ferry terminal in Washington State. On June 12, 2013, NMFS issued...

  4. Environmental contamination and marine mammals in coastal waters from Argentina: an overview.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, J E; Gerpe, M S; Bastida, R O; Rodríguez, D H; Morón, S G

    1994-09-16

    Environmental contamination become an increasing global problem. Different scientific strategies have been developed in order to assess the impact of pollutants on marine ecosystems. The distribution of toxic contaminants in tissues of different marine mammal species--both cetaceans and pinnipeds--has been studied in many ecosystems, as well as several related ecological processes, like pollutant accumulation or transfer through the food web. A research program directed towards evaluating the occurrence of pollutants in marine mammals from the coastal waters of Argentina (southwestern Atlantic Ocean) has been developed since 1985, and includes the study of heavy metal contents in stranded or incidentally caught animals. The marine mammal species studied during this period were: the seals Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis, and small cetaceans Tursiops gephyreus, Pontoporia blainvillei, Kogia breviceps and Ziphius cavirostris. In most of the cases, high contents of heavy metals (total mercury, cadmium, zinc, and copper) have been recorded. Moreover, liver showed the maximum capability for accumulation of heavy metals in all studied species. The biological and ecological characteristics of each species of the above-mentioned marine mammals (feeding habits, age, migratory pathways, or sex) contributed to the understanding of the metal sources. Considering the results as obtained during the study period it can be assumed that: (1) The global distribution of toxic contaminants also affects the southwestern Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, and (2) Marine mammals could be appropriate bioindicator species in order to assess this kind of environmental problem.

  5. Ancient DNA from marine mammals: studying long-lived species over ecological and evolutionary timescales.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Phillip A

    2012-01-20

    Marine mammals have long generation times and broad, difficult to sample distributions, which makes inferring evolutionary and demographic changes using field studies of extant populations challenging. However, molecular analyses from sub-fossil or historical materials of marine mammals such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an opportunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such 'presence only' studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also discuss studies reconstructing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating for the marine reservoir effect when radiocarbon-dating such wide-ranging species.

  6. Marine mammals and ocean noise: future directions and information needs with respect to science, policy and law in Canada.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Ashe, Erin; Blight, Louise; Jasny, Michael; Nowlan, Linda

    2014-09-15

    Marine mammals are ecologically and culturally important species, and various countries have specific legislation to protect the welfare of individual marine mammals and the conservation of their populations. Anthropogenic noise represents a particular challenge for conservation and management. There is a large and growing body of research to support the conclusion that anthropogenic noise can affect marine mammal behavior, energetics, and physiology. The legal, policy, and management issues surrounding marine mammals and noise are similarly complex. Our objective is twofold. First, we discuss how policy and legal frameworks in Canada have some important differences from other jurisdictions covered in previous reviews, and provide a useful general case study. Secondly, we highlight some priority research areas that will improve marine mammal conservation and management. Our examples focus on the research needed to meet stated conservation objectives for marine mammal species in waters under Canadian jurisdiction.

  7. 78 FR 42935 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16992

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... Nachtigall, Ph.D., Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, HI 96734... Marine Biology in Kaneohe, Hawaii. Researchers will conduct hearing measurements using suction...

  8. 78 FR 21112 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16992 and 14535

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ..., Ph.D., Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, HI 96734, has... of Marine Biology in Kaneohe, HI. Researchers would conduct hearing measurements using suction...

  9. Establishing a Marine Mammal Stranding Network in the Bahamas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    mammal & turtle anatomy Dr Ruth Ewing, DVM, NOAA Fisheries Sample collection: The Basics Dr Charles Manire, DVM Atlantis Dolphin Cay Rescue...the Bahamas Pedro Baranda Dolphin Experience Sea turtles : species identification, strandings, and legislation Kelly Melillo Dolphin

  10. 76 FR 4870 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy Training in the Southern California Range Complex

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... high-frequency acoustic recording packages (HARPs), and marine mammal tagging and tracking. The Navy...-frequency acoustic recording package (HARP) recordings before, during, and after ] Navy training...

  11. 78 FR 19002 - Marine Mammal Protection Act; Draft Revised Stock Assessment Reports for Two Stocks of West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... expertise in the fields of marine mammal biology and ecology, population dynamics, modeling, and commercial..., Molecular Ecology, and Molecular Ecology Notes, as well as other refereed journal literature,...

