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Sample records for marine snow formation

  1. Formation of rapidly-sinking, oil-associated marine snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, Uta

    2016-07-01

    Significant amounts of oil accumulated at the sea surface and in a subsurface plume during the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) in 2010. A substantial fraction of this oil was removed from the marine environment by mechanical recovery or burning, or it reached shorelines, whereas another fraction remained within the marine environment, where it dispersed (chemically or naturally), emulsified or sedimented. After the DwH accident the sedimentation of hydrocarbons to the seafloor via rapidly sinking, oil-associated marine snow has become a focus of attention, and it has been hypothesized that marine snow formation significantly impacted the distribution of the oil from the DwH spill. Here, roller table experiments are presented that investigated the conditions inducing the formation of oil-associated marine snow, focusing especially on the effects of oil type, photochemical aging of oil, and the presence of phytoplankton or dispersant. Large, mucus-rich marine snow, termed microbial marine snow, formed in treatments incubated with the oil that had accumulated at the sea surface. This bacteria-mediated formation of up to cm-sized marine snow in the absence of particles >1 μm, represents a unique formation pathway different from that of the physical coagulation of particles. Microbial marine snow, albeit smaller, also formed in the presence of crude oil that had been aged for ≥3 weeks in sunlight, but no particles formed in the presence of unaltered crude. The dispersant Corexit 9500A (Corexit:oil ratio=1:100) impeded the formation of microbial marine snow, requiring a re-evaluation of the benefits and detriments of Corexit 9500A as a mediating measure. Phytoplankton aggregates also incorporated fossil carbon, providing an alternate pathway for the formation of oil-associated marine snow. The ubiquitous formation and rapid sedimentation of oil-rich marine snow can explain the high accumulation rate of flocculent material at the seafloor and

  2. Oil spill dispersants induce formation of marine snow by phytoplankton-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    van Eenennaam, Justine S; Wei, Yuzhu; Grolle, Katja C F; Foekema, Edwin M; Murk, AlberTinka J

    2016-03-15

    Unusually large amounts of marine snow, including Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS), were formed during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The marine snow settled with oil and clay minerals as an oily sludge layer on the deep sea floor. This study tested the hypothesis that the unprecedented amount of chemical dispersants applied during high phytoplankton densities in the Gulf of Mexico induced high EPS formation. Two marine phytoplankton species (Dunaliella tertiolecta and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) produced EPS within days when exposed to the dispersant Corexit 9500. Phytoplankton-associated bacteria were shown to be responsible for the formation. The EPS consisted of proteins and to lesser extent polysaccharides. This study reveals an unexpected consequence of the presence of phytoplankton. This emphasizes the need to test the action of dispersants under realistic field conditions, which may seriously alter the fate of oil in the environment via increased marine snow formation.

  3. How the dispersant Corexit impacts the formation of sinking marine oil snow.

    PubMed

    Passow, Uta; Sweet, Julia; Quigg, Antonietta

    2017-08-11

    The vertical transport of sinking marine oil snow (MOS) and oil-sediment aggregations (OSA) during the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) spill contributed appreciably to the unexpected, and exceptional accumulation of oil on the seafloor. However, the role of the dispersant Corexit in mediating oil-sedimentation is still controversial. Here we demonstrate that the formation of diatom MOS is enhanced by chemically undispersed oil, but inhibited by Corexit-dispersed oil. Nevertheless, the sedimentation rate of oil may at times be enhanced by Corexit application, because of an elevated oil content per aggregate when Corexit is used. A conceptual framework explains the seemingly contradictory effects of Corexit application on the sedimentation of oil and marine particles. The redistribution of oil has central ecological implications, and future decisions on mediating measures or damage assessment will have to take the formation of sinking, oil-laden, marine snow into account. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Formation of marine snow and enhanced enzymatic activities in oil-contaminated seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziervogel, K.; McKay, L.; Yang, T.; Rhodes, B.; Nigro, L.; Gutierrez, T.; Teske, A.; Arnosti, C.

    2010-12-01

    The fate of oil spilled into the ocean depends on its composition, as well as on biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of the spill site. We investigated the effects of oil addition from the Deepwater Horizon (DH) spill on otherwise uncontaminated water collected close to the spill site. Incubation on a roller table mimicked the physical dynamics of natural seawater, leading to the formation of marine snow-oil aggregates. We measured the enzymatic activities of heterotrophic microbes associated with the aggregates and in the surrounding water, and assessed microbial population and community composition as oil-marine snow aggregates formed and aged in the water. Surface seawater taken near the spill site in May 2010 that had no visible crude oil was incubated in 1-l glass bottles with (oil-bottles) and without (no-oil bottles) a seawater-oil mixture collected from the same site. In the oil-bottles formation of brownish, densely packed marine snow (2-3 cm diameter) was observed within the first hour of the roller table incubation. In contrast no-oil bottles showed aggregate formation only after 3 days, and aggregates were almost transparent, less abundant, and smaller in size (< 1cm diameter). Subsamples of the water surrounding the aggregates were taken throughout 21 days of the roller table incubation, and analyzed for bacterial abundance and community structure as well as the activities of hydrolytic enzymes that are used by heterotrophic bacteria to degrade organic matter. We monitored oil-degrading activities with MUF-stearate and -butyrate, and also measured b-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase, and six different polysaccharide hydrolase activities. Enzymatic activities were up to one order of magnitude higher in the oil-bottles compared with the no-oil bottles throughout the entire incubation time. Butyrate hydrolysis was elevated throughout the time course of the incubation, and stearate hydrolysis was particularly high over the

  5. Snow avalanche formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Jürg; Bruce Jamieson, J.; Schneebeli, Martin

    2003-12-01

    Snow avalanches are a major natural hazard, endangering human life and infrastructure in mountainous areas throughout the world. In many countries with seasonally snow-covered mountains, avalanche-forecasting services reliably warn the public by issuing occurrence probabilities for a certain region. However, at present, a single avalanche event cannot be predicted in time and space. Much about the release process remains unknown, mainly because of the highly variable, layered character of the snowpack, a highly porous material that exists close to its melting point. The complex interaction between terrain, snowpack, and meteorological conditions leading to avalanche release is commonly described as avalanche formation. It is relevant to hazard mapping and essential to short-term forecasting, which involves weighting many contributory factors. Alternatively, the release process can be studied and modeled. This approach relies heavily on snow mechanics and snow properties, including texture. While the effect of meteorological conditions or changes on the deformational behavior of snow is known in qualitative or semiquantitative manner, the knowledge of the quantitative relation between snow texture and mechanical properties is limited, but promising developments are under way. Fracture mechanical models have been applied to explain the fracture propagation, and micromechanical models including the two competing processes (damage and sintering) have been applied to explain snow failure. There are knowledge gaps between the sequence of processes that lead to the release of the snow slab: snow deformation and failure, damage accumulation, fracture initiation, and fracture propagation. Simultaneously, the spatial variability that affects damage, fracture initiation, and fracture propagation has to be considered. This review focuses on dry snow slab avalanches and shows that dealing with a highly porous media close to its melting point and processes covering several

  6. Possible Quorum Sensing in Marine Snow Bacteria: Production of Acylated Homoserine Lactones by Roseobacter Strains Isolated from Marine Snow

    PubMed Central

    Gram, Lone; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Schlingloff, Andrea; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    We report here, for the first time, that bacteria associated with marine snow produce communication signals involved in quorum sensing in gram-negative bacteria. Four of 43 marine microorganisms isolated from marine snow were found to produce acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) in well diffusion and thin-layer chromatographic assays based on the Agrobacterium tumefaciens reporter system. Three of the AHL-producing strains were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequence analysis as Roseobacter spp., and this is the first report of AHL production by these α-Proteobacteria. It is likely that AHLs in Roseobacter species and other marine snow bacteria govern phenotypic traits (biofilm formation, exoenzyme production, and antibiotic production) which are required mainly when the population reaches high densities, e.g., in the marine snow community. PMID:12147515

  7. Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alldredge, Alice L.; Silver, Mary W.

    Macroscopic aggregates of detritus, living organisms and inorganic matter known as marine snow, have significance in the ocean both as unique, partially isolated microenvironments and as transport agents: much of surface-derived matter in the ocean fluxes to the ocean interior and the sea floor as marine snow. As microhabitats, marine snow aggregates contain enriched microbial communities and chemical gradients within which processes of photosynthesis, decomposition, and nutrient regeneration occur at highly elevated levels. Microbial communities associated with marine snow undergo complex successional changes on time scales of hours to days which significantly alter the chemical and biological properties of the particles. Marine snow can be produced either de novo by living plants and animals especially as mucus feeding webs of zooplankton, or by the biologically-enhanced physical aggregation of smaller particles. By the latter pathway, microaggregates, phytoplankton, fecal pellets, organic debris and clay-mineral particles collide by differential settlement or physical shear and adhere by the action of various, biologically-generated, organic compounds. Diatom flocculation is a poorly understood source of marine snow of potential global significance. Rates of snow production and breakdown are not known but are critical to predicting flux and to understanding biological community structure and transformations of matter and energy in the water column. The greatest challenge to the study of marine snow at present is the development of appropriate technology to measure abundances and characteristics of aggregates in situ.

  8. Viral Lysis of Cells Influences The Concentration and Compostion of Dissolved Organic Matter and The Formation of Organic Aggregates (marine Snow)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbauer, M. G.; Peduzzi, P.

    The effect of moderately (ca. 2.5 fold) increasing the concentration of the virus-size fraction (VSF) of seawater on the chemical composition of the dissolved organic mat- ter (DOM) pool during the formation of organic aggregates (marine snow) was tested experimentally with seawater samples collected in the Northern Adriatic Sea. The VSF enrichment did not significantly change the concentration of selected DOM com- pounds, whereas viral abundance was ca. 2-fold higher. During long-term experiments (40 - 200 hrs), bacterial abundance was on average 25% lower in the VSF amended than in the control incubations, and the frequency of visibly infected cells was stimu- lated by ca. 50%. VSF delayed the development of phytoplankton blooms (diatoms), but in the end of the experiments, Chl a concentrations in the VSF amended incuba- tions exceeded those in the control incubations. The VSF enrichment caused an enrich- ment of Serine and Threonine in the dissolved hydrolysable amino acid (AA) fraction indicative of viral lysis of diatoms. Bulk dissolved free AA acid and monomeric car- bohydrate (CHO) concentrations were repressed, whereas bulk dissolved hydrolysable AA and CHO concentrations were stimulated in the VSF enriched incubations. Viral lysis was likely the major reason for the stimulation of hydrolysable DOM. The for- mation of organic aggregates was repressed by the VSF enrichment, but the aggregates were larger and more persistent in the VSF amended than in the control incubations. Stimulation of hydrolysable DOM and sticky viral lysis products might be the reason for the larger and more persistent aggregates. This demonstrates that bioactive mate- rial in the VSF of seawater can have major implications for primary production and the cycling of organic carbon in the ocean.

  9. Quorum sensing in marine snow and its possible influence on production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes in marine snow bacterium Pantoea ananatis B9.

    PubMed

    Jatt, Abdul Nabi; Tang, Kaihao; Liu, Jiwen; Zhang, Zenghu; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Marine snow is a continuous shower of organic and inorganic detritus, and plays a crucial role in transporting materials from the sea surface to the deep ocean. The aims of the current study were to identify N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) signaling molecules directly from marine snow particles and to investigate the possible regulatory link between QS signals and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes produced by marine snow bacteria. The marine snow samples were collected from the surface water of China marginal seas. Two AHLs, i.e. 3OC6-HSL and C8-HSL, were identified directly from marine snow particles, while six different AHL signals, i.e. C4-HSL, 3OC6-HSL, C6-HSL, C10-HSL, C12-HSL and C14-HSL were produced by Pantoea ananatis B9 inhabiting natural marine snow particles. Of the extracellular hydrolytic enzymes produced by P. ananatis B9, alkaline phosphatase activity was highly enhanced in growth medium supplemented with exogenous AHL (C10-HSL), while quorum quenching enzyme (AiiA) drastically reduced the enzyme activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report revealing six different AHL signals produced by P. ananatis B9 and AHL-based QS system enhanced the extracellular hydrolytic enzyme in P. ananatis B9. Furthermore, this study first time revealing 3OC6-HSL production by Paracoccus carotinifaciens affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria.

  10. Wind slab formation in snow: experimental setup and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Christian; Lehning, Michael; Fierz, Charles

    2016-04-01

    The formation of wind-hardened surface layers, also known as wind slabs or wind crusts, is studied. Better knowledge about which processes and parameters are important will lead to an improved understanding of the mass balances in polar and alpine areas. It will also improve snow-cover models (i.e. SNOWPACK) as well as the forecast of avalanche danger. A ring-shaped wind tunnel has been built and instrumented. The facility is ring-shaped to simulate an infinitely long snow surface (infinite fetch). A SnowMicroPen (SMP) is used to measure the snow hardness. Other sensors measure environmental conditions such as wind velocity, air temperature, air humidity, the temperature of the snow and of the snow surface. A camera is used to detect drifting particles and to measure the Specific Surface Area (SSA) at the snow surface via near-infrared photography. First experiments indicate that mechanical fragmentation followed by sintering is the most efficient process to harden the surface. The hardness increased rapidly during drifting snow events, but only slowly or not at all when the wind speed was kept below the threshold for drifting snow. With drifting, the penetration resistance increased from the original 0.07 N to around 0.3 N in about an hour. Without drifting, a slow, further increase in resistance was observed. In about six hours, the hardness of the top 1-2 cm increased to 0.5 N. During this eight-hour experiment consisting of about two hours with intermittent drifting and six hours without drifting, the density at the surface increased from 66 kg/m3 to around 170 kg/m3. In the unaffected region close to the ground, the density increased from 100 kg/m3 to 110 kg/m3.

  11. Oil biodegradation: Interactions of artificial marine snow, clay particles, oil and Corexit.

    PubMed

    Rahsepar, Shokouh; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Smit, Martijn P J; van Eenennaam, Justine S; Murk, Albertinka J; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2017-08-16

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of these interactions on biodegradation of oil in the water. Laboratory experiments were performed, analyzing respiration and n-alkane and BTEX biodegradation in multiple conditions containing Corexit, alginate particles as marine snow, and kaolin clay. Two oil degrading bacterial pure cultures were added, Pseudomonas putida F1 and Rhodococcus qingshengii TUHH-12. Results show that the presence of alginate particles enhances oil biodegradation. The presence of Corexit alone or in combination with alginate particles and/or kaolin clay, hampers oil biodegradation. Kaolin clay and Corexit have a synergistic effect in increasing BTEX concentrations in the water and cause delay in oil biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Formation of Singlet Molecular Oxygen on Illuminated Ice and Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKellar, S. R.; Anastasio, C.

    2005-12-01

    Pollutants and other trace compounds on snow and ice are transformed both by direct photolysis as well as indirect photoreactions mediated by oxidants such as hydroxyl radical (OH). These reactions likely play a major role in the fate of environmental contaminants in regions with permanent or seasonal snow cover, but we know relatively little about which reactions are important and at what rates they transform trace pollutants. The indirect photodegradation of organics is most likely caused by oxidants such as OH and singlet molecular oxygen (1O2* ), which can be formed in the snowpack by illumination from the sun. While some recent work has characterized the formation of OH in snow, the presence of 1O2* on illuminated snow or ice has not been studied previously. In this study, our goal is to determine the steady state concentrations of singlet molecular oxygen in illuminated snow samples collected from Summit, Greenland during the summer of 2005. We add furfuryl alcohol (FFA), which acts as a chemical probe of singlet molecular oxygen, to ice pellets made from Greenland snow samples and monitor the rate of loss of FFA during illumination. Our initial results indicate that 1O2* is formed in illuminated Summit samples and that the steady-state concentration of 1O2* is much larger on ice (-10 °C) than in liquid solution (°C) using the same prepared sample. We will present our measured steady-state concentrations of 1O2* as well as the impacts of this oxidant on the lifetimes of trace organics such as PAHs and biogenic phenols in Greenland snow.

  13. Hydroxyl radical in/on illuminated polar snow: formation rates, lifetimes, and steady-state concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zeyuan; Chu, Liang; Galbavy, Edward S.; Ram, Keren; Anastasio, Cort

    2016-08-01

    While the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the snowpack is likely a dominant oxidant for organic species and bromide, little is known about the kinetics or steady-state concentrations of OH on/in snow and ice. Here we measure the formation rate, lifetime, and concentration of OH for illuminated polar snow samples studied in the laboratory and in the field. Laboratory studies show that OH kinetics and steady-state concentrations are essentially the same for a given sample studied as ice and liquid; this is in contrast to other photooxidants, which show a concentration enhancement in ice relative to solution as a result of kinetic differences in the two phases. The average production rate of OH in samples studied at Summit, Greenland, is 5 times lower than the average measured in the laboratory, while the average OH lifetime determined in the field is 5 times higher than in the laboratory. These differences indicate that the polar snows we studied in the laboratory are affected by contamination, despite significant efforts to prevent this; our results suggest similar contamination may be a widespread problem in laboratory studies of ice chemistry. Steady-state concentrations of OH in clean snow studied in the field at Summit, Greenland, range from (0.8 to 3) × 10-15 M, comparable to values reported for midlatitude cloud and fog drops, rain, and deliquesced marine particles, even though impurity concentrations in the snow samples are much lower. Partitioning of firn air OH to the snow grains will approximately double the steady-state concentration of snow-grain hydroxyl radical, leading to an average [OH] in near-surface, summer Summit snow of approximately 4 × 10-15 M. At this concentration, the OH-mediated lifetimes of organics and bromide in Summit snow grains are approximately 3 days and 7 h, respectively, suggesting that hydroxyl radical is a major

  14. The formation of snow streamers in the turbulent atmosphere boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ning; Wang, Zheng-Shi

    2016-12-01

    The drifting snow in the turbulent atmosphere boundary layer is an important type of aeolian multi-phase flow. Current theoretical and numerical studies of drifting snow mostly consider the flow field as steady wind velocity. Whereas, little is known about the effects of turbulent wind structures on saltating snow particles. In this paper, a 3-D drifting snow model based on Large Eddy Simulation is established, in which the trajectory of every snow grain is calculated and the coupling effect between wind field and snow particles is considered. The results indicate that the saltating snow particles are re-organized by the suction effect of high-speed rotating vortexes, which results in the local convergence of particle concentration, known as snow streamers. The turbulent wind leads to the spatial non-uniform of snow particles lifted by aerodynamic entrainment, but this does not affect the formation of snow streamers. Whereas the stochastic grain-bed interactions make a great contribution to the final shapes of snow streamers. Generally, snow streamers display a characteristic length about 0.5 m and a characteristic width of approximately 0.16 m, and their characteristic sizes are not sensitive to the wind speed. Compared to the typical sand streamer, snow streamer is slightly narrower and the occurrence of other complex streamer patterns is later than that of sand streamers due to the better follow performance of snow grains with air flow.

  15. Eukaryotic microbes, principally fungi and labyrinthulomycetes, dominate biomass on bathypelagic marine snow.

    PubMed

    Bochdansky, Alexander B; Clouse, Melissa A; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2017-02-01

    In the bathypelagic realm of the ocean, the role of marine snow as a carbon and energy source for the deep-sea biota and as a potential hotspot of microbial diversity and activity has not received adequate attention. Here, we collected bathypelagic marine snow by gentle gravity filtration of sea water onto 30 μm filters from ~1000 to 3900 m to investigate the relative distribution of eukaryotic microbes. Compared with sediment traps that select for fast-sinking particles, this method collects particles unbiased by settling velocity. While prokaryotes numerically exceeded eukaryotes on marine snow, eukaryotic microbes belonging to two very distant branches of the eukaryote tree, the fungi and the labyrinthulomycetes, dominated overall biomass. Being tolerant to cold temperature and high hydrostatic pressure, these saprotrophic organisms have the potential to significantly contribute to the degradation of organic matter in the deep sea. Our results demonstrate that the community composition on bathypelagic marine snow differs greatly from that in the ambient water leading to wide ecological niche separation between the two environments.

  16. Zooplankton fecal pellets, marine snow, phytodetritus and the ocean's biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jefferson T.

    2015-01-01

    The 'biological pump' is the process by which photosynthetically-produced organic matter in the ocean descends from the surface layer to depth by a combination of sinking particles, advection or vertical mixing of dissolved organic matter, and transport by animals. Particulate organic matter that is exported downward from the euphotic zone is composed of combinations of fecal pellets from zooplankton and fish, organic aggregates known as 'marine snow' and phytodetritus from sinking phytoplankton. Previous reviews by Turner and Ferrante (1979) and Turner (2002) focused on publications that appeared through late 2001. Since that time, studies of the biological pump have continued, and there have been >300 papers on vertical export flux using sediment traps, large-volume filtration systems and other techniques from throughout the global ocean. This review will focus primarily on recent studies that have appeared since 2001. Major topics covered in this review are (1) an overview of the biological pump, and its efficiency and variability, and the role of dissolved organic carbon in the biological pump; (2) zooplankton fecal pellets, including the contribution of zooplankton fecal pellets to export flux, epipelagic retention of zooplankton fecal pellets due to zooplankton activities, zooplankton vertical migration and fecal pellet repackaging, microbial ecology of fecal pellets, sinking velocities of fecal pellets and aggregates, ballasting of sinking particles by mineral contents, phytoplankton cysts, intact cells and harmful algae toxins in fecal pellets, importance of fecal pellets from various types of zooplankton, and the role of zooplankton fecal pellets in picoplankton export; (3) marine snow, including the origins, abundance, and distributions of marine snow, particles and organisms associated with marine snow, consumption and fragmentation of marine snow by animals, pathogens associated with marine snow; (4) phytodetritus, including pulsed export of

  17. Soluble chromophores in marine snow, seawater, sea ice and frost flowers near Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beine, Harry; Anastasio, Cort; Domine, Florent; Douglas, Thomas; Barret, Manuel; France, James; King, Martin; Hall, Sam; Ullmann, Kirk

    2012-07-01

    We measured light absorption in 42 marine snow, sea ice, seawater, brine, and frost flower samples collected during the OASIS field campaign between February 27 and April 15, 2009. Samples represented multiple sites between landfast ice and open pack ice in coastal areas approximately 5 km west of Barrow, Alaska. The chromophores that are most commonly measured in snow, H2O2, NO3-, and NO2-, on average account for less than 1% of sunlight absorption in our samples. Instead, light absorption is dominated by unidentified "residual" species, likely organic compounds. Light absorption coefficients for the frost flowers on first-year sea ice are, on average, 40 times larger than values for terrestrial snow samples at Barrow, suggesting very large rates of photochemical reactions in frost flowers. For our marine samples the calculated rates of sunlight absorption and OH production from known chromophores are (0.1-1.4) × 1014 (photons cm-3 s-1) and (5-70) × 10-12 (mol L-1 s-1), respectively. Our residual spectra are similar to spectra of marine chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), suggesting that CDOM is the dominant chromophore in our samples. Based on our light absorption measurements we estimate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in Barrow seawater and frost flowers as approximately 130 and 360 μM C, respectively. We expect that CDOM is a major source of OH in our marine samples, and it is likely to have other significant photochemistry as well.

  18. Snow bedforms: A review, new data, and a formation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filhol, Simon; Sturm, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Snow bedforms, like sand bedforms, consist of various shapes that form under the action of wind on mobile particles. Throughout a year, they can cover up to 11% of the Earth surface, concentrated toward the poles. These forms impact the local surface energy balance and the distribution of precipitation. Only a few studies have concentrated on their genesis. Their size ranges from 2 cm (ripple marks) to 2.5 m tall (whaleback dunes). We counted a total of seven forms that are widely recognized. Among them sastrugi, an erosional shape, is the most widespread. From laser scans, we compared scaling of snow versus sand barchan morphology. We found that both have proportionally the same footprint, but snow barchans are flatter. The key difference is that snow can sinter, immobilizing the bedform and creating an erodible material. Using a model, we investigated the effect of sintering on snow dune dynamics. We found that sintering limits their size because it progressively hardens the snow and requires an ever-increasing wind speed to maintain snow transport. From the literature and results from this model, we have reclassified snow bedforms based on two parameters: wind speed and snow surface conditions. The new data show that snow dune behavior mirrors that of sand dunes, with merging, calving, and collision. However, isolated snow barchans are rare, with most of the snow surfaces encountered in the field consisting of several superimposed bedforms formed sequentially during multiple weather events. Spatially variable snow properties and geometry can explain qualitatively these widespread compound snow surfaces.

  19. Winter Ice and Snow as Models of Igneous Rock Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romey, William D.

    1983-01-01

    Examines some features of ice and snow that offer teachers and researchers help in understanding many aspects of igneous processes and configurations. Careful observation of such processes as melting, decay, evolution, and snow accumulation provide important clues to understanding processes by which many kinds of rocks form. (Author/JN)

  20. Winter Ice and Snow as Models of Igneous Rock Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romey, William D.

    1983-01-01

    Examines some features of ice and snow that offer teachers and researchers help in understanding many aspects of igneous processes and configurations. Careful observation of such processes as melting, decay, evolution, and snow accumulation provide important clues to understanding processes by which many kinds of rocks form. (Author/JN)

  1. Influence of snow and ice crystal formation and accumulation on mercury deposition to the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas A; Sturm, Matthew; Simpson, William R; Blum, Joel D; Alvarez-Aviles, Laura; Keeler, Gerald J; Perovich, Donald K; Biswas, Abir; Johnson, Kelsey

    2008-03-01

    Mercury is deposited to the Polar Regions during springtime atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) but the relationship between snow and ice crystal formation and mercury deposition is not well understood. The objective of this investigation was to determine if mercury concentrations were related to the type and formation of snow and ice crystals. On the basis of almost three hundred analyses of samples collected in the Alaskan Arctic, we suggestthat kinetic crystals growing from the vapor phase, including surface hoar, frost flowers, and diamond dust, yield mercury concentrations that are typically 2-10 times higher than that reported for snow deposited during AMDEs (approximately 80 ng/L). Our results show that the crystal type and formation affect the mercury concentration in any given snow sample far more than the AMDE activity prior to snow collection. We present a conceptual model of how snow grain processes including deposition, condensation, reemission, sublimation, and turbulent diffusive uptake influence mercury concentrations in snow and ice. These processes are time dependent and operate collectively to affect the retention and fate of mercury in the cryosphere. The model highlights the importance of the formation and postdeposition crystallographic history of snow or ice crystals in determining the fate and concentration of mercury in the cryosphere.

  2. Role of nitrite in the photochemical formation of radicals in the snow.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Kleffmann, Jörg; Villena, Guillermo; Wiesen, Peter; King, Martin; France, James; Anastasio, Cort; Staebler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical reactions in snow can have an important impact on the composition of the atmosphere over snow-covered areas as well as on the composition of the snow itself. One of the major photochemical processes is the photolysis of nitrate leading to the formation of volatile nitrogen compounds. We report nitrite concentrations determined together with nitrate and hydrogen peroxide in surface snow collected at the coastal site of Barrow, Alaska. The results demonstrate that nitrite likely plays a significant role as a precursor for reactive hydroxyl radicals as well as volatile nitrogen oxides in the snow. Pollution events leading to high concentrations of nitrous acid in the atmosphere contributed to an observed increase in nitrite in the surface snow layer during nighttime. Observed daytime nitrite concentrations are much higher than values predicted from steady-state concentrations based on photolysis of nitrate and nitrite indicating that we do not fully understand the production of nitrite and nitrous acid in snow. The discrepancy between observed and expected nitrite concentrations is probably due to a combination of factors, including an incomplete understanding of the reactive environment and chemical processes in snow, and a lack of consideration of the vertical structure of snow.

  3. Colonization in the photic zone and subsequent changes during sinking determine bacterial community composition in marine snow.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Stefan; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Amann, Rudolf; Iversen, Morten H

    2015-02-01

    Due to sampling difficulties, little is known about microbial communities associated with sinking marine snow in the twilight zone. A drifting sediment trap was equipped with a viscous cryogel and deployed to collect intact marine snow from depths of 100 and 400 m off Cape Blanc (Mauritania). Marine snow aggregates were fixed and washed in situ to prevent changes in microbial community composition and to enable subsequent analysis using catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The attached microbial communities collected at 100 m were similar to the free-living community at the depth of the fluorescence maximum (20 m) but different from those at other depths (150, 400, 550, and 700 m). Therefore, the attached microbial community seemed to be “inherited” from that at the fluorescence maximum. The attached microbial community structure at 400 m differed from that of the attached community at 100 m and from that of any free-living community at the tested depths, except that collected near the sediment at 700 m. The differences between the particle-associated communities at 400 m and 100 m appeared to be due to internal changes in the attached microbial community rather than de novo colonization, detachment, or grazing during the sinking of marine snow. The new sampling method presented here will facilitate future investigations into the mechanisms that shape the bacterial community within sinking marine snow, leading to better understanding of the mechanisms which regulate biogeochemical cycling of settling organic matter.

  4. Spatial variability and possible sources of acetate and formate in the surface snow of East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Samui, Gautami; Antony, Runa; Mahalinganathan, Kanthanathan; Thamban, Meloth

    2017-07-01

    Spatial trends of acetate (Ac(-)) and formate (Fo(-)) were determined in surface snow samples along a coastal-inland transect (180km) in the ice cap region at Princess Elizabeth Land and along a coastal transect in the Amery Ice Shelf (130km), East Antarctica. Variations in both Ac(-) and Fo(-) seem to be unrelated to the acidity of snow. Ionic balance determined for the snow samples indicate the availability of HNO3 that could undergo photolysis to produce hydroxyl radical (OH), one of the major reactants involved in oxidation reactions with organic matter. The strong positive correlations between Ac(-) and NO3(-) in snow from both regions indicate that NO3(-) mediated OH-oxidation of organic compounds in snow could be an important source of Ac(-) within the snowpack. On the other hand, negative correlation between Fo(-) and NO3(-) might indicate that sources other than OH-oxidation of organic matter may be dominant in the case of Fo(-). Higher Ac(-) concentrations in the ice cap compared to the ice shelf correspond with long-range transport of biomass burning emissions to the ice cap region. Interaction of Ac(-) and Fo(-) with alkaline minerals could lead to their stability in the snowpack and minimize their loss from the snow surface. Resident microbial communities could also influence the budget of the carboxylic acids in snow. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Pyroclast/snow interactions and thermally driven slurry formation. Part 1: Theory for monodisperse grain beds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Lahars are often produced as pyroclastic flows move over snow. This phenomenon involves a complicated interplay of mechanical and thermal processes that need to be separated to get at the fundamental physics. The thermal physics of pyroclast/snow interactions form the focus of this paper. A theoretical model is developed of heat- and mass transfer at the interface between a layer of uniformly sized pyroclasts and an underlying bed of snow, for the case in which there is no relative shear motion between pyroclasts and snow. A microscale view of the interface is required to properly specify boundary conditions. The physical model leads to the prediction that the upward flux of water vapor - which depends upon emplacement temperature, pyroclast grain size, pyroclast-layer thickness, and snow permeability - is sometimes sufficient to fluidize the pyroclasts. Uniform fluidization is usually unstable to bubble formation, which leads to vigorous convection of the pyroclasts themselves. Thus, predicted threshold conditions for fluidization are tantamount to predicted thresholds for particle convection. Such predictions are quantitatively in good agreement with results of experiments described in part 2 of this paper. Because particle convection commonly causes scour of the snow bed and transformation of the pyroclast layer to a slurry, there exists a 'thermal scour' process for generating lahars from pyroclastic flows moving over snow regardless of the possible role of mechanical scour.

  6. Northern-Hemisphere snow cover patterns and formation conditions in winter 2007 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hongyan; Qiao, Fangli; Shu, Qi; Yu, Long

    2016-06-01

    The Arctic sea ice minimum records appeared in the Septembers of 2007 and 2012, followed by high snow cover areas in the Northern Hemisphere winters. The snow cover distributions show different spatial patterns in these two years: increased snow cover in Central Asia and Central North America in 2007, while increased snow cover in East Asia and northwestern Europe in 2012. The high snow cover anomaly shifted to higher latitudes in winter of 2012 compared to 2007. It is noticed that the snow cover had positive anomaly in 2007 and 2012 with the following conditions: the negative geopotential height and the related cyclonic wind anomaly were favorable for upwelling, and, with the above conditions, the low troposphere and surface air temperature anomaly and water vapor anomaly were favorable for the formation and maintenance of snowfalls. The negative geopotential height, cyclonic wind and low air temperature conditions were satisfied in different locations in 2007 and 2012, resulting in different spatial snow cover patterns. The cross section of lower air temperature move to higher latitudes in winter of 2012 compared to 2007.

  7. Numerical computations of faceted pattern formation in snow crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Barrett, John W; Garcke, Harald; Nürnberg, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Faceted growth of snow crystals leads to a rich diversity of forms with remarkable sixfold symmetry. Snow crystal structures result from diffusion-limited crystal growth in the presence of anisotropic surface energy and anisotropic attachment kinetics. It is by now well understood that the morphological stability of ice crystals strongly depends on supersaturation, crystal size, and temperature. Until very recently it was very difficult to perform numerical simulations of this highly anisotropic crystal growth. In particular, obtaining facet growth in combination with dendritic branching is a challenging task. We present numerical simulations of snow crystal growth in two and three spacial dimensions using a computational method recently introduced by the present authors. We present both qualitative and quantitative computations. In particular, a linear relationship between tip velocity and supersaturation is observed. In our computations, surface energy effects, although small, have a pronounced effect on crystal growth. We compute solid plates, solid prisms, hollow columns, needles, dendrites, capped columns, and scrolls on plates. Although all these forms appear in nature, it is a significant challenge to reproduce them with the help of numerical simulations for a continuum model.

  8. The effect of vegetation cover on the formation of glide-snow avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feistl, Thomas; Bebi, Peter; Bartelt, Perry

    2014-05-01

    Glide snow avalanches release on steep, smooth slopes and can be prevented either by protection forests or by artificial defense structures. To minimize the risk for people and infrastructure, guidelines have been formulated concerning structure, height and distance between avalanche prevention bridges. These guidelines assure the major functions of the defense structures: first to prevent the release of avalanches and second to withstand the static and dynamic forces of the moving snow cover. The major functions of protection forests are generally similar and therefore guidelines on the maximum tolerable size of forest gaps exist in Switzerland. These guidelines are based on a static relationship between the pressure of the snow cover and the resistance of the defense structure and on empirical observations (forest). Whereas ground friction is only qualitatively taken into account, we assume it to play a crucial role in glide snow avalanche formation. To prove this assumption we collected data on the predominant vegetation cover of 67 release areas in the region of Davos, Switzerland. Our observations reveal a strong relationship between vegetation cover type, slope angle and slab length. We were able to quantify the Coulomb friction parameter μ by applying a physical model that accounts for the dynamic forces of the moving snow on the stauchwall, the fixed snow cover below the release area. The stauchwall resists the dynamic forces of the snow cover, until a critical strain rate is reached and then fails in brittle compression. This failure strongly depends on the friction between snow cover and soil. A typical value of μ for grassy slopes is 0.2. Snow characteristics like density are implemented in the model as constants. We compared the model results with the guidelines for defense structures and forest gap sizes and found accordance for certain friction parameter values. Forest gaps of 40 meter length and a 35° slope angle require friction values of 0

  9. Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jingjing; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Haiyi; Wang, Wentao; Ge, Xiaochun; Li, Chuang; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2012-04-01

    Using 1 kHz, 9 mJ femtosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate laser-filamentation-induced spectacular snow formation in a cloud chamber. An intense updraft of warm moist air is generated owing to the continuous heating by the high-repetition filamentation. As it encounters the cold air above, water condensation and large-sized particles spread unevenly across the whole cloud chamber via convection and cyclone like action on a macroscopic scale. This indicates that high-repetition filamentation plays a significant role in macroscopic laser-induced water condensation and snow formation.

  10. Snow and ice perturbation during historical volcanic eruptions and the formation of lahars and floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Jon J.; Newhall, Christopher G.

    1989-01-01

    Historical eruptions have produced lahars and floods by perturbing snow and ice at more than 40 volcanoes worldwide. Most of these volcanoes are located at latitudes higher than 35°; those at lower latitudes reach altitudes generally above 4000 m. Volcanic events can perturb mantles of snow and ice in at least five ways: (1) scouring and melting by flowing pyroclastic debris or blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, (2) surficial melting by lava flows, (3) basal melting of glacial ice or snow by subglacial eruptions or geothermal activity, (4) ejection of water by eruptions through a crater lake, and (5) deposition of tephra fall. Historical records of volcanic eruptions at snow-clad volcanoes show the following: (1) Flowing pyroclastic debris (pyroclastic flows and surges) and blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris are the most common volcanic events that generate lahars and floods; (2) Surficial lava flows generally cannot melt snow and ice rapidly enough to form large lahars or floods; (3) Heating the base of a glacier or snowpack by subglacial eruptions or by geothermal activity can induce basal melting that may result in ponding of water and lead to sudden outpourings of water or sediment-rich debris flows; (4) Tephra falls usually alter ablation rates of snow and ice but generally produce little meltwater that results in the formation of lahars and floods; (5) Lahars and floods generated by flowing pyroclastic debris, blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, or basal melting of snow and ice commonly have volumes that exceed 105 m3.The glowing lava (pyroclastic flow) which flowed with force over ravines and ridges...gathered in the basin quickly and then forced downwards. As a result, tremendously wide and deep pathways in the ice and snow were made and produced great streams of water (Wolf 1878).

  11. Algal blooms and "Marine snow": Mechanisms that enhance preservation of organic carbon in ancient fine-grained sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macquaker, J.H.S.; Keller, M.A.; Davies, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Combined petographic and geochemical methods are used to investigate the microfabrics present in thin sections prepared from representative organic carbon-rich mudstones collected from three successions (the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, the Jet Rock Member of the Whitby Mudstone Formation, and the pebble shale and Hue Shale). This study was initiated to determine how organic carbon-rich materials were being delivered to the sediment-water interface, and what happened to them after deposition, prior to deep burial. Analyses of the fabrics present shows that they exhibit many common attributes. In particular they are all: (1) highly heterogeneous on the scale of a thin section, (2) organized into thin beds (< 10 mm thick) composed mainly of mineral mixtures of fine-grained siliciclastic detritus and carbonate materials, and (3) contain significant concentrations of organic carbon, much of which is organized into laminasets that contain abundant organomineralic aggregates and pellets. In addition, framboidal pyrite (range of sizes from < 20 urn to < 1 ??m) and abundant agglutinated foraminifers are present in some units. The individual beds are commonly sharp-based and overlain by thin, silt lags. The tops of many of the beds have been homogenized and some regions of the pelleted laminasets contain small horizontal burrows. The organomineralic aggregates present in these mudstones are interpreted to be ancient examples of marine snow. This marine snow likely formed in the water column, particularly during phytoplankton blooms, and was then transported rapidly to the seafloor. The existence of the thin beds with homogenized tops and an in-situ infauna indicates that between blooms there was sufficient oxygen and time for a mixed layer to develop as a result of sediment colonization by diminutive organisms using either aerobic or dysaerobic metabolic pathways. These textures suggest that the constituents of these mudstones were delivered neither as a continuous rain of

  12. Corona discharge induced snow formation in a cloud chamber.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jingjing; Wang, Tie-Jun; Li, Ruxin; Du, Shengzhe; Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Yonghong; Tian, Ye; Bai, Yafeng; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Wang, Jingwei; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, S L; Xu, Zhizhan

    2017-09-18

    Artificial rainmaking is in strong demand especially in arid regions. Traditional methods of seeding various Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) into the clouds are costly and not environment friendly. Possible solutions based on ionization were proposed more than 100 years ago but there is still a lack of convincing verification or evidence. In this report, we demonstrated for the first time the condensation and precipitation (or snowfall) induced by a corona discharge inside a cloud chamber. Ionic wind was found to have played a more significant role than ions as extra CCN. In comparison with another newly emerging femtosecond laser filamentation ionization method, the snow precipitation induced by the corona discharge has about 4 orders of magnitude higher wall-plug efficiency under similar conditions.

  13. Carbonaceous particles reduce marine microgel formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Ruei-Feng; Chin, Wei-Chun; Lee, Chon-Lin

    2014-07-01

    An increase in ambient carbonaceous particle (CNP) levels has been found, potentially leading to significant environmental/health hazards. These particles will ultimately enter the oceanic environment and interact with dissolved organic carbon. However, a detailed mechanistic understanding of their behavior, transport, and fate in marine systems is still much needed. This study, using carbon black (CB, 14 nm) nanoparticles as a model, aimed to investigate the impact of CNPs on marine microgel formation, a critical shunt between DOC and particulate organic carbon that potentially represents a ~70-Gt organic carbon flux. We found that CB can enhance the stability of DOC polymers and reduce microgel equilibrium sizes in concentration as low as 1 μgL-1 CB, possibly due to negative surface charges on CB that decrease cross-linking bridges through Ca2+ bonds. The reduction of marine microgel formation induced by CB could lead to a decrease in the downward transportation of microbial substrates and nutrients, and therefore, could have a significant impact on the carbon cycle and the marine ecosystem.

