Science.gov

Sample records for marine operations structure

  1. Mobile marine operations structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalaik, A.; Braddick, P.W.; Brittin, D.S.; Johnson, G.L.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes the process of installing a marine operations structure in a pre-determined sea floor location. The structure has a central core and a support base having at least two differently sloped ice wall surfaces for achieving fracturing of ice features, and having at least two series of circumferentially arranged ballast tanks. It consists of positioning the structure over a selected sea floor location by the use of at least three tug boats connected to the structure by tension cables arranged radially with respect to the structure; flooding a first series of lower ballast tanks in a sequential ballasting operation; flooding a second series of ballast tanks located at a higher elevation within the structure than the first series of ballast tanks; maintaining radial forces along the tension cables during the flooding steps; and after the structure has become founded on the bottom of the sea, pumping sea waver into fluid tanks some of which are located at an elevation above the water level.

  2. Mobile marine operations structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalaik, A.; Braddick, P.W.; Brittin, D.S.; Johnson, G.L.

    1988-02-16

    The process of fabricating a marine operations structure having a central core and first and second ice walls circumferentially positioned about the central core for fracturing ice features, with the second ice wall above and contiguous with the first ice wall, wherein the first and second ice walls are constructed according to the process is described comprising the steps of: providing a sloping support base system comprising radial bulkheads and circumferentially-positioned web frame series integrally connecting ice wall plating to the bulkheads and web frames series; integrally affixing an exposed cross grid system of interlocking and reinforcing members to the exterior surfaces of the ice wall plating to form first and second ice wall preforms with the members projecting outward from the plating; installing a slip-form adjacent to the ice wall preforms and exteriorly of the plating; pouring cement/aggregate slurry onto the ice wall preforms between the plating and the slip-form to cover the cross grid of interlocking and reinforcing members; moving the slip-form upwards as the void spaces between the slip-form and the ice wall plating are filled with cement/aggregate slurry; and permitting the cement/aggregate slurry to harden to form an orthotropic composite steel/concrete ice wall with an exposed concrete surface.

  3. Port Operational Marine Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, A.; Stefanov, A.; Slabakova, V.; Marinova, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Port Operational Marine Observing System (POMOS) is a network of distributed sensors and centralized data collecting, processing and distributing unit. The system is designed to allow for the real-time assessment of weather and marine conditions throughout the major Bulgarian ports: Varna, Burgas and Balchik, supporting thereby Maritime administration to secure safety navigation in bays, canals and ports. Real-time information within harbors is obtained using various sensors placed at thirteen strategic locations to monitor the current state of the environment. The most important for navigation weather and sea-state parameters are measured: wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, visibility, solar radiation, water temperature and salinity, sea level, currents speed and direction, mean wave's parameters. The system consist of: 11 weather stations (3 with extra solar radiation and 4 with extra visibility measurement), 9 water temperature and salinity sensors, 9 sea-level stations, two sea currents and waves stations and two canal currents stations. All sensors are connected to communication system which provides direct intranet access to the instruments. Every 15 minutes measured data is transmitted in real-time to the central collecting system, where data is collected, processed and stored in database. Database is triple secured to prevent data losses. Data collection system is double secured. Measuring system is secured against short power failure and instability. Special software is designed to collect, store, process and present environmental data and information on different user-friendly screens. Access to data and information is through internet/intranet with the help of browsers. Actual data from all measurements or from separate measuring place can be displayed on the computer screens as well as data for the last 24 hours. Historical data are available using report server for extracting data for selectable

  4. Integrating Space Systems Operations at the Marine Expeditionary Force Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Corps Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Enterprise MEF Marine Expeditionary Force METOC Meteorological and Oceanographic MEU Marine...SYSTEMS OPERATIONS AT THE MARINE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE LEVEL by Robert R. Garcia June 2015 Thesis Advisor: Charles Racoosin Second Reader...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTEGRATING SPACE SYSTEMS OPERATIONS AT THE MARINE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE LEVEL 5. FUNDING

  5. Reframing Marine Corps Distributed Operations and Enhanced Company Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    Berrett- Koehler Publisher, 2006). 38 acknowledged complex environment. 84 The rapid decision cycle of a decentralized network like al...evidence in Iraq and Afghanistan, and preserve the capability to prosecute a conventional war.” 115 -Admiral Michael G . Mullen...2006): 13-14. Erdie, Philip B. "The Implications of Distributed Operations." Marine Corps Gazette, (December 2005): 33. Thomas Friedman

  6. 29 CFR 1926.605 - Marine operations and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marine operations and equipment. 1926.605 Section 1926.605 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.605 Marine operations and equipment. (a) Material...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.605 - Marine operations and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine operations and equipment. 1926.605 Section 1926.605 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.605 Marine operations and equipment. (a) Material...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.605 - Marine operations and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine operations and equipment. 1926.605 Section 1926.605 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.605 Marine operations and equipment. (a) Material...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.605 - Marine operations and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marine operations and equipment. 1926.605 Section 1926.605 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.605 Marine operations and equipment. (a) Material...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.605 - Marine operations and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marine operations and equipment. 1926.605 Section 1926.605 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.605 Marine operations and equipment. (a) Material...

  11. 76 FR 41486 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility off...

  12. 77 FR 50289 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... implement. SAG members will include recognized marine biology and marine bio-acoustic scientific subject... Part 218 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations... Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed...

  13. Environmental aspects of marine transport operations

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, I.J.; Reader, G.T.; Bowen, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    The oceans have been used for almost five thousand years for military purposes, for the transportation of goods and people and, especially in this century, for recreational activities. Today the oceanic seaways still provide a vitally important transportation system and probably always will. They also contain rich resources of food, energy and minerals which have yet to be fully exploited but there is already growing concern that they are being contaminated by pollution originating not only from the populated coastal areas but also from the actual use of the seas by marine vehicles. The waste generated in shipping activities has invariably been dumped into the oceans, often indiscriminately and in ignorance of the effects. However, increasing environmental awareness has now led the civilian and military marine transportation sectors to focus on the elimination of ship based environmental hazards. These hazards can take the form of atmospheric pollution, such as exhaust gases, or seawater pollution, such as sewage discharge and garbage disposal. The environmentally unfriendly discharges from vessels are not always intentional, for example, grease from the steering mechanism and erosion of the toxic anti-fouling hull paint have only been recently identified as harmful agents. The purpose of this paper is to review the actual and potential environmental problem associated with the operation of both surface ships and underwater vehicles. In addition, techniques and problems associated with the control or elimination of the hazards are discussed and areas for future research identified.

  14. 78 FR 57368 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar within the northwest...

  15. Residual strength of damaged marine structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Dhruba J.; Nappi, Natale S.; Wiernicki, Christopher J.

    1994-09-01

    Traditionally assessment of ship's longitudinal strength has been made by comparing the elastic stresses at the deck or bottom shell to fractions of the material yield strength. This results in high reserve capacity due to inherent redundancies in ship structures. Residual strength, which is defined as the strength of the structure after damage, has rarely been considered either during design or at the time of repair. In this report, key elements required to undertake an engineering analysis to evaluate the residual strength have been identified. Emphasis has been placed on assessing the residual strength of marine structures damaged due to normal operating loads. Methods available to industry for evaluation of damage such as, fracture and ultimate strength have been summarized. An example problem, illustrating the application of an integrated approach to residual strength assessment on a particular ship type, is presented.

  16. The Training Of Reserve Marine Corps Logisticians To Support The Active Duty Forces In Operational Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-11

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE TRAINING OF RESERVE MARINE CORPS LOGISTICIANS TO SUPPORT THE ACTIVE DUTY FORCES IN OPERATIONAL...Marine Corps Reserves in May 2000, joining 4th Electronics Maintenance Company, Wichita, Kansas, as Platoon Commander, Headquarters Platoon. In May...Marine Logisticians in the future, especially in the reserves , must learn to fight in the joint environment. With the dwindling force structure of

  17. 76 FR 51352 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... mammals by harassment incidental to the U.S. Navy's operation of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor...

  18. 77 FR 51969 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... mammals by harassment incidental to the U.S. Navy's operation of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor...

  19. 75 FR 51443 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... mammals by harassment incidental to the U.S. Navy's operation of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor...

  20. 75 FR 12734 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... repair and maintenance; and emergency and oil spill response training. Sections 1 and 2 of BP's... occurrence of oil spills. Petroleum development and associated activities in marine waters introduce sound... NMFS, BP requests authorization to take marine mammals incidental to operation of offshore oil and gas...

  1. 46 CFR 525.3 - Availability of marine terminal operator schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Availability of marine terminal operator schedules. 525... COMMERCE MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR SCHEDULES § 525.3 Availability of marine terminal operator schedules. (a... schedules used by a marine terminal operator, or to which it is a party, shall be maintained in its...

  2. Operational marine products from Copernicus Sentinel-3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomazic, Igor; Montagner, Francois; O'Carroll, Anne; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Scharroo, Remko; Nogueira Loddo, Carolina; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Bonekamp, Hans; Lucas, Bruno; Dinardo, Salvatore; Dash, Prasanjit; Taberner, Malcolm; Coto Cabaleiro, Eva; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Wilson, Hilary

    2017-04-01

    The first Copernicus Sentinel-3 satellite, Sentinel-3A, was launched in early 2016, with the mission to provide a consistent, long-term collection of marine and land data for operational analysis, forecasting and environmental and climate monitoring. The marine centre is part of the Sentinel-3 Payload Data Ground Segment, located at EUMETSAT. This centre together with the existing EUMETSAT facilities provides a routine centralised service for operational meteorology, oceanography, and other Sentinel-3 marine users as part of the European Commission's Copernicus programme. The EUMETSAT marine centre delivers operational Sea Surface Temperature, Ocean Colour and Sea Surface Topography data products based on the measurements from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL), respectively, all aboard Sentinel-3. All products have been developed together with ESA and industry partners and EUMETSAT is responsible for the production, distribution, and future evolution of Level-2 marine products. We will give an overview of the scientific characteristics and algorithms of all marine Level-2 products, as well as instrument calibration and product validation results based on on-going Sentinel-3 Cal/Val activities. Information will be also provided about the current status of the product dissemination and the future evolutions that are envisaged. Also, we will provide information how to access Sentinel-3 data from EUMETSAT and where to look for further information.

  3. Marine Nucleosides: Structure, Bioactivity, Synthesis and Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ri-Ming; Chen, Yin-Ning; Zeng, Ziyu; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds. PMID:25474189

  4. Marine nucleosides: structure, bioactivity, synthesis and biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ri-Ming; Chen, Yin-Ning; Zeng, Ziyu; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan

    2014-12-02

    Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds.

  5. 77 FR 6771 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor... harassment, incidental to conducting operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System (SURTASS)...

  6. Application of concrete in marine structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, A.; Nygaard, C.

    1997-07-01

    The use of concrete in marine environment has gained tremendous popularity in the past decade and is continued to be a very popular material for marine industry in the world today. It has a very diversified use from large offshore platforms and floating structures in the North Sea, Canada and South America to offshore loading terminals and junction platforms in shallow waters in the marshes of southern Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico. Also, precast concrete sections are extensively used all over the world in the construction of marine structures. Because of their large variety of shapes and sizes, they can be tailored to fit multiple applications in marine environment. The added quality control in the fabrication yard and the ease of installation by lifting makes them a very attractive option. The use of precast concrete sections is gaining a lot of popularity in South America. A lot of fabrication yards are manufacturing these sections locally. There are hundreds of offshore concrete platforms utilizing these sections in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. The paper discusses the use of concrete for offshore structures including floaters. It describes some general concepts and advantages to be gained by the use of concrete (precast and cast-in-place) in marine environment. It also discusses some general design considerations required for the use of different types of precast concrete sections that can be utilized for oil and gas platforms and loading terminals. Lastly the paper describes some typical examples of concrete platforms built out of concrete piles, precast concrete girders and beam sections and concrete decking.

  7. Top marine predators track Lagrangian coherent structures

    PubMed Central

    Tew Kai, Emilie; Rossi, Vincent; Sudre, Joel; Weimerskirch, Henri; Lopez, Cristobal; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Marsac, Francis; Garçon, Veronique

    2009-01-01

    Meso- and submesoscales (fronts, eddies, filaments) in surface ocean flow have a crucial influence on marine ecosystems. Their dynamics partly control the foraging behavior and the displacement of marine top predators (tuna, birds, turtles, and cetaceans). In this work we focus on the role of submesoscale structures in the Mozambique Channel in the distribution of a marine predator, the Great Frigatebird. Using a newly developed dynamic concept, the finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE), we identified Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) present in the surface flow in the channel over a 2-month observation period (August and September 2003). By comparing seabird satellite positions with LCS locations, we demonstrate that frigatebirds track precisely these structures in the Mozambique Channel, providing the first evidence that a top predator is able to track these FSLE ridges to locate food patches. After comparing bird positions during long and short trips and different parts of these trips, we propose several hypotheses to understand how frigatebirds can follow these LCSs. The birds might use visual and/or olfactory cues and/or atmospheric current changes over the structures to move along these biologic corridors. The birds being often associated with tuna schools around foraging areas, a thorough comprehension of their foraging behavior and movement during the breeding season is crucial not only to seabird ecology but also to an appropriate ecosystemic approach to fisheries in the channel. PMID:19416811

  8. Top marine predators track Lagrangian coherent structures.

    PubMed

    Tew Kai, Emilie; Rossi, Vincent; Sudre, Joel; Weimerskirch, Henri; Lopez, Cristobal; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Marsac, Francis; Garçon, Veronique

    2009-05-19

    Meso- and submesoscales (fronts, eddies, filaments) in surface ocean flow have a crucial influence on marine ecosystems. Their dynamics partly control the foraging behavior and the displacement of marine top predators (tuna, birds, turtles, and cetaceans). In this work we focus on the role of submesoscale structures in the Mozambique Channel in the distribution of a marine predator, the Great Frigatebird. Using a newly developed dynamic concept, the finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE), we identified Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) present in the surface flow in the channel over a 2-month observation period (August and September 2003). By comparing seabird satellite positions with LCS locations, we demonstrate that frigatebirds track precisely these structures in the Mozambique Channel, providing the first evidence that a top predator is able to track these FSLE ridges to locate food patches. After comparing bird positions during long and short trips and different parts of these trips, we propose several hypotheses to understand how frigatebirds can follow these LCSs. The birds might use visual and/or olfactory cues and/or atmospheric current changes over the structures to move along these biologic corridors. The birds being often associated with tuna schools around foraging areas, a thorough comprehension of their foraging behavior and movement during the breeding season is crucial not only to seabird ecology but also to an appropriate ecosystemic approach to fisheries in the channel.

  9. Developing Operational Oceanography for Marine Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huthnance, John M.

    2013-04-01

    Oceanography for assessments necessarily depends on the purposes of the assessments and on the ocean characteristics or variables required for the various purposes. Objectives and variables all have their own inherent time- and space-scales. For variables, these may be determined by sources, transport and/or dynamics, and evolution. Socio-economic interests determine the scales inherent in objectives; these scales are liable to range from a coastal locality to global, and from hours or days to decades. Measurements are limited by available technology and funding, and cannot be expected to resolve the smaller inherent scales as well as giving the coverage sought. Hence an emphasis is placed on (i) making the most of opportunities for concurrent measurements of variables with compatible intrinsic scales, (ii) data management to exploit measurements fully, (iii) development, testing and use of models with data assimilation, to interpolate measurements, to optimise measurements' effectiveness (measurement array design) and perhaps to infer earlier conditions when measurements were scarcer, (iv) models as a means of synthesising varied information to provide assessment "products", (v) feedback from users of these products to raise the quality of (i-iv). Whilst objectives determine the variables of interest, the inherent scales of variables are emphasised as the appropriate control on the density of measurements. This may foster efficiency in operational measurements and their application through models, after further research.

  10. Global patterns of diversity and community structure in marine bacterioplankton.

    PubMed

    Pommier, T; Canbäck, B; Riemann, L; Boström, K H; Simu, K; Lundberg, P; Tunlid, A; Hagström, A

    2007-02-01

    Because of their small size, great abundance and easy dispersal, it is often assumed that marine planktonic microorganisms have a ubiquitous distribution that prevents any structured assembly into local communities. To challenge this view, marine bacterioplankton communities from coastal waters at nine locations distributed world-wide were examined through the use of comprehensive clone libraries of 16S ribosomal RNA genes, used as operational taxonomic units (OTU). Our survey and analyses show that there were marked differences in the composition and richness of OTUs between locations. Remarkably, the global marine bacterioplankton community showed a high degree of endemism, and conversely included few cosmopolitan OTUs. Our data were consistent with a latitudinal gradient of OTU richness. We observed a positive relationship between the relative OTU abundances and their range of occupation, i.e. cosmopolitans had the largest population sizes. Although OTU richness differed among locations, the distributions of the major taxonomic groups represented in the communities were analogous, and all local communities were similarly structured and dominated by a few OTUs showing variable taxonomic affiliations. The observed patterns of OTU richness indicate that similar evolutionary and ecological processes structured the communities. We conclude that marine bacterioplankton share many of the biogeographical and macroecological features of macroscopic organisms. The general processes behind those patterns are likely to be comparable across taxa and major global biomes.

  11. 40 CFR 63.651 - Marine tank vessel loading operation provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine tank vessel loading operation... Marine tank vessel loading operation provisions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, each owner or operator of a marine tank vessel loading operation located at a...

  12. 40 CFR 63.651 - Marine tank vessel loading operation provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marine tank vessel loading operation... Marine tank vessel loading operation provisions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, each owner or operator of a marine tank vessel loading operation located at a...

  13. 40 CFR 63.651 - Marine tank vessel loading operation provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine tank vessel loading operation... Marine tank vessel loading operation provisions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, each owner or operator of a marine tank vessel loading operation located at a...

  14. Women Marines in Counterinsurgency Operations: Lioness and Female Engagement Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-05

    Lioness and Female N/A Engagement Teams 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AI)THOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Major Ginger E...adapted to overcome the Middle Eastern cultural gender sensitivities by utilizing women Marines to engage with the Iraqi and Afghan female population...Attaching Lioness and Female Engagement Teams to ground combat units is very successful in increasing security, information operations, and relations

  15. Altimeter Data for Operational Use in the Marine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digby, Susan; Antczak, Thomas; Leben, Robert; Born, George; Barth, Suzanne; Cheney, Robert; Foley, David; Goni, Gustavo Jorge; Jacobs, Gregg; Shay, Nick

    1999-01-01

    TOPEX/Poseidon has been collecting altimeter data continuously since October 1992. Altimeter data have been used to produce maps of sea surface height, geostrophic velocity, significant wave height, and wind speed. This information is of proven use to mariners as well as to the scientific community. Uses of the data include commercial and recreational vessel routing, ocean acoustics, input to geographic information systems developed for the fishing industry, identification of marine mammal habitats, fisheries management, and monitoring ocean debris. As with sea surface temperature data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) in the late 1980s and early 1990s, altimeter data from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 and -2 are in the process of being introduced to the marine world for operational maritime use. It is anticipated that over the next few years companies that specialize in producing custom products for shipping agencies, fisheries and yacht race competitors will be incorporating altimeter data into their products. The data are also being incorporated into weather and climate forecasts by operational agencies both in the US and Europe. This paper will discuss these products, their uses, operational demonstrations and means of accessing the data.

  16. 46 CFR 525.3 - Availability of marine terminal operator schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Availability of marine terminal operator schedules. 525... COMMERCE MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR SCHEDULES § 525.3 Availability of marine terminal operator schedules. (a) Availability of terminal schedules—(1) Availability to the Commission. A complete and current set of terminal...

  17. Lumbar spine postures in marines during simulated operational positions.

    PubMed

    Berry, David B; Rodríguez-Soto, Ana E; Su, Jeannie; Gombatto, Sara P; Shahidi, Bahar; Palombo, Laura; Chung, Christine; Jensen, Andrew; Kelly, Karen R; Ward, Samuel R

    2017-01-04

    Low back pain has a 70% higher prevalence in members of the armed forces than in the general population, possibly due to the loads and positions soldiers experience during training and combat. Although the influence of heavy load carriage on standing lumbar spine posture in this population is known, postures in other operationally relevant positions are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of simulated military operational positions under relevant loading conditions on global and local lumbar spine postures in active duty male US Marines. Secondary objectives were to evaluate if intervertebral disc degeneration and low back pain affect lumbar spine postures. Magnetic resonance images were acquired on an upright scanner in the following operational positions: Natural standing with no external load, standing with body armor (11.3 kg), sitting with body armor, and prone on elbows with body armor. Custom software was used to measure global lumbar spine posture: Lumbosacral flexion, sacral slope, lordosis, local measures of intervertebral angles, and intervertebral distances. Sitting resulted in decreased lumbar lordosis at all levels of the spine except L1-L2. When subjects were prone on elbows, a significant increase in local lordosis was observed only at L5-S1 compared with all other positions. Marines with disc degeneration (77%) or history of low back pain (72%) had decreased lumbar range of motion and less lumbar extension than healthy Marines. These results indicate that a male Marine's pathology undergoes a stereotypic set of postural changes during functional tasks, which may impair performance. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 9999:XX-XX, 2017.

  18. Mariner Mars 1971 project. Volume 3: Mission operations system implementation and standard mission flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Mariner Mars 1971 mission which was another step in the continuing program of planetary exploration in search of evidence of exobiological activity, information on the origin and evolution of the solar system, and basic science data related to the study of planetary physics, geology, planetology, and cosmology is reported. The mission plan was designed for two spacecraft, each performing a separate but complementary mission. However, a single mission plan was actually used for Mariner 9 because of failure of the launch vehicle for the first spacecraft. The implementation is described, of the Mission Operations System, including organization, training, and data processing development and operations, and Mariner 9 spacecraft cruise and orbital operations through completion of the standard mission from launch to solar occultation in April 1972 are discussed.

  19. Offshore marine structure with corrosion protection

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D.A.; Barr, B.D.; Rommelmann, D.W.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a marine structure having a deck and a rotatable drill string for drilling wellbores into the floor of a body of water; a jacket comprised of corrodible metallic members including support legs which are mutually interconnected with cross braces, and which jacket rests on the floor and supports the deck above the water's surface, a drilling template incorporated into the jacket to accommodate drilling conductors for guiding the rotatable drill string which is lowered from the deck to form a vertical wellbore, the drilling template including vertically aligned elongated conductor guides arranged in a horizontal pattern to define a drill conductor array comprised of external conductors, which encompass at least one internal conductor, a cathodic protection system protecting the corrodible metallic members of the marine structure comprising a first sacrificial anode system disposed on discrete submerged jacket members to afford corrosion protection to the jacket members as well as to submerged sections of the drill conductor array, and other sacrificial anodes removably carried on at least one internal conductor to supplement the cathodic protection afforded by the first sacrificial anodes.

  20. Marine Structural Steel Toughness Data Bank (Abridged Edition)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-31

    August 28, 1991 SR-1311 MARINE STRUCTURAL STEEL TOUGHNESS DATA BANK (ABRIDGED EDITION) A substantial amount of toughness data for commonly used marine... steels is available to ship designers. The information, however, did not exist in a comprehensive database that users could access. The Ship Structure...Committee recognized the need for a conve -ent source of materials design data and sponsored the development of the Marine Structural Steel Toughness

  1. 4TH Marine Division Operation Plan Number 49-44

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-12-26

    I / i i -4- A. o. o o o 3 4-’ 4TH MARINE DIVISION 54 OPERATION PLAN NO. 49-44 DECLASSIFIED IAW CLIASSIFICATION $4...INTO ENEMY HANDS. LUISrAR! UNCLASS0FIDo .-O UNCLASSIFIED ri LL!n .. I . 155 - - o.- sr Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...the remainder of O-1 within Z, repared or further OPN PLAN 49-44 - 1 - O1 :?’:¢ . ... ~·~:~ I I - I --" , I %,"_’,: A I 1-W_ , - I I ---. -

  2. Ensuring a Future for Marine Corps Operational Support Airlift (OSA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-29

    purchase of the C-12 in the 1980’s. The C- 12, which is a military version of the Beech Craft ‘ King Air’ was subsequently used by the Marine Corps...MAGTF. The C-12 (Figure 2) is the military version of the Beechcraft King Air. It is often referred to as the ‘workhorse’ of OSA. There are...during major exercises such as Cobra Gold. 39 This would also allow the aircraft to 20 normalize operations in the region, which would better

  3. Marine operations in the Arctic--A new development

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, A.

    1983-05-01

    An icebreaker hull form developed on the basis of a novel concept presents new aspects to marine operations in the arctic. The concept makes use of a fundamentally new icebreaking technique which has proved to be efficient in various kinds of ice formations resulting in a considerable reduction in the propulsion power required. The icebreaking mode of the so called Thyssen-Waas concept is characterized by clean cut channel edges and a practically ice free track. The new hull form has been developed on the basis of extensive model tests. Designs for various ship types - such as a polar tanker, a research vessel, an offshore support vessel - have been prepared according to this concept and model tested both in ice and in open waters. The highlight of the development program was the full scale trial of the concept with an experimental icebreaker in the Gulf of Bothnia. This paper gives a short description of the Thyssen-Waas concept and discusses the results of the model and full scale tests with respect to the application of the concept to arctic marine operations.

  4. Marine Raider Battalions: A Case Study in Distributed Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Carlson,” Marine Corps Gazette, August 1987 , 29-30. 20 16. Charles L. Updegraph Jr., U.S. Marine Corps Special Units of World War II, (1972...officer selection source, but these indicate basic training for most Marines and soldiers. 22 48. See Aline O. Quester, Anita U. Hattiangadi...August 1987 , 29- 30. David, G John. “A Marine Raider Battalion: Giving USSOCOM a Unique Capability.” Marine Corps Gazette, June 2004, 46-49. Dobson

  5. 76 FR 53884 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency... Array Sensor System (SURTASS) Low Frequency Active (LFA) sonar for the period beginning August 2012...

  6. Operant psychology makes a splash--in marine mammal training (1955-1965).

    PubMed

    Gillaspy, James Arthur; Brinegar, Jennifer L; Bailey, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide spread use of operant conditioning within marine animal training, relatively little is known about this unique application of behavioral technology. This article explores the expansion of operant psychology to commercial marine animal training from 1955 to 1965, specifically at marine parks such as Marine Studios Florida, Marineland of the Pacific, Sea Life Park, and SeaWorld. The contributions of Keller and Marian Breland and their business Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE) as well as other early practitioners of behavioral technology are reviewed. We also describe how operant technology was introduced and formalized into procedures that have become the cornerstone of marine animal training and entertainment. The rapid growth of the marine park industry during this time was closely linked to the spread of behavioral technology. The expansion of operant training methods within marine animal training is a unique success story of behavioral technology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Applications of Mass Spectrometry to Structural Analysis of Marine Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Yinzhi; Zhao, Xia; Liu, Lili; Yu, Guangli

    2014-01-01

    Marine oligosaccharides have attracted increasing attention recently in developing potential drugs and biomaterials for their particular physical and chemical properties. However, the composition and sequence analysis of marine oligosaccharides are very challenging for their structural complexity and heterogeneity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important technique for carbohydrate analysis by providing more detailed structural information, including molecular mass, sugar constituent, sequence, inter-residue linkage position and substitution pattern. This paper provides an overview of the structural analysis based on MS approaches in marine oligosaccharides, which are derived from some biologically important marine polysaccharides, including agaran, carrageenan, alginate, sulfated fucan, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and GAG-like polysaccharides. Applications of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) are mainly presented and the general applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) are also outlined. Some technical challenges in the structural analysis of marine oligosaccharides by MS have also been pointed out. PMID:24983643

  8. Applications of mass spectrometry to structural analysis of marine oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lang, Yinzhi; Zhao, Xia; Liu, Lili; Yu, Guangli

    2014-06-30

    Marine oligosaccharides have attracted increasing attention recently in developing potential drugs and biomaterials for their particular physical and chemical properties. However, the composition and sequence analysis of marine oligosaccharides are very challenging for their structural complexity and heterogeneity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important technique for carbohydrate analysis by providing more detailed structural information, including molecular mass, sugar constituent, sequence, inter-residue linkage position and substitution pattern. This paper provides an overview of the structural analysis based on MS approaches in marine oligosaccharides, which are derived from some biologically important marine polysaccharides, including agaran, carrageenan, alginate, sulfated fucan, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and GAG-like polysaccharides. Applications of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) are mainly presented and the general applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) are also outlined. Some technical challenges in the structural analysis of marine oligosaccharides by MS have also been pointed out.

  9. 76 FR 30023 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Zones for Marine Corps Operations AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Final rule... States Marine Corps. DATES: Effective date: June 23, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. David... danger zone will enable the Marine Corps to control access and movement of persons, vessels and objects...

  10. MRNIDX - Marine Data Index: Database Description, Operation, Retrieval, and Display

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paskevich, Valerie F.

    1982-01-01

    A database referencing the location and content of data stored on magnetic medium was designed to assist in the indexing of time-series and spatially dependent marine geophysical data collected or processed by the U. S. Geological Survey. The database was designed and created for input to the Geologic Retrieval and Synopsis Program (GRASP) to allow selective retrievals of information pertaining to location of data, data format, cruise, geographical bounds and collection dates of data. This information is then used to locate the stored data for administrative purposes or further processing. Database utilization is divided into three distinct operations. The first is the inventorying of the data and the updating of the database, the second is the retrieval of information from the database, and the third is the graphic display of the geographical boundaries to which the retrieved information pertains.

  11. Using Google Earth in Marine Research and Operational Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blower, J. D.; Bretherton, D.; Haines, K.; Liu, C.; Rawlings, C.; Santokhee, A.; Smith, I.

    2006-12-01

    A key advantage of Virtual Globes ("geobrowsers") such as Google Earth is that they can display many different geospatial data types at a huge range of spatial scales. In this demonstration and poster display we shall show how marine data from disparate sources can be brought together in a geobrowser in order to support both scientific research and operational search and rescue activities. We have developed the Godiva2 interactive website for browsing and exploring marine data, mainly output from supercomputer analyses and predictions of ocean circulation. The user chooses a number of parameters (e.g. sea temperature at 100m depth on 1st July 2006) and can load an image of the resulting data in Google Earth. Through the use of an automatically-refreshing NetworkLink the user can explore the whole globe at a very large range of spatial scales: the displayed data will automatically be refreshed to show data at increasingly fine resolution as the user zooms in. This is a valuable research tool for exploring these terabyte- scale datasets. Many coastguard organizations around the world use SARIS, a software application produced by BMT Cordah Ltd., to predict the drift pattern of objects in the sea in order to support search and rescue operations. Different drifting objects have different trajectories depending on factors such as their buoyancy and windage and so a computer model, supported by meteorological and oceanographic data, is needed to help rescuers locate their targets. We shall demonstrate how Google Earth is used to display output from the SARIS model (including the search target location and associated error polygon) alongside meteorological data (wind vectors) and oceanographic data (sea temperature, surface currents) from Godiva2 in order to support decision-making. We shall also discuss the limitations of using Google Earth in this context: these include the difficulties of working with time- dependent data and the need to access data securely. essc

  12. Global environmental predictors of benthic marine biogeographic structure

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Christina L.; Jablonski, David; Roy, Kaustuv; Krug, Andrew Z.; Valentine, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of how environmental factors influence the biogeographic structure of biotas are essential for understanding the processes underlying global diversity patterns and for predicting large-scale biotic responses to global change. Here we show that the large-scale geographic structure of shallow-marine benthic faunas, defined by existing biogeographic schemes, can be predicted with 89–100% accuracy by a few readily available oceanographic variables; temperature alone can predict 53–99% of the present-day structure along coastlines. The same set of variables is also strongly correlated with spatial changes in species compositions of bivalves, a major component of the benthic marine biota, at the 1° grid-cell resolution. These analyses demonstrate the central role of coastal oceanography in structuring benthic marine biogeography and suggest that a few environmental variables may be sufficient to model the response of marine biogeographic structure to past and future changes in climate. PMID:22904189

  13. Crustal structure of the Hecataeus Rise (eastern Mediterranean) deduced by marine gravity and marine magnetic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In the year 2010 extensive geophysical researches were carried out in the area of Hecataeus Rise using the German research vessel Maria S. Merian. Beside the bathymetry, refraction and reflection seismic data, marine gravity and marine magnetic data were acquired during this cruise. The result of the research along one Wide-Angle reflection/refraction seismic line of this cruise is published 2015 by K. Welford et al.. Based on interpretation of reflection seismic and bathymetry data across the Hecataeus Rise, S. Reiche published 2015 the crustal structure and bathymetric features along some seismic profiles of this cruise. The focus of this work is to use the available sediments and crustal structures inferred by seismic information together with real marine gravity and marine magnetic data in order to produce gravity and magnetic 2-D models along all seismic profiles. While Welford et al. used the altimetry gravity data and magnetic data from EMAG3 database for their modelling, the real gravity and magnetic data measured exactly along the seismic profiles will be used in this work. The advantage of the real marine gravity and real marine magnetic data used for the modelling is that they have higher accuracy in the values as well as in the positions. Furthermore, Welford et al. calculated the gravity and Magnetic models along some seismic profiles, while in this work the result of gravity and magnetic modelling along all seismic profiles of this cruise will be presented. The marine gravity and marine magnetic data along all seismic profiles were recorded continuously. The accuracy of marine gravity data is about ± 1 mGal, while the accuracy of Marine magnetic data is in the range of ± 3 nT. The results of 2-D gravity and magnetic modelling will be presented and discussed in this work.

  14. Mediterranean monitoring and forecasting operational system for Copernicus Marine Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppini, Giovanni; Drudi, Massimiliano; Korres, Gerasimos; Fratianni, Claudia; Salon, Stefano; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Clementi, Emanuela; Zacharioudaki, Anna; Grandi, Alessandro; Delrosso, Damiano; Pistoia, Jenny; Solidoro, Cosimo; Pinardi, Nadia; Lecci, Rita; Agostini, Paola; Cretì, Sergio; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Palermo, Francesco; Konstantinidou, Anna; Storto, Andrea; Simoncelli, Simona; Di Pietro, Pier Luigi; Masina, Simona; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Ravdas, Michalis; Mancini, Marco; Aloisio, Giovanni; Fiore, Sandro; Buonocore, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The MEDiterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Center (Med-MFC) is part of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS, http://marine.copernicus.eu/), provided on an operational mode by Mercator Ocean in agreement with the European Commission. Specifically, Med MFC system provides regular and systematic information about the physical state of the ocean and marine ecosystems for the Mediterranean Sea. The Med-MFC service started in May 2015 from the pre-operational system developed during the MyOcean projects, consolidating the understanding of regional Mediterranean Sea dynamics, from currents to biogeochemistry to waves, interfacing with local data collection networks and guaranteeing an efficient link with other Centers in Copernicus network. The Med-MFC products include analyses, 10 days forecasts and reanalysis, describing currents, temperature, salinity, sea level and pelagic biogeochemistry. Waves products will be available in MED-MFC version in 2017. The consortium, composed of INGV (Italy), HCMR (Greece) and OGS (Italy) and coordinated by the Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change (CMCC, Italy), performs advanced R&D activities and manages the service delivery. The Med-MFC infrastructure consists of 3 Production Units (PU), for Physics, Biogechemistry and Waves, a unique Dissemination Unit (DU) and Archiving Unit (AU) and Backup Units (BU) for all principal components, guaranteeing a resilient configuration of the service and providing and efficient and robust solution for the maintenance of the service and delivery. The Med-MFC includes also an evolution plan, both in terms of research and operational activities, oriented to increase the spatial resolution of products, to start wave products dissemination, to increase temporal extent of the reanalysis products and improving ocean physical modeling for delivering new products. The scientific activities carried out in 2015 concerned some improvements in the physical, biogeochemical and

  15. A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-14

    Resources Energy Technology Basics Electricity Grid Basics Costs Renewable Technologies Biomass Geothermal Solar Concentrators Solar Photovoltaics Wind...SPONSORED REPORT SERIES A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations 14 July 2014...SUBTITLE A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  16. The Marine Corps Civil Military Operations (CMO) Capability: Inadequate for Current and Future Irregular Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-02

    improvements , the Marine Corps has not institutionalized a CMO capability. Therefore, in the end, Marine Corps’ CMO capabilities do not adequately...duty force structure. · One way to measure The Marine Corps commitment to improve CMO is to be found in the Projected Objective Mem~randum (POM...Marines were required to deal with civilians,.including displaced civilians and ordinary citizens trying to avoid being caught in the crossfire . The

  17. Marine Structural Biomaterials in Medical Biomimicry.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Marine biomaterials display properties, behaviors, and functions that have not been artificially matched in relation to their hierarchical construction, crack-stopping properties, growth adaptation, and energy efficiency. The discovery and understanding of such features that are characteristic of natural biomaterials can be used to manufacture more energy-efficient and lightweight materials. However, a more detailed understanding of the design of natural biomaterials with good performance and the mechanism of their design is required. Far-reaching biomolecular characterization of biomaterials and biostructures from the ocean world is possible with sophisticated analytical methods, such as whole-genome RNA-seq, and de novo transcriptome sequencing and mass spectrophotometry-based sequencing. In combination with detailed material characterization, the elements in newly discovered biomaterials and their properties can be reconstituted into biomimetic or bio-inspired materials. A major aim of harnessing marine biomaterials is their translation into biomimetic counterparts. To achieve full translation, the genome, proteome, and hierarchical material characteristics, and their profiles in space and time, have to be associated to allow for smooth biomimetic translation. In this article, we highlight the novel science of marine biomimicry from a materials perspective. We focus on areas of material design and fabrication that have excelled in marine biological models, such as embedded interfaces, chiral organization, and the use of specialized composite material-on-material designs. Our emphasis is primarily on key materials with high value in healthcare in which we evaluate their future prospects. Marine biomaterials are among the most exquisite and powerful aspects in materials science today.

  18. 76 FR 35995 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ..., upon application from Neptune LNG LLC (Neptune), issued regulations pursuant to the Marine Mammal... and recordkeeping requirements, Seafood, Transportation. Dated: June 14, 2011. John Oliver, Deputy...

  19. Sensor Nanny, data management services for marine observation operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubrieu, Thomas; Détoc, Jérôme; Thorel, Arnaud; Azelmat, Hamza

    2016-04-01

    In marine sciences, the diversity of observed properties (from water physic to contaminants in observed in biological individuals or sediment) and observation methodologies (from manned sampling and analysis in labs to large automated networks of homogeneous platforms) requires different expertises and thus dedicated scientific program (ARGO, EMSO, GLOSS, GOSHIP, OceanSites, GOSUD, Geotrace, SOCAT, member state environment monitoring networks, experimental research…). However, all of them requires similar IT services to support the maintenance of their network (calibrations, deployment strategy, spare part management...) and their data management. In Europe, the National Oceanographic Data Centres coordinated by the IOC/IODE and SeaDataNet provide reliable reference services (e.g. vocabularies, contact directories), standards and long term data preservation. Besides the regional operational oceanographic centres (ROOSes) coordinated by EuroGOOS and Copernicus In-Situ Thematic Assembly Centre provide efficient data management for near real time or delayed mode services focused on physics and bio-geo-chemistry in the water column. Other e-infrastructures, such as euroBIS for biodiversity, are focused on specific disciplines. Beyond the current scope of these well established infrastructures, Sensor Nanny is a web application providing services for operators of observatories to manage their observations on the "cloud". The application stands against the reference services (vocabularies, organization directory) and standard profiles (OGC/Sensor Web Enablement) provided by SeaDataNet. The application provides an on-line editor to graphically describe, literally draw, their observatory (acquisition and processing systems). The observatory description is composed by the user from a palette of hundreds of pre-defined sensors or hardware linked together. In addition, the data providers can upload their data in CSV and netCDF formats on a dropbox-like system. The latest

  20. Marine Biotoxins: Laboratory Culture and Molecular Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-18

    The methodology used to determine the population densities of dinoflagellates growing attached to macroalgae is as described previously. Briefly...growing attached to macroalgae collected at Kahala Beach. Oahu. has been monitored from September. 1988 to August. 1989. The results of this survey...prospects for the cultivation of marine algae. In: Cultures and Collections of algae. JM. So&. El. Physiol. pp. 63- 75. -17- B. Ciguatoxin Isolation

  1. Influence of Weld Porosity on the Integrity of Marine Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Bruce Mustain Mr. Alexander B . Stavov; U. S. MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Dr. C. B . Kim COMMITTEE ON MARINE STRUCTURE,, U. S...FIGURE 9(a). STRESS-LIFE PLOT SHOWING ACTUAL FATIGUE LIVES VERSUS PREDICTED FATIGUE LIVES OF WELDS CONTAINING POROSITY 32 FIGURE 9( b ). STRESS-LIFE PLOT...37 FIGURE 11. CLASS A AND CLASS B POROSITY CHART FOR 0.5 INCH (12.5 MM) THICK MATERIAL ....... ...................... ... 38 FIGURE 12

  2. Risk and Reward of an Operational Marine Corps Reserve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-21

    framework to address RC gaps in doctrine, organization, leadership and education. The analysis will further enable the RC to become an effective and...within the RC and AC must conduct an analysis of the Marine Corps’ total force framework to address RC gaps in doctrine, organization, leadership and...and eliminating the Mobilization Command headquarters by assimilating associated functions into Marine Forces Reserve ( MFR ) headquarters.22 As the

  3. Analyzing Resources of United States Marine Corps for Humanitarian Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-26

    the United States Marine Corps (USMC) response to Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR), the capabilities of the USMC will need to be...matched to the demand created by future disasters . In this research, we study the USMC resources that are primarily responsible for the response, the...effectiveness of the United States Marine Corps (USMC) response to Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR), the capabilities of the USMC

  4. Exoskeleton Enhancements for Marines: Tactical-level Technology for an Operational Consequence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    for heat stress and heat stroke, something an exoskeleton could easily mitigate51 The wearing of an exoskeleton has the ability to not only restore ...TITLE: Exoskeleton Enhancements for Marines: Tactical-level Technology for an Operational Consequence SUBMITTED IN...DATES COVERED STUDENT RESEARCH PAPER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exoskeleton Enhancements for Marines: Tactical-level Technology for an

  5. Marine Structural Steel Toughness Data Bank. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    A514, HY80 and HY100 containing primarily Ni, Cr, Mn and Mo; * High strength, low alloy steel A710 and HSLA 80 containing primarily Cu, Ni, Cr and Mo...S SC 3:52 MARNE STRUCTURAL STEEL TOUGHNESS DATA, BANK,’ (Vol ’ue2 u- t. 2). DTI A ELCT ~k, Ibis doc tuent has been appcove4 for public release an d...Structures SSC-352 August 28, 1991 SR-1311 MARINE STRUCTURAL STEEL TOUGHNESS DATA BANK A substantial amount of toughness data for commonly used marine

  6. Marine Chemical Ecology: Chemical Signals and Cues Structure Marine Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cues constitute much of the language of life in the sea. Our understanding of biotic interactions and their effects on marine ecosystems will advance more rapidly if this language is studied and understood. Here, I review how chemical cues regulate critical aspects of the behavior of marine organisms from bacteria to phytoplankton to benthic invertebrates and water column fishes. These chemically mediated interactions strongly affect population structure, community organization, and ecosystem function. Chemical cues determine foraging strategies, feeding choices, commensal associations, selection of mates and habitats, competitive interactions, and transfer of energy and nutrients within and among ecosystems. In numerous cases, the indirect effects of chemical signals on behavior have as much or more effect on community structure and function as the direct effects of consumers and pathogens. Chemical cues are critical for understanding marine systems, but their omnipresence and impact are inadequately recognized. PMID:21141035

  7. Making the Marine Corps Reserve Truly Operational: A Case Study in the Reorganization of the Marine Corps Reserve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-10

    for reorganization of MFR as an Operational Reserve 15 Conclusion 23 Bibliography 25 4 DISCLAIMER THE OPINIONS...current organization. MFR was continually under scrutiny and change through its first fifty years of history during the 20th Century (1916-1966...Marine Corps reserve and the current DOD view of the operational reserve and the framework for the joint community, This ideology focuses on a need

  8. A Look at Soviet Deep Operations: Is There an Amphibious Operational Maneuver Group in the Marine Corps’ Future?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    more inclusive . What, then, is the feasibility of adapting the concepts of Soviet deep operations theory to future Marine Corps and/or joint...was sandwiched between Tukhachevsky the dreamer and Tukhachevsky the "man of action." Tukhachevsky was the operational thinker with an intense

  9. Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, H. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans), ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application. PMID:21566795

  10. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. 334.420 Section 334.420 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.420 Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. (a... date. Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point will have a call-in number for public use to...

  11. Fulfilling EU Laws to Ensure Marine Mammal Protection During Marine Renewable Construction Operations in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Sarah J; Green, Mick; Gregerson, Sarah; Weir, Caroline R

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale offshore renewable energy infrastructure construction in Scottish waters is anticipated in coming decades. An approach being pursued, with a view to preventing short-range marine mammal injury, is the introduction of additional noise sources to intentionally disturb and displace animals from renewable sites over the construction period. To date, no full and transparent consideration has been given to the long-term cost benefits of noise reduction compared with noise-inducing mitigation techniques. It has yet to be determined if the introduction of additional noise is consistent with the objectives of the EU Habitats Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  12. Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines operating in a streamwise tandem arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninati, M. L.; Markovic, U. V.; Krane, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory-scale study of the impact of separation distance on the performance of marine hydrokinetic turbines in a streamwise tandem arrangement is described. The study aims to give guidance concerning minimum, or optimal, turbine spacing in arrays. Testing was conducted in the hydraulic flume facility (9.8 m long, 1.2 m wide and 0.4 m deep) at Bucknell University. The devices were two-bladed model marine turbines with a rotor diameter of 0.1 m. For each separation distance, rotational speed of each device and velocity profiles of flow incident on the downstream turbine were measured. Results suggest limits for the minimum spacing between two turbines arranged in a tandem array.

  13. A Rebuttal to the 2010 Marine Corps Operating Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    149. 9 Lester D. Langley, The Banana Wars, United States Intervention in the Caribbean 1898-1934, ( Chicago : The Dorsey Press, 1983), 164...military pacification was 91 Neill Macaulay, The Sandino Affair ( Chicago : Duke University Press, 1985), 240. 22... Shepard described the nature of FMF units in his commandant’s annual report, the “Fleet Marine Forces are a flexible, mobile, integrated force of ground

  14. Shallow moving structures promote marine invader dominance.

    PubMed

    Dafforn, K A; Johnston, E L; Glasby, T M

    2009-01-01

    Global increases in urban development have resulted in severe habitat modification in many estuaries. Most are now dominated by artificial structures, which might have a myriad of effects on native species. The provision of extra hard substrata presents additional free space, and recent research suggests non-indigenous epifauna may be able to exploit these artificial structures (particularly pontoons) more effectively than native species. The early development of fouling assemblages was compared on settlement plates attached to fixed or moving experimental structures at depths of 0.5 m and 2 m. Invertebrate invaders as a group were disproportionately more numerous on shallow, moving plates (essentially floating surfaces) than on deeper plates, whereas native epifauna were less numerous than invaders in all treatments. Importantly, however, individual invasive species showed differing effects of movement and depth. Future management strategies should take into account the potential for shallow, moving structures to enhance invader dominance and strongly consider using fixed structures to reduce opportunities for invaders.

  15. 76 FR 34157 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... LNG LLC (Neptune), is issuing regulations pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) to... viewing at http://www.regulations.gov by entering the search words ``Neptune LNG.'' FOR FURTHER... the construction phase of the Neptune LNG Port Facility. In June 2008, NMFS issued a 1-year Incidental...

  16. Meroterpenes from Marine Invertebrates: Structures, Occurrence, and Ecological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Menna, Marialuisa; Imperatore, Concetta; D’Aniello, Filomena; Aiello, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Meroterpenes are widely distributed among marine organisms; they are particularly abundant within brown algae, but other important sources include microorganisms and invertebrates. In the present review the structures and bioactivities of meroterpenes from marine invertebrates, mainly sponges and tunicates, are summarized. More than 300 molecules, often complex and with unique skeletons originating from intra- and inter-molecular cyclizations, and/or rearrangements, are illustrated. The reported syntheses are mentioned. The issue of a potential microbial link to their biosynthesis is also shortly outlined. PMID:23685889

  17. The Marine Corps Operating Concept: How an Expeditionary Force Operates in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    develop, and field a future force for the 21st century. The success of this concept depends on our Marines and Sailors. Our people have always been...the Marine Corps center of gravity and the key to our success as warfighters. Their ability to think critically, innovate smartly, and adapt to... success . We need all Marines to read, discuss, and challenge the ideas in the MOC. As steel sharpens steel, your review and professional

  18. Marine Biotoxins: Laboratory Culture and Molecular Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-11

    refrigeration equipment in these rooms is operational, we cannot begin any extensive cultivation of G. toxicus as the heat produced by banks of fluorescent...experiments conducted to date have involved the isolation and culture of single dinoflagellc~tes collected ’orm the surface of benthic macroalgae . As...filtered (1.4 um) seawater was used in the preparation of all culture media. The methods used to isolate epiphytic dinoflagellates from macroalgae are

  19. The Impacts of Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief Operations on the Mental Health of Marines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    controlling for relevant demographic and service-specific variables. The four mental health illnesses examined are depression, post-traumatic stress...each of the four mental illnesses relative to those never deployed. In the years following participation in a HA/DR operation, Marines have...comparable risk of being diagnosed with each of the four mental health illnesses relative to those that were never deployed. In contrast, Marines who

  20. Marine Toxins Origin, Structure, and Molecular Pharmacology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    thin-layer chromatography (TLC) were instrumental in the initial isolation and purification processes. Mass spectrometry (MS), infrared spectroscopy ...Frederick, MD 21701-5011 Methods of detection, metabolism, and pathophysiology of the brevetoxins, PbTx-2 and PbTx-3, are summarized. Infrared spectros...1R), circular dichroism (CD), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and X-ray crystal- lography all played important roles in structure

  1. The Hierarchical Structure of Formal Operational Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, William M.; Mertens, Donna M.

    1979-01-01

    The hierarchical structure of the formal operational period of Piaget's theory of cognitive development was explored through the application of ordering theoretical methods to a set of data that systematically utilized the various formal operational schemes. Results suggested a common structure underlying task performance. (Author/BH)

  2. The Hierarchical Structure of Formal Operational Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, William M.; Mertens, Donna M.

    1979-01-01

    The hierarchical structure of the formal operational period of Piaget's theory of cognitive development was explored through the application of ordering theoretical methods to a set of data that systematically utilized the various formal operational schemes. Results suggested a common structure underlying task performance. (Author/BH)

  3. Predicting Significant Factors of Selective Marine Corps Reserve Marines’ Career Decisions in Response to the Force Structure Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    SIGNIFICANT FACTORS OF SELECTIVE MARINE CORPS RESERVE MARINES’ CAREER DECISIONS IN RESPONSE TO THE FORCE STRUCTURE REVIEW by Ryan F. Capdepon...PREDICTING SIGNIFICANT FACTORS OF SELECTIVE MARINE CORPS RESERVE MARINES’ CAREER DECISIONS IN RESPONSE TO THE FORCE STRUCTURE REVIEW 5. FUNDING...Corps Reserve Marine’s career decision when faced with changes initiated by the Force Structure Review Group (FSRG). This thesis identifies those

  4. Efficient tools for marine operational forecast and oil spill tracking.

    PubMed

    Marta-Almeida, Martinho; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; Pereira, Janini; Otero, Pablo; Cirano, Mauro; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Hetland, Robert D

    2013-06-15

    Ocean forecasting and oil spill modelling and tracking are complex activities requiring specialised institutions. In this work we present a lighter solution based on the Operational Ocean Forecast Python Engine (OOFε) and the oil spill model General NOAA Operational Modelling Environment (GNOME). These two are robust relocatable and simple to implement and maintain. Implementations of the operational engine in three different regions with distinct oceanic systems, using the ocean model Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), are described, namely the Galician region, the southeastern Brazilian waters and the Texas-Louisiana shelf. GNOME was able to simulate the fate of the Prestige oil spill (Galicia) and compared well with observations of the Krimsk accident (Texas). Scenarios of hypothetical spills in Campos Basin (Brazil) are illustrated, evidencing the sensitiveness to the dynamical system. OOFε and GNOME are proved to be valuable, efficient and low cost tools and can be seen as an intermediate stage towards more complex operational implementations of ocean forecasting and oil spill modelling strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Marine Fuel Cell Technology Verification Trainer Program: Operator Curriculum Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ofinito acn. including suggestetns Ior reductng the burden, to Departnment of Defne, t . Washingtn Headquara Services., Diremtorte for information...materials, reference FuelCell Energy (FCE, the manufacturer) documentation are subject to change as the Direct Fuel Cell ( DFC ) SSFC plant technology matures...introduction to the Direct Fuel Cell Ship Service Fuel Cell ( DFC SSFC) for future operators. These modules would fill a 2- to 4- day lecture and

  6. Ecosystem service provision: an operational way for marine biodiversity conservation and management.

    PubMed

    Cognetti, Giuseppe; Maltagliati, Ferruccio

    2010-11-01

    Since no extensive conceptual framework has been developed on the issues of ecosystem service (ES) and service provider (SP) in the marine environment, we have made an attempt to apply these to the conservation and management of marine biodiversity. Within this context, an accurate individuation of SPs, namely the biological component of a given ecosystem that supports human activities is fundamental. SPs are the agents responsible for making the ES-based approach operational. The application of these concepts to the marine environment should be based on an model different to the terrestrial one. In the latter, the basic model envisages a matrix of a human-altered landscape with fragments of original biodiversity; conversely, in the marine environment the model provides fragments where human activities are carried out and the matrix is represented by the original biodiversity. We have identified three main classes of ES provision: in natural, disturbed and human-controlled environments. Economic valuation of marine ESs is an essential condition for making conservation strategies financially sustainable, as it may stimulate the perceived need for investing in protection and exploitation of marine resources.