  12. Mortality of Inshore Marine Mammals in Eastern Australia Is Predicted by Freshwater Discharge and Air Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Meager, Justin J.; Limpus, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding environmental and climatic drivers of natural mortality of marine mammals is critical for managing populations effectively and for predicting responses to climate change. Here we use a 17-year dataset to demonstrate a clear relationship between environmental forcing and natural mortality of inshore marine mammals across a subtropical-tropical coastline spanning a latitudinal gradient of 13° (>2000 km of coastline). Peak mortality of inshore dolphins and dugongs followed sustained periods of elevated freshwater discharge (9 months) and low air temperature (3 months). At a regional scale, these results translated into a strong relationship between annual mortality and an index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The number of cyclones crossing the coastline had a comparatively weak effect on inshore marine mammal mortality, and only in the tropics. Natural mortality of offshore/migratory cetaceans was not predicted by freshwater discharge, but was related to lagged air temperature. These results represent the first quantitative link between environmental forcing and marine mammal mortality in the tropics, and form the basis of a predictive tool for managers to prepare responses to periods of elevated marine mammal mortality. PMID:24740149

  13. Mortality of inshore marine mammals in eastern Australia is predicted by freshwater discharge and air temperature.

    PubMed

    Meager, Justin J; Limpus, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding environmental and climatic drivers of natural mortality of marine mammals is critical for managing populations effectively and for predicting responses to climate change. Here we use a 17-year dataset to demonstrate a clear relationship between environmental forcing and natural mortality of inshore marine mammals across a subtropical-tropical coastline spanning a latitudinal gradient of 13° (>2000 km of coastline). Peak mortality of inshore dolphins and dugongs followed sustained periods of elevated freshwater discharge (9 months) and low air temperature (3 months). At a regional scale, these results translated into a strong relationship between annual mortality and an index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The number of cyclones crossing the coastline had a comparatively weak effect on inshore marine mammal mortality, and only in the tropics. Natural mortality of offshore/migratory cetaceans was not predicted by freshwater discharge, but was related to lagged air temperature. These results represent the first quantitative link between environmental forcing and marine mammal mortality in the tropics, and form the basis of a predictive tool for managers to prepare responses to periods of elevated marine mammal mortality.

  14. Prevalence of algal toxins in Alaskan marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic and subarctic environment.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Kathi A; Quakenbush, Lori; Frame, Elizabeth; Huntington, Kathy Burek; Sheffield, Gay; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Bryan, Anna; Kendrick, Preston; Ziel, Heather; Goldstein, Tracey; Snyder, Jonathan A; Gelatt, Tom; Gulland, Frances; Dickerson, Bobette; Gill, Verena

    2016-05-01

    Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters. Saxitoxin, the most potent of the paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, has been well-documented in shellfish in the Aleutians and Gulf of Alaska for decades and associated with human illnesses and deaths due to consumption of toxic clams. There is little information regarding exposure of Alaskan marine mammals. Here, the spatial patterns and prevalence of DA and STX exposure in Alaskan marine mammals are documented in order to assess health risks to northern populations including those species that are important to the nutritional, cultural, and economic well-being of Alaskan coastal communities. In this study, 905 marine mammals from 13 species were sampled including; humpback whales, bowhead whales, beluga whales, harbor porpoises, northern fur seals, Steller sea lions, harbor seals, ringed seals, bearded seals, spotted seals, ribbon seals, Pacific walruses, and northern sea otters. Domoic acid was detected in all 13 species examined and had the greatest prevalence in bowhead whales (68%) and harbor seals (67%). Saxitoxin was detected in 10 of the 13 species, with the highest prevalence in humpback whales (50%) and bowhead whales (32%). Pacific walruses contained the highest concentrations of both STX and DA, with DA concentrations similar to those detected in California sea lions exhibiting clinical signs of DA toxicosis (seizures) off the coast

  15. Miocene Mammals and Central American Seaways: Fauna of the Canal Zone indicates separation of Central and South America during most of the Tertiary.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, F C; Stewart, R H

    1965-04-09

    The presence of Miocene mammals of North American affinity in the Panama Canal Zone indicates that Central America was attached to North America. That this attachment was a broad and stable land mass is shown by the close relation of the Panama Miocene herbivores to the widely distributed Miocene herbivore fauna of North America. A continuous connection existed probably throughout the Tertiary, to the west and north of the isthmian region, but the tectonically active isthmus probably was broken up into an archipelago during most of Tertiary time. Between the islands ran the Strait of Panama; from time to time parts of the isthmian area were connected to the stable land to the west, allowing eastward migration of land animals. The mammals of North American affinity in the Cucaracha Formation were found only a few kilometers from the western end of the San Blas Area, a stable land mass in eastern Panama that was separated from South America by the Bolivar Trough during most of the interval between Oligocene and Pliocene time (16). The Strait of Panama was a less stable barrier than the Bolivar Trough; this being so, it is likely that the San Blas Area was inhabited by land animals of North American rather than South American affinity. Thus, the disappearance of the Bolivar seaway in Pliocene time would have allowed, probably for the first time, mingling of the North and South American mammal faunas.