  14. Carbonaceous particles reduce marine microgel formation

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Ruei-Feng; Chin, Wei-Chun; Lee, Chon-Lin

    2014-01-01

    An increase in ambient carbonaceous particle (CNP) levels has been found, potentially leading to significant environmental/health hazards. These particles will ultimately enter the oceanic environment and interact with dissolved organic carbon. However, a detailed mechanistic understanding of their behavior, transport, and fate in marine systems is still much needed. This study, using carbon black (CB, 14 nm) nanoparticles as a model, aimed to investigate the impact of CNPs on marine microgel formation, a critical shunt between DOC and particulate organic carbon that potentially represents a ~70-Gt organic carbon flux. We found that CB can enhance the stability of DOC polymers and reduce microgel equilibrium sizes in concentration as low as 1 μgL−1 CB, possibly due to negative surface charges on CB that decrease cross-linking bridges through Ca2+ bonds. The reduction of marine microgel formation induced by CB could lead to a decrease in the downward transportation of microbial substrates and nutrients, and therefore, could have a significant impact on the carbon cycle and the marine ecosystem. PMID:25068549

  15. Safety on the Hills in Winter: Avalanche Risk--Snow Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Frank

    2003-01-01

    This compact training session on avalanche risk reviews snow crystal formations and common generalities about avalanches. Two types of avalanches--loose and slab--are described, and the characteristics of each are given along with danger signs that accompany each one. Three books are highly recommended for further information. (TD)

  16. Safety on the Hills in Winter: Avalanche Risk--Snow Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Frank

    2003-01-01

    This compact training session on avalanche risk reviews snow crystal formations and common generalities about avalanches. Two types of avalanches--loose and slab--are described, and the characteristics of each are given along with danger signs that accompany each one. Three books are highly recommended for further information. (TD)

  17. Interactions Between Snow-Adapted Organisms, Minerals and Snow in a Mars-Analog Environment, and Implications for the Possible Formation of Mineral Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausrath, E.; Bartlett, C. L.; Garcia, A. H.; Tschauner, O. D.; Murray, A. E.; Raymond, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that icy environments on bodies such as Mars, Europa, and Enceladus may be important potential habitats in our solar system. Life in icy environments faces many challenges, including water limitation, temperature extremes, and nutrient limitation. Understanding how life has adapted to withstand these challenges on Earth may help understand potential life on other icy worlds, and understanding the interactions of such life with minerals may help shed light on the detection of possible mineral biosignatures. Snow environments, being particularly nutrient limited, may require specific adaptations by the microbiota living there. Previous observations have suggested that associated minerals and microorganisms play an important role in snow algae micronutrient acquisition. Here, in order to interpret micronutrient uptake by snow algae, and potential formation of mineral biosignatures, we present observations of interactions between snow algae and associated microorganisms and minerals in both natural, Mars-analog environments, and laboratory experiments. Samples of snow, dust, snow algae, and microorganisms were collected from Mount Anderson Ridge, CA. Some samples were DAPI-stained and analyzed by epifluorescent microscopy, and others were freeze-dried and examined by scanning electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Xenic cultures of the snow alga Chloromonas brevispina were also grown under Fe-limiting conditions with and without the Fe-containing mineral nontronite to determine impacts of the mineral on algal growth. Observations from epifluorescent microscopy show bacteria closely associated with the snow algae, consistent with a potential role in micronutrient acquisition. Particles are also present on the algal cell walls, and synchrotron-XRD and XRF observations indicate that they are Fe-rich, and may therefore be a micronutrient source. Laboratory experiments indicated

  18. Muricauda marina sp. nov., isolated from marine snow of Yellow Sea.

    PubMed

    Su, Ying; Yang, Xiaoting; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Yuyang; Ren, Qiaomeng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2017-07-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, long rod-shaped, non-motile, strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated H19-56T, was isolated from a surface marine snow sample collected from the Yellow Sea near China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that H19-56T represented a member of the genus Muricauda and showed the highest sequence similarity to Muricauda ruestringensis B1T (96.9 %). H19-56T grew optimally at pH 8.0, 32 °C and in the presence of 3 % (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 43.6 mol%. H19-56T contained MK-6 as the predominant respiratory quinone and had iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 1G as the major cellular fatty acids. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified lipids. On the basis of the results of the polyphasic analyses, this isolate was considered to represent a novel species of the genus Muricauda, for which the name Muricauda marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H19-56T (CGMCC 1.15774T=JCM 31456T=MCCC 1K03196T=KCTC 52374T).

  19. History effects in the sedimentation of light aerosols in turbulence: The case of marine snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, Ksenia; Daitche, Anton; Feudel, Ulrike; Tél, Tamás

    2016-11-01

    We analyze the effect of the Basset history force on the sedimentation of nearly neutrally buoyant particles, exemplified by marine snow, in a three-dimensional turbulent flow. Particles are characterized by Stokes numbers much smaller than unity, and still water settling velocities, measured in units of the Kolmogorov velocity, of order one. The presence of the history force in the Maxey-Riley equation leads to individual trajectories which differ strongly from the dynamics of both inertial particles without this force and ideal settling tracers. The main effect of the history force is an extraordinary slow, power-law type convergence to an asymptotic settling velocity of the center of mass, which is found numerically to be the settling velocity in still fluid. The spatial extension of the ensemble grows diffusively after an initial ballistic growth lasting up to circa one large eddy turnover time. We demonstrate that the settling of the center of mass for such light aggregates is best approximated by the settling dynamics in still fluid found with the history force, on top of which fluctuations appear which follow very closely those of the turbulent velocity field.

  20. A low trophic position of Japanese eel larvae indicates feeding on marine snow.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael J; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Ogawa, Nanako O; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2013-02-23

    What eel larvae feed on in the surface layer of the ocean has remained mysterious. Gut contents and bulk nitrogen stable isotope studies suggested that these unusual larvae, called leptocephali, feed at a low level in the oceanic food web, whereas other types of evidence have suggested that small zooplankton are eaten. In this study, we determined the nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids of both natural larvae and laboratory-reared larvae of the Japanese eel to estimate the trophic position (TP) of leptocephali. We observed a mean TP of 2.4 for natural leptocephali, which is consistent with feeding on particulate organic matter (POM) such as marine snow and discarded appendicularian houses containing bacteria, protozoans and other biological materials. The nitrogen isotope enrichment values of the reared larvae confirm that the primary food source of natural larvae is consistent only with POM. This shows that leptocephali feed on readily available particulate material originating from various sources closely linked to ocean primary production and that leptocephali are a previously unrecognized part of oceanic POM cycling.

  1. Perfluorinated acids in Arctic snow: new evidence for atmospheric formation.

    PubMed

    Young, Cora J; Furdui, Vasile I; Franklin, James; Koerner, Roy M; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2007-05-15

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are ubiquitously found in water and biota, including remote regions such as the High Arctic. Under environmental conditions, PFAs exist mainly as anions and are not expected to be subject to long-range atmospheric transport in the gas phase. Fluorinated telomer alcohols (FTOHs) are volatile and can be atmospherically oxidized to form perfluorocarboxylic acids. Analogously, fluorosulfamido alcohols can be oxidized to form perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). High Arctic ice caps experience contamination solely from atmospheric sources. By examining concentrations of PFAs in ice cap samples, it is possible to determine atmospheric fluxes to the Arctic. Ice samples were collected from high Arctic ice caps in the spring of 2005 and 2006. Samples were concentrated using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS-MS. PFAs were observed in all samples, dating from 1996 to 2005. Concentrations were in the low-mid pg L(-1) range and exhibited seasonality, with maximum concentrations in the spring-summer. The presence of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) on the ice cap was indicative of atmospheric oxidation as a source. Ratios of PFAs to sodium concentrations were highly variable, signifying PFA concentrations on the ice cap were unrelated to marine chemistry. Fluxes of the PFAs were estimated to the area north of 65 degrees N for the 2005 season, which ranged from 114 to 587 kg year(-1) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), 73 to 860 kg year(-1) for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 16 to 84 kg year(-1) for PFDA, 26 to 62 kg year(-1) for PFUnA, and 18 to 48 kg year(-1) for PFOS. The PFOA and PFNA fluxes agreed with FTOH modeling estimations. A decrease in PFOS concentrations through time was observed, suggesting a fast response to changes in production. These data suggest that atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursors is a primary source of PFAs to the Arctic.

  2. Thermodynamics of slush and snow-ice formation in the Antarctic sea-ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutras, Mathilde; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Lourenço, Antonio; Vivier, Frédéric; Carnat, Gauthier; Madec, Gurvan; Rousset, Clément; Tison, Jean-Louis

    2016-09-01

    Snow over Antarctic sea ice is often flooded by brine or seawater, particularly in spring, forming slush and snow ice. Here, we evaluate the representation of the thermodynamics of slush and snow-ice formation in large-scale sea-ice models, using laboratory experiments (NaCl solutions poured into grated ice in an isolated container). Scaling analysis highlights latent heat as the main term of the energy budget. The temperature of the new sea ice immediately after flooding is found very close to the saltwater freezing point, whereas its bulk salinity is typically > 20 g / kg. Large-scale sea-ice models faithfully represent such physics, yet the uncertainty on the origin of flooding saltwater impacts the calculated new ice temperature, because of the different salinities of seawater and brine. The laboratory experiments also suggest a potential limitation to the existing physical representations of flooding: for brine fractions > 60 %, ice crystals start floating upon saltwater. Natural sea-ice observations suggest that the isolated system assumption holds for a few hours at most, after which rapid heat and salt exchanges mostly destroy the initial flooding signature on temperature and salinity. A small footprint on ice salinity remains however, natural snow ice is found 3-5 g/kg more saline than other forms of sea ice.

  3. Rain-on-snow and ice layer formation detection using passive microwave radiometry: An arctic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, A.; Royer, A.; Montpetit, B.; Johnson, C. A.; Brucker, L.; Dolant, C.; Richards, A.; Roy, A.

    2015-12-01

    With the current changes observed in the Arctic, an increase in occurrence of rain-on-snow (ROS) events has been reported in the Arctic (land) over the past few decades. Several studies have established that strong linkages between surface temperatures and passive microwaves do exist, but the contribution of snow properties under winter extreme events such as rain-on-snow events (ROS) and associated ice layer formation need to be better understood that both have a significant impact on ecosystem processes. In particular, ice layer formation is known to affect the survival of ungulates by blocking their access to food. Given the current pronounced warming in northern regions, more frequent ROS can be expected. However, one of the main challenges in the study of ROS in northern regions is the lack of meteorological information and in-situ measurements. The retrieval of ROS occurrence in the Arctic using satellite remote sensing tools thus represents the most viable approach. Here, we present here results from 1) ROS occurrence formation in the Peary caribou habitat using an empirically developed ROS algorithm by our group based on the gradient ratio, 2) ice layer formation across the same area using a semi-empirical detection approach based on the polarization ratio spanning between 1978 and 2013. A detection threshold was adjusted given the platform used (SMMR, SSM/I and AMSR-E), and initial results suggest high-occurrence years as: 1981-1982, 1992-1993; 1994-1995; 1999-2000; 2001-2002; 2002-2003; 2003-2004; 2006-2007; 2007-2008. A trend in occurrence for Banks Island and NW Victoria Island and linkages to caribou population is presented.

  4. Formation of dust-rich planetesimals from sublimated pebbles inside of the snow line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, S.; Guillot, T.

    2016-11-01

    Context. For up to a few millions of years, pebbles must provide a quasi-steady inflow of solids from the outer parts of protoplanetary disks to their inner regions. Aims: We wish to understand how a significant fraction of the pebbles grows into planetesimals instead of being lost to the host star. Methods: We examined analytically how the inward flow of pebbles is affected by the snow line and under which conditions dust-rich (rocky) planetesimals form. When calculating the inward drift of solids that is due to gas drag, we included the back-reaction of the gas to the motion of the solids. Results: We show that in low-viscosity protoplanetary disks (with a monotonous surface density similar to that of the minimum-mass solar nebula), the flow of pebbles does not usually reach the required surface density to form planetesimals by streaming instability. We show, however, that if the pebble-to-gas-mass flux exceeds a critical value, no steady solution can be found for the solid-to-gas ratio. This is particularly important for low-viscosity disks (α< 10-3) where we show that inside of the snow line, silicate-dust grains ejected from sublimating pebbles can accumulate, eventually leading to the formation of dust-rich planetesimals directly by gravitational instability. Conclusions: This formation of dust-rich planetesimals may occur for extended periods of time, while the snow line sweeps from several au to inside of 1 au. The rock-to-ice ratio may thus be globally significantly higher in planetesimals and planets than in the central star.

  5. Yeah!!! A Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Theresa Purcell; Cone, Stephen L.

    2006-01-01

    As children see the first snowflake fall from the sky, they are filled with anticipation of playing in the snow. The snowy environment presents a wonderful opportunity for presenting interdisciplinary activities that connect snow play, snow formation, and snow stories with manipulative activities, gymnastic balances, and dance sequences. In this…

  6. Yeah!!! A Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Theresa Purcell; Cone, Stephen L.

    2006-01-01

    As children see the first snowflake fall from the sky, they are filled with anticipation of playing in the snow. The snowy environment presents a wonderful opportunity for presenting interdisciplinary activities that connect snow play, snow formation, and snow stories with manipulative activities, gymnastic balances, and dance sequences. In this…

  7. Development of a Compact Snow Crystal Formation Apparatus Based on a Diffusion Method Using a Peltier Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Shinsuke; Endo, Hiroshi; Seki, Mitsuo

    We developed a compact snow crystal formation apparatus based on a diffusion method using a Peltier device. This apparatus does not need an assemblage and is small enough to be operated on a desk. Anyone can easily observe snow crystal formation in a normal temperature room. We adopted a diffusion method because the shape enable that several people can simultaneously observe the snow crystal formation from above. To estimate a performance of the apparatus, we investigated temperature profiles in the apparatus by measurement and simulations with (Case 1) and without (Case 2) natural convection. As results of the simulations, Case 1 and Case 2 reached a steady state. In each case, temperature stratification condition was formed in lower part of the apparatus. From the comparison of the results of measurement and simulations, finally, it is concluded that there is a natural convection, but the air current is not so strong as disturbing the temperature stratification condition in the apparatus.

  8. Pitted rock surfaces on Mars: A mechanism of formation by transient melting of snow and ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James W.; Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Marchant, David R.

    2011-09-01

    Pits in rocks on the surface of Mars have been observed at several locations. Similar pits are observed in rocks in the Mars-like hyperarid, hypothermal stable upland zone of the Antarctic Dry Valleys; these form by very localized chemical weathering due to transient melting of small amounts of snow on dark dolerite boulders preferentially heated above the melting point of water by sunlight. We examine the conditions under which a similar process might explain the pitted rocks seen on the surface of Mars (rock surface temperatures above the melting point; atmospheric pressure exceeding the triple point pressure of H2O; an available source of solid water to melt). We find that on Mars today each of these conditions is met locally and regionally, but that they do not occur together in such a way as to meet the stringent requirements for this process to operate. In the geological past, however, conditions favoring this process are highly likely to have been met. For example, increases in atmospheric water vapor content (due, for example, to the loss of the south perennial polar CO2 cap) could favor the deposition of snow, which if collected on rocks heated to above the melting temperature during favorable conditions (e.g., perihelion), could cause melting and the type of locally enhanced chemical weathering that can cause pits. Even when these conditions are met, however, the variation in heating of different rock facets under Martian conditions means that different parts of the rock may weather at different times, consistent with the very low weathering rates observed on Mars. Furthermore, as is the case in the stable upland zone of the Antarctic Dry Valleys, pit formation by transient melting of small amounts of snow readily occurs in the absence of subsurface active layer cryoturbation.

  9. Observations of snow-ice formation in a thinner Arctic sea ice regime during the N-ICE2015 campaign: influence of basal ice melt and storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, C.; Sennechael, N.; Itkin, P.; Rösel, A.; Koenig, Z.; Villacieros-Robineau, N.; Granskog, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Seven ice mass balance instruments deployed on different first-year and second-year ice floes, within a distance of 50 km near 83°N representing variable snow and ice conditions, documented the evolution of snow and ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard in Jan-Mar 2015. Frequent profiles of temperature and thermal resistivity proxy were recorded to distinguish changes in snow depth and ice thickness with 2 cm vertical resolution. Four instruments documented snow-ice formation which was clearly detectable in the simultaneous changes in thermal resistivity proxy, increased temperature and heat propagation through the underlying ice. Snow-ice formation restored a positive freeboard after storm-induced break-up of snow-loaded floes and/or after loss of buoyancy due to basal ice melt. In the case of break-up, when the ice was cold and not permeable, the rapid snow-ice formation, probably due to lateral intrusion of seawater, led to snow-ice layers at the ocean freezing temperature (-1.88°C). After the storm the instruments registered basal sea-ice melt over warm Atlantic waters. Basal ablation reached 71 cm and ocean heat fluxes peaked at 400 Wm-2. The warm ice was permeable and the gradual snow-ice formation probably involved vertical intrusion of brines and led to colder snow-ice (-3°C). In both cases, the exothermal reaction warmed the underlying sea-ice. N-ICE2015 campaign provided the first documentation of significant snow-ice formation in the Arctic ice pack with a fraction of snow-ice to total ice thickness 28%. Snow-ice formation may become a more important process in a thinner-ice Arctic.

  10. Marine Snow Aggregates: Size Specific Settling Speeds, Abundance, and Size Specific Ratios of Settling to Total Abundance of Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diercks, Arne-Roland

    1995-01-01

    Determining in situ settling speeds, vertical profiles of total aggregate abundance, and the amount of settling aggregates as a ratio of the total aggregate abundance were the main objectives of this research. Aggregate abundance was determined with the MAGENUM (Marine AGgregate ENUMerator) camera system (modified after Honjo et al., 1984). Aggregate flux and settling speeds were determined with the MAFIA (Marine Aggregate Flux Investigation Apparatus), a combination of aggregate camera system and sediment trap. In situ settling speed data (MAFIA) of aggregates from the central Black Sea and the northern Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for five size classes of aggregates, showed a wide variation in settling speeds in the individual size classes. Neither environment studied showed a positive correlation of aggregate settling speed to aggregate diameter, indicating that particle density was the more important factor in determining the aggregates settling speed. Marine snow abundance data from the Equatorial Pacific were analyzed using discrete fourier transform analysis to estimate size specific settling speeds of aggregates ranging from 1 to 10 mm spherical diameter. Settling speeds of aggregates followed the exponential function: rm Settling^eed = 22.3 e^ {(0.147 {aggregate diameter [ mm]})} (r^2 of 0.65). The ratio of the abundance of settling aggregates to the total abundance of aggregates, termed S-ratio, was calculated from MAFIA data from the central Black Sea and the northern Gulf of Mexico for six size classes of aggregates. In both locations ratios greater than one were calculated. This suggested that the MAGENUM did not record the total aggregate abundance, as assumed, but only a fraction of the aggregates present in the water column. The abundance of fine particles was compared to profiles of abundance of marine snow aggregates. Interactions were qualitatively discussed between these two size classes. In most profiles aggregates and fine particles showed

  11. The Winter Environment: Snow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the structure and formation of snow crystals, outlines the history of snow removal, and describes techniques that can be used by students for studying snowflakes and relating their structure to the conditions under which they were formed. (JR)

  12. Accumulation of silver from the diet in two marine benthic predators: The snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) and american plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides)

    SciTech Connect

    Rouleau, C.; Gobeil, C.; Tjaelve, H.

    2000-03-01

    The kinetics and fine-scale tissue distribution of a single dose of {sup 110m}Ag ingested with food were determined in snow crab and American plaice through the techniques of in vivo gamma counting and whole-body autoradiography. Metal that was retained after the first 3 d was distributed in all the soft tissues of snow crab, whereas it concentrated in gut, liver, and gallbladder of the American plaice. In snow crab, the biological half-life of retained Ag, which represented 67--100{degree} of the ingested dose, was greater than 1,000 d. In contrast, in American plaice the retained fraction represented only 4--16% of the ingested dose and the biological half-life ranged from 13 to 102 d. Modeling the trophic accumulation of Ag for snow crab and American plaice living in the St. Lawrence Estuary, assuming realistic values for food ingestion rates and Ag concentration in benthic organisms of lower trophic levels, reveals that continuous feeding on Ag-contaminated prey would result in much higher metal levels in the snow crab than in the American plaice. Measurement of Ag concentrations in snow crab and American plaice from the St. Lawrence Estuary, an environment receiving significant inputs of anthropogenic Ag, confirmed this prediction. The similarity between laboratory-based predictions and field data strongly suggests that predation is the major transfer route of Ag towards these marine benthic predators.

  13. Laser-filamentation-induced water condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber filled with different ambient gases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yonghong; Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Jiansheng; Liang, Hong; Ju, Jingjing; Wang, Tiejun; Tian, Ye; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Yi; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin

    2016-04-04

    We investigated femtosecond laser-filamentation-induced airflow, water condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber filled respectively with air, argon and helium. The mass of snow induced by laser filaments was found being the maximum when the chamber was filled with argon, followed by air and being the minimum with helium. We also discussed the mechanisms of water condensation in different gases. The results show that filaments with higher laser absorption efficiency, which result in higher plasma density, are beneficial for triggering intense airflow and thus more water condensation and precipitation.

  14. Formation, distribution and variability in snow cover on the Asian territory of the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pupkov, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    A description is given of maps compiled for annual and average multiple-year water reserves. The annual and average multiple-year maximum snow cover height for winter, extreme values of maximum snow reserves, and the average height and snow reserves at the end of each decade are shown. These maps were made for the entire Asian territory of the USSR, excluding Central Asia, Kamchatka Peninsula, and the Sakhalin Islands.

  15. DIRECT IMAGING OF THE WATER SNOW LINE AT THE TIME OF PLANET FORMATION USING TWO ALMA CONTINUUM BANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Banzatti, A.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Pinilla, P.; Ricci, L.; Birnstiel, T.; Ciesla, F.

    2015-12-10

    Molecular snow lines in protoplanetary disks have been studied theoretically for decades because of their importance in shaping planetary architectures and compositions. The water snow line lies in the planet formation region at ≲10 AU, and so far its location has been estimated only indirectly from spatially unresolved spectroscopy. This work presents a proof-of-concept method to directly image the water snow line in protoplanetary disks through its physical and chemical imprint on the local dust properties. We adopt a physical disk model that includes dust coagulation, fragmentation, drift, and a change in fragmentation velocities of a factor of 10 between dry silicates and icy grains as found by laboratory work. We find that the presence of a water snow line leads to a sharp discontinuity in the radial profile of the dust emission spectral index α{sub mm} due to replenishment of small grains through fragmentation. We use the ALMA simulator to demonstrate that this effect can be observed in protoplanetary disks using spatially resolved ALMA images in two continuum bands. We explore the model dependence on the disk viscosity and find that the spectral index reveals the water snow line for a wide range of conditions, with opposite trends when the emission is optically thin rather than thick. If the disk viscosity is low (α{sub visc} < 10{sup −3}), the snow line produces a ringlike structure with a minimum at α{sub mm} ∼ 2 in the optically thick regime, possibly similar to what has been measured with ALMA in the innermost region of the HL Tau disk.

  16. Bromide and chloride distribution across the snow-sea ice-ocean interface: A comparative study between an Arctic coastal marine site and an experimental sea ice mesocosm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen; Tenuta, Mario; Wang, Feiyue

    2016-08-01

    During springtime in the Arctic, bromine explosion events occur when high concentrations of reactive bromine species are observed in the boundary layer with the concurrence of ozone depletion events and mercury depletion events. While a variety of substrates including snow, sea ice, frost flowers, and aerosols have been proposed to be the substrate and/or source of bromine activation in the Arctic, recent studies have highlighted the role of snow. Here we report concentration profiles of halides (Br- and Cl-), Na+, and mercury across the snow-sea ice-seawater interface at a coastal marine site in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in March and June 2014, as well as in an experimental sea ice mesocosm in Winnipeg in January and February 2014. The occurrence of bromine activation at the Arctic site in March was indicated by the high mercury concentrations in snowpack. At both the Arctic and mesocosm sites, the molar ratios of Br-/Na+ were nearly constant throughout the sea ice depth, but highly variable in the upper layer of the overlying snowpack, revealing that bromine activation takes place in the sunlit snow instead of sea ice. This is supported by calculations showing that the loss of Br- from the upper layer of the snowpack is large enough to produce the observed concentrations of reactive bromine in the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the upper layer of the Arctic snowpack tends to be generally enriched in Br- due to the net addition of Br--containing gases and nonsea-salt aerosols.

  17. Rapid Coagulation of Porous Dust Aggregates outside the Snow Line: A Pathway to Successful Icy Planetesimal Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Wada, Koji

    2012-06-01

    Rapid orbital drift of macroscopic dust particles is one of the major obstacles to planetesimal formation in protoplanetary disks. We re-examine this problem by considering the porosity evolution of dust aggregates. We apply a porosity model based on recent N-body simulations of aggregate collisions, which allows us to study the porosity change upon collision for a wide range of impact energies. As a first step, we neglect collisional fragmentation and instead focus on dust evolution outside the snow line, where the fragmentation has been suggested to be less significant than inside the snow line because of the high sticking efficiency of icy particles. We show that dust particles can evolve into highly porous aggregates (with internal densities of much less than 0.1 g cm-3) even if collisional compression is taken into account. We also show that the high porosity triggers significant acceleration in collisional growth. This acceleration is a natural consequence of the particles' aerodynamical properties at low Knudsen numbers, i.e., at particle radii larger than the mean free path of the gas molecules. Thanks to this rapid growth, the highly porous aggregates are found to overcome the radial drift barrier at orbital radii less than 10 AU (assuming the minimum-mass solar nebula model). This suggests that, if collisional fragmentation is truly insignificant, formation of icy planetesimals is possible via direct collisional growth of submicron-sized icy particles.

  18. RAPID COAGULATION OF POROUS DUST AGGREGATES OUTSIDE THE SNOW LINE: A PATHWAY TO SUCCESSFUL ICY PLANETESIMAL FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Wada, Koji

    2012-06-20

    Rapid orbital drift of macroscopic dust particles is one of the major obstacles to planetesimal formation in protoplanetary disks. We re-examine this problem by considering the porosity evolution of dust aggregates. We apply a porosity model based on recent N-body simulations of aggregate collisions, which allows us to study the porosity change upon collision for a wide range of impact energies. As a first step, we neglect collisional fragmentation and instead focus on dust evolution outside the snow line, where the fragmentation has been suggested to be less significant than inside the snow line because of the high sticking efficiency of icy particles. We show that dust particles can evolve into highly porous aggregates (with internal densities of much less than 0.1 g cm{sup -3}) even if collisional compression is taken into account. We also show that the high porosity triggers significant acceleration in collisional growth. This acceleration is a natural consequence of the particles' aerodynamical properties at low Knudsen numbers, i.e., at particle radii larger than the mean free path of the gas molecules. Thanks to this rapid growth, the highly porous aggregates are found to overcome the radial drift barrier at orbital radii less than 10 AU (assuming the minimum-mass solar nebula model). This suggests that, if collisional fragmentation is truly insignificant, formation of icy planetesimals is possible via direct collisional growth of submicron-sized icy particles.

  19. Ultrastructural studies of the zygote and oocyst wall formation of Eimeria truncata of the lesser snow goose.

    PubMed

    Gajadhar, A A; Stockdale, P H; Cawthorn, R J

    1986-08-01

    Zygote development and oocyst wall formation of Eimeria truncata occurred in epithelial cells in renal tubules and ducts of experimentally infected lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens). Post-fertilization stages were present throughout the kidneys beginning nine days post-inoculation. Initially, a single plasmalemma enclosed the zygote, and type 1 wall-forming bodies (WF1) became labyrinthine and moved toward the surface. There, WF1 degranulated and formed the outer layer of the oocyst wall between the plasmalemma and a newly formed second subpellicular membrane. Several WF2 fused and formed the inner layer of the oocyst wall between the third and fourth subpellicular membranes. Six subpellicular membranes were observed during wall formation. Other features of oocyst development were similar to those of other eimerian species.

  20. Chemosensitizers of the multixenobiotic resistance in amorphous aggregates (marine snow): etiology of mass killing on the benthos in the Northern Adriatic?

    PubMed

    Müller, W E; Riemer, S; Kurelec, B; Smodlaka, N; Puskaric, S; Jagic, B; Müller-Niklas, G; Queric, N V

    1998-12-01

    Periodically appearing amorphous aggregates, `marine snow', are formed in the sea and if settled as mats on the sea bottom cause death of benthic metazoans. Especially those animals are killed which are sessile filter feeders, e.g. sponges, mussels, or Anthozoa. The etiology of the toxic principle(s) is not yet well understood. Gel-like marine snow aggregates occurred in the Northern Adriatic during summer 1997. Samples of these aggregates were collected during the period July to September and the outer as well as the inner zones were analyzed for (i) cell toxicity, and (ii) chemosensitizing activity of the multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism. Organic extracts were prepared and cell toxicity was determined using mouse lymphoma cells. The experiments revealed that the major activity is seen in the center of the mats of the gel-like aggregates; a growth inhibitory activity of up to 54% (correlated to 5 ml of snow sample) was determined. The same extracts were used to determine the inhibition of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) extrusion pump which confers the multixenobiotic resistance. The analyses were performed with cells from the sponge Suberites domuncula and with gills from the clam Corbicula fluminea in situ. Both systems have been shown to express the Pgp extrusion pump. The data show that extracts from the outer zone of the gel-like aggregate samples display pronounced inhibitory activity on the MXR extrusion pump and hence act as chemosensitizers by reversing the MXP property. These findings indicate that gel-like aggregates contain compounds in the outer zone, chemosensitizer of the Pgp extrusion pump, which lower the level of protection of metazoan animals towards dissolved compounds in their surrounding milieu, and in the center toxic compounds which are-very likely-even in the absence of chemosensitizers hazardous for the invertebrates.

  1. Snow and Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    This experimental edition provides a number of activities useful for investigating snow and ice with elementary school children. Commencing with games with ice cubes, the activities lead through studies of snowflakes, snowdrifts, effects of wind and obstacles on the shape and formation of drifts, to a study of animals living under snow. The…

  2. Performance Characteristics of the Electronic Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) Sensor in Arctic, Marine, and Humid Continental Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J.; Gelvin, A. B.; Duvoy, P.; Schaefer, G. L.; Poole, G.; Horton, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    The USA ERDC CRREL and the USDA NRCS developed a 3-m square electronic SWE sensor (e-SWE sensor) consisting of nine perforated panels (a center panel to measure SWE and eight outer panels to buffer edge stress concentrations). Seven e-SWE sensors were installed in five different climate zones including north central and north coastal Alaska, Oregon, Newfoundland, and New York State. With the exception of New York State, the e-SWE sensors accurately measured SWE. The e-SWE sensor at Hogg Pass, OR, accurately measured SWE during five years of observations even when edge stress concentrations occurred. In windy conditions of northern Alaska, the sensor measured losses and gains in SWE with more reliability and higher accuracy than other standard methods. The sensor also detected snowdrift migration (comparing video and sensor measurements). In the thin, icy snow of New York the electronic SWE sensors over-measured SWE during midwinter. Over-measurement errors were caused by edge stress concentrations associated with strong icy layers, a shallow snow cover and possibly using a backfill material with different thermal properties and a large freeboard compared to the surrounding soil . Measurement accuracy improved in spring due to increased snow creep, associated with warming snow temperatures, which reduced edge stress concentrations.

  3. Ice Formation Potential of Field-Collected Marine Biogenic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrion-Matta, A.; Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Marine biogenic particles composed mainly of sea salt and organic material aerosolized from a mesocosm in laboratory experiments have recently been found to act as ice nuclei. How these particles relate to those collected from sea spray under ambient conditions in the field is unknown. This study reports on the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of particles collected during the marine aerosol characterization experiment (MACE) on the south shore of Long Island, New York. Ambient aerosol size distributions were measured and particles were collected on hydrophobically coated substrates and subsequently used for ice nucleation experiments using an ice nucleation cell coupled to an optical microscope. This technique allows detection of ice formation for temperatures between 200 and 273 K and for relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) from 100% up to water saturation. Individual ice nucleating particles were identified for subsequent chemical and physical characterization using both X-ray and electron micro-spectroscopic techniques. Concentrations of bacteria, viruses, and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the bulk seawater, sea-surface microlayer (SML), and in sea spray were determined using established methods and related to airborne sea spray particles and their ice nucleation potential. Onshore aerosol size distribution measurements taken at 5 m height and 10 m away from the breaking waves, revealed a peak maximum at 100 nm and Ntot = 6.8 x 10^2 cm^-3. Bacterial, viral, and TEP were found to be enriched in the SML. Ambient particles collected during MACE were found to nucleate ice efficiently, e. g. at 215 K, ice nucleation occurred on average at 125% RHice. Results of aerosol size distributions and ice nucleation efficiencies are compared to laboratory bubble bursting experiments in which natural seawater was used. The goal of this study is to understand the connection between sea spray aerosolization and atmospheric ice cloud formation and to

  4. Evidence of atmospheric nanoparticle formation from emissions of marine microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellegri, K.; Pey, J.; Rose, C.; Culot, A.; DeWitt, H. L.; Mas, S.; Schwier, A. N.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Charriere, B.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Mahajan, A. S.; Parin, D.; Kukui, A.; Sempere, R.; D'Anna, B.; Marchand, N.

    2016-06-01

    Earth, as a whole, can be considered as a living organism emitting gases and particles into its atmosphere, in order to regulate its own temperature. In particular, oceans may respond to climate change by emitting particles that ultimately will influence cloud coverage. At the global scale, a large fraction of the aerosol number concentration is formed by nucleation of gas-phase species, but this process has never been directly observed above oceans. Here we present, using semicontrolled seawater-air enclosures, evidence that nucleation may occur from marine biological emissions in the atmosphere of the open ocean. We identify iodine-containing species as major precursors for new particle clusters' formation, while questioning the role of the commonly accepted dimethyl sulfide oxidation products, in forming new particle clusters in the region investigated and within a time scale on the order of an hour. We further show that amines would sustain the new particle formation process by growing the new clusters to larger sizes. Our results suggest that iodine-containing species and amines are correlated to different biological tracers. These observations, if generalized, would call for a substantial change of modeling approaches of the sea-to-air interactions.

  5. Was the extreme and wide-spread marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA) event during the Deepwater Horizon blow-out unique?

    PubMed

    Vonk, Sophie M; Hollander, David J; Murk, AlberTinka J

    2015-11-15

    During the Deepwater Horizon blowout, thick layers of oiled material were deposited on the deep seafloor. This large scale benthic concentration of oil is suggested to have occurred via the process of Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA). This meta-analysis investigates whether MOSSFA occurred in other large oil spills and identifies the main drivers of oil sedimentation. MOSSFA was found to have occurred during the IXTOC I blowout and possibly during the Santa Barbara blowout. Unfortunately, benthic effects were not sufficiently studied for the 52 spills we reviewed. However, based on the current understanding of drivers involved, we conclude that MOSSFA and related benthic contamination may be widespread. We suggest to collect and analyze sediment cores at specific spill locations, as improved understanding of the MOSSFA process will allow better informed spill responses in the future, taking into account possible massive oil sedimentation and smothering of (deep) benthic ecosystems.

  6. Dining Dovekies Demand, "When, Where and What's for Dinner?" The Impact of Seasonal Changes in Snow Melt and the Development of the Arctic Marine Food Web on Seabirds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnovsky, N. J.; Harding, A.; Welcker, J.; Brown, Z. W.; Kitaysky, A.; Kwasniewski, S.; Walkusz, W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Atlantic sector of the Arctic is undergoing widespread climate change with increases in air and sea temperatures which impact the timing of ice retreat, snow melt and the development of the marine food web. Dovekies (Alle alle) are small seabirds that migrate to the Atlantic Sector of the Arctic to feed in ice free waters that have abundant lipid-rich zooplankton. In the Greenland Sea, the dovekies are largely dependent on the advection of Calanus copepods into the area. We hypothesized that dovekies breeding adjacent to water masses which bring smaller, less energy-rich prey into the region (Calanus finmarchicus), work harder to find food and have higher stress levels. We tested this hypothesis by attaching time-depth recorders to provisioning dovekies at three colonies adjacent to different water masses (the West Spistbergen Current, the East Greenland Current, and the Sorkapp Current). We determined the length of time dovekies at different colonies spent at-sea collecting food for themselves and their chicks. We measured circulating corticosteroid hormone levels in their blood to assess stress levels. We collected chick meals to determine the energetic content of prey fed chicks at the different colonies. We found that dovekies are sensitive to the quality of prey available to them. Dovekies exposed to less profitable prey made longer foraging trips and worked harder while at-sea to collect prey for themselves and their chicks. Furthermore, over the past 50 years, dovekies breeding along the western shores of Spitsbergen have initiated breeding earlier in spring as their nest sites have become snow-free at earlier dates. We evaluate the impact of earlier breeding and the timing of the development of the marine food web within different currents which advect and/or support Calanus copepods into the Greenland Sea. Future possible declines in dovekies may impact terrestrial food webs which are highly influenced by the annual input of nitrogen rich guano on the

  7. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  8. Summer and Fall Sea Ice Processes in the Amundsen Sea: Bottom melting, surface flooding and snow ice formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, S. F.; Perovich, D. K.; Weissling, B.; Elder, B. C.

    2011-12-01

    Two ice mass balance buoys were deployed on the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, ice pack near January 1, 2011. Below freezing air and snow temperatures and sea ice and seawater temperatures at the freezing point at this time indicated that summer melt had not yet commenced. Over the next two months, however, while snow depths changed by less than 0.1m, ice thickness decreased, from bottom melting, by 0.9-1.0m. As snow temperature records did not show temperatures ever reaching the melting point, no surface melt was recorded during the summer period and the small snow depth changes were presumed to occur by consolidation or wind scouring. Water temperatures above the freezing point caused the observed bottom melting from mid January to late February. During the ice loss periods, progressive flooding by sea water at the base of the snow pack was recorded by temperature sensors, showing an increase in the depth of flooded snow pack of 0.4m by the end of the summer period in late February. We hypothesize that progressive flooding of the surface snow pack gives a mechanism for nutrient replenishment in these upper layers, and continuous high algal growth can therefore occur in the flooded snow layer during summer. An underice radiometer recorded light transmission through the ice and snow at selective wavelengths sensitive to chlorophyll. These radiometric results will be presented to examine this algal growth hypothesis. This flooded layer then refroze from the top down into snow ice as air temperatures dropped during March and April, showing that the layer had refrozen as snow ice on the top surface of the ice. Refreezing of the flooded layer gives an ice growth mechanism at the end of summer of 0.2 m to 0.4m of new ice growth over the majority of the ice pack. The snow ice growth in areas covered with pack ice gives salt fluxes commensurate with new ice growth in the autumn expansion of the ice edge over open water. These high salt fluxes therefore represent a marked

  9. Pyroclast/snow interactions and thermally driven slurry formation. Part 2: Experiments and theoretical extension to polydisperse tephra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Erosion of snow by pyroclastic flows and surges presumably involves mechanical scour, but there may be thermally driven phenomena involved as well. To investigate this possibility, layers of hot (up to 400??C), uniformly sized, fine- to medium-grained sand were emplaced vertically onto finely shaved ice ('snow'); thus there was no relative shear motion between sand and snow and no purely mechanical scour. In some cases large vapor bubbles, commonly more than 10 mm across, rose through the sand layer, burst at the surface, and caused complete convective overturn of the sand, which then scoured and mixed with snow and transformed into a slurry. In other cases no bubbling occurred and the sand passively melted its way downward into the snow as a wetting front moved upward into the sand. A continuum of behaviors between these two cases was observed. Vigorous bubbling and convection were generally favored by high temperature, small grain size, and small layer thickness. A physically based theory of heat- and mass transfer at the pyroclast/snow interface, developed in Part 1 of this paper, does a good job of explaining the observations as a manifestation of unstable vapor-driven fluidization. The theory, when extrapolated to the behavior of actual, poorly sorted pyroclastic flow sediments, leads to the prediction that the observed 'thermal-scour' phenomenon should also occur for many real pyroclastic flows passing over snow. 'Thermal scour' is therefore likely to be involved in the generation of lahars.