  7. 47 CFR 76.616 - Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... emergency radio frequencies. 76.616 Section 76.616 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.616 Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies. (a) The transmission...

  8. 47 CFR 76.616 - Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... emergency radio frequencies. 76.616 Section 76.616 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.616 Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies. (a) The transmission...

  9. 47 CFR 76.616 - Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... emergency radio frequencies. 76.616 Section 76.616 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.616 Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies. (a) The transmission...

  10. 47 CFR 76.616 - Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies. 76.616 Section 76.616 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76...

  11. 77 FR 45268 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan AGENCY: National Marine... Dolphin Take Reduction Plan (BDTRP) and its implementing regulations by permanently continuing nighttime... November 1 through April 30. Members of the Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Team (Team) recommended...

  12. The Marine Corps Role in Supporting Domestic Operations: The Case for Expanding Marine Corps Involvement Civil Support Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-22

    Rebellion of 1794 , the post Civil War reconstruction campaign between 1864-1877, and the expanded “War on Drugs” of the 1980’s and 90’s are high...Support: Federal forces have been used to support domestic operations and civil authorities throughout the history of the United States. The Whiskey

  13. 75 FR 80259 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... capacity will be around 500 million standard cubic feet per day (mmscfd) with an initial throughput of 400...-cm) gas transmission pipeline connecting the deepwater port to the existing 30-in (76.2-cm) Algonquin... designed for operation in harsh environments and can connect to the unloading buoy in up to 11.5 ft (3.5...

  14. Insights from the Sea: Structural Biology of Marine Polyketide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Akey, David L.; Gehret, Jennifer J.; Khare, Dheeraj; Smith, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a rich source of natural products with extremely interesting chemistry. Biosynthetic pathways have been worked out for a few, and the story is being enriched with crystal structures of interesting pathway enzymes. By far, the greatest number of structural insights from marine biosynthetic pathways has originated with studies of curacin A, a poster child for interesting marine chemistry with its cyclopropane and thiazoline rings, internal cis double bond, and terminal alkene. Using the curacin A pathway as a model, structural details are now available for a novel loading enzyme with remarkable dual decarboxylase and acetyltransferase activities, an Fe2+/α-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenase that dictates substrate binding order through conformational changes, a decarboxylase that establishes regiochemistry for cyclopropane formation, and a thioesterase with specificity for β-sulfated substrates that lead to terminal alkene offloading. The four curacin A pathway dehydratases reveal an intrinsic flexibility that may accommodate bulky or stiff polyketide intermediates. In the salinosporamide A pathway, active site volume determines the halide specificity of a halogenase that catalyzes for the synthesis of a halogenated building block. Structures of a number of putative polyketide cyclases may help in understanding reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities although their substrates are presently unknown. PMID:22498975

  15. Insights from the sea: structural biology of marine polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Akey, David L; Gehret, Jennifer J; Khare, Dheeraj; Smith, Janet L

    2012-10-01

    The world's oceans are a rich source of natural products with extremely interesting chemistry. Biosynthetic pathways have been worked out for a few, and the story is being enriched with crystal structures of interesting pathway enzymes. By far, the greatest number of structural insights from marine biosynthetic pathways has originated with studies of curacin A, a poster child for interesting marine chemistry with its cyclopropane and thiazoline rings, internal cis double bond, and terminal alkene. Using the curacin A pathway as a model, structural details are now available for a novel loading enzyme with remarkable dual decarboxylase and acetyltransferase activities, an Fe(2+)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenase that dictates substrate binding order through conformational changes, a decarboxylase that establishes regiochemistry for cyclopropane formation, and a thioesterase with specificity for β-sulfated substrates that lead to terminal alkene offloading. The four curacin A pathway dehydratases reveal an intrinsic flexibility that may accommodate bulky or stiff polyketide intermediates. In the salinosporamide A pathway, active site volume determines the halide specificity of a halogenase that catalyzes for the synthesis of a halogenated building block. Structures of a number of putative polyketide cyclases may help in understanding reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities although their substrates are presently unknown.

  16. Operation AL FAJR: A Study in Army and Marine Corps Joint Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    consisting of 12 Marine officers. O’Donnell, “The Struggle for Survival.” 7. O’Donnell, 8. 8. Ibid, quoted in Robert H. Ferrel , The Eisenhower...reached Jolan Park: . . . that was the fi rst time we actually dismounted, and that was to clear the market area. Now, attached to our platoon were...C la ss Jo hn U rr ita 65 came in handy as we got into the market . . . Once we got into this market , we started to blow holes through these

  17. Health monitoring of operational structures -- Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.; Mayes, R.; Carne, T.; Simmermacher, T.; Goodding, J.

    1995-03-01

    Two techniques for damage localization (Structural Translational and Rotational Error Checking -- STRECH and MAtriX COmpletioN -- MAXCON) are described and applied to operational structures. The structures include a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) blade undergoing a fatigue test and a highway bridge undergoing an induced damage test. STRECH is seen to provide a global damage indicator to assess the global damage state of a structure. STRECH is also seen to provide damage localization for static flexibility shapes or the first mode of simple structures. MAXCON is a robust damage localization tool using the higher order dynamics of a structure. Several options arc available to allow the procedure to be tailored to a variety of structures.

  18. A Survey of Low-Temperature Operational Boundaries of Navy and Marine Corps Lithium and Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-29

    U.S. Marine Corps have identified a strategic interest to operate lithium-ion batteries in cold climate regions as well as undersea and in high...The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps have identified a strategic interest to operate lithium-ion batteries in cold climate regions as well as undersea and...strategic interests in regions of cold climate , as covered by USNORTHCOM, USEUCOM, and USPACOM.1 The operation of Li-based batteries at low

  19. Leveraging to Win: The Marine Corps Confronts the Intelligence Challenges of Social Media Versus Operations Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Social media provides opportunities for training, recruiting and information sharing while at the same time heightening the risk of sensitive information release. This paper argues that in order for the Marine Corps to balance social media capabilities it must also limit the risk to operations security, and that to do so it must establish a training program using a developed tier system to assist in mitigating the risk while providing additional information resources to the end user.

  20. Investigation of the Hazards Posed by Chemical Vapors Released in Marine Operations - Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    at San Antonio, Texas . 307 U.S. COAST GUARDf SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS , USA UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, HOUSTON... TEXAS , USA SUBJECT CONSENT FOR PARTICIPATION IN AN INVESTIGATION OF "HAZARDS POSED BY CHEMICAL VAPORS RELEASED IN MARINE OPERATIONS: TASK V...write to the following persons: Dr. Stanley M. Pier Mr. William J. Astleford 5326 Dora Street Southwest Research Institute Houston, Texas , 77005, USA

  1. A Preliminary Search for Formal Operations Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimark, Edith D.

    In a test the presence or absence of a "structure" in the individual's cognitive processes of formal operations thinking, 61 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students were administered three tasks supposedly requiring such a method of thinking. The three tasks were (1) a problem solving task (PS), (2) a chemistry task requiring a certain combination…

  2. European Marine Observation and DataNetwork (EMODNET)- physical parameters: A support to marine science and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, Hans; Gies, Tobias; Giordano, Marco; Gorringe, Patrick; Manzella, Giuseppe; Maudire, Gilbert; Novellino, Antonio; Pagnani, Maureen; Petersson, Sian; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Schaap, Dick; Tijsse, Peter; van der Horste, Serge

    2013-04-01

    The overall objectives of EMODNET - physical parameters is to provide access to archived and real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. In particular it will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) and contribute to developing the definition of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) marine core service. Access to data and metadata will consider measurements from fixed stations that will cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. A first running prototype of the portal active from the end of 2011, the final release of the EMODnet PP is due by half June 2012. Then there are 6 months for testing and users' feedback acquisition and management. The project finishes 16th December 2013 after one year of maintenance. Compliance with INSPIRE framework and temporal and geographical data coverage are ensured under the requirements contained in the several Commission Regulations issued from 2008 until 2010. The metadata are based upon the ISO 19115 standard and are compliant with the INSPIRE directive and regulations. This assures also a minimum metadata content in both systems that will facilitate the setting up of a portal that can provide information on data and access to them, depending on the internal data policy of potential contributors. Data coverage: There are three pillars sustaining EMODnet PP: EuroGOOS ROOSs (the EuroGOOS regional Operational Systems), MyOcean and SeaDataNet. MyOcean and EuroGOOS have agreed in EuroGOOS general assemblies (2008-2009-2010) to share their efforts to set up a common infrastructure for real-time data integration for operational oceanography needs extending the global and regional portals set up

  3. Effectiveness of the Combat Operational Stress Control Training Program: Expectations of the U.S. Marine Corps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipko, Marek M.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the U.S. Marine Corps combat operational stress preventive training program to determine whether the program meets the training effectiveness criteria of the Marine Corps. This evaluation entailed both qualitative and quantitative inquiries to answer the subject matter research questions. The…

  4. Effectiveness of the Combat Operational Stress Control Training Program: Expectations of the U.S. Marine Corps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipko, Marek M.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the U.S. Marine Corps combat operational stress preventive training program to determine whether the program meets the training effectiveness criteria of the Marine Corps. This evaluation entailed both qualitative and quantitative inquiries to answer the subject matter research questions. The…

  5. Particle emissions from a marine engine: chemical composition and aromatic emission profiles under various operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Sippula, O; Stengel, B; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Rabe, R; Orasche, J; Lintelmann, J; Michalke, B; Abbaszade, G; Radischat, C; Gröger, T; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Harndorf, H; Zimmermann, R

    2014-10-07

    The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a medium-speed four-stroke marine engine, operated on both heavy fuel oil (HFO) and distillate fuel (DF), was studied under various operating conditions. PM emission factors for organic matter, elemental carbon (soot), inorganic species and a variety of organic compounds were determined. In addition, the molecular composition of aromatic organic matter was analyzed using a novel coupling of a thermal-optical carbon analyzer with a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) mass spectrometer. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly present in an alkylated form, and the composition of the aromatic organic matter in emissions clearly resembled that of fuel. The emissions of species known to be hazardous to health (PAH, Oxy-PAH, N-PAH, transition metals) were significantly higher from HFO than from DF operation, at all engine loads. In contrast, DF usage generated higher elemental carbon emissions than HFO at typical load points (50% and 75%) for marine operation. Thus, according to this study, the sulfur emission regulations that force the usage of low-sulfur distillate fuels will also substantially decrease the emissions of currently unregulated hazardous species. However, the emissions of soot may even increase if the fuel injection system is optimized for HFO operation.

  6. Differences in biomass structure between oligotrophic and eutrophic marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dortch, Quay; Packard, Theodore T.

    1989-02-01

    A normal trophic pyramid, with most living biomass comprised of plants, is widely assumed to represent marine ecosystems. Oligotrophic and eutrophic environments differ markedly in phytoplankton biomass, but, due to difficulties sampling and quantifying the small, non-plant organisms, it has been difficult to determine the relative plant and non-plant biomass. In eutrophic areas the chlorophyll α/protein ratio (Chl/Pr) of particulate matter, a relative index of phytoplankton to total biomass, approaches that of pure phytoplankton cultures, suggesting that plants constitute most of the biomass. In contrast, in oligotrophic areas the Chl/Pr ratio is low, indicating that most of the biomass consists of bacteria and zooplankton and that an inverted biomass pyramid better describes the system. Thus, ecosystem structure must be fundamentally different between eutrophic and oligotrophic areas.

  7. Structural characterization of siliceous spicules from marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Croce, Gianluca; Frache, Alberto; Milanesio, Marco; Marchese, Leonardo; Causà, Mauro; Viterbo, Davide; Barbaglia, Alessia; Bolis, Vera; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Cerrano, Carlo; Benatti, Umberto; Pozzolini, Marina; Giovine, Marco; Amenitsch, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Siliceous sponges, one of the few animal groups involved in a biosilicification process, deposit hydrated silica in discrete skeletal elements called spicules. A multidisciplinary analysis of the structural features of the protein axial filaments inside the spicules of a number of marine sponges, belonging to two different classes (Demospongiae and Hexactinellida), is presented, together with a preliminary analysis of the biosilicification process. The study was carried out by a unique combination of techniques: fiber diffraction using synchrotron radiation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and molecular modeling. From a phylogenetic point of view, the main result is the structural difference between the dimension and packing of the protein units in the spicule filaments of the Demospongiae and the Hexactinellida species. Models of the protein organization in the spicule axial filaments, consistent with the various experimental evidences, are given. The three different species of demosponges analyzed have similar general structural features, but they differ in the degree of order. The structural information on the spicule axial filaments can help shed some light on the still unknown molecular mechanisms controlling biosilicification.

  8. Latest Sea-Operations in the Macaronesian region with Unmanned Autonomous Marine Gliding Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, Carlos; Lorenzo, Alvaro; Viera, Josue; Morales, Tania; Vega, Daura; Rueda, Maria Jose; Llinas, Octavio

    2013-04-01

    Current advances on key marine technology fields provide nowadays a broad range of autonomous unmanned platforms addressed for an efficient and cost-effective ocean observation, with a suitable level of success in terms of endurance, reliability and useful gathered information. In this context, a multidisciplinary family of unmanned autonomous vehicles addressed to monitor both coastal and open-ocean areas plays a relevant role. During the last month, some of the newest unmanned gliding vehicle technologies have been tested within the context of the Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) in varied operational scenarios aiming different technical and scientific purposes, all of them joined in direct partnership with the company provider and other R&D institutions in some cases. Among others, representative examples in this way are the missions under the name Challenger One, Vulcano and SB02 through surface and underwater gliding vehicles, performed mostly in the surrounding subtropical waters of the ESTOC site observatory in the Canary Islands archipelago. The main gathered operational and scientific results from these missions are presented in this work as a sign of new ocean observing technologies within the framework of the Macaronesian Marine and Maritime Observation Strategy (R3M) and linked with the current European rules programs and projects in this field. Keywords: autonomous vehicle, gliders, R3M, ocean observatory, monitoring, marine robotics, ESTOC,

  9. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that habitat filtering is structuring marine bacterial communities across the globe.

    PubMed

    Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Tunlid, Anders; Lundberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    The phylogenetic structure and community composition were analysed in an existing data set of marine bacterioplankton communities to elucidate the evolutionary and ecological processes dictating the assembly. The communities were sampled from coastal waters at nine locations distributed worldwide and were examined through the use of comprehensive clone libraries of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The analyses show that the local communities are phylogenetically different from each other and that a majority of them are phylogenetically clustered, i.e. the species (operational taxonomic units) were more related to each other than expected by chance. Accordingly, the local communities were assembled non-randomly from the global pool of available bacterioplankton. Further, the phylogenetic structures of the communities were related to the water temperature at the locations. In agreement with similar studies, including both macroorganisms and bacteria, these results suggest that marine bacterial communities are structured by “habitat filtering”, i.e. through non-random colonization and invasion determined by environmental characteristics. Different bacterial types seem to have different ecological niches that dictate their survival in different habitats. Other eco-evolutionary processes that may contribute to the observed phylogenetic patterns are discussed. The results also imply a mapping between phenotype and phylogenetic relatedness which facilitates the use of community phylogenetic structure analysis to infer ecological and evolutionary assembly processes.

  10. Controls on Marine Boundary Layer Mesoscale Structure Observed During the MAGIC Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, M. P.; Ramos, A.; Lewis, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds play a significant role in the Earth's energy budget by reflecting a large portion of incoming solar radiation with little compensating effect on emitted terrestrial radiation. Despite this importance, large-scale models, used for climate projections, are not able to accurately represent MBL clouds and disagree on the magnitude of their feedback in a warming climate. Observations from the Marine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign were used to investigate the relationships between thermodynamic structure and MBL cloud properties. MAGIC was the first ship-based deployment of the Second ARM Mobile facility (AMF2), making measurements from the Horizon Lines Spirit cargo ship as it traveled from Los Angeles, CA to Honolulu, HI and back from October 2012 through September 2013. Our analysis concentrates on observations from regular radiosonde launches from AMF, vertically pointing Ka-band ARM cloud radar observations and coincident scenes from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). MBL cloud mesoscale structure is quantified from satellite observations via the effective cloud diameter for a GCM-sized grid-box centered on the Spirit and related to boundary layer thermodynamic structure and cloud boundary statistics. Preliminary results suggest a bimodal relationship between lower tropospheric stability and MBL cloud mesoscale structure.

  11. Genetic structuring across marine biogeographic boundaries in rocky shore invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Adriana; Costantini, Federica; Abbiati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Biogeography investigates spatial patterns of species distribution. Discontinuities in species distribution are identified as boundaries between biogeographic areas. Do these boundaries affect genetic connectivity? To address this question, a multifactorial hierarchical sampling design, across three of the major marine biogeographic boundaries in the central Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian-Tyrrhenian, Tyrrhenian-Ionian and Ionian-Adriatic) was carried out. Mitochondrial COI sequence polymorphism of seven species of Mediterranean benthic invertebrates was analysed. Two species showed significant genetic structure across the Tyrrhenian-Ionian boundary, as well as two other species across the Ionian Sea, a previously unknown phylogeographic barrier. The hypothesized barrier in the Ligurian-Tyrrhenian cannot be detected in the genetic structure of the investigated species. Connectivity patterns across species at distances up to 800 km apart confirmed that estimates of pelagic larval dispersal were poor predictors of the genetic structure. The detected genetic discontinuities seem more related to the effect of past historical events, though maintained by present day oceanographic processes. Multivariate statistical tools were used to test the consistency of the patterns across species, providing a conceptual framework for across-species barrier locations and strengths. Additional sequences retrieved from public databases supported our findings. Heterogeneity of phylogeographic patterns shown by the 7 investigated species is relevant to the understanding of the genetic diversity, and carry implications for conservation biology.

  12. Differential extinction and the contrasting structure of polar marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Krug, Andrew Z; Jablonski, David; Roy, Kaustuv; Beu, Alan G

    2010-12-22

    The low taxonomic diversity of polar marine faunas today reflects both the failure of clades to colonize or diversify in high latitudes and regional extinctions of once-present clades. However, simple models of polar evolution are made difficult by the strikingly different faunal compositions and community structures of the two poles. A comparison of early Cenozoic Arctic and Antarctic bivalve faunas with modern ones, within the framework of a molecular phylogeny, shows that while Arctic losses were randomly distributed across the tree, Antarctic losses were significantly concentrated in more derived families, resulting in communities dominated by basal lineages. Potential mechanisms for the phylogenetic structure to Antarctic extinctions include continental isolation, changes in primary productivity leading to turnover of both predators and prey, and the effect of glaciation on shelf habitats. These results show that phylogenetic consequences of past extinctions can vary substantially among regions and thus shape regional faunal structures, even when due to similar drivers, here global cooling, and provide the first phylogenetic support for the "retrograde" hypothesis of Antarctic faunal evolution.

  13. Differential Extinction and the Contrasting Structure of Polar Marine Faunas

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Andrew Z.; Jablonski, David; Roy, Kaustuv; Beu, Alan G.

    2010-01-01

    Background The low taxonomic diversity of polar marine faunas today reflects both the failure of clades to colonize or diversify in high latitudes and regional extinctions of once-present clades. However, simple models of polar evolution are made difficult by the strikingly different faunal compositions and community structures of the two poles. Methodology/Principal Findings A comparison of early Cenozoic Arctic and Antarctic bivalve faunas with modern ones, within the framework of a molecular phylogeny, shows that while Arctic losses were randomly distributed across the tree, Antarctic losses were significantly concentrated in more derived families, resulting in communities dominated by basal lineages. Potential mechanisms for the phylogenetic structure to Antarctic extinctions include continental isolation, changes in primary productivity leading to turnover of both predators and prey, and the effect of glaciation on shelf habitats. Conclusions/Significance These results show that phylogenetic consequences of past extinctions can vary substantially among regions and thus shape regional faunal structures, even when due to similar drivers, here global cooling, and provide the first phylogenetic support for the “retrograde” hypothesis of Antarctic faunal evolution. PMID:21203524

  14. Genetic Structuring across Marine Biogeographic Boundaries in Rocky Shore Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Villamor, Adriana; Costantini, Federica; Abbiati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Biogeography investigates spatial patterns of species distribution. Discontinuities in species distribution are identified as boundaries between biogeographic areas. Do these boundaries affect genetic connectivity? To address this question, a multifactorial hierarchical sampling design, across three of the major marine biogeographic boundaries in the central Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian-Tyrrhenian, Tyrrhenian-Ionian and Ionian-Adriatic) was carried out. Mitochondrial COI sequence polymorphism of seven species of Mediterranean benthic invertebrates was analysed. Two species showed significant genetic structure across the Tyrrhenian-Ionian boundary, as well as two other species across the Ionian Sea, a previously unknown phylogeographic barrier. The hypothesized barrier in the Ligurian-Tyrrhenian cannot be detected in the genetic structure of the investigated species. Connectivity patterns across species at distances up to 800 km apart confirmed that estimates of pelagic larval dispersal were poor predictors of the genetic structure. The detected genetic discontinuities seem more related to the effect of past historical events, though maintained by present day oceanographic processes. Multivariate statistical tools were used to test the consistency of the patterns across species, providing a conceptual framework for across-species barrier locations and strengths. Additional sequences retrieved from public databases supported our findings. Heterogeneity of phylogeographic patterns shown by the 7 investigated species is relevant to the understanding of the genetic diversity, and carry implications for conservation biology. PMID:24983738

  15. Impact of oceanic submesoscale coherent structures on marine top predators: new tools and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tew-Kai, E.; Sudre, J.; Gremillet, D.; Yahia, H.; Rossi, V.; Hernandez-Garcia, E.; López, C.; Marsac, F.; Weimerskirch, H.; Garçon, V.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years it appears that meso- and submesoscale features (fronts, eddies, filaments) in surface ocean flow have a crucial influence on marine ecosystems. Their dynamics partly control the foraging behaviour and the movements of marine top. One of the challenges in ecology is to define critical habitats and understand the rules of habitat selection. Recently new tools for detection of coherent structures at submesoscale open the way for new studies never investigated before in marine ecology. Through two examples we highlight novel research on the importance of submesoscale structures for the spatial distribution of marine top predators. We studied two seabird populations with contrasting characteristics: Frigatebirds in the Mozambique Channel, and Cape gannets in the Benguela upwelling off southern Africa. Frigatebirds are mainly offshore birds while Cape gannets do not venture beyond the continental shelf. For these two studies, we used products derived from remote sensing data, to describe submesoscale coherent structures (<10km). In the first example, using Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLE), we have identified Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) present in the surface flow of the Mozambique Channel resulting from an intense mesoscale activity. By comparing seabird satellite positions with LCSs locations, we demonstrate that frigatebirds track precisely these structures in the Mozambique Channel, providing the first evidence that a top predator is able to track these FSLE ridges to locate food patches. Although many questions remain unanswered, this work remains a pioneering on this topic. Despite the interest of FSLE, they are limited to offshore areas due to altimetry products limitation on continental shelves. However, many seabirds operate in coastal areas undergoing stronger anthropogenic pressures, such as Cape gannets off South Africa. The Benguela system is characterized by an upwelling inhabited by numerous fronts and filaments that very

  16. Real time observation system for monitoring environmental impact on marine ecosystems from oil drilling operations.

    PubMed

    Godø, Olav Rune; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Meier, Sonnich; Tenningen, Eirik; Purser, Autun; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2014-07-15

    Environmental awareness and technological advances has spurred development of new monitoring solutions for the petroleum industry. This paper presents experience from a monitoring program off Norway. To maintain operation within the limits of the government regulations Statoil tested a new monitoring concept. Multisensory data were cabled to surface buoys and transmitted to land via wireless communication. The system collected information about distribution of the drilling wastes and the welfare of the corals in relation to threshold values. The project experienced a series of failures, but the backup monitoring provided information to fulfil the requirements of the permit. The experience demonstrated the need for real time monitoring and how such systems enhance understanding of impacts on marine organisms. Also, drilling operations may improve by taking environmental information into account. The paper proposes to standardize and streamline monitoring protocols to maintain comparability during all phases of the operation and between drill sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Operational use of NOAA-AVHRR imagery in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roozekrans, Hans

    1994-12-01

    Since early 1990 KNMI has been running an operational system to produce and distribute image-products, based on in real time received and processed NOAA-AVHRR-data. Maps of sea surface temperature and total suspended matter concentrations of the North Sea and IJsselmeer are produced with a regular frequency (minimal once a week). If necessary daily maps are produced, indicating locations of blooms of Coccolithophore algae in the North Sea, of drifting layers of Blue Algae and/or ice-cover on the water-surface of the IJsselmeer. Digital image-files on floppy-disk and color-coded hardcopies of the maps are available for the user. During the last years KNMI, in co-operation with other institutes, has put a lot of effort into the stimulation of operational use of the NOAA image-products in the marine environment.

  18. Marine Corps Operational Medicine: An Analysis of Medical Supply Requirements for the Surgical Company Operating Room

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-18

    6515003669200 Forceps Bone Cutting Bethune 13.5" Lg Cupped Screw Lock Crs 1 EA 6515003333700 Forceps Dressing 10" Lg Straight & Serrated Rd Tip Heavy...34 Jaw 2 EA 6515003352900 Forceps Intestinal Babcock 7.75" O/A Lg Straight Box Lock Crs 4 EA 6515003355800 Forceps Kidney Pedicle Guyon-Pean...6515012045394 Resuscitator Hand Operated Ipp High O2 Small & Med Adult Face Masks W/Case 1 EA 6515012080576 Stimulator Nerve High/Low Output

  19. Scour around Support Structures of Scaled Model Marine Hydrokinetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, M. A.; Beninati, M. L.; Krane, M.; Fontaine, A.

    2013-12-01

    Experiments are presented to explore scour due to flows around support structures of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. Three related studies were performed to understand how submergence, scour condition, and the presence of an MHK device impact scour around the support structure (cylinder). The first study focuses on clear-water scour conditions for a cylinder of varying submergence: surface-piercing and fully submerged. The second study centers on three separate scour conditions (clear-water, transitional and live-bed) around the fully submerged cylinder. Lastly, the third study emphasizes the impact of an MHK turbine on scour around the support structure, in live-bed conditions. Small-scale laboratory testing of model devices can be used to help predict the behavior of MHK devices at full-scale. Extensive studies have been performed on single cylinders, modeling bridge piers, though few have focused on fully submerged structures. Many of the devices being used to harness marine hydrokinetic energy are fully submerged in the flow. Additionally, scour hole dimensions and scour rates have not been addressed. Thus, these three studies address the effect of structure blockage/drag, and the ambient scour conditions on scour around the support structure. The experiments were performed in the small-scale testing platform in the hydraulic flume facility (9.8 m long, 1.2 m wide and 0.4 m deep) at Bucknell University. The support structure diameter (D = 2.54 cm) was held constant for all tests. The submerged cylinder (l/D = 5) and sediment size (d50 = 790 microns) were held constant for all three studies. The MHK device (Dturbine = 10.2 cm) is a two-bladed horizontal axis turbine and the rotating shaft is friction-loaded using a metal brush motor. For each study, bed form topology was measured after a three-hour time interval using a traversing two-dimensional bed profiler. During the experiments, scour hole depth measurements at the front face of the support structure

  20. Coherent Structure Dynamics and Turbulent Effects of Horizontal Axis Marine Energy Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajardo, D. I.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Ingram, D.

    2016-12-01

    Harnessing the energy available in the oceans constitutes one of the most promising alternatives for generating clean electricity. There are vast amounts of energy present both in waves and tidal currents so it is anticipated that marine energy will have a major role in non-conventional renewable energy generation in the near to mid future. Nevertheless, before marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices can be installed in large numbers a better understanding of the physical, social and environmental implications of their operation is needed. This includes understanding the: hydrodynamic processes, interaction with bathymetry, and the local flow characteristics. This study is focused on the effects horizontal axis MHK devices have on flow turbulence and coherent structures. This is especially relevant considering that sites with favourable conditions for MHK devices are tidal channels where a delicate balance exists between the strong tidal currents and the ecosystems. Understanding how MHK devices influence flow conditions, turbulence and energy flux is essential for predicting and assessing the environmental implications of deploying MHK technologies. We couple a Blade Element Momentum Actuator Disk (BEM-AD) model to a Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) flow solver in order to study flow conditions for different configurations of horizontal axis MHK turbines. In this study, we contribute to the understanding of the hydrodynamic behaviour of MHK technologies, and give insights into the effects devices will have on their environment, with emphasis in ambient turbulence and flow characteristics, while keeping in mind that these effects can alter electricity quality and device performance. Work supported by CONICYT grant 80160084, Fondecyt grant 1130940, Chile's Marine Energy Research & Innovation Center (MERIC) CORFO project 14CEI2-28228, and the collaboration between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the University of Edinburgh, UK, partially supported by the RC

  1. Methodology for approximating material loss on structural plating subjected to dissimilar marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernsting, Robert A.

    Non destructive measurement technologies such ultrasonic pulse echo are typically employed to measure remaining shell plating thickness for determining remaining life on marine structures. However, the technology provides total material loss across the shell plate and cannot distinguish how much material loss occurs on each plate side. By understanding material loss contribution on each plate side, engineers and maintenance personnel can have a better understanding of the environments influencing material loss, optimally plan, and schedule maintenance activities. This need is evermore important today as the U.S. proceeds to address its aging infrastructure problems. This research defines and tests a new maintenance inspection methodology called relative material loss (RML) used for distinguishing the material loss contribution on each shell plate side separating dissimilar marine environments. The RML methodology leverages actual "at sea" environmental and operational conditions and the relationships between to solve for material loss contribution. In much the same fashion as a structural engineer isolate joints on a truss and solve free body diagram equations to determine member forces, relative loss equations are defined across various environmental boundaries (such as shell plating) and solved simultaneously to suggest solutions. To demonstrate and test the RML theory, a case study is presented using a sixty five year old "at-sea" structure; a dry dock caisson gate. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are used to valid the model. Shell plate material loss contribution profiles are defined using statistical and regression techniques and correlated to profiles of environmental factors known to influence marine corrosion. Spin off discoveries and recommendations for future research are included.

  2. Economic growth and marine biodiversity: influence of human social structure on decline of marine trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Rebecca; York, Richard

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the effects of economic growth, urbanization, and human population size on marine biodiversity. We used the mean trophic level (MTL) of marine catch as an indicator of marine biodiversity and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1960-2003) of 102 nations to investigate human social influences on fish catch and trends in MTL. We constructed path models to examine direct and indirect effects relating to marine catch and MTL. Nations' MTLs declined with increased economic growth, increased urbanization, and increased population size, in part because of associated increased catch. These findings contradict the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, which claims that economic modernization will reduce human impact on the environment. To make informed decisions on issues of marine resource management, policy makers, nonprofit entities, and professional societies must recognize the need to include social analyses in overall conservation-research strategies. The challenge is to utilize the socioeconomic and ecological research in the service of a comprehensive marine-conservation movement.

  3. Sound Database of Marine Animal Vocalizations Structure and Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    sperm whales , finbacks, bowheads, bottlenose dolphins, etc.). For example, our 1954-196.8 sperm whale recordings led to specific studies of their...activities, which in turn opened the way to work focused on coda signals produced by these whales , and then to analyses of distinctions between codas from...for particular research projects on animal sounds (dolphin mother-calf signature whistles, aeluga vocal behavior, sperm whale coda patterns, etc.). A

  4. Design, operations planning and experience from the marine operations for the Europipe jacket with bucket foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Rusaas, P.; Baerheim, M. [Statoil A Giske, S.R.; Barrett, G.; Christiansen, P.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Europipe 16/11-E riser platform was successfully installed in the Norwegian part of the North Sea last summer. Rather than having the traditional piled foundations, the platform has bucket foundations consisting of one inverted 12m diameter bucket in each of the four Jacket corners. After set down of the Jacket on the seabed and self weight penetration, the Jacket legs were waterfilled and the buckets thus gained further penetration. Finally suction within the buckets penetrated them to target penetration. This paper describes the preparatory work and the installation of the structure, discusses the main problem areas and experiences gained from the installation.

  5. Rescaling the trophic structure of marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Nigel E; Macneil, M Aaron; McMeans, Bailey C; Olin, Jill A; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Fennessy, Sean T; Fisk, Aaron T

    2014-02-01

    Measures of trophic position (TP) are critical for understanding food web interactions and human-mediated ecosystem disturbance. Nitrogen stable isotopes (δ(15) N) provide a powerful tool to estimate TP but are limited by a pragmatic assumption that isotope discrimination is constant (change in δ(15) N between predator and prey, Δ(15) N = 3.4‰), resulting in an additive framework that omits known Δ(15) N variation. Through meta-analysis, we determine narrowing discrimination from an empirical linear relationship between experimental Δ(15) N and δ(15) N values of prey consumed. The resulting scaled Δ(15) N framework estimated reliable TPs of zooplanktivores to tertiary piscivores congruent with known feeding relationships that radically alters the conventional structure of marine food webs. Apex predator TP estimates were markedly higher than currently assumed by whole-ecosystem models, indicating perceived food webs have been truncated and species-interactions over simplified. The scaled Δ(15) N framework will greatly improve the accuracy of trophic estimates widely used in ecosystem-based management. © 2013 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  6. Rescaling the trophic structure of marine food webs

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Nigel E; MacNeil, M Aaron; McMeans, Bailey C; Olin, Jill A; Dudley, Sheldon FJ; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Fennessy, Sean T; Fisk, Aaron T

    2014-01-01

    Measures of trophic position (TP) are critical for understanding food web interactions and human-mediated ecosystem disturbance. Nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N) provide a powerful tool to estimate TP but are limited by a pragmatic assumption that isotope discrimination is constant (change in δ15N between predator and prey, Δ15N = 3.4‰), resulting in an additive framework that omits known Δ15N variation. Through meta-analysis, we determine narrowing discrimination from an empirical linear relationship between experimental Δ15N and δ15N values of prey consumed. The resulting scaled Δ15N framework estimated reliable TPs of zooplanktivores to tertiary piscivores congruent with known feeding relationships that radically alters the conventional structure of marine food webs. Apex predator TP estimates were markedly higher than currently assumed by whole-ecosystem models, indicating perceived food webs have been truncated and species-interactions over simplified. The scaled Δ15N framework will greatly improve the accuracy of trophic estimates widely used in ecosystem-based management. PMID:24308860

  7. Structured alarm systems for the operating room.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, P J; Schreiber, J

    1989-07-01

    The administration of anesthesia may be viewed as a closed-loop control system consisting of three major components: the anesthesia system, the patient, and the system operator. A monitoring and alarm system during anesthesia should not be limited to only one of the three major components but must include monitoring of the patient, the performance of the anesthesia system, and the action of the system operator. For an alarm system to be successful when an adverse condition occurs, an alarm must be generated and identified, the problem identified and corrected, and the patient stabilized before injury results. The authors describe the characteristics of a structured alarm system that maximizes the time available to correct a potential problem before injury begins, that clearly identifies the cause of the problem, and that prioritizes alarms according to the urgency of the required response. Alarms should be easy to temporarily silence, have built-in alarm default settings to prevent the inadvertant use of settings meant for a previous patient, and have a graphic display that enables the operator to detect problems or trends before an alarm sounds.

  8. An operational structured decision making framework for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pressure to develop an operational framework for decision makers to employ the concepts of ecosystem goods and services for assessing changes to human well-being has been increasing since these concepts gained widespread notoriety after the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Report. Many conceptual frameworks have been proposed, but most do not propose methodologies and tools to make this approach to decision making implementable. Building on common components of existing conceptual frameworks for ecosystem services and human well-being assessment we apply a structured decision making approach to develop a standardized operational framework and suggest tools and methods for completing each step. The structured decision making approach consists of six steps: 1) Clarify the Decision Context 2) Define Objectives and Evaluation Criteria 3) Develop Alternatives 4) Estimate Consequences 5) Evaluate Trade-Offs and Select and 6) Implement and Monitor. These six steps include the following activities, and suggested tools, when applied to ecosystem goods and services and human well-being conceptual frameworks: 1) Characterization of decision specific human beneficiaries using the Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS) approach and Classification System (FEGS-CS) 2) Determine beneficiaries’ relative priorities for human well-being domains in the Human Well-Being Index (HWBI) through stakeholder engagement and identify beneficiary-relevant metrics of FEGS using the Nat

  9. Enabling Enhanced Company Operations (ECO): An Analysis of Tactical Communication Requirements and Solutions for a Marine Corps Company and Below

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    OPTIMAL COMMUNICATION SOLUTION The optimal communication solution for enabling ECO is one that is designed to ensure interoperability. Current and...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS ENABLING ENHANCED COMPANY OPERATIONS ( ECO ): AN ANALYSIS OF TACTICAL...AND SUBTITLE: Enabling Enhanced Company Operations ( ECO ): An Analysis of Tactical Communication Requirements and Solutions for a Marine Corps Company

  10. Characterization of particles from a marine engine operating at low loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Maria; Salo, Kent; Hallquist, Åsa M.; Fridell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Particle emissions from a marine diesel engine operating at low loads with four different fuels were characterized with respect to particle number (PN) and particle mass (PM), size distribution, volatility and chemical composition. The four different fuels used were Swedish Environmental class 1 (MK1) and class 3 diesel (MK3), heavy fuel oil (HFO, 0.12 wt% S) and marine diesel oil (MDO, 0.52 wt% S). The measurements were performed for a marine diesel engine in a test-bed engine lab and the particle emissions were measured with an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer and a Dust Monitor, giving the number concentrations in the size range of 5.6-560 nm and 300 nm to 20 μm, respectively. To quantify the amount of solid particles a thermodenuder was used. Additionally, filter samples were taken for gravimetric, black carbon (BC) and elemental analysis. The particle emissions showed a bimodal size distribution by number and the number concentrations were dominated by nanoparticles (diameter (Dp) < 50 nm). The nanoparticles measured were both primary and secondary particles, depending on fuel and engine load, while the particles with Dp > 50 nm generally were solid primary particles. Combustion of HFO resulted in the highest PN and PM concentrations. Emission factors (EFs) for PM and PN for both the total particle emissions and the fraction of primary, solid particles are presented for different fuels and loads. EFs for nitrogen oxides (NOx), BC and some elements (Ca, Fe, V, Ni, Zn) are presented as well. This study contributes to understanding particle emissions from potential future fuels as well as emissions in ports and coastal areas where lower engine loads are common.

  11. Invasion vs insurgency: US Navy/Marine Corps forward surgical care during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Brethauer, Stacy A; Chao, Alex; Chambers, Lowell W; Green, Donald J; Brown, Carlos; Rhee, Peter; Bohman, Harold R

    2008-06-01

    The transition from maneuver warfare to insurgency warfare has changed the mechanism and severity of combat wounds treated by US Marine Corps forward surgical units in Iraq. Case series comparison. Forward Resuscitative Surgical System units in Iraq. Three hundred thirty-eight casualties treated during the invasion of Iraq in 2003 (Operation Iraqi Freedom I [OIF I]) and 895 casualties treated between March 2004 and February 2005 (OIF II). Definitive and damage control procedures for acute combat casualties. Mechanism of injury, procedures performed, time to presentation, and killed in action (KIA) and died of wounds (DOW) rates. More major injuries occurred per patient (2.4 vs 1.6) during OIF II. There were more casualties with fragment wounds (61% vs 48%; P = .03) and a trend toward fewer gunshot wounds (33% vs 43%; P = .15) during OIF II. More damage control laparotomies (P = .04) and more soft tissue debridements (P < .001) were performed during OIF II. The median time to presentation for critically injured US casualties during OIF I and OIF II were 30 and 59 minutes, respectively. The KIA rate increased from 13.5% to 20.2% and the DOW rate increased from 0.88% to 5.5% for US personnel in the First Marine Expeditionary Force area of responsibility. The transition from maneuver to insurgency warfare has changed the type and severity of casualties treated by US Marine Corps forward surgical units in Iraq. Improvised explosive devices, severity and number of injuries per casualty, longer transport times, and higher KIA and DOW rates represent major differences between periods. Further data collection is necessary to determine the association between transport times and mortality rates.

  12. Structure and operation of bacterial tripartite pumps.

    PubMed

    Hinchliffe, Philip; Symmons, Martyn F; Hughes, Colin; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2013-01-01

    In bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, tripartite membrane machineries, or pumps, determine the efflux of small noxious molecules, such as detergents, heavy metals, and antibiotics, and the export of large proteins including toxins. They are therefore influential in bacterial survival, particularly during infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. In these tripartite pumps an inner membrane transporter, typically an ATPase or proton antiporter, binds and translocates export or efflux substrates. In cooperation with a periplasmic adaptor protein it recruits and opens a TolC family cell exit duct, which is anchored in the outer membrane and projects across the periplasmic space between inner and outer membranes. Assembled tripartite pumps thus span the entire bacterial cell envelope. We review the atomic structures of each of the three pump components and discuss how these have allowed high-resolution views of tripartite pump assembly, operation, and possible inhibition.

  13. An Operational Forecast Perspective on Marine Low Cloudiness and Fog along the Central Coast of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blier, W.

    2016-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), a component of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. Department of Commerce, has been providing the nation with timely and reliable weather and climate information for more than 140 years. For the San Francisco Bay Area/Monterey NWS Weather Forecast Office (WFO), marine low cloudiness and fog are of critical importance. Impacts range from low-ceiling restrictions on take-offs and landings at the San Francisco International Airport (and consequent adverse effects on the national aviation airspace), to reductions in visibility on traffic flow and small-scale variations in boundary layer properties on wildfire risk and spread. Marine stratus, and associated drizzle and fog-drip, are also of critical importance to the ecology of the coastal environment, and in particular the hydration of the redwood forests. This presentation will provide an overview of related operational weather forecast activities and products, along with information on their real-time access. Particular high-impact scenarios will be considered, along with discussion of key current challenges and the continuing integration of technological and scientific advances to improve forecasts.

  14. The influence of structural components of alkyl esters on their anaerobic biodegradation in marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Herman, David; Roberts, Deborah

    2006-10-01

    Ester-based organic compounds are one type of synthetic base fluid added to drilling mud used during off-shore oil-drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Concern over the environmental impact of synthetic base fluid (SBF) contaminated rock cuttings discharged into the Gulf of Mexico has prompted the promulgation of EPA regulations requiring that all SBF be tested for biodegradability in marine sediment prior to their use in the Gulf. In order to allow the design or selection of suitably biodegradable esters, the anaerobic biodegradability of a variety of ester compounds was tested using a marine sediment inoculum to reveal the effect of: (a) increasing the chain length of the acid moiety, (b) increasing the chain length of the alcohol moiety; (c) alternating the relative size of the alcohol and acid moieties, (d) branching in the alcohol moiety, and (e) the presence of an unsaturated bond in the acidic moiety. The chemical structure of esters was found to affect the completeness and rate of anaerobic biodegradation, and would affect their ability to be certified for use as an SBF in the Gulf of Mexico. Recommendations for ester usage include using esters that have a total carbon number of between 12 and 18 and avoiding the use of branched alcohols (or acids by inference). The presence of an unsaturated bond in the acid (or alcohol by inference) increased biodegradability of the ester.

  15. Aircraft measurements of the mean and turbulent structure of marine stratocumulus clouds during FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Bruce A.; Kloesel, Kevin A.; Moyer, Kerry A.; Nucciarone, Jefferey J.; Young, George

    1990-01-01

    The mean and turbulent structure of marine stratocumulus clouds is defined from data that were collected from 10 flights made with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Electra during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE). The number of cases sampled is sufficiently large that researchers can compare the boundary layer structure obtained (1) for solid and broken cloud conditions, (2) for light and strong surface wind conditions, (3) for different sea-surface temperatures, and (4) on day and night flights. Researchers will describe the cloud and synoptic conditions present at the time of the Electra flights and show how those flights were coordinated with the operations of other aircraft and with satellite overpasses. Mean thermodynamic and wind profiles and the heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes obtained from data collected during these flights will be compared. Variations in the cloud-top structure will be quantified using LIDAR data collected during several of the Electra flights. The spatial structure of cloud-top height and the cloud-base height will be compared with the turbulent structure in the boundary layer as defined by spectra and cospectra of the wind, temperature, and moisture.

  16. Aircraft measurements of the mean and turbulent structure of marine stratocumulus clouds during FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Bruce A.; Kloesel, Kevin A.; Moyer, Kerry A.; Nucciarone, Jefferey J.; Young, George

    1990-01-01

    The mean and turbulent structure of marine stratocumulus clouds is defined from data that were collected from 10 flights made with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Electra during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE). The number of cases sampled is sufficiently large that researchers can compare the boundary layer structure obtained (1) for solid and broken cloud conditions, (2) for light and strong surface wind conditions, (3) for different sea-surface temperatures, and (4) on day and night flights. Researchers will describe the cloud and synoptic conditions present at the time of the Electra flights and show how those flights were coordinated with the operations of other aircraft and with satellite overpasses. Mean thermodynamic and wind profiles and the heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes obtained from data collected during these flights will be compared. Variations in the cloud-top structure will be quantified using LIDAR data collected during several of the Electra flights. The spatial structure of cloud-top height and the cloud-base height will be compared with the turbulent structure in the boundary layer as defined by spectra and cospectra of the wind, temperature, and moisture.

  17. Applications of satellite and marine geodesy to operations in the ocean environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fubara, D. M.; Mourad, A. G.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements for marine and satellite geodesy technology are assessed with emphasis on the development of marine geodesy. Various programs and missions for identification of the satellite geodesy technology applicable to marine geodesy are analyzed along with national and international marine programs to identify the roles of satellite/marine geodesy techniques for meeting the objectives of the programs and other objectives of national interest effectively. The case for marine geodesy is developed based on the extraction of requirements documented by authoritative technical industrial people, professional geodesists, government agency personnel, and applicable technology reports.

  18. Mindset, Structure, Skills: Enhanced Company Operations (ECO) and Hybrid War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    Mindset, Structure, Skills: Enhanced Company Operations ( ECO ) and Hybrid War Capt Joshua E. Cavan CG-11...AND SUBTITLE Mindset, Structure, Skills: Enhanced Company Operations ( ECO ) and Hybrid War 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  19. Marine biofilms on artificial surfaces: structure and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Salta, Maria; Wharton, Julian A; Blache, Yves; Stokes, Keith R; Briand, Jean-Francois

    2013-11-01

    The search for new antifouling (AF) coatings that are environmentally benign has led to renewed interest in the ways that micro-organisms colonize substrates in the marine environment. This review covers recently published research on the global species composition and dynamics of marine biofilms, consisting mainly of bacteria and diatoms found on man-made surfaces including AF coatings. Marine biofilms directly interact with larger organisms (macrofoulers) during colonization processes; hence, recent literature on understanding the basis of the biofilm/macrofouling interactions is essential and will also be reviewed here. Overall, differences have been identified in species composition between biofilm and planktonic forms for both diatoms and bacteria at various exposure sites. In most studies, the underlying biofilm was found to induce larval and spore settlement of macrofoulers; however, issues such as reproducibility, differences in exposure sites and biofilm composition (natural multispecies vs. monospecific species) may influence the outcomes.

  20. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1985 Budget Estimates. Submitted to Congress February 1984. Operating Appropriations, Navy and Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    the replacement of telecommunications cable at Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejuene , North Carolina. +680 Increase for cable plant upgrade required to...Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Increase will permit compliance with Naval Telecommunications Procedures (NTP-8). +249 Provides for...utilizing existing telecommunication lines. +80 Increase is required to install and operate two Moving Target Simulators at Marine Corps Base, Camp

  1. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Kwang-Jun; Park, Hyung-Gil; Seo, Jongsoo

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT). The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  2. Survey of marine natural product structure revisions: a synergy of spectroscopy and chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Takashi L; Gerwick, William H; McPhail, Kerry L

    2011-11-15

    The structural assignment of new natural product molecules supports research in a multitude of disciplines that may lead to new therapeutic agents and or new understanding of disease biology. However, reports of numerous structural revisions, even of recently elucidated natural products, inspired the present survey of techniques used in structural misassignments and subsequent revisions in the context of constitutional or configurational errors. Given the comparatively recent development of marine natural products chemistry, coincident with modern spectroscopy, it is of interest to consider the relative roles of spectroscopy and chemical synthesis in the structure elucidation and revision of those marine natural products that were initially misassigned. Thus, a tabulated review of all marine natural product structural revisions from 2005 to 2010 is organized according to structural motif revised. Misassignments of constitution are more frequent than perhaps anticipated by reliance on HMBC and other advanced NMR experiments, especially when considering the full complement of all natural products. However, these techniques also feature prominently in structural revisions, specifically of marine natural products. Nevertheless, as is the case for revision of relative and absolute configuration, total synthesis is a proven partner for marine, as well as terrestrial, natural products structure elucidation. It also becomes apparent that considerable 'detective work' remains in structure elucidation, in spite of the spectacular advances in spectroscopic techniques. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biosecurity risks associated with in-water and shore-based marine vessel hull cleaning operations.

    PubMed

    Woods, Chris M C; Floerl, Oliver; Jones, Liz

    2012-07-01

    The removal of biofouling from vessels during hull cleaning can pose a biosecurity threat if viable, non-indigenous organisms are released into the aquatic environment. However, the effect of cleaning on biofouling organism viability in different types of cleaning operations has been poorly studied. We compared the effects of hull cleaning on biofouling organisms removed from 36 marine vessels during in-water (without capture of cleaning waste) and shore-based (with capture, and treatment of cleaning waste) cleaning. In-water cleaning resulted in higher proportions of viable biofouling organisms surviving cleaning (62.3 ± 7.1% of all organisms examined) compared to dry dock (37.8 ± 8.6%) and haul-out (20.1 ± 5.3%) operations. For shore-based facilities with effluent treatment systems, concentrations of organisms and/or their propagules in cleaning effluent was reduced by ≥ 98.5% compared to initial hydro-blast effluent concentrations. These results can be used in guidance for hull cleaning operations to minimize associated biosecurity risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sediment Contaminants and Infauna Associated with Recreational Boating Structures in a Multi-Use Marine Park

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Vivian X. Y.; Dafforn, Katherine A.; Simpson, Stuart L.; Kelaher, Brendan P.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-use marine parks achieve conservation through spatial management of activities. Zoning of marine parks in New South Wales, Australia, includes high conservation areas and special purpose zones (SPZ) where maritime activities are concentrated. Although such measures geographically constrain anthropogenic impacts, we have limited understanding of potential ecological effects. We assessed sediment communities and contaminants adjacent to boating infrastructure (boat ramps, jetties and a marina) in a SPZ from the Clyde Estuary in Batemans Marine Park. Metal concentrations and fines content were elevated at boating structures compared to reference sites. Species richness was higher at sites with boating structures, where capitellid polychaetes and nematodes dominated the communities. Changes associated with boating structures were localised and did not extend beyond breakwalls or to reference sites outside the SPZ. The study highlights the benefits of appropriate zoning in a multi-use marine park and the potential to minimise stress on pristine areas through the application of spatial management. PMID:26086427

  5. Sediment Contaminants and Infauna Associated with Recreational Boating Structures in a Multi-Use Marine Park.

    PubMed

    Sim, Vivian X Y; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Kelaher, Brendan P; Johnston, Emma L

    2015-01-01

    Multi-use marine parks achieve conservation through spatial management of activities. Zoning of marine parks in New South Wales, Australia, includes high conservation areas and special purpose zones (SPZ) where maritime activities are concentrated. Although such measures geographically constrain anthropogenic impacts, we have limited understanding of potential ecological effects. We assessed sediment communities and contaminants adjacent to boating infrastructure (boat ramps, jetties and a marina) in a SPZ from the Clyde Estuary in Batemans Marine Park. Metal concentrations and fines content were elevated at boating structures compared to reference sites. Species richness was higher at sites with boating structures, where capitellid polychaetes and nematodes dominated the communities. Changes associated with boating structures were localised and did not extend beyond breakwalls or to reference sites outside the SPZ. The study highlights the benefits of appropriate zoning in a multi-use marine park and the potential to minimise stress on pristine areas through the application of spatial management.