  16. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities.

  17. 78 FR 78822 - Draft Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals-Acoustic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Marine Fisheries Service... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)), announces the availability of draft guidance for assessing the effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammal species under NOAA's jurisdiction. The...

  18. Zinc Isotope Ratios as Indicators of Diet and Trophic Level in Arctic Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Jaouen, Klervia; Szpak, Paul; Richards, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of bone collagen are an established method for dietary reconstruction, but this method is limited by the protein preservation. Zinc (Zn) is found in bioapatite and the isotopic compositions of this element constitute a very promising dietary indicator. The extent of fractionation of Zn isotopes in marine environments, however, remains unknown. We report here on the measurement of zinc, carbon and nitrogen isotopes in 47 marine mammals from the archaeological site of Arvik in the Canadian Arctic. We undertook this study to test and demonstrate the utility of Zn isotopes in recent mammal bone minerals as a dietary indicator by comparing them to other isotopic dietary tracers. We found a correlation between δ66Zn values and trophic level for most species, with the exception of walruses, which may be caused by their large seasonal movements. δ6Zn values can therefore be used as a dietary indicator in marine ecosystems for both modern and recent mammals.

  19. Potential effects of oil spills and other chemical pollutants on marine mammals occurring in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The outer continental shelf report describes and assesses the potential effects of oil spills and other contaminants on marine mammals that occur in Alaskan waters, assuming that a spill or contamination occurs. The report focuses primarily on the potential direct and indirect effects of oil spills on marine mammals and addresses both short-term effects that may occur at the time of contact with oil, and long-term effects that may occur long after contact with oil. The report also briefly reviews the literature on the potential effects of other contaminants such as heavy metals and organochlorines (DDT and PCB's) on marine mammals. The assessment concludes that sea otters, polar bears, fur seals, and very young seal pups could suffer serious or lethal effects if contact with oil occurred.

  20. First Clarkforkian Equivalent Land Mammal Age in the Latest Paleocene Basal Sparnacian Facies of Europe: Fauna, Flora, Paleoenvironment and (Bio)stratigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thierry; Quesnel, Florence; De Plöeg, Gaël; De Franceschi, Dario; Métais, Grégoire; De Bast, Eric; Solé, Floréal; Folie, Annelise; Boura, Anaïs; Claude, Julien; Dupuis, Christian; Gagnaison, Cyril; Iakovleva, Alina; Martin, Jeremy; Maubert, François; Prieur, Judicaël; Roche, Emile; Storme, Jean-Yves; Thomas, Romain; Tong, Haiyan; Yans, Johan; Buffetaut, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is correlated with the first occurrences of earliest modern mammals in the Northern Hemisphere. The latest Paleocene Clarkforkian North American Land Mammal Age, that has yielded rodents and carnivorans, is the only exception to this rule. However, until now no pre-PETM localities have yielded modern mammals in Europe or Asia. We report the first Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene deposits of the basal Sparnacian facies at Rivecourt, in the north-central part of the Paris Basin. The new terrestrial vertebrate and macroflora assemblages are analyzed through a multidisciplinary study including sedimentologic, stratigraphic, isotopic, and palynological aspects in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and to evaluate biochronologic and paleogeographic implications. The mammals are moderately diverse and not abundant, contrary to turtles and champsosaurs. The macroflora is exceptional in preservation and diversity with numerous angiosperms represented by flowers, fruits, seeds and wood preserved as lignite material, revealing an abundance of Arecaceae, Betulaceae, Icacinaceae, Menispermaceae, Vitaceae and probably Cornaceae. Results indicate a Late Paleocene age based on carbon isotope data, palynology and vertebrate occurrences such as the choristoderan Champsosaurus, the arctocyonid Arctocyon, and the plesiadapid Plesiadapis tricuspidens. However, several mammal species compare better with the earliest Eocene. Among these, the particular louisinid Teilhardimys musculus, also recorded from the latest Paleocene of the Spanish Pyrenees, suggests a younger age than the typical MP6 reference level. Nevertheless, the most important aspect of the Rivecourt fauna is the presence of dental remains of a rodent and a “miacid” carnivoran, attesting to the presence of two modern mammalian orders in the latest Paleocene of Europe. Interestingly, these two groups are also the only modern groups recorded