  10. Snow on Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massom, Robert A.; Eicken, Hajo; Hass, Christian; Jeffries, Martin O.; Drinkwater, Mark R.; Sturm, Matthew; Worby, Anthony P.; Wu, Xingren; Lytle, Victoria I.; Ushio, Shuki; Morris, Kim; Reid, Phillip A.; Warren, Stephen G.; Allison, Ian

    2001-08-01

    Snow on Antarctic sea ice plays a complex and highly variable role in air-sea-ice interaction processes and the Earth's climate system. Using data collected mostly during the past 10 years, this paper reviews the following topics: snow thickness and snow type and their geographical and seasonal variations; snow grain size, density, and salinity; frequency of occurrence of slush; thermal conductivity, snow surface temperature, and temperature gradients within snow; and the effect of snow thickness on albedo. Major findings include large regional and seasonal differences in snow properties and thicknesses; the consequences of thicker snow and thinner ice in the Antarctic relative to the Arctic (e.g., the importance of flooding and snow-ice formation); the potential impact of increasing snowfall resulting from global climate change; lower observed values of snow thermal conductivity than those typically used in models; periodic large-scale melt in winter; and the contrast in summer melt processes between the Arctic and the Antarctic. Both climate modeling and remote sensing would benefit by taking account of the differences between the two polar regions.

  11. Snow Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    It was nearing the end of a very long, rough winter with a lot of snow and too little time to play outside. The snow had formed small hills and valleys over the bushes and this was at the perfect height for the students to paint. In this article, the author describes how her transitional first-grade students created snow art paintings. (Contains 1…

  12. Snow Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    It was nearing the end of a very long, rough winter with a lot of snow and too little time to play outside. The snow had formed small hills and valleys over the bushes and this was at the perfect height for the students to paint. In this article, the author describes how her transitional first-grade students created snow art paintings. (Contains 1…

  13. Imaging eubacteria and archaean cell abundance and nitrification activity on marine snow particles collected from the South Pacific using microscopy and nanoSIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, R.; Santoro, A. E.; Tienken, D.; Littman, S.; Berelson, W.; Kuypers, M. M. M.

    2016-02-01

    The abundance and nitrification activity by marine-snow associated eubacteria and archaea were measured on particles collected in the South Pacific. The particles were first collected from 24 hour floating sediment traps moored at 100 and 200 m and later amended and incubated with 13C-bicarbonate and 15NH4 for 48 hours. Enrichment for 13C and 15N in cells above natural abundance was quantified using a coupled halogenated in situ hybridization assay with nano-meter scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (HISH-SIMS). Approximately 82% ± 10 of the observed hybridized cells were Eubacterial, while 24% ± 5 were positively hybridized with the Archaean probe. There was high variability in 13C/12C and 15N/14N in both bacterial and archaeal cells. Complementary measurements of δ15NNO3 at the conclusion of the experiment indicated no detectible nitrification activity associated with the particles. Thin sections of the particles imaged with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showed that a higher abundance of degrading phytoplanktonic cells, including numerous empty radiolarian and diatom frustules were associated with the deeper moored tap, while the shallow trap collected intact bacterial cells, including small picocyanobacteria. Single cell imaging and observations such as those presented here can provide subtle insights and measurements of cellular activity that are often diluted by bulk approaches and that are directly applicable to modeling N and C cycling.

  14. Appalachia Snow

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... by the Blue Ridge mountain belt along the east and the Appalachian Plateau along the west. Valleys and ridges between the higher ... Snow location:  United States region:  Eastern United States Order:  4 ...

  15. Supraglacial Lakes in the Percolation Zone of the Western Greenland Ice Sheet: Formation and Development using Operation IceBridge Snow Radar and ATM (2009-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Howat, I. M.; de la Peña, S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface meltwater lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet have appeared at higher elevations, extending well into the percolation zone, under recent warming, with the largest expansion occurring in the western Greenland Ice Sheet. The conditions that allow lakes to form atop firn are poorly constrained, but the formation of new lakes imply changes in the permeability of the firn at high elevations, promoting meltwater runoff. We explore the formation and evolution of new surface lakes in this region above 1500 meters, using a combination of satellite imagery and repeat Snow (2-6.5 GHz) radar echograms and LIDAR measurements from NASA's Operation IceBridge of 2009-2014. We identify conditions for surface lake formation at their farthest inland extent and suggest behaviors of persistence and lake drainage are due to differences in regional ice dynamics.

  16. Marine diagenesis of Lower Ordovician carbonate sediments (Dumugol Formation), Korea: cementation in a calcite sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong Chan; Lee, Yong Il

    1996-09-01

    The Lower Ordovician Dumugol Formation exhibits many features that indicate early lithification, such as calcite nodules, hardgrounds, mud-mounds and intraclasts. Detailed observations of these early-lithified features reveal that rapid marine cementation was instrumental in their formation. Marine lithification took place in a low-energy subtidal environmental that was influenced by intermittent storms. Marine cements include syntaxial overgrowth, bladed calcite, fibrous calcite and fine-crystalline equant calcite cements. Syntaxial overgrowths precipitated on echinoderm grains and contributed to rapid marine lithification of echinoderm-bearing sediments. Bladed, fibrous, and fine-crystalline equant calcite cements precipitated in locally suitable sites but their occurrence is limited, and thus played a minor role in marine lithification. Microcrystalline calcites also precipitated in lime mud-rich, fine-grained sediments and participated in rapid marine lithification of the Dumugol sediments. The absence of aragonite allochems and cement, and the predominance of calcite cement, suggest that the Dumugol sea was undersaturated with respect to aragonite, but supersaturated with respect to calcite, which is indicative of a 'calcite sea'.

  17. Snow cover in the Siberian forest-steppe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zykov, I. V.

    1985-01-01

    A study is made of the snow cover on an experimental agricultural station in Mariinsk in the winter of 1945 to 1946. Conditions of snow cover formation, and types and indicators of snow cover are discussed. Snow cover structure and conditions and nature of thawing are described.

  18. Anoxic marine lakes - an analogue environment for insular phosphorite formation

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, W.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Hundreds of islands in the tropical Pacific Ocean contain phosphate deposits ranging from inconsequential to economically significant in size. Although many of these deposits clearly have formed by the interaction of avian guano with underlying limestone, some display evidence of having developed within an aqueous environment. Several of the emergent carbonate islands in the southern part of Palau contain phosphate deposits that the authors speculate formed in anoxic marine lakes, similar to those which still occur on a few of these islands. Lake water, sediments, and sediment pore waters from Jellyfish Lake, on the island of Eil Malk in Palau, were analyzed during an expedition in 1987. The results of this investigation supported, but did not provide, conclusive evidence of our hypothesis. Pore water profiles of phosphate and fluoride confirmed precipitation of carbonate fluorapatite. However, the extremely high bulk sediment accumulation rate, driven by the high biological productivity of the surface waters of the lake, dilutes authigenic phosphate to low levels. They have refined their original proposal to suggest that phosphate deposits may form either by: (1) subaerial weathering and concentration of phosphatic sediments after these lakes disappear; or (2) interaction of phosphate-enriched sediment pore solutions with limestone at the underlying contact. Another expedition to test these concepts is being planned.

  19. Volcanic Snow

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-04

    Remember this? Since its first observation in 2009, the volcanic vent complex to the northeast of Rachmaninoff basin has rewarded us with remarkable views of its explosive history. Portions of the vent are blanketed in a layer of very fine-grained material thought to be composed of pyroclastic particles, and when we last saw this landform at very high resolution we could appreciate just how fine that texture is. Now, with a resolution almost four times greater than that last image, we can see how the pyroclastic deposit softens the form of adjacent impact craters - almost like snow. Fiery, hot, angry snow. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19230

  20. Organics-glued dust aggregates in Halley's coma and some implications of the snow line inward motion for the formation of comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberc, P.

    2007-02-01

    In view of the solar nebula models, organics-glued dust aggregates (whose disintegration resulted in the two phenomena found in Halley's coma, the dust boundary and small-scale dust structures) originated due to coagulation of iceless dust particles somewhere within the snow line, and then were incorporated into Halley's nucleus as a consequence of the snow line inward motion. This implies that two types of comets exist: outer comets, formed entirely beyond the snow line, and inner comets, similar to Halley, which are bodies intermediate between outer comets and primitive asteroids. The presence of large iceless dust aggregates in nuclei of inner comets constrains the inward drift velocity of meter-sized dust bodies, which in turn implies that the radial transport of water in the solar nebula was predominantly outward. It is shown that in nuclei of inner comets: both the upper mass limit of iceless dust aggregates and the ice mantle thickness increase with decreasing formation heliocentric distance, while the cumulative mass distribution index decreases; the lower limit of the mass index is ∼0.8, and the upper limit of the ice mantle thickness is ∼10-3 cm (∼200 times the interstellar value); the lower limit of the latent heat of organics in organic mantles of submicron particles increases toward small heliocentric distances; the recondensation of organics combined with the growth of dust bodies leads to a fractionation of organics within iceless dust aggregates; last accreted sub-units of an aggregate are always glued by organics with the lowest value of the latent heat, which somewhat exceeds 60 kJ/mol. Based on in situ observations at Halley, the parameters characterizing iceless dust aggregates in that comet are calculated. Finally, feasible observational tests of the conclusions drawn are discussed.

  1. Distribution and formation of chlorophenols and bromophenols in marine and riverine environments.

    PubMed

    Sim, Won-Jin; Lee, Sung-Hee; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2009-10-01

    To understand the distribution and formation of chlorophenols (CPs) and bromophenols (BPs), we analyzed water and sediment samples collected from the riverine areas and the marine environments near a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Korea. In the seawater, only BPs (2,4-dibromophenol and 2,4,6-tribromophenol) were detected, while CPs and BPs (4-chlorophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and 2,4,6-tribromophenol) were detected in the riverine water. 2,4-DBP (0.531-32.7 ng/L) in the seawater was detected in sites near the NPP and 2,4,6-TBP (0.378-20.2 ng/L) was found in most of the seawater. In the riverine water, the sample near the industrial complex (118 ng/L) showed a greater total concentration than others (0.510-7.64 ng/L). In the marine sediments, BPs (99.0-553 ng/g dry weight) showed higher concentrations than CPs (0.145-16.1 ng/g dry weight). The BPs levels (1.01-8.55 ng/g dry weight) in the riverine sediments were much lower (10-500 times) than those in the marine sediments. The distribution patterns of CPs and BPs between the marine and riverine environments differed, with relatively high levels of BPs appearing in the marine environments due to natural formation except for anthropogenic sources. The chlorination process of the NPP also seems to form BPs (2-bromophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol and 2,4,6-tribromophenol). However, the effluents had an influence on the seawater near the NPP (about 2 km). In the riverine environments, CPs were dominant, which are related to the industrial complex. Thus, CPs and BPs in the marine and riverine environments are generated via various routes such as anthropogenic formation and biosynthesis.

  2. Snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Robertson, Donna G.; Brackney, Alan W.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Part of the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, is used as an autumn staging area by lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) from the Western Canadian Arctic population (hereafter called the Western Arctic population). There were approximately 200,000 breeding adults in the Western Arctic population through the mid-1980s (Johnson and Herter 1989), but the population has recently increased to about 500,000 breeding adults (Kerbes et al. 1999).Early in their autumn migration, adult and juvenile snow geese from the Western Arctic population feed intensively while staging on the Beaufort Sea coastal plain in Canada and Alaska to build fat reserves needed for migration. Aerial censuses from 1973 to 1985 indicated that up to 600,000 adult and juvenile snow geese used the coastal plain for 2-4 weeks in late August until mid-September (Oates et al. 1987).We studied annual variation in numbers and spatial distribution of snow geese that staged on the coastal plain of the Arctic Refuge.

  3. Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jingjing; Sun, Haiyi; Sridharan, Aravindan; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan; Chin, See Leang

    2013-12-01

    1 kHz, 2 mJ, 45 fs, 800 nm laser pulses were fired into a laboratory diffusion cloud chamber through a subsaturated zone (relative humidity ∼73%, T ∼ 4.3 °C). After 60 min of laser irradiation, an oval-shaped snow pile was observed right below the filament center and weighed ∼12.0 mg. The air current velocity at the edge of the vortices was estimated to be ∼16.5 cm/s. Scattering scenes recorded from the side show that filament-induced turbulence were formed inside the cloud chamber with two vortices below the filament. Two-dimensional simulations of the air flow motion in two cross sections of the cloud chamber confirm that the turbulent vortices exist below the filament. Based upon this simulation, we deduce that the vortices indeed have a three-dimensional elliptical shape. Hence, we propose that inside vortices where the humidity was supersaturated or saturated the condensation nuclei, namely, HNO(3), N(2)(+), O(2)(+) and other aerosols and impurities, were activated and grew in size. Large-sized particles would eventually be spun out along the fast moving direction towards the cold plate and formed an oval-shaped snow pile at the end.

  4. Snow on the Seafloor? Methods to Detect Carbohydrates in Deep-sea Sediments Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, S. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    A significant portion of the oil released from the Macondo well after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DwH) explosion reached the seafloor (1,2). The transfer of buoyant hydrocarbons from the sea surface and subsurface plumes to depths >1500 m, however, is not well understood. A prominent role for sinking marine snow--small, composite particles composed largely of extracellular polymeric substances exuded by algae and bacteria--has been proposed. Snow particles, rich in carbohydrates, may have sorbed and physically entrained oil from the water column as they sank. Several lines of evidence support this scenario: abundant snow was observed 3-4 weeks after the oil spill (3); oil and dispersants can induce marine snow formation (4); and flocculent material covering deep-sea corals near the DwH site contained biomarkers consistent with Macondo oil (5). To investigate whether the chemically complex marine oil snow leaves a direct sedimentary record, we analyzed carbohydrates at high resolution (2 mm intervals) in sediment cores collected at 4 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico in 2013 using a modified phenol-sulfuric acid spectrophotometric method. We detected a sharp subsurface peak in carbohydrate concentrations near the Macondo well; we interpret this peak as post-DwH marine snow. Coeval carbohydrate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and hopane profiles suggest a clear link between marine snow and Macondo oil components, as documented in a 3-year time-series at one site, and enable preliminary conclusions about the delivery and fate of marine snow components in sediments. We also characterized carbohydrates near the wellhead using fluorescent lectin-binding analyses developed for applications in cell biology. Particle morphologies include collapse structures suggestive of a water column origin. Finally, we explore the extent to which polysaccharide residues detected with selective lectins can be used to determine the provenance of marine snow (e.g., bacterial v. algal

  5. Fluorescence-Based Quasicontinuous and In Situ Monitoring of Biofilm Formation Dynamics in Natural Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Friedrichs, G.; Lachnit, T.

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the dynamics of biofilm formation helps to deepen our understanding of surface colonization in natural environments. While methods for screening biofilm formation in the laboratory are well established, studies in marine environments have so far been based upon destructive analysis of individual samples and provide only discontinuous snapshots of biofilm establishment. In order to explore the development of biofilm over time and under various biotic and abiotic conditions, we applied a recently developed optical biofilm sensor to quasicontinuously analyze marine biofilm dynamics in situ. Using this technique in combination with microscope-assisted imaging, we investigated biofilm formation from its beginning to mature multispecies biofilms. In contrast to laboratory studies on biofilm formation, a smooth transition from initial attachment to colony formation and exponential growth could not be observed in the marine environment. Instead, initial attachment was followed by an adaptation phase of low growth and homogeneously distributed solitary bacterial cells. Moreover, we observed a diurnal variation of biofilm signal intensity, suggesting a transient state of biofilm formation of bacteria. Overall, the biofilm formation dynamics could be modeled by three consecutive development stages attributed to initial bacterial attachment, bacterial growth, and attachment and growth of unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms. Additional experiments showed that the presence of seaweed considerably shortened the adaptation phase in comparison with that on control surfaces but yielded similar growth rates. The outlined examples highlight the advantages of a quasicontinuous in situ detection that enabled, for the first time, the exploration of the initial attachment phase and the diurnal variation during biofilm formation in natural ecosystems. PMID:24727266

  6. Fluorescence-based quasicontinuous and in situ monitoring of biofilm formation dynamics in natural marine environments.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M; Friedrichs, G; Lachnit, T

    2014-06-01

    Analyzing the dynamics of biofilm formation helps to deepen our understanding of surface colonization in natural environments. While methods for screening biofilm formation in the laboratory are well established, studies in marine environments have so far been based upon destructive analysis of individual samples and provide only discontinuous snapshots of biofilm establishment. In order to explore the development of biofilm over time and under various biotic and abiotic conditions, we applied a recently developed optical biofilm sensor to quasicontinuously analyze marine biofilm dynamics in situ. Using this technique in combination with microscope-assisted imaging, we investigated biofilm formation from its beginning to mature multispecies biofilms. In contrast to laboratory studies on biofilm formation, a smooth transition from initial attachment to colony formation and exponential growth could not be observed in the marine environment. Instead, initial attachment was followed by an adaptation phase of low growth and homogeneously distributed solitary bacterial cells. Moreover, we observed a diurnal variation of biofilm signal intensity, suggesting a transient state of biofilm formation of bacteria. Overall, the biofilm formation dynamics could be modeled by three consecutive development stages attributed to initial bacterial attachment, bacterial growth, and attachment and growth of unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms. Additional experiments showed that the presence of seaweed considerably shortened the adaptation phase in comparison with that on control surfaces but yielded similar growth rates. The outlined examples highlight the advantages of a quasicontinuous in situ detection that enabled, for the first time, the exploration of the initial attachment phase and the diurnal variation during biofilm formation in natural ecosystems. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Brine-Wetted Snow on the Surface of Sea Ice: A Potentially Vast and Overlooked Microbial Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, J. W.; Ewert, M.; Bowman, J. S.; Colangelo-Lillis, J.; Carpenter, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    On the hemispheric scale, snow on the surface of sea ice significantly impacts the exchange of mass and energy across the ocean-ice-atmosphere interface. The snow cover over Arctic sea ice plays a central role in Arctic photochemistry, including atmospheric depletion events at the onset of spring, and in ecosystem support, by determining the availability of photosynthetically active radiation for algal primary production at the bottom of the ice. Among the non-uniformities of snow relevant to its larger-scale roles is salt content. When snow is deposited on the surface of new sea ice, brine expelled onto the ice surface during ice formation wicks into the snow by capillary action, forming a brine-wetted or saline snow layer at the ice-snow interface. A typical salinity for this basal snow layer in the Arctic (measured on a 3-cm depth interval of melted snow) is about 20 (ppt by optical salinometer), with maxima approaching 30 ppt, thus higher than the salinity of melted surface sea ice (< 12 ppt). Although the physical-chemical properties of this brine-wetted layer have been examined in recent years, and the (assumed) air-derived microbial content of overlying low-salinity snow is known to be low in winter, basal saline snow is essentially unexplored as a microbial habitat. As part of an NSF-supported project on frost flowers, we investigated snow overlying coastal sea ice off Barrow, Alaska, in February 2010 (since snow buries frost flowers). Sterile (ethanol-rinsed) tools were used to open snow pits 60 cm wide, record temperature by thermoprobe at 3-cm depth intervals, and collect samples from newly exposed snow walls for salinity (3-cm intervals) and biological measurements (6-cm intervals). The latter included counts of bacterial abundance by epifluorescence microscopy and assays of extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS). We also sampled snow on a larger scale to extract sufficient DNA to analyze microbial community composition (ongoing work), as well as

  8. From the clouds to the ground - snow precipitation patterns vs. snow accumulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Franziska; Besic, Nikola; Mott, Rebecca; Gabella, Marco; Germann, Urs; Bühler, Yves; Marty, Mauro; Berne, Alexis; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge about snow distribution and snow accumulation patterns is important and valuable for different applications such as the prediction of seasonal water resources or avalanche forecasting. Furthermore, accumulated snow on the ground is an important ground truth for validating meteorological and climatological model predictions of precipitation in high mountains and polar regions. Snow accumulation patterns are determined by many different processes from ice crystal nucleation in clouds to snow redistribution by wind and avalanches. In between, snow precipitation undergoes different dynamical and microphysical processes, such as ice crystal growth, aggregation and riming, which determine the growth of individual particles and thereby influence the intensity and structure of the snowfall event. In alpine terrain the interaction of different processes and the topography (e.g. lifting condensation and low level cloud formation, which may result in a seeder-feeder effect) may lead to orographic enhancement of precipitation. Furthermore, the redistribution of snow particles in the air by wind results in preferential deposition of precipitation. Even though orographic enhancement is addressed in numerous studies, the relative importance of micro-physical and dynamically induced mechanisms on local snowfall amounts and especially snow accumulation patterns is hardly known. To better understand the relative importance of different processes on snow precipitation and accumulation we analyze snowfall and snow accumulation between January and March 2016 in Davos (Switzerland). We compare MeteoSwiss operational weather radar measurements on Weissfluhgipfel to a spatially continuous snow accumulation map derived from airborne digital sensing (ADS) snow height for the area of Dischma valley in the vicinity of the weather radar. Additionally, we include snow height measurements from automatic snow stations close to the weather radar. Large-scale radar snow accumulation

  9. City snow's physicochemical property affects snow disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbysh, V. O.; Sharukha, A. V.; Evtin, P. V.; Vershinina, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    At the present day the industrial cities run into severe problem: fallen snow in a city it's a concentrator of pollutants and their quantity is constantly increasing by technology development. Pollution of snow increases because of emission of gases to the atmosphere by cars and factories. Large accumulation of polluted snow engenders many vexed ecological problems. That's why we need a new, non-polluting, scientifically based method of snow disposal. This paper investigates polluted snow's physicochemical property effects on snow melting. A distinctive feature of the ion accelerators with self-magnetically insulated diode is that there.

  10. Marine Sponge-Derived Streptomyces sp. SBT343 Extract Inhibits Staphylococcal Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Othman, Eman M.; Kampik, Daniel; Stopper, Helga; Hentschel, Ute; Ziebuhr, Wilma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A.; Abdelmohsen, Usama R.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and chronic biofilm-associated infections. Indwelling medical devices and contact lenses are ideal ecological niches for formation of staphylococcal biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are known to display reduced susceptibilities to antimicrobials and are protected from the host immune system. High rates of acquired antibiotic resistances in staphylococci and other biofilm-forming bacteria further hamper treatment options and highlight the need for new anti-biofilm strategies. Here, we aimed to evaluate the potential of marine sponge-derived actinomycetes in inhibiting biofilm formation of several strains of S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from in vitro biofilm-formation assays, as well as scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed that an organic extract derived from the marine sponge-associated bacterium Streptomyces sp. SBT343 significantly inhibited staphylococcal biofilm formation on polystyrene, glass and contact lens surfaces, without affecting bacterial growth. The extract also displayed similar antagonistic effects towards the biofilm formation of other S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains tested but had no inhibitory effects towards Pseudomonas biofilms. Interestingly the extract, at lower effective concentrations, did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on mouse fibroblast, macrophage and human corneal epithelial cell lines. Chemical analysis by High Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) of the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract proportion revealed its chemical richness and complexity. Preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the extract highlighted the heat-stable and non-proteinaceous nature of the active component(s). The combined data suggest that the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract selectively inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation without interfering with bacterial cell viability. Due to

  11. Marine Sponge-Derived Streptomyces sp. SBT343 Extract Inhibits Staphylococcal Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Othman, Eman M; Kampik, Daniel; Stopper, Helga; Hentschel, Ute; Ziebuhr, Wilma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Abdelmohsen, Usama R

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and chronic biofilm-associated infections. Indwelling medical devices and contact lenses are ideal ecological niches for formation of staphylococcal biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are known to display reduced susceptibilities to antimicrobials and are protected from the host immune system. High rates of acquired antibiotic resistances in staphylococci and other biofilm-forming bacteria further hamper treatment options and highlight the need for new anti-biofilm strategies. Here, we aimed to evaluate the potential of marine sponge-derived actinomycetes in inhibiting biofilm formation of several strains of S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from in vitro biofilm-formation assays, as well as scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed that an organic extract derived from the marine sponge-associated bacterium Streptomyces sp. SBT343 significantly inhibited staphylococcal biofilm formation on polystyrene, glass and contact lens surfaces, without affecting bacterial growth. The extract also displayed similar antagonistic effects towards the biofilm formation of other S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains tested but had no inhibitory effects towards Pseudomonas biofilms. Interestingly the extract, at lower effective concentrations, did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on mouse fibroblast, macrophage and human corneal epithelial cell lines. Chemical analysis by High Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) of the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract proportion revealed its chemical richness and complexity. Preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the extract highlighted the heat-stable and non-proteinaceous nature of the active component(s). The combined data suggest that the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract selectively inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation without interfering with bacterial cell viability. Due to

  12. Phosphate rock formation and marine phosphorus geochemistry: the deep time perspective.

    PubMed

    Filippelli, Gabriel M

    2011-08-01

    The role that phosphorite formation, the ultimate source rock for fertilizer phosphate reserves, plays in the marine phosphorus (P) cycle has long been debated. A shift has occurred from early models that evoked strikingly different oceanic P cycling during times of widespread phosphorite deposition to current thinking that phosphorite deposits may be lucky survivors of a series of inter-related tectonic, geochemical, sedimentological, and oceanic conditions. This paradigm shift has been facilitated by an awareness of the widespread nature of phosphogenesis-the formation of authigenic P-bearing minerals in marine sediments that contributes to phosphorite formation. This process occurs not just in continental margin sediments, but in deep sea oozes as well, and helps to clarify the driving forces behind phosphorite formation and links to marine P geochemistry. Two processes come into play to make phosphorite deposits: chemical dynamism and physical dynamism. Chemical dynamism involves the diagenetic release and subsequent concentration of P-bearing minerals particularly in horizons, controlled by a number of sedimentological and biogeochemical factors. Physical dynamism involves the reworking and sedimentary capping of P-rich sediments, which can either concentrate the relatively heavy and insoluble disseminated P-bearing minerals or provide an episodic change in sedimentology to concentrate chemically mobilized P. Both processes can result from along-margin current dynamics and/or sea level variations. Interestingly, net P accumulation rates are highest (i.e., the P removal pump is most efficient) when phosphorites are not forming. Both physical and chemical pathways involve processes not dominant in deep sea environments and in fact not often coincide in space and time even on continental margins, contributing to the rarity of high-quality phosphorite deposits and the limitation of phosphate rock reserves. This limitation is becoming critical, as the human demand

  13. Snow economics and the NOHRSC Snow Information System (SNOW-INFO) for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T.; Cline, D.; Berkowitz, E.; Savage, D.

    2003-04-01

    .7 trillion (16%) of the Nation's GDP related to the water contained in seasonal snowpacks, reliable snow information is critical to the management of the U.S. economy. In addition to helping improve river and flood forecasts and water supply forecasts, NOHRSC snow information has the potential also to support better decision making and improved efficiency in manufacturing, mining, agriculture, and thermo- and hydroelectric power generation. A 0.1% improvement in revenue resulting from reliable snow information results in an economic benefit to the Nation of 1.7 billion each year (in 2002 dollars). In an effort to provide snow information to support hydrologic forecasting operations in the NWS as well as to enhance the national economy, the NOHRSC has developed and implemented a Snow Information System (SNOW-INFO) that generates and distributes a variety of snow cover products in a variety of formats for the coterminous U.S. SNOW-INFO provides several new products that include: modeled snowpack characteristics such as snow ripeness, melt rates, mean snowpack temperature, and sublimation losses in a variety of alphanumeric, gridded, map, and time-series representations. SNOW-INFO products and data sets are available in near real-time to end-users from the NOHRSC web site (www.nohrsc.nws.gov) and FTP. A variety of SNOW-INFO products and maps from the 2003 snow season depicting simulated and assimilated snow model state variables for the coterminous U.S. are presented.

  14. The Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation fossil assemblage and the evolution of modern Antarctic marine communities.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Rowan J; Quaglio, Fernanda; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Crame, J Alistair

    2014-01-01

    The fossil community from the Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation (King George Island, Antarctica) does not show the archaic retrograde nature of modern Antarctic marine communities, despite evidence, such as the presence of dropstones, diamictites and striated rocks, that it was deposited in a glacial environment. Unlike modern Antarctic settings, and the upper units of the Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour Island, Antarctica, which are 10 million years older, the Cape Melville Formation community is not dominated by sessile suspension feeding ophiuroids, crinoids or brachiopods. Instead, it is dominated by infaunal bivalves, with a significant component of decapods, similar to present day South American settings. It is possible that the archaic retrograde structure of the modern community did not fully evolve until relatively recently, maybe due to factors such as further cooling and isolation of the continent leading to glaciations, which resulted in a loss of shallow shelf habitats.

  15. [Histamine formation in Japanese marine fish species and the effect of frozen storage].

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Ryota; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kato, Noboru; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Araki, Emiko

    2013-01-01

    To investigate histamine formation in Japanese marine fish, model samples were made from fish meat mixed with intestines of commercial 73 fish species. After the samples were stored at 25℃ for 12 hr, histamine was detected in 35 fish species at 50 mg/kg or more. These fish species might potentially be related to histamine poisoning. In addition, the effect of frozen storage at -45℃ on histamine formation was examined. Although histamine was formed in some fish species, and Photobacterium damselae and Photobacterium iliopiscarium were isolated from the frozen samples, the amount of histamine formed in the model samples was reduced in all tested fish species after frozen storage. Therefore frozen storage of fish may be effective to control histamine formation, even though histamine forming bacteria survived under these conditions.

  16. Effects of organic matter addition on methylmercury formation in capped and uncapped marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Ndungu, Kuria; Schaanning, Morten; Braaten, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg

    2016-10-15

    In situ subaqueous capping (ISC) of contaminated marine sediments is frequently proposed as a feasible and effective mitigation option. However, though effective in isolating mercury species migration into overlying water, capping can also alter the location and extent of biogeochemical zones and potentially enhance methylmercury (MeHg) formation in Hg-contaminated marine sediments. We carried out a boxcosm study to investigate whether the addition of organic carbon (OC) to Hg-contaminated marine sediments beneath an in situ cap would initiate and/or enhance MeHg formation of the inorganic Hg present. The study was motivated by ongoing efforts to remediate ca. 30,000 m(2) of Hg-contaminated seabed sediments from a Hg spill from the U864 WWII submarine wreck. By the time of sinking, the submarine is assumed to have been holding a cargo of ca. 65 tons of liquid Hg. Natural organic matter and petroleum hydrocarbons from fuels and lubricants in the wreck are potential sources of organic carbon that could potentially fuel MeHg formation beneath a future cap. The results of our study clearly demonstrated that introduction of algae OC to Hg-contaminated sediments, triggered high rates of MeHg production as long a there was sufficient OC. Thus, MeHg production was limited by the amount of organic carbon available. The study results also confirmed that, within the six-month duration of the study and in the absence of bioturbating fauna, a 3-cm sediment clay cap could effectively reduce fluxes of Hg species to the overlying water and isolate the Hg-contaminated sediments from direct surficial deposition of organic matter that could potentially fuel methylation.

  17. Ichnofabric analysis of the Tithonian shallow marine sediments (Bhadasar Formation) Jaisalmer Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Bhawanisingh G.; Saklani, Rajendra Dutt

    2014-08-01

    The shallow marine sedimentary sequence of the Jaisalmer Basin exhibits one of the important and well-developed Tithonian sedimentary outcrops for western India. The ichnology and ichnofabric of the lower part of Bhadasar Formation (i.e., Kolar Dongar Member) belonging to Tithonian age are presented and discussed. The Kolar Dongar Member represents a shallow marine succession that contains 16 ichnotaxa: Ancorichnus ancorichnus, Conichnus conicus, Gyrochorte comosa, cf. Jamesonichnites heinbergi, Imponoglyphus kevadiensis, Laevicyclus mongraensis, Monocraterion tentaculatum, Ophiomorpha nodosa, Palaeophycus tubularis, P. bolbiterminus, Phycodes palmatus, Planolites beverleyensis, Rhizocorallium isp., Rosselia rotatus, R. socialis, and Teichichnus rectus. The ichnofabric analysis divulges five distinct ichnofabrics, each typifying distinct depositional environment within shallow marine conditions. The ichnofabric Ophiomorpha 1 with syn-sedimentary faulting exemplifies high energy conditions typical of lower shoreface environment, whereas the Ophiomorpha 2 ichnofabric typifies upper shoreface environment. The Ancorichnus ichnofabric reflects lower offshore condition of deposition. The high ichnodiversity Ancorichnus- Rosselia ichnofabric is indicative of inner shelf conditions, while low ichno-diversity Teichichnus ichnofabric indicates prevalence of low energy brackish bay environment. Thus, Tithonian Kolar Dongar Member indicates depositional environment ranging from shoreface to offshore to inner shelf and finally to brackish bay environment.

  18. The Carrizo formation of Smith County and the east Texas basin: A proposed sand-rich marine-dominated model

    SciTech Connect

    Lauman, J.D.; Crocker, M.C.; Nielson, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Carrizo Formation of the Lower Eocene Claiborne Group of Smith County, Texas, and the East Texas Basin is proposed to have been deposited in marine-dominated strandplain and shallow marine environments. Analysis of 538 petroleum industry logs, 123 water well logs and records, and four sidewall cores suggest that the dominate Carrizo depositional environments were near-shore and shallow marine. There currently does not exist a detailed geological study including cross sections, structure map, and isopach map of the Carrizo Formation covering the East Texas Basin. Over the last 30 years, conventional descriptions such as a {open_quotes}homogeneous multilateral fluvial sand{close_quotes} have been used to compare the Carrizo Formation with the Wilcox Group. Extra-basinal tectonic compressive forces from the southwest and west combined with eustatic sea level rises produced a marine stratigraphic clastic package. The Early and Middle Carrizo transgressive depostional environments in the East Texas Basin may have consisted of: onshore erosional environments containing small streams, strandplain-freshwater lakes, shoreface, barrier bars, and shallow marine environments along the basin`s axis. The Late Carrizo transgressive depositional environments may have resembled the Nacatoch Formation (Upper Cretaceous) depositional environments. Along the basin`s axis and extending northeast Louisiana there may have been shallow marine sand dominated environments influenced by northeast-southwest long-shore currents.

  19. Comparative taphonomy, taphofacies, and bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, central California: strong physical control on marine vertebrate preservation in shallow marine settings.

    PubMed

    Boessenecker, Robert W; Perry, Frank A; Schmitt, James G

    2014-01-01

    Taphonomic study of marine vertebrate remains has traditionally focused on single skeletons, lagerstätten, or bonebed genesis with few attempts to document environmental gradients in preservation. As such, establishment of a concrete taphonomic model for shallow marine vertebrate assemblages is lacking. The Neogene Purisima Formation of Northern California, a richly fossiliferous unit recording nearshore to offshore depositional settings, offers a unique opportunity to examine preservational trends across these settings. Lithofacies analysis was conducted to place vertebrate fossils within a hydrodynamic and depositional environmental context. Taphonomic data including abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, articulation, polish, and biogenic bone modification were recorded for over 1000 vertebrate fossils of sharks, bony fish, birds, pinnipeds, odontocetes, mysticetes, sirenians, and land mammals. These data were used to compare both preservation of multiple taxa within a single lithofacies and preservation of individual taxa across lithofacies to document environmental gradients in preservation. Differential preservation between taxa indicates strong preservational bias within the Purisima Formation. Varying levels of abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, and articulation are strongly correlative with physical processes of sediment transport and sedimentation rate. Preservational characteristics were used to delineate four taphofacies corresponding to inner, middle, and outer shelf settings, and bonebeds. Application of sequence stratigraphic methods shows that bonebeds mark major stratigraphic discontinuities, while packages of rock between discontinuities consistently exhibit onshore-offshore changes in taphofacies. Changes in vertebrate preservation and bonebed character between lithofacies closely correspond to onshore-offshore changes in depositional setting, indicating that the dominant control of preservation is exerted by physical processes. The

  20. Comparative Taphonomy, Taphofacies, and Bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, Central California: Strong Physical Control on Marine Vertebrate Preservation in Shallow Marine Settings

    PubMed Central

    Boessenecker, Robert W.; Perry, Frank A.; Schmitt, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taphonomic study of marine vertebrate remains has traditionally focused on single skeletons, lagerstätten, or bonebed genesis with few attempts to document environmental gradients in preservation. As such, establishment of a concrete taphonomic model for shallow marine vertebrate assemblages is lacking. The Neogene Purisima Formation of Northern California, a richly fossiliferous unit recording nearshore to offshore depositional settings, offers a unique opportunity to examine preservational trends across these settings. Methodology/Principal Findings Lithofacies analysis was conducted to place vertebrate fossils within a hydrodynamic and depositional environmental context. Taphonomic data including abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, articulation, polish, and biogenic bone modification were recorded for over 1000 vertebrate fossils of sharks, bony fish, birds, pinnipeds, odontocetes, mysticetes, sirenians, and land mammals. These data were used to compare both preservation of multiple taxa within a single lithofacies and preservation of individual taxa across lithofacies to document environmental gradients in preservation. Differential preservation between taxa indicates strong preservational bias within the Purisima Formation. Varying levels of abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, and articulation are strongly correlative with physical processes of sediment transport and sedimentation rate. Preservational characteristics were used to delineate four taphofacies corresponding to inner, middle, and outer shelf settings, and bonebeds. Application of sequence stratigraphic methods shows that bonebeds mark major stratigraphic discontinuities, while packages of rock between discontinuities consistently exhibit onshore-offshore changes in taphofacies. Conclusions/Significance Changes in vertebrate preservation and bonebed character between lithofacies closely correspond to onshore-offshore changes in depositional setting, indicating that the

  1. The Importance of Snow Distribution on Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, B.; Polashenski, C.; Divine, D.; King, J.; Liston, G. E.; Nicolaus, M.; Rösel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Snow's insulating and reflective properties substantially influence Arctic sea ice growth and decay. A particularly important, but under-appreciated, aspect of snow on sea ice is its fine-scale spatial distribution. Snow redistribution into dunes and drifts controls the effective thermal conductivity of a snowpack and dictates the locations of melt pond formation, exerting considerable control over ice mass balance. The effective thermal conductivity of snow distributions created on sea ice, for example, is often considerably greater than a uniform snowpack of equivalent mean thickness. During the N-ICE 2015 campaign north of Svalbard, we studied snow distributions across multiple ice types and the impacts these have on thermal fluxes and ice mass balance. We used terrestrial LiDAR to observe the snow surface topography over km2 areas, conducted many thousands of manual snow depth measurements, and collected hundreds of observations of the snow physical properties in snow pits. We find that the wind driven redistribution of snow can alter the net effect of a constant snow cover volume on ice mass balance as strongly as inter-annual variability in the amount and timing of snowfall. Further comparison with snow depth distributions from field campaigns in other parts of the Arctic highlights regional and inter-annual differences in snow distribution. We quantify the impact of this variability on ice mass balance and demonstrate the need for considering snow distributions and redistribution processes in sea ice models.

  2. Carbon and oxygen isotopes of Maastrichtian Danian shallow marine carbonates: Yacoraite Formation, northwestern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquillas, Rosa; Sabino, Ignacio; Nobrega Sial, Alcides; Papa, Cecilia del; Ferreira, Valderez; Matthews, Stephen

    2007-04-01

    The Maastrichtian-Danian limestones of the Yacoraite Formation (northwestern Argentina) show carbon and oxygen isotopic values consistent with shallow marine conditions. The members of the formation respond to different sedimentary environments and are characterised by distinctive stable isotopes and geochemistry. The basal Amblayo Member is composed of high-energy dolomitic limestones and limestones with positive isotopic values (+2‰ δ 13C, +2‰ δ 18O). The top of the member reveals an isotopic shift of δ 13C (-5‰) and δ 18O (-10‰), probably related to a descent in the sea level. The sandy Güemes Member has isotopically negative (-2‰ δ 13C, -1‰ δ 18O) limestones, principally controlled by water mixing, decreased organic productivity, and compositional changes in the carbonates. The isotopically lighter limestones are calcitic, with a greater terrigenous contribution and different geochemical composition (high Si-Mn-Fe-Na, low Ca-Mg-Sr). These isotopic and lithological changes relate to the Cretaceous-Palaeogene transition. The Alemanía Member, composed of dolomitic limestones and pelites, represents a return to marine conditions and shows a gradual increase in isotopic values, reaching values similar to those of the Amblayo Member. The Juramento Member, composed of stromatolite limestones, shows isotopic variations that can be correlated with the two well-defined, shallowing-upward sequences of the member.

  3. Snow Conditions Near Barrow in Spring 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, M.; Rigor, I.; Nghiem, S. V.; Sturm, M.; Kurtz, N. T.; Farrell, S. L.; Gleason, E.; Lieb-Lappen, R.; Saiet, E.