  6. Impacts of marine renewable energy scheme operation on the eutrophication potential of the Severn Estuary, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadiri, Margaret; Kay, David; Ahmadian, Reza; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Falconer, Roger; Bray, Michaela

    2013-04-01

    In recent years there has being growing global interest in the generation of electricity from renewable resources. Amongst these, marine energy resource is now being considered to form a significant part of the energy mix, with plans for the implementation of several marine renewable energy schemes such as barrages and tidal stream turbines around the UK in the near future. Although marine energy presents a great potential for future electricity generation, there are major concerns over its potential impacts, particularly barrages, on the hydro-environment. Previous studies have shown that a barrage could significantly alter the hydrodynamic regime and tidal flow characteristics of an estuary, with changes to sediment transport (Kadiri et al., 2012). However, changes to nutrients have been overlooked to date. Hence, considerable uncertainty remains as to how a barrage would affect the trophic status of an estuary. This is particularly important because eutrophication can lead to algal toxin production and increased mortality of aquatic invertebrates and fish populations. Therefore, this study examines the impacts of the two different modes of operation of a barrage (i.e. ebb generation and flood-ebb generation) on the eutrophication potential of the Severn Estuary using a simplified model developed by the UK's Comprehensive Studies Task Team (CSTT). The model uses a set of equations and site-specific input data to predict equilibrium dissolved nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton biomass, light-controlled phytoplankton growth rate and primary production which are compared against CSTT set standards for assessing the eutrophic status of estuaries and coastal waters. The estuary volume and tidal flushing time under the two operating modes were estimated using a hydrodynamic model and field surveys were conducted to obtain dissolved nitrate and phosphate concentrations which served as input data. The predicted equilibrium dissolved nitrate and phosphate

  7. Marine Environmental Planning Guide for the Hampton Roads/Norfolk Operating Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-05-01

    139 f. Saprotrophs ............................................... 140 g. Detritus-feeders and demersal scavengers .................. 141...hazard if consumed by humans. f. Saprotrophs --The distribution, abundance, and activity of marine bacteria and their biodegradation role in the marine

  8. Thermal-Work Strain during Marine Rifle Squad Operations in Afghanistan (March 2010)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    confirmed that Marines experienced high levels of thermal-work strain even during low intensity missions. In 2009 the Marine Corps mission focus switched to...during this time period confirmed that Marines experienced high levels of thermal-work strain even during low intensity missions. In 2009 the Marine...physiological strain index (PSI) values were between 1.5 and 5.2 PSI units, indicating overall low thermal-work strain [10]. However, there were instances of

  9. 78 FR 52753 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 229 RIN 0648-BD43 Taking of Marine Mammals... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... 118(f) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) to reduce the level of serious injury and...

  10. 77 FR 16718 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 217 RIN 0648-AY64 Taking and Importing Marine... AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA.... Air Force activities are considered military readiness activities pursuant to the Marine...

  11. 75 FR 65278 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... its regulations to establish one new danger zone in Pamlico Sound near Marine Corps Air Station Cherry... scheduled live fire training, Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point has requested that the Corps establish... advance of the actual training start date. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point will have a call-in...

  12. The Surface of Venus is Saturated With Ancient Impact Structures, and its Plains are Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2009-05-01

    Conventional interpretations of Venus are forced to fit dubious pre-Magellan conjectures that the planet is as active internally as Earth and preserves no ancient surface features. Plate tectonics obviously does not operate, so it is commonly assumed that the surface must record other endogenic processes, mostly unique to Venus. Imaginative systems of hundreds of tiny to huge rising and sinking plumes and diapirs are invoked. That much of the surface in fact is saturated with overlapping large circular depressions with the morphology of impact structures is obscured by postulating plume origins for selected structures and disregarding the rest. Typical structures are rimmed circular depressions, often multiring, with lobate debris aprons; central peaks are common. Marine-sedimentation features are overlooked because dogma deems the plains to be basalt flows despite their lack of source volcanoes and fissures. The unearthly close correlation between geoid and topography at long to moderate wavelengths requires, in conventional terms, dynamic maintenance of topography by up and down plumes of long-sustained precise shapes and buoyancy. A venusian upper mantle much stronger than that of Earth, because it is cooler or poorer in volatiles, is not considered. (The unearthly large so-called volcanoes and tessera plateaus often are related to rimmed circular depressions and likely are products of impact fluidization and melting.) Plains-saturating impact structures (mostly more obvious in altimetry than backscatter) with diameters of hundreds of km are superimposed as cookie-cutter bites, are variably smoothed and smeared by apparent submarine impact and erosion, and are differentially buried by sediments compacted into them. Marine- sedimentation evidence includes this compaction; long sinuous channels and distributaries with turbidite- channel characteristics and turbidite-like lobate flows (Jones and Pickering, JGSL 2003); radar-smooth surfaces and laminated aspect in

  13. The influence of the types of marine fuel over the Energy Efficiency Operational Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2014-05-01

    One of the main concerns of our society is certainly the environment protection. The international efforts for maintaining the environment clean are various and this paper refers to the efforts in the maritime transport field. Marine pollution consists of the water pollution and also the air pollution. Regardless of the delay in recognizing the later type of pollution, it rapidly gains many organizations to argue on it. The first step was including a dedicated annex (Annex VI) in the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, in 1997, which seeks to minimize the airborne emissions from ships. In order to control and minimize the air pollution, the International Maritime Organization has also developed a series of measures for monitoring the emissions. These measures are grouped in three main directions: technical, operational and management related. The subject of our study is the concept of Energy Efficiency Operational Index (EEOI), developed to provide ship-owners with assistance in the process of establishing the emissions from ships in operation, and to suggest the methods for achieving their reduction. As a monitoring tool, EEOI represents the mass of CO2 emitted per unit of transport work. The actual CO2 emission from combustion of fuel on board a ship during each voyage is calculated by multiplying total fuel consumption for each type of fuel (e.g. diesel oil, gas oil, light fuel oil, heavy fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas) with the carbon to CO2 conversion factor for the fuel in question. The performed transport work is calculated by multiplying mass of cargo (tonnes, number of TEU/cars, or number of passengers) with the distance in nautical miles corresponding to the transport work done. Using the software developed by the author it will be emphasized the variation of the EEOI value for one vessel using different types of fuel for the voyage's legs (distance to discharge port, distance to loading port, the

  14. Operator structures and quantum one-way LOCC conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kribs, David W.; Mintah, Comfort; Nathanson, Michael; Pereira, Rajesh

    2017-09-01

    We conduct the first detailed analysis in quantum information of recently derived operator relations from the study of quantum one-way local operations and classical communications (LOCC). We show how operator structures such as operator systems, operator algebras, and Hilbert C*-modules naturally arise in this setting. We make use of these structures to derive new results and bounds in the study of one-way LOCC, and we use the approach to uncover new derivations of some previously established results.

  15. Operational Marine Data Acquisition and Delivery Powered by Web and Geospatial Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Buck, J. J. H.

    2015-12-01

    As novel sensor types and new platforms are deployed to monitor the global oceans, the volumes of scientific and environmental data collected in the marine context are rapidly growing. In order to use these data in both the traditional operational modes and in innovative "Big Data" applications the data must be readily understood by software agents. One approach to achieving this is the application of both World Wide Web and Open Geospatial Consortium standards: namely Linked Data1 and Sensor Web Enablement2 (SWE). The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) is adopting this strategy in a number of European Commission funded projects (NETMAR; SenseOCEAN; Ocean Data Interoperability Platform - ODIP; and AtlantOS) to combine its existing data archiving architecture with SWE components (such as Sensor Observation Services) and a Linked Data interface. These will evolve the data management and data transfer from a process that requires significant manual intervention to an automated operational process enabling the rapid, standards-based, ingestion and delivery of data. This poster will show the current capabilities of BODC and the status of on-going implementation of this strategy. References1. World Wide Web Consortium. (2013). Linked Data. Available:http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/data. Last accessed 7th April 20152. Open Geospatial Consortium. (2014). Sensor Web Enablement (SWE). Available:http://www.opengeospatial.org/ogc/markets-technologies/swe. Last accessed 8th October 2014

  16. Maintenance and operation of a small wind generator in the marine environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heerlein, W.

    1986-07-01

    This report discusses the maintenance and operation of a wind-turbine generator that has been undergoing tests as a source of energy for remote Coast Guard lighthouses. The report documents both the effects of operating the wind machine in the marine environment and the maintenance that it required. Design parameters and performance records of the generator are also evaluated. The HR2 is a horizontal-axis, upwind-oriented, three-bladed wind machine. It is equipped with a direct-drive system that allows the kinetic force captured by the propeller to be converted directly into rotational force driving the main shaft. The HR2 alternator and blade/hub system are allowed to tilt out of a near-vertical plane about a shaft and bearing mechanism. The VARCS is a torsion spring- and hinge-mechanism that acts against the lifting dynamics of the spinning blades. As high winds or gusts tilt the alternator about the hinge, the VARCS's spring opposes this force and regulates the blades angle of attack into the wind; the propeller's RPM drop when tilted because of the feathering action. If the wind subsides, the force of the VARCS spring drives the alternator assembly down and presents the blades back into the wind.

  17. Operational aspects of borehole deployment of a marine seismic system in deep water

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, G.N.; Wallerstedt, R.L.

    1984-05-01

    During a 1983 expedition sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, a coalition of institutions, agencies and private firms combined various facets of marine technology to place a large instrument package in a dedicated borehole in the South Pacific Ocean. The drillship GLOMAR CHALLENGER was used as the deployment vehicle to leave the instrumentation, equivalent to a seismological observatory, in 5620 m (18,439 ft) of water along with a companion ocean floor recording package for subsequent recovery. A history of development and events leading to this culmination is presented, along with a description of the vessel and equipment used in the deployment. Operational procedures, techniques, problems and successes are discussed. The technology now exists for the implantation of large instrumentation or other packages in new or pre-existing boreholes in virtually any water depth. All phases of the operation may be accomplished by a single dynamically-positioned floating drilling rig. Procedures and equipment described in this paper have potential applications in geophysical and geochemical exploration, geophysical and hydrogeologic research, national defense, waste disposal and many other fields.

  18. Marine Corps Operational Medicine: Determining Medical Supply Needs of the Forward Resuscitative Surgery System and the Shock Trauma Platoon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-17

    Research Center P.O. BOX 85122 San Diego, California 92186-5122 Marine Corps Operational Medicine: Determining Medical Supply Needs of the Forward...1SAIC 10260 Campus Point Drive San Diego, CA 92121 2Naval Health Research Center P.O. Box 85122

  19. Coastal and Marine Operators Group Receives Second-Place Gulf Guardian Award in Business and Industry Category

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (July 30, 2015) The Gulf of Mexico Program recently announced Coastal and Marine Operations (CAMO) Group will receive a Second Place 2015 Gulf Guardian Award in the Business and Industry Category. The awards ceremony will be held on July 30

  20. The structure of ferricytochrome c552 from the psychrophilic marine bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H

    PubMed Central

    Harvilla, Paul B.; Wolcott, Holly N.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 40% of all proteins are metalloproteins, and approximately 80% of Earth’s ecosystems are at temperatures ≤ 5 °C, including 90% of the global ocean. Thus, an essential aspect of marine metallobiochemistry is an understanding of the structure, dynamics, and mechanisms of cold adaptation of metalloproteins from marine microorganisms. Here, the molecular structure of the electron-transfer protein cytochrome c552 from the psychrophilic marine bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H has been determined by X-ray crystallography (PDB: 4O1W). The structure is highly superimposable with that of the homologous cytochrome from the mesophile Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Based on structural analysis and comparison of psychrophilic, psychrotolerant, and mesophilic sequences, a methionine-based ligand-substitution mechanism for psychrophilic protein stabilization is proposed. PMID:24727932

  1. Chemmotology: Effect of ultrasound on collodial structure of marine fuel oils

    SciTech Connect

    Dolomatov, M.Yu.; Gordeev, V.N.; Kavyev, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The high-viscosity fuel oils used by the river fleet are metastable, coarsely dispersed colloidal systems, and hence may lose their aggregative stability during storage, treatment, and use. This paper reports on the influence of ultrasonic exposure, temperature, and component composition of marine fuel oils on their colloidal structure, and on the kinetics of changes in colloidal structure.

  2. 30 CFR 780.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... structure was begun and completed; and (4) A showing, including relevant monitoring data or other evidence... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 780.12... PLAN § 780.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description of...

  3. 30 CFR 784.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... structure was begun and completed; and (4) A showing, including relevant monitoring data or other evidence... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 784.12... PLAN § 784.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description of...

  4. Trematode Himasthla elongata mariner element (Hemar): structure and applications.

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, Nick K; Solovyeva, Anna I; Fedorov, Anton V; Podgornaya, Olga I

    2014-05-01

    We cloned and analyzed Hemar1-the full-length mariner of Himasthla elongata. Hemar1 amount and distribution in the genome is typical for the transposable elements. Hemar1 closest relatives found in databases are the mariner-like element (MLE) of Girardia tigrina with 88% similarity in the most conserved transposase domain and Cemar1 of Caenorhabditis elegans with the most similar inverted terminal repeats. Hydra's (Cnidaria) MLE are the next in similarity to Hemar1. We checked whether sequences similar to Hemar1 exist in intermediate and definitive hosts of the parasitic trematode and did not find obvious similarity. This fact, together with the data of Hemar1 evolutionary position, argues against recent MLE-mediated horizontal transfer in this parasite-host model. Our results demonstrate that H. elongata generates genomic variability in asexual parthenogenetic generations within the snail. Transposon insertional display based on full-length sequence showed that Hemar1 could be located in the regions involved in generating clonal diversity in rediae and cercariae, that is, trematode parthenitae.

  5. Venus - Vertical structure of stratospheric hazes from Mariner 10 pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleary, B.

    1975-01-01

    An 'optical barometer' technique for determining the altitudes of haze in the stratosphere of Venus is presented wherein the Rayleigh-scattering component is derived by comparing orange and UV brightness profiles for nearby Mariner 10 television-picture pairs. The derived scale height for CO2 gas is 4.2 km, corresponding to a temperature of 200 K, in good agreement with radio occultation data. The optical barometer yields a pressure of 4 mb for the level at which the slant-path optical depth at the limb is unity. This level corresponds to a distance from the center of Venus equal to 6131 km, which is accurate to within 1 km provided that there is no appreciable contribution to the brightness by Rayleigh-scattering aerosols which mimic CO2 gas. It is possible that the limb haze layering observed between 6130 and 6140 km could be correlated with temperature inversions detected by the Mariner 5 radio-occultation experiment. A model is proposed wherein the concentration of particles increases rapidly with an effective scale height of about 2 km as one descends about 10 km from the limb haze to the main polarization cloud deck.

  6. Venus - Vertical structure of stratospheric hazes from Mariner 10 pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleary, B.

    1975-01-01

    An 'optical barometer' technique for determining the altitudes of haze in the stratosphere of Venus is presented wherein the Rayleigh-scattering component is derived by comparing orange and UV brightness profiles for nearby Mariner 10 television-picture pairs. The derived scale height for CO2 gas is 4.2 km, corresponding to a temperature of 200 K, in good agreement with radio occultation data. The optical barometer yields a pressure of 4 mb for the level at which the slant-path optical depth at the limb is unity. This level corresponds to a distance from the center of Venus equal to 6131 km, which is accurate to within 1 km provided that there is no appreciable contribution to the brightness by Rayleigh-scattering aerosols which mimic CO2 gas. It is possible that the limb haze layering observed between 6130 and 6140 km could be correlated with temperature inversions detected by the Mariner 5 radio-occultation experiment. A model is proposed wherein the concentration of particles increases rapidly with an effective scale height of about 2 km as one descends about 10 km from the limb haze to the main polarization cloud deck.

  7. Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Choi, Sangdun

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative marine bacteria can thrive in harsh oceanic conditions, partly because of the structural diversity of the cell wall and its components, particularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is composed of three main parts, an O-antigen, lipid A, and a core region, all of which display immense structural variations among different bacterial species. These components not only provide cell integrity but also elicit an immune response in the host, which ranges from other marine organisms to humans. Toll-like receptor 4 and its homologs are the dedicated receptors that detect LPS and trigger the immune system to respond, often causing a wide variety of inflammatory diseases and even death. This review describes the structural organization of selected LPSes and their association with economically important diseases in marine organisms. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of LPS as an immune adjuvant in different diseases is highlighted. PMID:24796306

  8. Gram-negative marine bacteria: structural features of lipopolysaccharides and their relevance for economically important diseases.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Choi, Sangdun

    2014-04-30

    Gram-negative marine bacteria can thrive in harsh oceanic conditions, partly because of the structural diversity of the cell wall and its components, particularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is composed of three main parts, an O-antigen, lipid A, and a core region, all of which display immense structural variations among different bacterial species. These components not only provide cell integrity but also elicit an immune response in the host, which ranges from other marine organisms to humans. Toll-like receptor 4 and its homologs are the dedicated receptors that detect LPS and trigger the immune system to respond, often causing a wide variety of inflammatory diseases and even death. This review describes the structural organization of selected LPSes and their association with economically important diseases in marine organisms. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of LPS as an immune adjuvant in different diseases is highlighted.

  9. Oxygen limitations on marine animal distributions and the collapse of epibenthic community structure during shoaling hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jackson W F; Tunnicliffe, Verena

    2015-08-01

    Deoxygenation in the global ocean is predicted to induce ecosystem-wide changes. Analysis of multidecadal oxygen time-series projects the northeast Pacific to be a current and future hot spot of oxygen loss. However, the response of marine communities to deoxygenation is unresolved due to the lack of applicable data on component species. We repeated the same benthic transect (n = 10, between 45 and 190 m depths) over 8 years in a seasonally hypoxic fjord using remotely operated vehicles equipped with oxygen sensors to establish the lower oxygen levels at which 26 common epibenthic species can occur in the wild. By timing our surveys to shoaling hypoxia events, we show that fish and crustacean populations persist even in severe hypoxia (<0.5 mL L(-1) ) with no mortality effects but that migration of mobile species occurs. Consequently, the immediate response to hypoxia expansion is the collapse of community structure; normally partitioned distributions of resident species coalesced and localized densities increased. After oxygen renewal and formation of steep oxygen gradients, former ranges re-established. High frequency data from the nearby VENUS subsea observatory show the average oxygen level at our site declined by ~0.05 mL L(-1) year(-1) over the period of our study. The increased annual duration of the hypoxic (<1.4 mL L(-1) ) and severely hypoxic periods appears to reflect the oxygen dynamics demonstrated in offshore source waters and the adjacent Strait of Georgia. Should the current trajectory of oxygen loss continue, community homogenization and reduced suitable habitat may become the dominant state of epibenthic systems in the northeast Pacific. In situ oxygen occurrences were not congruent with lethal and sublethal hypoxia thresholds calculated across the literature for major taxonomic groups indicating that research biases toward laboratory studies on Atlantic species are not globally applicable. Region-specific hypoxia thresholds are necessary to

  10. Marine Expeditionary Brigade: Centerpiece of the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    organizational change in the United States Marine Corps. The author provides a unique reorganization of the Marine Corps’ operating forces to enhance unit cohesion, combat efficiency, and overall Marine Corps/Joint Force capabilities. These improvements include a cost savings of 3,635 personnel structure spaces. The author directly supports the Marine Corps’ family of concepts and programs outlined in the "Marine Corps Concepts and Programs 2004." It provides a solution preparing the Marine Corps for the future. It will ensure that America’s premier

  11. Puget Sound Operational Forecast System - A Real-time Predictive Tool for Marine Resource Management and Emergency Responses

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Chase, Jared M.; Wang, Taiping

    2009-12-01

    To support marine ecological resource management and emergency response and to enhance scientific understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes in Puget Sound, a real-time Puget Sound Operational Forecast System (PS-OFS) was developed by the Coastal Ocean Dynamics & Ecosystem Modeling group (CODEM) of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PS-OFS employs the state-of-the-art three-dimensional coastal ocean model and closely follows the standards and procedures established by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS). PS-OFS consists of four key components supporting the Puget Sound Circulation and Transport Model (PS-CTM): data acquisition, model execution and product archive, model skill assessment, and model results dissemination. This paper provides an overview of PS-OFS and its ability to provide vital real-time oceanographic information to the Puget Sound community. PS-OFS supports pacific northwest region’s growing need for a predictive tool to assist water quality management, fish stock recovery efforts, maritime emergency response, nearshore land-use planning, and the challenge of climate change and sea level rise impacts. The structure of PS-OFS and examples of the system inputs and outputs, forecast results are presented in details.

  12. The gonadotrophic response of Royal Marines during an operational deployment in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Hill, N E; Woods, D R; Delves, S K; Murphy, K G; Davison, A S; Brett, S J; Quinton, R; Turner, S; Stacey, M; Allsopp, A J; Fallowfield, J L

    2015-03-01

    Military training has been associated with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis consistent with central hypogonadism. Often such changes have been associated with body mass loss, though sleep deprivation and other psychological stress may also contribute. The effects of deployment in a combat zone on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in military personnel are not known. The objective was to investigate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male military personnel deployed in Afghanistan. Eighty-nine Royal Marines were investigated pre-deployment, following 3 months in Afghanistan and following 2 weeks mid-tour leave. Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione (AD) and insulin were assayed and body mass recorded. The results showed that body mass (kg) dropped from 83.2 ± 9.2 to 79.2 ± 8.2 kg during the first 3 months of deployment (p < 0.001). Total testosterone did not change, but SHBG increased (30.7 ± 9.7 vs. 42.3 ± 14.1 nmol/L, p < 0.001), resulting in a significant (p < 0.001) fall in calculated free testosterone (435.2 ± 138 vs. 375.1 ± 98 pmol/L). Luteinising hormone and FSH increased by 14.3% (p < 0.001) and 4.9% (p = 0.003) respectively. Free testosterone, SHBG, LH and FSH returned to baseline following 2 weeks of mid-tour leave. Androstenedione (AD) decreased by 14.5% (p = 0.024), and insulin decreased by 26% (p = 0.039), over the course of deployment. In this study of lean Royal Marines, free testosterone decreased during operational deployment to Afghanistan. There was no evidence to suggest major stress-induced central hypogonadism. We postulate that reduced body mass, accompanied by a decrease in insulin and AD synthesis, may have contributed to an elevated SHBG, leading to a decrease in free testosterone.

  13. Crystal Structure of Allophycocyanin from Marine Cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. A09DM

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gagan Deep; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    Isolated phycobilisome (PBS) sub-assemblies have been widely subjected to X-ray crystallography analysis to obtain greater insights into the structure-function relationship of this light harvesting complex. Allophycocyanin (APC) is the phycobiliprotein always found in the PBS core complex. Phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophores, covalently bound to conserved Cys residues of α- and β- subunits of APC, are responsible for solar energy absorption from phycocyanin and for transfer to photosynthetic apparatus. In the known APC structures, heterodimers of α- and β- subunits (known as αβ monomers) assemble as trimer or hexamer. We here for the first time report the crystal structure of APC isolated from a marine cyanobacterium (Phormidium sp. A09DM). The crystal structure has been refined against all the observed data to the resolution of 2.51 Å to Rwork (Rfree) of 0.158 (0.229) with good stereochemistry of the atomic model. The Phormidium protein exists as a trimer of αβ monomers in solution and in crystal lattice. The overall tertiary structures of α- and β- subunits, and trimeric quaternary fold of the Phormidium protein resemble the other known APC structures. Also, configuration and conformation of the two covalently bound PCB chromophores in the marine APC are same as those observed in fresh water cyanobacteria and marine red algae. More hydrophobic residues, however, constitute the environment of the chromophore bound to α-subunit of the Phormidium protein, owing mainly to amino acid substitutions in the marine protein. PMID:25923120

  14. Probabilistic durability assessment of concrete structures in marine environments: Reliability and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bo; Ning, Chao-lie; Li, Bing

    2017-03-01

    A probabilistic framework for durability assessment of concrete structures in marine environments was proposed in terms of reliability and sensitivity analysis, which takes into account the uncertainties under the environmental, material, structural and executional conditions. A time-dependent probabilistic model of chloride ingress was established first to consider the variations in various governing parameters, such as the chloride concentration, chloride diffusion coefficient, and age factor. Then the Nataf transformation was adopted to transform the non-normal random variables from the original physical space into the independent standard Normal space. After that the durability limit state function and its gradient vector with respect to the original physical parameters were derived analytically, based on which the first-order reliability method was adopted to analyze the time-dependent reliability and parametric sensitivity of concrete structures in marine environments. The accuracy of the proposed method was verified by comparing with the second-order reliability method and the Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, the influences of environmental conditions, material properties, structural parameters and execution conditions on the time-dependent reliability of concrete structures in marine environments were also investigated. The proposed probabilistic framework can be implemented in the decision-making algorithm for the maintenance and repair of deteriorating concrete structures in marine environments.

  15. Venus - Atmospheric motion and structure from Mariner 10 pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B. C.; Belton, M. J. S.; Danielson, G. E.; Davies , M. E.; Gault, D.; Hapke, B.; O'Leary, B.; Strom, R. G.; Suomi , V.; Trask, N.

    1974-01-01

    The Mariner 10 television cameras imaged the planet Venus in the visible and near ultraviolet for a period of 8 days at resolutions ranging from 100 meters to 130 kilometers. The general pattern of the atmospheric circulation in the upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric region is displayed in the pictures. Atmospheric flow is symmetrical between north and south hemispheres. The equatorial motions are zonal (east-west) at approximately 100 meters per second, consistent with the previously inferred 4-day retrograde rotation. Angular velocity increases with latitude. The subsolar region, and the region downwind from it, show evidence of large-scale convection that persists in spite of the main zonal motion. Dynamical interaction between the zonal motion and the relatively stationary region of convection is evidenced by bowlike waves.

  16. Venus: Atmospheric motion and structure from Mariner 10 pictures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, B.C.; Belton, M.J.S.; Edward, Danielson G.; Davies, M.E.; Gault, D.; Hapke, B.; O'Leary, B.; Strom, R.G.; Suomi, V.; Trask, N.

    1974-01-01

    The Mariner 10 television cameras imaged the planet Venus in the visible and near ultraviolet for a period of 8 days at resolutions ranging from 100 meters to 130 kilometers. The general pattern of the atmospheric circulation in the upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric region is displayed in the pictures. Atmospheric flow is symmetrical between north and south hemispheres. The equatorial motions are zonal (east-west) at approximately 100 meters per second, consistent with the previously inferred 4-day retrograde rotation. Angular velocity increases with latitude. The subsolar region, and the region downwind from it, show evidence of large-scale convection that persists in spite of the main zonal motion. Dynamical interaction between the zonal motion and the relatively stationary region of convection is evidenced by bowlike waves.

  17. The Structure of Concrete Operational Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson-Keasey, C.: And Others

    1979-01-01

    In a four-year longitudinal study of the development of concrete operational thought, children were administered tests assessing seriation; numeration; class inclusion; hierarchical classification; and conservation of mass, weight, and volume. Levels of seriation and numeration skills in kindergarten were powerful predictors of the acquisition of…

  18. The Structure of Concrete Operational Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson-Keasey, C.: And Others

    1979-01-01

    In a four-year longitudinal study of the development of concrete operational thought, children were administered tests assessing seriation; numeration; class inclusion; hierarchical classification; and conservation of mass, weight, and volume. Levels of seriation and numeration skills in kindergarten were powerful predictors of the acquisition of…

  19. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  20. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2011-12-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  1. Discovery and structural characterization of a novel glycosidase family of marine origin.

    PubMed

    Rebuffet, Etienne; Groisillier, Agnès; Thompson, Andrew; Jeudy, Alexandra; Barbeyron, Tristan; Czjzek, Mirjam; Michel, Gurvan

    2011-05-01

    The genomic data on heterotrophic marine bacteria suggest the crucial role that microbes play in the global carbon cycle. However, the massive presence of hypothetical proteins hampers our understanding of the mechanisms by which this carbon cycle is carried out. Moreover, genomic data from marine microorganisms are essentially annotated in the light of the biochemical knowledge accumulated on bacteria and fungi which decompose terrestrial plants. However marine algal polysaccharides clearly differ from their terrestrial counterparts, and their associated enzymes usually constitute novel protein families. In this study, we have applied a combination of bioinformatics, targeted activity screening and structural biology to characterize a hypothetical protein from the marine bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans, which is distantly related to GH43 family. This protein is in fact a 1,3-α-3,6-anhydro-l-galactosidase (AhgA) which catalyses the last step in the degradation pathway of agars, a family of polysaccharides unique to red macroalgae. AhgA adopts a β-propeller fold and displays a zinc-dependent catalytic machinery. This enzyme is the first representative of a new family of glycoside hydrolases, especially abundant in coastal waters. Such genes of marine origin have been transferred to symbiotic microbes associated with marine fishes, but also with some specific human populations.

  2. Operational experience with VAWT blades. [structural performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, W. N.

    1979-01-01

    The structural performance of 17 meter diameter wind turbine rotors is discussed. Test results for typical steady and vibratory stress measurements are summarized along with predicted values of stress based on a quasi-static finite element model.

  3. Sedimentation: Potential Biological Effects of Dredging Operations in Estuarine and Marine Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    1999). “Impacts of sediment burial on mangroves.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 37, 420-426. Fonseca, M. S., Kenworthy, W. J., and Thayer, G W. (1998... Marine Pollution Bulletin 4, 166-169. Tomasko, D.A., Dawes, C. J., and Hall, M. O. (1996). “The effects of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment in...adjacent coral reefs,” Marine Pollution Bulletin 42, 864-872. Wilber, D. H., and Clarke, D. G. (2001). “Biological effects of suspended sediments: a

  4. CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service) In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre: A service for operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano Muñoz, Fernando; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Petit de la Villeon, Loic; Carval, Thierry; Loubrieu, Thomas; Wedhe, Henning; Sjur Ringheim, Lid; Hammarklint, Thomas; Tamm, Susanne; De Alfonso, Marta; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Chalkiopoulos, Antonis; Marinova, Veselka; Tintore, Joaquin; Troupin, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation and Monitoring. Copernicus aims to provide a sustainable service for Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting validated and commissioned by users. From May 2015, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) is working on an operational mode through a contract with services engagement (result is regular data provision). Within CMEMS, the In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (INSTAC) distributed service integrates in situ data from different sources for operational oceanography needs. CMEMS INSTAC is collecting and carrying out quality control in a homogeneous manner on data from providers outside Copernicus (national and international networks), to fit the needs of internal and external users. CMEMS INSTAC has been organized in 7 regional Dissemination Units (DUs) to rely on the EuroGOOS ROOSes. Each DU aggregates data and metadata provided by a series of Production Units (PUs) acting as an interface for providers. Homogeneity and standardization are key features to ensure coherent and efficient service. All DUs provide data in the OceanSITES NetCDF format 1.2 (based on NetCDF 3.6), which is CF compliant, relies on SeaDataNet vocabularies and is able to handle profile and time-series measurements. All the products, both near real-time (NRT) and multi-year (REP), are available online for every CMEMS registered user through an FTP service. On top of the FTP service, INSTAC products are available through Oceanotron, an open-source data server dedicated to marine observations dissemination. It provides services such as aggregation on spatio-temporal coordinates and observed parameters, and subsetting on observed parameters and metadata. The accuracy of the data is checked on various levels. Quality control procedures are applied for the validity of the data and correctness tests for the

  5. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Marine Corps Logistics Base, Operable Unit 5, Albany, GA, February 11, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) document presents the final response for Operable Unit (OU) 5 at the Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) in Albany, Georgia. This final response declares that a No Further Response Action Planned (NFRAP) decision be implemented at OU 5 for all soil, surface water, and sediment. Therefore, this response requires no further remedial treatment, containment, or land-use restrictions be implemented at PSCs 8 and 14.

  6. The Multipurpose Black Hawk Utility Helicopter: Rotary-wing Versatility Required for U.S. Marine Corps Enhanced Company Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    externally lifting an M-198 Howitzer and its ammunition, two dual- slung HMMWV’s, or water and other supplies, the CH-53E has entered near "national...ability to carry 24 combat loaded Marines, internally transport 20,000 pounds of cargo and vehicles, and externally lift 15,000 pounds of equipment... load lifted. For that reason, a majority of its extemallift operations are conducted strictly in helicopter mode, at conventional helicopter speeds

  7. A sweet new wave: structures and mechanisms of enzymes that digest polysaccharides from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Boraston, Alisdair B; Czjzek, Mirjam

    2014-10-01

    Marine algae contribute approximately half of the global primary production. The large amounts of polysaccharides synthesized by these algae are degraded and consumed by microbes that utilize carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), thus creating one of the largest and most dynamic components of the Earth's carbon cycle. Over the last decade, structural and functional characterizations of marine CAZymes have revealed a diverse set of scaffolds and mechanisms that are used to degrade agars, carrageenan, alginate and ulvan-polysaccharides from red, brown and green seaweeds, respectively. The analysis of these CAZymes is not only expanding our understanding of their functions but is enabling the enhanced annotation of (meta)-genomic data sets, thus promoting an improved understanding of microbes that drive this marine component of the carbon cycle. Furthermore, this information is setting a foundation that will enable marine algae to be harnessed as a novel resource for biorefineries. In this review, we cover the most recent structural and functional analyses of marine CAZymes that are specialized in the digestion of macro-algal polysaccharides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Geography program, design, structure and operational strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The geography program is designed to move systematically toward a capability to increase remote sensing data into operational systems for monitoring land use and related environmental change. The problems of environmental imbalance arising from rapid urbanization and other dramatic changes in land use are considered. These overall problems translate into working level problems of establishing the validity of various sensor-data combinations that will best obtain the regional land use and environmental information. The goal, to better understand, predict, and assist policy makers to regulate urban and regional land use changes resulting from population growth and technological advancement, is put forth.

  9. Geography program, design, structure and operational strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The geography program is designed to move systematically toward a capability to increase remote sensing data into operational systems for monitoring land use and related environmental change. The problems of environmental imbalance arising from rapid urbanization and other dramatic changes in land use are considered. These overall problems translate into working level problems of establishing the validity of various sensor-data combinations that will best obtain the regional land use and environmental information. The goal, to better understand, predict, and assist policy makers to regulate urban and regional land use changes resulting from population growth and technological advancement, is put forth.

  10. Impulse Response Operators for Structural Complexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-12

    systems of the complex. The statistical energy analysis (SEA) is one such a device [ 13, 14]. The rendering of SEA from equation (21) and/or (25) lies...Propagation.] 13. L. Cremer, M. Heckl, and E.E. Ungar 1973 Structure-Borne Sound (Springer Verlag). 14. R. H. Lyon 1975 Statistical Energy Analysis of

  11. The Marine Corps’ Warrior Ethos: Practicality for Today’s Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    EPME ). The common thread uniting all these activities is emphasis on encouraging integrity, courage, initiative, decisiveness, mental agility, and...reinforcement of the warrior ethos is in the Marine Corps Enlisted Professional Military Education ( EPME ) program. Professional Military Education is highly...valued for Marines of all ranks. EPME is an investment in human capital and provides an opportunity to develop leaders, sustain the warrior ethos, and

  12. Determination of Ice Characteristics for Marine Hydroengineering Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kantarzhi, I. G.; Maderich, V. S. Koshebutskii, V. I.

    2016-01-15

    Problems and potential approaches to determining ice characteristics for sea hydroengineering structures design are considered. A system for numerical modeling of ice dynamics is presented. The system may be used to define ice characteristics on approaches to structures with due regard for local hydrometeorological conditions and ice loads on structures. System application examples are presented for determining computational scenarios for ice loads at structures of the Pevek floating nuclear power plant (FNPP), as well as for the breakwater pier under reconstruction in Vanino. A scenario approach is used to determined ice loads.

  13. Effect on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Structural Steel Welded in Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, M.; Ruiz, J. J.; Macías, F.; Acevedo, J.

    Recently, oil deposits were found in ever deeper waters. In this context, it is important to study the water depth effect on parameters in repair and maintenance operations of pipelines for extraction and/or transportation of crude oil, of which there is limited information in literature. This paper shows a study of the effect of the water depth on the microstructure and mechanical properties in joining structural steel welded in a marine environment in steels with a maximum CE (carbon equivalent) of 0.37 %. Wet welding coupons of steel ASTM A36 were joined by the manual metal arc welding (MMAW) process at depths of 10, 20, 30, and 40 m, using AWS Broco SoftTouch as filler metal (3.17 mm diameter) inside a simulation hyperbaric chamber. Image analysis was applied to welded coupons, with the aim to obtain the phase quantification and porosity as well as mechanical properties. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between the increase in depth at which the welding is performed and the mechanical properties, while the filler metal properties were kept constant. Microstructural changes vary as a function of the depth at which repair-maintenance is performed, with an increase in growing phase shift which is highly undesirable because of their brittleness and hardness.

  14. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY TO VISUALIZE AND QUANTIFY BIOGENIC STRUCTURES IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used computer-aided tomography (CT) for 3D visualization and 2D analysis of

    marine sediment cores from 3 stations (at 10, 75 and 118 m depths) with different environmental

    impact. Biogenic structures such as tubes and burrows were quantified and compared among st...

  15. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY TO VISUALIZE AND QUANTIFY BIOGENIC STRUCTURES IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used computer-aided tomography (CT) for 3D visualization and 2D analysis of

    marine sediment cores from 3 stations (at 10, 75 and 118 m depths) with different environmental

    impact. Biogenic structures such as tubes and burrows were quantified and compared among st...

  16. Total Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Glycoglycerolipids from Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Chunxia; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi

    2014-01-01

    Glycoglycerolipids occur widely in natural products, especially in the marine species. Glycoglycerolipids have been shown to possess a variety of bioactivities. This paper will review the different methodologies and strategies for the synthesis of biological glycoglycerolipids and their analogs for bioactivity assay. In addition, the bioactivities and structure-activity relationship of the glycoglycerolipids are also briefly outlined. PMID:24945415

  17. Marine geophysics. New global marine gravity model from CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 reveals buried tectonic structure.

    PubMed

    Sandwell, David T; Müller, R Dietmar; Smith, Walter H F; Garcia, Emmanuel; Francis, Richard

    2014-10-03

    Gravity models are powerful tools for mapping tectonic structures, especially in the deep ocean basins where the topography remains unmapped by ships or is buried by thick sediment. We combined new radar altimeter measurements from satellites CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 with existing data to construct a global marine gravity model that is two times more accurate than previous models. We found an extinct spreading ridge in the Gulf of Mexico, a major propagating rift in the South Atlantic Ocean, abyssal hill fabric on slow-spreading ridges, and thousands of previously uncharted seamounts. These discoveries allow us to understand regional tectonic processes and highlight the importance of satellite-derived gravity models as one of the primary tools for the investigation of remote ocean basins. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. The Structural Diversity of Carbohydrate Antigens of Selected Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nazarenko, Evgeny L.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2011-01-01

    Marine microorganisms have evolved for millions of years to survive in the environments characterized by one or more extreme physical or chemical parameters, e.g., high pressure, low temperature or high salinity. Marine bacteria have the ability to produce a range of biologically active molecules, such as antibiotics, toxins and antitoxins, antitumor and antimicrobial agents, and as a result, they have been a topic of research interest for many years. Among these biologically active molecules, the carbohydrate antigens, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, O-antigens) found in cell walls of Gram-negative marine bacteria, show great potential as candidates in the development of drugs to prevent septic shock due to their low virulence. The structural diversity of LPSs is thought to be a reflection of the ability for these bacteria to adapt to an array of habitats, protecting the cell from being compromised by exposure to harsh environmental stress factors. Over the last few years, the variety of structures of core oligosaccharides and O-specific polysaccharides from LPSs of marine microrganisms has been discovered. In this review, we discuss the most recently encountered structures that have been identified from bacteria belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Alteromonas, Idiomarina, Microbulbifer, Pseudoalteromonas, Plesiomonas and Shewanella of the Gammaproteobacteria phylum; Sulfitobacter and Loktanella of the Alphaproteobactera phylum and to the genera Arenibacter, Cellulophaga, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Flexibacter of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Particular attention is paid to the particular chemical features of the LPSs, such as the monosaccharide type, non-sugar substituents and phosphate groups, together with some of the typifying traits of LPSs obtained from marine bacteria. A possible correlation is then made between such features and the environmental adaptations undertaken by marine bacteria. PMID:22073003

  19. Quantifying seascape structure: Extending terrestrial spatial pattern metrics to the marine realm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedding, L.M.; Christopher, L.A.; Pittman, S.J.; Friedlander, A.M.; Jorgensen, S.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial pattern metrics have routinely been applied to characterize and quantify structural features of terrestrial landscapes and have demonstrated great utility in landscape ecology and conservation planning. The important role of spatial structure in ecology and management is now commonly recognized, and recent advances in marine remote sensing technology have facilitated the application of spatial pattern metrics to the marine environment. However, it is not yet clear whether concepts, metrics, and statistical techniques developed for terrestrial ecosystems are relevant for marine species and seascapes. To address this gap in our knowledge, we reviewed, synthesized, and evaluated the utility and application of spatial pattern metrics in the marine science literature over the past 30 yr (1980 to 2010). In total, 23 studies characterized seascape structure, of which 17 quantified spatial patterns using a 2-dimensional patch-mosaic model and 5 used a continuously varying 3-dimensional surface model. Most seascape studies followed terrestrial-based studies in their search for ecological patterns and applied or modified existing metrics. Only 1 truly unique metric was found (hydrodynamic aperture applied to Pacific atolls). While there are still relatively few studies using spatial pattern metrics in the marine environment, they have suffered from similar misuse as reported for terrestrial studies, such as the lack of a priori considerations or the problem of collinearity between metrics. Spatial pattern metrics offer great potential for ecological research and environmental management in marine systems, and future studies should focus on (1) the dynamic boundary between the land and sea; (2) quantifying 3-dimensional spatial patterns; and (3) assessing and monitoring seascape change. ?? Inter-Research 2011.

  20. Strategic and Operational Relevance of Heavy Lift in the United States Marine Corps: CH-53E Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    capabilities of the CH-53E: - Operation EASTERN EXIT - The recovery of Basher 52 (Captain Scott O’Grady Rescue) - Operation ENDURING FREEDOM (covered in the...significant payload. Recovery of Basher 52 Captain Scott O’Grady’s F-16 was shot down while flying over Bosnia on the 2nd of June 1995. The 24th MEU(SOC...Eric Damm USMC, Dr Tom Bowditch , Mr. Anton Jareb, Mr. Robert Bendow Marine Aviation Requirements Study: Summary Report, August 2001(Center for Naval

  1. Structured heterogeneity in a marine terrace chronosequence: Upland mottling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Marjorie S.; Stonestrom, David A.; Lawrence, Corey R.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Fitzpatrick, John; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Manning, Jane; Mnich, Meagan

    2016-01-01

    Soil mottles generally are interpreted as a product of reducing conditions during periods of water saturation. The upland soils of the Santa Cruz, CA, marine terrace chronosequence display an evolving sequence of reticulate mottling from the youngest soil (65 ka) without mottles to the oldest soil (225 ka) with well-developed mottles. The mottles consist of an interconnected network of clay and C-enriched regions (gray, 2.5Y 6/1) bordered by leached parent material (white, 2.5Y 8/1) within a diminishing matrix of oxidized parent material (orange, 7.5YR 5/8). The mottles develop in soils that formed from relatively uniform nearshore sediments and occur below the depth of soil bioturbation. To explore how a presumably wetland feature occurs in an unsaturated upland soil, physical and chemical characteristics of mottle separates (orange, gray, and white) were compared through the deep time represented by the soil chronosequence. Mineralogical, isotopic, and surface-area differences among mottle separates indicate that rhizogenic centimeter-scale mass transfer acting across millennia is an integral part of weathering, pedogenesis, and C and nutrient transfer. Elemental analysis, electron microscopy, and Fe-isotope systematics indicate that mottle development is driven by deep roots together with their fungal and microbial symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest that deep soil horizons on old stable landforms can develop reticulate mottling as the long-term imprint of rhizospheric processes. The processes of rhizogenic mottle formation appear to regulate pedogenesis, nutrients, and C sequestration at depth in unsaturated zones.

  2. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  3. Glycosaminoglycans analogs from marine invertebrates: structure, biological effects, and potential as new therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pavão, Mauro S G

    2014-01-01

    In this review, several glycosaminoglycan analogs obtained from different marine invertebrate are reported. The structure, biological activity and mechanism of action of these unique molecules are detailed reviewed and exemplified by experiments in vitro and in vivo. Among the glycans studied are low-sulfated heparin-like polymers from ascidians, containing significant anticoagulant activity and no bleeding effect; dermatan sulfates with significant neurite outgrowth promoting activity and anti-P-selectin from ascidians, and a unique fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumbers, possessing anticoagulant activity after oral administration and high anti P- and L-selectin activities. The therapeutic value and safety of these invertebrate glycans have been extensively proved by several experimental animal models of diseases, including thrombosis, inflammation and metastasis. These invertebrate glycans can be obtained in high concentrations from marine organisms that have been used as a food source for decades, and usually obtained from marine farms in sufficient quantities to be used as starting material for new therapeutics.

  4. Structure of macroalgal communities on tropical rocky shores inside and outside a marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Adriana Brizon; Carvalho, Fabrício Lopes; Soares, Marcelo de Oliveira; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Castro Nunes, José Marcos

    2017-09-01

    The structure of marine macroalgal communities and morpho-functional groups were investigated in a poorly characterized region on the Tropical Southwestern Atlantic coast, Brazil. The survey was conducted at six rocky shores located on the mainland and on coastal islands distributed inside a marine protected area (MPA) and outside the MPA (near a densely populated area). We hypothesized that tropical rocky shores inside the MPA and islands have higher species richness, diversity, and evenness of marine macroalgae. Results confirmed that species richness, diversity and evenness were significantly higher inside the MPA than in rocky shores outside the MPA. Only species richness was higher on islands than on the mainland. The results suggest that human impacts could lead to a competitive advantage and dominance in the articulated calcareous morphotype, resulting in community differences and lower benthic biodiversity in tropical ecosystems near urbanized sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Methods for isolation, purification and structural elucidation of bioactive secondary metabolites from marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ebada, Sherif S; Edrada, Ru Angelie; Lin, Wenhan; Proksch, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the past few decades, marine natural products bioprospecting has yielded a considerable number of drug candidates. Two marine natural products have recently been admitted as new drugs: Prialt (also known as ziconotide) as a potent analgesic for severe chronic pain and Yondelis (known also as trabectedin or E-743) as antitumor agent for the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma. In this protocol, methods for bioactivity-guided isolation, purification and identification of secondary metabolites from marine invertebrates such as sponges, tunicates, soft corals and crinoids are discussed. To achieve this goal, solvent extraction of usually freeze-dried sample of marine organisms is performed. Next, the extract obtained is fractionated by liquid-liquid partitioning followed by various chromatographic separation techniques including thin layer chromatography, vacuum liquid chromatography, column chromatography (CC) and preparative high-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Isolation of bioactive secondary metabolites is usually monitored by bioactivity assays, e.g., antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) and cytotoxicity (microculture tetrazolium) activities that ultimately yield the active principles. Special care should be taken when performing isolation procedures adapted to the physical and chemical characteristics of the compounds isolated, particularly their lipo- or hydrophilic characters. Examples of isolation of compounds of different polarities from extracts of various marine invertebrates will be presented in this protocol. Structure elucidation is achieved using recent spectroscopic techniques, especially 2D NMR and mass spectrometry analysis.

  6. Population genetic analyses of Hypoplectrus coral reef fishes provide evidence that local processes are operating during the early stages of marine adaptive radiations.

    PubMed

    Puebla, Oscar; Bermingham, Eldredge; Guichard, Frédéric

    2008-03-01

    Large-scale, spatially explicit models of adaptive radiation suggest that the spatial genetic structure within a species sampled early in the evolutionary history of an adaptive radiation might be higher than the genetic differentiation between different species formed during the same radiation over all locations. Here we test this hypothesis with a spatial population genetic analysis of Hypoplectrus coral reef fishes (Serranidae), one of the few potential cases of a recent adaptive radiation documented in the marine realm. Microsatellite analyses of Hypoplectrus puella (barred hamlet) and Hypoplectrus nigricans (black hamlet) from Belize, Panama and Barbados validate the population genetic predictions at the regional scale for H. nigricans despite the potential for high levels of gene flow between populations resulting from the 3-week planktonic larval phase of Hypoplectrus. The results are different for H. puella, which is characterized by significantly lower levels of spatial genetic structure than H. nigricans. An extensive field survey of Hypoplectrus population densities complemented by individual-based simulations shows that the higher abundance and more continuous distribution of H. puella could account for the reduced spatial genetic structure within this species. The genetic and demographic data are also consistent with the hypothesis that H. puella might represent the ancestral form of the Hypoplectrus radiation, and that H. nigricans might have evolved repeatedly from H. puella through ecological speciation. Altogether, spatial genetic analysis within and between Hypoplectrus species indicate that local processes can operate at a regional scale within recent marine adaptive radiations.

  7. Calcium Isotopic Evidence for Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem Structure Prior to the K/Pg Extinction.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeremy E; Vincent, Peggy; Tacail, Théo; Khaldoune, Fatima; Jourani, Essaid; Bardet, Nathalie; Balter, Vincent

    2017-06-05

    The collapse of marine ecosystems during the end-Cretaceous mass extinction involved the base of the food chain [1] up to ubiquitous vertebrate apex predators [2-5]. Large marine reptiles became suddenly extinct at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, whereas other contemporaneous groups such as bothremydid turtles or dyrosaurid crocodylomorphs, although affected at the familial, genus, or species level, survived into post-crisis environments of the Paleocene [5-9] and could have found refuge in freshwater habitats [10-12]. A recent hypothesis proposes that the extinction of plesiosaurians and mosasaurids could have been caused by an important drop in sea level [13]. Mosasaurids are unusually diverse and locally abundant in the Maastrichtian phosphatic deposits of Morocco, and with large sharks and one species of elasmosaurid plesiosaurian recognized so far, contribute to an overabundance of apex predators [3, 7, 14, 15]. For this reason, high local diversity of marine reptiles exhibiting different body masses and a wealth of tooth morphologies hints at complex trophic interactions within this latest Cretaceous marine ecosystem. Using calcium isotopes, we investigated the trophic structure of this extinct assemblage. Our results are consistent with a calcium isotope pattern observed in modern marine ecosystems and show that plesiosaurians and mosasaurids indiscriminately fall in the tertiary piscivore group. This suggests that marine reptile apex predators relied onto a single dietary calcium source, compatible with the vulnerable wasp-waist food webs of the modern world [16]. This inferred peculiar ecosystem structure may help explain plesiosaurian and mosasaurid extinction following the end-Cretaceous biological crisis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbial population structures in the deep marine biosphere.

    PubMed

    Huber, Julie A; Mark Welch, David B; Morrison, Hilary G; Huse, Susan M; Neal, Phillip R; Butterfield, David A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2007-10-05

    The analytical power of environmental DNA sequences for modeling microbial ecosystems depends on accurate assessments of population structure, including diversity (richness) and relative abundance (evenness). We investigated both aspects of population structure for microbial communities at two neighboring hydrothermal vents by examining the sequences of more than 900,000 microbial small-subunit ribosomal RNA amplicons. The two vent communities have different population structures that reflect local geochemical regimes. Descriptions of archaeal diversity were nearly exhaustive, but despite collecting an unparalleled number of sequences, statistical analyses indicated additional bacterial diversity at every taxonomic level. We predict that hundreds of thousands of sequences will be necessary to capture the vast diversity of microbial communities, and that different patterns of evenness for both high- and low-abundance taxa may be important in defining microbial ecosystem dynamics.

  9. Icing Rate on Stationary Structures Under Marine Conditions,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    windspeed, wave direction relative to the bearing of the ship, and size and free- I board of the ship. On stationary structures, however, the problem...THE STRUCTURE The rate of ice accumulation R can be calculated by the following formula: R = CC.F () where F is mass flux of the water drops and C...is a comglex function of the wave direction and height, the wind direction and velocity, the ship’s bearing and speed, and the overall struc- ture

  10. Organization and operation of the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate export fishery in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Legorel, Richard S; Hardin, Mark P; Ter-Ghazaryan, Diana

    2005-05-01

    This fishery was examined utilizing public records, stakeholder interviews, and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources. The fishery is not large, including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island. Only three operators export product, with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders. Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock, or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs. Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones, tidal flats, and seagrass beds. Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs, starfish, and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens, and then replacing the rocks in their original positions. Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival. Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted, no evidence of current chemical use was observed. Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped. The fishery strives to operate with mortality of<1%, as mortalities of>3% are described as unacceptable to customers. More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery, but the top ten species account for >70% of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery, with a single species, Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma), comprising >40% of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected, but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species, including anemones, hermit crabs, turbo snails, serpent starfish, and feather duster

  11. Effect of physical sediments reworking on hydrocarbon degradation and bacterial community structure in marine coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Duran, Robert; Bonin, Patricia; Jezequel, Ronan; Dubosc, Karine; Gassie, Claire; Terrisse, Fanny; Abella, Justine; Cagnon, Christine; Militon, Cecile; Michotey, Valérie; Gilbert, Franck; Cuny, Philippe; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether the physical reworking of sediments by harrowing would be suitable for favouring the hydrocarbon degradation in coastal marine sediments. Mudflat sediments were maintained in mesocosms under conditions as closer as possible to those prevailing in natural environments with tidal cycles. Sediments were contaminated with Ural blend crude oil, and in half of them, harrowing treatment was applied in order to mimic physical reworking of surface sediments. Hydrocarbon distribution within the sediment and its removal was followed during 286 days. The harrowing treatment allowed hydrocarbon compounds to penetrate the first 6 cm of the sediments, and biodegradation indexes (such as n-C18/phytane) indicated that biodegradation started 90 days before that observed in untreated control mesocosms. However, the harrowing treatment had a severe impact on benthic organisms reducing drastically the macrofaunal abundance and diversity. In the harrowing-treated mesocosms, the bacterial abundance, determined by 16S rRNA gene Q-PCR, was slightly increased; and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct and specific bacterial community structure. Co-occurrence network and canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) based on T-RFLP data indicated the main correlations between bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as well as the associations between OTUs and hydrocarbon compound contents further supported by clustered correlation (ClusCor) analysis. The analyses highlighted the OTUs constituting the network structural bases involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Negative correlations indicated the possible shifts in bacterial communities that occurred during the ecological succession.

  12. Survey of Experience Using Reinforced Concrete in Floating Marine Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Operations in the Concrete Ship Program," Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Vol. 16, No. 3, Jan . 1945. 3.3 Campbell, R. A., Chang, K. T., and...CONDEEP," Brochure from Norwegian Contractors. 3.11 Norge, Elf, "Frigg Field Treatment and Compression TCP2 Platform," Jan . 1976. 3.12 Graff, William J...34 Journal of Prestressed Concrete Institute, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan .-Feb. 1977. 3.28 Anderson, A. R., "A 65,000 Ton Prestressed Concrete Floating Facility

  13. Maintenance of Marine Structures: A State of the Art Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    Jones Mr. Frederick Selbold CAPT G. D. Marsh Mr. Rickard A. Anderson Mr. Norman 0. Hammer CAPT W. E. Colburni, Jr. Mr. Michael W. Toumna Mr. Chao H...News Shipbuilding 30. SSC-294 FURTHER SURVEY OF IN-SERVICE PERFORMANCE OF STRUCTURAL DETAILS Jordan, CR, Knight , LT Newport News Shipbuilding 31. SSC

  14. Biocalcification by halophilic bacteria for remediation of concrete structures in marine environment.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Roohi; Dhami, Navdeep Kaur; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2016-11-01

    Microbial carbonate precipitation has emerged as a promising technology for remediation and restoration of concrete structures. Deterioration of reinforced concrete structures in marine environments is a major concern due to chloride-induced corrosion. In the current study, halophilic bacteria Exiguobacterium mexicanum was isolated from sea water and tested for biomineralization potential under different salt stress conditions. The growth, urease and carbonic anhydrase production significantly increased under salt stress conditions. Maximum calcium carbonate precipitation was recorded at 5 % NaCl concentration. Application of E. mexicanum on concrete specimens significantly increased the compressive strength (23.5 %) and reduced water absorption about five times under 5 % salt stress conditions compared to control specimens. SEM and XRD analysis of bacterial-treated concrete specimens confirmed the precipitation of calcite. The present study results support the potential of this technology for improving the strength and durability properties of building structures in marine environments.

  15. Effect of desiccation of marine environment on beam structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Da; Wang, Na; Hou, Li-jun; Liao, Ying-di

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the study on the effect of desiccation for different part of offshore structure corresponding to the water level. A coupled elastoplastic damage model is proposed to describe the mechanical behavior of cement-based materials under external loading and desiccation, in which both the plastic and damage behaviors under multi-axial stress are considered in composition with the desiccation effect. The comparison between numerical simulation and experimental data indicates that the proposed model can well predict the mechanical characteristics of cement-based materials with different saturations. In addition, a series of small beams subjected to desiccation are further analyzed to reveal the response of structure in the drying process.

  16. Specific sulfation and glycosylation—a structural combination for the anticoagulation of marine carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.; Mourão, Paulo A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Based on considered achievements of the last 25 years, specific combinations of sulfation patterns and glycosylation types have been proved to be key structural players for the anticoagulant activity of certain marine glycans. These conclusions were obtained from comparative and systematic analyses on the structure-anticoagulation relationships of chemically well-defined sulfated polysaccharides of marine invertebrates and red algae. These sulfated polysaccharides are known as sulfated fucans (SFs), sulfated galactans (SGs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The structural combinations necessary for the anticoagulant activities are the 2-sulfation in α-L-SGs, the 2,4-di-sulfation in α-L-fucopyranosyl units found as composing units of certain sea-urchin and sea-cucumber linear SFs, or as branching units of the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, a unique GAG from sea-cucumbers. Another unique GAG type from marine organisms is the dermatan sulfate isolated from ascidians. The high levels of 4-sulfation at the galactosamine units combined with certain levels of 2-sulfation at the iduronic acid units is the anticoagulant structural requirements of these GAGs. When the backbones of red algal SGs are homogeneous, the anticoagulation is proportionally dependent of their sulfation content. Finally, 4-sulfation was observed to be the structural motif required to enhance the inhibition of thrombin via heparin cofactor-II by invertebrate SFs. PMID:24639954

  17. Simple rules for establishment of effective marine protected areas in an age-structured metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Takashina, Nao

    2016-02-21

    The implementation of effective protected areas is one of the central goals of modern conservation biology. In the context of fisheries management and marine ecosystem conservation, marine reserves often play a significant role to achieve sustainable fisheries management. Consequently, a substantial number of studies have been conducted to establish broad rules for the creation of MPAs, or to test the effects of MPAs in specific regions. However, there still exist many challenges for implementing MPAs that are effective at meeting their goals. Deducing theoretical conditions guaranteeing that the introduction of marine reserves will increase fisheries yields in age-structured population dynamics is one such challenge. To derive such conditions, a simple mathematical model is developed that follows an age-structured metapopulation dynamics of a sedentary species. The obtained results suggest that a sufficiently high fishing mortality rate and moderate recruitment success of an individual's eggs is a necessary for marine reserves to increase fisheries yields. The numerical calculations were conducted with the parameters of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) to visualize and to check validity of the analytical results. They show good agreement with the analytical results, as well as the results obtained in the previous works. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The three-dimensional structure of codakine and related marine C-type lectins.

    PubMed

    Gourdine, Jean-Philippe; Markiv, Anatoly; Smith-Ravin, Juliette

    2007-10-01

    Codakine is a new Ca(2+)-dependent mannose-binding C-type lectin (MBL) isolated from the gill tissue of the tropical clam, Codakia orbicularis. Bioinformatic analyses with the BLAST program have revealed similarities with marine lectins involved in immunity whose three-dimensional (3D) structures were unknown up until recently. In this article, we present bioinformatic analyses of marine lectins that are homologous to codakine, in particular lectins from the sea worm Laxus oneistus, named mermaid. These lectins are involved in the symbiotic association with sulphur-oxidizing bacteria which are closely related to the C. orbicularis gill symbiont. Using homology modelling, folding that is characteristic of C-type lectins was observed in all the marine Ca(2+)-dependent lectins studied, with conservation of random coiled structures of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and Ca(2+)-binding sites. Like codakine, the marine lectins analysed contain a signal peptide commonly found in secreted and transmembrane proteins. The majority of the predictive 3D models established from the lectins exhibit a common feature, namely the involvement in invertebrate and vertebrate immunity (dendritic cell receptor, macrophage receptor, etc.). These bioinformatic analyses and the literature data support the hypothesis that codakine, like the L. oneistus mermaids, is probably involved in the cellular mediation of symbiosis and defence against pathogenic microorganisms.

  19. Structure and mechanical properties of selected protective systems in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Naleway, Steven E; Taylor, Jennifer R A; Porter, Michael M; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Marine organisms have developed a wide variety of protective strategies to thrive in their native environments. These biological materials, although formed from simple biopolymer and biomineral constituents, take on many intricate and effective designs. The specific environmental conditions that shape all marine organisms have helped modify these materials into their current forms: complete hydration, and variation in hydrostatic pressure, temperature, salinity, as well as motion from currents and swells. These conditions vary throughout the ocean, being more consistent in the pelagic and deep benthic zones while experiencing more variability in the nearshore and shallows (e.g. intertidal zones, shallow bays and lagoons, salt marshes and mangrove forests). Of note, many marine organisms are capable of migrating between these zones. In this review, the basic building blocks of these structural biological materials and a variety of protective strategies in marine organisms are discussed with a focus on their structure and mechanical properties. Finally, the bioinspired potential of these biological materials is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural and thermodynamic signatures of marine microlayer surfactant films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorzelski, Stanislaw J.; Kogut, Anna D.

    2003-06-01

    Natural surface film experiments in inland waters and shallow offshore regions of the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas were carried out in the time period 1990-1999 under calm sea conditions using a novel device for sampling and force-area studies. The sampler-Langmuir trough-Wilhelmy filter paper plate system 'cuts out' an undisturbed film-covered sea area to perform π-A studies without any initial physico-chemical sample processing. The limiting specific area A lim (2.68-31.57 nm 2/molecule) and mean molecular mass M w (0.65-9.7 kDa) of microlayer surfactants were determined from the 2D virial equation of state applied to the isotherms. Enthalpy ΔH and entropy ΔS t of the 2D first-order phase transitions were evaluated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation applied to the isotherms. Miscibility of film components and film structure evolution is expressed by the scaling exponent y adopting the 2D polymer film scaling theory. The stress-relaxation measurements revealed a two-step relaxation process at the interface with characteristic times τ 1=1.1-2.8 and τ 2=5.6-25.6 seconds suggesting the presence of diffusion-controlled and structural organisation relaxation phenomena. The obtained results suggest that natural films are a complex mixture of biomolecules covering a wide range of solubilities, surface activity and molecular masses with an apparent structural organisation exhibiting a spatial and temporal variability.

  1. Review: an overview about the structure-function relationship of marine sulfated homopolysaccharides with regular chemical structures.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2009-08-01

    Efforts in both structural and biological studies of sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms have increased significantly over the last 10 years. Marine invertebrates have been demonstrated to be a source of glycans with particularly well-defined chemical structures, although ordered structural patterns can also be found occasionally in algal sources such as red seaweeds. Clear and regular structural features are essential for a good understanding of the biological activities of these marine homopolysaccharides of which sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans are the most studied. Herein, the main structural features (sugar type, sulfation and glycosylation sites, and orientational binding preferences) of both sulfated fucans and galactans are individually reviewed with regard to their specific contributions to two frequently described biological functions: the acrosome reaction (a physiological event of sea-urchin fertilization), and the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities (an alternative and highly desirable pharmacological application). (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 601-609, 2009.This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com.

  2. Anticipatory Imagery: Its Relationship with Operational Structures and Length Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    1976-01-01

    The developmental relations between anticipatory imagery, conservation of length, and operational structures were investigated in 80 kindergarten and third-grade children by means of imagery tasks combined with a length conservation task. (MS)

  3. Influence of Marine Aviation on the Development of the Tentative Landing Operations Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    occupy large areas and therefore were forced to conduct long wearisome patrols trying to locate the enemy. Heavy rainfall combined with the...the need for carrier support was not the only reason. The Marine Corps still relied on the Navy’s Bureau of Aeronautics for funding and facilities

  4. 75 FR 7383 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... developed pursuant to section 118(f) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), 16 U.S.C. 1361-1423h, to...) clarifying the geographical enclosure of the Offshore and Cashes Ledge Management Areas by repeating the... for harbor porpoise protection are met. Over the past two decades, NMFS has undertaken a variety of...

  5. Hopf-algebraic structure of combinatorial objects and differential operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert; Larson, Richard G.

    1989-01-01

    A Hopf-algebraic structure on a vector space which has as basis a family of trees is described. Some applications of this structure to combinatorics and to differential operators are surveyed. Some possible future directions for this work are indicated.

  6. Diurnal variation in the turbulent structure of the cloudy marine boundary layer during FIRE 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hignett, Phillip

    1990-01-01

    During the 1987 FIRE marine stratocumulus experiment the U.K. Meteorological Office operated a set of turbulence probes attached to the tether cable of a balloon based on San Nicolas Island. Typically six probes were used; each probe is fitted with Gill propeller anemometers, a platinum resistance thermometer and wet and dry thermistors, to permit measurements of the fluxes of momentum, heat, and humidity. The orientation of each probe is determined from a pair of inclinometers and a three-axis magnetometer. Sufficient information is available to allow the measured wind velocities to be corrected for the motion of the balloon. On the 14 to 15 July measurements were made over the period 1530 to 1200 UTC and again, after a short break for battery recharging and topping-up the balloon, between 0400 to 0900 UTC. Data were therefore recorded from morning to early evening, and again for a period overnight. Six probes were available for the daytime measurements, five for the night. Data were recorded at 4 Hz for individual periods of a little over an hour. The intention was to keep a minimum of one probe at or just above cloud top; small changes in balloon height were necessary to accommodate changes in inversion height. The ability of the balloon system to make simultaneous measurements at several levels allows the vertical structure of the boundary layer to be displayed without resort to composites. Turbulent statistics were calculated from 2 hour periods, one straddling local noon and one at night. These were subdivided into half-hour averaging intervals for the evaluation of variances and fluxes.

  7. [Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites from marine Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1934].

    PubMed

    Niu, Siwen; Li, Sumei; Tian, Xinpeng; Hu, Tao; Ju, Jianhua; Ynag, Xiaohong; Zhang, Si; Zhang, Changsheng

    2011-07-01

    Marine Actinobacteria are emerging as new resources for bioactive natural products with promise in novel drug discovery. In recent years, the richness and diversity of marine Actinobacteria from the South China Sea and their ability in producing bioactive products have been investigated. The objective of this work is to isolate and identify bioactive secondary metabolites from a marine actinobacterium SCSIO 1934 derived from sediments of South China Sea. The strain was identified as a Streptomyces spieces by analyzing its 16S rDNA sequence. Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1934 was fermented under optimized conditions and seven bioactive secondary metabolites were isolated and purified by chromatographic methods including colum chromatography over silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated as 17-O-demethylgeldanamycin (1), lebstatin (2), 17-O-demethyllebstatin (3), nigericin (4), nigericin sodium salt (5), abierixin (6), respectively, by detailed NMR spectroscopic data (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC and HMBC). This work provided a new marine actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1934, capable of producing diverse bioactive natural products.

  8. Microbial community diversity, structure and assembly across oxygen gradients in meromictic marine lakes, Palau.

    PubMed

    Meyerhof, Matthew S; Wilson, Jesse M; Dawson, Michael N; Michael Beman, J

    2016-12-01

    Microbial communities consume oxygen, alter biogeochemistry and compress habitat in aquatic ecosystems, yet our understanding of these microbial-biogeochemical-ecological interactions is limited by a lack of systematic analyses of low-oxygen ecosystems. Marine lakes provide an ideal comparative system, as they range from well-mixed holomictic lakes to stratified, anoxic, meromictic lakes that vary in their vertical extent of anoxia. We examined microbial communities inhabiting six marine lakes and one ocean site using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Microbial richness and evenness was typically highest in the anoxic monimolimnion of meromictic lakes, with common marine bacteria present in mixolimnion communities replaced by anoxygenic phototrophs, sulfate-reducing bacteria and SAR406 in the monimolimnion. These sharp changes in community structure were linked to environmental gradients (constrained variation in redundancy analysis = 68%-76%) - particularly oxygen and pH. However, in those lakes with the steepest oxygen gradients, salinity and dissolved nutrients were important secondary constraining variables, indicating that subtle but substantive differences in microbial communities occur within similar low-oxygen habitats. Deterministic processes were a dominant influence on whole community assembly (all nearest taxon index values >4), demonstrating that the strong environmental gradients present in meromictic marine lakes drive microbial community assembly. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Actinoranone, A Cytotoxic Meroterpenoid of Unprecedented Structure from a Marine Adapted Streptomyces sp

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang-Jip; Kauffman, Christopher A.; Paul, Lauren A.; Jensen, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    The isolation and structure elucidation of a new meroterpenoid, actinoranone (1), produced by a marine bacterium closely related to the genus Streptomyces is reported. Actinoranone is composed of an unprecedented dihydronaphthalenone polyketide linked to a bicyclic diterpenoid. The stereochemistry of 1 was defined by application of the advanced Mosher's method and by interpretation of spectroscopic data. Actinoranone (1) is significantly cytotoxic to HCT-116 human colon cancer cells with an LD50 = 2.0 μg/mL. PMID:24152065

  10. Detecting defects in marine structures by using eddy current infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Swiderski, W

    2016-12-01

    Eddy current infrared (IR) thermography is a new nondestructive testing (NDT) technique used for the detection of cracks in electroconductive materials. By combining the well-established inspection methods of eddy current NDT and IR thermography, this technique uses induced eddy currents to heat test samples. In this way, IR thermography allows the visualization of eddy current distribution that is distorted in defect sites. This paper discusses the results of numerical modeling of eddy current IR thermography procedures in application to marine structures.

  11. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Chondrosterins F–H from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hou-Jin; Chen, Ting; Xie, Ying-Lu; Chen, Wen-Dan; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Lan, Wen-Jian

    2013-01-01

    The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F–H (1, 4 and 5), together with three known compounds, incarnal (2), arthrosporone (3), and (2E)-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6), were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:23434797

  12. Actinoranone, a cytotoxic meroterpenoid of unprecedented structure from a marine adapted Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sang-Jip; Kauffman, Christopher A; Paul, Lauren A; Jensen, Paul R; Fenical, William

    2013-11-01

    The isolation and structure elucidation of a new meroterpenoid, actinoranone (1), produced by a marine bacterium closely related to the genus Streptomyces is reported. Actinoranone is composed of an unprecedented dihydronaphthalenone polyketide linked to a bicyclic diterpenoid. The stereochemistry of 1 was defined by application of the advanced Mosher's method and by interpretation of spectroscopic data. Actinoranone (1) is significantly cytotoxic to HCT-116 human colon cancer cells with an LD50 = 2.0 μg/mL.

  13. The prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal injuries during a pre-deployment workup cycle: survey of a Marine Corps special operations company.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Danny J

    2009-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a primary cause of morbidity and missed training throughout the military. Only a handful of studies have been performed which focus on the Special Operations community. This study was performed to determine a baseline understanding of the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries within an operational element of the newly formed Marine Corps Special Operations Command. The results of this survey reveal that nearly one-third of all members of 1st Marine Special Operations Battalion, Delta Company, experienced pain or physical limitation due to a musculoskeletal injury. Of those who were injured, nearly 30% reported that their injury impacted their ability to train during their pre-deployment training cycle. These results confirm that musculoskeletal injuries are a significant problem within the Marine Corps Special Operations Command. Further investigation is warranted to examine etiological factors resulting in these injuries and changes to training regimens that may result in decreased injuries.

  14. Marine Corps Interwar Period Innovation and Implications for the Upcoming Post Operation Enduring Freedom Period

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing...potential to reduce or remove altogether the Marine Corps and with it the amphibious capability currently serving as a strategic shaping asset within the...of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College or any other governmental agency. (References to this study should include the foregoing statement

  15. U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Special Operation Command (MARSOC) Logistics: The Return on Investment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-21

    Mentor and Or~ ense Committee Membe.·: ~ Q d. Q ~ Approved: Da te: __::j::. .~ 2& [ 2 ,, 1 Oral Defense Committee Member: ~{~ f/~ Approved: ./ C...CONCLUSIONS EXPRESSED HEREIN ARE THOSE OF THE INDIVIDUAL STUDENT AUTHOR AND DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT THE VIEWS OF EITHER THE MARINE CORPS...or lost primarily because of logistics.” - Gen Dwight D. Eisenhower “Our numbers are few; our contributions are numerous; our results are

  16. 77 FR 71259 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; False Killer Whale Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ...We, NMFS, issue the final False Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan (FKWTRP), and regulatory measures and non-regulatory measures and recommendations to reduce mortalities and serious injuries of false killer whales in Hawaii-based longline fisheries. Regulatory measures include gear requirements, longline prohibited areas, training and certification in marine mammal handling and release, captains' supervision of marine mammal handling and release, and posting of NMFS- approved placards on longline vessels. In this rule, NMFS also recommends research and data collection programs. This final rule also revises the boundaries of the longline prohibited area around the main Hawaiian Islands to be consistent with the prohibited area established under the FKWTRP regulations. The FKWTRP is based on consensus recommendations submitted to NMFS by the False Killer Whale Take Reduction Team (Team), with certain modifications described herein that were determined to be necessary to meet the requirements of the MMPA. This final rule is necessary because current mortality and serious injury levels of the Hawaii Pelagic and Hawaii Insular stocks of false killer whales incidental to the Hawaii-based pelagic longline fisheries are above the stocks' potential biological removal (PBR) levels, and are therefore inconsistent with the short- and long-term goals of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). The FKWTRP is intended to meet the requirements of the MMPA.

  17. Identification of candidate structured RNAs in the marine organism 'Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique'

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michelle M; Ames, Tyler D; Smith, Daniel P; Weinberg, Zasha; Schwalbach, Michael S; Giovannoni, Stephen J; Breaker, Ronald R

    2009-01-01

    Background Metagenomic sequence data are proving to be a vast resource for the discovery of biological components. Yet analysis of this data to identify functional RNAs lags behind efforts to characterize protein diversity. The genome of 'Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique' HTCC 1062 is the closest match for approximately 20% of marine metagenomic sequence reads. It is also small, contains little non-coding DNA, and has strikingly low GC content. Results To aid the discovery of RNA motifs within the marine metagenome we exploited the genomic properties of 'Cand. P. ubique' by targeting our search to long intergenic regions (IGRs) with relatively high GC content. Analysis of known RNAs (rRNA, tRNA, riboswitches etc.) shows that structured RNAs are significantly enriched in such IGRs. To identify additional candidate structured RNAs, we examined other IGRs with similar characteristics from 'Cand. P. ubique' using comparative genomics approaches in conjunction with marine metagenomic data. Employing this strategy, we discovered four candidate structured RNAs including a new riboswitch class as well as three additional likely cis-regulatory elements that precede genes encoding ribosomal proteins S2 and S12, and the cytoplasmic protein component of the signal recognition particle. We also describe four additional potential RNA motifs with few or no examples occurring outside the metagenomic data. Conclusion This work begins the process of identifying functional RNA motifs present in the metagenomic data and illustrates how existing completed genomes may be used to aid in this task. PMID:19531245

  18. Structural diversity of marine cyclic peptides and their molecular mechanisms for anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, and other clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeji; Phat, Chanvorleak; Hong, Soon-Cheol

    2017-09-01

    Many cyclic peptides and analogues derived from marine sources are known to possess biological properties, including anticancer, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammation, anti-proliferative, anti-hypertensive, cytotoxic, and antibiotic properties. These compounds demonstrate different activities and modes of action according to their structure such as cyclic oligopeptide, cyclic lipopeptide, cyclic glycopeptide and cyclic depsipeptide. The recent advances in application of the above-mentioned cyclic peptides were reported in dolastatins, soblidotin, didemnin B, aplidine, salinosporamide A, kahalalide F and bryostatin 1 and they are currently in clinical trials. These cyclic peptides are possible novel drugs discovered and developed from marine origin. Literature data concerning the potential properties of marine cyclic peptides were reviewed here, and the structural diversity and biological activities of marine cyclic peptides are discussed in relation to the molecular mechanisms of these marine cyclic peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dive Operator Use Patterns in the Designated No-Take Zones of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS).

    PubMed

    Shivlani; Suman

    2000-06-01

    / The Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), created by Congress in 1990, addressed the issue of resource protection partly by proposing 26 "no-take" zones. These areas, discussed in the 1995 Draft Management Plan, disallowed all extractive activities, and four of the zones also prohibited diving and snorkeling. Furthermore, the Draft Management Plan considered recreational carrying capacity, proposing that use densities be studied and eventually limited in high-use and sensitive areas. Conducted with 62 commercial dive operators from the Florida Keys in 1995-96, this study uses geographic information systems (GIS) to determine the extent of FKNMS zone use by dive operators, assess the regional importance of FKNMS zones to operators, and compare management strategies by which to allow use while minimizing impacts to the coral reef resource. Dive operators took almost 70% of their total trips and 77% of their total divers to FKNMS zones in 1995. Although zone use is generally related to the proximity of dive locations, dive operators do rely disproportionately on single sites in certain regions. The resulting profiles demonstrate that management strategies need to consider disproportionate use, as well as the average number of users per trip, to effectively protect the region's environmental resources. In addition to implementing a carrying capacity plan, the FKNMS should consider a limited-entry system for dive operators.

  20. Experimental Constraints on Microbial Liberation of Structural Iron from Common Clay Minerals in Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, K. S.; Gaines, R. R.; Trang, J.; Scott, S. W.; Crane, E. J.; Lackey, J.; Prokopenko, M. G.; Berelson, W.

    2013-12-01

    Iron is a limiting nutrient in many marine settings. The marine Fe-cycle is complex because Fe may be used as an electron donor or acceptor and cycled many times before ultimate burial in sediments. Thus, the availability of iron plays a large role in the marine carbon cycle, influencing not only the extent of primary productivity but also the oxidation of organic matter in sediments. The primary constituents of marine sediments are clay minerals, which commonly contain lattice-bound Fe in octahedral sites. In marine settings, the pool of Fe bound within silicate mineral lattices has long been considered reactive only over long timescales, and thus non-bioavailable. In vitro experimental evidence has shown that lab cultures of Fe-reducing bacteria are able to utilize structurally-bound Fe (III) from the crystal lattice of nontronite, an uncommon but particularly Fe-rich (> 12 wt.%) smectite. Importantly, this process is capable of liberating Fe (II) to solution, where it is available to biotic processes as an electron donor. In order to constrain the capacity of naturally-occurring marine bacteria to liberate structurally-coordinated Fe from the lattices of common clay minerals, we exposed a suite of 16 different clay minerals (0.8-13.9 wt.% Fe) to lab cultures of known Fe-reducer S. onenidensis MR-1 and to a natural consortium of Fe-reducing microbes from the San Pedro and Santa Monica Basins over timescales ranging from 7-120 days. Clay minerals were treated with Na-dithionite to extract surface-bound Fe prior to exposure. Crystallographic data and direct measurements of Fe in solution demonstrate the release of structural Fe from all clay minerals analyzed. Neoformation of illite and amorphous quartz were observed. The array of clay minerals and microbes used in this experiment complement past findings and suggest that common clay minerals may represent a large and previously unrecognized pool of bioavailable Fe in the world ocean that contributes significantly

  1. Ocean acidification affects marine chemical communication by changing structure and function of peptide signalling molecules.

    PubMed

    Roggatz, Christina C; Lorch, Mark; Hardege, Jörg D; Benoit, David M

    2016-12-01

    Ocean acidification is a global challenge that faces marine organisms in the near future with a predicted rapid drop in pH of up to 0.4 units by the end of this century. Effects of the change in ocean carbon chemistry and pH on the development, growth and fitness of marine animals are well documented. Recent evidence also suggests that a range of chemically mediated behaviours and interactions in marine fish and invertebrates will be affected. Marine animals use chemical cues, for example, to detect predators, for settlement, homing and reproduction. But, while effects of high CO2 conditions on these behaviours are described across many species, little is known about the underlying mechanisms, particularly in invertebrates. Here, we investigate the direct influence of future oceanic pH conditions on the structure and function of three peptide signalling molecules with an interdisciplinary combination of methods. NMR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations were used to assess the direct molecular influence of pH on the peptide cues, and we tested the functionality of the cues in different pH conditions using behavioural bioassays with shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) as a model system. We found that peptide signalling cues are susceptible to protonation in future pH conditions, which will alter their overall charge. We also show that structure and electrostatic properties important for receptor binding differ significantly between the peptide forms present today and the protonated signalling peptides likely to be dominating in future oceans. The bioassays suggest an impaired functionality of the signalling peptides at low pH. Physiological changes due to high CO2 conditions were found to play a less significant role in influencing the investigated behaviour. From our results, we conclude that the change of charge, structure and consequently function of signalling molecules presents one possible mechanism to explain altered behaviour under future oceanic p

  2. Quantifying the response of structural complexity and community composition to environmental change in marine communities.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Renata; Bryson, Mitch; Bridge, Tom; Hustache, Julie; Williams, Stefan B; Byrne, Maria; Figueira, Will

    2016-05-01

    Habitat structural complexity is a key factor shaping marine communities. However, accurate methods for quantifying structural complexity underwater are currently lacking. Loss of structural complexity is linked to ecosystem declines in biodiversity and resilience. We developed new methods using underwater stereo-imagery spanning 4 years (2010-2013) to reconstruct 3D models of coral reef areas and quantified both structural complexity at two spatial resolutions (2.5 and 25 cm) and benthic community composition to characterize changes after an unprecedented thermal anomaly on the west coast of Australia in 2011. Structural complexity increased at both resolutions in quadrats (4 m(2)) that bleached, but not those that did not bleach. Changes in complexity were driven by species-specific responses to warming, highlighting the importance of identifying small-scale dynamics to disentangle ecological responses to disturbance. We demonstrate an effective, repeatable method for quantifying the relationship among community composition, structural complexity and ocean warming, improving predictions of the response of marine ecosystems to environmental change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Marine Special Operations Helicopter Unit: Viability in the Joint Force of 2020

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-18

    Operations Squadron (SOS). Known as the “ Pony Express,” they operated the CH-3 in various 4 “unconventional warfare” 10 missions. However...Hornets,” continued through the Vietnam War operating the newer UH-1F/P model, some of which were flown in the “ Pony Express,” previous to the

  4. Case series of pectoralis major rupture requiring operative intervention sustained on the Royal Marines 'Tarzan' assault course.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan; Smith, Chris; Guyver, Paul Michael

    2015-07-01

    We present (with intra-operative imaging) four patients who sustained pectoralis major (PM) ruptures on the same piece of equipment of the 'Tarzan' assault course at the Commando Training Centre, Royal Marines (CTCRM). Recruits jump at running pace, carrying 21 lbs of equipment and a weapon (8 lbs) across a 6-feet gap onto a vertical cargo-net. The recruits punch horizontally through the net, before adducting their arm to catch themselves, and all weight, on their axilla. All patients presented with immediate pain and reduced function. Two had ruptures demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging, one on an ultrasound scan and one via clinical examination. All four patients were found, at operation, to have sustained type IIIE injuries. All patients underwent PM repair using a unicortical button fixation and had an uneventful immediate postoperative course. Patient 1 left Royal Marines training after the injury (out of choice; not because of failure to rehabilitate). All other patients are under active rehabilitation, hoping to return to training. Review of 10 years of records at CTCRM reveal no documented PM rupture prior to our first case in October 2013. There has been no change to the obstacle or technique used and all patients deny the use of steroids.

  5. Case series of pectoralis major rupture requiring operative intervention sustained on the Royal Marines ‘Tarzan’ assault course

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Chris; Guyver, Paul Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present (with intra-operative imaging) four patients who sustained pectoralis major (PM) ruptures on the same piece of equipment of the ‘Tarzan’ assault course at the Commando Training Centre, Royal Marines (CTCRM). Recruits jump at running pace, carrying 21 lbs of equipment and a weapon (8 lbs) across a 6-feet gap onto a vertical cargo-net. The recruits punch horizontally through the net, before adducting their arm to catch themselves, and all weight, on their axilla. All patients presented with immediate pain and reduced function. Two had ruptures demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging, one on an ultrasound scan and one via clinical examination. All four patients were found, at operation, to have sustained type IIIE injuries. All patients underwent PM repair using a unicortical button fixation and had an uneventful immediate postoperative course. Patient 1 left Royal Marines training after the injury (out of choice; not because of failure to rehabilitate). All other patients are under active rehabilitation, hoping to return to training. Review of 10 years of records at CTCRM reveal no documented PM rupture prior to our first case in October 2013. There has been no change to the obstacle or technique used and all patients deny the use of steroids. PMID:27582974

  6. Injury and illness casualty distributions among U.S. Army and Marine Corps personnel during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Zouris, James M; Wade, Amber L; Magno, Cheryl P

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the distributions of U.S. Marine Corps and Army wounded in action (WIA) and disease and nonbattle injury (DNBI) casualties during Operation Iraqi Freedom Major Combat Phase (OIF-1) and Support and Stability Phase (OIF-2). A retrospective review of hospitalization data was conducted. chi2 tests were used to assess the Primary International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9), diagnostic category distributions by phase of operation, casualty type, and gender. Of the 13,071 casualties identified for analysis, 3,263 were WIA and 9,808 were DNBI. Overall, the proportion of WIA was higher during OIF-1 (36.6%) than OIF-2 (23.6%). Marines had a higher proportion of WIA and nonbattle injuries than soldiers. Although overall DNBI distributions for men and women were statistically different, their distributions of types of nonbattle injuries were similar. Identifying differences in injury and illness distributions by characteristics of the casualty population is necessary for military medical readiness planning.

  7. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Marine Corps Base, operable unit 5 (site 2), Camp Lejeune, NC, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-15

    The decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit No. 5 (Site 2) at Marine Corps Base (MCB), Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The selected remedy for Site 2, Institutional Controls/Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring, is the final action to be conducted at this site. A Time Critical Removal Action (TCRA) is planned to be completed prior to that of the selected remedy at the operable unit for the removal of pesticide-contaminated soils and sediment identified during the remedial investigation. The contaminated soils and sediment may present an adverse risk to human health and the environment, and are potential sources of groundwater contamination. The selected remedial action included in this ROD addresses the principal threats remaining (i.e., post-TCRA) at Site 2 by addressing groundwater contamination.

  8. The structural diversity and promise of antiparasitic marine invertebrate-derived small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Katharine R; Tenney, Karen; Crews, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on six important parasitic diseases that adversely affect the health and lives of over one billion people worldwide. In light of the global human impact of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), several initiatives and campaigns have been mounted to eradicate these infections once and for all. Currently available therapeutics summarized herein are either ineffective and/or have severe and deleterious side effects. Resistant strains continue to emerge and there is an overall unmet and urgent need for new antiparasitic drugs. Marine-derived small molecules (MDSMs) from invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse and promising source of compounds from a wide variety of structural classes. New discoveries of marine natural product privileged structures and compound classes that are being made via natural product library screening using whole cell in vitro assays are highlighted. It is striking to note that for the first time in history the entire genomes of all six parasites have been sequenced and additional transcriptome and proteomic analyses are available. Furthermore, open and shared, publicly available databases of the genome sequences, compounds, screening assays, and druggable molecular targets are being used by the worldwide research community. A combined assessment of all of the above factors, especially of current discoveries in marine natural products, implies a brighter future with more effective, affordable, and benign antiparasitic therapeutics. PMID:20956079

  9. The structural diversity and promise of antiparasitic marine invertebrate-derived small molecules.

    PubMed

    Watts, Katharine R; Tenney, Karen; Crews, Phillip

    2010-12-01

    This review focuses on six important parasitic diseases that adversely affect the health and lives of over one billion people worldwide. In light of the global human impact of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), several initiatives and campaigns have been mounted to eradicate these infections once and for all. Currently available therapeutics summarized herein are either ineffective and/or have severe and deleterious side effects. Resistant strains continue to emerge and there is an overall unmet and urgent need for new antiparasitic drugs. Marine-derived small molecules (MDSMs) from invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse and promising source of compounds from a wide variety of structural classes. New discoveries of marine natural product privileged structures and compound classes that are being made via natural product library screening using whole cell in vitro assays are highlighted. It is striking to note that for the first time in history the entire genomes of all six parasites have been sequenced and additional transcriptome and proteomic analyses are available. Furthermore, open and shared, publicly available databases of the genome sequences, compounds, screening assays, and druggable molecular targets are being used by the worldwide research community. A combined assessment of all of the above factors, especially of current discoveries in marine natural products, implies a brighter future with more effective, affordable, and benign antiparasitic therapeutics.

  10. Hierarchical structure of operations defined in nonextensive algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nivanen, L.; Wang, Q. A.; Le Méhauté, A.; El Kaabouchi, A.; Basillais, P.; Donati, J. D.; Lacroix, A.; Paulet, J.; Perriau, S.; Sime Chuisse, S.; Simo Kamdem, E.; Théry, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the past few years, several generalized algebras were developed from physical background associated with the so-called nonextensive statistical mechanics. One of which, the q-generalized algebra, is a functional mimicking the morphisms between the standard algebraic operations through generalized exponential e ax = (1+ ax) 1/ a and logarithm ln(x)=x-1a. These functions and the resulting generalized operations possess very interesting mathematical properties and have been used in statistical physics for finite systems and nonextensive systems in general. We establish that the link between the two different operations can be either of functional or iterative nature. Both methods can be combined to introduce new nonextensive operations. The complete set of operations can be represented on a plane structured diagram. The generalized operations can be distributed into two classes, namely the "up" and "down" operations, depending on their localization in the diagram. The properties of generalized operations naturally arise from functional relations and equivalent properties of standard operations.

  11. Marine Antifreeze Proteins: Structure, Function, and Application to Cryopreservation as a Potential Cryoprotectant

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak Jun; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Hur, Young Baek; Lee, Chang Woo; Park, Sun-Ha; Koo, Bon-Won

    2017-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are biological antifreezes with unique properties, including thermal hysteresis (TH), ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI), and interaction with membranes and/or membrane proteins. These properties have been utilized in the preservation of biological samples at low temperatures. Here, we review the structure and function of marine-derived AFPs, including moderately active fish AFPs and hyperactive polar AFPs. We also survey previous and current reports of cryopreservation using AFPs. Cryopreserved biological samples are relatively diverse ranging from diatoms and reproductive cells to embryos and organs. Cryopreserved biological samples mainly originate from mammals. Most cryopreservation trials using marine-derived AFPs have demonstrated that addition of AFPs can improve post-thaw viability regardless of freezing method (slow-freezing or vitrification), storage temperature, and types of biological sample type. PMID:28134801

  12. Marine Antifreeze Proteins: Structure, Function, and Application to Cryopreservation as a Potential Cryoprotectant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Jun; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Hur, Young Baek; Lee, Chang Woo; Park, Sun-Ha; Koo, Bon-Won

    2017-01-27

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are biological antifreezes with unique properties, including thermal hysteresis(TH),ice recrystallization inhibition(IRI),and interaction with membranes and/or membrane proteins. These properties have been utilized in the preservation of biological samples at low temperatures. Here, we review the structure and function of marine-derived AFPs, including moderately active fish AFPs and hyperactive polar AFPs. We also survey previous and current reports of cryopreservation using AFPs. Cryopreserved biological samples are relatively diverse ranging from diatoms and reproductive cells to embryos and organs. Cryopreserved biological samples mainly originate from mammals. Most cryopreservation trials using marine-derived AFPs have demonstrated that addition of AFPs can improve post-thaw viability regardless of freezing method (slow-freezing or vitrification), storage temperature, and types of biological sample type.

  13. Diversity and community structure within anoxic sediment from marine salinity meromictic lakes and a coastal meromictic marine basin, Vestfold Hilds, Eastern Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Bowman, J P; Rea, S M; McCammon, S A; McMeekin, T A

    2000-04-01

    16S rDNA clone library analysis was used to examine the biodiversity and community structure within anoxic sediments of several marine-type salinity meromictic lakes and a coastal marine basin located in the Vestfolds Hills area of Eastern Antarctica. From 69 to 130 (555 total) 16S rDNA clones were analysed from each sediment sample, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence analysis grouped the clones into 202 distinct phylotypes (a clone group with sequence similarity of >0.98). A number of phylotypes and phylotype groups predominated in all libraries, with a group of 10 phylotypes (31% of clones) forming a novel deep branch within the low G+C Gram-positive division. Other abundant phylotypes detected in several different clone libraries grouped with Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria, diatom chloroplasts, delta proteobacteria (Desulfosarcina group, Syntrophus and Geobacterl Pelobacter/Desulphuromonas group), order Chlamydiales (Parachlamydiaceae) and Spirochaetales (wall-less Antarctic spirochaetes). Most archaeal clones detected (3.1% of clones) belonged to a highly diverged group of Euryarchaeota clustering with clones previously detected in rice soil, aquifer sediments and hydrothermal vent material. Little similarity existed between the phylotypes detected in this study and other clone libraries based on marine sediment, suggesting that an enormous prokaryotic diversity occurs within marine and marine-derived sediments.

  14. Digital filter control of remotely operated flexible robotic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents an infinite impulse response (IIR) filtering technique for reducing structural vibration in remotely operated robotic systems. The technique uses a discrete filter between the operator`s joy stick and the robot controller to alter the inputs of the system so that residual vibration and swing are reduced. A linearized plant model of the system is analyzed in the discrete time domain, and the filter is designed using pole-zero placement in the z-plane. This technique has been successfully applied to a two link flexible arm and a gantry crane with a suspended payload.

  15. Operation of marine diesel engines on biogenic fuels: modification of emissions and resulting climate effects.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Andreas; Lauer, Peter; Fritsche, Uwe; Hasselbach, Jan; Lichtenstern, Michael; Schlager, Hans; Fleischer, Fritz

    2011-12-15

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO(2), NO(x), hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fuel life cycle analysis which included land use changes associated with the growth of energy plants. Emissions of CO(2) and NO(x) per kWh were found to be similar for fossil fuels and biogenic fuels. PM mass emission was reduced to 10-15% of HFO emissions for all low-sulfur fuels including MGO as a fossil fuel. Black carbon emissions were reduced significantly to 13-30% of HFO. Changes in emissions were predominantly related to particulate sulfate, while differences between low-sulfur fossil fuels and low-sulfur biogenic fuels were of minor significance. GHG emissions from the biogenic fuel life cycle (FLC) depend crucially on energy plant production conditions and have the potential of shifting the overall GHG budget from positive to negative compared to fossil fuels.

  16. Maximality-Based Structural Operational Semantics for Petri Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saīdouni, Djamel Eddine; Belala, Nabil; Bouneb, Messaouda

    2009-03-01

    The goal of this work is to exploit an implementable model, namely the maximality-based labeled transition system, which permits to express true-concurrency in a natural way without splitting actions on their start and end events. One can do this by giving a maximality-based structural operational semantics for the model of Place/Transition Petri nets in terms of maximality-based labeled transition systems structures.

  17. Characterization of measurement errors using structure-from-motion and photogrammetry to measure marine habitat structural complexity.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Mitch; Ferrari, Renata; Figueira, Will; Pizarro, Oscar; Madin, Josh; Williams, Stefan; Byrne, Maria

    2017-08-01

    Habitat structural complexity is one of the most important factors in determining the makeup of biological communities. Recent advances in structure-from-motion and photogrammetry have resulted in a proliferation of 3D digital representations of habitats from which structural complexity can be measured. Little attention has been paid to quantifying the measurement errors associated with these techniques, including the variability of results under different surveying and environmental conditions. Such errors have the potential to confound studies that compare habitat complexity over space and time. This study evaluated the accuracy, precision, and bias in measurements of marine habitat structural complexity derived from structure-from-motion and photogrammetric measurements using repeated surveys of artificial reefs (with known structure) as well as natural coral reefs. We quantified measurement errors as a function of survey image coverage, actual surface rugosity, and the morphological community composition of the habitat-forming organisms (reef corals). Our results indicated that measurements could be biased by up to 7.5% of the total observed ranges of structural complexity based on the environmental conditions present during any particular survey. Positive relationships were found between measurement errors and actual complexity, and the strength of these relationships was increased when coral morphology and abundance were also used as predictors. The numerous advantages of structure-from-motion and photogrammetry techniques for quantifying and investigating marine habitats will mean that they are likely to replace traditional measurement techniques (e.g., chain-and-tape). To this end, our results have important implications for data collection and the interpretation of measurements when examining changes in habitat complexity using structure-from-motion and photogrammetry.

  18. Three-Dimensional Structure Analysis and Percolation Properties of a Barrier Marine Coating

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Xiong, Gang; Shemilt, Laura; Diaz, Ana; Nutter, John; Burdet, Nicolas; Huo, Suguo; Mancuso, Joel; Monteith, Alexander; Vergeer, Frank; Burgess, Andrew; Robinson, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Artificially structured coatings are widely employed to minimize materials deterioration and corrosion, the annual direct cost of which is over 3% of the gross domestic product (GDP) for industrial countries. Manufacturing higher performance anticorrosive coatings is one of the most efficient approaches to reduce this loss. However, three-dimensional (3D) structure of coatings, which determines their performance, has not been investigated in detail. Here we present a quantitative nano-scale analysis of the 3D spatial structure of an anticorrosive aluminium epoxy barrier marine coating obtained by serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) and ptychographic X-ray computed tomography (PXCT). We then use finite element simulations to demonstrate how percolation through this actual 3D structure impedes ion diffusion in the composite materials. We found the aluminium flakes align within 15° of the coating surface in the material, causing the perpendicular diffusion resistance of the coating to be substantially higher than the pure epoxy. PMID:23378910

  19. Microphysical structure of simulated marine stratocumulus: Effects of physical and numerical approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, B.; Cotton, W.R.; Feingold, G.

    1996-04-01

    Over the past decade or so the evolution and equilibria of persistent decks of stratocumulus climatologically clinging to the edge of summertime subtropical highs have been an issue of increased scientific inquiry. The particular interest in the microphysical structure of these clouds stems from a variety of hypotheses which suggest that anthropogenic influences or biogenic feedbacks may alter the structure of these clouds in a climatically significant manner. Most of these hypotheses are quite tentative, based as they are on simple formulations of boundary layer structures and interactions between drops and aerosols. This work is concerned with an assessment of the microphysical structure of marine stratocumulus as simulated by an LES-EM model.

  20. Traumatic brain injury during Operation Iraqi Freedom: findings from the United States Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry.

    PubMed

    Galarneau, Michael R; Woodruff, Susan I; Dye, Judy L; Mohrle, Charlene R; Wade, Amber L

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among military personnel (primarily Marines) during the second phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom from early in the medical care chain of evacuation through Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, a Level 4 American hospital in Germany. Data were obtained from the Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry (CTR) and included both battle and nonbattle injuries. Follow-up of patients with TBI was conducted to examine the short-term medical and personnel-related effects of TBI among those surviving. Those injured in battle were more likely than those not injured in battle to have multiple TBI diagnoses, a greater number of all diagnoses, more severe TBIs, and to be medically evacuated. Intracranial injuries (for example, concussions) were the predominant type of TBI, although skull fractures and open head wounds were also seen. Improvised explosive devices were the most common cause of TBIs among battle injuries; blunt trauma and motor vehicle crashes were the most common causes among nonbattle injuries. Short-term follow-up of surviving patients with TBI indicated higher morbidity and medical utilization among the patients with more severe TBI, although mental conditions were higher among patients with milder TBI. Data from the Navy-Marine Corps CTR provide useful information about combatants' TBIs identified early in the combat casualty process. Results may improve clinical care for those affected and suggest strategies for primary prevention. The CTR staff plans to conduct additional follow-up studies of this group of patients with TBI.

  1. Marine boundary layer structure as observed by A-train satellites

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Tao; Wang, Zhien; Zhang, Damao; ...

    2016-05-13

    The marine boundary layer (MBL) structure is important to the marine low cloud processes, and the exchange of heat, momentum, and moisture between oceans and the low atmosphere. This study examines the MBL structure over the eastern Pacific region and further explores the controlling factors of MBL structure over the global oceans with a new 4-year satellite-based data set. The MBL top (boundary layer height, BLH) and the mixing layer height (MLH) were identified using the MBL aerosol lidar backscattering from the CALIPSO (Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations). Results showed that the MBL is generally decoupled with MLH ∕ BLHmore » ratio ranging from  ∼  0.5 to  ∼  0.8 over the eastern Pacific Ocean region. The MBL decoupling magnitude is mainly controlled by estimated inversion strength (EIS), which in turn controls the cloud top entrainment process. The systematic differences between drizzling and non-drizzling stratocumulus tops also show dependence on EIS. This may be related to the meso-scale circulations or gravity wave in the MBL. Further analysis indicates that the MBL shows a similar decoupled structure for clear-sky and cumulus-cloud-topped conditions, but is better mixed under stratiform cloud breakup and overcast conditions.« less

  2. Marine boundary layer structure as observed by A-train satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Wang, Zhien; Zhang, Damao; Chen, Bing

    2016-05-01

    The marine boundary layer (MBL) structure is important to the marine low cloud processes, and the exchange of heat, momentum, and moisture between oceans and the low atmosphere. This study examines the MBL structure over the eastern Pacific region and further explores the controlling factors of MBL structure over the global oceans with a new 4-year satellite-based data set. The MBL top (boundary layer height, BLH) and the mixing layer height (MLH) were identified using the MBL aerosol lidar backscattering from the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations). Results showed that the MBL is generally decoupled with MLH / BLH ratio ranging from ˜ 0.5 to ˜ 0.8 over the eastern Pacific Ocean region. The MBL decoupling magnitude is mainly controlled by estimated inversion strength (EIS), which in turn controls the cloud top entrainment process. The systematic differences between drizzling and non-drizzling stratocumulus tops also show dependence on EIS. This may be related to the meso-scale circulations or gravity wave in the MBL. Further analysis indicates that the MBL shows a similar decoupled structure for clear-sky and cumulus-cloud-topped conditions, but is better mixed under stratiform cloud breakup and overcast conditions.

  3. Structural and operational complexity of the Geobacter sulfurreducens genome

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yu; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Park, Young Seoub; Lovley, Derek; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.; Zengler, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Prokaryotic genomes can be annotated based on their structural, operational, and functional properties. These annotations provide the pivotal scaffold for understanding cellular functions on a genome-scale, such as metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Here, we describe a systems approach to simultaneously determine the structural and operational annotation of the Geobacter sulfurreducens genome. Integration of proteomics, transcriptomics, RNA polymerase, and sigma factor-binding information with deep-sequencing-based analysis of primary 5′-end transcripts allowed for a most precise annotation. The structural annotation is comprised of numerous previously undetected genes, noncoding RNAs, prevalent leaderless mRNA transcripts, and antisense transcripts. When compared with other prokaryotes, we found that the number of antisense transcripts reversely correlated with genome size. The operational annotation consists of 1453 operons, 22% of which have multiple transcription start sites that use different RNA polymerase holoenzymes. Several operons with multiple transcription start sites encoded genes with essential functions, giving insight into the regulatory complexity of the genome. The experimentally determined structural and operational annotations can be combined with functional annotation, yielding a new three-level annotation that greatly expands our understanding of prokaryotic genomes. PMID:20592237

  4. Structural and Operational Complexity of the Geobacter Sulfurreducens Genome

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Yu; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Park, Young S.; Lovley, Derek R.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zengler, Karsten

    2010-06-30

    Prokaryotic genomes can be annotated based on their structural, operational, and functional properties. These annotations provide the pivotal scaffold for understanding cellular functions on a genome-scale, such as metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Here, we describe a systems approach to simultaneously determine the structural and operational annotation of the Geobacter sulfurreducens genome. Integration of proteomics, transcriptomics, RNA polymerase, and sigma factor-binding information with deep-sequencing-based analysis of primary 59-end transcripts allowed for a most precise annotation. The structural annotation is comprised of numerous previously undetected genes, noncoding RNAs, prevalent leaderless mRNA transcripts, and antisense transcripts. When compared with other prokaryotes, we found that the number of antisense transcripts reversely correlated with genome size. The operational annotation consists of 1453 operons, 22% of which have multiple transcription start sites that use different RNA polymerase holoenzymes. Several operons with multiple transcription start sites encoded genes with essential functions, giving insight into the regulatory complexity of the genome. The experimentally determined structural and operational annotations can be combined with functional annotation, yielding a new three-level annotation that greatly expands our understanding of prokaryotic genomes.