    2012-12-01

    Snow has a dual role in the growth and decay of Arctic sea ice. It provides insulation from colder air temperatures during the winter, which hinders sea ice formation. Snow is highly reflective and, as a result, it delays the surface ice melt during the spring. Summer snow melt influences the formation and location of melt ponds on sea ice, which further modifies heat transport into sea ice and the underlying ocean. Identifying snow thickness and extent is of key importance in understanding the surface heat budget, particularly during the early spring when the maximum snowfall has surpassed, and surface melt has not yet occurred. Regarding Arctic atmospheric chemical processes, snow may sustain or terminate halogen chemical recycling and distribution, depending on the state of the snow cover. Therefore, an accurate assessment of the snow cover state in the changing Arctic is important to identify subsequent impacts of snow change on both physical and chemical processes in the Arctic environment. In this study, we assess the springtime snow conditions near Barrow, Alaska using coordinated airborne and in situ measurements taken during the NASA Operation IceBridge and BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) field campaigns in March 2012, and compare these to climatological records. Operation IceBridge was conceived to bridge the gap between satellite retrievals ice thickness by ICESat which ceased operating in 2009 and ICESat-2 which is planned for launch in 2016. As part of the IceBridge mission, snow depth may be estimated by taking the difference between the snow/air surface and the snow/ice interface measured by University of Kansas's snow radar installed on a P-3 Orion and the measurements have an approximate spatial resolution of 40 m along-track and 16 m across-track. The in situ snow depth measurements were measured by an Automatic Snow Depth Probe (Magnaprobe), which has an accuracy of 0.5 cm. Samples were taken every one-to-two meters at two sites

  4. Scattering optics of snow.

    PubMed

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A; Zege, Eleonora P

    2004-03-01

    Permanent snow and ice cover great portions of the Arctic and the Antarctic. It appears in winter months in northern parts of America, Asia, and Europe. Therefore snow is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Also, it is a main regulator of the seasonal variation of the planetary albedo. This seasonal change in albedo is determined largely by the snow cover. However, the presence of pollutants and the microstructure of snow (e.g., the size and shape of grains, which depend also on temperature and on the age of the snow) are also of importance in the variation of the snow's spectral albedo. The snow's spectral albedo and its bidirectional reflectance are studied theoretically. The albedo also determines the spectral absorptance of snow, which is of importance, e.g., in studies of the heating regime in snow. We investigate the influence of the nonspherical shape of grains and of close-packed effects on snow's reflectance in the visible and the near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The rate of the spectral transition from highly reflective snow in the visible to almost totally absorbing black snow in the infrared is governed largely by the snow's grain sizes and by the load of pollutants. Therefore both the characteristics of snow and its concentration of impurities can be monitored on a global scale by use of spectrometers and radiometers placed on orbiting satellites.

  5. Shelf to shallow marine deposition of Ivishak Formation, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harun, N.T.; Crowder, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Lower Triassic Ivishak Formation in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is composed of a progradational-aggradational-retrogradational depositional sequence. The Permian Echooka Formation underlies the Ivishak Formation. The Ivishak is overlain by the Middle and Upper Triassic Shublik Formation, except in the northern Sadlerochit Mountains where the Lower Cretaceous unconformity cuts down section into the Ledge Sandstone Member of the Ivishak Formation. In ascending order, the Ivishak Formation consists of the Kavik, the Ledge Sandstone, and the Fire Creek Siltstone Members. The Kavik Member is composed of thin-bedded, nodular siltstone and silty shale up to 70 m thick. Beds in the Kavik gradually thicken and coarsen into the overlying Ledge Sandstone Member. The Ledge is the chief hydrocarbon reservoir at Prudhoe Bay. In the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, the Ledge forms a thick (40-90 m) succession of regularly bedded very fine to middle-grained sandstone with conglomeratic intervals. It becomes progressively thinner bedded and finer grained toward the east from the Sadlerochit Mountains to Leffingwell Ridge. The Ledge is gradationally overlain by interbedded sandstone, siltsone, and shale of the Fire Creek Siltstone Member. The Fire Creek consists predominantly of highly bioturbated sandstone, slump structures, and graded beds. The Kavik Member was deposited in open-marine waters beneath storm wave base. The transition into the overlying Ledge Sandstone Member represents a progradational sequence. The nearshore deposits of the Ledge Sandstone Member are aggradational. The Fire Creek Siltstone Member records deposition in an inner to middle shelf environment and represents a general retrogradational shift in depositional environments.

  6. Spatiotemporal variations of monocarboxylic acids in snow layers along a transect from Zhongshan Station to Dome A, eastern Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanjin; Xiao, Cunde; Shi, Guitao; Ding, Minghu; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Lulu; Hou, Shugui; Sun, Bo; Qin, Dahe; Ren, Jiawen

    2015-05-01

    The spatiotemporal distributions of formate and acetate in snow layers along a transect from Zhongshan Station to Dome A are presented here. The mean concentrations of mono-carboxylic acids in summer surface snow layers were 2.93 ± 1.72 ng g- 1 and 10.07 ± 5.87 ng g- 1 for formate and acetate, respectively. In the snow pit samples, the concentrations varied between 0.47 ± 0.14 ng g- 1 and 3.12 ± 4.24 ng g- 1 for formate and between 5.31 ± 1.55 ng g- 1 and 13.29 ± 4.64 ng g- 1 for acetate. Spatially, the concentrations of both acids featured negative trends with increasing elevation and distance inland for the initial 600 km of the transect, which implies that marine sources from the coastal oceans dominate the acid supply. Different distribution styles of the acids in the interior section (600-1248 km) suggest that different source region and transporting mechanism may be responsible for the acid deposition in the interior regions. Seasonal variations in the amounts of acid in a coastal snow pit (29-A) indicate higher values in the summer and lower amounts in the winter. An enlarged source region and intensified production and transport mechanisms were primarily responsible for the higher values in summer. Longer records from the interior snow pits (29-L and 29-M) indicate elevated values in the 1970s and lower values in the 1980s and early 1990s. The increases in the mono-carboxylic acids since 1999 in snow pit 29-L and since 2005 in snow pit 29-M were temporally coincident with Chinese expedition activities in the area, suggesting that human activities were responsible for the increases in the acid load during recent decades.

  7. A distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel)

    Treesearch

    Glen E. Liston; Kelly. Elder

    2006-01-01

    SnowModel is a spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system designed for application in landscapes, climates, and conditions where snow occurs. It is an aggregation of four submodels: MicroMet defines meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowPack simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D...

  8. Multiwell Experiment: I, The marine interval of the Mesaverde Formation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment is a field laboratory in the Piceance Basin of Colorado which has two overall objectives: to characterize the low permeability gas reservoirs in the Mesaverde Formation and to develop technology for their production. Different depositional environments have created distinctly different reservoirs in the Mesaverde, and MWX has addressed each of these in turn. This report presents a comprehensive summary of results from the lowermost interval: the marine interval which lies between 7450 and 8250 ft at the MWX site. Separate sections of this report are background and summary; site description and operations; geology; log analysis; core analysis; in situ stress; well testing, analysis and reservoir evaluation; and a bibliography. Additional detailed data, results, and data file references are given on microfiche in several appendices.

  9. Borehole failure resulting from formation integrity (leak-off) testing in upper marine sediments offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtanowicz, A.K.; Zhou, D.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents results of potential loss of external integrity around casing shoe resulting from leak-off testing (LOT) in upper marine sediments (UMS). Three types of possible failures from LOTs are considered. It is proved that vertical fracture is the most unlikely failure for most UMS. Horizontal fracture can be formed in the plastic zone at a wellbore pressure less than overburden pressure, but it cannot extend beyond the plastic zone until the wellbore pressure exceeds the overburden pressure. An annular channel between cemented casing and rock is the other fracture way in UMS even though the cementing job is perfect. Fracture can be distinguished from LOT curve. Increasing the contact force between cemented casing and rock, such as using expanding cement, will prevent the formation of a harmful channel.

  10. Palaeoenvironment and its control on the formation of Miocene marine source rocks in the Qiongdongnan Basin, northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhao; Zhang, Zhihuan; Wang, Weiming; Lu, Shuangfang; Li, Youchuan; Fu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The main factors of the developmental environment of marine source rocks in continental margin basins have their specificality. This realization, in return, has led to the recognition that the developmental environment and pattern of marine source rocks, especially for the source rocks in continental margin basins, are still controversial or poorly understood. Through the analysis of the trace elements and maceral data, the developmental environment of Miocene marine source rocks in the Qiongdongnan Basin is reconstructed, and the developmental patterns of the Miocene marine source rocks are established. This paper attempts to reveal the hydrocarbon potential of the Miocene marine source rocks in different environment and speculate the quality of source rocks in bathyal region of the continental slope without exploratory well. Our results highlight the palaeoenvironment and its control on the formation of Miocene marine source rocks in the Qiongdongnan Basin of the northern South China Sea and speculate the hydrocarbon potential of the source rocks in the bathyal region. This study provides a window for better understanding the main factors influencing the marine source rocks in the continental margin basins, including productivity, preservation conditions, and the input of terrestrial organic matter.

  11. Palaeoenvironment and Its Control on the Formation of Miocene Marine Source Rocks in the Qiongdongnan Basin, Northern South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenhao; Zhang, Zhihuan; Wang, Weiming; Lu, Shuangfang; Li, Youchuan; Fu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The main factors of the developmental environment of marine source rocks in continental margin basins have their specificality. This realization, in return, has led to the recognition that the developmental environment and pattern of marine source rocks, especially for the source rocks in continental margin basins, are still controversial or poorly understood. Through the analysis of the trace elements and maceral data, the developmental environment of Miocene marine source rocks in the Qiongdongnan Basin is reconstructed, and the developmental patterns of the Miocene marine source rocks are established. This paper attempts to reveal the hydrocarbon potential of the Miocene marine source rocks in different environment and speculate the quality of source rocks in bathyal region of the continental slope without exploratory well. Our results highlight the palaeoenvironment and its control on the formation of Miocene marine source rocks in the Qiongdongnan Basin of the northern South China Sea and speculate the hydrocarbon potential of the source rocks in the bathyal region. This study provides a window for better understanding the main factors influencing the marine source rocks in the continental margin basins, including productivity, preservation conditions, and the input of terrestrial organic matter. PMID:25401132

  12. How to determine wet-snow instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiweger, Ingrid; Mitterer, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Processes leading to wet-snow instability are very complex and highly non-linear in time and space. Infiltrating water changes wet-snow strength and other mechanical properties. A high liquid water content presumably favors fracture propagation, which consequently has an influence on the formation of wet slab avalanches. The weakening of snow due to liquid water within the snowpack might be gradual (melt event) or sudden (rain-on-snow event). There are several feedback mechanisms between liquid water and snow stratigraphy, making the weakening process complex. We used modelled stability indices to determine periods with high wet-snow instability. These indices were either based on energy and mass balances indicating critical amounts of water within the snowpack or on simple hydro-mechanical relationships. In addition to the modelled indices, preliminary field studies investigated the fracture initiation and fracture propagation propensity within wet snowpacks. We therefore performed Rutschblock and propagation saw tests in faceted weak layers with different volumetric liquid water contents. Results of simulations and field experiments showed that a critical amount of liquid water combined with a pre-critical snow stratigraphy were relevant for wet-snow instability. The critical amount of water was assumed to drive both failure initiation and fracture propagation. The simulated indices and observed stability tests indicated a high wet-snow instability when the volumetric liquid water content within faceted weak layers exceeded 3. Within our propagation saw test measurements crack propagation propensity even slightly decreased at very low liquid water contents compared to completely dry conditions, presumably due to capillary forces. For liquid water contents higher than 3-4%, however, crack propagation propensity strongly increased, which we assume was due to the weakening of bonds between grains within the increasingly wet weak snow layer. Our results could be used

  13. Camping in the Snow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Constance

    1979-01-01

    Describes the experience of winter snow camping. Provides suggestions for shelter, snow kitchens, fires and stoves, cooking, latrines, sleeping warm, dehydration prevention, and clothing. Illustrated with full color photographs. (MA)

  14. Aerosolization, Chemical Characterization, Hygroscopicity and Ice Formation of Marine Biogenic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    were enhanced with time compared with larger sizes. In contrast, all particle sizes were equally enhanced when frits were used. Aerosolized particles were hygroscopic, a finding with significance for warm cloud formation and potential liquid-to-ice phase transformations. Aqueous and dry aerosolized particles from biologically active mesocosm water were found to efficiently nucleate ice exposed to supersaturated water vapor. The majority of particles, including those nucleating ice, consisted of a sea salt core coated with organic material dominated by the carboxyl functional group, and corresponded to a particle type commonly found in marine air. Our results provide improved estimates of marine aerosol production, chemical composition, and hygroscopicity, as well as an accurate physical and chemical representation of ice nucleation by marine biogenic aerosol particles for use in cloud and climate models.

  15. MISAWA Snow Accumulation Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    3 1.6 The Snow Forecasting Decision Tree ..................................................................... ...4 2. D AT A AN D...3 Figure 4. Snow Forecasting Decision Tree for Use as a Guide at...Calculation for the Best Misawa Snow Forecast Decision Tree ................................................................................... 11 Fi.gure 8

  16. Modelling of snow exceedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Pavlina K.; Sadovský, Zoltán; Stehlík, Milan

    2017-07-01

    Modelling of snow exceedances is of great importance and interest for ecology, civil engineering and general public. We suggest the favorable fit for exceedances related to the exceptional snow loads from Slovakia, assuming that the data is driven by Generalised Pareto Distribution or Generalized Extreme Value Distribution. Further, the statistical dependence between the maximal snow loads and the corresponding altitudes is studied.

  17. Snow Roads and Runways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    9 Effect of time and tem perature...ice strength .......................................................................... 13 19. Effect of time on the strength of processed snow as a...function of temperature ......... 14 20. Effect of time on the strength of processed snow as a function of snow density ........ 14 21. Combined

  18. Snow algae-microbe-mineral interactions and implications for snow algae growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschauner, O. D.; Harrold, Z.; Hausrath, E.; Garcia, A. H.; Murray, A. E.; Raymond, J. A.; Bartlett, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    Snow algae, which can reach densities of millions of cells per mL [1], can accelerate the melting of snow and ice fields by significantly lowering their albedo [2-4]. Studies have even suggested the effect of snow algae on albedo should be considered in quantitative albedo models. One of the factors controlling snow algae growth is nutrient availability. Previous observations of minerals and microbes attached to the cell walls of snow algae, and the preferential growth of snow algae in dusty snow, have suggested that snow algae-microbe-mineral interactions may help snow algae meet their trace nutrient needs. Understanding how snow algae are able to reach such high concentrations in a low nutrient snow environment is critical for predicting the extent to which snow algae blooms can impact snow albedo, snow and ice melt rate, and global climate change. We use synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) to study the interactions between snow algae, microbes and minerals in both field and laboratory samples. Field samples were collected from Mt. Anderson Ridge, CA, and prepared using a Percoll density separation technique to isolate algae cells from bulk dust. Cell and mineral fractions were analyzed using synchrotron micro-XRF, micro-XRD and XANES. Results show the presence of ferric material similar to ferrihydrite surrounding snow alga. Growth experiments of xenic Chloromonas brevispina cultures incubated with Fe-bearing minerals, including nontronite, goethite, pyrite and olivine, suggest Fe-bearing minerals can support snow algae growth. Synchrotron XRF, XRD and XANES analyses of Cr. brevispinaalgae cell communities indicate the formation of cell-associated Fe-bearing mineral phases not present in the unreacted minerals. The sample preparation and synchrotron techniques described herein provide an approach for investigating a wide range of microbe-mineral interactions and their impacts on microbial

  19. Snow instability patterns at the scale of a small basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Benjamin; Richter, Bettina; Schweizer, Jürg

    2016-02-01

    Spatial and temporal variations are inherent characteristics of the alpine snow cover. Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to control the avalanche release probability by either hindering extensive crack propagation or facilitating localized failure initiation. Though a link between spatial snow instability variations and meteorological forcing is anticipated, it has not been quantitatively shown yet. We recorded snow penetration resistance profiles with the snow micropenetrometer at an alpine field site during five field campaigns in Eastern Switzerland. For each of about 150 vertical profiles sampled per day a failure initiation criterion and the critical crack length were calculated. For both criteria we analyzed their spatial structure and predicted snow instability in the basin by external drift kriging. The regression models were based on terrain and snow depth data. Slope aspect was the most prominent driver, but significant covariates varied depending on the situation. Residual autocorrelation ranges were shorter than the ones of the terrain suggesting external influences possibly due to meteorological forcing. To explore the causes of the instability patterns we repeated the geostatistical analysis with snow cover model output as covariate data for one case. The observed variations of snow instability were related to variations in slab layer properties which were caused by preferential deposition of precipitation and differences in energy input at the snow surface during the formation period of the slab layers. Our results suggest that 3-D snow cover modeling allows reproducing some of the snow property variations related to snow instability, but in future work all relevant micrometeorological spatial interactions should be considered.

  20. Formation of stable bdelloplasts as a starvation-survival strategy of marine bdellovibrios

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Amat, A.; Torrella, F. )

    1990-09-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bdellovibrio have been isolated from a variety of habitats, including soil (15), rivers (1), estuarine water, seawater, and solar salt concentration ponds. Several wild-type isolates of marine bdellovibrios formed stable bdelloplasts when they infected gram-negative bacterial prey under certain culture conditions. Synchronous predator-prey cultures and low nutrient concentrations increased the yield of stable bdelloplasts. The bdellovibrio cells retained in the stable bdelloplasts showed a high survival capacity in nutrient-depleted saline solution (10% viable Bdellovibrio cells after 3 months at 25{degrees}C), whereas Bdellovibrio attack-phase cells kept under the same starvation conditions lost viability more quickly (1% viable cells after 48 h). The addition of yeast extract to a stable bdelloplast suspension induced lysis of the bdelloplasts and release of motile infecting attack-phase Bdellovibrio cells. Other substances, such as free amino acids, protein hydrolysates, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, carbohydrates, and organic amines, did not induce such a release. Stable bdelloplasts were highly hydrophobic and had a lower endogenous respiration rate than attack-phase cells. In general, stable bdelloplasts were almost as sensitive to temperature changes, desiccation, sonication, tannic acid, and Triton X-100 treatment as attack-phase cells. Electron microscopy of stable bdelloplasts did not reveal any extra cell wall layer, either in the bdelloplast envelope or in the retained Bdellovibrio cells, unlike the bdellocysts of the soil bacterium Bdellovibrio sp. strain W. The authors propose that formation of stable bdelloplasts is a survival strategy of marine bdellovibrios which occurs in response to nutrient- and prey-poor seawater habitats.

  1. A Novel Type of Colony Formation in Marine Planktonic Diatoms Revealed by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bosak, Sunčica; Pletikapić, Galja; Hozić, Amela; Svetličić, Vesna; Sarno, Diana; Viličić, Damir

    2012-01-01

    Diatoms have evolved a variety of colonial life forms in which cells are connected by organic threads, mucilage pads or silicate structures. In this study, we provide the first description of a novel strategy of colony formation among marine planktonic diatoms. Bacteriastrum jadranum forms loose but regular chains with distinct heterovalvate terminal cells. The colonial cells and their siliceous projections, the setae, are not in direct contact; instead, they are enclosed within the optically transparent organic matrix. This cell jacket structure was detected by staining procedure with Alcian Blue, which showed that the polysaccharides are predominant matrix constituents and revealed that the jacket reaches the span of the setae. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed distinguishable fibrillar network firmly associated with cells. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we were able to visualise and characterise the cell jacket structure at molecular resolution. At nanoscale resolution, the cell jacket appears as a cross-linked fibrillar network organised into a recognisable structure. The circular patches of self-repeating pattern (hexagonal pores with openings of 8–100 nm) are connected through thicker surrounding fibrils and reinforced by branching fibrils. The pore-forming fibrils within the patches are only 0.6–1.6 nm high, the surrounding fibrils connecting patches are 2.0–2.8 nm high, and the branching fibrils are considerably wider but not higher than 4.0 nm. The discovered polysaccharide fibrillar network is highly organised and delicately structured with a monomolecular fibril height of 0.6 nm. We conclude that the Bacteriastrum polysaccharide jacket represents an essential part of the cell, as the conjunction of the polymer network with the frustule appears to be extremely tight and such specific and unique patterns have never been found in self-assembled polysaccharide gel networks, which are usually encountered in the marine

  2. A novel type of colony formation in marine planktonic diatoms revealed by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bosak, Sunčica; Pletikapić, Galja; Hozić, Amela; Svetličić, Vesna; Sarno, Diana; Viličić, Damir

    2012-01-01

    Diatoms have evolved a variety of colonial life forms in which cells are connected by organic threads, mucilage pads or silicate structures. In this study, we provide the first description of a novel strategy of colony formation among marine planktonic diatoms. Bacteriastrum jadranum forms loose but regular chains with distinct heterovalvate terminal cells. The colonial cells and their siliceous projections, the setae, are not in direct contact; instead, they are enclosed within the optically transparent organic matrix. This cell jacket structure was detected by staining procedure with Alcian Blue, which showed that the polysaccharides are predominant matrix constituents and revealed that the jacket reaches the span of the setae. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed distinguishable fibrillar network firmly associated with cells. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we were able to visualise and characterise the cell jacket structure at molecular resolution. At nanoscale resolution, the cell jacket appears as a cross-linked fibrillar network organised into a recognisable structure. The circular patches of self-repeating pattern (hexagonal pores with openings of 8-100 nm) are connected through thicker surrounding fibrils and reinforced by branching fibrils. The pore-forming fibrils within the patches are only 0.6-1.6 nm high, the surrounding fibrils connecting patches are 2.0-2.8 nm high, and the branching fibrils are considerably wider but not higher than 4.0 nm. The discovered polysaccharide fibrillar network is highly organised and delicately structured with a monomolecular fibril height of 0.6 nm. We conclude that the Bacteriastrum polysaccharide jacket represents an essential part of the cell, as the conjunction of the polymer network with the frustule appears to be extremely tight and such specific and unique patterns have never been found in self-assembled polysaccharide gel networks, which are usually encountered in the marine

  3. Marine chemistry of the permian phosphoria formation and basin, Southeast Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Major components in the Meade Peak Member of the Phosphoria Formation are apatite, dolomite, calcite, organic matter, and biogenic silica-a marine fraction; and aluminosilicate quartz debris-a terrigenous fraction. Samples from Enoch Valley, in southeast Idaho, have major element oxide abundances of Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O, and TiO2 that closely approach the composition of the world shale average. Factor analysis further identifies the partitioning of several trace elements-Ba, Ga, Li, Sc, and Th and, at other sites in southeast Idaho and western Wyoming, B, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, and Ta-totally into this fraction. Trace elements that fail to show such correlations or factor loadings include Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se, the rare earth elements (REE), U, V, and Zn. Their terrigenous contribution is determined from minimum values of trace elements versus the terrigenous fraction. These minima too define trace element concentrations in the terrigenous fraction that approximately equal their concentrations in the world shale average. The marine fraction of trace elements represents the difference between the bulk trace element content of a sample and the terrigenous contribution. Of the trace elements enriched above a terrigenous contribution, Ag, Cr, Cu, Mo, and Se show strong loadings on the factor with an organic matter loading and U and the REE on the factor with a strong apatite loading. Cd, Ni, V, and Zn do not show a strong correlation with any of the marine components but are, nonetheless, strongly enriched above a terrigenous contribution. Interelement relationships between the trace elements identify two seawater sources-planktonic debris and basinal bottom water. Relationships between Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, and possibly Ni and Se suggest a solely biogenic source. Their accumulation rates, and that of PO3-4, further identify the level of primary productivity as having been moderate and the residence time of water in the basin at 4.5 yr. Enrichments of Cr, U, V, and the REE

  4. Control of marine biofouling and medical biofilm formation with engineered topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, James Frederick

    Biofouling is the unwanted accumulation and growth of cells and organisms on clean surfaces. This process occurs readily on unprotected surfaces in both the marine and physiological environments. Surface protection in both systems has typically relied upon toxic materials and biocides. Metallic paints, based on tin and copper, have been extremely successful as antifouling coatings for the hulls of ships by killing the majority of fouling species. Similarly, antibacterial medical coatings incorporate metal-containing compounds such as silver or antibiotics that kill the bacteria. The environmental concerns over the use of toxic paints and biocides in the ocean, the developed antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms, and the toxicity concerns with silver suggest the need for non-toxic and non-kill solutions for these systems. The manipulation of surface topography on non-toxic materials at the size scale of the fouling species or bacteria is one approach for the development of alternative coatings. These surfaces would function simply as a physical deterrent of settlement of fouling organisms or a physical obstacle for the adequate formation of a bacterial biofilm without the need to kill the targeted microorganisms. Species-specific topographical designs called engineered topographies have been designed, fabricated and evaluated for potential applications as antifouling marine coatings and material surfaces capable of reducing biofilm formation. Engineered topographies fabricated on the surface of a non-toxic, polydimethylsiloxane elastomer, or silicone, were shown to significantly reduce the attachment of zoospores of a common ship fouling green algae (Ulva) in standard bioassays versus a smooth substrate. Other engineered topographies were effective at significantly deterring the settlement of the cyprids of barnacles (Balanus amphitrite). These results indicate the potential use of engineered topography applied to non-toxic materials as an environmentally

  5. Endocrine regulation of carbonate precipitate formation in marine fish intestine by stanniocalcin and PTHrP.

    PubMed

    Gregório, Sílvia F; Carvalho, Edison S M; Campinho, Marco A; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

    2014-05-01

    In marine fish, high epithelial bicarbonate secretion by the intestine generates luminal carbonate precipitates of divalent cations that play a key role in water and ion homeostasis. In vitro studies highlight the involvement of the calciotropic hormones PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related protein) and stanniocalcin (STC) in the regulation of epithelial bicarbonate transport. The present study tested the hypothesis that calciotropic hormones have a regulatory role in carbonate precipitate formation in vivo. Sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles received single intraperitoneal injections of piscine PTHrP(1-34), the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) or purified sea bream STC, or were passively immunized with polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against sea bream STC (STC-Ab). Endocrine effects on the expression of the basolateral sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (Slc4a4.A), the apical anion exchangers Slc26a6.A and Slc26a3.B, and the V-type proton pump β-subunit (Atp6v1b) in the anterior intestine were evaluated. In keeping with their calciotropic nature, the hypocalcaemic factors PTHrP(7-34) and STC up-regulated gene expression of all transporters. In contrast, the hypercalcaemic factor PTHrP(1-34) and STC antibodies down-regulated transporters involved in the bicarbonate secretion cascade. Changes in intestine luminal precipitate contents provoked by calcaemic endocrine factors validated these results: 24 h post-injection either PTHrP(1-34) or immunization with STC-Ab reduced the carbonate precipitate content in the sea bream intestine. In contrast, the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) increased not only the precipitated fraction but also the concentration of HCO3(-) equivalents in the intestinal fluid. These results confirm the hypothesis that calciotropic hormones have a regulatory role in carbonate precipitate formation in vivo in the intestine of marine fish. Furthermore, they illustrate for the first time in fish the counteracting effect of PTHr

  6. Secondary organic aerosol formation of relevance to the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xuyi

    The chlorine atom (Cl) is a potential oxidant of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere and is hypothesized to lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in coastal areas. The purpose of this dissertation is to test this hypothesis and quantify the SOA formation potentials of some representative biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons when oxidized by Cl in laboratory chamber experiments. The chosen model compounds for biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in this study are three monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and d-limonene) and two aromatics (m-xylene and toluene), respectively. Results indicate that the oxidation of these monoterpenes and aromatics generates significant amounts of aerosol. The SOA yields of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and d-limonene obtained in this study are comparable to those when they are oxidized by ozone, by nitrate radical, and in photooxidation scenarios. For aerosol mass up to 30.0 mug m-3, their yields reach approximately 0.20, 0.20, and 0.30, respectively. The SOA yields for m-xylene and toluene are found to be in the range of 0.035 to 0.12 for aerosol concentrations up to 19 mug m-3. For d-limonene and toluene, data indicate two yield curves that depend on the initial concentration ratios of Cl precursor to hydrocarbon hydrocarbon. Zero-dimensional calculations based on these yields show that SOA formation from the five model compounds when oxidized by Cl in the marine boundary layer could be a significant source of SOA in the early morning. In addition, the mechanistic reaction pathways for Cl oxidation of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, d-limonene, and toluene with Cl have been developed within the framework of the Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanisms (CACM). Output from the developed mechanisms is combined with an absorptive partitioning model to predict precursor decay curves and time-dependent SOA concentrations in experiments. Model calculations are able to match (in general within general +/- 50

  7. Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.

    2015-12-01

    Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information Hongyi Li1, Tao Che1, Xin Li1, Jian Wang11. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China For improving the simulation accuracy of snow model, remotely sensed snow cover data are used to calibrate spatial parameters of snow model. A physically based snow model is developed and snow parameters including snow surface roughness, new snow density and critical threshold temperature distinguishing snowfall from precipitation, are spatially calibrated in this study. The study region, Babaohe basin, located in northwestern China, have seasonal snow cover and with complex terrain. The results indicates that the spatially calibration of snow model parameters make the simulation results more reasonable, and the simulated snow accumulation days, plot-scale snow depth are more better than lumped calibration.

  8. Modelling high-resolution snow cover precipitation supply for German river catchments with SNOW 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Uwe; Reich, Thomas; Schneider, Gerold; Fiedler, Anett

    2013-04-01

    Formation of snow cover causes a delayed response of surface to precipitation. Both melting of snow and release of liquid water retained within the snow cover form precipitation supply which contributes to runoff and infiltration. The model SNOW 4 is developed to simulate snow cover accumulation and depletion and the resulting precipitation supply on a regular grid. The core of the model is formed by a set of equations which describe the snow cover energy and mass balance. The snow surface energy balance is calculated as a result of the radiation balance and the heat fluxes between atmosphere, soil and snow cover. The available melting heat enters the mass balance computation part of the model and melting of snow or freezing of liquid water within the snow layer takes place depending on its sign. Retention, aging and snow cover regeneration are taken into consideration. The model runs operationally 4 times a day and provides both a snow cover and precipitation supply analysis for the last 30 hours and a forecast for up to 72 hours. For the 30-hour analysis, regionalised observations are used both to define the initial state and force the model. Hourly measurements of air temperature, water vapour pressure, wind speed, global radiation or sunshine duration and precipitation are interpolated to the model grid. For the forecast period, SNOW 4 obtains the required input data from the operational products of the COSMO-EU weather forecast model. The size of a grid box is 1km2. The model area covers a region of 1100x1000km2 and includes the catchments of the German rivers completely. The internal time step is set to 1 hour. Once a day, the compliance between model and regionalized snow cover data is assessed. If discrepancies exceed certain thresholds, the model must be adjusted by a weighted approach towards the observations. The model simulations are updated every six hours based on the most recent observations and weather forecasts. The model works operationally since

  9. Transport of intercepted snow from trees during snow storms

    Treesearch

    David H. Miller

    1966-01-01

    Five principal processes by which intercepted snow in trees is removed during snow storms are described and evaluated as far as data permit: vapor flux from melt water, vapor flux from bodies of snow, stem flow and dripping of melt water, sliding of bodies of intercepted snow from branches, and wind erosion and transport of intercepted snow. Further research is...

  10. Stable silicon isotope signatures of marine pore waters - Biogenic opal dissolution versus authigenic clay mineral formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlert, Claudia; Doering, Kristin; Wallmann, Klaus; Scholz, Florian; Sommer, Stefan; Grasse, Patricia; Geilert, Sonja; Frank, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Dissolved silicon isotope compositions have been analysed for the first time in pore waters (δ30SiPW) of three short sediment cores from the Peruvian margin upwelling region with distinctly different biogenic opal content in order to investigate silicon isotope fractionation behaviour during early diagenetic turnover of biogenic opal in marine sediments. The δ30SiPW varies between +1.1‰ and +1.9‰ with the highest values occurring in the uppermost part close to the sediment-water interface. These values are of the same order or higher than the δ30Si of the biogenic opal extracted from the same sediments (+0.3‰ to +1.2‰) and of the overlying bottom waters (+1.1‰ to +1.5‰). Together with dissolved silicic acid concentrations well below biogenic opal saturation, our collective observations are consistent with the formation of authigenic alumino-silicates from the dissolving biogenic opal. Using a numerical transport-reaction model we find that approximately 24% of the dissolving biogenic opal is re-precipitated in the sediments in the form of these authigenic phases at a relatively low precipitation rate of 56 μmol Si cm-2 yr-1. The fractionation factor between the precipitates and the pore waters is estimated at -2.0‰. Dissolved and solid cation concentrations further indicate that off Peru, where biogenic opal concentrations in the sediments are high, the availability of reactive terrigenous material is the limiting factor for the formation of authigenic alumino-silicate phases.

  11. Spatial-temporal dynamics of chemical composition of surface snow in East Antarctic along the transect Station Progress-Station Vostok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodzher, T. V.; Golobokova, L. P.; Shibaev, Y. A.; Lipenkov, V. Y.; Petit, J. R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents data on chemical composition of the Antarctic snow sampled during the 53rd Russian Antarctic Expedition (RAE, 2008) along the first tractor traverse (TT) from Station Progress to Station Vostok (East Antarctica). Snow samples were obtained from the cores drilled at 55.3, 253, 337, 369, 403, 441, 480, 519, 560, 618, 819, and 1276 km from Station Progress. Data on horizontal and deep distribution of chemical components in the snow provide evidence of spatial and temporal variations of conditions for the snow cover formation along the transect under study. Sea salt was the main source for chemical composition of snow cover near the ice edge. Concentrations of marine-derived components decreased further inland. A hypothesis was put forward that some ions in the snow cover of the central part of East Antarctica were likely to be of continental origin. Elevated concentrations of sulphate ions of continental origin were recorded in some profiles of the transect at a depth of 130-150 cm which was attributed to buried signals of the Pinatubo volcano eruption (1991).

  12. Comparison of New Prticle Formation in Marine and Coastal Atmosphere under Outflow of City Clusters in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y.; Li, K.; Guo, T.; Yu, P.; Hu, Q.; Gao, H.; Yao, X.

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous measurements of new particle formation (NPF) events were conducted during two cruises over China Seas and at a coastal site. NPF events occurred in thirteen days out of 38 sampling days over China Seas, and the NPF events in eleven days were confirmed to be regional occurred with the spatial scale at least 47 km-475 km. The formation rates of new particles were 5.3±5.0 particles cm-3s-1 in marine NPF events while 2.4±1.2 particles cm-3s-1 in coastal NPF events. The reason for the lower formation rates in coastal atmosphere might be the higher number concentration of pre-existing particles and larger condensation sinks. However, the growth rates of new particles in marine NPF events (3.3±2.2 nm h-1) were lower than in coastal NPF events (4.3±2.2 nm h-1), which might be caused by more precursors for new particles growth in the coastal city. In the marine atmosphere, new particles can grow from nucleation mode (<30 nm) to Aitken mode (30-100 nm) in seven days. However, the largest geometric median diameter of new particles (Dpg) was 50 nm in two days with the low number concentration, indicating the negligible contribution of marine new particles to CCN production. In the coastal atmosphere, new particles can grow to about 100 nm in two days, but the second-stage growth of new particles seemed to be generated from mixing process with pre-existing particles rather than gas-particle condensation. The measurement of particular chemical composition during the marine NPF days showed the important role of organic acids in new particles.

  13. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  14. Snow [Chapter 10

    Treesearch

    R. A. Sommerfeld

    1994-01-01

    Generally, the annual snowpack at GLEES is established in November and lasts into July. Figure 10.1 is the 1987-91 recession curve of the snow-covered area fraction versus degree days. About 20% of the area consists of rocks, which are usually blown clear of snow, and trees. The trees may hide some of the snow in the aerial photographs that were used to develop the...

  15. Carbon dioxide storage in marine sediments - dissolution, transport and hydrate formation kinetics from high-pressure experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigalke, N. K.; Savy, J. P.; Pansegrau, M.; Aloisi, G.; Kossel, E.; Haeckel, M.

    2009-12-01

    By satisfying thermodynamic framework conditions for CO2 hydrate formation, pressures and temperatures of the deep marine environment are unique assets for sequestering CO2 in clathrates below the seabed. However, feasibility and safety of this storage option require an accurate knowledge of the rate constants governing the speed of physicochemical reactions following the injection of the liquefied gas into the sediments. High-pressure experiments designed to simulate the deep marine environment open the possibility to obtain the required parameters for a wide range of oceanic conditions. In an effort to constrain mass transfer coefficients and transport rates of CO2 in(to) the pore water of marine sediments first experiments were targeted at quantifying the rate of CO2 uptake by de-ionized water and seawater across a two-phase interface. The nature of the interface was controlled by selecting p and T to conditions within and outside the hydrate stability field (HSF) while considering both liquid and gaseous CO2. Concentration increase and hydrate growth were monitored by Raman spectroscopy. The experiments revealed anomalously fast transport rates of dissolved CO2 at conditions both inside and outside the HSF. While future experiments will further elucidate kinetics of CO2 transport and hydrate formation, these first results could have major significance to safety-related issues in the discussion of carbon storage in the marine environment.

  16. Dynamics of glide avalanches and snow gliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancey, Christophe; Bain, Vincent

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, due to warmer snow cover, there has been a significant increase in the number of cases of damage caused by gliding snowpacks and glide avalanches. On most occasions, these have been full-depth, wet-snow avalanches, and this led some people to express their surprise: how could low-speed masses of wet snow exert sufficiently high levels of pressure to severely damage engineered structures designed to carry heavy loads? This paper reviews the current state of knowledge about the formation of glide avalanches and the forces exerted on simple structures by a gliding mass of snow. One particular difficulty in reviewing the existing literature on gliding snow and on force calculations is that much of the theoretical and phenomenological analyses were presented in technical reports that date back to the earliest developments of avalanche science in the 1930s. Returning to these primary sources and attempting to put them into a contemporary perspective are vital. A detailed, modern analysis of them shows that the order of magnitude of the forces exerted by gliding snow can indeed be estimated correctly. The precise physical mechanisms remain elusive, however. We comment on the existing approaches in light of the most recent findings about related topics, including the physics of granular and plastic flows, and from field surveys of snow and avalanches (as well as glaciers and debris flows). Methods of calculating the forces exerted by glide avalanches are compared quantitatively on the basis of two case studies. This paper shows that if snow depth and density are known, then certain approaches can indeed predict the forces exerted on simple obstacles in the event of glide avalanches or gliding snow cover.

  17. Photochemistry of impurities in nature-identical snow crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hullar, T.; Anastasio, C.; Magadia, D.

    2016-12-01

    Snow can be a potent reaction matrix for a variety of chemical reactions. Chemical compounds can integrate into snow crystals during formation, for example by co-deposition with water vapor, or after the crystal is formed, such as by vapor deposition onto the surface of the crystal. As fallen snow crystals consolidate in a snowpack, entrained compounds can remain at the ice-air interface of the snowpack in a quasi-liquid layer (QLL), or be trapped in liquid-like regions (LLRs) at grain boundaries or triple junctions in the ice matrix. Some recent work has suggested some photochemical reactions may proceed faster in surface QLLs than internal LLRs. Also, because many of the important reactions in snow are photochemically driven, the exact nature of the reaction environment must be well-characterized in order to fully understand chemical reactions in snow. Laboratory studies of chemical reactions in snow have attempted to reproduce the physical reaction environment of snow by a variety of methods, including freezing aqueous solutions in molds, spraying aqueous solutions into liquid nitrogen to form ice grains, or grinding solute-containing ices into small pieces. However, snow crystals are quite complex, and none of the current methods for making impurity-containing snow analogs accurately mimic the structure and physical properties of newly-fallen natural snow crystals. In addition to the structural differences between synthetic and natural snows, the location and distribution of chemical impurities in natural snows may not be accurately represented by laboratory-created analogs. Here, we describe our work to incorporate impurities into laboratory-produced nature-identical snow. We built a snow-making machine, modeled on earlier efforts from other groups, which is based on the principle of nucleating supersaturated water vapor to form snow crystals. We incorporate chemicals into/onto the snow crystals either during the formation process or by treating the snow

  18. "Let It Snow, Let It Snow, Let It Snow!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangbourne, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Winter in the UK has, in recent years, brought a significant amount of snow and cold weather. This was the case while the author was a trainee teacher on placement at a rural primary school in Dartmoor early in 2010. The day started promisingly with the class looking at the weather forecast on the interactive whiteboard and having a short…

  19. "Let It Snow, Let It Snow, Let It Snow!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangbourne, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Winter in the UK has, in recent years, brought a significant amount of snow and cold weather. This was the case while the author was a trainee teacher on placement at a rural primary school in Dartmoor early in 2010. The day started promisingly with the class looking at the weather forecast on the interactive whiteboard and having a short…

  20. Loropetalum chinense 'Snow Panda'

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new Loropetalum chinense, ‘Snow Panda’, developed at the U.S. National Arboretum is described. ‘Snow Panda’ (NA75507, PI660659) originated from seeds collected near Yan Chi He, Hubei, China in 1994 by the North America-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC). Several seedlings from this trip w...

  1. Snow Bank Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow…

  2. Snow Bank Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow…

  3. Let It Snow!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2000-02-01

    The February 1930 issue of JCE contains an article, "Calcium Chloride for Snow Removal", by Lionel Richardson. The author presents a photograph and personal observations of an experimental truck/trailer combination for spreading CaCl2 on Brooklyn's streets after a heavy snowstorm. The From Past Issues story summarizes the 1930 paper and directs readers to additional library resources on snow removal.

  4. GulfSnow Peach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    GulfSnow peach is jointly released for grower trial by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Byron, GA), Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. GulfSnow was previously tested as AP06-09W and originated from a cross of AP98-3...

  5. Associated terrestrial and marine fossils in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation, southern Maine, USA, and the marine reservoir effect on radiocarbon ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, W.B.; Griggs, C.B.; Miller, N.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Weddle, T.K.; Kilian, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Excavations in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation at Portland, Maine, uncovered tree remains and other terrestrial organics associated with marine invertebrate shells in a landslide deposit. Buds of Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) occurred with twigs of Picea glauca (white spruce) in the Presumpscot clay. Tree rings in Picea logs indicate that the trees all died during winter dormancy in the same year. Ring widths show patterns of variation indicating responses to environmental changes. Fossil mosses and insects represent a variety of species and wet to dry microsites. The late-glacial environment at the site was similar to that of today's Maine coast. Radiocarbon ages of 14 tree samples are 11,907??31 to 11,650??5014C yr BP. Wiggle matching of dated tree-ring segments to radiocarbon calibration data sets dates the landslide occurrence at ca. 13,520+95/??20calyr BP. Ages of shells juxtaposed with the logs are 12,850??6514C yr BP (Mytilus edulis) and 12,800??5514C yr BP (Balanus sp.), indicating a marine reservoir age of about 1000yr. Using this value to correct previously published radiocarbon ages reduces the discrepancy between the Maine deglaciation chronology and the varve-based chronology elsewhere in New England. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  6. Increased snow contribution to Arctic sea ice mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granskog, M. A.; Rösel, A.; Provost, C.; Sennechael, N.; Dodd, P. A.; Martma, T.; Leng, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally snow on Arctic sea ice has not been considered as a significant component of the mass balance of the (solid) ice cover, due to the low snow to ice thickness ratio. In contrast, snow contributes significantly to the mass balance of Antarctic sea ice due to thinner seasonal ice and thicker snow cover, similar to Arctic marginal seas, such as the Baltic and Okhotsk seas. Recent observations from the N-ICE2015 campaign, conducted in January-June 2015 in the rather thin ice pack north of Svalbard, imply that with a thinning of the Arctic ice pack, snow turned into ice, either as refrozen snow meltwater at the ice surface (superimposed ice) or snow-ice formed due to flooding of the bottom of the snow pack by seawater, can contribute significantly to Arctic sea ice mass balance. We provide evidence from both sea ice cores (from textural and isotope data) and ice mass balance buoys (IMB) with thermistor chains using a heating cycle to detect different media (air/snow/ice/water). Observations indicate that snow-ice or superimposed ice has formed in fall/winter likely when the ice was thin due to summer melt and heavy snow fall early in the freezing season. IMB records from winter/spring showcase the rapid formation of snow-ice due to flooding by seawater after re-adjustment of isostacy in response to: i) deformation events (likely related to changes in floe size) and ii) bottom ice melt over warmer Atlantic waters north of Svalbard. In summary the new data indicate that snow-ice or superimposed can contribute up to about 30% of total sea ice thickness, unprecedented from any earlier records in the high-Arctic.

  7. Improved Snow Mapping Accuracy with Revised MODIS Snow Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    The MODIS snow cover products have been used in over 225 published studies. From those reports, and our ongoing analysis, we have learned about the accuracy and errors in the snow products. Revisions have been made in the algorithms to improve the accuracy of snow cover detection in Collection 6 (C6), the next processing/reprocessing of the MODIS data archive planned to start in September 2012. Our objective in the C6 revision of the MODIS snow-cover algorithms and products is to maximize the capability to detect snow cover while minimizing snow detection errors of commission and omission. While the basic snow detection algorithm will not change, new screens will be applied to alleviate snow detection commission and omission errors, and only the fractional snow cover (FSC) will be output (the binary snow cover area (SCA) map will no longer be included).

  8. Hydrate Formation in Gas-Rich Marine Sediments: A Grain-Scale Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzman, R.; Juanes, R.

    2009-12-01

    We present a grain-scale model of marine sediment, which couples solid- and multiphase fluid-mechanics together with hydrate kinetics. The model is applied to investigate the spatial distribution of the different methane phases - gas and hydrate - within the hydrate stability zone. Sediment samples are generated from three-dimensional packs of spherical grains, mapping the void space into a pore network by tessellation. Gas invasion into the water-saturated sample is simulated by invasion-percolation, coupled with a discrete element method that resolves the grain mechanics. The coupled model accounts for forces exerted by the fluids, including cohesion associated with gas-brine surface tension. Hydrate growth is represented by a hydrate film along the gas-brine interface, which increases sediment cohesion by cementing the grain contacts. Our model of hydrate growth includes the possible rupture of the hydrate layer, which leads to the creation of new gas-water interface. In previous work, we have shown that fine-grained sediments (FGS) exhibit greater tendency to fracture, whereas capillary invasion is the preferred mode of methane gas transport in coarse-grained sediments (CGS). The gas invasion pattern has profound consequences on the hydrate distribution: a larger area-to-volume ratio of the gas cluster leads to a larger drop in gas pressure inside the growing hydrate shell, causing it to rupture. Repeated cycles of imbibition and hydrate growth accompanied by trapping of gas allow us to determine the distribution of hydrate and gas within the sediment as a function of time. Our pore-scale model suggests that, even when film rupture takes place, the conversion of gas to hydrate is slow. This explains two common field observations: the coexistence of gas and hydrate within the hydrate stability zone in CGS, and the high methane fluxes through fracture conduits in FGS. These results demonstrate the importance of accounting for the strong coupling among multiphase

  9. Sedimentology of the fluvial and fluvio-marine facies of the Bahariya Formation (Early Cenomanian), Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, M. A.; Catuneanu, O.

    2008-05-01

    The Lower Cenomanian Bahariya Formation in the Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt, was deposited under two coeval environmental conditions. A fully fluvial system occurs in the southern portion of the Bahariya Oasis, including depositional products of meandering and braided streams, and a coeval fluvio-marine setting is dominant to the north. These deposits are organized into four unconformity-bounded depositional sequences, whose architecture is shaped by a complex system of incised valleys. The fluvial portion of the lower two depositional sequences is dominated by low-energy, meandering systems with a tabular geometry, dominated by overbank facies. The fluvial deposits of the upper two sequences represent the product of sedimentation within braided streams, and consist mainly of amalgamated channel-fills. The braided fluvial systems form the fill of incised valleys whose orientation follows a southeast-northwest trending direction, and which truncate the underlying sequences. Four sedimentary facies have been identified within the braided-channel systems, namely thin-laminated sandstones (Sh), cross-bedded sandstones (Sp, St), massive ferruginous sandstones (Sm) and variegated mudstones (Fm). The exposed off-channel overbank facies of the meandering systems include floodplain (Fm) and crevasse splay (Sl) facies. The fluvio-marine depositional systems consist of interbedded floodplain, coastal and shallow-marine deposits. The floodplain facies include fine-grained sandstones (Sf), laminated siltstones (Stf) and mudstones (Mf) that show fining-upward cycles. The coastal to shallow-marine facies consist primarily of mudstones (Mc) and glauconitic sandstones (Gc) organized vertically in coarsening-upward prograding cyclothems topped by thin crusts of ferricrete (Fc). The four depositional sequences are present across the Bahariya Oasis, albeit with varying degrees of preservation related to post-depositional erosion associated with the formation of sequence

  10. Organic geochemical characterisation of shallow marine Cretaceous formations from Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Abubakar, M. B.; Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Jauro, Aliyu; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode

    2016-05-01

    The shallow marine shales of the Cretaceous formations namely Yolde, Dukul, Jessu, Sekuliye and Numanha ranging in age from Cenomanian to Coniacian within the Yola Sub-basin in the Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were analysed to provide an overview on their hydrocarbon generation potential. This study is based on pyrolysis analysis, total organic carbon content (TOC), extractable organic matter (EOM), biomarker distributions and measured vitrinite reflectance. The present-day TOC contents range between 0.24 and 0.71 wt. % and Hydrogen Index (HI) values between 8.7 and 113 mg HC/g TOC with Type III/IV kerogens. Based on the present-day kerogen typing, the shale sediments are expected to generate mainly gas. Biomarker compositions indicates deposition in a marine environment under suboxic conditions with prevalent contribution of aquatic organic matter and a significant amount of terrigenous organic matter input. Organic matter that is dominated by marine components contains kerogens of Type II and Type II-III. This study shows that the organic matter has been affected by volcanic intrusion and consequently, have reached post-mature stage of oil generation. These higher thermal maturities levels are consistent with the vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.85 to 2.35 Ro % and high Tmax (440-508 °C) values as supported by biomarker maturity ratios. Based on this study, a high prospect for major gas and minor oil generation potential is anticipated from the shallow marine Cretaceous formations from Yola Sub-basin.

  11. Make Your Own Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robeck, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Children love snow days, even when they come during the warmest weather. In this lesson the snow isn't falling outside, it's in the classroom--thanks to "Snowflake Bentley" (Briggs Martin 1998) and several models of snowflakes. A lesson on snow demonstrates several principles of practice for using models in elementary science. Focusing on snow was…

  12. Make Your Own Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robeck, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Children love snow days, even when they come during the warmest weather. In this lesson the snow isn't falling outside, it's in the classroom--thanks to "Snowflake Bentley" (Briggs Martin 1998) and several models of snowflakes. A lesson on snow demonstrates several principles of practice for using models in elementary science. Focusing on snow was…

  13. A minute ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheromatidae) from the Miocene Solimões Formation (western Amazonia, Brazil): evidence for marine incursions?

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F; Piller, Werner E

    2016-07-02

    A huge wetland (the 'Pebas system') covered western Amazonia during the Miocene, hosting a highly diverse and endemic aquatic fauna. One of the most contentious issues concerns the existence, potential pathways and effects of marine incursions on this ecosystem. Palaeontological evidences (body fossils) are rare. The finding of a new, presumably marine ostracod species (Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov.) in the upper middle Miocene Solimões Formation initiated a taxonomic, ecological and biogeographical review of the genus Pellucistoma. We demonstrate that this marine (sublittoral, euhaline), subtropical-tropical taxon is biogeographically confined to the Americas. The biogeographical distribution of Pellucistoma largely depends on geographical, thermal and osmotic barriers (e.g. land bridges, deep and/or cold waters, sea currents, salinity). We assume an Oligocene/early Miocene, Caribbean origin for Pellucistoma and outline the dispersal of hitherto known species up to the Holocene. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. is dwarfed in comparison to all other species of this genus and extremely thin-shelled. This is probably related to poorly oxygenated waters and, in particular, to strongly reduced salinity. The associated ostracod fauna (dominated by the eurypotent Cyprideis and a few, also stunted ostracods of possibly marine ancestry) supports this claim. Geochemical analyses (δ(18)O, δ(13)C) on co-occurring ostracod valves (Cyprideis spp.) yielded very light values, indicative of a freshwater setting. These observations point to a successful adaptation of P. curupira sp. nov. to freshwater conditions and therefore do not signify the presence of marine water. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. shows closest affinities to Caribbean species. We hypothesize that Pellucistoma reached northern South America (Llanos Basin) during marine incursions in the early Miocene. While larger animals of marine origin (e.g. fishes, dolphins, manatees) migrated actively into the Pebas

  14. A minute ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheromatidae) from the Miocene Solimões Formation (western Amazonia, Brazil): evidence for marine incursions?

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-01-01

    A huge wetland (the ‘Pebas system’) covered western Amazonia during the Miocene, hosting a highly diverse and endemic aquatic fauna. One of the most contentious issues concerns the existence, potential pathways and effects of marine incursions on this ecosystem. Palaeontological evidences (body fossils) are rare. The finding of a new, presumably marine ostracod species (Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov.) in the upper middle Miocene Solimões Formation initiated a taxonomic, ecological and biogeographical review of the genus Pellucistoma. We demonstrate that this marine (sublittoral, euhaline), subtropical–tropical taxon is biogeographically confined to the Americas. The biogeographical distribution of Pellucistoma largely depends on geographical, thermal and osmotic barriers (e.g. land bridges, deep and/or cold waters, sea currents, salinity). We assume an Oligocene/early Miocene, Caribbean origin for Pellucistoma and outline the dispersal of hitherto known species up to the Holocene. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. is dwarfed in comparison to all other species of this genus and extremely thin-shelled. This is probably related to poorly oxygenated waters and, in particular, to strongly reduced salinity. The associated ostracod fauna (dominated by the eurypotent Cyprideis and a few, also stunted ostracods of possibly marine ancestry) supports this claim. Geochemical analyses (δ18O, δ13C) on co-occurring ostracod valves (Cyprideis spp.) yielded very light values, indicative of a freshwater setting. These observations point to a successful adaptation of P. curupira sp. nov. to freshwater conditions and therefore do not signify the presence of marine water. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. shows closest affinities to Caribbean species. We hypothesize that Pellucistoma reached northern South America (Llanos Basin) during marine incursions in the early Miocene. While larger animals of marine origin (e.g. fishes, dolphins, manatees) migrated actively into the Pebas

  15. Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) promotes the adhesion of marine bacteria and algae and enhances following biofilm formation in artificial seawater.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jinpeng; Abdoli, Leila; Li, Hua

    2016-10-01

    Adhesion of microorganisms in the marine environment is essential for initiation and following development of biofouling. A variety of factors play roles in regulating the adhesion. Here we report the influence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in artificial seawater on attachment and colonization of Bacillus sp., Chlorella and Phaeodactylum tricornutum on silicon wafer. Extra addition of the typical divalent cations in culturing solution gives rise to significantly enhanced adhesion of the microorganisms. Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) affect the adhesion of Bacillus sp. presumably by regulating aggregation and formation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The ions alter quantity and types of the proteins in EPS, in turn affecting subsequent adhesion. However, it is noted that Mg(2+) promotes adhesion of Chlorella likely by regulating EPS formation and polysaccharide synthesis. Ca(2+) plays an important role in protein expression to enhance the adhesion of Chlorella. For Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Ca(2+) expedites protein synthesis for enhanced adhesion. The results shed some light on effective ways of utilizing divalent cations to mediate formation of biofilms on the marine structures for desired performances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Miocene chondrichthyans from the Culebra Formation, Panama: A window into marine vertebrate faunas before closure the Central American Seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimiento, Catalina; Gonzalez-Barba, Gerardo; Hendy, Austin J. W.; Jaramillo, Carlos; MacFadden, Bruce J.; Montes, Camilo; Suarez, Sandra C.; Shippritt, Monica

    2013-03-01

    The newly described chondrichthyan fauna of the early Miocene Culebra Formation of Panama provides insight into the marine vertebrates occupying shallow seas adjacent to the Central American Seaway, prior to the rise of the Isthmus of Panama. This study takes advantage of a time-limited and unique opportunity to recover fossil from renewed excavations of the Panama Canal. The chondrichthyan fauna of the Culebra Formation is composed of teeth and vertebral centra representing 12 taxa. The species found possessed a cosmopolitan tropical and warm-temperate distribution during the early Neogene and are similar to other assemblages of the tropical eastern Pacific and southern Caribbean. The taxa described suggest a neritic environment, and is in contrast with other interpretations that proposed bathyal water depths for the upper member of the Culebra Formation. The wide depth range of the most common species, Carcharocles chubutensis, and the habitat preference of Pristis sp., suggests varied marine environments, from deep, to shallow waters, close to emerged areas of the evolving isthmus.

  17. Formation mechanism of authigenic gypsum in marine methane hydrate settings: Evidence from the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qi; Wang, Jiasheng; Algeo, Thomas J.; Su, Pibo; Hu, Gaowei

    2016-09-01

    During the last decade, gypsum has been discovered widely in marine methane hydrate-bearing sediments. However, whether this gypsum is an in-situ authigenic precipitate remains controversial. The GMGS2 expedition carried out in 2013 by the Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey (GMGS) in the northern South China Sea provided an excellent opportunity for investigating the formation of authigenic minerals and, in particular, the relationship between gypsum and methane hydrate. In this contribution, we analyzed the morphology and sulfur isotope composition of gypsum and authigenic pyrite as well as the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of authigenic carbonate in a drillcore from Site GMGS2-08. These methane-derived carbonates have characteristic carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions (δ13C: -57.9‰ to -27.3‰ VPDB; δ18O: +1.0‰ to +3.8‰ VPDB) related to upward seepage of methane following dissociation of underlying methane hydrates since the Late Pleistocene. Our data suggest that gypsum in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) of this core precipitated as in-situ authigenic mineral. Based on its sulfur isotopic composition, the gypsum sulfur is a mixture of sulfate derived from seawater and from partial oxidation of authigenic pyrite. Porewater Ca2+ ions for authigenic gypsum were likely generated from carbonate dissolution through acidification produced by oxidation of authigenic pyrite and ion exclusion during methane hydrate formation. This study thus links the formation mechanism of authigenic gypsum with the oxidation of authigenic pyrite and evolution of underlying methane hydrates. These findings suggest that authigenic gypsum may be a useful proxy for recognition of SMTZs and methane hydrate zones in modern and ancient marine methane hydrate geo-systems.

  18. In Situ Settling Behavior of Marine Snow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    used the Corey shape Methods factor (CSF) (Albertson 1953; see McNown Theoretical considerations-When a par- and Malaika 1950): ticle settles at a...Pr)g = I/CDAP( U2 (1) the closer to 0 CSF becomes. McNown and where Vis the volume of the particle in cm 3 , Malaika (1950) found that the ratio of...particle shape on it can be found U = (2gApV/pICIA)’I (2) elsewhere (McNown and Malaika 1950; Davis 1979; Hutchinson 1967). For ellip- where Ap = (p, - p

  19. Marine Engine Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien de bateaux a moteur. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for marine engine mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are designed…

  20. [Effects of snow cover on water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ya; Yang, Wan-Qin; Li, Han; Ni, Xiang-Yin; He, Jie; Wu, Fu-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal snow cover may change the characteristics of freezing, leaching and freeze-thaw cycles in the scenario of climate change, and then play important roles in the dynamics of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in the alpine forest. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was conducted in an alpine forest in western Sichuan, China. The foliar litterbags of typical tree species (birch, cypress, larch and fir) and shrub species (willow and azalea) were placed on the forest floor under different snow cover thickness (deep snow, medium snow, thin snow and no snow). The litterbags were sampled at snow formation stage, snow cover stage and snow melting stage in winter. The results showed that the content of water soluble components from six foliar litters decreased at snow formation stage and snow melting stage, but increased at snow cover stage as litter decomposition proceeded in the winter. Besides the content of organic solvent soluble components from azalea foliar litter increased at snow cover stage, the content of organic solvent soluble components from the other five foliar litters kept a continue decreasing tendency in the winter. Compared with the content of organic solvent soluble components, the content of water soluble components was affected more strongly by snow cover thickness, especially at snow formation stage and snow cover stage. Compared with the thicker snow covers, the thin snow cover promoted the decrease of water soluble component contents from willow and azalea foliar litter and restrain the decrease of water soluble component content from cypress foliar litter. Few changes in the content of water soluble components from birch, fir and larch foliar litter were observed under the different thicknesses of snow cover. The results suggested that the effects of snow cover on the contents of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during litter decomposition would be controlled by

  1. The Snow Must Go On: Ground Ice Encasement, Snow Compaction and Absence of Snow Differently Cause Soil Hypoxia, CO2 Accumulation and Tree Seedling Damage in Boreal Forest.

    PubMed

    Martz, Françoise; Vuosku, Jaana; Ovaskainen, Anu; Stark, Sari; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    At high latitudes, the climate has warmed at twice the rate of the global average with most changes observed in autumn, winter and spring. Increasing winter temperatures and wide temperature fluctuations are leading to more frequent rain-on-snow events and freeze-thaw cycles causing snow compaction and formation of ice layers in the snowpack, thus creating ice encasement (IE). By decreasing the snowpack insulation capacity and restricting soil-atmosphere gas exchange, modification of the snow properties may lead to colder soil but also to hypoxia and accumulation of trace gases in the subnivean environment. To test the effects of these overwintering conditions changes on plant winter survival and growth, we established a snow manipulation experiment in a coniferous forest in Northern Finland with Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. In addition to ambient conditions and prevention of IE, we applied three snow manipulation levels: IE created by artificial rain-on-snow events, snow compaction and complete snow removal. Snow removal led to deeper soil frost during winter, but no clear effect of IE or snow compaction done in early winter was observed on soil temperature. Hypoxia and accumulation of CO2 were highest in the IE plots but, more importantly, the duration of CO2 concentration above 5% was 17 days in IE plots compared to 0 days in ambient plots. IE was the most damaging winter condition for both species, decreasing the proportion of healthy seedlings by 47% for spruce and 76% for pine compared to ambient conditions. Seedlings in all three treatments tended to grow less than seedlings in ambient conditions but only IE had a significant effect on spruce growth. Our results demonstrate a negative impact of winter climate change on boreal forest regeneration and productivity. Changing snow conditions may thus partially mitigate the positive effect of increasing growing season temperatures on boreal forest productivity.

  2. The Snow Must Go On: Ground Ice Encasement, Snow Compaction and Absence of Snow Differently Cause Soil Hypoxia, CO2 Accumulation and Tree Seedling Damage in Boreal Forest

    PubMed Central

    Vuosku, Jaana; Ovaskainen, Anu; Stark, Sari; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    At high latitudes, the climate has warmed at twice the rate of the global average with most changes observed in autumn, winter and spring. Increasing winter temperatures and wide temperature fluctuations are leading to more frequent rain-on-snow events and freeze-thaw cycles causing snow compaction and formation of ice layers in the snowpack, thus creating ice encasement (IE). By decreasing the snowpack insulation capacity and restricting soil-atmosphere gas exchange, modification of the snow properties may lead to colder soil but also to hypoxia and accumulation of trace gases in the subnivean environment. To test the effects of these overwintering conditions changes on plant winter survival and growth, we established a snow manipulation experiment in a coniferous forest in Northern Finland with Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. In addition to ambient conditions and prevention of IE, we applied three snow manipulation levels: IE created by artificial rain-on-snow events, snow compaction and complete snow removal. Snow removal led to deeper soil frost during winter, but no clear effect of IE or snow compaction done in early winter was observed on soil temperature. Hypoxia and accumulation of CO2 were highest in the IE plots but, more importantly, the duration of CO2 concentration above 5% was 17 days in IE plots compared to 0 days in ambient plots. IE was the most damaging winter condition for both species, decreasing the proportion of healthy seedlings by 47% for spruce and 76% for pine compared to ambient conditions. Seedlings in all three treatments tended to grow less than seedlings in ambient conditions but only IE had a significant effect on spruce growth. Our results demonstrate a negative impact of winter climate change on boreal forest regeneration and productivity. Changing snow conditions may thus partially mitigate the positive effect of increasing growing season temperatures on boreal forest productivity. PMID:27254100

  3. Snow cover data derived from MODIS for water balance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, A.; Bárdossy, A.

    2009-02-01

    Snow cover information is of central importance for the estimation of water storage in cold mountainous regions. It is difficult to assess distributed snow cover information in a catchment in order to estimate possible water resources. It is especially a challenge to obtain snow cover information for high mountainous areas. Usually, snow depth is measured at meteorological stations, and it is relatively difficult to extrapolate this spatially or temporally since it highly depends on available energy and topography. The snow coverage of a catchment gives detailed information about the catchment's potential source for water. Many regions lack meteorological stations that measure snow, and usually no stations are available at high elevations. Satellite information is a very valuable source for obtaining several environmental parameters. One of the advantages is that the data is mostly provided in a spatially distributed format. This study uses satellite data to estimate snow coverage on high mountainous areas. Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover data is used in the Kokcha Catchment located in the north-eastern part of Afghanistan. The main disadvantage of MODIS data that restricts its direct use in environmental applications is cloud coverage. This is why this study is focused on eliminating cloud covered cells and estimating cell information under cloud covered cells using six logical, spatial and temporal approaches. The results give total cloud removal and mapping of snow cover for the study areas.

  4. Scales of snow depth variability in high elevation rangeland sagebrush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesche, Molly E.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Meiman, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    In high elevation semi-arid rangelands, sagebrush and other shrubs can affect transport and deposition of wind-blown snow, enabling the formation of snowdrifts. Datasets from three field experiments were used to investigate the scales of spatial variability of snow depth around big mountain sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at a high elevation plateau rangeland in North Park, Colorado, during the winters of 2002, 2003, and 2008. Data were collected at multiple resolutions (0.05 to 25 m) and extents (2 to 1000 m). Finer scale data were collected specifically for this study to examine the correlation between snow depth, sagebrush microtopography, the ground surface, and the snow surface, as well as the temporal consistency of snow depth patterns. Variograms were used to identify the spatial structure and the Moran's I statistic was used to determine the spatial correlation. Results show some temporal consistency in snow depth at several scales. Plot scale snow depth variability is partly a function of the nature of individual shrubs, as there is some correlation between the spatial structure of snow depth and sagebrush, as well as between the ground and snow depth. The optimal sampling resolution appears to be 25-cm, but over a large area, this would require a multitude of samples, and thus a random stratified approach is recommended with a fine measurement resolution of 5-cm.

  5. Snow In the Sahara

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    In December 2016, snow fell in the Sahara for the first time since 1979. In 1984, the charitable supergroup Band Aid sang: “There won’t be snow in Africa this Christmas time.” In fact, it does snow in Africa at high elevations. Kilimanjaro has long had a cap of snow and ice, though it has been shrinking. Skiiers travel for natural and manufactured snow in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco and Algeria, as well as a few spots in South Africa and Lesotho. Nonetheless, snow on the edge of the Sahara Desert is rare. On December 19, 2016, snow fell on the Algerian town of Ain Sefra, which is sometimes referred to as the “gateway to the desert.” The town of roughly 35,000 people sits between the Atlas Mountains and the northern edge of the Sahara. The last recorded snowfall in Ain Sefra occurred in February 1979. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) on the Landsat 7 satellite acquired this natural-color image of snow in North Africa on December 19, 2016. This scene shows an area near the border of Morocco and Algeria, south of the city of Bouarfa and southwest of Ain Sefra. Though the news has been dominated by snow in the Saharan city, a review of several years of satellite data suggests that snow is also pretty rare in this section of the Atlas range. Read more: go.nasa.gov/2hIH4Xe NASA Earth Observatory image by Joshua Stevens, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Caption by Mike Carlowicz. b>NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. Leads in Arctic pack ice enable early phytoplankton blooms below snow-covered sea ice

    PubMed Central

    Assmy, Philipp; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Duarte, Pedro; Meyer, Amelie; Randelhoff, Achim; Mundy, Christopher J.; Olsen, Lasse M.; Kauko, Hanna M.; Bailey, Allison; Chierici, Melissa; Cohen, Lana; Doulgeris, Anthony P.; Ehn, Jens K.; Fransson, Agneta; Gerland, Sebastian; Hop, Haakon; Hudson, Stephen R.; Hughes, Nick; Itkin, Polona; Johnsen, Geir; King, Jennifer A.; Koch, Boris P.; Koenig, Zoe; Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Laney, Samuel R.; Nicolaus, Marcel; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Polashenski, Christopher M.; Provost, Christine; Rösel, Anja; Sandbu, Marthe; Spreen, Gunnar; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Sundfjord, Arild; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef; Wagner, Penelope M.; Wold, Anette; Steen, Harald; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic icescape is rapidly transforming from a thicker multiyear ice cover to a thinner and largely seasonal first-year ice cover with significant consequences for Arctic primary production. One critical challenge is to understand how productivity will change within the next decades. Recent studies have reported extensive phytoplankton blooms beneath ponded sea ice during summer, indicating that satellite-based Arctic annual primary production estimates may be significantly underestimated. Here we present a unique time-series of a phytoplankton spring bloom observed beneath snow-covered Arctic pack ice. The bloom, dominated by the haptophyte algae Phaeocystis pouchetii, caused near depletion of the surface nitrate inventory and a decline in dissolved inorganic carbon by 16 ± 6 g C m−2. Ocean circulation characteristics in the area indicated that the bloom developed in situ despite the snow-covered sea ice. Leads in the dynamic ice cover provided added sunlight necessary to initiate and sustain the bloom. Phytoplankton blooms beneath snow-covered ice might become more common and widespread in the future Arctic Ocean with frequent lead formation due to thinner and more dynamic sea ice despite projected increases in high-Arctic snowfall. This could alter productivity, marine food webs and carbon sequestration in the Arctic Ocean. PMID:28102329

  7. Leads in Arctic pack ice enable early phytoplankton blooms below snow-covered sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmy, Philipp; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Duarte, Pedro; Meyer, Amelie; Randelhoff, Achim; Mundy, Christopher J.; Olsen, Lasse M.; Kauko, Hanna M.; Bailey, Allison; Chierici, Melissa; Cohen, Lana; Doulgeris, Anthony P.; Ehn, Jens K.; Fransson, Agneta; Gerland, Sebastian; Hop, Haakon; Hudson, Stephen R.; Hughes, Nick; Itkin, Polona; Johnsen, Geir; King, Jennifer A.; Koch, Boris P.; Koenig, Zoe; Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Laney, Samuel R.; Nicolaus, Marcel; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Polashenski, Christopher M.; Provost, Christine; Rösel, Anja; Sandbu, Marthe; Spreen, Gunnar; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Sundfjord, Arild; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef; Wagner, Penelope M.; Wold, Anette; Steen, Harald; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic icescape is rapidly transforming from a thicker multiyear ice cover to a thinner and largely seasonal first-year ice cover with significant consequences for Arctic primary production. One critical challenge is to understand how productivity will change within the next decades. Recent studies have reported extensive phytoplankton blooms beneath ponded sea ice during summer, indicating that satellite-based Arctic annual primary production estimates may be significantly underestimated. Here we present a unique time-series of a phytoplankton spring bloom observed beneath snow-covered Arctic pack ice. The bloom, dominated by the haptophyte algae Phaeocystis pouchetii, caused near depletion of the surface nitrate inventory and a decline in dissolved inorganic carbon by 16 ± 6 g C m-2. Ocean circulation characteristics in the area indicated that the bloom developed in situ despite the snow-covered sea ice. Leads in the dynamic ice cover provided added sunlight necessary to initiate and sustain the bloom. Phytoplankton blooms beneath snow-covered ice might become more common and widespread in the future Arctic Ocean with frequent lead formation due to thinner and more dynamic sea ice despite projected increases in high-Arctic snowfall. This could alter productivity, marine food webs and carbon sequestration in the Arctic Ocean.

  8. Leads in Arctic pack ice enable early phytoplankton blooms below snow-covered sea ice.

    PubMed

    Assmy, Philipp; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Duarte, Pedro; Meyer, Amelie; Randelhoff, Achim; Mundy, Christopher J; Olsen, Lasse M; Kauko, Hanna M; Bailey, Allison; Chierici, Melissa; Cohen, Lana; Doulgeris, Anthony P; Ehn, Jens K; Fransson, Agneta; Gerland, Sebastian; Hop, Haakon; Hudson, Stephen R; Hughes, Nick; Itkin, Polona; Johnsen, Geir; King, Jennifer A; Koch, Boris P; Koenig, Zoe; Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Laney, Samuel R; Nicolaus, Marcel; Pavlov, Alexey K; Polashenski, Christopher M; Provost, Christine; Rösel, Anja; Sandbu, Marthe; Spreen, Gunnar; Smedsrud, Lars H; Sundfjord, Arild; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef; Wagner, Penelope M; Wold, Anette; Steen, Harald; Granskog, Mats A

    2017-01-19

    The Arctic icescape is rapidly transforming from a thicker multiyear ice cover to a thinner and largely seasonal first-year ice cover with significant consequences for Arctic primary production. One critical challenge is to understand how productivity will change within the next decades. Recent studies have reported extensive phytoplankton blooms beneath ponded sea ice during summer, indicating that satellite-based Arctic annual primary production estimates may be significantly underestimated. Here we present a unique time-series of a phytoplankton spring bloom observed beneath snow-covered Arctic pack ice. The bloom, dominated by the haptophyte algae Phaeocystis pouchetii, caused near depletion of the surface nitrate inventory and a decline in dissolved inorganic carbon by 16 ± 6 g C m(-2). Ocean circulation characteristics in the area indicated that the bloom developed in situ despite the snow-covered sea ice. Leads in the dynamic ice cover provided added sunlight necessary to initiate and sustain the bloom. Phytoplankton blooms beneath snow-covered ice might become more common and widespread in the future Arctic Ocean with frequent lead formation due to thinner and more dynamic sea ice despite projected increases in high-Arctic snowfall. This could alter productivity, marine food webs and carbon sequestration in the Arctic Ocean.

  9. Mollusks of the Upper Jurassic (upper Oxfordian-lower Kimmeridgian) shallow marine Minas Viejas Formation, northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, Patrick; Beckmann, Seija; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Götte, Martin

    2015-10-01

    We present the first systematic description of Late Jurassic (late Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian) invertebrates from the shallow marine Minas Viejas Formation of northeastern Mexico. The unit was generally considered to be extremely poor in fossils, due to an overall evaporitic character. The collection described here includes three taxa of ammonites, 10 taxa of bivalves and five taxa of gastropods. The fossils were discovered near Galeana and other localities in southern Nuevo León and northeastern San Luis Potosí, in thin-bedded marly limestones intercalated between gypsum units. Due to complex internal deformation of the sediments, fossils used for this study cannot be assigned to precise layers of origin. However, the taxa identified suggest a Late Jurassic (late Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian) age for these fossil-bearing layers and allow us, for the first time, to assign a biostratigraphic age to Upper Jurassic strata in the region underlying the La Caja and La Casita formations.

  10. Origin of ferricretes in fluvial-marine deposits of the Lower Cenomanian Bahariya Formation, Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Lawrence H.; Khalifa, Mohamed A.

    2010-03-01

    The type section of the Lower Cenomanian Bahariya Formation at Gebel El-Dist (Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert), Egypt, comprises claystones, mudstones, siltstones and sandstones deposited in fluvial-deltaic coastal plain, lagoonal, estuarine and shallow marine environments. The formation is characterized by an abundance of ferruginous sandstones that locally weather to form prominent iron crusts. These centimeter to decimeter-scale ferruginous horizons display a continuum of features ranging from unaltered sandstone with a pervasive ferruginous matrix to distinct ironstone beds with massive, nodular, vesicular and pisolitic textures. Ferruginous sandstone typically occurs at the tops of sandstone beds, or bracketing the base and top of beds, in the fining-upward cycles of deltaic plain deposits in the lower part of the formation and on a low-energy fluvial floodplain in the middle of the formation. Indurated ironstone beds occur mainly as the caps of coarsening-upward cycles of prograding shoreface sediments through much of the formation. We interpret the ironstone crusts as ferricretes, formed by iron accumulation that resulted from the oxidation and precipitation of soluble iron or colloids transported in the sediment load or by groundwater. This accumulation possibly took place at the water table or possibly below the water table at the fresh water/saline water interface. However, base-level fall and subsequent subaerial exposure of the sediments resulted in reworking and pedogenic modification of some of the iron-impregnated horizons.

  11. BOREAS HYD-3 Snow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Janet P.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Davis, Robert E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-3 team collected several data sets related to the hydrology of forested areas. This data set contains measurements of snow depth, snow density in three cm intervals, an integrated snow pack density and snow water equivalent (SWE), and snow pack physical properties from snow pit evaluation taken in 1994 and 1996. The data were collected from several sites in both the southern study area (SSA) and the northern study area (NSA). A variety of standard tools were used to measure the snow pack properties, including a meter stick (snow depth), a 100 cc snow density cutter, a dial stem thermometer, and the Canadian snow sampler as used by HYD-4 to obtain a snow pack-integrated measure of SWE. This study was undertaken to predict spatial distributions of snow properties important to the hydrology, remote sensing signatures, and the transmissivity of gases through the snow. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The snow measurement data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  12. Physiology, Fe(II) oxidation, and Fe mineral formation by a marine planktonic cyanobacterium grown under ferruginous conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanner, Elizabeth; Wu, Wenfang; Hao, Likai; Wuestner, Marina; Obst, Martin; Moran, Dawn; McIlvin, Matthew; Saito, Mak; Kappler, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Evidence for Fe(II) oxidation and deposition of Fe(III)-bearing minerals from anoxic or redox-stratified Precambrian oceans has received support from decades of sedimentological and geochemical investigation of Banded Iron Formations (BIF). While the exact mechanisms of Fe(II) oxidation remains equivocal, reaction with O2 in the marine water column, produced by cyanobacteria or early oxygenic phototrophs, was likely. In order to understand the role of cyanobacteria in the deposition of Fe(III) minerals to BIF, we must first know how planktonic marine cyanobacteria respond to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe(II)-rich) waters in terms of growth, Fe uptake and homeostasis, and Fe mineral formation. We therefore grew the common marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002 in closed bottles that began anoxic, and contained Fe(II) concentrations that span the range of possible concentrations in Precambrian seawater. These results, along with cell suspension experiments, indicate that Fe(II) is likely oxidized by this strain via chemical oxidation with oxygen produced during photosynthesis, and not via any direct enzymatic or photosynthetic pathway. Imaging of the cell-mineral aggregates with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) are consistent with extracellular precipitation of Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide minerals, but that >10% of Fe(III) sorbs to cell surfaces rather than precipitating. Proteomic experiments support the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Fe(II) toxicity to Synechococcus PCC 7002. The proteome expressed under low Fe conditions included multiple siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore and Fe transporter proteins, but most siderophores are not expressed during growth with Fe(II). These results provide a mechanistic and quantitative framework for evaluating the geochemical consequences of perhaps life’s greatest metabolic innovation, i.e. the evolution and activity of oxygenic photosynthesis, in ferruginous

  13. Soluble, light-absorbing species in snow at Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beine, Harry; Anastasio, Cort; Esposito, Giulio; Patten, Kelley; Wilkening, Elizabeth; Domine, Florent; Voisin, Didier; Barret, Manuel; Houdier, Stephan; Hall, Sam

    2011-07-01

    As part of the international multidisciplinary Ocean - Atmosphere - Sea Ice - Snowpack (OASIS) program we analyzed more than 500 terrestrial (melted) snow samples near Barrow, AK between February and April 2009 for light absorption, as well as H2O2 and inorganic anion concentrations. For light absorption in the photochemically active region (300-450 nm) of surface snows, H2O2 and NO3- make minor contributions (combined < 9% typically), while HUmic LIke Substances (HULIS) and unknown chromophores each account for approximately half of the total absorption. We have identified four main sources for our residual chromophores (i.e., species other than H2O2 or NO3-): (1) vegetation and organic debris impact mostly the lowest 20 cm of the snowpack, (2) marine inputs, which are identified by high Cl- and SO42- contents, (3) deposition of diamond dust to surface snow, and (4) gas-phase exchange between the atmosphere and surface snow layers. The snow surfaces, and accompanying chromophore concentrations, are strongly modulated by winds and snowfall at Barrow. However, even with these physical controls on light absorption, we see an overall decline of light absorption in near-surface snow during the 7 weeks of our campaign, likely due to photo-bleaching of chromophores. While HULIS and unknown chromophores dominate light absorption by soluble species in Barrow snow, we know little about the photochemistry of these species, and thus we as a community are probably overlooking many snowpack photochemical reactions.

  14. Nordic Snow Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Pulliainen, Jouni; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Wiesmann, Andreas; Mätzler, Christian; Werner, Charles; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Schneebeli, Martin; Proksch, Martin; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Kern, Michael; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx) campaign was to provide a continuous time series of active and passive microwave observations of snow cover at a representative location of the Arctic boreal forest area, covering a whole winter season. The activity was a part of Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 candidate mission CoReH2O (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory). The NoSREx campaign, conducted at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC) in Sodankylä, Finland, hosted a frequency scanning scatterometer operating at frequencies from X- to Ku-band. The radar observations were complemented by a microwave dual-polarization radiometer system operating from X- to W-bands. In situ measurements consisted of manual snow pit measurements at the main test site as well as extensive automated measurements on snow, ground and meteorological parameters. This study provides a summary of the obtained data, detailing measurement protocols for each microwave instrument and in situ reference data. A first analysis of the microwave signatures against snow parameters is given, also comparing observed radar backscattering and microwave emission to predictions of an active/passive forward model. All data, including the raw data observations, are available for research purposes through the European Space Agency and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A consolidated dataset of observations, comprising the key microwave and in situ observations, is provided through the ESA campaign data portal to enable easy access to the data.