  5. Isolation and structural characterisation of two antibacterial free fatty acids from the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Andrew P; Lebl, Tomas; Yan, Liming; Smith, Valerie J

    2008-12-01

    One solution to the global crisis of antibiotic resistance is the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds for clinical application. Marine organisms are an attractive and, as yet, relatively untapped resource of new natural products. Cell extracts from the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, have antibacterial activity and the fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has been identified as one compound responsible for this activity. During the isolation of EPA, it became apparent that the extracts contained further antibacterial compounds. The present study was undertaken to isolate these additional antibacterial factors using silica column chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Two antibacterial fractions, each containing a pure compound, were isolated and their chemical structures were investigated by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The antibacterial compounds were identified as the monounsaturated fatty acid (9Z)-hexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid; C16:1 n-7) and the relatively unusual polyunsaturated fatty acid (6Z, 9Z, 12Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (HTA; C16:3 n-4). Both are active against Gram-positive bacteria with HTA further inhibitory to the growth of the Gram-negative marine pathogen, Listonella anguillarum. Palmitoleic acid is active at micro-molar concentrations, kills bacteria rapidly, and is highly active against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. These free fatty acids warrant further investigation as a new potential therapy for drug-resistant infections.

  6. Turbulence structure of the marine stable boundary layer over the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Smedman, A.S.; Hoegstroem, U.

    1994-12-31

    For more than half of the year the land surfaces surrounding the Baltic Sea is warmer than the sea surface, and the marine boundary layer over the Baltic is stable. Observations, at various sites in the Baltic Sea area during the last decade. also indicate frequent occurrence of low-level jets at the top of the stable boundary layer. In many cases the marine jet can be considered as an analogy in space to the evolution of the nocturnal jet with time. The frictional decoupling occurs when warm air over the land is flowing out over the sea. Data from two areas together with model simulations are used in this study to characterize turbulence structure in the marine boundary layer. The measurements include profiles of wind and temperature on towers situated at two isolated islands, together with turbulence recordings and aircraft measurements. Also wave height and water surface temperature have been measured. The model simulations are performed with a second-order closure model.

  7. The experience of the US Marine Corps' Surgical Shock Trauma Platoon with 417 operative combat casualties during a 12 month period of operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lowell W; Green, D J; Gillingham, Bruce L; Sample, Kenneth; Rhee, Peter; Brown, Carlos; Brethauer, Stacy; Nelson, Thomas; Narine, Nalan; Baker, Bruce; Bohman, H R

    2006-06-01

    The Forward Resuscitative Surgical System (FRSS) is a small, mobile trauma surgical unit designed to support modern US Marine Corps combat operations. The experience of two co-located FRSS teams during 1 year of service in Operation Iraqi Freedom is reviewed to evaluate the system's efficacy. Between March 1, 2004, and February 28, 2005, two FRSS teams and a shock trauma platoon were co-located in a unit designated the Surgical Shock Trauma Platoon (SSTP). Data concerning patient care before and during treatment at the SSTP was maintained prospectively. Prospective determination of outcomes was obtained by e-mail correspondence with surgeons caring for the patients at higher echelons. The Los Angeles County medical center (LAC) trauma registry was queried to obtain a comparable data-base with which to compare outcomes. During the year reviewed there were 895 trauma admissions to the SSTP. Excluding 25 patients pulseless on arrival and 291 minimally injured patients, 559 of 579 (97%) combat casualties survived; 417 casualties underwent 981 operative procedures in the two SSTP operating shelters. There were 79 operative patients with a mean injury severity score of 26 (range, 16-59) and mean revised trauma score of 6.963 (range, 4.21-7.841) who had sustained severe injuries. Ten (12.7%) of these casualties died while 43 of 337 (12.8%) deaths were seen with comparable cases treated at LAC. Small task-oriented surgical units are capable of providing effective trauma surgical care to combat casualties. Further experience is needed to better delineate the balance between early, forward-based surgical intervention and more prolonged initial casualty evacuation to reach more robust surgical facilities.

  8. The vertical turbulence structure of the coastal marine atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Tjernstroem, M.; Smedman, A.S. )

    1993-03-15

    The vertical turbulence structure in the marine atmosphere along a shoreline has been investigated using data from tower and aircraft measurements performed along the Baltic coast in the southeast of Sweden. Two properties make the Baltic Sea particularly interesting. It is surrounded by land in all directions within moderate advection distances, and it features a significant annual lag in sea surface temperature as compared with inland surface temperature. The present data were collected mostly during spring or early summer, when the water is cool, i.e., with a stably or neutrally stratified marine boundary layer usually capped by an inversion. Substantial daytime heating over the land area results in a considerable horizontal thermal contrast. Measurements were made on a small island, on a tower with a good sea fetch, and with an airborne instrument package. The profile data from the aircraft is from 25 slant soundings performed in connection to low level boundary layer flights. The results from the profiles are extracted through filtering techniques on individual time (space) series (individual profiles), applying different normalization and finally averaging over all or over groups of profiles. The land-based data are from a low tower situated on the shoreline of a small island with a wide sector of unobstructed sea fetch. Several factors are found that add to the apparent complexity of the coastal marine environment: the state of the sea appears to have a major impact on the turbulence structure of the surface layer, jet-shaped wind speed profiles were very common at the top of the boundary layer (in about 50% of the cases) and distinct layers with increased turbulence were frequently found well above the boundary layer (in about 80% of the cases). The present paper will concentrate on a description of the experiment, the analysis methods, and a general description of the boundary layer turbulence structure over the Baltic Sea. 40 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. First operation of the rf-focused interdigital linac structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joel Starling, W.; Swenson, Donald A.

    2007-08-01

    The new rf-focused interdigital (RFI) linac structure came into operation at the Linac Systems laboratory in May of 2006, after a multi-year development program supported by the US Department of Energy. The RFI linac structure is basically an interdigital (or Wideröe) linac structure with rf quadrupole focusing incorporated into each drift tube. The RFI prototype operates at 200-MHz and consists of an ECR ion source, an Einzel lens LEBT, a radial-strut, four-bar RFQ linac section to 0.75 MeV and an RFI linac section to a final energy of 2.5 MeV. The total length of the prototype is 2.2 m. The RFQ and RFI linac sections are resonantly coupled and require a total of 120 kW of rf power for cavity excitation. The energy of the accelerated beam was confirmed by requiring it to pass through a 2.25-MeV energy-degrading foil. The specifications for the RFI linac prototype were chosen to address the demanding Boron Neutron Capture Therapy medical application. There are, however, many other potential applications for the structure as it has efficiency and size advantages for both protons and heavy ions at a variety of energies and currents. To date, we have achieved a beam current of approximately 1 mA peak at a relatively low duty factor. We continue to improve the performance of the prototype structure on a daily basis as we better understand the optimal operational settings for the prototype system. Now that the first operational milestone for the RFI linac structure has been achieved, Linac Systems will vigorously pursue projects and partnerships for multiple applications such as compact and intense neutron sources, proton and carbon injector linacs for synchrotrons and PET isotope production.

  10. U.S. Marine Corps Operations in Iraq, 2003-2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    S. Sanchez , USA, stated his mission was simultane­ ously conducting combat operations and stability and security operations as well as preparing to...drawn from maritime prepositioned ships MV 1stLt Bal­ domero Lopez , MV Pvt Franklin J. Phillips, and MV PFC William B. Baugh, awaited the arrival...the fourth on the following day. After a series of conferences with the White House and the Secretary of Defense, Lieutenant General Sanchez

  11. The Marine Corps Budget and Contingency Operations: Is the Funding Adequate to the Mission?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    such as Operation Fiery Vigil, the evacuation of U.S. personnel from the Philippines following the eruption of Mount Pinotubo.31 The cost of Operation...USS Tripoli, USS Juneau, and 50 USS Rushmore . Their mission was to secure the seaport and airport of Mogadishu to provide secure assembly areas for...participated in the Mount Pinotubo evacuation in the Philippines and the Hurricane Hugo disaster relief in Guam since participating in Desert storm." When

  12. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-03-25

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi's productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances.

  13. Environmental degradation of composites for marine structures: new materials and new applications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of seawater ageing on composites used in a range of marine structures, from boats to tidal turbines. Accounting for environmental degradation is an essential element in the multi-scale modelling of composite materials but it requires reliable test data input. The traditional approach to account for ageing effects, based on testing samples after immersion for different periods, is evolving towards coupled studies involving strong interactions between water diffusion and mechanical loading. These can provide a more realistic estimation of long-term behaviour but still require some form of acceleration if useful data, for 20 year lifetimes or more, are to be obtained in a reasonable time. In order to validate extrapolations from short to long times, it is essential to understand the degradation mechanisms, so both physico-chemical and mechanical test data are required. Examples of results from some current studies on more environmentally friendly materials including bio-sourced composites will be described first. Then a case study for renewable marine energy applications will be discussed. In both cases, studies were performed first on coupons at the material level, then during structural testing and analysis of large components, in order to evaluate their long-term behaviour. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials’. PMID:27242304

  14. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances. PMID:27023571

  15. Biophysical connectivity explains population genetic structure in a highly dispersive marine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truelove, Nathan K.; Kough, Andrew S.; Behringer, Donald C.; Paris, Claire B.; Box, Stephen J.; Preziosi, Richard F.; Butler, Mark J.

    2017-03-01

    Connectivity, the exchange of individuals among locations, is a fundamental ecological process that explains how otherwise disparate populations interact. For most marine organisms, dispersal occurs primarily during a pelagic larval phase that connects populations. We paired population structure from comprehensive genetic sampling and biophysical larval transport modeling to describe how spiny lobster ( Panulirus argus) population differentiation is related to biological oceanography. A total of 581 lobsters were genotyped with 11 microsatellites from ten locations around the greater Caribbean. The overall F ST of 0.0016 ( P = 0.005) suggested low yet significant levels of structuring among sites. An isolation by geographic distance model did not explain spatial patterns of genetic differentiation in P. argus ( P = 0.19; Mantel r = 0.18), whereas a biophysical connectivity model provided a significant explanation of population differentiation ( P = 0.04; Mantel r = 0.47). Thus, even for a widely dispersing species, dispersal occurs over a continuum where basin-wide larval retention creates genetic structure. Our study provides a framework for future explorations of wide-scale larval dispersal and marine connectivity by integrating empirical genetic research and probabilistic modeling.

  16. Environmental degradation of composites for marine structures: new materials and new applications.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter

    2016-07-13

    This paper describes the influence of seawater ageing on composites used in a range of marine structures, from boats to tidal turbines. Accounting for environmental degradation is an essential element in the multi-scale modelling of composite materials but it requires reliable test data input. The traditional approach to account for ageing effects, based on testing samples after immersion for different periods, is evolving towards coupled studies involving strong interactions between water diffusion and mechanical loading. These can provide a more realistic estimation of long-term behaviour but still require some form of acceleration if useful data, for 20 year lifetimes or more, are to be obtained in a reasonable time. In order to validate extrapolations from short to long times, it is essential to understand the degradation mechanisms, so both physico-chemical and mechanical test data are required. Examples of results from some current studies on more environmentally friendly materials including bio-sourced composites will be described first. Then a case study for renewable marine energy applications will be discussed. In both cases, studies were performed first on coupons at the material level, then during structural testing and analysis of large components, in order to evaluate their long-term behaviour. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'.

  17. Marine boundary layer structure as observed by space-based Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, T.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, D.

    2015-12-01

    The marine boundary layer (MBL) structure is important to the exchange of heat, momentum, and moisture between oceans and the low atmosphere and to the marine low cloud processes. This paper explores MBL structure over the eastern Pacific region with a new 4 year satellite-based dataset. The MBL aerosol lidar backscattering from the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) was used to identify the MBL top (BLH) and the mixing layer height (MLH). Results showed that MBL is generally decoupled with MLH / BLH ratio ranging from ∼ 0.5 to ∼ 0.8 and the MBL decoupling magnitude is mainly controlled by estimated inversion strength (EIS) that affects the cloud top entrainment process. The systematic differences between drizzling and non-drizzling stratocumulus tops, which may relate to the meso-scale circulations or gravity wave in MBL, also show dependence on EIS. Further analysis indicated that the MBL shows similar decoupled structure for clear sky and cumulus cloud-topped conditions, but is better mixed under stratiform cloud breakup and overcast conditions.

  18. Diver-operated instrument for in situ measurement of spectral fluorescence and reflectance of benthic marine organisms and substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazel, Charles H.

    1997-09-01

    A self-contained diver-operated underwater instrument is developed to make in situ measurements of spectral fluorescence and reflectance of benthic marine organisms and substrates. The instrument, designated the benthic spectrofluorometer (BSF), is built around a single-board spectrometer with a 1024-element CCD array. Light input to the spectrometer is via a fiber optic cable. In fluorescence mode, the unit provides manual user-selectable excitation wavelength and measures fluorescence emission over the full visible spectrum. The BSF can also measure the spectrum of downwelling ambient light or of light reflected from surfaces of interest, enabling calculation of spectral reflectance. The instrument has been used successfully at several field locations, primarily for investigation of optical properties of coral reef organisms and in collecting baseline data in support of remote sensing systems. The instrument is described and representative data are presented.

  19. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): Yuma Marine Corps Air Station, Operable Unit 2, Yuma, AZ, December 2, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) for Operable Unit (OU2) documents the remedial action plan for OU2 at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), Yuma, Arizona. On the basis of the data collected at the OU2 sites, no further action is necessary for 12 of the 18 CAOCs included in OU2, because these sites do not pose a threat to human health or the environment. However, remedial action is required to protect human health and comply with regulatory requirements at three of the CAOCs in OU2 because of the presence of ACM. Under this alternative, ACM fragment visible on soil surfaces would be collected manually. Collection would include removing approximately the upper inch of soil beneath the ACM to reduce the potential for asbestos fibers remaining behind in the soil. The ACM and soils would be stockpiled, manifested, loaded, transported, and disposed of at a permitted facility.

  20. Marine tumor vaccine carriers: structure of the molluscan hemocyanins KLH and htH.

    PubMed

    Markl, J; Lieb, B; Gebauer, W; Altenhein, B; Meissner, U; Harris, J R

    2001-10-01

    Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a well-established immune stimulant and hapten carrier, and Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin (HtH) is a related product. Biologically, KLH and HtH are blue copper proteins which serve as oxygen carriers in the blood of the keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata and the abalone H. tuberculata, respectively, two marine gastropods. Both hemocyanins occur as two distinct isoforms, termed KLH1 KLH2, HtH1, and HtH2. Each of these molecules is based on a very large polypeptide chain, the subunit (molecular mass ca 400 kDa), which is folded into a series of eight globular functional units (molecular mass ca 50 kDa each). Twenty copies of this subunit form a cylindrical quaternary structure (molecular mass ca 8 MDa). This article reviews the recent data on the biosynthesis, quaternary structure, subunit architecture, amino acid sequence, gene structure, and recombinant production of KLH and HtH.

  1. On the diurnal characteristics of cloud structure in the marine stratocumulus transition regime

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    It is known that stratus-topped marine boundary layers in the mid- latitudes are subject to significant diurnal changes in structure caused by solar heating. One characteristic of the transition cloud regime that has been thoroughly explored is its diurnal variability. Although this variability has been discussed in other studies, the size of the database was restrictive. Thus, it is of importance to examine the diurnal characteristics of transition cloud structure in a larger data sample to validate the conclusions of these previous studies and to enhance our understanding of the effects of this diurnal variability on the climatology of the transition itself. The Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) was designed to help understand transition clouds by making comprehensive measurements of their structure over a one-month period. Data was collected using a suite of in-situ and surface-based remote sensors deployed on the island of Santa Maria.

  2. The positive impact of structured teaching in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yee; Salfinger, Stuart; Mercer, Annette

    2015-12-01

    A survey of obstetric and gynaecology trainees in Australia found the trainee's opinion of the consultants' teaching ability for laparoscopic procedures and procedures dealing with complications as 'poor' in 21.2% and 23.4% of responses, respectively (Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 2009; 49: 84). Surgical caseload per trainee is falling for a variety of reasons. Strategies need to be adopted to enhance the surgical learning experience of trainees in the operating room. We describe the use of a structured encounter template to facilitate the teaching of surgery in the operating room and report the response of the trainees to this intervention. Trainees attached to a gynaecologic surgery unit all underwent surgical training using a set format based on the surgical encounter template, including briefing, goal setting and intra-operative teaching aims as well as debriefing. Data on the trainees' experience and perception of their learning experience were then collected and analysed as quantitative and qualitative data sets. The trainees reported satisfaction with the use of a structured encounter template to facilitate the surgical teaching in the operating room. Some trainees had not received such clarity of feedback or the opportunity to complete a procedure independently prior to using the structured encounter template. A structured surgical encounter template based on andragogy principles to focus consultant teaching in the operating room is highly acceptable to obstetric and gynaecology trainees in Australia. Allowing the trainee the opportunity to set objectives and receive feedback empowers the trainee and enhances their educational experience. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Real-time gaseous, PM and ultrafine particle emissions from a modern marine engine operating on biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Varalakshmi; Agrawal, Harshit; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2011-03-15

    Emissions from harbor-craft significantly affect air quality in populated regions near ports and inland waterways. This research measured regulated and unregulated emissions from an in-use EPA Tier 2 marine propulsion engine on a ferry operating in a bay following standard methods. A special effort was made to monitor continuously both the total Particulate Mass (PM) mass emissions and the real-time Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The engine was operated following the loads in ISO 8178-4 E3 cycle for comparison with the certification standards and across biodiesel blends. Real-time measurements were also made during a typical cruise in the bay. Results showed the in-use nitrogen oxide (NOx) and PM(2.5) emission factors were within the not to exceed standard for Tier 2 marine engines. Comparing across fuels we observed the following: a) no statistically significant change in NO(x) emissions with biodiesel blends (B20, B50); b) ∼ 16% and ∼ 25% reduction of PM(2.5) mass emissions with B20 and B50 respectively; c) a larger organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) ratio and organic mass (OM) to OC ratio with B50 compared to B20 and B0; d) a significant number of ultrafine nuclei and a smaller mass mean diameter with increasing blend-levels of biodiesel. The real-time monitoring of gaseous and particulate emissions during a typical cruise in the San Francisco Bay (in-use cycle) revealed important effects of ocean/bay currents on emissions: NO(x) and CO(2) increased 3-fold; PM(2.5) mass increased 6-fold; and ultrafine particles disappeared due to the effect of bay currents. This finding has implications on the use of certification values instead of actual in-use emission values when developing inventories. Emission factors for some volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported as supplemental data.

  4. Digital filter control of remotely operated flexible robotic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an infinite impulse response (IIR) filtering technique for reducing structural vibration in remotely operated robotic systems. The technique uses a discrete filter between the operator's joy stick and the robot controller to alter the inputs of the system so that residual vibration and swing are reduced. A linearized plant model of the system is analyzed in the discrete time domain, and the filter is designed using pole-zero placement in the z-plane. This technique has been successfully applied to a two link flexible arm and a gantry crane with a suspended payload.

  5. Fine-scale population genetic structure of Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri): do local marine currents drive geographical differentiation?

    PubMed

    Zhan, Aibin; Hu, Jingjie; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Zunchun; Hui, Min; Wang, Shi; Peng, Wei; Wang, Mingling; Bao, Zhenmin

    2009-01-01

    Marine scallops, with extended planktonic larval stages which can potentially disperse over large distances when advected by marine currents, are expected to possess low geographical differentiation. However, the sessile lifestyle as adult tends to form discrete "sea beds" with unique population dynamics and structure. The narrow distribution of Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri), its long planktonic larval stage, and the extremely hydrographic complexity in its distribution range provide an interesting case to elucidate the impact of marine currents on geographical differentiation for marine bivalves at a fine geographical scale. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation at nine microsatellite DNA loci in six locations throughout the distribution of Zhikong scallop in the Northern China. Very high genetic diversity was present in all six populations. Two populations sampled from the same marine gyre had no detectable genetic differentiation (F (ST) = 0.0013); however, the remaining four populations collected from different marine gyres or separated by strong marine currents showed low but significant genetic differentiation (F (ST) range 0.0184-0.0602). Genetic differentiation was further analyzed using the Monmonier algorithm to identify genetic barriers and using the assignment test conducted by software GeneClass2 to ascertain population membership of individuals. The genetic barriers fitting the orientation of marine gyres/currents were clearly identified, and the individual assignment analysis indicated that 95.6% of specimens were correctly allocated to one of the six populations sampled. The results support the hypothesis that significant population structure is present in Zhikong scallop at a fine geographical scale, and marine currents can be responsible for the genetic differentiation.

  6. Widely used marine seismic survey air gun operations negatively impact zooplankton.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Robert D; Day, Ryan D; Swadling, Kerrie M; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Watson, Reg A; Semmens, Jayson M

    2017-06-22

    Zooplankton underpin the health and productivity of global marine ecosystems. Here we present evidence that suggests seismic surveys cause significant mortality to zooplankton populations. Seismic surveys are used extensively to explore for petroleum resources using intense, low-frequency, acoustic impulse signals. Experimental air gun signal exposure decreased zooplankton abundance when compared with controls, as measured by sonar (~3-4 dB drop within 15-30 min) and net tows (median 64% decrease within 1 h), and caused a two- to threefold increase in dead adult and larval zooplankton. Impacts were observed out to the maximum 1.2 km range sampled, which was more than two orders of magnitude greater than the previously assumed impact range of 10 m. Although no adult krill were present, all larval krill were killed after air gun passage. There is a significant and unacknowledged potential for ocean ecosystem function and productivity to be negatively impacted by present seismic technology.

  7. Current Methods for Meteorological and Marine Forecasting for the Assistance of Navigation and Shipping Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Prete, R.; Pezzoli, A.; Pezzoli, G.

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate a methodology for the enhancement of meteorological marine forecasts tailored to the needs of navigation. The study consists of two parts: (1) Theoretical background. Introduction to numerical models for weather forecasting used by meteorological centres. A review of the most reliable equations for prediction of intensity and direction of wind and sea state. In particular, reference is made to the tables for wind forecasting developed by R. Mayençon and A. Pezzoli and the equations for prediction of sea state obtained by K. Haselman and D. J. T. Carter in light of the JONSWAP experiment. (2) Practical application. Application of the methodology to a real-world example: a weather forecast elaborated by the Meteohydrological Laboratory at Dipartimento d'Idraulica Trasporti ed Infrastrutture Civili (DITIC) of the Polytechnic of Turin. The forecast was requested by the Consorzio Prada Challenge 2000 as a meteorological support for the training they held in the Tyrrhenian Sea for the next America's Cup series.

  8. Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Paula; DʼAuria, M Valeria; Muller, Christian D; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

    2014-09-01

    Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications.

  9. Marine fish community structure and habitat associations on the Canadian Beaufort shelf and slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Andrew R.; Atchison, Sheila; MacPhee, Shannon; Eert, Jane; Niemi, Andrea; Michel, Christine; Reist, James D.

    2017-03-01

    Marine fishes in the Canadian Beaufort Sea have complex interactions with habitats and prey, and occupy a pivotal position in the food web by transferring energy between lower- and upper-trophic levels, and also within and among habitats (e.g., benthic-pelagic coupling). The distributions, habitat associations, and community structure of most Beaufort Sea marine fishes, however, are unknown thus precluding effective regulatory management of emerging offshore industries in the region (e.g., hydrocarbon development, shipping, and fisheries). Between 2012 and 2014, Fisheries and Oceans Canada conducted the first baseline survey of offshore marine fishes, their habitats, and ecological relationships in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Benthic trawling was conducted at 45 stations spanning 18-1001 m depths across shelf and slope habitats. Physical oceanographic variables (depth, salinity, temperature, oxygen), biological variables (benthic chlorophyll and integrated water-column chlorophyll) and sediment composition (grain size) were assessed as potential explanatory variables for fish community structure using a non-parametric statistical approach. Selected stations were re-sampled in 2013 and 2014 for a preliminary assessment of inter-annual variability in the fish community. Four distinct fish assemblages were delineated on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf and slope: 1) Nearshore-shelf: <50 m depth, 2) Offshore-shelf: >50 and ≤200 m depths, 3) Upper-slope: ≥200 and ≤500 m depths, and 4) Lower-slope: ≥500 m depths. Depth was the environmental variable that best explained fish community structure, and each species assemblage was spatially associated with distinct aspects of the vertical water mass profile. Significant differences in the fish community from east to west were not detected, and the species composition of the assemblages on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf have not changed substantially over the past decade. This community analysis provides a framework for testing

  10. Environmental Drivers of Inter-annual Variability in Beaufort Sea Marine Fish Community Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, A.; Atchison, S.; Eert, J.; Dempsey, M.; MacPhee, S.; Michel, C.; Reist, J.

    2016-02-01

    The Beaufort Sea is a complex and dynamic system influenced by a wide suite of oceanic and riverine inputs that affect the ecosystem. Interactions within the resulting water masses are largely driven by factors such as precipitation, wind, and ice cover. Thus, the Beaufort Sea environment is highly variable in both space and time, and this variability is reflected in the habitats of biota. Inherent system variability must be factored into baselines designed to detect changes resulting from anthropogenic stressors and natural drivers. Between 2012 and 2014, Fisheries and Oceans Canada conducted the first baseline survey of offshore marine fishes, their habitats, and ecological relationships in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. In 2012, benthic trawling was conducted at 28 stations spanning 20-1000 m depths across shelf and slope habitats, and selected stations were re-sampled in 2013 and 2014. Concurrent sampling of oceanographic parameters and sediment composition was conducted at each station. We examine the stability of marine fish assemblages over a three-year period, and compare results for shelf stations to previous research to develop longer-term perspectives. Oceanographic (e.g., salinity), physical (e.g., depth and sediment grain size) and geographic (e.g., distance from shore) parameters, and proxies for local productivity (i.e., water-column and benthic chlorophyll) are explored as explanatory variables affecting fish community structure among years. Establishing knowledge baselines and understanding variability in the community structure and habitat associations of Beaufort Sea marine fishes will support mitigation and conservation efforts by enhancing our ability to predict, detect and monitor the effects of hydrocarbon development and climate change on this pivotal ecosystem component.

  11. Failed Implementation of Operational Design into the Marine Corps Planning Process and the Need for Systems Architecting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-06

    United States Marine Corps published an update tci Marine Corps Warfighting Publication (MCWP) 5-1, Marine Corps Planning Process (MCPP). This...Marine Corps Planning Process, Systems Architecting ’ 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT. lb. ABSTRACT r · THIS PAGE Unclass Unci ass...the manual labor of system construction. The end user of a system then interacts with that system daily. The end usei· does not necessarily make

  12. Performance Prediction and Simulation of Gas Turbine Engine Operation for Aircraft, Marine, Vehicular, and Power Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    models the physics of individual components and is amenable to adaptation as deterioration occurs. Alternate engine models such as excess torque , which...shafts. Several systems exist to transfer the torque including wet and dry friction plate systems and a variety of hydraulic systems (e.g. torque ...4.2.4.4 Afterburner (Reheat) Simulation 4-25 4.2.4.5 Dry (Non-Burning) Operation 4-26 4.2.4.6 Wet (Burning Operation) 4-28 4.2.4.7 Flow

  13. Fatal and Non-Fatal Electrocution Injuries at U.S. Marine Corps Forward Medical Facilities During Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bradley; Deaton, Travis; Galarneau, Mike; Dye, Judy; Zieber, Tara; Auten, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Death from electrocution is rare and generally an accidental occurrence. In contrast to civilian patterns of electrocution injury, the military work environment suffers from a greater percentage of fatal high-voltage electrocutions. This study compared U.S. and international electrocution case fatality rates to rates among deployed military personnel presenting for care at expeditionary medical care facilities. We also sought to identify potential risk factors for fatal electrocution injury among deployed military personnel. A retrospective analysis was performed on electrocution injuries presenting to U.S. Marine Corps forward deployed medical facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan between January 2004 and December 2012. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study population and compare fatal and nonfatal electrocutions. Fatality rates were reported in cases per 1,000,000 people per year. A total of 38 patients were identified; all were males with a mean (SD) age of 25.3 (5.3) years. Most electrocutions occurred on base (68%), whereas a smaller number (21%) occurred while conducting operations outside of the base. A majority of fatal cases (80%) occurred while outside of base on foot or vehicle mounted patrol. The rate of fatal electrocutions among U.S. Marine Corps personnel during this period was 37 per 1,000,000 people per year, 7-fold higher than the international electrocution fatality rate of 5.4 per 1,000,000 people per year and nearly three-fold above the U.S. utility and construction worker's fatality rate of 14 per 1,000,000 people per year. Electrocution injuries occurring during foot or vehicle mounted patrols seem to account for findings of higher case fatality rates among deployed military personnel than those found in international or high risk civilian occupational settings. Basic life support training for medical and nonmedical military personnel is critical to optimizing care delivered at the scene of these injuries. Reprint & Copyright

  14. Airborne Transducer Integrity under Operational Environment for Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Salmanpour, Mohammad Saleh; Sharif Khodaei, Zahra; Aliabadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the robustness of permanently mounted transducers used in airborne structural health monitoring systems, when exposed to the operational environment. Typical airliners operate in a range of conditions, hence, structural health monitoring (SHM) transducer robustness and integrity must be demonstrated for these environments. A set of extreme temperature, altitude and vibration environment test profiles are developed using the existing Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA)/DO-160 test methods. Commercially available transducers and manufactured versions bonded to carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials are tested. It was found that the DuraAct transducer is robust to environmental conditions tested, while the other transducer types degrade under the same conditions. PMID:27973450

  15. Airborne Transducer Integrity under Operational Environment for Structural Health Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Salmanpour, Mohammad Saleh; Sharif Khodaei, Zahra; Aliabadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-12

    This paper investigates the robustness of permanently mounted transducers used in airborne structural health monitoring systems, when exposed to the operational environment. Typical airliners operate in a range of conditions, hence, structural health monitoring (SHM) transducer robustness and integrity must be demonstrated for these environments. A set of extreme temperature, altitude and vibration environment test profiles are developed using the existing Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA)/DO-160 test methods. Commercially available transducers and manufactured versions bonded to carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials are tested. It was found that the DuraAct transducer is robust to environmental conditions tested, while the other transducer types degrade under the same conditions.

  16. Field studies of inspection and repair operations of subsea structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bourhis, M.Y.; Aldridge, T.

    1983-03-01

    Subsea inspection techniques are required to confirm that the initial construction of offshore oil platforms meets pre-established standards and specifications and that structural deterioration does not exceed levels which are consistent with the design and continued serviceability of a structure. Such inspection, rigorously performed, will normally satisfy the various interrelated requirements of the operators, the government, and the certifying authority. This paper presents a review of the current techniques for underwater inspection, an application of ultrasonic equipment for this purpose, and an application of welded point repair in a hyperbaric habitat.

  17. Adaptive regularization joint inversion of marine CSEM and MT data in vertically anisotropic stratified structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, M.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In inversion and interpretation of industrial EM data sets, it can be sufficient in a number of situations by assuming isotropy, however, the presence of electric anisotropy in the earth' s crust, due to thin layer interbedding or grain alignments in the sediments can significantly alter the response measured in the EM receiver. Ignoring anisotropy in interpreting marine CSEM data may lead to a distorted image of seabed conductivity structures, even misinterpretation. We present a joint inversion method for frequency domain marine CSEM data and MT data in vertically anisotropic stratified media. The inversion approach is based on the Gauss-Newton scheme. Due to the influence of ocean currents, the transmitter antenna will appear tilting and rotating. Applying superposition principle of electromagnetic field, we extend the scheme of Loseth and Ursin (2007) for calculating CSEM fields from a horizontal dipole source (HED) and/or a vertical dipole source (VED) in stratified media with vertical anisotropy to the general case of arbitrary orientation dipole source. The partial derivatives of the electromagnetic fileds (CSEM data) with respect to both the horizontal and vertical resistivity and apparent resistivity (MT data) with respect to the horizontal resistivity are analytically calculated. Based on the relationship between the horizontal resistivity and the vertical resistivity of the inversion model, an adaptive selection method for regularization factors is proposed to balance the effects of the data misfit and the structural constraint.

  18. The structure of the clouds distributed operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Partha; Leblanc, Richard J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A novel system architecture, based on the object model, is the central structuring concept used in the Clouds distributed operating system. This architecture makes Clouds attractive over a wide class of machines and environments. Clouds is a native operating system, designed and implemented at Georgia Tech. and runs on a set of generated purpose computers connected via a local area network. The system architecture of Clouds is composed of a system-wide global set of persistent (long-lived) virtual address spaces, called objects that contain persistent data and code. The object concept is implemented at the operating system level, thus presenting a single level storage view to the user. Lightweight treads carry computational activity through the code stored in the objects. The persistent objects and threads gives rise to a programming environment composed of shared permanent memory, dispensing with the need for hardware-derived concepts such as the file systems and message systems. Though the hardware may be distributed and may have disks and networks, the Clouds provides the applications with a logically centralized system, based on a shared, structured, single level store. The current design of Clouds uses a minimalist philosophy with respect to both the kernel and the operating system. That is, the kernel and the operating system support a bare minimum of functionality. Clouds also adheres to the concept of separation of policy and mechanism. Most low-level operating system services are implemented above the kernel and most high level services are implemented at the user level. From the measured performance of using the kernel mechanisms, we are able to demonstrate that efficient implementations are feasible for the object model on commercially available hardware. Clouds provides a rich environment for conducting research in distributed systems. Some of the topics addressed in this paper include distributed programming environments, consistency of persistent data

  19. The structure of the clouds distributed operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Partha; Leblanc, Richard J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A novel system architecture, based on the object model, is the central structuring concept used in the Clouds distributed operating system. This architecture makes Clouds attractive over a wide class of machines and environments. Clouds is a native operating system, designed and implemented at Georgia Tech. and runs on a set of generated purpose computers connected via a local area network. The system architecture of Clouds is composed of a system-wide global set of persistent (long-lived) virtual address spaces, called objects that contain persistent data and code. The object concept is implemented at the operating system level, thus presenting a single level storage view to the user. Lightweight treads carry computational activity through the code stored in the objects. The persistent objects and threads gives rise to a programming environment composed of shared permanent memory, dispensing with the need for hardware-derived concepts such as the file systems and message systems. Though the hardware may be distributed and may have disks and networks, the Clouds provides the applications with a logically centralized system, based on a shared, structured, single level store. The current design of Clouds uses a minimalist philosophy with respect to both the kernel and the operating system. That is, the kernel and the operating system support a bare minimum of functionality. Clouds also adheres to the concept of separation of policy and mechanism. Most low-level operating system services are implemented above the kernel and most high level services are implemented at the user level. From the measured performance of using the kernel mechanisms, we are able to demonstrate that efficient implementations are feasible for the object model on commercially available hardware. Clouds provides a rich environment for conducting research in distributed systems. Some of the topics addressed in this paper include distributed programming environments, consistency of persistent data

  20. Aquaculture and urban marine structures facilitate native and non-indigenous species transfer through generation and accumulation of marine debris.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Marnie L; King, Staci; Heppenstall, Lara D; van Gool, Ella; Martin, Ross; Hewitt, Chad L

    2017-08-19

    Both the invasion of non-indigenous marine species (NIMS) and the generation and accumulation of anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) are pervasive problems in coastal urban ecosystems. The biosecurity risks associated with AMD rafting NIMS have been described, but the role of aquaculture derived AMD has not yet been investigated as a biosecurity vector and pathway. This preliminary study targeted 27 beaches along the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand, collecting debris from belt transects. Plastic (specifically plastic rope) was the dominant AMD present on beaches. The most common biofouling taxa were hydroids, bryozoans, algae and polychaetes, with one NIMS pest species, Sabella spallanzanii, detected fouling plastic rope. Our findings demonstrate that aquaculture is an AMD (plastic rope) generating activity that creates biosecurity risk by enhancing the spread of NIMS. The rafting of S. spallanzanii on AMD generated at aquaculture facilities is currently an unmanaged pathway within New Zealand that needs attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation, structure determination and cytotoxicity studies of tryptophan alkaloids from an Australian marine sponge Hyrtios sp.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Shahan; Feng, Yunjiang; Campitelli, Marc R; Ekins, Merrick G; Hooper, John N A; Beattie, Karren D; Sadowski, Martin C; Nelson, Colleen C; Davis, Rohan A

    2014-08-01

    Mass-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract from a specimen of the Australian marine sponge Hyrtios sp. resulted in the isolation of two new tryptophan alkaloids, 6-oxofascaplysin (2), and secofascaplysic acid (3), in addition to the known metabolites fascaplysin (1) and reticulatate (4). The structures of all molecules were determined following NMR and MS data analysis. Structural ambiguities in 2 were addressed through comparison of experimental and DFT-generated theoretical NMR spectral values. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against a prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP) and were shown to display IC50 values ranging from 0.54 to 44.9 μM.

  2. The Hoiamides, Structurally Intriguing Neurotoxic Lipopeptides from Papua New Guinea Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyukjae; Pereira, Alban R.; Cao, Zhengyu; Shuman, Cynthia F.; Engene, Niclas; Byrum, Tara; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Murray, Thomas F.; Mangoni, Alfonso; Gerwick, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Two related peptide metabolites, one a cyclic depsipeptide, hoiamide B (2), and the other a linear lipopeptide, hoiamide C (3), were isolated from two different collections of marine cyanobacteria obtained in Papua New Guinea. Their structures were elucidated by combining various techniques in spectroscopy, chromatography and synthetic chemistry. Both metabolites belong to the unique hoiamide structural class, characterized by possessing an acetate extended and S-adenosyl methionine modified isoleucine unit, a central triheterocyclic system comprised of two α-methylated thiazolines and one thiazole, as well as a highly oxygenated and methylated C-15 polyketide unit. In neocortical neurons, the cyclic depsipeptide 2 stimulated sodium influx and suppressed spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations with EC50 values of 3.9 μM and 79.8 nM, respectively, while 3 had no significant effects in these assays. PMID:20687534

  3. Molecular tools for investigating microbial community structure and function in oxygen-deficient marine waters.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Alyse K; Kheirandish, Sam; Mueller, Andreas; Leung, Hilary T C; Norbeck, Angela D; Brewer, Heather M; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Hallam, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Water column oxygen (O2)-deficiency shapes food-web structure by progressively directing nutrients and energy away from higher trophic levels into microbial community metabolism resulting in fixed nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas production. Although respiratory O2 consumption during organic matter degradation is a natural outcome of a productive surface ocean, global-warming-induced stratification intensifies this process leading to oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) expansion. Here, we describe useful tools for detection and quantification of potential key microbial players and processes in OMZ community metabolism including quantitative polymerase chain reaction primers targeting Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota, SUP05, Arctic96BD-19, and SAR324 small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes and protein extraction methods from OMZ waters compatible with high-resolution mass spectrometry for profiling microbial community structure and functional dynamics.

  4. Aqabamycins A-G: novel nitro maleimides from a marine Vibrio species: II. Structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Fotso Fondja Yao, Clarisse Blandine; Al Zereini, Wael; Fotso, Serge; Anke, Heidrun; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2010-06-01

    The structures of secondary metabolites with antibacterial and cytotoxic activities produced by a marine Vibrio strain from the Red Sea were elucidated. Aqabamycin A (1a) and seven further nitro-substituted maleimide derivates named aqabamycins B-G (1b-f and 2) were obtained together with 12 known metabolites, 3-nitro-1H-indazole (3), indazole-3-carbaldehyde (4), 3-nitro-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3-nitro-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, phenyl-2-bis-indolylmethane (5a), turbomycin B (5b), vibrindole A (6), phenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid and 1,4-dithiane (7). Some of the known metabolites (for example, 3, 4 and 7) are described in this study for the first time as natural products. Their structures were elucidated based on 1D and 2D NMR, MS spectra and by comparison with synthetic material.

  5. A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    investments on fuel consumption . - Inputs include unit type and size (e.g. MEU, MEB, etc.), length of the operation and OPTEMPO phases, equipment...decreasing life cycle fuel consumption when given a specified load profile and location - Power system assets considered include generators, battery banks...W) Required (W) GBOSS Heavy (w/2 40" LCDs) 961 800 VRC-110 w/Biue Force Tracker 165 440 PRC-150 57 375 Coffee Pot 45 975 WWW.NPS.EDU Spatial

  6. Physical Performance Tasks Required of U.S. Marines Operating in a Desert Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Recording and Reporting Caeois ..... 0*.1 2.6 Data Collection / Recording Equlpment0*-........*1 2.7 Physiological Testing atNR ..... . . * 1 2.7.1...preliminary operation, a meeting was held with the observation team members to evaluate the activities at Quantico. This evaluation of the data collection / recording methods...for protection from live fire. 2.6 Data Collectlon/Recording Equipment All data collection / recording equipment was selected based upon function and

  7. U.S. Marine Corps Operations in Nicaragua from 1927 to 1933

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    tactical and operational level. I initially approached this topic by investigating the measure of effectiveness assigned to the occupation, the free and... effective without any organized. resistance.14 The Eleventh Regiment established its headquarters in Ocotal and immediately began ·active patrolling...Nacional. The solution to this lack ofleadership came in the form. of political appointments. The United States attempted to s~lect an equal number of field

  8. From Nicaragua to the 21st Century: Marine Corps Aviation’s Role in Counterinsurgency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    grew concerned about Sandino’s increasing popular support in the northern region of Nueva Segovia. The terrain was extremely challenging for the...34it was a serious blow to Sandino’s prestige.,,22 The attack on El Chipote forced Sandino out of his stronghold and into the wooded areas of Nueva ...Segovia. Eventually Sandino was forced to leave Nueva Seg~via and move his base of operations to the Prinzapolka region.23 The attack at El Chipote was an

  9. The Maintenance and Operation of a Small Wind Generator in the Marine Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    undergoing tests as a source of energy for remote lighthouses. The wind machine, according to preliminary design (Reference 1), would function as one of...system employing a wind generator. Requirements of the WTG were defined by priority to : (1) have the ability to operate reliably and unattended for at...requirements, and not least of all, the ease of maintenance accessibility to the wind machine. Towers come in several materials and designs. Two generic types

  10. Human-Mediated Marine Dispersal Influences the Population Structure of Aedes aegypti in the Philippine Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Fonzi, Eugenio; Higa, Yukiko; Bertuso, Arlene G; Futami, Kyoko; Minakawa, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an extraordinary health burden on global scale, but still lacks effective vaccine. The Philippines is endemic for dengue fever, but massive employment of insecticides favored the development of resistance mutations in its major vector, Aedes aegypti. Alternative vector control strategies consist in releasing artificially modified mosquitos in the wild, but knowledge on their dispersal ability is necessary for a successful implementation. Despite being documented that Ae. aegypti can be passively transported for long distances, no study to date has been aimed at understanding whether human marine transportation can substantially shape the migration patterns of this mosquito. With thousands of islands connected by a dense network of ships, the Philippines is an ideal environment to fill this knowledge gap. Larvae of Ae. aegypti from 15 seaports in seven major islands of central-western Philippines were collected and genotyped at seven microsatellite loci. Low genetic structure and considerable gene flow was found in the area. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses suggested that anthropic factors (specifically the amount of processed cargo and human population density) can explain the observed population structure, while geographical distance was not correlated. Interestingly, cargo shipments seem to be more efficient than passenger ships in transporting Ae. aegypti. Bayesian clustering confirmed that Ae. aegypti from busy ports are more genetically similar, while populations from idle ports are relatively structured, regardless of the geographical distance that separates them. The results confirmed the pivotal role of marine human-mediated long-range dispersal in determining the population structure of Ae. aegypti. Hopefully corroborated by further research, the present findings could assist the design of more effective vector control strategies.

  11. Human-Mediated Marine Dispersal Influences the Population Structure of Aedes aegypti in the Philippine Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Fonzi, Eugenio; Higa, Yukiko; Bertuso, Arlene G.; Futami, Kyoko; Minakawa, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) is an extraordinary health burden on global scale, but still lacks effective vaccine. The Philippines is endemic for dengue fever, but massive employment of insecticides favored the development of resistance mutations in its major vector, Aedes aegypti. Alternative vector control strategies consist in releasing artificially modified mosquitos in the wild, but knowledge on their dispersal ability is necessary for a successful implementation. Despite being documented that Ae. aegypti can be passively transported for long distances, no study to date has been aimed at understanding whether human marine transportation can substantially shape the migration patterns of this mosquito. With thousands of islands connected by a dense network of ships, the Philippines is an ideal environment to fill this knowledge gap. Methodology/principal findings Larvae of Ae. aegypti from 15 seaports in seven major islands of central-western Philippines were collected and genotyped at seven microsatellite loci. Low genetic structure and considerable gene flow was found in the area. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses suggested that anthropic factors (specifically the amount of processed cargo and human population density) can explain the observed population structure, while geographical distance was not correlated. Interestingly, cargo shipments seem to be more efficient than passenger ships in transporting Ae. aegypti. Bayesian clustering confirmed that Ae. aegypti from busy ports are more genetically similar, while populations from idle ports are relatively structured, regardless of the geographical distance that separates them. Conclusions/significance The results confirmed the pivotal role of marine human-mediated long-range dispersal in determining the population structure of Ae. aegypti. Hopefully corroborated by further research, the present findings could assist the design of more effective vector control strategies. PMID:26039311

  12. The physical work environment and end-user requirements: Investigating marine engineering officers' operational demands and ship design.

    PubMed

    Mallam, Steven C; Lundh, Monica

    2016-08-12

    Physical environments influence how individuals perceive a space and behave within it. Previous research has revealed deficiencies in ship engine department work environments, and their impact on crew productivity, health and wellbeing. Connect operational task demands to pragmatic physical design and layout solutions by implementing a user-centric perspective. Three focus groups, each consisting of three marine engineers participated in this study. Focus groups were divided into two sessions: first, to investigate the end-user's operational requirements and their relationship with ship physical design and layout. Second, criteria formulated from group discussions were applied to a ship design case study. All focus group sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Design choices made in a ships general arrangement were described to inherently influence how individuals and teams are able to function within the system. Participants detailed logistical relationships between key areas, stressing that the work environment and physical linkages must allow for flexibility of work organization and task execution. Traditional engine control paradigms do not allow effective mitigation of traditional engine department challenges. The influence of technology and modernization of ship systems can facilitate improvement of physical environments and work organization if effectively utilized.

  13. Clouds, Precipitation, and Marine Boundary Layer Structure during the MAGIC Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Kollias, Pavlos; Lewis, Ernie R.

    2015-03-01

    The recent ship-based MAGIC (Marine ARM GCSS Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI) Investigation of Clouds) field campaign with the marine-capable Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) deployed on the Horizon Lines cargo container M/V Spirit provided nearly 200 days of intraseasonal high-resolution observations of clouds, precipitation, and marine boundary layer (MBL) structure on multiple legs between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii. During the deployment, MBL clouds exhibited a much higher frequency of occurrence than other cloud types and occurred more often in the warm season than in the cold season. MBL clouds demonstrated a propensity to produce precipitation, which often evaporated before reaching the ocean surface. The formation of stratocumulus is strongly correlated to a shallow MBL with a strong inversion and a weak transition, while cumulus formation is associated with a much weaker inversion and stronger transition. The estimated inversion strength is shown to depend seasonally on the potential temperature at 700 hPa. The location of the commencement of systematic MBL decoupling always occurred eastward of the locations of cloud breakup, and the systematic decoupling showed a strong moisture stratification. The entrainment of the dry warm air above the inversion appears to be the dominant factor triggering the systematic decoupling, while surface latent heat flux, precipitation, and diurnal circulation did not play major roles. MBL clouds broke up over a short spatial region due to the changes in the synoptic conditions, implying that in real atmospheric conditions the MBL clouds do not have enough time to evolve as in the idealized models. (auth)

  14. Clouds, Precipitation, and Marine Boundary Layer Structure during the MAGIC Field Campaign

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Kollias, Pavlos; Lewis, Ernie R.

    2015-03-01

    The recent ship-based MAGIC (Marine ARM GCSS Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI) Investigation of Clouds) field campaign with the marine-capable Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) deployed on the Horizon Lines cargo container M/V Spirit provided nearly 200 days of intraseasonal high-resolution observations of clouds, precipitation, and marine boundary layer (MBL) structure on multiple legs between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii. During the deployment, MBL clouds exhibited a much higher frequency of occurrence than other cloud types and occurred more often in the warm season than in the cold season. MBL clouds demonstrated a propensity to produce precipitation, which often evaporatedmore » before reaching the ocean surface. The formation of stratocumulus is strongly correlated to a shallow MBL with a strong inversion and a weak transition, while cumulus formation is associated with a much weaker inversion and stronger transition. The estimated inversion strength is shown to depend seasonally on the potential temperature at 700 hPa. The location of the commencement of systematic MBL decoupling always occurred eastward of the locations of cloud breakup, and the systematic decoupling showed a strong moisture stratification. The entrainment of the dry warm air above the inversion appears to be the dominant factor triggering the systematic decoupling, while surface latent heat flux, precipitation, and diurnal circulation did not play major roles. MBL clouds broke up over a short spatial region due to the changes in the synoptic conditions, implying that in real atmospheric conditions the MBL clouds do not have enough time to evolve as in the idealized models. (auth)« less

  15. Macroalgal blooms alter community structure and primary productivity in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Devin A; Arvanitidis, Christos; Blight, Andrew J; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Kotta, Jonne; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Queirós, Ana M; Rilov, Gil; Somerfield, Paul J; Crowe, Tasman P

    2014-09-01

    Eutrophication, coupled with loss of herbivory due to habitat degradation and overharvesting, has increased the frequency and severity of macroalgal blooms worldwide. Macroalgal blooms interfere with human activities in coastal areas, and sometimes necessitate costly algal removal programmes. They also have many detrimental effects on marine and estuarine ecosystems, including induction of hypoxia, release of toxic hydrogen sulphide into the sediments and atmosphere, and the loss of ecologically and economically important species. However, macroalgal blooms can also increase habitat complexity, provide organisms with food and shelter, and reduce other problems associated with eutrophication. These contrasting effects make their overall ecological impacts unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall effects of macroalgal blooms on several key measures of ecosystem structure and functioning in marine ecosystems. We also evaluated some of the ecological and methodological factors that might explain the highly variable effects observed in different studies. Averaged across all studies, macroalgal blooms had negative effects on the abundance and species richness of marine organisms, but blooms by different algal taxa had different consequences, ranging from strong negative to strong positive effects. Blooms' effects on species richness also depended on the habitat where they occurred, with the strongest negative effects seen in sandy or muddy subtidal habitats and in the rocky intertidal. Invertebrate communities also appeared to be particularly sensitive to blooms, suffering reductions in their abundance, species richness, and diversity. The total net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, and respiration of benthic ecosystems were higher during macroalgal blooms, but blooms had negative effects on the productivity and respiration of other organisms. These results suggest that, in addition to their direct social and

  16. An Autopilot Design for the United States Marine Corps’ Airborne Remotely Operated Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    remotely piloted vehicle, RPV , optimal control, Riccati, control systems 𔄃 ABSTRACT (Contonve On ’eweame of hft#Ua#V adI sdenfta oy bW )0k nMWOber An...rapidly. Even the best of control designers is not apt to hit a bullseye on his first shot. Control system design theory does not guarantee success on...endeavor is an airborne remotely piloted vehicle ( RPV ) called AROD. The acronym stands for Airborne Remotely Operated Device. The United States

  17. Can the Air Combat Element of the Marine Air Ground Task Force Successfully Conduct Operational Maneuver from the Sea in the 21st Century?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    to propel the Marine Corps well into the twenty first century. It is a concept paper that focuses on six basic tenants: an operational objective...and criteria” analysis. The basic framework of this analysis, as depicted in figure 1, is the platforms of the ACE. The five capabilities of...beacon IFF capable) INS, GPS* Celestial Navigation* *Some aircraft are configured to operate these systems Air Land Delivery of Cargo and Personnel Cargo

  18. Avian sebokeratocytes and marine mammal lipokeratinocytes: structural, lipid biochemical, and functional considerations.

    PubMed

    Elias, P M; Menon, G K; Grayson, S; Brown, B E; Rehfeld, S J

    1987-10-01

    In terrestrial mammals, stratum corneum lipids derive from two sources: deposition of lamellar body lipids in stratum corneum interstices and excretion of sebaceous lipids onto the skin surface, resulting in a two-compartment ("bricks and mortar") system of lipid-depleted cells surrounded by lipid-enriched intercellular spaces. In contrast, intracellular lipid droplets, normally not present in the epidermis of terrestrial mammals, are prominent in avian and marine mammal epidermis (cetaceans, manatees). We compared the transepidermal water loss, ultrastructure, and lipid biochemistry of the viable epidermis and stratum corneum of pigeon apterium, fledgling (featherless) zebra finches, painted storks, cetaceans, and manatees to those of humans and mice. Marine mammals possess an even more extensive lamellar-body secretory system than do terrestrial mammals; and lamellar-body contents, as in terrestrials, are secreted into the stratum corneum interstices. In cetaceans, however, glycolipids, but not ceramides, persist into the stratum corneum; whereas in manatees, glycolipids are replaced by ceramides, as in terrestrial mammals. Acylglucosylceramides, thought to be critical for lamellar-body deposition and barrier function in terrestrial mammals, are present in manatees but virtually absent in cetaceans, a finding that indicates that they are not obligate constituents of lamellar-body-derived membrane structures. Moreover, cetaceans do not elaborate the very long-chain, saturated N-acyl fatty acids that abound in terrestrial mammalian acylglucosylceramides. Furthermore, cold-water marine mammals generate large, intracellular neutral lipid droplets not found in terrestrial and warm-water marine mammals; these lipid droplets persist into the stratum corneum, suggesting thermogenesis, flotation, and/or cryoprotectant functions. Avians generate distinctive multigranular bodies that may be secreted into the intercellular spaces under xerotic conditions, as in zebra

  19. Population structure in the native range predicts the spread of introduced marine species

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Bowen, Brian W.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting invasion success remains a fundamental challenge in invasion biology. The effort to identify universal characteristics that predict which species become invasive has faltered in part because of the diversity of taxa and systems considered. Here, we use an alternative approach focused on the spread stage of invasions. FST, a measure of alternative fixation of alleles, is a common proxy for realized dispersal among natural populations, summarizing the combined influences of life history, behaviour, habitat requirements, population size, history and ecology. We test the hypothesis that population structure in the native range (FST) is negatively correlated with the geographical extent of spread of marine species in an introduced range. An analysis of the available data (29 species, nine phyla) revealed a significant negative correlation (R2 = 0.245–0.464) between FST and the extent of spread of non-native species. Mode FST among pairwise comparisons between populations in the native range demonstrated the highest predictive power (R2 = 0.464, p < 0.001). There was significant improvement when marker type was considered, with mtDNA datasets providing the strongest relationship (n = 21, R2 = 0.333–0.516). This study shows that FST can be used to make qualitative predictions concerning the geographical extent to which a non-native marine species will spread once established in a new area. PMID:23595272

  20. Spatial variation in age structure among colonies of a marine snake: the influence of ectothermy.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François; Pinaud, David; Michel, Catherine Louise; Clobert, Jean; Shine, Richard; Fauvel, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Several tetrapod lineages that have evolved to exploit marine environments (e.g. seals, seabirds, sea kraits) continue to rely upon land for reproduction and, thus, form dense colonies on suitable islands. In birds and mammals (endotherms), the offspring cannot survive without their parents. Terrestrial colonies contain all age classes. In reptiles (ectotherms), this constraint is relaxed, because offspring are independent from birth. Hence, each age class has the potential to select sites with characteristics that favour them. Our studies of sea snakes (sea kraits) in the lagoon of New Caledonia reveal marked spatial heterogeneity in age structure among colonies. Sea krait colonies exhibit the endothermic 'seal-seabird' pattern (mixed-age classes within populations) only where the lagoon is narrow. Where the lagoon is wide, most snake colonies are comprised primarily of a single age cohort. Nurseries are located near the coast, adult colonies offshore and mixed colonies in-between. We suggest that ectothermy allows individuals to utilize habitats that are best suited to their own ecological requirements, a flexibility not available to endothermic marine taxa with obligate parental care. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  1. Population structure in the native range predicts the spread of introduced marine species.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Michelle R; Bowen, Brian W; Toonen, Robert J

    2013-06-07

    Forecasting invasion success remains a fundamental challenge in invasion biology. The effort to identify universal characteristics that predict which species become invasive has faltered in part because of the diversity of taxa and systems considered. Here, we use an alternative approach focused on the spread stage of invasions. FST, a measure of alternative fixation of alleles, is a common proxy for realized dispersal among natural populations, summarizing the combined influences of life history, behaviour, habitat requirements, population size, history and ecology. We test the hypothesis that population structure in the native range (FST) is negatively correlated with the geographical extent of spread of marine species in an introduced range. An analysis of the available data (29 species, nine phyla) revealed a significant negative correlation (R(2) = 0.245-0.464) between FST and the extent of spread of non-native species. Mode FST among pairwise comparisons between populations in the native range demonstrated the highest predictive power (R(2) = 0.464, p < 0.001). There was significant improvement when marker type was considered, with mtDNA datasets providing the strongest relationship (n = 21, R(2) = 0.333-0.516). This study shows that FST can be used to make qualitative predictions concerning the geographical extent to which a non-native marine species will spread once established in a new area.

  2. Compartments in a marine food web associated with phylogeny, body mass, and habitat structure.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Enrico L; Albert, Eva M; Fortuna, Miguel A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2009-08-01

    A long-standing question in community ecology is whether food webs are organized in compartments, where species within the same compartment interact frequently among themselves, but show fewer interactions with species from other compartments. Finding evidence for this community organization is important since compartmentalization may strongly affect food web robustness to perturbation. However, few studies have found unequivocal evidence of compartments, and none has quantified the suite of mechanisms generating such a structure. Here, we combine computational tools from the physics of complex networks with phylogenetic statistical methods to show that a large marine food web is organized in compartments, and that body size, phylogeny, and spatial structure are jointly associated with such a compartmentalized structure. Sharks account for the majority of predatory interactions within their compartments. Phylogenetically closely related shark species tend to occupy different compartments and have divergent trophic levels, suggesting that competition may play an important role structuring some of these compartments. Current overfishing of sharks has the potential to change the structural properties, which might eventually affect the stability of the food web.

  3. Effects of marine reserves versus nursery habitat availability on structure of reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G G; Mumby, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (≤ 25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems.

  4. Turbulence structure of the marine boundary layer during mixed sea and growing sea conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Högström, U.; Smedman, A.-S.

    2009-09-01

    Data have been analyzed from the joint Swedish-US-Finnish field experiment BASE, which was performed during the autumn 2003 in the Baltic Sea. Turbulence data were obtained with sonic anemometers at 2.5 and 5 m above the water surface from an anchored ASIS buoy and simultaneously at 10, 18 and 26 m on the Östergarnsholm tower. Additional slow-response, ‘profile data' were obtained from three levels on the buoy and five levels on the tower. In a previous study (Högström et al, 2008, Boreal Env. Res.) it was demonstrated that the buoy and the tower instrumentation ‘see' virtually the same undisturbed marine conditions for wind from a wide sector. Surface wave characteristics were obtained from the ASIS and from two additional Waverider buoys in the area. In a recent study (Smedman et al, 2009 and Högström et al.,2009, J. Atm. Sci.) the BASE data set was used to study the turbulence structure of the marine surface layer during swell conditions. It was demonstrated that the turbulence data could be used for a reasonably accurate turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget analysis. The present study attempts a formally similar analysis of conditions with growing sea and with mixed sea conditions, both for unstable conditions. All cases represent relatively low heat flux and high wind. During these conditions, the turbulence structure is of the UVCN type (Unstable Very Close to Neutral conditions, see Smedman et al., 2007a,b, Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc.). It is demonstrated how the turbulent flux of momentum and of sensible and latent heat is strongly affected and how this is linked to the turbulence structure, which differs from that during ‘ordinary' conditions by strong influence of surface-layer-scale detached eddies, which bring down dry and cold air to the surface, thus enhancing the net upward flux of sensible heat and moisture.

  5. Solid Waste Management in Marine Amphibious Force (MAF) Operations: Analysis and Alternatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    GVW Rating (lb) 10,000/14,000 14,000 Body Construction: High tensile steel sheet, reinforced with structural steel Hydraulics : High quality heavy duty...civilian application. If the manufacturer feels that protection of the baler electrical and hydraulic systems is impor- tant, the baler could instead be...baler and conveyor are keys to successful MAF application. The hydraulic ram and strapping unit can be removed and stored separately for ease of

  6. A Possible Operational Motivation for the Orthocomplementation in Quantum Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hooghe, Bart

    2010-11-01

    In the foundations of quantum mechanics Gleason’s theorem dictates the uniqueness of the state transition probability via the inner product of the corresponding state vectors in Hilbert space, independent of which measurement context induces this transition. We argue that the state transition probability should not be regarded as a secondary concept which can be derived from the structure on the set of states and properties, but instead should be regarded as a primitive concept for which measurement context is crucial. Accordingly, we adopt an operational approach to quantum mechanics in which a physical entity is defined by the structure of its set of states, set of properties and the possible (measurement) contexts which can be applied to this entity. We put forward some elementary definitions to derive an operational theory from this State-COntext-Property (SCOP) formalism. We show that if the SCOP satisfies a Gleason-like condition, namely that the state transition probability is independent of which measurement context induces the change of state, then the lattice of properties is orthocomplemented, which is one of the ‘quantum axioms’ used in the Piron-Solèr representation theorem for quantum systems. In this sense we obtain a possible physical meaning for the orthocomplementation widely used in quantum structures.

  7. Distinguishing between sensor fault, structural damage, and environmental or operational effects in structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullaa, Jyrki

    2011-11-01

    Discrimination between three different sources of variability in a vibration-based structural health monitoring system is investigated: environmental or operational effects, sensor faults, and structural damage. Separating the environmental or operational effects from the other two is based on the assumption that measurements under different environmental or operational conditions are included in the training data. Distinguishing between sensor fault and structural damage utilizes the fact that the sensor faults are local, while structural damage is global. By localizing the change to a sensor which is then removed from the network, the two different influences can be separated. The sensor network is modelled as a Gaussian process and the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) is then used to detect and localize a change in the system. A numerical and an experimental study are performed to validate the proposed method.

  8. A Methodology to Assess the Benefit of Operational or Tactic Adjustments to Reduce Marine Corps Fuel Consumption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The United States Marine Corps is too dependent on fossil fuel...Department iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT The United States Marine Corps is too dependent on fossil fuel, which leaves...problem is that the Marine Corps is too dependent on fossil fuel and that a change in the overall energy strategy is required in order for the

  9. EGO: Towards a global glider infrastructure for the benefit of marine research and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testor, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    In the 1990 s, while gliders were being developed and successfully passing first tests, their potential use for ocean research started to be discussed in international conferences because they could help us improve the cost-effectiveness, sampling, and distribution of the ocean observations (see OceanObs'99 Conference Statement - UNESCO). After the prototype phase, in the 2000 s, one could only witness the growing glider activity throughout the world. The first glider experiments in Europe brought together several teams that were interested in the technology and a consortium formed naturally from these informal collaborations. Since 2006, Everyone's Gliding Observatories (EGO - http://www.ego-network.org) Workshops and Glider Schools have been organized, whilst becoming the international forum for glider activities. Some key challenges have emerged from the expansion of the glider system and require now setting up a sustainable European as well as a global system to operate glider and to ensure a smooth and sustained link to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Glider technology faces many scientific, technological and logistical issues. In particular, it approaches the challenge of controlling many steerable probes in a variable environment for better sampling. It also needs the development of new formats and procedures in order to build glider observatories at a global level. Several geographically distributed teams of oceanographers now operate gliders, and there is a risk of fragmentation. We will here present results from our consortium who intends to solve most of these issues through scientific and technological coordination and networking. This approach is supported by the ESF through Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST). The COST Action ES0904 "EGO" started in July 2010 aiming to build international cooperation and capacities at the scientific, technological, and organizational levels, for sustained observations of the

  10. Morphology operators construction by adaptive elliptical structuring elements based on nonlinear structure tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chunming; Liu, Xinlei; Li, Yanjie; Zhao, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    As the linear structure tensor is tending to inaccurately or even wrong estimate the gradient direction of a gray-level image, we present a novel algorithm to construct adaptive elliptical structuring elements via estimating the local anisotropy of an image based on the nonlinear structure tensor. Erosion, dilation, opening, closing and Hit-or-Miss transform are redefined according to the presented structuring elements, which have been applied to some representative images. The processed results and the quantitative analysis show that the novel morphological operators have more advantages in structure adaptation, corner protection, filtering and targets extraction than the others.

  11. Telerobotic operation of structurally flexible, long-reach manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    As a part of the Department of Energy`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, long-reach manipulators are being considered for the retrieval of waste from large storage tanks. Long-reach manipulators may have characteristics significantly different from those of typical industrial robots because of the flexibility of long links needed to cover the large workspace. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, control algorithms employing various types of shaping filters were investigated. A new approach that uses embedded simulation was developed and compared with others. In the new approach, generation of joint trajectories considering link flexibility was also investigated.

  12. Structure and activity of DmmA, a marine haloalkane dehalogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Gehret, Jennifer J.; Gu, Liangcai; Geders, Todd W.; Brown, William Clay; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H.; Sherman, David H.; Smith, Janet L.

    2012-08-01

    DmmA is a haloalkane dehalogenase (HLD) identified and characterized from the metagenomic DNA of a marine microbial consortium. Dehalogenase activity was detected with 1,3-dibromopropane as substrate, with steady-state kinetic parameters typical of HLDs (K{sub m} = 0.24 {+-} 0.05 mM, k{sub cat} = 2.4 {+-} 0.1 s{sup -1}). The 2.2-{angstrom} crystal structure of DmmA revealed a fold and active site similar to other HLDs, but with a substantially larger active site binding pocket, suggestive of an ability to act on bulky substrates. This enhanced cavity was shown to accept a range of linear and cyclic substrates, suggesting that DmmA will contribute to the expanding applications of HLDs.

  13. Development of an adhesively bonded beryllium propulsion structure for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, J. H.; Layman, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    The design, testing, and fabrication of the support truss structure for the propulsion system of the Mariner 9 spacecraft are described. Support is provided by an 8.9-kg (19.5-lbm) truss assembly consisting of beryllium tubes adhesively bonded to magnesium end fittings. Beryllium was selected for the tubular struts in the truss because of its exceptionally high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Adhesive bonding, rather than riveting, was utilized to join the struts to the end fittings because of the low toughness (high notch sensitivity) of beryllium. Magnesium, used in the end fittings, resulted in a 50% weight saving over aluminum since geometric factors in the fitting design resulted in low stress areas where magnesium's lower density is a benefit.

  14. Thermal structure and dust loading of the Martian atmosphere during late southern summer - Mariner 9 revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santee, M.; Crisp, D.

    1993-02-01

    Thermal emission spectra recorded by the Mariner 9 IR interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) are used to investigate the temperature structure and dust loading of the Martian atmosphere. The analysis is restricted to a subset of the IRIS data consisting of approximately 2400 spectra in a 12-day period extending from LS of 343 to 348 deg, corresponding to late southern summer on Mars. The largest column-integrated 9-micron dust optical depths (about 0.4) occur over the equatorial regions. The highest atmospheric temperatures (greater than 260 K) are found at low altitudes near the subsolar latitude (about 6 deg S), while the coldest temperatures (less than 150 K) are found at levels near 1.0 mbar over the winter pole. The existence of a net zonally averaged meridional circulation with rising motion at low latitudes, poleward flow at altitudes above 40 km, and subsidence over the poles is suggested.

  15. Isolation, Structure Elucidation and Total Synthesis of Lajollamide A from the Marine Fungus Asteromyces cruciatus

    PubMed Central

    Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Hong, Hanna; Correa, Jhonny; Egereva, Ekaterina; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Gross, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The marine-derived filamentous fungus Asteromyces cruciatus 763, obtained off the coast of La Jolla, San Diego, USA, yielded the new pentapeptide lajollamide A (1), along with the known compounds regiolone (2), hyalodendrin (3), gliovictin (4), 1N-norgliovicitin (5), and bis-N-norgliovictin (6). The planar structure of lajollamide A (1) was determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of lajollamide A (1) was unambiguously solved by total synthesis which provided three additional diastereomers of 1 and also revealed that an unexpected acid-mediated partial racemization (2:1) of the L-leucine and L-N-Me-leucine residues occurred during the chemical degradation process. The biological activities of the isolated metabolites, in particular their antimicrobial properties, were investigated in a series of assay systems. PMID:23342379

  16. Three-dimensional structure of fluid conduits sustaining an active deep marine cold seep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hornbach, M.J.; Ruppel, C.; Van Dover, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Cold seeps in deep marine settings emit fluids to the overlying ocean and are often associated with such seafloor flux indicators as chemosynthetic biota, pockmarks, and authigenic carbonate rocks. Despite evidence for spatiotemporal variability in the rate, locus, and composition of cold seep fluid emissions, the shallow subseafloor plumbing systems have never been clearly imaged in three dimensions. Using a novel, high-resolution approach, we produce the first three-dimensional image of possible fluid conduits beneath a cold seep at a study site within the Blake Ridge gas hydrate province. Complex, dendritic features diverge upward toward the seafloor from feeder conduits at depth and could potentially draw flow laterally by up to 103 m from the known seafloor seep, a pattern similar to that suggested for some hydrothermal vents. The biodiversity, community structure, and succession dynamics of chemosynthetic communities at cold seeps may largely reflect these complexities of subseafloor fluid flow.

  17. Structure and activity of DmmA, a marine haloalkane dehalogenase.

    PubMed

    Gehret, Jennifer J; Gu, Liangcai; Geders, Todd W; Brown, William Clay; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H; Sherman, David H; Smith, Janet L

    2012-02-01

    DmmA is a haloalkane dehalogenase (HLD) identified and characterized from the metagenomic DNA of a marine microbial consortium. Dehalogenase activity was detected with 1,3-dibromopropane as substrate, with steady-state kinetic parameters typical of HLDs (K(m) = 0.24 ± 0.05 mM, k(cat) = 2.4 ± 0.1 s(-1) ). The 2.2-Å crystal structure of DmmA revealed a fold and active site similar to other HLDs, but with a substantially larger active site binding pocket, suggestive of an ability to act on bulky substrates. This enhanced cavity was shown to accept a range of linear and cyclic substrates, suggesting that DmmA will contribute to the expanding industrial applications of HLDs. Copyright © 2011 The Protein Society.

  18. Thermal structure and dust loading of the Martian atmosphere during late southern summer - Mariner 9 revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santee, Michelle; Crisp, David

    1993-01-01

    Thermal emission spectra recorded by the Mariner 9 IR interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) are used to investigate the temperature structure and dust loading of the Martian atmosphere. The analysis is restricted to a subset of the IRIS data consisting of approximately 2400 spectra in a 12-day period extending from LS of 343 to 348 deg, corresponding to late southern summer on Mars. The largest column-integrated 9-micron dust optical depths (about 0.4) occur over the equatorial regions. The highest atmospheric temperatures (greater than 260 K) are found at low altitudes near the subsolar latitude (about 6 deg S), while the coldest temperatures (less than 150 K) are found at levels near 1.0 mbar over the winter pole. The existence of a net zonally averaged meridional circulation with rising motion at low latitudes, poleward flow at altitudes above 40 km, and subsidence over the poles is suggested.

  19. New approaches to high-resolution mapping of marine vertical structures.

    PubMed

    Robert, Katleen; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Georgiopoulou, Aggeliki; Jones, Daniel O B; Marsh, Leigh; D O Carter, Gareth; Chaumillon, Leo

    2017-08-21

    Vertical walls in marine environments can harbour high biodiversity and provide natural protection from bottom-trawling activities. However, traditional mapping techniques are usually restricted to down-looking approaches which cannot adequately replicate their 3D structure. We combined sideways-looking multibeam echosounder (MBES) data from an AUV, forward-looking MBES data from ROVs and ROV-acquired videos to examine walls from Rockall Bank and Whittard Canyon, Northeast Atlantic. High-resolution 3D point clouds were extracted from each sonar dataset and structure from motion photogrammetry (SfM) was applied to recreate 3D representations of video transects along the walls. With these reconstructions, it was possible to interact with extensive sections of video footage and precisely position individuals. Terrain variables were derived on scales comparable to those experienced by megabenthic individuals. These were used to show differences in environmental conditions between observed and background locations as well as explain spatial patterns in ecological characteristics. In addition, since the SfM 3D reconstructions retained colours, they were employed to separate and quantify live coral colonies versus dead framework. The combination of these new technologies allows us, for the first time, to map the physical 3D structure of previously inaccessible habitats and demonstrates the complexity and importance of vertical structures.

  20. Structural properties of the tubular appendage spinae from marine bacterium Roseobacter sp. strain YSCB

    PubMed Central

    Bernadac, A.; Wu, L.-F.; Santini, C.-L.; Vidaud, C.; Sturgis, J. N.; Menguy, N.; Bergam, P.; Nicoletti, C.; Xiao, T.

    2012-01-01

    Spinae are tubular surface appendages broadly found in Gram-negative bacteria. Little is known about their architecture, function or origin. Here, we report structural characterization of the spinae from marine bacteria Roseobacter sp. YSCB. Electron cryo-tomography revealed that a single filament winds into a hollow flared base with progressive change to a cylinder. Proteinase K unwound the spinae into proteolysis-resistant filaments. Thermal treatment ripped the spinae into ribbons that were melted with prolonged heating. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a dominant beta-structure of the spinae. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed three endothermic transformations at 50–85°C, 98°C and 123°C, respectively. The heating almost completely disintegrated the spinae, abolished the 98°C transition and destroyed the beta-structure. Infrared spectroscopy identified the amide I spectrum maximum at a position similar to that of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, the spinae distinguish from other bacterial appendages, e.g. flagella and stalks, in both the structure and mechanism of assembly. PMID:23230515

  1. AFLPs Reveal Different Population Genetic Structure under Contrasting Environments in the Marine Snail Nucella lapillus L.

    PubMed Central

    Carro, Belén; Quintela, María; Ruiz, José Miguel; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Dispersal has received growing attention in marine ecology, particularly since evidence obtained with up-to-date techniques challenged the traditional view. The dogwhelk Nucella lapillus L., a sedentary gastropod with direct development, is a good example: dispersal was traditionally assumed to be limited until studies with microsatellites disputed this idea. To shed some light on this controversy, the genetic structure of dogwhelk populations in northwest Spain was investigated with highly polymorphic AFLP markers giving special attention to the influence of hydrodynamic stress. In agreement with the expectations for a poor disperser, our results show a significant genetic structure at regional (<200 km) and areal scales (<15 km). However, the spatial genetic structure varied with wave-exposure in the present case study: IBD was evident under sheltered conditions but absent from the exposed area where genetic differentiation was stronger. Our results provide evidence that differences in wave-exposure can exert a detectable influence on the genetic structure of coastal organisms, even in species without a planktonic larva. PMID:23185435

  2. The role of habitat heterogeneity in structuring the community of intertidal free-living marine nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gingold, Ruth; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Holovachov, Oleksandr; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl

    2010-01-01

    The role of habitat complexity has been widely neglected in the study of meiofaunal community patterns. We studied the intertidal nematode community of a structurally complex macrotidal beach exhibiting contrasting microhabitats (sandbars and runnels) to understand the influence of environmental gradients and habitat heterogeneity in the community structure. We tested whether topographical complexity affected (1) the zonation pattern in terms of abundance and diversity, and (2) local diversity by promoting compartmentalization into distinct faunal groups. Our analyses revealed three major faunal assemblages along the exposure gradient associated to differences in mean grain size and chlorophyll a. Diversity patterns involved a mid-intertidal peak, consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and another peak at the limit with the subtidal region, consistent with the transition zone. These results highlight the predominance of environmental gradients in establishing intertidal zonation. However, microhabitats differed in environmental conditions and possessed significantly distinct nematofaunal communities. Runnels featured higher levels of taxonomic and functional diversity, many unique genera, and the community differed from the assemblage at the limit to the subtidal, stressing their role as distinct microhabitats. The nematofauna of the structurally complex beach was more diverse than the one from a homogeneous beach nearby, supporting the hypothesis that structural heterogeneity promotes diversity by compartmentalization and highlighting the importance of microhabitats in the assessment of biodiversity. Contrary to previous predictions, our results indicate potentially high regional marine nematode diversity in the Upper Gulf of California.

  3. AFLPs reveal different population genetic structure under contrasting environments in the marine snail Nucella lapillus L.

    PubMed

    Carro, Belén; Quintela, María; Ruiz, José Miguel; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Dispersal has received growing attention in marine ecology, particularly since evidence obtained with up-to-date techniques challenged the traditional view. The dogwhelk Nucella lapillus L., a sedentary gastropod with direct development, is a good example: dispersal was traditionally assumed to be limited until studies with microsatellites disputed this idea. To shed some light on this controversy, the genetic structure of dogwhelk populations in northwest Spain was investigated with highly polymorphic AFLP markers giving special attention to the influence of hydrodynamic stress. In agreement with the expectations for a poor disperser, our results show a significant genetic structure at regional (<200 km) and areal scales (<15 km). However, the spatial genetic structure varied with wave-exposure in the present case study: IBD was evident under sheltered conditions but absent from the exposed area where genetic differentiation was stronger. Our results provide evidence that differences in wave-exposure can exert a detectable influence on the genetic structure of coastal organisms, even in species without a planktonic larva.

  4. Micro- and nano-structural characterization of six marine sponges of the class Demospongiae.

    PubMed

    Şen, Elif Hilal; Ide, Semra; Bayari, Sevgi Haman; Hill, Malcolm

    2016-12-01

    The sponges produce their skeletal elements and silicateins are the key enzymes in this process. The mechanism underlying the formation of their silica skeleton and its structural properties are of exceptional interest for applications in technology. Micro- and nano-scale structural analysis of the six marine sponges belonging to Demospongiae [Callyspongia (Cladochalia) plicifera (Lamarck, 1814), Cervicornia cuspidifera (Lamarck, 1815), Cinachyrela sp., Niphates erecta (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1864), Xestospongia muta (Schmidt, 1870) and Amphimedon compressa (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1864)] were carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) techniques. The nano-structural characterizations give some informative evidence about the manner in which silica/silicatein in spicule skeletons is produced by the sponges. The sponge species were successfully discriminated using cluster analysis (HCA) based on FTIR spectra. This study demonstrates and detection of structural differences among sponges and their spicules using combined techniques.

  5. Hierarchical population structure and habitat differences in a highly mobile marine species: the Atlantic spotted dolphin.

    PubMed

    Viricel, Amélia; Rosel, Patricia E

    2014-10-01

    Recent molecular studies have shown that highly mobile species with continuous distributions can exhibit fine-scale population structure. In this context, we assessed genetic structure within a marine species with high dispersal potential, the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis). Using 19 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences, population structure was investigated in the western North Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico and the Azores Islands. Analyses of the microsatellite data identified four distinct genetic clusters, which were supported by the control region sequences. The highest level of divergence was seen between two clusters corresponding to previously described morphotypes that inhabit oceanic and shelf waters. The combined morphological and genetic evidence suggests these two lineages are on distinct evolutionary trajectories and could be considered distinct subspecies despite their parapatry. Further analysis of the continental shelf cluster resulted in three groups: animals inhabiting shelf waters in the western North Atlantic, the eastern Gulf of Mexico and the western Gulf of Mexico. Analyses of environmental data indicate the four genetic clusters inhabit distinct habitats in terms of depth and sea surface temperature. Contemporary dispersal rate estimates suggest all of these populations should be considered as distinct management units. Conversely, no significant genetic differentiation was observed between S. frontalis from offshore waters of the western North Atlantic and the Azores, which are separated by approximately 4500 km. Overall, the hierarchical structure observed within the Atlantic spotted dolphin shows that the biogeography of the species is complex because it is not shaped solely by geographic distance.

  6. Damage detection and health monitoring of operational structures

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.; Mayes, R.; Carne, T.; Reese, G.

    1994-09-01

    Initial damage detection/health monitoring experiments have been performed on three different operational structures: a fracture critical bridge, a composite wind turbine blade, and an aging aircraft. An induced damage test was performed on the Rio Grande/I40 bridge before its demolition. The composite wind turbine test was fatgued to failure with periodic modal testing performed throughout the testing. The front fuselage of a DC-9 aircraft was used as the testbed for an induced damage test. These tests have yielded important insights into techniques for experimental damage detection on real structures. Additionally, the data are currently being used with current damage detection algorithms to further develop the numerical technology. State of the art testing technologies such as, high density modal testing, scanning laser vibrometry and natural excitation testing have also been utilized for these tests.

  7. Structures of dimethylsulfoniopropionate-dependent demethylase from the marine organism Pelagabacter ubique

    SciTech Connect

    Schuller, David J.; Reisch, Chris R.; Moran, Mary Ann; Whitman, William B.; Lanzilotta, William N.

    2012-01-20

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is a ubiquitous algal metabolite and common carbon and sulfur source for marine bacteria. DMSP is a precursor for the climatically active gas dimethylsulfide that is readily oxidized to sulfate, sulfur dioxide, methanesulfonic acid, and other products that act as cloud condensation nuclei. Although the environmental importance of DMSP metabolism has been known for some time, the enzyme responsible for DMSP demethylation by marine bacterioplankton, dimethylsufoniopropionate-dependent demethylase A (DmdA, EC 2.1.1.B5), has only recently been identified and biochemically characterized. In this work, we report the structure for the apoenzyme DmdA from Pelagibacter ubique (2.1 {angstrom}), as well as for DmdA co-crystals soaked with substrate DMSP (1.6 {angstrom}) or the cofactor tetrahydrofolate (THF) (1.6 {angstrom}). Surprisingly, the overall fold of the DmdA is not similar to other enzymes that typically utilize the reduced form of THF and in fact is a triple domain structure similar to what has been observed for the glycine cleavage T protein or sarcosine oxidase. Specifically, while the THF binding fold appears conserved, previous biochemical studies have shown that all enzymes with a similar fold produce 5,10-methylene-THF, while DmdA catalyzes a redox-neutral methyl transfer reaction to produce 5-methyl-THF. On the basis of the findings presented herein and the available biochemical data, we outline a mechanism for a redox-neutral methyl transfer reaction that is novel to this conserved THF binding domain.

  8. Horizontal variability of the marine boundary layer structure upwind of San Nicolas Island during FIRE, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Douglas R.

    1990-01-01

    During the months of June and July 1987, the Marine Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observation Experiment of First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) was conducted in the Southern California offshore area in the vicinity of San Nicolas Island (SNI). The Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC) airborne platform was utilized during FIRE to investigate the upwind low level horizontal variability of the marine boundary layer structure to determine the representativeness of SNI-based measurements to upwind open ocean conditions. The NOSC airborne meteorological platform made three flights during FIRE, two during clear sky conditions (19 and 23 July), and one during two stratus conditions (15 July). The boundary layer structure variations associated with the stratus clouds of 15 July 1987 are discussed. Profiles of air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH) taken 'at' and 'upwind' of SNI do show differences between the so-called open ocean conditions and those taken near the island. However, the observed difference cannot be uniquely identified to island effects, especially since the upwind fluctuations of AT and RH bound the SNI measurements. Total optical depths measures at SNI do not appear to be greatly affected by any surface based aerosol effects created by the island and could therefore realistically represent open ocean conditions. However, if one were to use the SNI aerosol measurements to predict ship to ship EO propagation conditions, significant errors could be introduced due to the increased number of surface aerosols observed near SNI which may not be, and were not, characteristic of open ocean conditions. Sea surface temperature measurements taken at the island will not, in general, represent those upwind open ocean conditions. Also, since CTT's varied appreciably along the upwind radials, measurements of CTT over the island may not be representative of actual open ocean CTT's.

  9. SMART marine goals, targets and management - Is SDG 14 operational or aspirational, is 'Life Below Water' sinking or swimming?

    PubMed

    Cormier, Roland; Elliott, Michael

    2017-08-02

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), adopted in September 2015, are accompanied by targets which have to be met individually and collectively by the signatory states. SDG14 Life Below Water aims to lay the foundation for the integrated and sustainable management of the oceans. However, any environmental management has to be based around targets which are SMART - specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time bounded - otherwise it is not possible to determine whether management actions are successful and achieve the desired aims. The discussion here shows that many of the targets adopted for SDG14, and especially a detailed analysis of Target 1, are aspirational rather than fully quantified. In order to move towards making the targets operational, we advocate merging the language of environmental management with that used by industry for linking risks to the environment, management performance and ensuing controls. By adopting an approach which uses Key Performance Indicators ('KPIs'), Key Risk Indicators ('KRIs') and Key Control Indicators ('KCIs'), we advocate that a degree of rigour leading to defendable actions can be brought to marine management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. SPring-8 Structural Biology Beamlines / Automatic Beamline Operation at RIKEN Structural Genomics Beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, Go; Hasegawa, Kazuya; Okazaki, Nobuo; Sakai, Hisanobu; Kumasaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2007-01-19

    RIKEN Structural Genomics Beamlines (BL26B1 and BL26B2) at SPring-8 have been constructed for high throughput protein crystallography. The beamline operation is automated cooperating with the sample changer robot. The operation software provides a centralized control utilizing the client and server architecture. The sample management system with the networked database has been implemented to accept dry-shipped crystals from distant users.

  11. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N.; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R.; Louie, J.; Pullammanappallil, S.

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie M. Kell, Graham Kent, Neal W. Driscoll, Robert E. Karlin, Robert L. Baskin, John N. Louie, Kenneth D. Smith, Sathish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract NS14A-08.

  12. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Euryjanicins B–D, Proline-Containing Cycloheptapeptides from the Caribbean Marine Sponge Prosuberites laughlini†

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Brunilda; Vicente, Jan; Rodríguez, Abimael D.

    2016-01-01

    Three new cyclic peptides, euryjanicins B (2), C (3), and D (4), have been isolated from the Puerto Rican marine sponge Prosuberites laughlini, and the structures were elucidated by chemical degradation, ESIMS/MS, and extensive 2D NMR methods. When tested against the National Cancer Institute 60 tumor cell line panel, all of the purified isolates displayed weak cytotoxicity. PMID:19743810

  13. Application of symmetry operation measures in structural inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Jorge; Alvarez, Santiago

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an application of the recently proposed symmetry operation measures to the determination of the effective symmetry point group of coordination polyhedra in inorganic solids. Several structure types based on octahedra are found to present distinct distortion patterns each, not strictly attached to the crystallographic site symmetry. These include the (NH4)2[CuCl4], CdI2 (brucite), FeS2 (pyrite), TiO2 (rutile), CaCl2, GdFeO3, PbTiO3,LiNbO3, BiI3, CrCl3, Al2O3, and NiWO4 structures. It is shown that a similar analysis can be applied to the Bailar and tetragonal Jahn-Teller distortions of molecular transition metal complexes, as well as to solids based on tetrahedra, such as the ZnCl2, FeS, BeCl2, SiS2, and KFeS2 structure types.

  14. Studies on the role and mode of operation of the very-lysine-rich histones in eukaryote chromatin. The conformation of phi1 histones from marine invertebrate sperm.

    PubMed

    Puigdoménech, P; Cabré, O; Palau, J; Bradbury, E M; Crane-Robinson, C

    1975-11-01

    Proton magnetic resonance, circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy are used to investigate the secondary and tertiary structure of three very lysine-rich histones from marine invertebrate sperm. At high ionic strength both Arbacia lixula and Holothuria tubulosa histone phi 1 are observed to contain 25-30% alpha-helix, no beta-structure and to form specific folded structures. Both phi 1 proton magnetic resonance spectra have perturbed methyl resonances at chemical shifts close to those observed for calf thymus H1, suggesting analogies in tertiary structure. Mytilus edulis histone phi 1 however, shows no spectroscopic evidence of secondary and tertiary structure on salt addition.

  15. Efficient Cache use for Stencil Operations on Structured Discretization Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.

    2001-01-01

    We derive tight bounds on the cache misses for evaluation of explicit stencil operators on structured grids. Our lower bound is based on the isoperimetrical property of the discrete octahedron. Our upper bound is based on a good surface to volume ratio of a parallelepiped spanned by a reduced basis of the interference lattice of a grid. Measurements show that our algorithm typically reduces the number of cache misses by a factor of three, relative to a compiler optimized code. We show that stencil calculations on grids whose interference lattice have a short vector feature abnormally high numbers of cache misses. We call such grids unfavorable and suggest to avoid these in computations by appropriate padding. By direct measurements on a MIPS R10000 processor we show a good correlation between abnormally high numbers of cache misses and unfavorable three-dimensional grids.

  16. Single-mode operation of mushroom structure surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.J.; Dziura, T.G.; Wang, S.C. ); Du, G.; Wang, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Mushroom structure vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with a 0.6 {mu}m GaAs active layer sandwiched by two Al{sub 0.6{sup {minus}}}Ga{sub 0.4}As-Al{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}As multilayers as top and bottom mirrors exhibit 15 mA pulsed threshold current at 880 nm. Single longitudinal and single transverse mode operation was achieved on lasers with a 5 {mu}m diameter active region at current levels near 2 {times} I{sub th}. The light output above threshold current was linearly polarized with a polarization ratio of 25:1.

  17. Determination of the chemical structures of tandyukisins B-D, isolated from a marine sponge-derived fungus.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takeshi; Umebayashi, Yoshihide; Kawashima, Maiko; Sugiura, Yuma; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2015-05-21

    Tandyukisins B-D (1-3), novel decalin derivatives, have been isolated from a strain of Trichoderma harzianum OUPS-111D-4 originally derived from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai, and their structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. In addition, their chemical structures were established by chemical transformation. They exhibited weak cytotoxicity, but selective growth inhibition on panel screening using 39 human cancer cell lines.

  18. Spatial and seasonal variation in diversity and structure of microbial biofilms on marine plastics in Northern European waters.

    PubMed

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Loeder, Martin G J; Gerdts, Gunnar; Osborn, A Mark

    2014-11-01

    Plastic pollution is now recognised as a major threat to marine environments and marine biota. Recent research highlights that diverse microbial species are found to colonise plastic surfaces (the plastisphere) within marine waters. Here, we investigate how the structure and diversity of marine plastisphere microbial community vary with respect to season, location and plastic substrate type. We performed a 6-week exposure experiment with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles in the North Sea (UK) as well as sea surface sampling of plastic polymers in Northern European waters. Scanning electron microscopy revealed diverse plastisphere communities comprising prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing analysis revealed that plastisphere microbial communities on PET fragments varied both with season and location and comprised of bacteria belonging to Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and members of the eukaryotes Bacillariophyceae and Phaeophyceae. Polymers sampled from the sea surface mainly comprised polyethylene, polystyrene and polypropylene particles. Variation within plastisphere communities on different polymer types was observed, but communities were primarily dominated by Cyanobacteria. This research reveals that the composition of plastisphere microbial communities in marine waters varies with season, geographical location and plastic substrate type. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Milestones Towards Hot CMC Structures for Operational Space Rentry Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hald, H.; Weihs, H.; Reimer, T.

    2002-01-01

    little nose cap had been developed and tested during the EXPRESS mission in 1995. These three flight tests were the first ones in Europe carried out with such a kind of material and hot structural concept and manifold lessons learned w.r.t. material behaviour and structural design performance under the severe environment conditions of ballistic capsule reentry could be achieved. Within an ESA program called FESTIP we developed a new design concept for a rigid surface TPS based on CMC's which should be adaptable to the outer side of a cryogenic tank structure of a future SSTO vehicle. Special TPS concept features are (flat) integral stiffened CMC panels, hot CMC fasteners for outside attachment capability, thermal displacement compensation, sealing and insulation, provision of a purge gap etc. Two test samples have been constructed and manufactured in close cooperation with industrial companies and finally they were tested very successfully under realistic thermal and mechanical loading conditions. A further key technology is high temperature fastening of shell like CMC components; here two new CMC based fastener concepts featuring a combination of screwing and riveting methods could be developed and qualified even under high temperature fatigue loads within ESA and national German programs. In addition high temperature testing technology has been matured over years and some extraordinary tests of components like the EMA bearing for the X-38 body flaps designed and manufactured by MAN-T could be tested very successfully. Finally these developments put DLR in the position to develop and provide the nose cap system for X-38 from NASA and some of the most demanding basic features will be highlighted briefly (details in a separate paper). Reflecting the described developments and considering near future programs like CRV and other ongoing experimental developments it is obvious that we now entered a state of transition from basic technology development towards operational use

  20. Turbulence structure of the boundary layer below marine clouds in the SOFIA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Réchou, Anne; Durand, Pierre; Druilhet, Aimé; Bénech, Bruno

    1995-10-01

    The SOFIA (Surface of the Ocean: Flux and Interaction with the Atmosphere) experiment, included in the ASTEX (Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment) field program, was conducted in June 1992 in the Azores region in order to investigate air-sea exchanges, as well as the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and its capping low-level cloud cover. We present an analysis of the vertical structure of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), and especially of its turbulence characteristics, deduced from the aircraft missions performed during SOFIA. The meteorological situations were characteristic of a temperate latitude under anticyclonic conditions, i.e., with weak to moderate winds, weak surface sensible heat flux, and broken capping low-altitude cloud cover topped by a strong trade inversion. We show that the mixed layer, driven by the surface fluxes, is decoupled from the above cloud layer. Although weak, the surface buoyancy flux, and the convective velocity scale deduced from it, are relevant for scaling the turbulence moments. The mixed layer then follows the behaviour of a continental convective boundary layer, with the exception of the entrainment process, which is weak in the SOFIA data. These results are confirmed by conditional sampling analysis, which shows that the major turbulence source lies in the buoyant moist updrafts at the surface.

  1. Hierarchical Population Genetic Structure in a Direct Developing Antarctic Marine Invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Joseph I.; Clarke, Andrew; Clark, Melody S.; Peck, Lloyd S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between life-history variation and population structure in marine invertebrates is not straightforward. This is particularly true of polar species due to the difficulty of obtaining samples and a paucity of genomic resources from which to develop nuclear genetic markers. Such knowledge, however, is essential for understanding how different taxa may respond to climate change in the most rapidly warming regions of the planet. We therefore used over two hundred polymorphic Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) to explore population connectivity at three hierachical spatial scales in the direct developing Antarctic topshell Margarella antarctica. To previously published data from five populations spanning a 1500 km transect along the length of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, we added new AFLP data for four populations separated by up to 6 km within Ryder Bay, Adelaide Island. Overall, we found a nonlinear isolation-by-distance pattern, suggestive of weaker population structure within Ryder Bay than is present over larger spatial scales. Nevertheless, significantly positive Fst values were obtained in all but two of ten pairwise population comparisons within the bay following Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. This is in contrast to a previous study of the broadcast spawner Nacella concinna that found no significant genetic differences among several of the same sites. By implication, the topshell's direct-developing lifestyle may constrain its ability to disperse even over relatively small geographic scales. PMID:23691125

  2. Structure-Activity Relationships of the Bioactive Thiazinoquinone Marine Natural Products Thiaplidiaquinones A and B.

    PubMed

    Harper, Jacquie L; Khalil, Iman M; Shaw, Lisa; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Dubois, Joëlle; Valentin, Alexis; Barker, David; Copp, Brent R

    2015-08-10

    In an effort to more accurately define the mechanism of cell death and to establish structure-activity relationship requirements for the marine meroterpenoid alkaloids thiaplidiaquinones A and B, we have evaluated not only the natural products but also dioxothiazine regioisomers and two precursor quinones in a range of bioassays. While the natural products were found to be weak inducers of ROS in Jurkat cells, the dioxothiazine regioisomer of thiaplidiaquinone A and a synthetic precursor to thiaplidiaquinone B were found to be moderately potent inducers. Intriguingly, and in contrast to previous reports, the mechanism of Jurkat cell death (necrosis vs. apoptosis) was found to be dependent upon the positioning of one of the geranyl sidechains in the compounds with thiaplidiaquinone A and its dioxothiazine regioisomer causing death dominantly by necrosis, while thiaplidiaquinone B and its dioxothiazine isomer caused cell death via apoptosis. The dioxothiazine regioisomer of thiaplidiaquinone A exhibited more potent in vitro antiproliferative activity against human tumor cells, with NCI sub-panel selectivity towards melanoma cell lines. The non-natural dioxothiazine regioisomers were also more active in antiplasmodial and anti-farnesyltransferase assays than their natural product counterparts. The results highlight the important role that natural product total synthesis can play in not only helping understand the structural basis of biological activity of natural products, but also the discovery of new bioactive scaffolds.

  3. Structure of marine predator and prey communities along environmental gradients in a glaciated fjord

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renner, Martin; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Piatt, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial patterns of marine predator communities are influenced to varying degrees by prey distribution and environmental gradients. We examined physical and biological attributes of an estuarine fjord with strong glacier influence to determine the factors that most influence the structure of predator and prey communities. Our results suggest that some species, such as walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), were widely distributed across environmental gradients, indicating less specialization, whereas species such as capelin (Mallotus villosus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) appeared to have more specialized habitat requirements related to glacial influence. We found that upper trophic level communities were well correlated with their mid trophic level prey community, but strong physical gradients in photic depth, temperature, and nutrients played an important role in community structure as well. Mid-trophic level forage fish communities were correlated with the physical gradients more closely than upper trophic levels were, and they showed strong affinity to tidewater glaciers. Silica was closely correlated with the distribution of fish communities, the mechanisms of which deserve further study.

  4. Chitin and Chitosan Preparation from Marine Sources. Structure, Properties and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Islem; Rinaudo, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the most common methods for recovery of chitin from marine organisms. In depth, both enzymatic and chemical treatments for the step of deproteinization are compared, as well as different conditions for demineralization. The conditions of chitosan preparation are also discussed, since they significantly impact the synthesis of chitosan with varying degree of acetylation (DA) and molecular weight (MW). In addition, the main characterization techniques applied for chitin and chitosan are recalled, pointing out the role of their solubility in relation with the chemical structure (mainly the acetyl group distribution along the backbone). Biological activities are also presented, such as: antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and antioxidant. Interestingly, the relationship between chemical structure and biological activity is demonstrated for chitosan molecules with different DA and MW and homogeneous distribution of acetyl groups for the first time. In the end, several selected pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are presented, in which chitin and chitosan are recognized as new biomaterials taking advantage of their biocompatibility and biodegradability. PMID:25738328

  5. Structure-function relationship of anticoagulant and antithrombotic well-defined sulfated polysaccharides from marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2012-01-01

    Marine sulfated polysaccharides (MSPs), such as sulfated fucans (SFs), sulfated galactans (SGs), and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from invertebrate animals, are highly anionic polysaccharides capable of interacting with certain cationic proteins, such as (co)-factors of the coagulation cascade during clotting-inhibition process. Primarily, these molecular complexes between MSPs and coagulation-related proteins seem to be driven mostly by electrostatic interactions. However, through a systematic comparison using several novel well-defined sulfated polysaccharides composed of repetitive oligosaccharides with clear sulfation patterns, it was proved that those molecular interactions are essentially regulated by the stereochemistry of the glycans (which depends on a conjunction of anomeric configurations, sugar types, conformational preferences, glycosylation, and sulfation sites), rather than just a mere consequence of the electronegative density charges (mainly from number of sulfate groups). Here, we present an overview about the structure-function relationship of the invertebrate MSPs with regular structures as potential anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents, as pathologies related to the cardiovascular system are one of the major causes of mortality in the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Iridescence of a Marine Bacterium and Classification of Prokaryotic Structural Colors

    PubMed Central

    Vukusic, Peter; Luke, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Iridescence is a property of structural color that is occasionally encountered in higher eukaryotes but that has been poorly documented in the prokaryotic kingdom. In the present work, we describe a marine bacterium, identified as Cellulophaga lytica, isolated from the surface of an anemone, that exhibits bright green iridescent colonies under direct epi-illumination. This phenomenon has not previously been investigated in detail. In this study, color changes of C. lytica colonies were observed at various angles of direct illumination or observation. Its iridescent green appearance was dominant on various growth media. Red and violet colors were also discerned on colony edges. Remarkable C. lytica bacterial iridescence was revealed and characterized using high-resolution optical spectrometry. In addition to this, by culturing other bacterial strains to which various forms of faintly iridescent traits have previously been attributed, we identify four principal appearance characteristics of structural color in prokaryotes. A new general classification of bacterial iridescence is therefore proposed in this study. Furthermore, a specific separate class is described for iridescent C. lytica strains because they exhibit what is so far a unique intense glitter-like iridescence in reflection. C. lytica is the first prokaryote discovered to produce the same sort of intense iridescence under direct illumination as that associated with higher eukaryotes, like some insects and birds. Due to the nature of bacterial biology, cultivation, and ubiquity, this discovery may be of significant interest for both ecological and nanoscience endeavors. PMID:22267664

  7. Chitin and chitosan preparation from marine sources. Structure, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Younes, Islem; Rinaudo, Marguerite

    2015-03-02

    This review describes the most common methods for recovery of chitin from marine organisms. In depth, both enzymatic and chemical treatments for the step of deproteinization are compared, as well as different conditions for demineralization. The conditions of chitosan preparation are also discussed, since they significantly impact the synthesis of chitosan with varying degree of acetylation (DA) and molecular weight (MW). In addition, the main characterization techniques applied for chitin and chitosan are recalled, pointing out the role of their solubility in relation with the chemical structure (mainly the acetyl group distribution along the backbone). Biological activities are also presented, such as: antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and antioxidant. Interestingly, the relationship between chemical structure and biological activity is demonstrated for chitosan molecules with different DA and MW and homogeneous distribution of acetyl groups for the first time. In the end, several selected pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are presented, in which chitin and chitosan are recognized as new biomaterials taking advantage of their biocompatibility and biodegradability.

  8. Spatially structured populations with a low level of cryptic diversity in European marine Gastrotricha.

    PubMed

    Kieneke, Alexander; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro M; Fontaneto, Diego

    2012-03-01

    Species of the marine meiofauna such as Gastrotricha are known to lack dispersal stages and are thus assumed to have low dispersal ability and low levels of gene flow between populations. Yet, most species are widely distributed, and this creates a paradox. To shed light on this apparent paradox, we test (i) whether such wide distribution may be due to misidentification and lumping of cryptic species with restricted distributions and (ii) whether spatial structures exist for the phylogeography of gastrotrichs. As a model, we used the genus Turbanella in NW Europe. DNA taxonomy using a mitochondrial and a nuclear marker supports distinctness of four traditional species (Turbanella ambronensis, T. bocqueti, T. mustela and T. cornuta) and provides evidence for two cryptic species within T. hyalina. An effect of geography on the within-species genetic structure is indeed present, with the potential for understanding colonization processes and for performing phylogeographic inference from microscopic animals. On the other hand, the occurrence of widely distributed haplotypes indicates long-distance dispersal as well, despite the assumed low dispersal ability of gastrotrichs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Photothermal and Structural Comparative Analysis of Chitinous Exoskeletons of Marine Invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-de la Rosa, B. A.; Yañez-Limón, J. M.; Tiburcio-Moreno, J. A.; Zambrano, M.; Ardisson, P.-L.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Chitinous materials are common in nature and provide different functions including protection and support of many invertebrate animals. Exoskeletons in these organisms constitute the boundary regulating interaction between the animal and the external environment. For this reason, it is important to study the physical properties of these skeletons, in particular, thermal properties. The objective of this study is to investigate the thermal diffusivity of the skeletons of four species of marine invertebrates, Antipathes caribbeana (black coral), Panulinus argus (lobster), Callinectes sapidus (crab), and Limulus polyphemus (xiphosure). Thermal characterization is performed using photothermal radiometry (PTR) and laser-flash techniques. The measurements are complemented with structural characterization using X-ray diffraction. The results using both laser flash and PTR are consistent. These indicate that the thermal properties are strongly dependent on the presence of biogenic minerals (calcium and/or magnesium) and on the crystallinity index of the structure. The thermal-diffusivity values show an increase as a function of the crystallinity index.

  10. Diel trophic structuring of seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsworth, Richard K. F.; Wylie, Elizabeth; Smith, David J.; Bell, James J.

    2007-03-01

    The faunal communities of seagrass beds throughout SE Asia are highly threatened by continued overexploitation, yet their ecology is poorly understood. Developing a greater understanding of the faunal linkages between seagrass beds and associated coastal habitats can facilitate more informed ecosystem level management. The present study used beach seine netting to sample seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia, to investigate diel migrations of fish into and out of seagrass beds. These fish assemblages were found to be diverse relative to other studies within the region, with many species being economically important to local subsistence fisheries. The abundance, species richness and trophic structure of these fish assemblages changed with time of day indicating that fish populations are in a dynamic state. Mean fish abundance increased by ≈45% from day to night (Day: 8.61 ± 0.13 fish 100 m -2; Night: 15.6 ± 1.4 fish 100 m -2) while mean species richness increased from 6.6 ± 1.9 per seine haul to 11.4 ± 0.2. Increasing abundance and diversity of fish at night suggests migration onto these habitats from nearby habitats such as reefs, mangroves or deep water; and/or increased activity of those fish resident within seagrass habitats. Division of species into trophic categories enabled the trophic structure of changing fish assemblages to be examined. Assemblages were dominated during both the day and night by invertebrate and fish feeders; however, a major diel change in trophic structure occurred in the abundance of omnivores. During the day omnivores were abundant, but they were replaced at night by exclusive invertebrate feeders. We therefore propose that diel changes in seagrass fish assemblages are predominantly structured by food availability, although other factors such as increased night-time shelter provision were also found to be important albeit to a much lesser extent.