  15. Nutrition and Metabolism of Marine Bacteria XVI. Formation of Protoplasts, Spheroplasts, and Related Forms from a Gram-negative Marine Bacterium1

    PubMed Central

    Costerton, J. W.; Forsberg, Cecil; Matula, Tibor I.; Buckmire, F. L. A.; MacLeod, Robert A.

    1967-01-01

    When cells of a marine pseudomonad were washed and suspended in 0.5 m sucrose, they retained their rod shape, but thin sections, when examined in an electron microscope, revealed that the outer layer of the cell wall had separated a considerable distance from the cytoplasmic membrane. Treatment of such cells with lysozyme alone produced no obvious change, but treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) alone caused the outer wall to disappear. A combination of EDTA and lysozyme resulted in the rapid formation of spheres essentially free from hexosamine and indistinguishable from protoplasts of gram-positive bacteria. When cells were washed with 0.5 m NaCl and then suspended in 0.5 m sucrose, they also retained their rod shape, but in this case the outer layer separated from the cells completely and could be recovered from the suspending medium. Such cells were converted to protoplasts by the action of lysozyme alone. Cells washed and finally suspended in 0.5 m NaCl, when treated with EDTA and lysozyme, slowly became spherical. Thin sections revealed typical spheroplasts of gram-negative bacteria in which the outer wall remained intact. Protoplasts took up α-aminoisobutyric acid by a Na+-dependent process. Images PMID:4965199

  16. Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters

    PubMed Central

    Westrich, Jason R.; Ebling, Alina M.; Landing, William M.; Joyner, Jessica L.; Kemp, Keri M.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio is a ubiquitous genus of marine bacteria, typically comprising a small fraction of the total microbial community in surface waters, but capable of becoming a dominant taxon in response to poorly characterized factors. Iron (Fe), often restricted by limited bioavailability and low external supply, is an essential micronutrient that can limit Vibrio growth. Vibrio species have robust metabolic capabilities and an array of Fe-acquisition mechanisms, and are able to respond rapidly to nutrient influx, yet Vibrio response to environmental pulses of Fe remains uncharacterized. Here we examined the population growth of Vibrio after natural and simulated pulses of atmospherically transported Saharan dust, an important and episodic source of Fe to tropical marine waters. As a model for opportunistic bacterial heterotrophs, we demonstrated that Vibrio proliferate in response to a broad range of dust-Fe additions at rapid timescales. Within 24 h of exposure, strains of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus were able to directly use Saharan dust–Fe to support rapid growth. These findings were also confirmed with in situ field studies; arrival of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic coincided with high levels of dissolved Fe, followed by up to a 30-fold increase of culturable Vibrio over background levels within 24 h. The relative abundance of Vibrio increased from ∼1 to ∼20% of the total microbial community. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to describe Vibrio response to Saharan dust nutrients, having implications at the intersection of marine ecology, Fe biogeochemistry, and both human and environmental health. PMID:27162369

  17. Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westrich, Jason R.; Ebling, Alina M.; Landing, William M.; Joyner, Jessica L.; Kemp, Keri M.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio is a ubiquitous genus of marine bacteria, typically comprising a small fraction of the total microbial community in surface waters, but capable of becoming a dominant taxon in response to poorly characterized factors. Iron (Fe), often restricted by limited bioavailability and low external supply, is an essential micronutrient that can limit Vibrio growth. Vibrio species have robust metabolic capabilities and an array of Fe-acquisition mechanisms, and are able to respond rapidly to nutrient influx, yet Vibrio response to environmental pulses of Fe remains uncharacterized. Here we examined the population growth of Vibrioafter natural and simulated pulses of atmospherically transported Saharan dust, an important and episodic source of Fe to tropical marine waters. As a model for opportunistic bacterial heterotrophs, we demonstrated that Vibrio proliferate in response to a broad range of dust-Fe additions at rapid timescales. Within 24 h of exposure, strains of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus were able to directly use Saharan dust–Fe to support rapid growth. These findings were also confirmed with in situ field studies; arrival of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic coincided with high levels of dissolved Fe, followed by up to a 30-fold increase of culturable Vibrio over background levels within 24 h. The relative abundance of Vibrio increased from ∼1 to ∼20% of the total microbial community. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to describe Vibrio response to Saharan dust nutrients, having implications at the intersection of marine ecology, Fe biogeochemistry, and both human and environmental health.

  18. Rocky Mountain Snow

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired December 19, 2012 In time for the 2012 winter solstice, a storm dropped snow over most of the Rocky Mountains in the United States. On December 20, the National Weather Service reported snow depths exceeding 100 centimeters (39 inches) in some places—the result of the recent snowfall plus accumulation from earlier storms. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this natural-color image on December 19, 2012. Clouds had mostly cleared from the region, though some cloud cover lingered over parts of the Pacific Northwest and Colorado. Showing more distinct contours than the clouds, the snow cover stretched across the Rocky Mountains and the surrounding region, from Idaho to Arizona and from California to Colorado. Snowfall did not stop in Colorado, as the storm continued moving eastward across the Midwest. By December 20, 2012, a combination of heavy snow and strong winds had closed schools, iced roads, and delayed flights, complicating plans for holiday travelers. Though troublesome for travel, the snow brought much-needed moisture; multiple cities had set new records for consecutive days without measurable snow, CBS news reported. As of December 18, the U.S. Drought Monitor stated that a substantial portion of the continental United States continued to suffer from drought, and “exceptional” drought conditions extended from South Dakota to southern Texas. NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, LANCE MODIS Rapid Response. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: Aqua - MODIS To read more go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=80035 Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission

  19. Methymercury Formation in Marine and Freshwater Systems: Sediment Characteristics, Microbial Activity and SRB Phylogeny Control Formation Rates and Food-Chain Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. K.; Saunders, F. M.

    2004-05-01

    Mercury research in freshwater and marine systems suggests that sediment characteristics such as organic substrate, mercury speciation, and sulfate/sulfide concentrations influence availability of inorganic mercury for methylation. Similarly, sediment characteristics also influence sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) respiration as well as the presence/distribution of phylogenetic groups responsible for mercury methylation. Our work illustrates that the process of methylmercury formation in freshwater and marine systems are not dissimilar. Rather, the same geochemical parameters and SRB phylogenetic groups determine the propensity for methylmercury formation and are applicable in both fresh- and marine-water systems. The presentation will include our integration of sediment geochemical and microbial parameters affecting mercury methylation in specific freshwater and marine systems. Constructed wetlands planted with Schoenoplectus californicus and amended with gypsum (CaSO4) have demonstrated a capacity to remove inorganic mercury from industrial outfalls. However, bioaccumulation studies of periphyton, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) and lake chubsucker (Erimyzon sucetta) were conducted in order to ascertain the availability of wetland-generated methylmercury to biota. Total mercury concentrations in mosquitofish from non-sulfate treated controls and the reference location were significantly lower than those from the low and high sulfate treatments while mean total mercury concentrations in lake chubsuckers were also significantly elevated in the high sulfate treatment compared to the low sulfate, control and reference populations. Methylmercury concentrations in periphyton also corresponded with mercury levels found in the tissue of the lake chubsuckers, and these findings fit well given the trophic levels identified for both species of fish. Overall, data from this study suggest that the initial use of gypsum to accelerate the maturity of a constructed

  20. Recent research in snow hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff

    1987-01-01

    Recent work on snow-pack energy exchange has involved detailed investigations on snow albedo and attempts to integrate energy-balance calculations over drainage basins. Along with a better understanding of the EM properties of snow, research in remote sensing has become more focused toward estimation of snow-pack properties. In snow metamorphism, analyses of the physical processes must now be coupled to better descriptions of the geometry of the snow microstructure. The dilution method now appears to be the best direct technique for measuring the liquid water content of snow; work on EM methods continues. Increasing attention to the chemistry of the snow pack has come with the general focus on acid precipitation in hydrology.

  1. Secrets of Snow Liveshot Recap

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Research Physical Scientist and Deputy Project Scientist for GPM Gail Skofronick-Jackson answers questions about the importance of studying snow from space, the impact of not enough snow, and the f...

  2. Bacterial characterization of the snow cover at Spitzberg, Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Amato, Pierre; Hennebelle, Raphaëlle; Magand, Olivier; Sancelme, Martine; Delort, Anne-Marie; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude; Ferrari, Christophe

    2007-02-01

    A sampling campaign was organized during spring 2004 in Spitzberg, Svalbard, in the area around the scientific base of Ny-Alesund, to characterize the snow pack bacterial population. Total bacteria counts were established by 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) in the seasonal snow pack bordering the sea. On the sea shore, bacterial concentration was about 6 x 10(4) cells mL(-1), without any significant variation according to depth. In the accumulation snow layer of the glacier, concentrations were about 2 x 10(4 )cells mL(-1), except in the 2003 summer layer, where it reached 2 x 10(5) cells mL(-1), as the result of cell multiplication allowed by higher temperature and snow melting. Strains isolated from the seasonal snow pack were identified from their 16S rRNA gene sequences, and lodged in GenBank. They belong to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They are closely related to cold environment bacteria, as revealed by phylogenetic tree constructions, and two appear to be of unknown affiliation. Using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, it was shown that these isolates have the capacity to degrade organic compounds found in Arctic snow (propionate, acetate and formate), and this can allow them to develop when snow melts, and thus to be actively involved in snow chemistry.

  3. Crystal growth of artificial snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, S.; Oka, A.; Taki, M.; Kuwano, R.; Ono, H.; Nagura, R.; Narimatsu, Y.; Tanii, J.; Kamimiytat, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Snow crystals were grown onboard the space shuttle during STS-7 and STS-8 to facilitate the investigation of crystal growth under conditions of weightlessness. The experimental design and hardware are described. Space-grown snow crystals were polyhedrons looking like spheres, which were unlike snow crystals produced in experiments on Earth.

  4. Lead contamination of urban snow.

    PubMed

    Grandstaff, D E; Myer, G H

    1979-01-01

    Lead content of newly fallen snow in an urban area ranges from 34 to 56 ppb. After falling, snow may incorporate major additional amounts of lead by dry deposition of lead aerosols from local sources. The highest concentration found was 2,700 ppb. Ingestion of lead-contaminated snow might pose a health hazard to inner city children.

  5. Monitoring and modelling snow avalanches in Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humlum, O.; Christiansen, H.; Neumann, U.; Eckerstorfer, M.; Sjöblom, A.; Stalsberg, K.; Rubensdotter, L.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring and modelling snow avalanches in Svalbard Ole Humlum 1,3, Hanne H. Christiansen 1, Ulrich Neumann 1, Markus Eckerstorfer 1, Anna Sjöblom 1, Knut Stalsberg 2 and Lena Rubensdotter 2. 1: The University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS). 2: Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) 3: University of Oslo Ground based transportation in Svalbard landscape all takes place across mountainous terrain affected by different geomorphological slope processes. Traffic in and around the Svalbard settlements is increasing, and at the same time global climate models project substantial increases in temperature and precipitation in northern high latitudes for coming century. Therefore improved knowledge on the effect of climatic changes on slope processes in such high arctic landscapes is becoming increasingly important. Motivated by this, the CRYOSLOPE Svalbard research project since 2007 has carried out field observations on snow avalanche frequency and associated meteorological conditions. Snow avalanches are important geomorphic agents of erosion and deposition, and have long been a source of natural disasters in many mid-latitude mountain areas. Avalanches as a natural hazard has thereby been familiar to inhabitants of the Alps and Scandinavia for centuries, while it is a more recent experience in high arctic Svalbard. In addition, overall climate, topography and especially high winter wind speeds makes it difficult to apply snow avalanche models (numerical or empirical) developed for use at lower latitudes, e.g. in central Europe. In the presentation we examplify results from the ongoing (since winter 2006-07) monitoring of snow avalanches in Svalbard along a 70 km long observational route in the mountains. In addition, we present observations on the geomorphological impact of avalanches, with special reference to the formation of rock glaciers. Finally, we also present some initial results from numerical attempts of snow avalanche risk modelling within the study area.

  6. Studies on Physical Properties of Snow Based on Multi Channel Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Takeda, K.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the data observed over a snow field with a breadboard model of MSR (microwave scanning radiometer) to be installed in MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1) indicates that: (1) the influence of incident angle on brightness temperature is larger in horizontal polarization component than in vertical polarization component. The effect of incident angle depends upon the property of snow with larger value for dry snow; (2) the difference of snow surface configuration consisting of artifically made parallel ditches of 5 cm depth and 5 cm width with spacing of 10 and 30 cm respectively which are oriented normal to electrical axis do not affect brightness temperature significantly; and (3) there is high negative correlation between brightness temperature and snow depth up to the depth of 70 cm which suggests that the snow depth can be measured with a two channel microwave radiometer up to this depth.

  7. Dry Snow Metamorphism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-19

    grained ice. The P.I. is studying ice and firn cores from Greenland and Antarctica under NSF funding using both these methods and a recently...Firn”, Rachel W. Obbard, Ian Baker and Rachel W. Lomonaco, Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers , V. Singh, P. Singh, and U. K. Haritashya (eds

  8. Snow White 5 Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera on the 35th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 34 (June 29, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White 5.' The trench is 4-to-5 centimeters (about 1.5-to-1.9 inches) deep, 24 centimeters (about 9 inches) wide and 33 centimeters (13 inches) long.

    Snow White 5 is Phoenix's current active digging area after additional trenching, grooming, and scraping by Phoenix's Robotic Arm in the last few sols to trenches informally called Snow White 1, 2, 3, and 4. Near the top center of the image is the Robotic Arm's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe.

    Snow White 5 is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.'

    This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Snow White 5 Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera on the 35th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 34 (June 29, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White 5.' The trench is 4-to-5 centimeters (about 1.5-to-1.9 inches) deep, 24 centimeters (about 9 inches) wide and 33 centimeters (13 inches) long.

    Snow White 5 is Phoenix's current active digging area after additional trenching, grooming, and scraping by Phoenix's Robotic Arm in the last few sols to trenches informally called Snow White 1, 2, 3, and 4. Near the top center of the image is the Robotic Arm's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe.

    Snow White 5 is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.'

    This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Formation of heterocyclic amines in Chinese marinated meat: effects of animal species and ingredients (rock candy, soy sauce and rice wine).

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Hong, Yanting; Ke, Weixin; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are one type of neo-formed contaminants in protein-rich foods during heat processing. Recently, accumulative studies have focused on the formation of HAs in Western foods. However, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of HAAs in traditional Chinese foods. The objective of this study was to determinate the contents of main HAs in traditional marinated meat products by UPLC-MS/MS, and to investigate the effects of animal species and the ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy, and rice wine) on the formation of HAAs in marinated meats. Five HAs - 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQ), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman) and l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman) - were detected in 12 marinated meats, but 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was only found in three chicken marinates. The animal species and ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy and rice wine) have significant influence on the formation of HAAs in meat marinates. Beef had the highest content of total HAAs compared with pork, mutton and chicken. Meanwhile, soy sauce contributed to the formation of HAAs more greatly than rock candy, soy sauce, and rice wine. Choice of raw materials and optimisation of ingredients recipe should be become a critical point to control the HAAs formation in marinated meats. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Molecular insights into the microbial formation of marine dissolved organic matter: recalcitrant or labile?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.; Witt, M.; Passow, U.

    2014-02-01

    The degradation of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important control variable in the global carbon cycle and dependent on the DOM composition. For our understanding of the kinetics of organic matter cycling in the ocean, it is therefore crucial to achieve a mechanistic and molecular understanding of its transformation processes. A long-term microbial experiment was performed to follow the production of non-labile DOM by marine bacteria. Two different glucose concentrations and dissolved algal exudates were used as substrates. We monitored the bacterial abundance, concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), nutrients, amino acids, and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) for two years. Ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) allowed the molecular characterization of extracted DOM after 70 days and after ∼2 years of incubation. Although glucose was quickly degraded, a DOC background was generated in glucose incubations. Only 20% of the organic carbon from algal exudate was degraded within the 2 years of incubation. TEP, which are released by micro-organisms, were produced during glucose degradation but decreased within less than three weeks back to half of the maximum concentration and were below detection in all treatments after 2 years. The molecular analysis demonstrated that DOM generated during glucose degradation differed appreciably from DOM produced during the degradation of the algal exudates. Our results led to several conclusions: (i) Higher substrate levels result in a higher level of non-labile DOC which is an important prerequisite for carbon sequestration in the ocean; (ii) TEP are generated by bacteria but are also degraded rapidly, thus limiting their potential contribution to carbon sequestration; (iii) The molecular signatures of DOM derived from algal exudates or glucose after 70 days of incubation differed strongly from refractory DOM. After 2 years

  12. Snow in Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired February 24, 2012 By late February, 2012, the great European cold wave had begun to loosen its frigid grip, but significant snow still remained in the region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite captured this true-color image of snow in Italy on February 24 at 12:35 UTC (1:30 p.m. local time). In the north of the image, bright white clouds blanket the region in a broad arc. Snow, which tends to be generally less bright that clouds, covers the Alps in the north of Italy. The Apennine Mountains, which form the backbone of the Italian peninsula, also carry a blanket of snow. Although clouds and snow can, at times, be distinguished visually in a true-color image, sometimes they can appear very similar. When it is important to clearly define snow from cloud, false color images are often helpful. Rome, which can be seen as a gray smudge on the southwestern coast of the peninsula, recorded highs of a spring-like 50°F the day this image was captured, but earlier in the month the temperatures dove as low as 26°F on February 5. During that cold snap a rare intense snowfall blanketed Rome, causing the closure of the Colosseum, the Roman Forum and the Palatine Hill due to concerns of the risk of icy footing for tourists, and roads became impassible. Further north, temperatures plummeted to −21 °C (−6 °F) on 7 February. On February 11, news media reported over 2 meters (6.5 feet) of snow had fallen in Urbino, a walled town situated on a high sloping hillside on the eastern side of the Apennine Mountains. That same snowfall cut access to many remote towns in the Apennines, blocking roads and trapping some people in the homes. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA

  13. Snow depth evolution on sea ice from Snow Buoy measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaus, M.; Arndt, S.; Hendricks, S.; Hoppmann, M.; Katlein, C.; König-Langlo, G.; Nicolaus, A.; Rossmann, H. L.; Schiller, M.; Schwegmann, S.; Langevin, D.

    2016-12-01

    Snow cover is an Essential Climate Variable. On sea ice, snow dominates the energy and momentum exchanges across the atmosphere-ice-ocean interfaces, and actively contributes to sea ice mass balance. Yet, snow depth on sea ice is one of the least known and most difficult to observe parameters of the Arctic and Antarctic; mainly due to its exceptionally high spatial and temporal variability. In this study; we present a unique time series dataset of snow depth and air temperature evolution on Arctic and Antarctic sea ice recorded by autonomous instruments. Snow Buoys record snow depth with four independent ultrasonic sensors, increasing the reliability of the measurements and allowing for additional analyses. Auxiliary measurements include surface and air temperature, barometric pressure and GPS position. 39 deployments of such Snow Buoys were achieved over the last three years either on drifting pack ice, on landfast sea ice or on an ice shelf. Here we highlight results from two pairs of Snow Buoys installed on drifting pack ice in the Weddell Sea. The data reveals large regional differences in the annual cycle of snow depth. Almost no reduction in snow depth (snow melt) was observed in the inner and southern part of the Weddell Sea, allowing a net snow accumulation of 0.2 to 0.9 m per year. In contrast, summer snow melt close to the ice edge resulted in a decrease of about 0.5 m during the summer 2015/16. Another array of eight Snow Buoys was installed on central Arctic sea ice in September 2015. Their air temperature record revealed exceptionally high air temperatures in the subsequent winter, even exceeding the melting point but with almost no impact on snow depth at that time. Future applications of Snow Buoys on Arctic and Antarctic sea ice will allow additional inter-annual studies of snow depth and snow processes, e.g. to support the development of snow depth data products from airborne and satellite data or though assimilation in numerical models.

  14. 'Snow Queen' Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animation consists of two close-up images of 'Snow Queen,' taken several days apart, by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    Snow Queen is the informal name for a patch of bright-toned material underneath the lander.

    Thruster exhaust blew away surface soil covering Snow Queen when Phoenix landed on May 25, 2008, exposing this hard layer comprising several smooth rounded cavities beneath the lander. The RAC images show how Snow Queen visibly changed between June 15, 2008, the 21st Martian day, or sol, of the mission and July 9, 2008, the 44th sol.

    Cracks as long as 10 centimeters (about four inches) appeared. One such crack is visible at the left third and the upper third of the Sol 44 image. A seven millimeter (one-third inch) pebble or clod appears just above and slightly to the right of the crack in the Sol 44 image. Cracks also appear in the lower part of the left third of the image. Other pieces noticeably shift, and some smooth texture has subtly roughened.

    The Phoenix team carefully positioned and focused RAC the same way in both images. Each image is about 60 centimeters, or about two feet, wide. The object protruding in from the top on the right half of the images is Phoenix's thermal and electrical conductivity probe.

    Snow Queen and other ice exposed by Phoenix landing and trenching operations on northern polar Mars is the first time scientists have been able to monitor Martian ice at a place where temperatures are cold enough that the ice doesn't immediately sublimate, or vaporize, away.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. PERSPECTIVE: Snow matters in the polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodeau, John

    2010-03-01

    Antarctica is not quite as chemically pristine as might sometimes be thought (Jones et al 2008). For example, as elsewhere, reduced sulfur species such as dimethylsulfide (DMS) are emitted from biogenic marine sources at the poles (Read et al 2008). Somewhat less well known is that inland (as opposed to coastal) field campaigns have also detected, within the Antarctic boundary layer (ABL), emissions containing unexpectedly high levels of diverse, oxidizing chemicals such as NOx, nitrate ions, formaldehyde, ozone and hydrogen peroxide (Honrath et al 1999, Hutterli et al 2004, Sumner and Shepson 1999). And then there are the halogen-containing compounds (Simpson et al 2007). The transformation of DMS to sulfate aerosols capable of acting as cloud condensation nuclei often proceeds via one main oxidized product of DMS, namely methanesulfonic acid (MSA). Two specific reactions have been well studied to date in this regard, namely DMS plus either OH or NO3 radicals. Corresponding reactions with halogen radicals, which also contribute to the oxidizing capacity of our atmosphere, have generally been considered to be of less importance. The reason for this view is that even though the reactivity of bromine- and iodine-containing radicals is much greater than that of OH, the halogens were thought to be relatively scarce in the polar atmosphere. However both BrO (and IO) have been detected in the Antarctic CHABLIS campaign, as discussed in depth in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics special issue of 2008, see Jones et al (2008). It was subsequently shown that calculated MSA production from the DMS/BrO reaction may be about an order of magnitude greater than when the OH radical was the oxidizing reactant. The recent analytical measurements by Antony et al (2010) of MSA, Br and NO3 found in snow along the Ingrid Christensen Coast of East Antarctica are important in the above field context. Hence it would appear that the concentrations of these ions in ice-cap sites are up

  16. Oil-suspended particulate matter aggregates: Formation mechanism and fate in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Andrew; Shim, Won Joon; Ha, Sung Yong; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2014-12-01

    Oil suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSA) are naturally occurring phenomena where oil droplets and particles interact to form aggregates. This aggregation could aid cleanup processes of oil contaminated waters. When OSA is formed, it makes oil less sticky and would facilitate the dispersion of oil into the water column. Increased oil-water surface contact by OSA formation enhances biodegradation of oil. Its applicability as a natural oil clean-up mechanism has been effectively demonstrated over past decades. There are many factors affecting the formation of OSA and its stability in the natural environment that need to be understood. This review provides a current understanding of (1) types of OSA that could be formed in the natural environment; (2) controlling factors and environmental parameters for the formation of OSA; (3) environmental parameters; and (4) fate of OSA and its applicability for oil spill remediation processes.

  17. Molecular insights into the microbial formation of marine dissolved organic matter: recalcitrant or labile?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.; Witt, M.; Passow, U.

    2014-08-01

    The degradation of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important control variable in the global carbon cycle. For our understanding of the kinetics of organic matter cycling in the ocean, it is crucial to achieve a mechanistic and molecular understanding of its transformation processes. A long-term microbial experiment was performed to follow the production of non-labile DOM by marine bacteria. Two different glucose concentrations and dissolved algal exudates were used as substrates. We monitored the bacterial abundance, concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), nutrients, amino acids and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) for 2 years. The molecular characterization of extracted DOM was performed by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) after 70 days and after ∼2 years of incubation. Although glucose quickly degraded, a non-labile DOC background (5-9% of the initial DOC) was generated in the glucose incubations. Only 20% of the organic carbon from the algal exudate degraded within the 2 years of incubation. The degradation rates for the non-labile DOC background in the different treatments varied between 1 and 11 μmol DOC L-1 year-1. Transparent exopolymer particles, which are released by microorganisms, were produced during glucose degradation but decreased back to half of the maximum concentration within less than 3 weeks (degradation rate: 25 μg xanthan gum equivalents L-1 d-1) and were below detection in all treatments after 2 years. Additional glucose was added after 2 years to test whether labile substrate can promote the degradation of background DOC (co-metabolism; priming effect). A priming effect was not observed but the glucose addition led to a slight increase of background DOC. The molecular analysis demonstrated that DOM generated during glucose degradation differed appreciably from DOM transformed during the degradation of the algal exudates. Our

  18. Photoformation of hydroxyl radical on snow grains at Summit, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasio, Cort; Galbavy, Edward S.; Hutterli, Manuel A.; Burkhart, John F.; Friel, Donna K.

    We measured the photoformation of hydroxyl radical ( ṡOH) on snow grains at Summit, Greenland during the spring and summer. Midday rates of ṡOH formation in the snow phase in the summer range from 130 to 610nmolL-1h-1, expressed relative to the liquid equivalent volume of snow. Calculated formation rates of snow-grain ṡOH based on the photolysis of hydrogen peroxide and nitrate agree well with our measured rates during summer, indicating that there are probably not other major sources of ṡOH under these conditions. Throughout both the spring and summer, HOOH is by far the dominant source of snow-grain ṡOH; on average, HOOH produces approximately 100 times more ṡOH than does NO3-. Rates of ṡOH photoformation have a strong seasonal dependence and increase by approximately a factor of 10 between early spring and summer at midday. The rate of ṡOH photoformation on snow grains decreases rapidly with depth in the snowpack, with approximately 90% of photoformation occurring within the top 10 cm, although ṡOH formation occurs to depths below 20 cm. The formation of ṡOH on snow grains likely initiates a suite of reactions in the snowpack, including the transformation of organic carbon (OC) and oxidation of halides. The reaction of ṡOH with OC probably forms a number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are potentially emitted into the atmospheric boundary layer. Indeed, our measured rates of ṡOH photoformation on snow grains are large enough that they could account for previously reported fluxes of VOCs from the snowpack at Summit, although the relative importance of thermal desorption and photochemical production for most of these VOCs still needs to be determined.

  19. A multi-mineral natural product from red marine algae reduces colon polyp formation in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad N.; Bergin, Ingrid; Naik, Madhav; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hampton, Anna; Rehman, Muneeb; Dame, Michael K; Rush, Howard; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if a multi-mineral natural product derived from red marine algae, could reduce colon polyp formation in mice on a high fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were maintained for up to 18 months either on a high-fat “Western-style” diet or on a low-fat diet (AIN 76A), with or without the multi-mineral-supplement. To summarize, colon polyps were detected in 22 of 70 mice (31%) on the high-fat diet, but in only 2 of 70 mice (3%) receiving the mineral-supplemented high-fat diet (p<0.0001). Colon polyps were detected in 16 of 70 mice (23%) in the low-fat group; not significantly different from high-fat group but significantly higher than the high-fat-supplemented group (p=0.0006). This was in spite of the fact that the calcium level in the low-fat diet was comparable to the level of calcium in the high-fat diet containing the multi-mineral-product. Supplementation of the low-fat diet reduced the incidence to 8 of 70 mice (11% incidence). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that a multi-mineral natural product can protect mice on a high-fat diet against adenomatous polyp formation in the colon. These data suggest that increased calcium alone is insufficient to explain the lower incidence of colon polyps. PMID:23035966

  20. NASA Airborne Snow Observatory: Measuring Spatial Distribution of Snow Water Equivalent and Snow Albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, M.; Painter, T. H.; Ramirez, P.; Laidlaw, R.; Boardman, J. W.; Bormann, K. J.; Skiles, S. M.; Deems, J. S.; Berisford, D. F.; Richardson, M.

    2016-12-01

    The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. Despite their importance in controlling volume and timing of runoff, snowpack albedo and SWE are still largely unquantified in the US and not at all in most of the globe, leaving runoff models poorly constrained. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in partnership with the California Department of Water Resources, has developed the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and scanning LiDAR system, to quantify SWE and snow albedo, generate unprecedented knowledge of snow properties for cutting edge cryospheric science, and provide complete, robust inputs to water management models and systems of the future. This poster will describe the NASA Airborne Snow Observatory, its outputs and their uses and applications, along with recent advancements to the system and plans for the project's future. Specifically, we will look at how ASO uses its imaging spectrometer to quantify spectral albedo, broadband albedo, and radiative forcing by dust and black carbon in snow. Additionally, we'll see how the scanning LiDAR is used to determine snow depth against snow-free acquisitions and to quantify snow water equivalent when combined with in-situ constrained modeling of snow density.

  1. NASA Airborne Snow Observatory: Measuring Spatial Distribution of Snow Water Equivalent and Snow Albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, M.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Laidlaw, R.; Bormann, K. J.; Skiles, M.; Richardson, M.; Berisford, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. Despite their importance in controlling volume and timing of runoff, snowpack albedo and SWE are still largely unquantified in the US and not at all in most of the globe, leaving runoff models poorly constrained. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in partnership with the California Department of Water Resources, has developed the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and scanning LiDAR system, to quantify SWE and snow albedo, generate unprecedented knowledge of snow properties for cutting edge cryospheric science, and provide complete, robust inputs to water management models and systems of the future. This poster will describe the NASA Airborne Snow Observatory, its outputs and their uses and applications, along with recent advancements to the system and plans for the project's future. Specifically, we will look at how ASO uses its imaging spectrometer to quantify spectral albedo, broadband albedo, and radiative forcing by dust and black carbon in snow. Additionally, we'll see how the scanning LiDAR is used to determine snow depth against snow-free acquisitions and to quantify snow water equivalent when combined with in-situ constrained modeling of snow density.

  2. 'Snow White' Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 43, the 43rd Martian day after landing (July 8, 2008). This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White.'

    Two samples were delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory, which is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The first sample was taken from the surface area just left of the trench and informally named 'Rosy Red.' It was delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 30 (June 25, 2008). The second sample, informally named 'Sorceress,' was taken from the center of the 'Snow White' trench and delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 41 (July 6, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Snow in southwestern Europe

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    In February 2015, New England was not alone in dealing with the wrath of Old Man Winter. Thick snow blanketed mountain ranges in southwestern Europe after a winter storm pushed through the region in early February. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image of the snow-covered peaks of the Cantabrian Mountains, the Pyrenees, the Alps, and Massif Central on February 9, 2015. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. 'Snow White' Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 43, the 43rd Martian day after landing (July 8, 2008). This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White.'

    Two samples were delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory, which is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The first sample was taken from the surface area just left of the trench and informally named 'Rosy Red.' It was delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 30 (June 25, 2008). The second sample, informally named 'Sorceress,' was taken from the center of the 'Snow White' trench and delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 41 (July 6, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Snow Radiance Assimilation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.; Durand, M. T.; Toure, A.; Margulis, S. A.; Goita, K.; Royer, A.; Lu, H.

    2009-12-01

    Passive microwave-based retrievals of terrestrial snow parameters from satellite observations form a 30-year global record which will continue for the forseeable future. So far, these snow retrievals have been generated primarily by regression-based empirical “inversion” methods based on snapshots in time, and are limited to footprints around 25 km in diameter. Assimilation of microwave radiances into physical land surface models may be used to create a retrieval framework that is inherently self-consistent with respect to model physics as well as a more physically-based approach vs. legacy retrieval/inversion methods. This radiance assimilation approach has been used for years for atmospheric parameters by the operational weather forecasting community with great success, and represents one motivation for our work. A radiance assimilation scheme for snow requires a snowpack land surface model (LSM) coupled to a radiative transfer model (RTM). In previous local-scale studies, Durand, Kim, & Margulis (2008) explored the requirements on LSM model fidelity (i.e., snowpack state information) required in order for the RTM to produce brightness temperatures suitable for radiance assimilation purposes at a local scale, using the well-known Microwave Emission Model for Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS) as the RTM and a combination of Simple SIB (SSiB) and Snow Atmosphere (SAST) as the LSM. They also demonstrated improvement of simulated snow depth through the use of an ensemble Kalman filter scheme at this local scale (2009). This modeling framework reflects another motivation—namely, possibilities for downscaling. Our focus at this stage has been at the local scale where high-quality ground truth data is available in order to evaluate radiance assimilation under a “best case scenario.” The quantitative results then form a benchmark for future assessment of effects such as sparse forcing data, upscaling/downscaling, forest attenuation, and model details. Field data from

  6. Microbioirrigation of marine sediments in dysoxic environments: Implications for early sediment fabric formation and diagenetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, Jennifer; Bernhard, Joan M.; Moreton, Steven G.; Butler, Ian B.

    2001-10-01

    It is manifest in the study of dysoxic sediments from the geological record that infaunal burrowing is considered so severely limited by the lack of dissolved oxygen as to be nonexistent. Although the effects of megafauna and macrofauna on sedimentary and geochemical processes are well known, the effects of meiofauna are largely ignored. Here we document abundant meiofauna in the recent severely dysoxic, laminated sediments from the Santa Barbara basin, California margin, and also microcavities and microtunnels in laminated deglacial sediments from Palmer Deep, west Antarctic Peninsula, that we interpret to be open, relict nematode burrows. Santa Barbara basin box-core subcores were sieved to quantify metazoan abundance, and others were embedded with resin for examination of meiofaunal life positions using confocal microscopy. Metazoan densities in the surface centimeters of sediment range from 80.7 to 117.9 cm-3, and nematode populations, together with their abundant burrows, remain quite high to at least 3 cm. Scanning electron microscope analysis of fractured surfaces in Palmer Deep sediments revealed that the rigid diatom ooze framework aids the preservation of ˜50 μm diameter open nematode burrows. These structures were observed to at least 40 m below the seafloor surface. This is the first description of a nematode-produced open burrow network preserved in the geological record. Optical microscopy of resin-embedded thin sections revealed widespread sediment redistribution without significant lamina disruption. The implications of abundant nematode burrows in surface sediments, and their preservation in the geological record, are wide ranging for both modern and ancient dysoxic marine environments, including for determining early sediment fabric production, geochemical processes, and diagenetic reactions in the oxic and suboxic zones.

  7. High-resolution sequence-stratigraphic correlation between shallow-marine and terrestrial strata: Examples from the Sunnyside Member of the Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation Book Cliffs eastern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, R.; Howell, J.; Boyd, R.; Flint, S.; Diessel, C.

    2006-07-15

    The Sunnyside Member of the Upper Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation in the Book Cliffs of eastern Utah provides an ideal opportunity to investigate high-resolution sequence-stratigraphic correlation between shallow-marine and terrestrial strata in an area of outstanding outcrop exposure. The thick, laterally extensive coal seam that caps the Sunnyside Member is critical for correlating between its shallow-marine and terrestrial components. Petrographic analysis of 281 samples obtained from 7 vertical sections spanning more than 30 km (18 mi) of depositional dip enabled us to recognize a series of transgressive-regressive coal facies trends in the seam. On this basis, we were able to identify a high-resolution record of accommodation change throughout the deposition of the coal, as well as a series of key sequence-stratigraphic surfaces. The stratigraphic relationships between the coal and the siliciclastic components of the Sunnyside Member enable us to correlate this record with that identified in the time-equivalent shallow-marine strata and to demonstrate that the coal spans the formation of two marine parasequences and two high-frequency, fourth-order sequence boundaries. This study has important implications for improving the understanding of sequence-stratigraphic expression in terrestrial strata and for correlating between marine and terrestrial records of base-level change. It may also have implications for improving the predictability of vertical and lateral variations in coal composition for mining and coalbed methane projects.

  8. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vinvent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. These products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to the currently available operation products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climates studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at 5-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover.

  9. Growth Processes of Snow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    no change in concentration until 3300 sec. and 3900 sec. However, there 34 7600- 9 see running moon 2-26-80 7200- 0 S6800- 400 3000 4500-- 6000 1 23...ranging from 1.80 to 1.95. This suggests that during this phase of spectral evolution, the sum of the diameters of snow particles is a conservative...transition from the dominance of deposition to aggregation. During the deposition growth phase the particles are small and collisions are rare

  10. Formation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments 1. Conceptual model of gas hydrate growth conditioned by host sediment properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clennell, M.B.; Hovland, M.; Booth, J.S.; Henry, P.; Winters, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The stability of submarine gas hydrates is largely dictated by pressure and temperature, gas composition, and pore water salinity. However, the physical properties and surface chemistry of deep marine sediments may also affect the thermodynamic state, growth kinetics, spatial distributions, and growth forms of clathrates. Our conceptual model presumes that gas hydrate behaves in a way analogous to ice in a freezing soil. Hydrate growth is inhibited within fine-grained sediments by a combination of reduced pore water activity in the vicinity of hydrophilic mineral surfaces, and the excess internal energy of small crystals confined in pores. The excess energy can be thought of as a "capillary pressure" in the hydrate crystal, related to the pore size distribution and the state of stress in the sediment framework. The base of gas hydrate stability in a sequence of fine sediments is predicted by our model to occur at a lower temperature (nearer to the seabed) than would be calculated from bulk thermodynamic equilibrium. Capillary effects or a build up of salt in the system can expand the phase boundary between hydrate and free gas into a divariant field extending over a finite depth range dictated by total methane content and pore-size distribution. Hysteresis between the temperatures of crystallization and dissociation of the clathrate is also predicted. Growth forms commonly observed in hydrate samples recovered from marine sediments (nodules, and lenses in muds; cements in sands) can largely be explained by capillary effects, but kinetics of nucleation and growth are also important. The formation of concentrated gas hydrates in a partially closed system with respect to material transport, or where gas can flush through the system, may lead to water depletion in the host sediment. This "freeze-drying" may be detectable through physical changes to the sediment (low water content and overconsolidation) and/or chemical anomalies in the pore waters and metastable

  11. Mercury distribution, partitioning and speciation in coastal vs. inland High Arctic snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, Alexandre J.; Garcia, Edenise; Amyot, Marc; Campbell, Peter G. C.; Ariya, Parisa A.

    2007-07-01

    Atmospheric mercury deposition on snow at springtime has been reported in polar regions, potentially posing a threat to coastal and inland ecosystems receiving meltwaters. However, the post-depositional fate of Hg in snow is not well known, and no data are available on Hg partitioning in polar snow. During snowmelt, we conducted a survey of Hg concentrations, partitioning and speciation in surface snow and at depth, over sea ice and over land along a 100 km transect across Cornwallis Island, NU, Canada. Total Hg concentrations [THg] in surface snow were low (less than 20 pmol L -1) and were significantly higher in marine vs. inland environments. Particulate Hg in surface snow represented up to 90% of total Hg over sea ice and up to 59% over land. At depth, [THg] at the snow/sea ice interface (up to 300 pmol L -1) were two orders of magnitude higher than at the snow/lake ice interface (ca. 2.5 pmol L -1). Integrated snow columns, sampled over sea-ice and over land, showed that particulate Hg was mostly bound to particles ranging from 0.45 to 2.7 μm. Moreover, melting snowpacks over sea ice and over lake ice contribute to increase [THg] at the water/ice interfaces. This study indicates that, at the onset of snowmelt, most of the Hg in snow is in particulate form, particularly over sea ice. Low Hg levels in surface snow suggest that Hg deposited through early spring deposition events is partly lost to the atmosphere from the snowpack before snowmelt. The sea ice/snow interface may constitute a site for Hg accumulation, however. Further understanding of the cycling of mercury at the sea ice/snow and sea ice/seawater interfaces is thus warranted to fully understand how mercury enters the arctic food webs.

  12. Snow White Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 25th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 24 (June 19, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trenches informally called 'Snow White 1' (left) and 'Snow White 2' (right). The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long.

    'Snow White' is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.'

    This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Late albian kiowa-skull creek marine transgression, lower dakota formation, eastern margin of western interior seaway, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenner, Richard L.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Witzke, B.J.; Zawistoski, A.N.; Kvale, E.P.; Ravn, R.L.; Joeckel, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated geochemical-sedimentological project is studying the paleoclimatic and paleogeographic characteristics of the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse world of western North America. A critical part of this project, required to establish a temporal framework, is a stratigraphie study of depositional relationships between the AlbianCenomanian Dakota and the Upper Albian Kiowa formations of the eastern margin of the Western Interior Seaway (WIS). Palynostratigraphic and sedimentologic analyses provide criteria for the Dakota Formation to be divided into three sedimentary sequences bounded by unconformities (D0, D1, and D2) that are recognized from western Iowa to westernmost Kansas. The lowest of these sequences, defined by unconformities D0 and D1, is entirely Upper Albian, and includes the largely nonmarine basal Dakota (lower part of the Nishnabotna Member) strata in western Iowa and eastern Nebraska and the marine Kiowa Formation to the southwest in Kansas. The gravel-rich fluvial deposits of the basal part of the Nishnabotna Member of the Dakota Formation correlate with transgressive marine shales of the Kiowa Formation. This is a critical relationship to establish because of the need to correlate between marine and nonmarine strata that contain both geochronologic and paleoclimatic proxy data. The basal gravel facies (up to 40 m thick in western Iowa) aggraded in incised valleys during the Late Albian Kiowa-Skull Creek marine transgression. In southeastern Nebraska, basal gravels intertongue with carbonaceous mudrocks that contain diverse assemblages of Late Albian palynomorphs, including marine dinoflagellates and acritarchs. This palynomorph assemblage is characterized by occurrences of palynomorph taxa not known to range above the Albian Kiowa-Skull Creek depositional cycle elsewhere in the Western Interior, and correlates to the lowest of four generalized palynostratographic units that are comparable to other palynological sequences elsewhere in North

  14. Insights into North Atlantic deep water formation during the peak interglacial interval of Marine Isotope Stage 9 (MIS 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokeddem, Zohra; McManus, Jerry F.

    2017-01-01

    Foraminifera abundance and stable isotope records from ODP Site 984 (61.25°N, 24.04°W, 1648 m) in the North Atlantic are used to reconstruct surface circulation variations and the relative strength of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation over the period spanning the peak warmth of Marine Interglacial Stage (MIS) 9e ( 324-336 ka). This interval includes the preceding deglaciation, Termination 4 (T4), and the subsequent glacial inception of MIS 9d. The records indicate a greatly reduced contribution of NADW during T4, as observed in more recent deglaciations. In contrast with the most recent deglaciation, the lack of a significant NADW signal extended from T4 well into the peak interglacial MIS 9e and persisted nearly until the transition to the subsequent glacial stage MIS 9d. Although NADW formation resumed during MIS 9e, only depths greater than 2000 m appear to have been ventilated. The poorly ventilated intermediate depth of Site 984 (<2000 m) may have resulted on one hand from a general reduction of deep water ventilation by NADW during the study interval or, on the other hand, from different pathways of the spread of newly formed NADW that bypassed the study location. The intermediate depths may have also been invaded by southern-sourced waters as the formation of intermediate depth NADW weakened. The absence of any significant NADW signal at the water depth of Site 984 during the climatic optimum contrasts sharply with subsequent interglacial peaks (MIS 5e and the Holocene). Despite the perturbed intermediate depth circulation, oceanic heat transport northeastward was not interrupted and may have contributed to the relatively mild interglacial conditions of MIS 9e.

  15. OBSERVATIONS ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE GOLGI APPARATUS TO WALL FORMATION IN THE MARINE CHRYSOPHYCEAN ALGA, PLEUROCHRYSIS SCHERFFELII PRINGSHEIM

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R. M.

    1969-01-01

    The role of the Golgi apparatus in wall formation of vegetative cells of a marine chrysophyte, Pleurochrysis scherffelii, is described. Wall fragments are synthesized within the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. A single Golgi apparatus is always located at the cell periphery, and the distended cisternae are oriented toward the cell surface. A highly-ordered body found near the inflated cisternae is associated with spherical, membrane-bounded bodies which may be involved in the progressive degeneration of cisternal membranes which release wall fragments. Protoplast movement has been detected by time-lapse cinephotomicrography and is correlated at the ultrastructural level with change in positions of the Golgi cisternae. Wall-synthesizing capacity is greatest during transverse wall formation. Senescent cells lack a Golgi apparatus with inflated cisternae. In addition, wall fragments are not present in the Golgi cisternae at this stage. Zoosporogenesis results in a temporary loss of the wall-forming capacity of the Golgi apparatus; this activity then resumes with the formation of a different morphological entity, the scale. Preliminary quantitative measurements of the turnover capacity of the Golgi apparatus have been made. From these data it has been determined that between 41 and 82 Golgi generations are required to synthesize the cell wall of an actively growing cell; this estimate indicates that approximately one cisterna is produced every 2 min, provided the cell generation time is 3 days. The time-lapse cinephotomicrographic data confirm that the rate of production of Golgi cisternae is at least one cisterna every 2 min. PMID:5775782

  16. On the extraordinary snow on the sea ice off East Antarctica in late winter, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Takenobu; Massom, Robert; Lecomte, Olivier; Nomura, Daiki; Heil, Petra; Tamura, Takeshi; Fraser, Alexander D.

    2016-09-01

    In late winter-early spring 2012, the second Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystems Experiment (SIPEX II) was conducted off Wilkes Land, East Antarctica, onboard R/V Aurora Australis. The sea-ice conditions were characterized by significantly thick first-year ice and snow, trapping the ship for about 10 days in the near coastal region. The deep snow cover was particularly remarkable, in that its average value of 0.45 m was almost three times that observed between 1992 and 2007 in the region. To reveal factors responsible, we used in situ observations and ERA-Interim reanalysis (1990-2012) to examine the relative contribution of the different components of the local-regional snow mass balance equation i.e., snow accumulation on sea ice, precipitation minus evaporation (P-E), and loss by (i) snow-ice formation and (ii) entering into leads due to drifting snow. Results show no evidence for significantly high P-E in the winter of 2012. Ice core analysis has shown that although the snow-ice layer was relatively thin, indicating less transformation from snow to snow-ice in 2012 as compared to measurements from 2007, the difference was not enough to explain the extraordinarily deep snow. Based on these results, we deduce that lower loss of snow into leads was probably responsible for the extraordinary snow in 2012. Statistical analysis and satellite images suggest that the reduction in loss of snow into leads is attributed to rough ice surface associated with active deformation processes and larger floe size due to sea-ice expansion. This highlights the importance of snow-sea ice interaction in determining the mean snow depth on Antarctic sea ice.

  17. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Jamieson, B.

    2014-03-01

    Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism plays an import role in avalanche formation. When gradients based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, faceting close to a crust can be observed. Recent studies that visualised small-scale (< 10 cm) thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR) camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large-scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within these studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or shovel produced small concavities (holes) even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which was only observed at times during a strong cooling/warming of the exposed pit wall. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed more slowly compared with convex areas (bumps) when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative and/or turbulent energy transfer at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of using a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly during windy conditions, clear skies and large temperature differences between air and snow. At crusts or other

  18. Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global Snow-Cover Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Scharfen, Greg R.

    2000-01-01

    Following the 1999 launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the capability exists to produce global snow-cover maps on a daily basis at 500-m resolution. Eight-day composite snow-cover maps will also be available. MODIS snow-cover products are produced at Goddard Space Flight Center and archived and distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado. The products are available in both orbital and gridded formats. An online search and order tool and user-services staff will be available at NSIDC to assist users with the snow products. The snow maps are available at a spatial resolution of 500 m, and 1/4 degree x 1/4 degree spatial resolution, and provide information on sub-pixel (fractional) snow cover. Pre-launch validation work has shown that the MODIS snow-mapping algorithms perform best under conditions of continuous snow cover in low vegetation areas, but can also map snow cover in dense forests. Post-launch validation activities will be performed using field and aircraft measurements from a February 2000 validation mission, as well as from existing satellite-derived snow-cover maps from NOAA and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+).

  19. Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global Snow-Cover Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Scharfen, Greg R.

    2000-01-01

    Following the 1999 launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the capability exists to produce global snow-cover maps on a daily basis at 500-m resolution. Eight-day composite snow-cover maps will also be available. MODIS snow-cover products are produced at Goddard Space Flight Center and archived and distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado. The products are available in both orbital and gridded formats. An online search and order tool and user-services staff will be available at NSIDC to assist users with the snow products. The snow maps are available at a spatial resolution of 500 m, and 1/4 degree x 1/4 degree spatial resolution, and provide information on sub-pixel (fractional) snow cover. Pre-launch validation work has shown that the MODIS snow-mapping algorithms perform best under conditions of continuous snow cover in low vegetation areas, but can also map snow cover in dense forests. Post-launch validation activities will be performed using field and aircraft measurements from a February 2000 validation mission, as well as from existing satellite-derived snow-cover maps from NOAA and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+).

  20. The effect of surface colour on the formation of marine micro and macrofouling communities.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, Sergey; Abed, Raeid M M; Voolstra, Christian R

    2013-01-01

    The effect of substratum colour on the formation of micro- and macro fouling communities was investigated. Acrylic tiles, painted either black or white were covered with transparent sheets in order to ensure similar surface properties. All substrata were exposed to biofouling at 1 m depth for 40 d in the Marina Bandar al Rowdha (Muscat, Sea of Oman). Studies were conducted in 2010 over a time course of 5, 10 and 20 d, and in 2012 samples were collected at 7, 14 and 21 d. The densities of bacteria on the black and white substrata were similar with the exception of day 10, when the black substrata had a higher abundance than white ones. Pyrosequencing via 454 of 16S rRNA genes of bacteria from white and black substrata revealed that Alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant groups. SIMPER analysis demonstrated that bacterial phylotypes (uncultured Gammaproteobacteria, Actibacter, Gaetbulicola, Thalassobius and Silicibacter) and the diatoms (Navicula directa, Navicula sp. and Nitzschia sp.) contributed to the dissimilarities between communities developed on white and black substrata. At day 20, the highest amount of chlorophyll a was recorded in biofilms developed on black substrata. SIMPER analysis showed that Folliculina sp., Ulva sp. and Balanus amphitrite were the major macro fouling species that contributed to the dissimilarities between the communities formed on white and black substrata. Higher densities of these species were observed on black tiles. The results emphasise the effect of substratum colour on the formation of micro and macro fouling communities; substratum colour should to be taken into account in future studies.

  1. MODIS Snow and Ice Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorthoy K.; Hoser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Daily, global snow cover maps, and sea ice cover and sea ice surface temperature (IST) maps are derived from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), are available at no cost through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Included on this CD-ROM are samples of the MODIS snow and ice products. In addition, an animation, done by the Scientific Visualization studio at Goddard Space Flight Center, is also included.

  2. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

  3. Remote Sensing of Snow Cover. Section; Snow Extent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Frei, Allan; Drey, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Snow was easily identified in the first image obtained from the Television Infrared Operational Satellite-1 (TIROS-1) weather satellite in 1960 because the high albedo of snow presents a good contrast with most other natural surfaces. Subsequently, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began to map snow using satellite-borne instruments in 1966. Snow plays an important role in the Earth s energy balance, causing more solar radiation to be reflected back into space as compared to most snow-free surfaces. Seasonal snow cover also provides a critical water resource through meltwater emanating from rivers that originate from high-mountain areas such as the Tibetan Plateau. Meltwater from mountain snow packs flows to some of the world s most densely-populated areas such as Southeast Asia, benefiting over 1 billion people (Immerzeel et al., 2010). In this section, we provide a brief overview of the remote sensing of snow cover using visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and passive-microwave (PM) data. Snow can be mapped using the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum, even in darkness and through cloud cover, but at a coarser spatial resolution than when using VNIR data. Fusing VNIR and PM algorithms to produce a blended product offers synergistic benefits. Snow-water equivalent (SWE), snow extent, and melt onset are important parameters for climate models and for the initialization of atmospheric forecasts at daily and seasonal time scales. Snowmelt data are also needed as input to hydrological models to improve flood control and irrigation management.

  4. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. K.; Riggs, G. A.; Salomonson, V. V.; Barton, J. S.

    2001-12-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products, available globally and at up to 500-m resolution, are derived from automated algorithms. This means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at ~5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. Recent improvements to the algorithm include the addition of a "thermal mask" that eliminates pixels from the snow maps that had contained "false snow" in the original algorithm. The origin of the false snow detection is from a variety of sources, including some clouds, large cities and atmospheric aerosols. The thermal mask reduces the snow-mapping errors associated with the MODIS snow-cover products. Cloud masking had been done using the 'cloud obscuration flag' from the cloud mask. However, that technique resulted in a cloud mask that was too conservative. Selective use of the cloud spectral tests from the MODIS cloud mask will be used to allow an improved determination of snow-covered area. Algorithm improvements will be implemented during the 2001-02 snow year in the Northern Hemisphere, however it is anticipated that in the future, all MODIS snow and ice products will be reprocessed so that consistent products will be

  5. Multidecadal climate and seasonal snow conditions in Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelt, W. J. J.; Kohler, J.; Liston, G. E.; Hagen, J. O.; Luks, B.; Reijmer, C. H.; Pohjola, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Svalbard climate is undergoing amplified change with respect to the global mean. Changing climate conditions directly affect the evolution of the seasonal snowpack, through its impact on accumulation, melt, and moisture exchange. We analyze long-term trends and spatial patterns of seasonal snow conditions in Svalbard between 1961 and 2012. Downscaled regional climate model output is used to drive a snow modeling system (SnowModel), with coupled modules simulating the surface energy balance and snowpack evolution. The precipitation forcing is calibrated and validated against snow depth data on a set of glaciers around Svalbard. Climate trends reveal seasonally inhomogeneous warming and a weakly positive precipitation trend, with strongest changes in the north. In response to autumn warming the date of snow onset increased (2 days decade-1), whereas in spring/summer opposing effects cause a nonsignificant trend in the snow disappearance date. Maximum snow water equivalent (SWE) in winter/spring shows a modest increase (+0.01 meters water equivalent (mwe) decade-1), while the end-of-summer minimum snow area fraction declined strongly (from 48% to 36%). The equilibrium line altitude is highest in relatively dry inland regions, and time series show a clear positive trend (25 m decade-1) as a result of summer warming. Finally, rain-on-snow in the core winter season, affecting ground ice formation and limiting access of grazing animals to food supplies, peaks during specific years (1994, 1996, 2000, and 2012) and is found to be concentrated in the lower lying coastal regions in southwestern Svalbard.

  6. CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE): Continuous In Situ Observations of Snow Physical Properties and Microwave Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, J.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Powell, A. M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    The CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) is being carried out for two winter seasons (2011 and 2012) at the research site of the National Weather Service office, Caribou ME, USA. In this ground experiment, dual polarized microwave (37 and 89 GHz) observations are conducted continuously from the time of snow onset to snow melt off along with detailed synchronous observations of snowpack physical properties. The objective of this long term field experiment is to improve our understanding of the effect of changing snow characteristics (grain size, density, temperature) under various meteorological conditions on the microwave emission of snow and hence to improve retrievals of snow cover properties from satellite observations in the microwave spectral range. In this presentation, we give an overview of the field experiment and of available datasets. We also present the analysis of microwave observations collected during the two years of experiment along with observations of the snowpack properties. The simulations of seasonal changes of the snow pack physical properties were simulated with the SNTHERM model whereas to simulate the snowpack emission in the microwave we have used from SNTHERM and the HUT (Helsinki University of Technology) snow emission model. For different snow conditions simulated microwave brightness temperatures were compared with brightness temperatures observed in situ and with satellite based brightness temperature. The analysis of microwave observations has revealed a large difference in the microwave brightness temperature over fresh and aged snow pack even under the same snow depth. This suggests a substantial impact of other physical parameters on the microwave emission of snow as snow grain size, ice layer formation and density.

  7. Field-scale forward modelling of a shallow marine carbonate ramp: the Upper Jurassic Arab Formation (onshore Abu Dhabi - UAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchionda, Elisabetta; Deschamps, Rémy; Nader, Fadi H.; Ceriani, Andrea; Di Giulio, Andrea; Lawrence, David; Morad, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The stratigraphic record of a carbonate system is the result of the interplay of several local and global factors that control the physical and the biological responses within a basin. Conceptual models cannot be detailed enough to take into account all the processes that control the deposition of sediments. The evaluation of the key controlling parameters on the sedimentation can be investigated with the use of stratigraphic forward models, that permit dynamic and quantitative simulations of the sedimentary basin infill. This work focuses on an onshore Abu Dhabi field (UAE) and it aims to provide a complete picture of the stratigraphic evolution of Upper Jurassic Arab Formation (Fm.). In this study, we started with the definition of the field-scale conceptual depositional model of the Formation, resulting from facies and well log analysis based on five wells. The Arab Fm. could be defined as a shallow marine carbonate ramp, that ranges from outer ramp deposits to supratidal/evaporitic facies association (from bottom to top). With the reconstruction of the sequence stratigraphic pattern and several paleofacies maps, it was possible to suggest multiple directions of progradations at local scale. Then, a 3D forward modelling tool has been used to i) identify and quantify the controlling parameters on geometries and facies distribution of the Arab Fm.; ii) predict the stratigraphic architecture of the Arab Fm.; and iii) integrate and validate the conceptual model. Numerous constraints were set during the different simulations and sensitivity analyses were performed testing the carbonate production, eustatic oscillations and transport parameters. To verify the geological consistency the 3D forward modelling has been calibrated with the available control points (five wells) in terms of thickness and facies distribution.

  8. The effects of different seeding ratios on nitrification performance and biofilm formation in marine recirculating aquaculture system biofilter.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Songming; Shen, Jiazheng; Ruan, Yunjie; Guo, Xishan; Ye, Zhangying; Deng, Yale; Shi, Mingming

    2016-07-01

    Rapid start-up of biofilter is essential for intensive marine recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) production. This study evaluated the nitrifying biofilm formation using mature biofilm as an inoculum to accelerate the process in RAS practice. The effects of inoculation ratios (0-15 %) on the reactor performance and biofilm structure were investigated. Complete nitrification was achieved rapidly in reactors with inoculated mature biofilm (even in 32 days when 15 % seeding ratio was applied). However, the growth of target biofilm on blank carrier was affected by the mature biofilm inoculated through substrate competition. The analysis of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and nitrification rates confirmed the divergence of biofilm cultivation among reactors. Besides, three N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) were found in the process, which might regulate the activities of biofilm. Multivariate analysis based on non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) also indicated the great roles of AHLs and substrate supply which might fundamentally determine varied cultivation performance on target biofilm.

  9. Evaluation of forest snow processes models (SnowMKIP2)

    Treesearch

    Nick Rutter; Richard Essery; John Pomeroy; Nuria Altimir; Kostas Andreadis; Ian Baker; Alan Barr; Paul Bartlett; Aaron Boone; Huiping Deng; Herve Douville; Emanuel Dutra; Kelly Elder; others

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-three snowpack models of varying complexity and purpose were evaluated across a wide range of hydrometeorological and forest canopy conditions at five Northern Hemisphere locations, for up to two winter snow seasons. Modeled estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) or depth were compared to observations at forest and open sites at each location. Precipitation...

  10. Application of snow models to snow removal operations on the Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Klasner, Frederick L.

    2000-01-01

    Snow removal, and the attendant avalanche risk for road crews, is a major issue on mountain highways worldwide. The Going-to-the-Sun Road is the only road that crosses Glacier National Park, Montana. This 80-km highway ascends over 1200m along the wall of a glaciated basin and crosses the continental divide. The annual opening of the road is critical to the regional economy and there is public pressure to open the road as early as possible. Despite the 67-year history of snow removal activities, few stat on snow conditions at upper elevations were available to guide annual planning for the raod opening. We examined statistical relationships between the opening date and nearby SNOTEL data on snow water equivalence (WE) for 30 years. Early spring SWE (first Monday in April) accounted for only 33% of the variance in road opening dates. Because avalanche spotters, used to warn heavy equipment operators of danger, are ineffective during spring storms or low-visibility conditions, we incorporated the percentage of days with precipitation during plowing as a proxy for visibility. This improved the model's predictive power to 69%/ A mountain snow simulator (MTSNOW) was used to calculate the depth and density of snow at various points along the road and field data were collected for comparison. MTSNOW underestimated the observed snow conditions, in part because it does not yet account for wind redistribution of snow. The severe topography of the upper reaches of the road are subjected to extensive wind redistribution of snow as evidence by the formation of "The Big Drift" on the lee side of Logan Pass.

  11. Snow Water Equivalent for Tuolumne River Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-02

    NASA Airborne Snow Observatory measurements of snow water equivalent top image and snow albedo, or reflectivity bottom image for the Tuolumne River Basin in California Sierra Nevada on April 21, 2013.

  12. Optical Properties of Snow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    basalt, and the most common volcanic ash is andesite (R. Cadle, personal communication, 1980). Both of these rocks have very similar optical proper...giving no color to the snow; but in order to mimic a given ties for short waves: mi., - I x 10-1, constant across the concentration of soot, the andesite ...refractive v.o8 0. r~soo, 02.o5 % •%•, "index is taken as that of andesite (mt = 1.47) from Pollack et 0o..o al. [1973]. The imaginary index mim (k) was

  13. Snow across the Midwest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On Nov. 22, 2015 at 19:15 UTC the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of Snow across the Midwest. Credit: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Phoenix's Snow White Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A soil sample taken from the informally named 'Snow White' trench at NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander work site produced minerals that indicate evidence of past interaction between the minerals and liquid water.

    This image was taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 103, the 103rd day since landing (Sept. 8, 2008).

    The trench is approximately 23 centimeters (9 inches) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Modeling the snow surface temperature with a one-layer energy balance snowmelt model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, J.; Tarboton, D. G.; Luce, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    ⪉bel{sec:abstract} Snow surface temperature is a key control on energy exchanges at the snow surface, particularly net longwave radiation and turbulent energy fluxes. The snow surface temperature is in turn controlled by the balance between various external fluxes and the conductive heat flux, internal to the snowpack. Because of the strong insulating properties of snow, thermal gradients in snow packs are large and nonlinear, a fact that has led many to advocate multiple layer snowmelt models over single layer models. In an effort to keep snowmelt modeling simple and parsimonious, the Utah Energy Balance (UEB) snowmelt model used only one layer but allowed the snow surface temperature to be different from the snow average temperature by using an equilibrium gradient parameterization based on the surface energy balance. Although this procedure was considered an improvement over the ordinary single layer snowmelt models, it still resulted in discrepancies between modeled and measured snowpack energy contents. In this paper we examine the parameterization of snow surface temperature in single layer snowmelt models from the perspective of heat conduction into a semi-infinite medium. We evaluate the equilibrium gradient approach, the force-restore approach, and a modified force-restore approach. In addition, we evaluate a scheme for representing the penetration of a refreezing front in cold periods following melt. We also introduce a method to adjust effective conductivity to account for the presence of ground near to a shallow snow surface. These parameterizations were tested against data from the Central Sierra Snow Laboratory, CA, Utah State University experimental farm, UT, and Subnivean snow laboratory at Niwot Ridge, CO. These tests compare modeled and measured snow surface temperature, snow energy content, snow water equivalent, and snowmelt outflow. We found that with these refinements the model is able to better represent the snowpack energy balance and

  18. Diversity and potential sources of microbiota associated with snow on western portions of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Karen A; Hagedorn, Birgit; Dieser, Markus; Christner, Brent C; Choquette, Kyla; Sletten, Ronald; Crump, Byron; Kellogg, Colleen; Junge, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Snow overlays the majority of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). However, there is very little information available on the microbiological assemblages that are associated with this vast and climate-sensitive landscape. In this study, the structure and diversity of snow microbial assemblages from two regions of the western GrIS ice margin were investigated through the sequencing of small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. The origins of the microbiota were investigated by examining correlations to molecular data obtained from marine, soil, freshwater and atmospheric environments and geochemical analytes measured in the snow. Snow was found to contain a diverse assemblage of bacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria) and eukarya (Alveolata, Fungi, Stramenopiles and Chloroplastida). Phylotypes related to archaeal Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota phyla were also identified. The snow microbial assemblages were more similar to communities characterized in soil than to those documented in marine ecosystems. Despite this, the chemical composition of snow samples was consistent with a marine contribution, and strong correlations existed between bacterial beta diversity and the concentration of Na(+) and Cl(-) . These results suggest that surface snow from western regions of Greenland contains exogenous microbiota that were likely aerosolized from more distant soil sources, transported in the atmosphere and co-precipitated with the snow.

  19. Snow catch by conifer crowns

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Satterlund; Harold F. Haupt

    1967-01-01

    Study of interception storage of snow by two species of sapling conifers in northern Idaho revealed that cumulative snow catch follows the classical law of autocatakinetic growth, or [equation - see PDF] where I, is interception storage, e is the interception storage capacity of the tree, e is the base of the natural logarithm, k is a constant expressing the rate of...

  20. Tyzzer's disease in snow leopards.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R E; Eisenbrandt, D L; Hubbard, G B

    1984-01-01

    Tyzzer's disease was diagnosed histologically in 2 litters of newborn snow leopard kittens. The gross and histological lesions were similar to those reported in domestic cats and other animals. No signs of illness was noted in either of the snow leopard dams.

  1. Snow in northern Alaska

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    As autumn colors moved across much of the lower forty-eight states in mid-October 2015, winter weather had already arrived in Alaska. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image of the icy scene on October 16 as it passed over the region. Point Barrow, the northern-most location in the United States sits between the Chukchi Sea (west) and the Beaufort Sea on the east. The rugged peaks of the Brooks Range can be seen along the southern section of the image. North of the Brooks Range the land is almost entirely covered with snow; to the south the tan and browns visible between snow marks uncovered land. Sea ice lies over the waters near the coasts of much of Alaska’s North Slope, especially east of Point Barrow. White cloud banks are notable in the northeast and southeast sections of the image. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    Snow is the natural resource, like soil and water. It has specific properties which allow its use not just for skiing but also for houses cooling in summer (Swedish experience), for air fields construction (Arctic and Antarctic), for dams (north of Russia), for buildings (not only snow-houses of some Polar peoples but artistic hotel attracting tourists in Sweden), and as art material (Sapporo snow festival, Finnish events), etc. "Adjustment" of snow distribution and amount is not only rather common practice (avalanche-protection constructions keeping snow on slopes) but also the practice with long history. So-called "snow irrigation" was used in Russia since XIX century to protect winter crop. What is now named "artificial snow production", is part of much larger pattern. What makes it special—it is unavoidable in present climate and economy situation. 5% of national income in Austria is winter tourism. 50% of the economy in Savoy relay on winter tourism. In terms of money this can be less, but in terms of jobs and income involved this would be even more considerable in Switzerland. As an example—the population of Davos is 14000 in Summer and 50000 in Winter. Skiing is growing business. In present time you can find ski slopes in Turkey and Lebanon. To keep a cite suitable for attracting tourists you need certain amount of sunny days and certain amount of snow. The snow cannons are often the only way to keep a place running. On the other hand, more artificial snow does not necessary attract more tourists, while heavy natural snowfall does attract them. Artificial snow making is costly and requires infrastructure (ponds and electric lines) with very narrow range of weather conditions. Related companies are searching for alternatives and one of them can be "weather regulation" by distribution of some chemical components in clouds. It did not happen yet, but can happen soon. The consequences of such interference in Nature is hardly known. The ski tourism is not the

  3. Snow reflectance from thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations of snow reflectance in all 6 TM reflective bands (i.e., 1,2,3,4,5, and 7) using a delta Eddington model show that snow reflectance in bands 4,5, and 7 is sensitive to grain size. Efforts to interpret the surface optical grain size for the spectral extension of albedo are described. Results show the TM data include spectral channels suitable for snow/cloud discrimination and for snow albedo measurements that can be extended throughout the solar spectrum. Except for band 1, the dynamic range is large enough that saturation occurs only occasionally. The finer resolution gives much better detail on the snowcovered area and might make it possible to use textural information instead of the snowline as an index to the amount of snow melt runoff.

  4. ESA SnowLab project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmann, Andreas; Caduff, Rafael; Frey, Othmar; Werner, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Retrieval of the snow water equivalaent (SWE) from passive microwave observations dates back over three decades to initial studies made using the first operational radiometers in space. However, coarse spatial resolution (25 km) is an acknowledged limitation for the application of passive microwave measurements. The natural variability of snow cover itself is also notable; properties such as stratigraphy and snow microstructure change both spatially and over time, affecting the microwave signature. To overcome this deficit, the satellite mission COld REgions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) was proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2005 in response to the call for Earth Explorer 7 candidate missions. CoReH2O was a dual frequency (X- and Ku-band) SAR mission aimed to provide maps of SWE over land and snow accumulation on glaciers at a spatial resolution of 200 to 500 meters with an unprecedented accuracy. Within the frame of preparatory studies for CoReH2O Phase A, ESA undertook several research initiatives from 2009 to 2013 to study the mission concept and capabilities of the proposed sensor. These studies provided a wealth of information on emission and backscattering signatures of natural snow cover, which can be exploited to study new potential mission concepts for retrieval of snow cover properties and other elements of the cryosphere. Currently data related to multi-frequency, multi-polarisation, multitemporal of active and passive microwave measurements are still not available. In addition, new methods related to e.g. tomography are currently under development and need to be tested with real data. Also, the potential of interferometric and polarimetric measurements of the snow cover and its possible impact for novel mission/retrieval concepts must be assessed. . The objective of the SnowLab activity is to fill this gap and complement these datasets from earlier campaigns by acquiring a comprehensive multi-frequency, multi

  5. Imaging the water snow-line during a protostellar outburst.

    PubMed

    Cieza, Lucas A; Casassus, Simon; Tobin, John; Bos, Steven P; Williams, Jonathan P; Perez, Sebastian; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Caceres, Claudio; Canovas, Hector; Dunham, Michael M; Hales, Antonio; Prieto, Jose L; Principe, David A; Schreiber, Matthias R; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Dary; Zurlo, Alice

    2016-07-14

    A snow-line is the region of a protoplanetary disk at which a major volatile, such as water or carbon monoxide, reaches its condensation temperature. Snow-lines play a crucial role in disk evolution by promoting the rapid growth of ice-covered grains. Signatures of the carbon monoxide snow-line (at temperatures of around 20 kelvin) have recently been imaged in the disks surrounding the pre-main-sequence stars TW Hydra and HD163296 (refs 3, 10), at distances of about 30 astronomical units (au) from the star. But the water snow-line of a protoplanetary disk (at temperatures of more than 100 kelvin) has not hitherto been seen, as it generally lies very close to the star (less than 5 au away for solar-type stars). Water-ice is important because it regulates the efficiency of dust and planetesimal coagulation, and the formation of comets, ice giants and the cores of gas giants. Here we report images at 0.03-arcsec resolution (12 au) of the protoplanetary disk around V883 Ori, a protostar of 1.3 solar masses that is undergoing an outburst in luminosity arising from a temporary increase in the accretion rate. We find an intensity break corresponding to an abrupt change in the optical depth at about 42 au, where the elevated disk temperature approaches the condensation point of water, from which we conclude that the outburst has moved the water snow-line. The spectral behaviour across the snow-line confirms recent model predictions: dust fragmentation and the inhibition of grain growth at higher temperatures results in soaring grain number densities and optical depths. As most planetary systems are expected to experience outbursts caused by accretion during their formation, our results imply that highly dynamical water snow-lines must be considered when developing models of disk evolution and planet formation.

  6. Imaging the water snow-line during a protostellar outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Casassus, Simon; Tobin, John; Bos, Steven P.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Perez, Sebastian; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Caceres, Claudio; Canovas, Hector; Dunham, Michael M.; Hales, Antonio; Prieto, Jose L.; Principe, David A.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Dary; Zurlo, Alice

    2016-07-01

    A snow-line is the region of a protoplanetary disk at which a major volatile, such as water or carbon monoxide, reaches its condensation temperature. Snow-lines play a crucial role in disk evolution by promoting the rapid growth of ice-covered grains. Signatures of the carbon monoxide snow-line (at temperatures of around 20 kelvin) have recently been imaged in the disks surrounding the pre-main-sequence stars TW Hydra and HD163296 (refs 3, 10), at distances of about 30 astronomical units (AU) from the star. But the water snow-line of a protoplanetary disk (at temperatures of more than 100 kelvin) has not hitherto been seen, as it generally lies very close to the star (less than 5 AU away for solar-type stars). Water-ice is important because it regulates the efficiency of dust and planetesimal coagulation, and the formation of comets, ice giants and the cores of gas giants. Here we report images at 0.03-arcsec resolution (12 AU) of the protoplanetary disk around V883 Ori, a protostar of 1.3 solar masses that is undergoing an outburst in luminosity arising from a temporary increase in the accretion rate. We find an intensity break corresponding to an abrupt change in the optical depth at about 42 AU, where the elevated disk temperature approaches the condensation point of water, from which we conclude that the outburst has moved the water snow-line. The spectral behaviour across the snow-line confirms recent model predictions: dust fragmentation and the inhibition of grain growth at higher temperatures results in soaring grain number densities and optical depths. As most planetary systems are expected to experience outbursts caused by accretion during their formation, our results imply that highly dynamical water snow-lines must be considered when developing models of disk evolution and planet formation.

  7. A probabilistic model for snow avalanche occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perona, P.; Miescher, A.; Porporato, A.

    2009-04-01

    Avalanche hazard forecasting is an important issue in relation to the protection of urbanized environments, ski resorts and of ski-touring alpinists. A critical point is to predict the conditions that trigger the snow mass instability determining the onset and the size of avalanches. On steep terrains the risk of avalanches is known to be related to preceding consistent snowfall events and to subsequent changes in the local climatic conditions. Regression analysis has shown that avalanche occurrence indeed correlates to the amount of snow fallen in consecutive three snowing days and to the state of the settled snow at the ground. Moreover, since different type of avalanches may occur as a result of the interactions of different factors, the process of snow avalanche formation is inherently complex and with some degree of unpredictability. For this reason, although several models assess the risk of avalanche by accounting for all the involved processes with a great detail, a high margin of uncertainty invariably remains. In this work, we explicitly describe such an unpredictable behaviour with an intrinsic noise affecting the processes leading snow instability. Eventually, this sets the basis for a minimalist stochastic model, which allows us to investigate the avalanche dynamics and its statistical properties. We employ a continuous time process with stochastic jumps (snowfalls), deterministic decay (snowmelt and compaction) and state dependent avalanche occurrence (renewals) as a minimalist model for the determination of avalanche size and related intertime occurrence. The physics leading to avalanches is simplified to the extent where only meteorological data and terrain data are necessary to estimate avalanche danger. We explore the analytical formulation of the process and the properties of the probability density function of the avalanche process variables. We also discuss what is the probabilistic link between avalanche size and preceding snowfall event and

  8. Bulk Parameterization of the Snow Field in a Cloud Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Farley, Richard D.; Orville, Harold D.

    1983-06-01

    A two-dimensional, time-dependent cloud model has been used to simulate a moderate intensity thunderstorm for the High Plains region. Six forms of water substance (water vapor, cloud water, cloud ice, rain, snow and hail, i.e., graupel) are simulated. The model utilizes the `bulk water' microphysical parameterization technique to represent the precipitation fields which are all assumed to follow exponential size distribution functions. Autoconversion concepts are used to parameterize the collision-coalescence and collision-aggregation processes. Accretion processes involving the various forms of liquid and solid hydrometeors are simulated in this model. The transformation of cloud ice to snow through autoconversion (aggregation) and Bergeron process and subsequent accretional growth or aggregation to form hail are simulated. Hail is also produced by various contact mechanisms and via probabilistic freezing of raindrops. Evaporation (sublimation) is considered for all precipitation particles outside the cloud. The melting of hail and snow are included in the model. Wet and dry growth of hail and shedding of rain from hail are simulated.The simulations show that the inclusion of snow has improved the realism of the results compared to a model without snow. The formation of virga from cloud anvils is now modeled. Addition of the snow field has resulted in the inclusion of more diverse and physically sound mechanisms for initiating the hail field, yielding greater potential for distinguishing dominant embryo types characteristically different from warm- and cold-based clouds.

  9. The transgressive-regressive cycle of the Romualdo Formation (Araripe Basin): Sedimentary archive of the Early Cretaceous marine ingression in the interior of Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Michele Andriolli; Quaglio, Fernanda; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; Simões, Marcello Guimarães; Fürsich, Franz Theodor; Perinotto, José Alexandre J.; Assine, Mario Luis

    2017-08-01

    Geologic events related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean deeply influenced the sedimentary record of the Araripe Basin. As consequence, upper stratigraphic units of the basin record a marine ingression in northeastern Brazil during the late Aptian. The timing and stratigraphic architecture of these units are crucial to understand the paleogeography of Gondwana and how the proto-Atlantic Ocean reached interior NE Brazil during the early Cretaceous. This marine ingression is recorded in the Araripe Basin as the Romualdo Formation, characterized by a transgressive-regressive cycle bounded by two regional unconformities. In the eastern part of the basin, the Romualdo depositional sequence comprises coastal alluvial and tide-dominated deposits followed by marine transgressive facies characterized by two fossil-rich intervals: a lower interval of black shales with fossil-rich carbonate concretions (Konservat-Lagerstätten) and an upper level with mollusk-dominated shell beds and shelly limestones. Following the marine ingression, an incomplete regressive succession of marginal-marine facies records the return of continental environments to the basin. The stratigraphic framework based on the correlation of several sections defines a transgressive-regressive cycle with depositional dip towards southeast, decreasing in thickness towards northwest, and with source areas located at the northern side of the basin. The facies-cycle wedge-geometry, together with paleocurrent data, indicates a coastal onlap towards NNW. Therefore, contrary to several paleogeographic scenarios previously proposed, the marine ingression would have reached the western parts of the Araripe Basin from the SSE.

  10. The effect of marine isoprene emissions on secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation in the coastal United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, Brett; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The impact of marine isoprene emissions on summertime surface concentrations of isoprene, secondary organic aerosols (SOA), and ozone (O 3) in the coastal areas of the continental United States is studied using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regional-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Marine isoprene emission rates are based on the following five parameters: laboratory measurements of isoprene production from phytoplankton under a range of light conditions, remotely-sensed chlorophyll- a concentration ([Chl- a]), incoming solar radiation, surface wind speed, and sea-water optical properties. Model simulations show that marine isoprene emissions are sensitive to meteorology and ocean ecosystem productivity, with the highest rates simulated over the Gulf of Mexico. Simulated offshore surface layer marine isoprene concentration is less than 10 ppt and significantly dwarfed by terrestrial emissions over the continental United States. With the isoprene reactions included in this study, the average contribution of marine isoprene to SOA and O 3 concentrations is predicted to be small, up to 0.004 μg m -3 for SOA and 0.2 ppb for O 3 in coastal urban areas. The light-sensitivity of isoprene production from phytoplankton results in a midday maximum for marine isoprene emissions and a corresponding daytime increase in isoprene and O 3 concentrations in coastal locations. The potential impact of the daily variability in [Chl- a] on O 3 and SOA concentrations is simulated in a sensitivity study with [Chl- a] increased and decreased by a factor of five. Our results indicate that marine emissions of isoprene cause minor changes to coastal SOA and O 3 concentrations. Comparison of model simulations with few available measurements shows that the model underestimates marine boundary layer isoprene concentration. This underestimation is likely due to the limitations in current treatment of marine isoprene emission and a coarse spatial

  11. GALE improves snow forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientific results from an intensive study of winter storms on the U.S. East Coast last year contributed to improved weather forecasts of two successive snowstorms that virtually closed down Washington, D.C., for several days in January 1987.In the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE) field project, scientists took detailed measurements simultaneously from the atmosphere and the ocean to study how these features interact at various stages of an East Coast winter storm, according to project director Richard Dirks, who is with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo. “It's interesting that we actually had four storms [in the GALE study] that were of similar intensity to the two East Coast storms” in January 1987, Dirks said. “However, last year the temperatures were warmer, and the storm tracks were located somewhat further offshore and therefore did not significantly affect the northeast corridor with heavy snows.”