  11. Factor structure of the functional movement screen in marine officer candidates.

    PubMed

    Kazman, Josh B; Galecki, Jeffrey M; Lisman, Peter; Deuster, Patricia A; OʼConnor, Francis G

    2014-03-01

    Functional movement screening (FMS) is a musculoskeletal assessment that is intended to fill a gap between preparticipation examinations and performance tests. Functional movement screening consists of 7 standardized movements involving multiple muscle groups that are rated 0-3 during performance; scores are combined into a final score, which is intended to predict injury risk. This use of a sum-score in this manner assumes that the items are unidimensional and scores are internally consistent, which are measures of internal reliability. Despite research into the FMS' predictive value and interrater reliability, research has not assessed its psychometric properties. The present study is a standard psychometric analysis of the FMS and is the first to assess the internal consistency and factor structure of the FMS, using Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Using a cohort of 877 male and 57 female Marine officer candidates who performed the FMS, EFA of polychoric correlations with varimax rotation was conducted to explore the structure of the FMS. Tests were repeated on the original scores, which integrated feelings of pain during movement (0-3), and then on scores discounting the pain instruction and based only on the performance (1-3), to determine whether pain ratings affected the factor structure. The average FMS score was 16.7 ± 1.8. Cronbach's alpha was 0.39. Exploratory factor analysis availed 2 components accounting for 21 and 17% and consisting of separate individual movements (shoulder mobility and deep squat, respectively). Analysis on scores discounting pain showed similar results. The factor structures were not interpretable, and the low Cronbach's alpha suggests a lack of internal consistency in FMS sum scores. Results do not offer support for validity of the FMS sum score as a unidimensional construct. In the absence of additional psychometric research, caution is warranted when using the FMS sum score.

  12. Energy expenditure, nutritional status, body composition and physical fitness of Royal Marines during a 6-month operational deployment in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Fallowfield, Joanne L; Delves, Simon K; Hill, Neil E; Cobley, Rosalyn; Brown, Pieter; Lanham-New, Susan A; Frost, Gary; Brett, Stephen J; Murphy, Kevin G; Montain, Scott J; Nicholson, Christopher; Stacey, Michael; Ardley, Christian; Shaw, Anneliese; Bentley, Conor; Wilson, Duncan R; Allsopp, Adrian J

    2014-09-14

    Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( - 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (P< 0·05). Daily EI (mean 10 590 (sd 3339) kJ) was significantly lower than the estimated daily energy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority.

  13. Experience gained from using water and steam for bringing the operation of aircraft- and marine-derivative gas-turbine engines in compliance with environmental standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datsenko, V. V.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kosoi, A. S.

    2014-04-01

    Practical experience gained from using water and steam admission into the combustion chambers of aircraft- and marine-derivative gas turbines for bringing their operation in compliance with the requirements of environmental standards is described. The design and schematic modifications of combustion chambers and fuel system through which this goal is achieved are considered. The results obtained from industrial and rig tests of combustion chambers fitted with water or steam admission systems are presented.

  14. Welding stainless steels for structures operating at liquid helium temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Witherell, C.E.

    1980-04-18

    Superconducting magnets for fusion energy reactors require massive monolithic stainless steel weldments which must operate at extremely low temperatures under stresses approaching 100 ksi (700 MPa). A three-year study was conducted to determine the feasibility of producing heavy-section welds having usable levels of strength and toughness at 4.2/sup 0/K for fabrication of these structures in Type 304LN plate. Seven welding processes were evaluated. Test weldments in full-thickness plate were made under severe restraint to simulate that of actual structures. Type 316L filler metal was used for most welds. Welds deposited under some conditions and which solidify as primary austenite have exhibited intergranular embrittlement at 4.2/sup 0/K. This is believed to be associated with grain boundary metal carbides or carbonitrides precipitated during reheating of already deposited beads by subsequent passes. Weld deposits which solidify as primary delta ferrite appear immune. Through use of fully austenitic filler metals of low nitrogen content under controlled shielded metal arc welding conditions, and through use of filler metals solidifying as primary delta ferrite where only minimum residuals remain to room temperature, welds of Type 316L composition have been made with 4.2K yield strength matching that of Type 304LN plate and acceptable levels of soundness, ductility and toughness.

  15. Effects of Noise of Offshore Oil and Gas Operations on Marine Mammals - An Introductory Assessment. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Recommendations," Center for Marine Studies, San Diego State University-Hubbs/ Sea World Research Institute Report 80-2. Evans, William E., Joseph E...Reports," Center for Marine Studies, San Diego State University, and Hubbs/ Sea World Research Institute Technical Report 80-1. Ford, John (1977), "White...G.N. DeSciara (19785, "Auditory Thresholds of Two Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas)," Hubbs/ Sea World Research Institute, Maiiuscript. Young

  16. Modal parameter extraction from large operating structures using ambient excitation

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.H. III; Carne, T.G.; Mayes, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    A technique called the Natural Excitation Technique or has been developed to response extract response parameters from large operational structure when subjected to random and unmeasured forces such as wind, road noise, aerodynamics, or waves. Six applications of NExT to ambient excitation testing and NExT analysis are surveyed in this paper with a minimum of technical detail. In the first application, NExT was applied to a controlled-yaw Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT). By controlling the yaw degree of freedom an important class of rotating coordinate system effects are reduced. A new shape extraction procedure was applied to this data set with good results. The second application was to a free-yaw HAWT. The complexity of the response has prompted further analytical studies and the development of a specialized visualization package. The third application of NExT was to a parked three-bladed Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) in which traditional modal testing could not excite all modes of interest. The shape extraction process used cross-correlation functions directly in a time-domain shape-fitting routine. The fourth application was to ground transportation systems. Ongoing work to improve driver and passenger comfort in tractor-trailer vehicles and to refine automobile body and tire models will use NExT. NExT has been used to process ambient vibration data for Finite Element Model correlation and is being used to study Structural Health Monitoring with ambient excitation. Shape fitting was performed using amplitude and phase information taken directly from the cross-spectra. The final application is to an offshore structure. This work is on-going, however initial studies have found a high-modal density, high noise content, and sparse data set.

  17. Is benthic food web structure related to diversity of marine macrobenthic communities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokołowski, A.; Wołowicz, M.; Asmus, H.; Asmus, R.; Carlier, A.; Gasiunaité, Z.; Grémare, A.; Hummel, H.; Lesutiené, J.; Razinkovas, A.; Renaud, P. E.; Richard, P.; Kędra, M.

    2012-08-01

    Numerical structure and the organisation of food webs within macrozoobenthic communities has been assessed in the European waters (Svalbard, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea) to address the interactions between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Abundance and classical species diversity indices (S, H', J) of macrofaunal communities were related to principal attributes of food webs (relative trophic level and food chain length, FCL) that were determined from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values. Structure of marine macrobenthos varies substantially at a geographical scale; total abundance ranges from 63 ind. m-2 to 34,517 ind. m-2, species richness varies from 3 to 166 and the Shannon-Weaver diversity index from 0.26 to 3.26 while Pielou's evenness index is below 0.73. The major source of energy for macrobenthic communities is suspended particulate organic matter, consisting of phytoplankton and detrital particles, sediment particulate organic matter, and microphytobenthos in varying proportions. These food sources support the presence of suspension- and deposit-feeding communities, which dominate numerically on the sea floor. Benthic food webs include usually four to five trophic levels (FCL varies from 3.08 to 4.86). Most species are assigned to the second trophic level (primary consumers), fewer species are grouped in the third trophic level (secondary consumers), and benthic top predators are the least numerous. Most species cluster primarily at the lowest trophic level that is consistent with the typical organization of pyramidal food webs. Food chain length increases with biodiversity, highlighting a positive effect of more complex community structure on food web organisation. In more diverse benthic communities, energy is transferred through more trophic levels while species-poor communities sustain a shorter food chain.

  18. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of the Complex Agarolytic Enzyme System from the Marine Bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans*

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Correc, Gaëlle; Thomas, François; Bernard, Thomas; Barbeyron, Tristan; Jam, Murielle; Helbert, William; Michel, Gurvan; Czjzek, Mirjam

    2012-01-01

    Zobellia galactanivorans is an emerging model bacterium for the bioconversion of algal biomass. Notably, this marine Bacteroidetes possesses a complex agarolytic system comprising four β-agarases and five β-porphyranases, all belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 16. Although β-agarases are specific for the neutral agarobiose moieties, the recently discovered β-porphyranases degrade the sulfated polymers found in various quantities in natural agars. Here, we report the biochemical and structural comparison of five β-porphyranases and β-agarases from Z. galactanivorans. The respective degradation patterns of two β-porphyranases and three β-agarases are analyzed by their action on defined hybrid oligosaccharides. In light of the high resolution crystal structures, the biochemical results allowed a detailed mapping of substrate specificities along the active site groove of the enzymes. Although PorA displays a strict requirement for C6-sulfate in the −2- and +1-binding subsites, PorB tolerates the presence of 3–6-anhydro-l-galactose in subsite −2. Both enzymes do not accept methylation of the galactose unit in the −1 subsite. The β-agarase AgaD requires at least four consecutive agarose units (DP8) and is highly intolerant to modifications, whereas for AgaB oligosaccharides containing C6-sulfate groups at the −4, +1, and +3 positions are still degraded. Together with a transcriptional analysis of the expression of these enzymes, the structural and biochemical results allow proposition of a model scheme for the agarolytic system of Z. galactanivorans. PMID:22778272

  19. Structural and inhibition insights into carbonic anhydrase CDCA1 from the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii.

    PubMed

    Alterio, Vincenzo; Langella, Emma; Viparelli, Francesca; Vullo, Daniela; Ascione, Giuseppina; Dathan, Nina A; Morel, François M M; Supuran, Claudiu T; De Simone, Giuseppina; Monti, Simona Maria

    2012-05-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) catalyze with high efficiency the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide, an essential reaction for many biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, renal tubular acidification, and bone resorption. Diatoms, which are one of the most common types of phytoplankton and are widespread in oceans, possess CAs fundamental for acquisition of inorganic carbon. Recently, in the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii a novel enzyme, CDCA1, naturally using Cd in its active site, has been isolated and categorized in a new CA class, namely zeta-CA. This enzyme, which consists of three repeats (R1, R2 and R3), is a cambialistic carbonic anhydrase that can spontaneously exchange Zn or Cd at its active centre, presumably an adaptative advantage for diatoms that grow fast in the metal-poor environment of the surface ocean. In this paper we completed the characterization of this enzyme, reporting the X-ray structure of the last repeat, CDCA1-R3 in its cadmium-bound form, and presenting a model of the full length protein obtained by docking approaches. Results show that CDCA1 has a quite compact not symmetric structure, characterized by two covalently linked R1-R2 and R2-R3 interfaces and a small non-covalent R1-R3 interface. The three dimensional arrangement shows that most of the non-conserved aminoacids of the three repeats are located at the interface regions and that the active sites are far from each other and completely accessible to the substrate. Finally, a detailed inhibition study of CDCA1-R3 repeat in both cadmium- and zinc- bound form has been performed with sulfonamides and sulfamates derivatives. The results have been compared with those previously reported for other CA classes, namely alpha- and beta-classes, and correlated with the structural features of these enzymes.

  20. Microarray-based characterization of microbial community functional structure and heterogeneity in marine sediments from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liyou; Kellogg, Laurie; Devol, Allan H; Tiedje, James M; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-07-01

    Marine sediments of coastal margins are important sites of carbon sequestration and nitrogen cycling. To determine the metabolic potential and structure of marine sediment microbial communities, two cores were collected each from the two stations (GMT at a depth of 200 m and GMS at 800 m) in the Gulf of Mexico, and six subsamples representing different depths were analyzed from each of these two cores using functional gene arrays containing approximately 2,000 probes targeting genes involved in carbon fixation; organic carbon degradation; contaminant degradation; metal resistance; and nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous cycling. The geochemistry was highly variable for the sediments based on both site and depth. A total of 930 (47.1%) probes belonging to various functional gene categories showed significant hybridization with at least 1 of the 12 samples. The overall functional gene diversity of the samples from shallow depths was in general lower than those from deep depths at both stations. Also high microbial heterogeneity existed in these marine sediments. In general, the microbial community structure was more similar when the samples were spatially closer. The number of unique genes at GMT increased with depth, from 1.7% at 0.75 cm to 18.9% at 25 cm. The same trend occurred at GMS, from 1.2% at 0.25 cm to 15.2% at 16 cm. In addition, a broad diversity of geochemically important metabolic functional genes related to carbon degradation, nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen fixation, sulfur reduction, phosphorus utilization, contaminant degradation, and metal resistance were observed, implying that marine sediments could play important roles in biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfate, and various metals. Finally, the Mantel test revealed significant positive correlations between various specific functional genes and functional processes, and canonical correspondence analysis suggested that sediment depth, PO(4)(3-), NH(4)(+), Mn

  1. Structure and function of a short LOV protein from the marine phototrophic bacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae.

    PubMed

    Endres, Stephan; Granzin, Joachim; Circolone, Franco; Stadler, Andreas; Krauss, Ulrich; Drepper, Thomas; Svensson, Vera; Knieps-Grünhagen, Esther; Wirtz, Astrid; Cousin, Anneliese; Tielen, Petra; Willbold, Dieter; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Batra-Safferling, Renu

    2015-02-14

    Light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) domains are widely distributed in plants, algae, fungi, bacteria, and represent the photo-responsive domains of various blue-light photoreceptor proteins. Their photocycle involves the blue-light triggered adduct formation between the C(4a) atom of a non-covalently bound flavin chromophore and the sulfur atom of a conserved cysteine in the LOV sensor domain. LOV proteins show considerable variation in the structure of N- and C-terminal elements which flank the LOV core domain, as well as in the lifetime of the adduct state. Here, we report the photochemical, structural and functional characterization of DsLOV, a LOV protein from the photoheterotrophic marine α-proteobacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae which exhibits an average adduct state lifetime of 9.6 s at 20°C, and thus represents the fastest reverting bacterial LOV protein reported so far. Mutational analysis in D. shibae revealed a unique role of DsLOV in controlling the induction of photopigment synthesis in the absence of blue-light. The dark state crystal structure of DsLOV determined at 1.5 Å resolution reveals a conserved core domain with an extended N-terminal cap. The dimer interface in the crystal structure forms a unique network of hydrogen bonds involving residues of the N-terminus and the β-scaffold of the core domain. The structure of photoexcited DsLOV suggests increased flexibility in the N-cap region and a significant shift in the Cα backbone of β strands in the N- and C-terminal ends of the LOV core domain. The results presented here cover the characterization of the unusual short LOV protein DsLOV from Dinoroseobacter shibae including its regulatory function, extremely fast dark recovery and an N-terminus mediated dimer interface. Due to its unique photophysical, structural and regulatory properties, DsLOV might thus serve as an alternative model system for studying light perception by LOV proteins and physiological responses in bacteria.

  2. Marine bacterial community structure resilience to changes in protist predation under phytoplankton bloom conditions.

    PubMed

    Baltar, Federico; Palovaara, Joakim; Unrein, Fernando; Catala, Philippe; Horňák, Karel; Šimek, Karel; Vaqué, Dolors; Massana, Ramon; Gasol, Josep M; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2016-03-01

    To test whether protist grazing selectively affects the composition of aquatic bacterial communities, we combined high-throughput sequencing to determine bacterial community composition with analyses of grazing rates, protist and bacterial abundances and bacterial cell sizes and physiological states in a mesocosm experiment in which nutrients were added to stimulate a phytoplankton bloom. A large variability was observed in the abundances of bacteria (from 0.7 to 2.4 × 10(6) cells per ml), heterotrophic nanoflagellates (from 0.063 to 2.7 × 10(4) cells per ml) and ciliates (from 100 to 3000 cells per l) during the experiment (∼3-, 45- and 30-fold, respectively), as well as in bulk grazing rates (from 1 to 13 × 10(6) bacteria per ml per day) and bacterial production (from 3 to 379 μg per C l per day) (1 and 2 orders of magnitude, respectively). However, these strong changes in predation pressure did not induce comparable responses in bacterial community composition, indicating that bacterial community structure was resilient to changes in protist predation pressure. Overall, our results indicate that peaks in protist predation (at least those associated with phytoplankton blooms) do not necessarily trigger substantial changes in the composition of coastal marine bacterioplankton communities.

  3. Chemical mediation as a structuring element in marine gastropod predator-prey interactions.

    PubMed

    Bornancin, L; Bonnard, I; Mills, S C; Banaigs, B

    2017-06-07

    Covering: up to 2017Chemical mediation regulates behavioral interactions between species and thus affects population structure, community organization and ecosystem function. Among marine taxa that have developed chemical mediation strategies, gastropods belong to a diverse group of molluscs found worldwide, including species with a coiled, reduced or absent shell. Most gastropods use natural products to mediate a wide range of behaviors such as defense, prey location or interactions with con- and hetero-geners. Their chemically defended diet, such as cyanobacteria, algae, sponges, bryozoans and tunicates, provides them with a considerable opportunity either as shelter from predators, or as a means to enhance their own chemical defense. In addition to improving their defenses, molluscs also use prey secondary metabolites in complex chemical communication including settlement induction, prey detection and feeding preferences. The assimilation of prey secondary metabolites further provides the opportunity for interactions with conspecifics via diet-derived chemical cues or signals. This review intends to provide an overview on the sequestration, detoxification, and biotransformation of diet-derived natural products, as well as the role of these compounds as chemical mediators in gastropod-prey interactions.

  4. Structures, biological activities and phylogenetic relationships of terpenoids from marine ciliates of the genus Euplotes.

    PubMed

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-07-08

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported.

  5. The species-rich assemblages of tintinnids (marine planktonic protists) are structured by mouth size

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, John R; Landry, Michael R; Ritchie, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Many microbial taxa in the marine plankton appear super-saturated in species richness. Here, we provide a partial explanation by analyzing how species are organized, species packing, in terms of both taxonomy and morphology. We focused on a well-studied group, tintinnid ciliates of the microzooplankton, in which feeding ecology is closely linked to morphology. Populations in three distinct systems were examined: an Eastern Mediterranean Gyre, a Western Mediterranean Gyre and the California Current. We found that species abundance distributions exhibited the long-tailed, log distributions typical of most natural assemblages of microbial and other organisms. In contrast, grouping in oral size-classes, which corresponds with prey-size exploited, revealed a geometric distribution consistent with a dominant role of a single resource in structuring an assemblage. The number of species found in a particular oral size-class increases with the numerical importance of the size-class in the overall population. We suggest that high species diversity reflects the fact that accompanying each dominant species are many ecologically similar species, presumably able to replace the dominant species, at least with regard to the size of prey exploited. Such redundancy suggests that species diversity greatly exceeds ecological diversity in the plankton. PMID:23426009

  6. Marine boundary-layer cloud structure from CM- to KM-scales

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.

    2000-04-01

    The authors analysis of small-scale LWC fluctuations in PVM-100A data from SOCEX-1 supports the still controversial claim that droplet concentration is not everywhere Poissonian. This does not exclude a slow (spectral exponent {beta} = 5/3) low-amplitude component in the variability of droplet number and size distribution. We believe the cause of the excess small-scale LWC variance causing the scale-break at 2--5 m lies in entrainment- and/or-mixing events; such processes maybe related to the intermittency (occasional bursts of variability at the inner-scale) associated with the large-scale multifractality. Comparing exponents obtained for large-scale behavior with those previously obtained from two other field programs, we uncover remarkable similarities between the basic multifractal (i.e., arbitrary-order structure function) properties of LWC in SOCEX, FIRE'87 and ASTEX clouds and those of passively advected scalars in turbulent flows. However, we also find interesting differences between the three kinds of marine cloud cover and with passive scalars but these are in the details of the various multifractal characterizations (inner and outer scales, high-order scaling). To reproduce these statistical behaviors defines a quantitatively-precise challenge for the cloud-modeling community.

  7. Structures, Biological Activities and Phylogenetic Relationships of Terpenoids from Marine Ciliates of the Genus Euplotes

    PubMed Central

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported. PMID:20714425

  8. Production and structure elucidation of glycoglycerolipids from a marine sponge-associated microbacterium species.

    PubMed

    Wicke, C; Hüners, M; Wray, V; Nimtz, M; Bilitewski, U; Lang, S

    2000-05-01

    The bacterium Microbacterium sp., isolated from the sponge Halichondria panicea, produced four unusual cell-associated glycoglycerolipids and one diphosphatidylglycerol when grown on marine broth and on artificial seawater media. The lipids were isolated by chromatography on silica columns and their structures elucidated using a combination of multidimensional NMR and MS techniques. The main compound was 1-O-acyl-3-[alpha-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-(6-O-acyl-alpha-mannopyranosyl )]glycerol (GGL.2) with 14-methyl-hexadecanoic acid and 12-methyl-tetradecanoic acid positioned at C-6 of the mannose unit and at the glycerol moiety. Glycolipid production was correlated with growth and reached a maximum value of 200 mg/L when grown on artificial seawater medium with 20 g/L glucose. The main compound decreased the surface tension of water down to 33 mN/m and the interfacial tension of the water/n-hexadecane system down to 5 mN/m. In addition to this good surface-active behavior, the main glycoglycerolipid showed antitumor activities.

  9. The Structure-Activity Relationship between Marine Algae Polysaccharides and Anti-Complement Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Liang, Hongze; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 33 different polysaccharides were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationships between the polysaccharides, mainly from marine algae, and anti-complement activity in the classical pathway. Factors considered included extraction methods, fractionations, molecular weight, molar ratio of galactose to fucose, sulfate, uronic acid (UA) content, linkage, branching, and the type of monosaccharide. It was shown that the larger the molecular weights, the better the activities. The molar ratio of galactose (Gal) to fucose (Fuc) was a positive factor at a concentration lower than 10 µg/mL, while it had no effect at a concentration more than 10 µg/mL. In addition, sulfate was necessary; however, the sulfate content, the sulfate pattern, linkage and branching had no effect at a concentration of more than 10 µg/mL. Moreover, the type of monosaccharide had no effect. Laminaran and UA fractions had no activity; however, they could reduce the activity by decreasing the effective concentration of the active composition when they were mixed with the active compositions. The effect of the extraction methods could not be determined. Finally, it was observed that sulfated galactofucan showed good anti-complement activity after separation. PMID:26712768

  10. Marine bacterial community structure resilience to changes in protist predation under phytoplankton bloom conditions

    PubMed Central

    Baltar, Federico; Palovaara, Joakim; Unrein, Fernando; Catala, Philippe; Horňák, Karel; Šimek, Karel; Vaqué, Dolors; Massana, Ramon; Gasol, Josep M; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2016-01-01

    To test whether protist grazing selectively affects the composition of aquatic bacterial communities, we combined high-throughput sequencing to determine bacterial community composition with analyses of grazing rates, protist and bacterial abundances and bacterial cell sizes and physiological states in a mesocosm experiment in which nutrients were added to stimulate a phytoplankton bloom. A large variability was observed in the abundances of bacteria (from 0.7 to 2.4 × 106 cells per ml), heterotrophic nanoflagellates (from 0.063 to 2.7 × 104 cells per ml) and ciliates (from 100 to 3000 cells per l) during the experiment (∼3-, 45- and 30-fold, respectively), as well as in bulk grazing rates (from 1 to 13 × 106 bacteria per ml per day) and bacterial production (from 3 to 379 μg per C l per day) (1 and 2 orders of magnitude, respectively). However, these strong changes in predation pressure did not induce comparable responses in bacterial community composition, indicating that bacterial community structure was resilient to changes in protist predation pressure. Overall, our results indicate that peaks in protist predation (at least those associated with phytoplankton blooms) do not necessarily trigger substantial changes in the composition of coastal marine bacterioplankton communities. PMID:26262814

  11. The Structure-Activity Relationship between Marine Algae Polysaccharides and Anti-Complement Activity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Liang, Hongze; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-12-25

    In this study, 33 different polysaccharides were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationships between the polysaccharides, mainly from marine algae, and anti-complement activity in the classical pathway. Factors considered included extraction methods, fractionations, molecular weight, molar ratio of galactose to fucose, sulfate, uronic acid (UA) content, linkage, branching, and the type of monosaccharide. It was shown that the larger the molecular weights, the better the activities. The molar ratio of galactose (Gal) to fucose (Fuc) was a positive factor at a concentration lower than 10 µg/mL, while it had no effect at a concentration more than 10 µg/mL. In addition, sulfate was necessary; however, the sulfate content, the sulfate pattern, linkage and branching had no effect at a concentration of more than 10 µg/mL. Moreover, the type of monosaccharide had no effect. Laminaran and UA fractions had no activity; however, they could reduce the activity by decreasing the effective concentration of the active composition when they were mixed with the active compositions. The effect of the extraction methods could not be determined. Finally, it was observed that sulfated galactofucan showed good anti-complement activity after separation.

  12. Fosmid library end sequencing reveals a rarely known genome structure of marine shrimp Penaeus monodon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is one of the most important aquaculture species in the world, representing the crustacean lineage which possesses the greatest species diversity among marine invertebrates. Yet, we barely know anything about their genomic structure. To understand the organization and evolution of the P. monodon genome, a fosmid library consisting of 288,000 colonies and was constructed, equivalent to 5.3-fold coverage of the 2.17 Gb genome. Approximately 11.1 Mb of fosmid end sequences (FESs) from 20,926 non-redundant reads representing 0.45% of the P. monodon genome were obtained for repetitive and protein-coding sequence analyses. Results We found that microsatellite sequences were highly abundant in the P. monodon genome, comprising 8.3% of the total length. The density and the average length of microsatellites were evidently higher in comparison to those of other taxa. AT-rich microsatellite motifs, especially poly (AT) and poly (AAT), were the most abundant. High abundance of microsatellite sequences were also found in the transcribed regions. Furthermore, via self-BlastN analysis we identified 103 novel repetitive element families which were categorized into four groups, i.e., 33 WSSV-like repeats, 14 retrotransposons, 5 gene-like repeats, and 51 unannotated repeats. Overall, various types of repeats comprise 51.18% of the P. monodon genome in length. Approximately 7.4% of the FESs contained protein-coding sequences, and the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) gene and the Innexin 3 gene homologues appear to be present in high abundance in the P. monodon genome. Conclusions The redundancy of various repeat types in the P. monodon genome illustrates its highly repetitive nature. In particular, long and dense microsatellite sequences as well as abundant WSSV-like sequences highlight the uniqueness of genome organization of penaeid shrimp from those of other taxa. These results provide substantial improvement to our current

  13. Climate change alters the structure of arctic marine food webs due to poleward shifts of boreal generalists

    PubMed Central

    Kortsch, Susanne; Primicerio, Raul; Fossheim, Maria; Dolgov, Andrey V.; Aschan, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Climate-driven poleward shifts, leading to changes in species composition and relative abundances, have been recently documented in the Arctic. Among the fastest moving species are boreal generalist fish which are expected to affect arctic marine food web structure and ecosystem functioning substantially. Here, we address structural changes at the food web level induced by poleward shifts via topological network analysis of highly resolved boreal and arctic food webs of the Barents Sea. We detected considerable differences in structural properties and link configuration between the boreal and the arctic food webs, the latter being more modular and less connected. We found that a main characteristic of the boreal fish moving poleward into the arctic region of the Barents Sea is high generalism, a property that increases connectance and reduces modularity in the arctic marine food web. Our results reveal that habitats form natural boundaries for food web modules, and that generalists play an important functional role in coupling pelagic and benthic modules. We posit that these habitat couplers have the potential to promote the transfer of energy and matter between habitats, but also the spread of pertubations, thereby changing arctic marine food web structure considerably with implications for ecosystem dynamics and functioning. PMID:26336179

  14. Climate change alters the structure of arctic marine food webs due to poleward shifts of boreal generalists.

    PubMed

    Kortsch, Susanne; Primicerio, Raul; Fossheim, Maria; Dolgov, Andrey V; Aschan, Michaela

    2015-09-07

    Climate-driven poleward shifts, leading to changes in species composition and relative abundances, have been recently documented in the Arctic. Among the fastest moving species are boreal generalist fish which are expected to affect arctic marine food web structure and ecosystem functioning substantially. Here, we address structural changes at the food web level induced by poleward shifts via topological network analysis of highly resolved boreal and arctic food webs of the Barents Sea. We detected considerable differences in structural properties and link configuration between the boreal and the arctic food webs, the latter being more modular and less connected. We found that a main characteristic of the boreal fish moving poleward into the arctic region of the Barents Sea is high generalism, a property that increases connectance and reduces modularity in the arctic marine food web. Our results reveal that habitats form natural boundaries for food web modules, and that generalists play an important functional role in coupling pelagic and benthic modules. We posit that these habitat couplers have the potential to promote the transfer of energy and matter between habitats, but also the spread of pertubations, thereby changing arctic marine food web structure considerably with implications for ecosystem dynamics and functioning. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Crustal Structure and Deformation of the Yakutat Microplate: New Insights From STEEP Marine Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, L. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Christeson, G.; van Avendonk, H.; Reece, R.; Elmore, R.; Pavlis, T.

    2008-12-01

    In fall 2008, we will conduct an active source marine seismic experiment of the offshore Yakutat microplate in the northern Gulf of Alaska. The survey will be conducted aboard the academic research vessel, R/V Marcus Langseth, collecting deep-penetrating multi-channel seismic reflection survey using an 8-km, 640 channel hydrophone streamer and a 6600 cu. in., 36 airgun array. The survey is the concluding data acquisition phase for the ST. Elias Erosion and tectonics Project (STEEP), a multi-institution NSF-Continental Dynamics project investigating the interplay of climate and tectonics in the Chugach-St. Elias Mountains in southern Alaska. The experiment will also provide important site survey information for possible future Integrated Ocean Drilling Program investigations. Two profiles coincident with wide-angle refraction data (see Christeson, et al., this session) will image structural changes across the Dangerous River Zone from east to west and the Transition Fault from south to north. We will also image the western portion of the Transition Fault to determine the nature of faulting along this boundary including whether or not the Pacific Plate is underthrusting beneath the Yakutat microplate as part of this collision. Our westernmost profile will image the Kayak Island Zone, typically described as the northern extension of the Aleutian megathrust but which may be a forming suture acting as a deformation backstop for the converging Yakutat and North American plates. Profiles across the Pamplona Zone, the current Yakutat-North America deformation front, will further constrain relative timing of structural development and the depth of deformation on the broad folds and thrust faults that comprise the area. This new dataset will allow further insight into regional tectonics of the St. Elias region as well as provide more detail regarding the development of the south Alaskan margin during major Plio-Pleistocene glacial- interglacial periods.

  16. A marine magnetic study of a carbonate-hosted impact structure: Ile Rouleau, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelatos, John; Butler, Karl E.; Spray, John G.

    2009-10-01

    Marine magnetic and bathymetric data have been acquired in a 6.5 × 10 km area centred on the Ile Rouleau impact structure, Quebec, Canada. The deeply eroded crater is emplaced in weakly magnetic shaley dolomites of the Palaeoproterozoic Mistassini Group. Subaerial exposure of the structure consists of an island (Ile Mintunikus Misaupinanuch) in Lac Mistassini, which hosts shatter cones. Short-wavelength and linear NNE-trending magnetic anomalies that pervade the survey area are inferred to reflect the presence of magnetic glacial landforms on the lake floor. The most prominent magnetic feature is a high-amplitude anomaly that wraps round the western side of the island. The anomaly correlates with an abrupt change in bathymetry but is not consistently circular about the island and its relationship to the impact is unclear. To the east, a disjointed arcuate anomaly lies parallel to the island 100 m from shore. Its source may be interpreted to be either (1) a locally thickened layer of magnetic glaciofluvial deposits, or (2) post-impact chemically induced magnetization along faults. The abrupt variations in glaciofluvial thickness needed to account for the anomaly under scenario (1) are, however, hard to explain geologically and hypothesis (2) is therefore favoured. Regardless of which model is correct, both suggest that the arcuate anomaly coincides with the fault-bounded perimeter of a central peak. Two possible reconstructions for the original crater diameter, estimated from the curvature of the magnetic anomaly and using morphometric relationships, are 4.4 km and 6.8 km. The former is more realistic with regards to the topography and the lack of conspicuous impact-related deformation on adjacent Ile Manitounouc.

  17. An Analysis of the Twenty-Nine Capabilities of the Marine Corps Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Hostage Recovery ITG Initial Terminal Guidance JEO JTF Enabling Operations JTF Join Task Force JTT Joint/Combined Training/Instruction Team LAR Light...Limited Expeditionary Airfield Operations (EAO). 27. Show of Force Operations (SOFO). 28. JTF Enabling Operations ( JEO ). 29. Sniping Operations (SNO...Relief (HA/DR) Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Airfield/Port Seizure (APS) Show of Force Operations (SOFO) JTF Enabling Operations ( JEO

  18. Modelling ecological complexity for marine species conservation: the effect of variable connectivity on species spatial distribution and age-structure.

    PubMed

    Guizien, Katell; Bramanti, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Connectivity is currently emphasized as a key factor in conservation for its role in enhancing biodiversity of an area and giving benefit to the adjacent areas. For most marine species, connectivity is synonomous of larval dispersal. We applied a spatially explicit meta-population model to test the hypothesis that larval dispersal can affect local demographical features, consequently misleading conservation practice in the marine environment. Simulations were carried out in the Gulf of Lions where coastal circulation displays highly variable temporal and spatial submeso-scale structures. Two different benthic invertebrate species were considered: a soft bottom short lived species and a hard bottom long lived one. In the first case, simulations showed that highest densities at equilibrium do not inform on self-persistent populations location. In the second case, simulations showed that connectivity effects may result in out-of-equilibria demographical structure. We emphasized the caveats in the parameterization of demographical models when local demography is controlled by connectivity.

  19. Physical Performance Tasks Required of U.S. Marines Operating in a High Altitude Cold Weather Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-23

    and endurance factors. ANIN 4 Raw-,, -. BS3LION 1.02 INUODUCTION 1.1 Study Purpose The purpose of this work was to gather descriptive and objective...high/normal, for this sample compared to age-matched controls . The marines from 3/5 were ju ged slightly more fit than the marines from 2/2 (the...Fitness. MCO 6100.3H, and Military Appearance/Weight ControL . MC 6100.10 Headquarters, USMC; 23 Oct 1980. 2. Brezina, E. and W. KoLmar. Uber don

  20. Diversity and population structure of a near-shore marine-sediment viral community.

    PubMed Central

    Breitbart, Mya; Felts, Ben; Kelley, Scott; Mahaffy, Joseph M.; Nulton, James; Salamon, Peter; Rohwer, Forest

    2004-01-01

    Viruses, most of which are phage, are extremely abundant in marine sediments, yet almost nothing is known about their identity or diversity. We present the metagenomic analysis of an uncultured near-shore marine-sediment viral community. Three-quarters of the sequences in the sample were not related to anything previously reported. Among the sequences that could be identified, the majority belonged to double-stranded DNA phage. Temperate phage were more common than lytic phage, suggesting that lysogeny may be an important lifestyle for sediment viruses. Comparisons between the sediment sample and previously sequenced seawater viral communities showed that certain phage phylogenetic groups were abundant in all marine viral communities, while other phage groups were under-represented or absent. This 'marineness' suggests that marine phage are derived from a common set of ancestors. Several independent mathematical models, based on the distribution of overlapping shotgun sequence fragments from the library, were used to show that the diversity of the viral community was extremely high, with at least 10(4) viral genotypes per kilogram of sediment and a Shannon index greater than 9 nats. Based on these observations we propose that marine-sediment viral communities are one of the largest unexplored reservoirs of sequence space on the planet. PMID:15156913

  1. ["Quorum sensing" regulation of lux gene expression and the structure of lux operon in marine bacteria Alivibrio logei].

    PubMed

    Khrul'nova, S A; Manukhov, I V; Zavil'gel'skiĭ, G B

    2011-12-01

    A group of luminescent strains of marine bacteria Alivibrio logei has been isolated (basins of the Okhotsk, White and Bering Seas). Strains A. logei were shown to be psycrophiic bacteria with an optimal growth temperature of approximately 15 degrees C. Biolumiscent characteristics of strains were studied, and the expression of lux genes was shown to be regulated by the "quorum sensing" system. The A. logei lux operon was cloned in Escherichia coli cells and the structure of this operon and its nucleotide sequence were determined. The structure of A. logei lux operon differs markedly from that in the closely related species of luminescent marine bacteria A. fischeri. In the structure of the A. logei lux operon, the the luxI gene is absent in front of luxC, and a fragment containing luxR2-luxI genes is located immediately after luxG gene. Luminescent psycrophiic marine bacteria of A. logei are assumed to be widely distributed in cold waters of northern seas.

  2. Phospholipid-derived fatty acids and quinones as markers for bacterial biomass and community structure in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Kunihiro, Tadao; Veuger, Bart; Vasquez-Cardenas, Diana; Pozzato, Lara; Le Guitton, Marie; Moriya, Kazuyoshi; Kuwae, Michinobu; Omori, Koji; Boschker, Henricus T S; van Oevelen, Dick

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) and respiratory quinones (RQ) are microbial compounds that have been utilized as biomarkers to quantify bacterial biomass and to characterize microbial community structure in sediments, waters, and soils. While PLFAs have been widely used as quantitative bacterial biomarkers in marine sediments, applications of quinone analysis in marine sediments are very limited. In this study, we investigated the relation between both groups of bacterial biomarkers in a broad range of marine sediments from the intertidal zone to the deep sea. We found a good log-log correlation between concentrations of bacterial PLFA and RQ over several orders of magnitude. This relationship is probably due to metabolic variation in quinone concentrations in bacterial cells in different environments, whereas PLFA concentrations are relatively stable under different conditions. We also found a good agreement in the community structure classifications based on the bacterial PLFAs and RQs. These results strengthen the application of both compounds as quantitative bacterial biomarkers. Moreover, the bacterial PLFA- and RQ profiles revealed a comparable dissimilarity pattern of the sampled sediments, but with a higher level of dissimilarity for the RQs. This means that the quinone method has a higher resolution for resolving differences in bacterial community composition. Combining PLFA and quinone analysis as a complementary method is a good strategy to yield higher resolving power in bacterial community structure.

  3. Phospholipid-Derived Fatty Acids and Quinones as Markers for Bacterial Biomass and Community Structure in Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Kunihiro, Tadao; Veuger, Bart; Vasquez-Cardenas, Diana; Pozzato, Lara; Le Guitton, Marie; Moriya, Kazuyoshi; Kuwae, Michinobu; Omori, Koji; Boschker, Henricus T. S.; van Oevelen, Dick

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) and respiratory quinones (RQ) are microbial compounds that have been utilized as biomarkers to quantify bacterial biomass and to characterize microbial community structure in sediments, waters, and soils. While PLFAs have been widely used as quantitative bacterial biomarkers in marine sediments, applications of quinone analysis in marine sediments are very limited. In this study, we investigated the relation between both groups of bacterial biomarkers in a broad range of marine sediments from the intertidal zone to the deep sea. We found a good log-log correlation between concentrations of bacterial PLFA and RQ over several orders of magnitude. This relationship is probably due to metabolic variation in quinone concentrations in bacterial cells in different environments, whereas PLFA concentrations are relatively stable under different conditions. We also found a good agreement in the community structure classifications based on the bacterial PLFAs and RQs. These results strengthen the application of both compounds as quantitative bacterial biomarkers. Moreover, the bacterial PLFA- and RQ profiles revealed a comparable dissimilarity pattern of the sampled sediments, but with a higher level of dissimilarity for the RQs. This means that the quinone method has a higher resolution for resolving differences in bacterial community composition. Combining PLFA and quinone analysis as a complementary method is a good strategy to yield higher resolving power in bacterial community structure. PMID:24769853

  4. Where are the Infantry Sergeants? An Examination of the Marine Corps’ Policies and Processes That Adversely Affected the Availability of Infantry Sergeants to Serve as Squad Leaders in the Operating Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Distributed Operations." The Marine Corps is adapting its manpower practices to meet the operating forces requirements. Problems with Headquarters Marine...Sergeants? 8 Assignments That Require Infantry Sergeants ’d 9 CONTRIBUTORS TO THE PROBLEM ..•....... " ’" Promotion Timing 12 "Deploy-ability...Assignments That Require Infantry Sergeants ~ ;.9 ’ , CONTRIBUTORS TO THE PROBLEM . Promotion Timing 12 "Deploy-ability" 14 Provisional Tables of

  5. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals...

  6. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals...

  7. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals...

  8. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals...

  9. An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    is to level load trainees to the training pipeline throughout the year; second, develop a pull inventory system by eliminating PEF code assignments...fifth, enhance the Marine Corps Training Information Management System through incentives, automation, and interoperability; and sixth, develop an...proposed recommendation is to level load trainees to the training pipeline throughout the year; second, develop a pull inventory system by

  10. Injury and Illness Casualty Distributions Among U.S. Army and Marine Corps Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    parasitic diseases and diseases of the musculoskeletal, digestive, and nervous systems were more common. Branch of Service Marines sustained proportionally...neoplasms, mental disorders, diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, respiratory, and genitourinary systems were more common among women than... system Circulatory Respiratory Digestive Genitourinary Pregnancy Skin Musculoskeletal Congenital Ill-defined Injury Supplementary Total OIF-I No.

  11. Harnessing the Power of Influence: Why the Marine Corps Needs to Combine Information Operations and Public Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-06

    are approved for inclusion in the next edition of JP 1-02.) 26 Bibliography Ansel, Justin, Larry Fletcher, and Geoffrey Gorsuch , “Military...Fletcher, and Geoffrey Gorsuch , “Military Applications in Social Media.” (Manuscript, Command and Staff College, Marine Corps University, 2012). 21

  12. Training Marine Oil Spill Response Workers Under OSHA’s Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    This booklet, written for marine oil spill response employers, describes the training your employees need under HAZWOPER, the Hazardous Waste...stopping, containing, or recovering the spilled material from the release. For example, if you have workers who control an oil spill early in an

  13. United States Marine Corps Post-Cold War Evolutionary Efforts: Implications for a Post-Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    through the championing of the maneuverist movement, which were directly influenced by Boyd’s writings and teaching. The Cold War is the subject of...volumes of writings and discourse. Most of these works focus on how and why it started, where and when confrontation took place, and eventually how...legacy as the foremost expert on strategic thought in the Marine Corps through organizationally and individually published writings .43 He directed a

  14. Thrown object testing of forest machine operator protective structures

    Treesearch

    S.E. Taylor; M.W. Veal; R.B. Rummer

    2003-01-01

    High-speed chains or rotating disks are commonly used to cut and process trees during forest harvesting operations. Mechanical failure or fatigue of these tools can lead to a potentially hazardous situation where fragments of chain or sawteeth are thrown through the operator enclosures on forest machines. This poster presentation discusses the development and...

  15. 30 CFR 780.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 780.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER... mining and reclamation operation. The compliance plan shall include— (1) Design specifications for...

  16. 30 CFR 784.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 784.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER... mining and reclamation operation. The compliance plan shall include— (1) Design specifications for...

  17. 30 CFR 780.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 780.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER... mining and reclamation operation. The compliance plan shall include— (1) Design specifications for...

  18. 30 CFR 784.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 784.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER... mining and reclamation operation. The compliance plan shall include— (1) Design specifications for...

  19. 30 CFR 780.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 780.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER... mining and reclamation operation. The compliance plan shall include— (1) Design specifications for...

  20. 30 CFR 784.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 784.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER... mining and reclamation operation. The compliance plan shall include— (1) Design specifications for...

  1. 30 CFR 780.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 780.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER... mining and reclamation operation. The compliance plan shall include— (1) Design specifications for...

  2. 30 CFR 784.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 784.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER... mining and reclamation operation. The compliance plan shall include— (1) Design specifications for...

  3. Spatial structure induced by marine reserves shapes population responses to catastrophes in mathematical models.

    PubMed

    McGilliard, Carey R; Punt, André E; Hilborn, Ray

    2011-06-01

    Catastrophic events such as oil spills, hypoxia, disease, and major predation events occur in marine ecosystems and affect fish populations. Previous evaluations of the performance of spatial management alternatives have not considered catastrophic events. We investigate the effects of local and global catastrophic events on populations managed with and without no-take marine reserves and with fishing mortality rates that are optimized accounting for reserves. A spatial population dynamics model is used to explore effects of large, catastrophic natural mortality events. The effects of the spatial spread, magnitude, probability of catastrophe, and persistence of a catastrophic event through time are explored. Catastrophic events affecting large spatial areas and those that persist through time have the greatest effects on population dynamics because they affect natural mortality nonlinearly, whereas the probability and magnitude of catastrophic events result in only linear increases in natural mortality. The probability of falling below 10% or 20% of unfished abundance was greatest when a no-take marine reserve was implemented with no additional fishing regulations and least when a no-take marine reserve was implemented in addition to the maintenance of optimal fishing mortality in fished areas. In the absence of implementation error, maintaining abundance across space using restrictions on fishing mortality rates, regardless of the existence of a no-take marine reserve, decreased the probability of falling below 10% or 20% of unfished abundance.

  4. The Research and Development of a Cavitating Water Jet Cleaning System for Removing Marine Growth and Fouling from Offshore Platform Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    AO-AO85 730 DAEOALEAN ASSOCIATES INC WOODBINE MD F/0 13/9 THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A CAVITATING WATER JET CLEANING--TC(U) DEC 79 J T PARKER, W...REPORT THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A CAVITATING WATER JET CLEANING SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MARINE GROWTH AND FOULING FROM OFFSHORE PLATFORM STRUCTURES...DEVELOPMENT OF A CAVITATING WATER JET CLEANING SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MARINE GROWTH AND FOULING FROM OFFSHORE PLATFORM STRUCTURES 1.0 INTRODUCTION Inspection of

  5. Tauramamide, a lipopeptide antibiotic produced in culture by Brevibacillus laterosporus isolated from a marine habitat: structure elucidation and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Desjardine, Kelsey; Pereira, Alban; Wright, Helen; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Kelly, Michael; Andersen, Raymond J

    2007-12-01

    Tauramamide (1), a new lipopeptide antibiotic, is produced by cultures of the marine bacterial isolate Brevibacillus laterosporus PNG276 obtained from Papua New Guinea. Tauramamide was isolated as its methyl and ethyl esters 2 and 3, whose structures were elucidated by analysis of NMR, MS, and chemical degradation data. A total synthesis of tauramamide (1) and tauramamide ethyl ester (3) confirmed the structure proposed from spectroscopic analysis and provided the natural product for antimicrobial testing. Tauramamide (1) and ethyl ester 3 show potent and relatively selective inhibition of pathogenic Enterococcus sp.

  6. Significant Change in Marine Plankton Structure and Carbon Production After the Addition of River Water in a Mesocosm Experiment.

    PubMed

    Fouilland, E; Trottet, A; Alves-de-Souza, C; Bonnet, D; Bouvier, T; Bouvy, M; Boyer, S; Guillou, L; Hatey, E; Jing, H; Leboulanger, C; Le Floc'h, E; Liu, H; Mas, S; Mostajir, B; Nouguier, J; Pecqueur, D; Rochelle-Newall, E; Roques, C; Salles, C; Tournoud, M-G; Vasseur, C; Vidussi, F

    2017-08-01

    Rivers are known to be major contributors to eutrophication in marine coastal waters, but little is known on the short-term impact of freshwater surges on the structure and functioning of the marine plankton community. The effect of adding river water, reducing the salinity by 15 and 30%, on an autumn plankton community in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France) was determined during a 6-day mesocosm experiment. Adding river water brought not only nutrients but also chlorophyceans that did not survive in the brackish mesocosm waters. The addition of water led to initial increases (days 1-2) in bacterial production as well as increases in the abundances of bacterioplankton and picoeukaryotes. After day 3, the increases were more significant for diatoms and dinoflagellates that were already present in the Thau Lagoon water (mainly Pseudo-nitzschia spp. group delicatissima and Prorocentrum triestinum) and other larger organisms (tintinnids, rotifers). At the same time, the abundances of bacterioplankton, cyanobacteria, and picoeukaryote fell, some nutrients (NH4(+), SiO4(3-)) returned to pre-input levels, and the plankton structure moved from a trophic food web based on secondary production to the accumulation of primary producers in the mesocosms with added river water. Our results also show that, after freshwater inputs, there is rapid emergence of plankton species that are potentially harmful to living organisms. This suggests that flash flood events may lead to sanitary issues, other than pathogens, in exploited marine areas.

  7. 29 CFR 1917.50 - Certification of marine terminal material handling devices (See also mandatory appendix I, of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., sugar, and grain marine legs (other than those within a grain elevator structure) used within a marine... structures, rigging and mechanical components and observation of all steps of operations. Certificates... load. Examinations shall include all supporting structures and components. Certificates attesting...

  8. 29 CFR 1917.50 - Certification of marine terminal material handling devices (See also mandatory appendix I, of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., sugar, and grain marine legs (other than those within a grain elevator structure) used within a marine... structures, rigging and mechanical components and observation of all steps of operations. Certificates... load. Examinations shall include all supporting structures and components. Certificates attesting...

  9. 29 CFR 1917.50 - Certification of marine terminal material handling devices (See also mandatory appendix I, of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., sugar, and grain marine legs (other than those within a grain elevator structure) used within a marine... structures, rigging and mechanical components and observation of all steps of operations. Certificates... load. Examinations shall include all supporting structures and components. Certificates attesting...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.50 - Certification of marine terminal material handling devices (See also mandatory appendix I, of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., sugar, and grain marine legs (other than those within a grain elevator structure) used within a marine... structures, rigging and mechanical components and observation of all steps of operations. Certificates... load. Examinations shall include all supporting structures and components. Certificates attesting...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.50 - Certification of marine terminal material handling devices (See also mandatory appendix I, of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., sugar, and grain marine legs (other than those within a grain elevator structure) used within a marine... structures, rigging and mechanical components and observation of all steps of operations. Certificates... load. Examinations shall include all supporting structures and components. Certificates attesting...

  12. On the relation of structure, perception and activity in marine planktonic copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paffenhöfer, G.-A.

    1998-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how in juvenile and adult subtropical marine planktonic copepods various structures or morphological features function in concert to detect prey and predators. Without motion by either food (e.g. flagellate, ciliate) or feeder (e.g. feeding current) or both (e.g. Acartia spp. and ciliate) few feeding activities will occur. Through motion a food particle is either perceived mechanically or chemically to be followed by appendage activities. A combination of mechano- and chemosensors on their cephalic appendages (and probably on other extremities) serve juvenile and adult copepods to perceive signals. Perception is followed by alternation of motion and sensing by these appendages, or by no motion at all (e.g. behavior by Eucalanus pileatus when perceiving a weak hydrodynamic signal). Non-moving and extended sensors (setae) are best suited for mechanical/hydrodynamic perceptions in those copepods which lack a feeding current and hardly move. Numerous mechanosensors arranged in three dimensions on the first antennae (A1) are required to perceive the precise location of moving prey at a distance (e.g. Oithona feeding on ciliates but also sinking particles). Those copepods which create a weak or intermittent feeding current can supplement nutrition with carnivory, which requires perception by the A1 (e.g. Centropages velificatus adults). These two groups require, in addition to perception of prey motion/location, rapid motion by their appendages (A1, second maxillae M2, etc.) to capture the prey. Nauplii, which satiate at far lower food levels than adults, have one of several means of food acquisition: encounter through forward motion, perception through feeding current, or perception of a moving food particle. The nearly continuous motion of most calanoid nauplii makes them vulnerable to predation because all three pairs of appendages are usually moving. Opposite are nauplii of cyclopoid and a few calanoid species which move only

  13. Structures and comparative characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanosporasides, enediyne-derived natural products from marine actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Lane, Amy L; Nam, Sang-Jip; Fukuda, Takashi; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Kauffman, Christopher A; Jensen, Paul R; Fenical, William; Moore, Bradley S

    2013-03-20

    Cyanosporasides are marine bacterial natural products containing a chlorinated cyclopenta[a]indene core of suspected enediyne polyketide biosynthetic origin. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of novel cyanosporasides C-F (3-6) from the marine actinomycetes Salinispora pacifica CNS-143 and Streptomyces sp. CNT-179, highlighted by the unprecedented C-2' N-acetylcysteamine functionalized hexose group of 6. Cloning, sequencing, and mutagenesis of homologous ~50 kb cyanosporaside biosynthetic gene clusters from both bacteria afforded the first genetic evidence supporting cyanosporaside's enediyne, and thereby p-benzyne biradical, biosynthetic origin and revealed the molecular basis for nitrile and glycosyl functionalization. This study provides new opportunities for bioengineering of enediyne derivatives and expands the structural diversity afforded by enediyne gene clusters.

  14. Marine bacterioplankton biomass, activity and community structure in the vicinity of Antarctic icebergs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Alison E.; Peng, Vivian; Tyler, Charlotte; Wagh, Protima

    2011-06-01

    We studied marine bacterioplankton in the Scotia Sea in June 2008 and in the northwest Weddell Sea in March to mid April 2009 in waters proximal to three free-drifting icebergs (SS-1, A-43k, and C-18a), in a region with a high density of smaller icebergs (iceberg alley), and at stations that were upstream of the iceberg trajectories designated as far-field reference sites that were between 16-75 km away. Hydrographic parameters were used to define water masses in which comparisons between bacterioplankton-associated characteristics (abundance, leucine incorporation into protein, aminopeptidase activities and community structure) within and between water masses could be made. Early winter Scotia Sea bacterioplankton had low levels of cells and low heterotrophic production rates in the upper 50 m. Influences of the icebergs on bacterioplankton at this time of year were minimal, if not deleterious, as we found lower levels of heterotrophic production near A-43k in comparison to stations >16 km away. Additionally, the results point to small but significant differences in cell abundance, heterotrophic production, and community structure between the two icebergs studied. These icebergs differed greatly in size and the findings suggest that the larger iceberg had a greater effect. In the NW Weddell Sea in March-mid April bacterioplankton were twice as abundant and had heterotrophic productions rates that were 8-fold higher than what we determined in the Scotia Sea, though levels were still quite low, which is typical for autumn. We did not detect direct iceberg-related influences on the bacterioplankton characteristics studied here. Clues to understanding bacterioplankton responses may lie in the details of community structure, as there were some significant differences in community structure in the winter water and underlying upper circumpolar deep-water masses between stations occupied close to C-18a and at stations 18 km away (i.e. Polaribacter and Pelagibacter

  15. Carotenoids in marine animals.

    PubMed

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-02-22

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  16. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  17. IN-CLOUD TURBULENCE STRUCTURE OF MARINE STRATOCUMULUS AT PT. REYES, CA, DURING MASRAD

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, J.; Dunn, M.; Riemer, N.; Miller, M.

    2010-11-06

    This study quantifies the level of turbulence inside the marine stratocumulus cloud deck over Pt. Reyes, CA, during the Marine Stratus Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle Experiment (MASRAD) in July 2005, and identifies the dominant sources of turbulent kinetic energy. We used vertical velocity data from a 3 mm wavelength (94-GHz) vertically pointing Doppler radar in combination with collocated radiosonde data. The results show that the stratocumulus observed at Pt. Reyes behaves differently from that expected on the basis of previous studies due to the modified marine environment that exists there. In particular, we found a decrease of turbulence levels with height within the cloud both during day and during night. The analysis highlights that for the conditions of our study longwave radiative cooling at cloud top was compensated by a number of mechanisms, resulting in the observed profiles. The production of turbulent kinetic energy is dominantly driven by wind shear.

  18. Evolutionary mechanisms shaping the genetic population structure of marine fishes; lessons from the European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.).

    PubMed

    Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Nielsen, Einar Eg; Grønkjaer, Peter; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-08-01

    A number of evolutionary mechanisms have been suggested for generating low but significant genetic structuring among marine fish populations. We used nine microsatellite loci and recently developed methods in landscape genetics and coalescence-based estimation of historical gene flow and effective population sizes to assess temporal and spatial dynamics of the population structure in European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.). We collected 1062 flounders from 13 localities in the northeast Atlantic and Baltic Seas and found temporally stable and highly significant genetic differentiation among samples covering a large part of the species' range (global F(ST) = 0.024, P < 0.0001). In addition to historical processes, a number of contemporary acting evolutionary mechanisms were associated with genetic structuring. Physical forces, such as oceanographic and bathymetric barriers, were most likely related with the extreme isolation of the island population at the Faroe Islands. A sharp genetic break was associated with a change in life history from pelagic to benthic spawners in the Baltic Sea. Partial Mantel tests showed that geographical distance per se was not related with genetic structuring among Atlantic and western Baltic Sea samples. Alternative factors, such as dispersal potential and/or environmental gradients, could be important for generating genetic divergence in this region. The results show that the magnitude and scale of structuring generated by a specific mechanism depend critically on its interplay with other evolutionary mechanisms, highlighting the importance of investigating species with wide geographical and ecological distributions to increase our understanding of evolution in the marine environment.

  19. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  20. Marine Antimalarials

    PubMed Central

    Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease causing at least 1 million deaths per year, and, unfortunately, the chemical entities available to treat malaria are still too limited. In this review we highlight the contribution of marine chemistry in the field of antimalarial research by reporting the most important results obtained until the beginning of 2009, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries. About 60 secondary metabolites produced by marine organisms have been grouped into three structural types and discussed in terms of their reported antimalarial activities. The major groups of metabolites include isonitrile derivatives, alkaloids and endoperoxide derivatives. The following discussion evidences that antimalarial marine molecules can efficiently integrate the panel of lead compounds isolated from terrestrial sources with new chemical backbones and, sometimes, with unique functional groups. PMID:19597577

  1. Analysis of Radiation Exposure, 4th Marine Corps Provisional Atomic Exercise Brigade, Exercise Desert Rock VII, Operation Plumbbob

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-15

    participation in Shot Priscilla. The calculated doses correlate well with available dosimetry. Rad-safe monitor teams were subjected to higher exposures due...Yards) Figure 3-4. Shot Hood Gamma Dose . 33 SECTION 4- RESIDUAL RADIATION 4.1 RESIDUAL GAMMA EXPOSURE Gamma doses are reconstructed for brigade...internal dose commitment from the inhalation of airborne radionuclides. Situations of possible significant inhalation exposure to Marine elements are

  2. Best Practices for Addressing Combat Operational Stress and Other Behavioral Health Conditions in Marine Corps Substance Abuse Counseling Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-02

    the base branch medical clinic and then off-base for PTSD treatment must be followed-up by a nurse practitioner. Due to the lack of a mental health ...process by which the Substance Abuse Counseling Centers (SACCs) address clients with stress concerns and mental health conditions stemming from...to document the current treatment approach for substance abuse clients with co-occurring mental health concerns at selected Marine Corps SACCs; and

  3. The Future of Distributed Operations in the Marine Corps and its Vital Role in Forcible Entry from the Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-13

    Now," Marine Corps Gazette, (July 2004) 49 Paul K. Van Riper , Seminar USMC Command and Staff College, 4 February 2011. 50 Headquarters Department...Crevald, Martin, The Transformation ofWar, New York: The Free Press, 1991. Van Riper , Paul, K. Seminar USMC Command and Staff College, 4 February 201...the consequences of the mistaken 1 For more information on this topic, see Martin Van Crevald’s Transformation of War or William Lind’s concept on

  4. Development and Application of a Method for Toxicological Assessment of Occupational Exposures to Chemicals in Marine Operations. Addendum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Occupational Medical Monitoring Manual , COMDTINST M6260.15, dated 11 January 1983, an exposure meets the criterion for an occu- pational exposure for...washing and gas freeing prior to loading. After machine cleaning, tanks are usually entered for manual cleaning and/or inspection. Prior to cargo...transfer, product hoses from a marine terminal or another vessel are often manually connected over open manifold drip trays. The manifolds are designed to

  5. Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Acinas, Silvia G.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2015-01-14

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. We isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. In the host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.

  6. Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    DOE PAGES

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; ...

    2015-01-14

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. We isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. In the host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested,more » >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.« less

  7. Life-style and genome structure of marine Pseudoalteromonas siphovirus B8b isolated from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B; Acinas, Silvia G

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. Here we isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. Host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.

  8. Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Acinas, Silvia G.

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. Here we isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. Host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new ‘rare virosphere’ phage–host model system. PMID:25587991

  9. 75 FR 48941 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Piling and Structure Removal in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...: temporary threshold shift (TTS) and permanent threshold shift (PTS). PTS is considered injurious whereas TTS... PTS in any marine mammal; therefore, PTS- onset must be estimated from TTS-onset measurements and from the rate of TTS growth with increasing exposure levels above the level eliciting TTS-onset. PTS is...

  10. State-of-art methodology of marine natural products chemistry: structure determination with extremely small sample amounts.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Oishi, T; Yoshida, M

    2006-01-01

    Structure elucidation studies on natural products are reviewed emphasizing extremely small sample amounts. Previous studies on insect pheromones, periplanones, and bean-originating kairomones, glycinoeclepins, are described briefly. Recent examples are selected from marine natural products such as ciguatoxin, dolastatin-3, and aurisides. A more detailed description is given of a sperm-activating and attracting factor (SAAF), which may be the smallest sample amount used in the structure elucidation of novel non-peptidic natural products. SAAF was isolated from the eggs of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, and its structure was deduced with only approximately 4 microg (6 nmol) of sample. Based upon the proposed structure, two epimers were synthesized from chenodeoxycholic acid in 17 steps, leading to the identification of SAAF as a novel sterol sulfate.

  11. Lagrangian Flow Network: a new tool to evaluate connectivity and understand the structural complexity of marine populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, V.; Dubois, M.; Ser-Giacomi, E.; Monroy, P.; Lopez, C.; Hernandez-Garcia, E.

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the spatial structure and dynamics of marine populations is still a major challenge for ecologists. The necessity to manage marine resources from a large-scale perspective and considering the whole ecosystem is now recognized but the absence of appropriate tools to address these objectives limits the implementation of globally pertinent conservation planning. Inspired from Network Theory, we present a new methodological framework called Lagrangian Flow Network which allows a systematic characterization of multi-scale dispersal and connectivity of early life history stages of marine organisms. The network is constructed by subdividing the basin into an ensemble of equal-area subregions which are interconnected through the transport of propagules by ocean currents. The present version allows the identification of hydrodynamical provinces and the computation of various connectivity proxies measuring retention and exchange of larvae. Due to our spatial discretization and subsequent network representation, as well as our Lagrangian approach, further methodological improvements are handily accessible. These future developments include a parametrization of habitat patchiness, the implementation of realistic larval traits and the consideration of abiotic variables (e.g. temperature, salinity, planktonic resources...) and their effects on larval production and survival. While the model is potentially tunable to any species whose biological traits and ecological preferences are precisely known, it can also be used in a more generic configuration by efficient computing and analysis of a large number of experiments with relevant ecological parameters. It permits a better characterization of population connectivity at multiple scales and it informs its ecological and managerial interpretations.

  12. Contrasts in genetic structure and historical demography of marine and riverine populations of Atherina at similar geographical scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Sara M.; Cabral, Henrique; Vieira, Maria Natividade; Almada, Vítor C.

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, we compare the genetic structure and the historical demography of two populations of the sand smelt Atherina boyeri from the rivers Tagus and Mondego (Portugal) with two groups of samples of the closely related marine Atherina presbyter collected on the shore at comparable latitudes. A. presbyter is a pelagic marine inshore fish, while A. boyeri is typically found in coastal lagoons, estuaries and freshwaters bodies. Analysis of mtDNA control region sequences showed that the marine A. presbyter did not display signs of genetic differentiation between sites some hundreds of kilometers apart. On the contrary, A. boyeri showed clear differences between populations. The populations of A. boyeri showed a much lower genetic diversity and younger coalescence times when compared with A. presbyter. We suggest that these differences reflect the interplay between differences in ecology between the two species and the historical impact of the glaciations. While A. presbyter likely moved to the south evading the cold periods, A. boyeri probably went extinct and its populations in Western Europe are recent recolonizations from western Mediterranean refugia.

  13. Life in a temperate Polar sea: a unique taphonomic window on the structure of a Late Cretaceous Arctic marine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Chin, Karen; Bloch, John; Sweet, Arthur; Tweet, Justin; Eberle, Jaelyn; Cumbaa, Stephen; Witkowski, Jakub; Harwood, David

    2008-12-07

    As the earth faces a warming climate, the rock record reminds us that comparable climatic scenarios have occurred before. In the Late Cretaceous, Arctic marine organisms were not subject to frigid temperatures but still contended with seasonal extremes in photoperiod. Here, we describe an unusual fossil assemblage from Devon Island, Arctic Canada, that offers a snapshot of a ca 75 Myr ago marine palaeoecosystem adapted to such conditions. Thick siliceous biogenic sediments and glaucony sands reveal remarkably persistent high primary productivity along a high-latitude Late Cretaceous coastline. Abundant fossil faeces demonstrate that this planktonic bounty supported benthic invertebrates and large, possibly seasonal, vertebrates in short food chains. These ancient organisms filled trophic roles comparable to those of extant Arctic species, but there were fundamental differences in resource dynamics. Whereas most of the modern Arctic is oligotrophic and structured by resources from melting sea ice, we suggest that forested terrestrial landscapes helped support the ancient marine community through high levels of terrigenous organic input.

  14. Operating System Support for Shared Hardware Data Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    for enduring and passing lessons learned, and to Ric and Ben for following and providing me with retrospective. To my grandparents, Laird and Marcia...Zhang, John B. Carter, Ali Ibrahim, and Michael A. Parker . Active memory operations. In Proceedings of the 21st annual international conference on

  15. Memory Operations and Structures in Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Ellipsis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrea Eyleen

    2010-01-01

    Natural language often contains dependencies that span words, phrases, or even sentences. Thus, language comprehension relies on recovering recently processed information from memory for subsequent interpretation. This dissertation investigates the memory operations that subserve dependency resolution through the lens of "verb-phrase ellipsis"…

  16. The operational recognition of supercell thunderstorm environments and storm structures

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, A.R.; Doswell, C.A. III; Foster, M.P.; Woodall, G.R. ||

    1994-09-01

    Supercell thunderstorm forecasting and detection is discussed, in light of the disastrous weather events that often accompany supercells. Operational forecasters in the National Weather Service (NWS) can employ conceptual models of the supercell, and of the meteorological environments that produce supercells, to make operational decisions scientifically. The presence of a mesocyclone is common to all supercells, but operational recognition of supercells is clouded by the various radar and visual characteristics they exhibit. The notion of a supercell spectrum is introduced in an effort to guide improved operational detection of supercells. An important part of recognition is the anticipation of what potential exists for supercells in the prestorm environment. Current scientific understanding suggests that cyclonic updraft rotation originates from streamwise vorticity (in the storm`s reference frame) within its environment. A discussion of how storm-relative helicity can be used to evaluate supercell potential is given. An actual supercell event is employed to illustrate the usefulness of conceptual model visualization when issuing statements and warnings for supercell storms. Finally, supercell detection strategies using the advanced datasets from the modernized and restructured NWS are described.

  17. Short-term degradation of terrestrial DOM in the coastal ocean: Implications for nutrient subsidies and marine microbial community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, A. A.; Tank, S. E.; Kellogg, C.

    2015-12-01

    The export of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the coastal ocean provides an important link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia contain extensive freshwater networks that export significant amounts of water and DOM to the ocean, representing significant cross-system hydrologic and biogeochemical linkages. To better understand the importance of these linkages and implications for ecosystem structure and function, we used an experimental approach to investigate the role of microbial and photodegradation transformations of DOM exported from small coastal catchments to the marine environment. At two time periods (August 2014, March 2015), stream water from the outlets of two coastal watersheds was filtered (<0.2 μm), and treated with microbial inoculums from across a salinity gradient (i.e., freshwater, estuarine, and marine). Treatments were incubated in the ocean under light and dark conditions for 8 days. At 0, 3 and 8 days, samples were analyzed for DOC, TDN, DIN, and DON. Changes in DOM composition were determined with optical characterization techniques such as absorbance (SUVA, S, Sr) and fluorescence (EEM). Microbial community response was measured using cell counts and DNA/RNA amplicon sequencing to determine changes in bacterial abundance and community composition. General patterns indicated that microbial communities from the high salinity treatment (i.e. most marine) were the most effective at utilizing freshwater DOM, especially under light conditions. In some treatments, DOM appeared as a potential source of inorganic nitrogen with corresponding shifts in microbial community composition. Incubations using inoculum from low and mid salinity levels demonstrated smaller changes, indicating that DOM exported from these streams may not be extensively utilized until exposed to higher salinity environments further from stream outlets. These results suggest a role for terrestrial sourced

  18. Marine pollution originating from purse seine and longline fishing vessel operations in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, 2003-2015.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kelsey; Haynes, David; Talouli, Anthony; Donoghue, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Fisheries observer data recorded between 2003 and 2015 on-board purse seine and longline vessels operating in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean reported more than 10 000 pollution incidents within the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of 25 Pacific countries and territories, and in international waters. A majority of the reported purse seine pollution incidents related to dumping of plastics waste. Other common pollution incidents related to oil spillages and to abandoned, lost or dumped fishing gear. Data analysis highlighted the need for increased monitoring, reporting, and enforcement of pollution violations by all types of fishing vessels operating in the Pacific region; a regional outreach and compliance assistance programme on marine pollution prevention and improvements in Pacific port waste reception facilities.

  19. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Marine Corps Base, Operable Unit 1 (sites 21, 24, 78), Camp Lejeune, NC, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-15

    The decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) No. 1 (Sites 21, 24, and 78) at Marine Corps Base (MCB), Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The selected remedy for OU No. 1 is the final action to be conducted at the three sites. Separate from this final action, an interim remedial action (IRA) will be implemented to contain two plumes of contaminated groundwater in the surficial aquifer at Site 78. Under the IRA, contaminated groundwater will be extracted and treated on site within one of two groundwater treatment systems. The selected final remedial action included in this ROD addresses the principal threats remaining at the operable unit by treating contaminated groundwater and soils.

  20. Design and operation of a deployable truss structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, K.

    1984-01-01

    A concept for the one dimensional deployable truss structure is presented. The deployed configuration of the structure consists of the repetition of a longitudinal octahedral truss module. The principal mechanical feature of the truss is that the lateral members comprising the lateral triangular truss are telescoping beams. Contracting of the lateral members results in the deployment of the truss structure. The geometric transformation of this truss of variable geometry is presented. Both simultaneous and sequential modes of transformation are possible. The validity of the transformation applied to the deployment is verified through design of a conceptual model.

  1. Brooding crustaceans in a highly fragmented habitat: the genetic structure of Mediterranean marine cave-dwelling mysid populations.

    PubMed

    Lejeusne, C; Chevaldonné, P

    2006-11-01

    Habitat fragmentation and climate change are two major threats on biodiversity. Fragmentation limits the number of patches and their decreased connectivity cannot always maintain populations at dynamic equilibrium. The natural extreme fragmentation of marine cave habitats represents an opportunity to understand how these processes interact. The hypothesis of a low gene flow among populations due to a high level of fragmentation was tested by analysing sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial gene of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I in 170 individuals (23 localities across the NW Mediterranean) of two marine cave-dwelling mysids of the genus Hemimysis. The species Hemimysis margalefi recently replaced its congener Hemimysis speluncola, a species shift that could be related to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea and to differences in their thermal tolerances. There were too few H. speluncola samples to further discuss their genetic structuring, but for H. margalefi, the present study revealed high levels of genetic diversity and genetic structuring, as shown by the eight genetically distinct groups identified. The Croatian group might constitute a sibling species due to a strong divergence (15%). Nevertheless, these groups present reduced but orientated gene flow according to the general circulation in the Mediterranean, and fit a stepping-stone model. At local scale (Marseille area, France), gene flow among caves is dependent on unexpected local hydrodynamic barriers, that determine metapopulation sizes. Through the example of mysid species inhabiting marine caves, the present work confirms the strong influence of habitat disjunction (natural fragmentation) on population structure, and stresses the importance of coastal geomorphological features in inducing complex interactions between the circulation of water masses and the circulation of genes.

  2. Design optimization of composite structures operating in acoustic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chronopoulos, D.

    2015-10-01

    The optimal mechanical and geometric characteristics for layered composite structures subject to vibroacoustic excitations are derived. A Finite Element description coupled to Periodic Structure Theory is employed for the considered layered panel. Structures of arbitrary anisotropy as well as geometric complexity can thus be modelled by the presented approach. Damping can also be incorporated in the calculations. Initially, a numerical continuum-discrete approach for computing the sensitivity of the acoustic wave characteristics propagating within the modelled periodic composite structure is exhibited. The first- and second-order sensitivities of the acoustic transmission coefficient expressed within a Statistical Energy Analysis context are subsequently derived as a function of the computed acoustic wave characteristics. Having formulated the gradient vector as well as the Hessian matrix, the optimal mechanical and geometric characteristics satisfying the considered mass, stiffness and vibroacoustic performance criteria are sought by employing Newton's optimization method.

  3. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    PubMed

    Arnould, John P Y; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from <1% to >75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  4. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, John P. Y.; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A.; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J.

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from <1% to >75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development. PMID:26132329

  5. Studies on the Synthesis of Derivatives of Marine-Derived Bostrycin and Their Structure-Activity Relationship against Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Zhong, Lili; Long, Yuhua; Li, Jia; Wu, Jueheng; Liu, Lan; Chen, Shengping; Lin, Yongcheng; Li, Mengfeng; Zhu, Xun; She, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    A series of new derivatives (5–29) of marine-derived bostrycin (1) were synthesized. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of all compounds were evaluated against MCF-7, MDA-MB-435, A549, HepG2, HCT-116 and MCF-10A cells using the MTT method. The compounds 7, 8, 22, 23, 25, 28 and 29 of the total showed comparable activity to epirubicin, the positive control, against the tested cancer cell lines. However, these compounds also exhibited cytotoxicity towards MCF-10A cells. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of bostrycin derivatives was also discussed based on the obtained experimental data. PMID:22690152

  6. Light-operated machines based on threaded molecular structures.

    PubMed

    Credi, Alberto; Silvi, Serena; Venturi, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    Rotaxanes and related species represent the most common implementation of the concept of artificial molecular machines, because the supramolecular nature of the interactions between the components and their interlocked architecture allow a precise control on the position and movement of the molecular units. The use of light to power artificial molecular machines is particularly valuable because it can play the dual role of "writing" and "reading" the system. Moreover, light-driven machines can operate without accumulation of waste products, and photons are the ideal inputs to enable autonomous operation mechanisms. In appropriately designed molecular machines, light can be used to control not only the stability of the system, which affects the relative position of the molecular components but also the kinetics of the mechanical processes, thereby enabling control on the direction of the movements. This step forward is necessary in order to make a leap from molecular machines to molecular motors.

  7. Army Aviation Force Structure in Support of Counter Insurgency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Battalion (30 UH - 60L Blackhawks), General Support Aviation Battalion (mix of 8 UH - 60L , 12 CH-47D Chinooks, and 15 HH- 60A MEDEVAC aircraft), Aviation...the city which mitigated their limited fuel endurance and slower airspeed when compared to the AH-64D Apache. The Air Assault Troop ( UH - 60L ...the BCT and supported Special Operations Forces. When combined with AH-64Ds or OH-58Ds the UH - 60Ls were critical to vehicular interdiction

  8. A unique capsular polysaccharide structure from the psychrophilic marine bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H that mimics antifreeze (glyco)proteins.

    PubMed

    Carillo, Sara; Casillo, Angela; Pieretti, Giuseppina; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Sannino, Filomena; Bayer-Giraldi, Maddalena; Cosconati, Sandro; Novellino, Ettore; Ewert, Marcela; Deming, Jody W; Lanzetta, Rosa; Marino, Gennaro; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Randazzo, Antonio; Tutino, Maria L; Corsaro, M Michela

    2015-01-14

    The low temperatures of polar regions and high-altitude environments, especially icy habitats, present challenges for many microorganisms. Their ability to live under subfreezing conditions implies the production of compounds conferring cryotolerance. Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H, a γ-proteobacterium isolated from subzero Arctic marine sediments, provides a model for the study of life in cold environments. We report here the identification and detailed molecular primary and secondary structures of capsular polysaccharide from C. psychrerythraea 34H cells. The polymer was isolated in the water layer when cells were extracted by phenol/water and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy together with chemical analysis. Molecular mechanics and dynamics calculations were also performed. The polysaccharide consists of a tetrasaccharidic repeating unit containing two amino sugars and two uronic acids bearing threonine as substituent. The structural features of this unique polysaccharide resemble those present in antifreeze proteins and glycoproteins. These results suggest a possible correlation between the capsule structure and the ability of C. psychrerythraea to colonize subfreezing marine environments.

  9. The Effectiveness of Structured Co-Operative Teaching and Learning in Greek Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldi, Stavroula; Filippatou, Diamanto; Anthopoulou, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of structured co-operative group work on primary school students, aged between 8.5 and 9.5 years old, regarding their content knowledge, attitudes towards co-operative group work, experiential learning and open-ended curriculum as well as students' social and learning behaviour during co-operative group…

  10. The Effectiveness of Structured Co-Operative Teaching and Learning in Greek Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldi, Stavroula; Filippatou, Diamanto; Anthopoulou, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of structured co-operative group work on primary school students, aged between 8.5 and 9.5 years old, regarding their content knowledge, attitudes towards co-operative group work, experiential learning and open-ended curriculum as well as students' social and learning behaviour during co-operative group…

  11. Fatigue Technology Assessment and Strategies for Fatigue Avoidance in Marine Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    MARITIME ADMINISTRATION U. S. COAST GUARD Mr. Robert E. Van Jones Mr. Frederick Seibold CAPT T . E. Thompson Mr. Rickard A Anderson Mr. Norman 0. Hammer CAPT...Stambaugh, Paul R. Van Mater, Jr., and William H. Munse 1990 SSC-357 Carbon Equivalence and Weldability of Microalloyed Steels by C. D. Lundin, T . P. S...Environmental Protection U. S. Coast Guard Mr. Thomas H. Peirce Mr. H. T . Hailer Dr. Donald Uu Marine Research and Development Associate Administrator for

  12. Rater Agreements in Assigning Stanfrod-Binet Items to Guilford's Structure of Intellect Operations Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Calvin O.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Nineteen school psychologists assigned 142 items in Form L-M of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale to the five Operations categories of Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. Results show levels of agreement are not high enough to justify classifying Stanford-Binet items in accordance with the Structure of Intellect Operations categories.…

  13. Contextualising the Last Survivors: Population Structure of Marine Turtles in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Carlos; Godley, Brendan J; León, Yolanda M; Hawkes, Lucy A; Revuelta, Ohiana; Raga, Juan A; Tomás, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Nesting by three species of marine turtles persists in the Dominican Republic, despite historic threats and long-term population decline. We conducted a genetic survey of marine turtles in the Dominican Republic in order to link them with other rookeries around the Caribbean. We sequenced a 740bp fragment of the control region of the mitochondrial DNA of 92 samples from three marine turtle species [hawksbill (n = 48), green (n = 2) and leatherback (n = 42)], and incorporated published data from other nesting populations and foraging grounds. The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) in the Dominican Republic appeared to be isolated from Awala-Yalimapo, Cayenne, Trinidad and St. Croix but connected with other Caribbean populations. Two distinct nesting populations of hawksbill turtles (Eremochelys imbricata) were detected in the Dominican Republic and exhibited interesting patterns of connectivity with other nesting sites and juvenile and adult male foraging aggregations. The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) has almost been extirpated from the Dominican Republic and limited inference could be made from our samples. Finally, results were compared with Lagrangian drifting buoys and published Lagrangian virtual particles that travelled through the Dominican Republic and Caribbean waters. Conservation implications of sink-source effects or genetic isolation derived from these complex inter-connections are discussed for each species and population.

  14. Contextualising the Last Survivors: Population Structure of Marine Turtles in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Carreras, Carlos; Godley, Brendan J.; León, Yolanda M.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Revuelta, Ohiana; Raga, Juan A.; Tomás, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Nesting by three species of marine turtles persists in the Dominican Republic, despite historic threats and long-term population decline. We conducted a genetic survey of marine turtles in the Dominican Republic in order to link them with other rookeries around the Caribbean. We sequenced a 740bp fragment of the control region of the mitochondrial DNA of 92 samples from three marine turtle species [hawksbill (n = 48), green (n = 2) and leatherback (n = 42)], and incorporated published data from other nesting populations and foraging grounds. The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) in the Dominican Republic appeared to be isolated from Awala-Yalimapo, Cayenne, Trinidad and St. Croix but connected with other Caribbean populations. Two distinct nesting populations of hawksbill turtles (Eremochelys imbricata) were detected in the Dominican Republic and exhibited interesting patterns of connectivity with other nesting sites and juvenile and adult male foraging aggregations. The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) has almost been extirpated from the Dominican Republic and limited inference could be made from our samples. Finally, results were compared with Lagrangian drifting buoys and published Lagrangian virtual particles that travelled through the Dominican Republic and Caribbean waters. Conservation implications of sink-source effects or genetic isolation derived from these complex inter-connections are discussed for each species and population. PMID:23840394

  15. Variable Geometry Aircraft Pylon Structure and Related Operation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Parthiv N. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft control structure can be utilized for purposes of drag management, noise control, or aircraft flight maneuvering. The control structure includes a high pressure engine nozzle, such as a bypass nozzle or a core nozzle of a turbofan engine. The nozzle exhausts a high pressure fluid stream, which can be swirled using a deployable swirl vane architecture. The control structure also includes a variable geometry pylon configured to be coupled between the nozzle and the aircraft. The variable geometry pylon has a moveable pylon section that can be deployed into a deflected state to maintain or alter a swirling fluid stream (when the swirl vane architecture is deployed) for drag management purposes, or to assist in the performance of aircraft flight maneuvers.

  16. A systems-based methodology for structural analysis of health care operations.

    PubMed

    Keating, C B

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a systems-based methodology for conducting analysis of organizational structure for health care operations. Increasingly, health care organizations must operate in turbulent environments characterized by rapid change, high levels of uncertainty, and increasing levels of complexity. A fundamental issue for effective-performance in these environments is the development and maintenance of organizational structures that simultaneously provide both operational stability and agile response to environmental turbulence. Drawing from systems science, a systems-based methodology for structural analysis of healthcare operations is developed. This methodology identifies operational deficiencies stemming from inadequate organizational structure and suggests focal areas for structural modification. The results from an application of the methodology in a health care organization are examined. Implications and limitations for use of the methodology by health care professionals are provided.

  17. Marine protected areas increase temporal stability of community structure, but not density or diversity, of tropical seagrass fish communities.

    PubMed

    Alonso Aller, Elisa; Jiddawi, Narriman S; Eklöf, Johan S

    2017-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been shown to increase long-term temporal stability of fish communities and enhance ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the potential ability of MPAs to buffer effects of environmental variability at shorter time scales remains widely unknown. In the tropics, the yearly monsoon cycle is a major natural force affecting marine organisms in tropical regions, and its timing and severity are predicted to change over the coming century, with potentially severe effects on marine organisms, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the ability of MPAs to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on seagrass-associated fish communities, using a field survey in two MPAs (no-take zones) and two unprotected (open-access) sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania). We assessed the temporal stability of fish density and community structure within and outside MPAs during three monsoon seasons in 2014-2015, and investigated several possible mechanisms that could regulate temporal stability. Our results show that MPAs did not affect fish density and diversity, but that juvenile fish densities were temporally more stable within MPAs. Second, fish community structure was more stable within MPAs for juvenile and adult fish, but not for subadult fish or the total fish community. Third, the observed effects may be due to a combination of direct and indirect (seagrass-mediated) effects of seasonality and, potentially, fluctuating fishing pressure outside MPAs. In summary, these MPAs may not have the ability to enhance fish density and diversity and to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on the whole fish community. However, they may increase the temporal stability of certain groups, such as juvenile fish. Consequently, our results question whether MPAs play a general role in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under changing environmental conditions in tropical seagrass fish communities.

  18. Impact of bio-palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) on the activity and structure of a marine microbial community.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Andrea; Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Boon, Nico; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) represent a promising catalyst for organohalide remediation in water and sediments. However, the available information regarding their possible impact in case of release into the environment, particularly on the environmental microbiota, is limited. In this study the toxicity of bio-Pd NPs on the model marine bacterium V. fischeri was assessed. The impacts of different concentrations of bio-Pd NPs on the respiratory metabolisms (i.e. organohalide respiration, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) and the structure of a PCB-dechlorinating microbial community enriched form a marine sediment were also investigated in microcosms mimicking the actual sampling site conditions. Bio-Pd NPs had no toxic effect on V. fischeri. In addition, they had no significant effects on PCB-dehalogenating activity, while showing a partial, dose-dependent inhibitory effect on sulfate reduction as well as on methanogenesis. No toxic effects by bio-Pd NPs could be also observed on the total bacterial community structure, as its biodiversity was increased compared to the not exposed community. In addition, resilience of the microbial community to bio-Pd NPs exposure was observed, being the final community organization (Gini coefficient) of samples exposed to bio-Pd NPs similar to that of the not exposed one. Considering all the factors evaluated, bio-Pd NPs could be deemed as non-toxic to the marine microbiota in the conditions tested. This is the first study in which the impact of bio-Pd NPs is extensively evaluated over a microbial community in relevant environmental conditions, providing important information for the assessment of their environmental safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords.

    PubMed

    Canales-Aguirre, Cristian B; Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Hernández, Cristián E

    2016-01-01

    Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords), but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf) are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone), and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos). We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA) of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA.

  20. Structural characterization of a unique marine animal family 7 cellobiohydrolase suggests a mechanism of cellulase salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kern, Marcelo; McGeehan, John E; Streeter, Simon D; Martin, Richard N A; Besser, Katrin; Elias, Luisa; Eborall, Will; Malyon, Graham P; Payne, Christina M; Himmel, Michael E; Schnorr, Kirk; Beckham, Gregg T; Cragg, Simon M; Bruce, Neil C; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2013-06-18

    Nature uses a diversity of glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes to convert polysaccharides to sugars. As lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction for biofuel production remains costly, natural GH diversity offers a starting point for developing industrial enzymes, and fungal GH family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases, in particular, provide significant hydrolytic potential in industrial mixtures. Recently, GH7 enzymes have been found in other kingdoms of life besides fungi, including in animals and protists. Here, we describe the in vivo spatial expression distribution, properties, and structure of a unique endogenous GH7 cellulase from an animal, the marine wood borer Limnoria quadripunctata (LqCel7B). RT-quantitative PCR and Western blot studies show that LqCel7B is expressed in the hepatopancreas and secreted into the gut for wood degradation. We produced recombinant LqCel7B, with which we demonstrate that LqCel7B is a cellobiohydrolase and obtained four high-resolution crystal structures. Based on a crystallographic and computational comparison of LqCel7B to the well-characterized Hypocrea jecorina GH7 cellobiohydrolase, LqCel7B exhibits an extended substrate-binding motif at the tunnel entrance, which may aid in substrate acquisition and processivity. Interestingly, LqCel7B exhibits striking surface charges relative to fungal GH7 enzymes, which likely results from evolution in marine environments. We demonstrate that LqCel7B stability and activity remain unchanged, or increase at high salt concentration, and that the L. quadripunctata GH mixture generally contains cellulolytic enzymes with highly acidic surface charge compared with enzymes derived from terrestrial microbes. Overall, this study suggests that marine cellulases offer significant potential for utilization in high-solids industrial biomass conversion processes.

  1. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords

    PubMed Central

    Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Hernández, Cristián E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords), but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf) are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone), and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos). We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA) of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA. PMID:27505009

  2. The Mattis Way of War: An Examination of Operational Art in Task Force 58 and 1st Marine Division

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    Admiral Charles W. Moore, commander of US Naval Forces Central Command and Combined Forces Maritime Component Commander, designated General Mattis...examples that influenced his Task Force 58 operational design to include Major General Orde Charles Wingate’s operations in Burma.56 Other

  3. The Global Seismographic Network: Structure, Diversity and Operational Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, R.; Anderson, K.; Berger, J.; Davis, P.; Gee, L.; Leith, W.

    2006-12-01

    The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is a 138-station, permanent network of state-of-the-art seismological and geophysical sensors and represents the fruition of 20 years of partnership among IRIS, USGS, the University of California San Diego, and NSF in collaboration with the scientific community. Distributed across all continents and on islands throughout the world's oceans, the network offers a core infrastructure of site agreements, power, and telemetry systems for hosting other geophysical sensors, which currently include GPS, gravimeters, magnetometers, barographs, and meteorological instrumentation. Real- time telemetry is available at more than 93% of GSN sites through a diverse combination of satellite links, hubs, leased-lines, radios, and Internet. GSN cooperates with over 100 host organizations and seismic networks in 59 countries, and coordinates closely with other international networks through the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN). Many GSN stations are joint collaborations with other FDSN members, and 10 stations are GSN Affiliates operated by other networks. The GSN is also an official observing system within the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). At the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, the GSN is a principal source of data for earthquake information - locations, magnitudes, source processes, impact assessments, and hazard assessments - needed to facilitate earthquake emergency response. The GSN provides critical data for global tsunami warning systems in cooperation with U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency and Japanese Meteorological Agency. All GSN data are freely and openly available to anyone via the Internet from the IRIS Data Management Center in Seattle, Washington. It is a significant challenge to operate a globally distributed network such as the GSN. The network includes a large number of stations in very remote locations, and many stations with multiple sensor types

  4. Structural basis for red-shifted emission of a GFP-like protein from the marine copepod Chiridius poppei.

    PubMed

    Suto, Kyoko; Masuda, Hiromi; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Tsuji, Frederick I; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    The fluorescence excitation and emission maxima of a GFP-like protein from the marine copepod Chiridius poppei (CpYGFP) show a significant red shift (lambda(ex) = 509 nm, lambda(em) = 517 nm) compared with those of GFP from Aequorea victoria (avGFP) and other GFP-like proteins from marine copepods. We performed crystallographic and biochemical studies to understand why this shift occurs in CpYGFP. The structure of CpYGFP showed that the imidazole side chain of His52 is involved in stacking on the phenol moiety of the chromophore. We investigated the potential role of His52 in causing the red-shifted spectral properties by performing mutational analyses of H52T, H52D and H52F. The emission wavelengths of H52T and H52D were blue-shifted and that of H52F was red-shifted relative to the wild type. Comparison of its structure of another copepod GFP (ppluGFP2) having an emission maximum at 502 nm showed that the imidazole ring of His54 (corresponding to His52 in CpYGFP) is flipped out of the stacking position with the chromophore. These findings suggest that pi-pi stacking interaction between His52 and the phenol moiety of the chromophore is the likely cause of the red-shift in light emission.

  5. Structure and variability of the marine-bird community in the northeastern Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Adrian E.; Day, Robert H.; Weingartner, Thomas J.

    2013-09-01

    We examined the seasonal and interannual variation in the marine-bird community and its relationship to physical oceanography in the northeastern Chukchi Sea in 2008-2010 as part of a multi-year, interdisciplinary study. We sampled 3 study areas, each ∼3000 km2, located in the offshore northeastern Chukchi Sea: Klondike, Burger, and Statoil. We quantified the marine habitat by measuring strength of stratification, depth of the mixed layer, and temperature and salinity in the upper mixed layer. The total density of seabirds was the highest in 2009, when warm (5-6 °C), moderately saline (31-31.5) Bering Sea Water (BSW) extended across Burger and Klondike at all depths. Bird density was generally higher in Klondike than in Burger in 2008 and 2009; densities did not differ significantly among study areas in 2010, when BSW covered all 3 study areas. The relative abundance of alcids in all study areas combined increased from 2008 to 2010. Klondike was numerically dominated by alcids and tubenoses in all years, whereas Burger was numerically dominated by larids and tubenoses in 2008 and by alcids in 2009 and 2010; Statoil also was numerically dominated by alcids in 2010. Least auklets, crested auklets, and northern fulmars were positively associated with strong stratification and high salinity (>31) in the upper mixed layer, characteristics that indicated the presence of BSW. Phalaropes were positively associated with salinity but negatively associated with stratification, suggesting that well-mixed water provides better foraging opportunities for these surface-feeding planktivores. The distribution and abundance of marine birds, particularly the planktivorous species, is influenced by advective processes that transport oceanic species of zooplankton from the Bering Sea to the Chukchi Sea. This transport apparently differed among years and resulted in a broader northeastward intrusion of Bering Sea Water and greater total abundance of planktivorous seabirds in the

  6. Chemical fractionation-enhanced structural characterization of marine dissolved organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, N.; Aluwihare, L.

    2016-02-01

    Describing the molecular fingerprint of dissolved organic matter (DOM) requires sample processing methods and separation techniques that can adequately minimize its complexity. We have employed acid hydrolysis as a way to make the subcomponents of marine solid phase-extracted (PPL) DOM more accessible to analytical techniques. Using a combination of NMR and chemical derivatization or reduction analyzed by comprehensive (GCxGC) gas chromatography, we observed chemical features strikingly similar to terrestrial DOM. In particular, we observed reduced alicylic hydrocarbons believed to be the backbone of previously identified carboxylic rich alicyclic material (CRAM). Additionally, we found carbohydrates, amino acids and small lipids and acids.

  7. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Young; Shim, Chun Sik; Sturtevant, Caleb; Kim, Dave (Dae-Wook); Song, Ha Cheol

    2014-09-01

    Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties

  8. Structural Characterization of a Hybrid Carrageenan-Like Sulfated Galactan from a Marine Red Alga Furcellaria lumbricalis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Youjing; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Junzeng; Yu, Guangli

    2015-01-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated galactan isolated from marine red algae with different disaccharide forms. There are also some hybrid carrageenan-like oligomers, which are reported to possess a number of bioactivities. Here, we describe a method to study the structural characterization of a carrageenan-like sulfated galactan FB1 extracted from the red seaweed Furcellaria lumbricalis. We show the process of the general analysis of FB1, including the molecular weight, sulfate content, total sugar content, protein content, and 3,6-anhydrogalactose (3,6-AnG) content analyses. The fine structure identification methods, including desulfation and methylation, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization collision induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ES-CID-MS/MS), are also described in detail.

  9. Total synthesis and complete structural assignment of gambieric acid A, a large polycyclic ether marine natural product.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Makoto; Fuwa, Haruhiko

    2014-08-01

    More than thirty years after the discovery of polycyclic ether marine natural products, they continue to receive intense attention from the chemical, biological, and pharmacological communities because of their potent biological activities and highly complex molecular architectures. Gambieric acids are intriguing polycyclic ethers that exhibit potent antifungal activity with minimal toxicity against mammals. Despite the recent advances in the synthesis of this class of natural products, gambieric acids remain unconquered due to their daunting structural complexity, which poses a formidable synthetic challenge to organic chemists. This paper reviews our long-term studies on the total synthesis, complete configurational reassignment, and structure-activity relationships of gambieric acid A over the last decade. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Marine-derived myxobacteria of the suborder Nannocystineae: An underexplored source of structurally intriguing and biologically active metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Schäberle, Till F

    2016-01-01

    Summary Myxobacteria are famous for their ability to produce most intriguing secondary metabolites. Till recently, only terrestrial myxobacteria were in the focus of research. In this review, however, we discuss marine-derived myxobacteria, which are particularly interesting due to their relatively recent discovery and due to the fact that their very existence was called into question. The to-date-explored members of these halophilic or halotolerant myxobacteria are all grouped into the suborder Nannocystineae. Few of them were chemically investigated revealing around 11 structural types belonging to the polyketide, non-ribosomal peptide, hybrids thereof or terpenoid class of secondary metabolites. A most unusual structural type is represented by salimabromide from Enhygromyxa salina. In silico analyses were carried out on the available genome sequences of four bacterial members of the Nannocystineae, revealing the biosynthetic potential of these bacteria. PMID:27340488

  11. Simulating Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device Operation Using Fluid Structure Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Chris; Bazilevs, Yuri; Marsden, Alison

    2012-11-01

    Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs) provide mechanical circulatory support to patients in heart failure. They are primarily used to extend life until cardiac transplant, but also show promise as a ``bridge-to-recovery'' device in pediatric patients. Commercially available pediatric pumps are pulsatile displacement pumps, with two distinct chambers for air and blood separated by a thin, flexible membrane. The air chamber pneumatically drives the membrane, which drives blood through the other chamber via displacement. The primary risk factor associated with these devices is stroke or embolism due to thrombogenesis in the blood chamber, occurring in as many as 40% of patients. Our goal is to perform simulations that accurately model the hemodynamics of the device, as well as the non-linear membrane buckling. We apply a finite-element based fluid solver, with an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework to account for mesh motion. Isogeometric Analysis with a Kirchhoff-Love shell formulation is used on the membrane, and two distinct fluid subdomains are used for the air and blood chambers. The Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) problem is solved simultaneously, using a Matrix Free method to model the interactions at the fluid-structure boundary. Methods and results are presented.

  12. Fluid Structure Interaction Simulations of Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Chris; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri

    2011-11-01

    Pediatric ventricular assist devices (PVADs) are used for mechanical circulatory support in children with failing hearts. They can be used to allow the heart to heal naturally or to extend the life of the patient until transplant. A PVAD has two chambers, blood and air, separated by a flexible membrane. The air chamber is pressurized, which drives the membrane and pumps the blood. The primary risk associated with these devices is stroke or embolism from thrombogenesis. Simulation of these devices is difficult due to a complex coupling of two fluid domains and a thin membrane, requiring fluid-structure interaction modeling. The goal of this work is to accurately simulate the hemodynamics of a PVAD. We perform FSI simulations using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element framework to account for large motions of the membrane and the fluid domains. The air, blood, and membrane are meshed as distinct subdomains, and a method for non-matched discretizations at the fluid-structure interface is presented. The use of isogeometric analysis to model the membrane mechanics is also discussed, and the results of simulations are presented.

  13. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  14. Structure of Sediment-Associated Microbial Communities along a Heavy-Metal Contamination Gradient in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, David C.; Danis, Bruno; Pernet, Philippe; Joly, Guillemette; Dubois, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Microbial community composition and structure were characterized in marine sediments contaminated for >80 years with cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Four sampling sites that encompass a wide range of sediment metal loads were compared in a Norwegian fjord (Sørfjord). HCl-extractable metals and organic matter constantly decreased from the most contaminated site (S1) to the control site (S4). All sampling sites presented low polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (Σ7PCB < 7.0 ng g [dry weight]−1). The biomass ranged from 4.3 × 108 to 13.4 × 108 cells g (dry weight) of sediments−1 and was not correlated to metal levels. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis indicated that diversity was not affected by the contamination. The majority of the partial 16S rRNA sequences obtained were classified in the γ- and δ-Proteobacteria and in the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) bacteria. Some sequences were closely related to other sequences from polluted marine sediments. The abundances of seven phylogenetic groups were determined by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH was impaired in S1 by high levels of autofluorescing particles. For S2 to S4, the results indicated that the HCl-extractable Cu, Pb, and Zn were negatively correlated with the abundance of γ-Proteobacteria and CFB bacteria. δ-Proteobacteria were not correlated with HCl-extractable metals. Bacteria of the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus group were detected in every site and represented 6 to 14% of the DAPI (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole) counts. Although factors other than metals may explain the distribution observed, the information presented here may be useful in predicting long-term effects of heavy-metal contamination in the marine environment. PMID:15691917

  15. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Marine Corps Base (site 35), operable unit 10, Camp Lejeune, NC, September 22, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for surficial groundwater for a portion of Operable Unit (OU) No. 10 (Site 35), Marine Corps Base (MCB), Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Five Remedial Action Alternatives (RAAs) were evaluated as part of an interim remedial investigation/feasibility study for surficial groundwater at OU No. 10 (Site 35). These RAAs included RAA 1 (No Action), RAA 2 (No Action With Institutional Controls), RAA 3 (Groundwater Collection and On-site Treatment), RAA 4 (In Situ Air Sparging and Off-Gas Carbon Adsorption) and RAA 5 (In Well Aeration and Off-Gas Adsorption). After all five RAAs were compared to established criteria, RAA 5 was selected as the preferred alternative.

  16. Human and organizational errors in loading and discharge operations at marine terminals: Reduction of tanker oil and chemical spills. Organizing to minimize human and organizational errors

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarelli, T.; Roberts, K.; Bea, R.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes organizational and managerial findings, and proposes corresponding recommendations, based on a program of research conducted at two major locations: Chevron USA Products Company Refinery in Richmond, California and Arco Marine Incorporated shipping operations in Long Beach, California. The Organizational Behavior and Industrial Relations group from the Business School approached the project with the same objective (of reducing the risk of accidents resulting from human and/or organizational errors), but used a different means of achieving those ends. On the Business side, the aim of the project is to identify organizational and managerial practices, problems, and potential problems, analyze them, and then make recommendations that offer potential solutions to those circumstances which pose a human and/or organizational error (HOE) risk.

  17. Recent Trends in Local-Scale Marine Biodiversity Reflect Community Structure and Human Impacts.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Robin; O'Connor, Mary I; Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Dunic, Jillian; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Hensel, Marc J S; Kearns, Patrick J

    2015-07-20

    The modern biodiversity crisis reflects global extinctions and local introductions. Human activities have dramatically altered rates and scales of processes that regulate biodiversity at local scales. Reconciling the threat of global biodiversity loss with recent evidence of stability at fine spatial scales is a major challenge and requires a nuanced approach to biodiversity change that integrates ecological understanding. With a new dataset of 471 diversity time series spanning from 1962 to 2015 from marine coastal ecosystems, we tested (1) whether biodiversity changed at local scales in recent decades, and (2) whether we can ignore ecological context (e.g., proximate human impacts, trophic level, spatial scale) and still make informative inferences regarding local change. We detected a predominant signal of increasing species richness in coastal systems since 1962 in our dataset, though net species loss was associated with localized effects of anthropogenic impacts. Our geographically extensive dataset is unlikely to be a random sample of marine coastal habitats; impacted sites (3% of our time series) were underrepresented relative to their global presence. These local-scale patterns do not contradict the prospect of accelerating global extinctions but are consistent with local species loss in areas with direct human impacts and increases in diversity due to invasions and range expansions in lower impact areas. Attempts to detect and understand local biodiversity trends are incomplete without information on local human activities and ecological context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Population Structure and Phylogeography in Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a Mass-Aggregating Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alexis M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S.; Heppell, Scott A.; Bush, Phillippe G.; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A. B.; Calosso, Marta C.; Sealey, Kathleen S.; Schärer, Michelle T.; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST = 0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST = 0.002, p = 0.004) and SNPs (FST = 0.002, p = 0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions. PMID:24830641

  19. Comparative structural morphometry and elemental composition of three marine sponges from western coast of India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Maushmi S; Shah, Bhaumik

    2014-04-01

    Three marine sponges Halichondria glabrata, Cliono lobata, and Spirastrella pachyspira from the western coastal region of India were compared for their morphometry, biochemical, and elemental composition. One-way analysis of variance was applied for spicule morphometry results. Length, width, and length:width ratio were calculated independently. The ratio of length:width varied from 35 to 42 among the grown samples, which remained in the range of 10-22 in young sample at the beginning of studies. However, no significant change was observed in spicule width compared to length. Elemental compositions of marine sponges were determined by field emission gun-scanning electron microscope. Scanning electron microscopy data revealed that the spicules of all the three sponges were mostly composed of O (47-56%) and Si (30-40%), whereas Al (14.33%) was only detected in the spicules of C. lobata. Apart from these, K, Ni, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, and S were additionally detected in all the three samples. Presence of heavy metals in the sponges was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Results showed that iron was present in a large amount in samples, followed by zinc, lead, and copper. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Marine landscapes and population genetic structure of herring (Clupea harengus L.) in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Hanne B H; Hansen, Michael M; Bekkevold, Dorte; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Loeschcke, Volker

    2005-09-01

    Numerically small but statistically significant genetic differentiation has been found in many marine fish species despite very large census population sizes and absence of obvious barriers to migrating individuals. Analyses of morphological traits have previously identified local spawning groups of herring (Clupea harengus L.) in the environmentally heterogeneous Baltic Sea, whereas allozyme markers have not revealed differentiation. We analysed variation at nine microsatellite loci in 24 samples of spring-spawning herring collected at 11 spawning locations throughout the Baltic Sea. Significant temporal differentiation was observed at two locations, which we ascribe to sympatrically spawning but genetically divergent 'spawning waves'. Significant differentiation was also present on a geographical scale, though pairwise F(ST) values were generally low, not exceeding 0.027. Partial Mantel tests showed no isolation by geographical distance, but significant associations were observed between genetic differentiation and environmental parameters (salinity and surface temperature) (0.001 < P < or = 0.099), though these outcomes were driven mainly by populations in the southwestern Baltic Sea, which also exhibits the steepest environmental gradients. Application of a novel method for detecting barriers to gene flow by combining geographical coordinates and genetic differentiation allowed us to identify two zones of lowered gene flow. These zones were concordant with the separation of the Baltic Sea into major basins, with environmental gradients and with differences in migration behaviour. We suggest that similar use of landscape genetics approaches may increase the understanding of the biological significance of genetic differentiation in other marine fishes.