  12. Microbial community structure, pigment composition, and nitrogen source of red snow in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masanori; Takano, Yoshinori; Kojima, Hisaya; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Fukui, Manabu

    2010-04-01

    "Red snow" refers to red-colored snow, caused by bloom of cold-adapted phototrophs, so-called snow algae. The red snow found in Langhovde, Antarctica, was investigated from several viewpoints. Various sizes of rounded red cells were observed in the red snow samples under microscopy. Pigment analysis demonstrated accumulation of astaxanthin in the red snow. Community structure of microorganisms was analyzed by culture-independent methods. In the analyses of small subunit rRNA genes, several species of green algae, fungus, and various phylotypes of bacteria were detected. The detected bacteria were closely related to psychrophilic or psychrotolerant heterotrophic strains, or sequences detected from low-temperature environments. As predominant lineage of bacteria, members of the genus Hymenobacter were consistently detected from samples obtained in two different years. Nitrogen isotopic compositions analysis indicated that the red snow was significantly 15N-enriched. Based on an estimation of trophic level, it was suggested that primary nitrogen sources of the red snow were supplied from fecal pellet of seabirds including a marine top predator of Antarctica.

  13. Snow metamorphism: A fractal approach.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Anna; Chiaia, Bernardino M; Frigo, Barbara; Türk, Christian

    2010-09-01

    Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapor, and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameters. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution of snow cover or ice sheets should be conveniently described at a quantitative level.

  14. Contaminants in arctic snow collected over northwest Alaskan sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, J.R.; Snyder-Conn, E.; Leiker, T.J.; Hoffman, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Snow cores were collected over sea ice from four northwest Alaskan Arctic estuaries that represented the annual snowfall from the 1995-1996 season. Dissolved trace metals, major cations and anions, total mercury, and organochlorine compounds were determined and compared to concentrations in previous arctic studies. Traces (<4 nanograms per liter, ng L-1) of cis- and trans-chlordane, dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate, dieldrin, endosulfan II, and PCBs were detected in some samples, with endosulfan I consistently present. High chlorpyrifos concentrations (70-80 ng L-1) also were estimated at three sites. The snow was highly enriched in sulfates (69- 394 mg L-1), with high proportions of nonsea salt sulfates at three of five sites (9 of 15 samples), thus indicating possible contamination through long-distance transport and deposition of sulfate-rich atmospheric aerosols. Mercury, cadmium, chromium, molybdenum, and uranium were typically higher in the marine snow (n = 15) in relation to snow from arctic terrestrial studies, whereas cations associated with terrigenous sources, such as aluminum, frequently were lower over the sea ice. One Kasegaluk Lagoon site (Chukchi Sea) had especially high concentrations of total mercury (mean = 214 ng L-1, standard deviation = 5 ng L-1), but no methyl mercury was detected above the method detection limit (0.036 ng L-1) at any of the sites. Elevated concentrations of sulfate, mercury, and certain heavy metals might indicate mechanisms of contaminant loss from the arctic atmosphere over marine water not previously reported over land areas. Scavenging by snow, fog, or riming processes and the high content of deposited halides might facilitate the loss of such contaminants from the atmosphere. Both the mercury and chlorpyrifos concentrations merit further investigation in view of their toxicity to aquatic organisms at low concentrations.

  15. The ringed seal's last refuge and the importance of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, B. P.; Bitz, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Ringed seals are strongly adapted to inhabiting seasonal ice cover throughout the Arctic Ocean, marginal seas, and some freshwater lakes. Their distribution has expanded and contracted with northern hemisphere ice cover and is expected to mirror declining ice cover in coming decades. Ringed seals require snow cover to provide shelter from extreme cold and from predators, and the southern extent of their range corresponds to the latitudes to which snow cover—sufficient to form and maintain subnivean lairs—extends. The lairs are especially critical to the survival of pups born and nursed under the snow in late March through May. Snow drifts 50 cm or deeper are necessary for lair occupation, and field measurements indicate that such drifting occurs only where average snow depths (on flat ice) exceed 20 cm. When snow depths are less, ringed seal pups freeze in their lairs and are vulnerable to predation by carnivores and birds. As the climate warms, winter precipitation is expected to increase in the Arctic Ocean, potentially favoring formation and occupation of lairs. At the same time, increasingly late ice formation is expected to decrease the overall accumulation of snow, an effect exacerbated by the high fraction of annual snow fall that occurs in autumn. Early snow melts also contribute to pup mortality and are likely to increase as the climate warms. We forecast April snow depths on Arctic sea ice through the year 2100 in seven runs of CCSM3. Despite predicted increases in winter precipitation in the Arctic, the model forecasted that the accumulation of snow on sea ice will decrease by almost 50% in this century. The timing of the onset of snow melt changes little in the projections, but the shallower snow pack will melt more quickly in the warmer climate. In almost all portions of the range, average snow depths are expected to be less than 20 cm and inadequate for successful rearing of ringed seal young by the end of the century and—in many locations

  16. NASA’s Sense of Snow: the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Water is a critical resource in the western U.S. NASA’s Airborne Snow Observatory is giving California water agencies the first complete measurements of the water available in the Sierra snowpack ...

  17. Remotely Sensed Snow Data Assimilation within Distributed Snow 17 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechant, C. M.; Leisenring, M.; Moradkhani, H.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate estimation of the quantity of water stored in seasonal snow cover, particularly in the mountainous Western United States, is an important tool for water resources management. Challenges in the estimation of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) arise from uncertain model forcing data, model structure/parameter error, poor spatial resolution of in-situ measurements and uncertainties in remotely sensed observations. Currently, the best method for quantifying SWE is to integrate both modeled and remotely sensed estimates of snow by accounting for the relative uncertainties associated with each estimate. Data assimilation techniques account for observed and modeled errors by treating them as a stochastic variable and sequentially updating/resampling the state values. This study examines the effectiveness of three snow data assimilation techniques for creating a more accurate estimate of SWE. In this study, SWE, modeled with a distributed version of the National Weather Service’s SNOW-17 model, and model parameters in the Snow-17 model are updated with remotely sensed snow cover area (SCA). The SNOW-17 model takes precipitation and temperature as an input and estimates both SWE and SCA. Model forcing data was gathered from the North-American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS) dataset. The SCA information used in this study is produced by the MODIS instrument flown on the NASA Terra satellite. The model runs at 1/8th degree and MODIS data is aggregated to this resolution from a 500m resolution. Remotely sensed SCA is used as the observation in three different data assimilation schemes: Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), Ensemble Kalman Smoother (EnKS) and the Particle Filter. The EnKF and EnKS both use the same update equation, which assumes normally distributed errors. The Particle Filter takes a different approach that does not require an assumption about the error distribution. The accuracy and uncertainties associated with each of these assimilation techniques are compared

  18. An improved snow hydrology for GCMS. Part 1: Snow cover fraction, albedo, grain size, and age

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, S.; Oglesby, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    A new, physically-based snow hydrology has been implemented into the NCAR CCM1. The snow albedo is based on snow depth, solar zenith angle, snow cover pollutants, cloudiness, and a new parameter, the snow grain size. Snow grain size in turn depends on temperature and snow age. An improved expression is used for fractional snow cover which relates it to surface roughness and to snow depth. Each component of the new snow hydrology was implemented separately and then combined to make a new control run integrated for ten seasonal cycles. With the new snow hydrology, springtime snow melt occurs more rapidly, leading to a more reasonable late spring and summer distribution of snow cover. Little impact is seen on winter snow cover, since the new hydrology affects snow melt directly, but snowfall only indirectly, if at all. The influence of the variable grain size appears more important when snow packs are relatively deep while variable fractional snow cover becomes increasingly important as the snow pack thins. Variable surface roughness affects the snow cover fraction directly, but shows little effect on the seasonal cycle of the snow line. As an application of the new snow hydrology, we have rerun simulations involving Antarctic and Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Relatively little difference is seen for Antarctica, but a profound difference occurs for the Northern Hemisphere. In particular, ice sheets computed using new snow accumulations from the GCM are more numerous and larger in extent with the new snow hydrology. The new snow hydrology leads to a better simulation of the seasonal cycle of snow cover, however, our primary goal in implementing it into the GCM is to improve the predictive capabilities of the model. Since the snow hydrology is based on fundamental physical processes, and has well-defined parameters. it should enable model simulations of climatic change in which we have increased confidence. 37 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Comprehensive Study of Carbonaceous Species in Arctic Snow: from Snow Type to Carbon Sources and Sinks in the Snowpack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, D.; Cozic, J.; Houdier, S.; Barret, M.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; King, M. D.; Beine, H. J.; Domine, F.

    2012-04-01

    . Total Carbon Content is highest in is highest in soil influenced indurated depth hoar layers and in diamond dust precipitation. It is found to decrease as snow ages, due to cleaving photochemistry and physical equilibration of the most volatile fraction of DOC. A precise evaluation of this recycled fraction would need a more precise evaluation of the annual importance of diamond dust as a source of carbon to the snowpack. Organic Carbon in surface snows appears to have a very significant (~40%) insoluble fraction. HULIS, short chain diacids and aldehydes are quantified, and showed to represent altogether a modest (<20%) proportion of DOC, and less than 10% of DOC+WinOC. HULIS optical properties are measured and could be consistent with aged biomass burning or an unknown source; a marine source is suggested.

  20. Snow density climatology across the former USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, K.

    2014-04-01

    Snow density is one of the basic properties used to describe snow cover characteristics, and it is a key factor for linking snow depth and snow water equivalent, which are critical for water resources assessment and modeling inputs. In this study, we used long-term data from ground-based measurements to investigate snow density (bulk density) climatology and its spatiotemporal variations across the former Soviet Union (USSR) from 1966 to 2008. The results showed that the long-term monthly mean snow density was approximately 0.22 ± 0.05 g cm-3 over the study area. The maximum and minimum monthly mean snow density was about 0.33 g cm-3 in June, and 0.14 g cm-3 in October, respectively. Maritime and ephemeral snow had the highest monthly mean snow density, while taiga snow had the lowest. The higher values of monthly snow density were mainly located in the European regions of the former USSR, on the coast of Arctic Russia, and the Kamchatka Peninsula, while the lower snow density occurred in central Siberia. Significant increasing trends of snow density from September through June of the next year were observed, however, the rate of the increase varied with different snow classes. The long-term (1966-2008) monthly and annual mean snow densities had significant decreasing trends, especially during the autumn months. Spatially, significant positive trends in monthly mean snow density lay in the southwestern areas of the former USSR in November and December and gradually expanded in Russia from February through April. Significant negative trends mainly lay in the European Russia and the southern Russia. There was a high correlation of snow density with elevation for tundra snow and snow density was highly correlated with latitude for prairie snow.

  1. Fracture mechanics of snow avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.; Timonen, J.

    2001-07-01

    Dense snow avalanches are analyzed by modeling the snow slab as an elastic and brittle plate, attached by static friction to the underlying ground. The grade of heterogeneity in the local fracture (slip) thresholds, and the ratio of the average substrate slip threshold to the average slab fracture threshold, are the decisive parameters for avalanche dynamics. For a strong pack of snow there appears a stable precursor of local slips when the frictional contacts are weakened (equivalent to rising temperature), which eventually trigger a catastrophic crack growth that suddenly releases the entire slab. In the opposite limit of very high slip thresholds, the slab simply melts when the temperature is increased. In the intermediate regime, and for a homogeneous slab, the model display features typical of real snow avalanches. The model also suggests an explanation to why avalanches are impossible to forecast reliably based on precursor observations. This explanation may as well be applicable to other catastrophic rupture phenomena such as earthquakes.

  2. Fracture mechanics of snow avalanches.

    PubMed

    Aström, J A; Timonen, J

    2001-07-01

    Dense snow avalanches are analyzed by modeling the snow slab as an elastic and brittle plate, attached by static friction to the underlying ground. The grade of heterogeneity in the local fracture (slip) thresholds, and the ratio of the average substrate slip threshold to the average slab fracture threshold, are the decisive parameters for avalanche dynamics. For a strong pack of snow there appears a stable precursor of local slips when the frictional contacts are weakened (equivalent to rising temperature), which eventually trigger a catastrophic crack growth that suddenly releases the entire slab. In the opposite limit of very high slip thresholds, the slab simply melts when the temperature is increased. In the intermediate regime, and for a homogeneous slab, the model display features typical of real snow avalanches. The model also suggests an explanation to why avalanches are impossible to forecast reliably based on precursor observations. This explanation may as well be applicable to other catastrophic rupture phenomena such as earthquakes.

  3. Snow White Trench After Scraping

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-24

    This view from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench informally named Snow White after a series of scrapings were done in preparation for collecting a sample for analysis from a hard subsurface layer.

  4. Using Snow to Teach Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

  5. Using Snow to Teach Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

  6. A survey of culturable aerobic and anaerobic marine bacteria in de novo biofilm formation on natural substrates in St. Andrews Bay, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Lucy; Garcia-Melgares, Manuel; Gmerek, Tomasz; Huddleston, W Ryan; Palmer, Alexander; Robertson, Andrew; Shapiro, Sarah; Unkles, Shiela E

    2011-10-01

    This study reports a novel study of marine biofilm formation comprising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Samples of quartz and feldspar, minerals commonly found on the earth, were suspended 5 m deep in the North Sea off the east coast of St. Andrews, Scotland for 5 weeks. The assemblage of organisms attached to these stones was cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the laboratory. Bacteria isolated on Marine Agar 2216 were all Gram-negative and identified to genus level by sequencing the gene encoding 16S rRNA. Colwellia, Maribacter, Pseudoaltermonas and Shewanella were observed in aerobically-grown cultures while Vibrio was found to be present in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Psychrilyobacter atlanticus, a recently defined genus, was identified as a close relative of isolates grown anaerobically. The results provide valuable information as to the main players that attach and form de novo biofilms on common minerals in sea water.

  7. Continuum cavity expansion and discrete micromechanical models for inferring macroscopic snow mechanical properties from cone penetration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Siul; Capelli, Achille; van Herwijnen, Alec; Schneebeli, Martin; Or, Dani

    2017-08-01

    Digital cone penetration measurements can be used to infer snow mechanical properties, for instance, to study snow avalanche formation. The standard interpretation of these measurements is based on statistically inferred micromechanical interactions between snow microstructural elements and a well-calibrated penetrating cone. We propose an alternative continuum model to derive the modulus of elasticity and yield strength of snow based on the widely used cavity expansion model in soils. We compare results from these approaches based on laboratory cone penetration measurements in snow samples of different densities and structural sizes. Results suggest that the micromechanical model underestimates the snow elastic modulus for dense samples by 2 orders of magnitude. By comparison with the cavity expansion-based model, some of the discrepancy is attributed to low sensitivity of the micromechanical model to the snow elastic modulus. Reasons and implications of this discrepancy are discussed, and possibilities to enhance both methodologies are proposed.

  8. Deceleration of Projectiles in Snow,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    contents of this report are not to be used for advertising or promotional purposes. Citation of brand names does not constitute an official endorsement or...projectile are directly wired els were used in these tests. The snow targets were to recording equipment, and the target is not accel- prepared by sifting...the snow target are identified in The target box was placed in a rigid stand located the figure. The travel times between these impacts on a tangent to

  9. Modeling Greenland Ice Sheet Snow and Firn Densities: Role of Dry Snow Density, Liquid Water, and Model Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P. M.; Koenig, L.; Tedesco, M.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Fettweis, X.; Ligtenberg, S.; Noel, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Miège, C.

    2016-12-01

    Snow and firn densities on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) play an important role in the surface mass balance (SMB), a key component of the ice sheet's contribution to sea level change. Snow and firn densities influence the storage of liquid water, the exchange of heat between the atmosphere and the ice sheet, and the transport of snow by wind. Density is also necessary for converting altimetry and radar-derived thickness changes into mass changes. We compare density profiles from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) and the Firn Densification Model of the Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Utrecht (IMAU FDM) with in situ profiles from the Surface Mass Balance Working Group (SUMup) community dataset. The IMAU FDM is forced with atmospheric output from the RACMO2 regional climate model. In dry snow areas the parameterization for initial snow density is responsible for the largest MAR biases. In areas of melt and refreezing, parameterization for liquid water and errors in accumulation play an important role in differences between models and model biases. In ablation areas with a shallow snowpack, accumulation errors affect the thickness of snow above ice, and influence the density profile as a result. Model initialization and spinup time also influence simulated profiles. In addition to comparison with observations, we investigate the source of inter-model differences, local errors and biases by applying the same atmospheric forcing to the two models, using model outputs and weather station data from the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net).

  10. MODIS Snow Cover Mapping Decision Tree Technique: Snow and Cloud Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George A.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mapping of snow cover continues to challenge cryospheric scientists and modelers. The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow data products have been used since 2000 by many investigators to map and monitor snow cover extent for various applications. Users have reported on the utility of the products and also on problems encountered. Three problems or hindrances in the use of the MODIS snow data products that have been reported in the literature are: cloud obscuration, snow/cloud confusion, and snow omission errors in thin or sparse snow cover conditions. Implementation of the MODIS snow algorithm in a decision tree technique using surface reflectance input to mitigate those problems is being investigated. The objective of this work is to use a decision tree structure for the snow algorithm. This should alleviate snow/cloud confusion and omission errors and provide a snow map with classes that convey information on how snow was detected, e.g. snow under clear sky, snow tinder cloud, to enable users' flexibility in interpreting and deriving a snow map. Results of a snow cover decision tree algorithm are compared to the standard MODIS snow map and found to exhibit improved ability to alleviate snow/cloud confusion in some situations allowing up to about 5% increase in mapped snow cover extent, thus accuracy, in some scenes.

  11. The Fallacy of Drifting Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Edgar L.

    2011-12-01

    A common parametrization over snow-covered surfaces that are undergoing saltation is that the aerodynamic roughness length for wind speed ( z 0) scales as {α u_ast^2/g}, where u * is the friction velocity, g is the acceleration of gravity, and α is an empirical constant. Data analyses seem to support this scaling: many published plots of z 0 measured over snow demonstrate proportionality to {u_ast^2 }. In fact, I show similar plots here that are based on two large eddy-covariance datasets: one collected over snow-covered Arctic sea ice; another collected over snow-covered Antarctic sea ice. But in these and in most such plots from the literature, the independent variable, u *, was used to compute z 0 in the first place; the plots thus suffer from fictitious correlation that causes z 0 to unavoidably increase with u * without any intervening physics. For these two datasets, when I plot z 0 against u * derived from a bulk flux algorithm—and thus minimize the fictitious correlation— z 0 is independent of u * in the drifting snow region, u * ≥ 0.30 ms-1. I conclude that the relation {z_0 = α u_ast^2/g} when snow is drifting is a fallacy fostered by analyses that suffer from fictitious correlation.

  12. Marine carbonate embayment system in an Eolian dune terrain, Permian Upper Minnelusa Formation, Rozet Area, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Achauer, C.W.

    1987-05-01

    The eolian origin for Minnelusa sandstones has been stressed in numerous published articles. However, the dolomites that are interbedded with the eolian sandstones have received little attention. Isopach mapping of one of the dolomite units (Dolomite I) reflects a marine embayment system whose individual embayments range from 1/2 to 1 mi in width and trend primarily in a northwest direction. Consistently the embayment dolomites pinch out against the flanks of reworked, low relief, broad, eolian dune ridges. So far, 108 mi/sup 2/ of the Dolomite I marine embayment system have been mapped, but the overall extent of the system is undoubtedly much greater. Dolomite I is rarely cored, but cores from stratigraphically higher embayment dolomites in the upper Minnelusa show that these dolomites display the following, shoaling-upward sequence: (1) subtidal, sparingly fossiliferous dolomite; (2) intertidal, algal-laminated or brecciated or mud-cracked dolomite; and (3) very thin, supratidal, nodular anhydrite. The embayments, therefore, became the sites of marine sabkhas located between eolian dunes. Two main conclusions emerge from this study: (1) the juxtaposition of eolian sandstones and marine dolomites in a tectonically stable area suggests that eustatic sea level changes and a very arid climate were responsible for the marked environmental and lithologic changes observed in the upper Minnelusa, and (2) arid, coastal, evaporitic sabkhas bordered by eolian dunes are known from a number of modern and ancient cases, but marine carbonate embayments and associated evaporitic sabkhas that penetrate deeply into eolian sandstone terrains are rare.

  13. The density of a homogeneous population of cells controls resetting of the program for swarmer formation in the unicellular marine microorganism Noctiluca scintillans.

    PubMed

    Sato, M S; Suzuki, M; Hayashi, H

    1998-12-15

    Noctiluca scintillans is a luminescent marine dinoflagellate. The life cycle of Noctiluca consists of a vegetative stage and a swarmer stage. The swarmer stage of Noctiluca is initiated by formation of a swarmer-mother cell instead of binary fission of vegetative cells. We studied the formation of swarmers under various conditions and became convinced that the cells have a strict program for the formation of swarmers which starts to operate in every cell after a defined number of cell cleavages. The probability that the program will be executed appeared to be affected by the presence of other cells. In other words, a high density of cells suppressed the expression of the program. Suppression was achieved by resetting the mechanism and was related to the number of cell divisions. Our findings provide one of the simplest examples of a mechanism by which a large population produces individuality in a group of genetically homogeneous organisms.

  14. Shallow marine event sedimentation in a volcanic arc-related setting: The Ordovician Suri Formation, Famatina range, northwest Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    level fall. Pyroclastic detritus, andesites, and a non-volcanic terrain were eroded and their detritus was transported basinward and redeposited by sediment gravity flows during the low stand. The local coexistence of juvenile pyroclastic detritus and fossils suggests reworking of rare ash-falls. The upper part of the Loma del Kilo??metre Member records a transgression with no evidence of contemporaneous volcanism. Biostratinomic, paleoecologic, and ichnologic analyses support this paleoenvironmental interpretations and provide independent evidence for the dominance of episodic sedimentation in an arc-related shallow marine setting. Fossil concentrations were mainly formed by event processes, such as storms and volcaniclastic mass flows. High depositional rates inhibited formation of sediment-starved biogenic concentrations. Collectively, trace fossils belong to the Cruziana ichnofacies. Low diversity, scarcity, and presence of relatively simple forms indicate benthic activity under stressful conditions, most probably linked to high sedimentation rates. Contrasting sedimentary dynamics between 'normal shelves' and their volcaniclastic counterparts produce distinct and particular signatures in the stratigraphic record. Arc-related shelves are typified by event deposition with significant participation of sediment gravity flows, relatively high sedimentation rates, textural and mineralogical immaturity of sediments, scarcity and low diversity of trace fossils, and dominance of transported and reworked faunal assemblages genetically related to episodic processes.

  15. Snow in the Northeast

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Clear, cold air following behind the winter storm of January 21, 2014 highlights the extent of snowfall in the Mid-Atlantic states. The frigid temperatures that remain entrenched over the central and eastern U.S. will begin to affect the southern states through the rest of the week. Winter Weather Advisories are posted for a portions of Texas for snow and freezing rain, while Hard Freeze Warnings extend from the Southeast states into northern Florida. This image was taken around 1840Z on January 22, 2014. Image credit: NOAA/NASA/Suomi NPP Credit: NASA/NOAA via NOAA Environmental Visualization Laboratory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. Snow chemistry of high altitude glaciers in the French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maupetit, François; Delmas, Robert J.

    1994-09-01

    Snow samples were collected as snowcores in the accumulation zone of four high altitude glaciers (2980 3540m.a.s.l.) from each of the 4 highest mountain areas of the French Alps, during 3 consecutive years: 1989, 1990 and 1991. Sampling was performed in spring (˜ May), before the onset of late spring summer percolation. The accumulated snow therefore reflects winter and spring conditions. A complementary sampling of fresh-snow was performed on an event basis, on one of the studied glaciers, in 1990 and 1991. All samples were analysed for major ions (but also for total formate and acetate in fresh-snow samples) using ion chromatography. The acidity-alkalinity was accurately determined with a titration technique. The ion balance of alpine snow has been achieved from those analyses. High alpine snow is slightly acid (H+~ 3 20 μeq 1-1), but is episodically affected by alkaline saharan dust events. The different sources (pollution, seasalt and soil dust) affecting the impurity content of snow were identified using principal component analysis. The measured free acidity, mainly from anthropogenic origin, originates from nitric acid scavenging while sulfuric acidity is partially neutralized by atmospheric ammonia and by alkaline soil dust derived species, the contribution of hydrochloric acid being negligible. All ions exhibit higher concentrations in spring than in winter snow, indicating most likely the influence of increased vertical transport from the lower troposphere at this time. The transport of saharan dust is described through three major events reaching the Alps during March 1990 and 1991. Very high concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3- were measured in corresponding samples, indicating that

  17. Snow density climatology across the former USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, K.

    2013-07-01

    Snow density is one of the basic properties used to describe snow cover characteristics, and it is a key factor for retrieving snow depth and snow water equivalent, which are critical for water resources assessment and modeling inputs. In this study, we used long-term data from ground-based measurements to investigate snow density climatology and its spatiotemporal variations across the former Soviet Union (USSR) from 1966 to 2008. The results showed that the long-term monthly mean snow density was approximately 0.194 ± 0.046 g cm-3 over the study area. The maximum and minimum monthly mean snow density was ˜ 0.295 g cm-3 in June, and 0.135 g cm-3 in October, respectively. Maritime snow had the highest monthly mean snow density, while taiga snow had the lowest. The higher values of monthly snow density were mainly located in the European regions of the former USSR, in Arctic Russia, and in some regions of the Russian Far East, and the lower snow density occurred in central Siberia. Significant increasing trends of snow density from September through June of the next year were observed, however, the rate of the increase varied with different snow classes. The long-term (1966-2008) monthly and annual mean snow densities had significant decreasing trends, especially during the autumn months. Spatially, significant positive trends in monthly mean snow density lay in the southwestern areas of the former USSR in November and December and gradually expanded in Russia from February through April. Significant negative trends mainly lay in the European Russia and the southern Russia. Snow density decreased with elevation, at about 0.004 g cm-3 per 100 m increase in elevation. This same relationship existed for all snow classes except for maritime and ephemeral snow.

  18. Aldehydes in Artic Snow at Barrow (AK) during the Barrow 2009 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barret, Manuel; Houdier, Stephan; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Domine, Florent; Beine, Harry; Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Weibring, Petter; Walega, James; Fried, Alan; Richter, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Aldehydes (RCHO) are key reactive intermediates in hydrocarbon oxidation and in OH cycling. They are also emitted and taken up by the snowpack and a combination of both physical and photochemical processes are likely involved. Since the photolysis of aldehydes is a source of HOx radicals, these exchanges can modify the oxidative capacity of the overlying air. Formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (MeCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methylglyoxal (MeCOCHO) concentrations were measured in over 250 snow samples collected during the Barrow 2009 campaign between late February and mid April 2009. Both continental and marine snowpacks were studied as well as frost flowers on sea ice. We found that HCHO was the most abundant aldehyde (1 to 9 µg/L), but significant concentrations of dicarbonyls glyoxal and methylglyoxal were also measured for the first time in Arctic snow. Similar concentrations were measured for the continental and marine snowpacks but some frost flowers exhibited HCHO concentrations as high as 150 µg/L. Daily cycles in the surface snow were observed for HCHO and CH3CHO but also for the dicarbonyls and we concluded to a photochemical production of these species from organic precursors. Additional data such as gas phase concentrations for the measured aldehydes and snow physical properties (specific surface area, density …) will be used to discuss on the location of aldehydes in the snow. This is essential to identify and quantify the physical processes that occur during the exchange of trace gases between the snow and the atmosphere.

  19. Airborne radar surveys of snow depth over Antarctic sea ice during Operation IceBridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzer, B.; Gomez-Garcia, D.; Leuschen, C.; Paden, J. D.; Gogineni, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    comparison of snow depths with two weeks elapsed between passes. [1] Farrell, S.L., et al., "A First Assessment of IceBridge Snow and Ice Thickness Data Over Arctic Sea Ice," IEEE Tran. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 2098-2111, June 2012. [2] Kwok, R., and G. F. Cunningham, "ICESat over Arctic sea ice: Estimation of snow depth and ice thickness," J. Geophys. Res., 113, C08010, 2008. [3] Kwok, R., et al., "Airborne surveys of snow depth over Arctic sea ice," J. Geophys. Res., 116, C11018, 2011. [4] Panzer, B., et al., "An ultra-wideband, microwave radar for measuring snow thickness on sea ice and mapping near-surface internal layers in polar firn," Submitted to J. Glaciology, July 23, 2012. [5] Wingham, D.J., et al., "CryoSat: A Mission to Determine the Fluctuations in Earth's Land and Marine Ice Fields," Advances in Space Research, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 841-871, 2006. [6] Zwally, H. J., et al., "ICESat's laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land," J. Geodynamics, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, pp. 405-445, Oct-Nov 2002. [7] Zwally, H. J., et al., "ICESat measurements of sea ice freeboard and estimates of sea ice thickness in the Weddell Sea," J. Geophys. Res., 113, C02S15, 2008.

  20. New Insights into an Old Cycle: The Marine Phosphorus Cycle and the Formation of Critical Phosphate Rock Resources (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippelli, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    The cycling and geochemistry of phosphorus (P) in the marine environment is a critical component of biological productivity and of resource availability: P control the long-term carbon cycle via its role as a limiting nutrient, and the burial and concentration of P within marine sediments dictates the quality and availability of P as a fertilizer component from a resources standpoint. Given the projections of severe P fertilizer limitation over the next several centuries, understanding the controls on P geochemistry and concentration into a minable resource is critical in sustaining global populations. Several critical aspects of the marine P cycle have been uncovered over the past few decades which have clarified our understanding of P burial and concentration. First, the initial authigenic process of P mineralization within marine sediments, termed phosphogenesis, seems to occur regardless of marine setting. Phosphogenesis results from the release of P into sedimentary pore waters from organic and oxide-bound fractions, and the subsequent supersaturation with respect to carbonate fluorapatite. In sediment-starved basins with significant upwelling-driven productivity, the supply of P into sedimentary pore waters can be so high that visibly apparent layers of carbonate fluorapatite can be formed. Even in such environments, however, the mineral P content is too low to be of economic value unless it has undergone concentration via sediment reworking, a common occurrence in some dynamic continental margin environments. Thus, a combination of phosphogenesis in a high productivity setting plus sediment starvation plus condensation via reworking are necessary to produce phosphorites, sedimentary rocks with high P contents which are ideal as fertilizer-grade P resources. Given these special marine conditions, phosphorites are largely distributed along ancient marine environments (with the exception of the nearly-depleted atoll guano reserves). The largest currently

  1. Ground-Truthing a Next Generation Snow Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S.; Brozena, J. M.; Gogineni, P. S.; Abelev, A.; Gardner, J. M.; Ball, D.; Liang, R.; Newman, T.

    2016-12-01

    During the early spring of 2016 the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) performed a test of a next generation airborne snow radar over ground truth data collected on several areas of fast ice near Barrow, AK. The radar was developed by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) at the University of Kansas, and includes several improvements compared to their previous snow radar. The new unit combines the earlier Ku-band and snow radars into a single unit with an operating frequency spanning the entire 2-18 GHz, an enormous bandwidth which provides the possibility of snow depth measurements with 1.5 cm range resolution. Additionally, the radar transmits on dual polarizations (H and V), and receives the signal through two orthogonally polarized Vivaldi arrays, each with 128 phase centers. The 8 sets of along-track phase centers are combined in hardware to improve SNR and narrow the beamwidth in the along-track, resulting in 8 cross-track effective phase centers which are separately digitized to allow for beam sharpening and forming in post-processing. Tilting the receive arrays 30 degrees from the horizontal also allows the formation of SAR images and the potential for estimating snow-water equivalent (SWE). Ground truth data (snow depth, density, salinity and SWE) were collected over several 60 m wide swaths that were subsequently overflown with the snow radar mounted on a Twin Otter. The radar could be operated in nadir (by beam steering the receive antennas to point beneath the aircraft) or side-looking modes. Results from the comparisons will be shown.

  2. Fish faunas from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina: One of the most important Jurassic marine ichthyofaunas of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouiric-Cavalli, Soledad; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2015-11-01

    The marine deposits of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Tithonian-Berriasian) houses one of the most diverse Late Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Gondwana. However, most of the specimens remain undescribed. Jurassic fishes have been recovered from several localities at Neuquén Province (i.e., Picún Leufú, Plaza Huincul, Cerro Lotena, Portada Las Lajas, Los Catutos, and Arroyo Covunco) but also from Mendoza Province (i.e., La Valenciana, Los Molles, and Arroyo del Cajón Grande). Presently, the fish fauna of Los Catutos, near Zapala city (Neuquén Province), has yielded the highest number of specimens, which are taxonomically and morphologically diverse. At Los Catutos locality, the Vaca Muerta Formation is represented by the Los Catutos Member, which is considered the only lithographic limestones known in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we review the Tithonian fish faunas from the Vaca Muerta Formation. During Late Jurassic times, the actual Argentinian territory could have been a morphological diversification center, at least for some actinopterygian groups. The apparently lower species diversity recorded in marine Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Argentina (and some Gondwanan countries) in comparison with Chilean and European fish faunas could be related to the fish paleontological research history in Gondwana and the low number of detailed studies of most of specimens recorded.

  3. Geochemistry of recent aragonite-rich sediments in Mediterranean karstic marine lakes: Trace elements as pollution and palaeoredox proxies and indicators of authigenic mineral formation.

    PubMed

    Sondi, Ivan; Mikac, Nevenka; Vdović, Neda; Ivanić, Maja; Furdek, Martina; Škapin, Srečo D

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the geochemical characteristics of recent shallow-water aragonite-rich sediments from the karstic marine lakes located in the pristine environment on the island of Mljet (Adriatic Sea). Different trace elements were used as authigenic mineral formation, palaeoredox and pollution indicators. The distribution and the historical record of trace elements deposition mostly depended on the sedimentological processes associated with the formation of aragonite, early diagenetic processes governed by the prevailing physico-chemical conditions and on the recent anthropogenic activity. This study demonstrated that Sr could be used as a proxy indicating authigenic formation of aragonite in a marine carbonate sedimentological environment. Distribution of the redox sensitive elements Mo, Tl, U and Cd was used to identify changes in redox conditions in the investigated lake system and to determine the geochemical cycle of these elements through environmental changes over the last 100 years. The significant enrichment of these elements and the presence of early formed nanostructured authigenic framboidal pyrite in laminated deeper parts of sediment in Malo Jezero, indicate sporadic events of oxygen-depleted euxinic conditions in the recent past. Concentrations of trace elements were in the range characteristic for non-contaminated marine carbonates. However, the increase in the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Sn, Bi in the upper-most sediment strata of Veliko Jezero indicates a low level of trace element pollution, resulting from anthropogenic inputs over the last 40 years. The presence of butyltin compounds (BuTs) in the surface sediment of Veliko Jezero additionally indicates the anthropogenic influence in the recent past.

  4. Black carbon aerosol size in snow

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, J. P.; Gao, R. S.; Perring, A. E.; Spackman, J. R.; Fahey, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) aerosol on snow is of enduring interest due to its consequences for climate forcing. Until now, too little attention has been focused on BC's size in snow, an important parameter affecting BC light absorption in snow. Here we present first observations of this parameter, revealing that BC can be shifted to larger sizes in snow than are typically seen in the atmosphere, in part due to the processes associated with BC removal from the atmosphere. Mie theory analysis indicates a corresponding reduction in BC absorption in snow of 40%, making BC size in snow the dominant source of uncertainty in BC's absorption properties for calculations of BC's snow albedo climate forcing. The shift reduces estimated BC global mean snow forcing by 30%, and has scientific implications for our understanding of snow albedo and the processing of atmospheric BC aerosol in snowfall. PMID:23449011

  5. Black carbon aerosol size in snow.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, J P; Gao, R S; Perring, A E; Spackman, J R; Fahey, D W

    2013-01-01

    The effect of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) aerosol on snow is of enduring interest due to its consequences for climate forcing. Until now, too little attention has been focused on BC's size in snow, an important parameter affecting BC light absorption in snow. Here we present first observations of this parameter, revealing that BC can be shifted to larger sizes in snow than are typically seen in the atmosphere, in part due to the processes associated with BC removal from the atmosphere. Mie theory analysis indicates a corresponding reduction in BC absorption in snow of 40%, making BC size in snow the dominant source of uncertainty in BC's absorption properties for calculations of BC's snow albedo climate forcing. The shift reduces estimated BC global mean snow forcing by 30%, and has scientific implications for our understanding of snow albedo and the processing of atmospheric BC aerosol in snowfall.

  6. SnopViz, an interactive snow profile visualization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierz, Charles; Egger, Thomas; gerber, Matthias; Bavay, Mathias; Techel, Frank

    2016-04-01

    SnopViz is a visualization tool for both simulation outputs of the snow-cover model SNOWPACK and observed snow profiles. It has been designed to fulfil the needs of operational services (Swiss Avalanche Warning Service, Avalanche Canada) as well as offer the flexibility required to satisfy the specific needs of researchers. This JavaScript application runs on any modern browser and does not require an active Internet connection. The open source code is available for download from models.slf.ch where examples can also be run. Both the SnopViz library and the SnopViz User Interface will become a full replacement of the current research visualization tool SN_GUI for SNOWPACK. The SnopViz library is a stand-alone application that parses the provided input files, for example, a single snow profile (CAAML file format) or multiple snow profiles as output by SNOWPACK (PRO file format). A plugin architecture allows for handling JSON objects (JavaScript Object Notation) as well and plugins for other file formats may be added easily. The outputs are provided either as vector graphics (SVG) or JSON objects. The SnopViz User Interface (UI) is a browser based stand-alone interface. It runs in every modern browser, including IE, and allows user interaction with the graphs. SVG, the XML based standard for vector graphics, was chosen because of its easy interaction with JS and a good software support (Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape) to manipulate graphs outside SnopViz for publication purposes. SnopViz provides new visualization for SNOWPACK timeline output as well as time series input and output. The actual output format for SNOWPACK timelines was retained while time series are read from SMET files, a file format used in conjunction with the open source data handling code MeteoIO. Finally, SnopViz is able to render single snow profiles, either observed or modelled, that are provided as CAAML-file. This file format (caaml.org/Schemas/V5.0/Profiles/SnowProfileIACS) is an international

  7. Snow Line Localization in Classical Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blevins, S.

    2014-04-01

    Protoplanetary disks are volatile-rich environments capable of producing the essential conditions that make planet formation viable. Establishing a molecular inventory of dominant volatile species, such as water, in the planet-forming zones surrounding young, solar-type stars elevates our understanding of the chemistry involved with planet formation, composition and disk evolution. For this study we measure the water vapor content and determine the location of the condensation front, or snow line, for four classical disks selected for the strong water emission present in their mid-infrared spectra. To accomplish this we combine deep Herschel PACS observations with high resolution Spitzer IRS spectra to create molecular maps comprised of water lines with excitation temperatures that trace the disks' surfaces from 1-100 AU. We use two-dimensional, axisymmetric radiative transfer modeling to retrieve the disks' dust structures and the RADLite raytracer to render model spectra for each disk. A simple step function is used to define the abundance structure and the model spectra are fit to the observed water lines. Preliminary results will be discussed, including the inner disk chemical content, snow line radius and fractional water vapor abundances for the classical disk RNO 90.

  8. Wind tunnel observations of drifting snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterna, Enrico; Crivelli, Philip; Lehning, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Drifting snow has a significant impact on snow redistribution in mountains, prairies as well as on glaciers, ice shelves, and sea ice. In all these environments, the local mass balance is highly influenced by drifting snow. Understanding the dynamic of snow saltation is crucial to the accurate description of the process. We applied digital shadowgraphy in a cold wind tunnel to measure drifting snow over natural snow covers. The acquisition and evaluation of time-resolved shadowgraphy images allowed us to resolve a large part of the saltation layer. The technique has been successfully compared to the measurements obtained from a Snow Particle Counter, considered the most robust technique for snow mass-flux measurements so far. The streamwise snow transport is dominated by large-scale events. The vertical snow transport has a more equal distribution of energy across the scales, similarly to what is observed for the flow turbulence velocities. It is hypothesized that the vertical snow transport is a quantity that reflects the local entrainment of the snow crystals into the saltation layer while the streamwise snow transport results from the streamwise development of the trajectories of the snow particles once entrained, and therefore is rather a non-local quantity.

  9. Sodankylä manual snow survey program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppänen, L.; Kontu, A.; Hannula, H.-R.; Sjöblom, H.; Pulliainen, J.

    2015-12-01

    The manual snow survey program of the Arctic Research Centre of Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI-ARC) consists of numerous observations of natural seasonal taiga snowpack in Sodankylä, northern Finland. The easily accessible measurement areas represent the typical forest and soil types in the boreal forest zone. Systematic snow measurements began in 1909 with snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE); however some older records of the snow and ice cover exists. In 2006 the manual snow survey program expanded to cover snow macro- and microstructure from regular snow pits at several sites using both traditional and novel measurement techniques. Present-day measurements include observations of SD, SWE, temperature, density, horizontal layers of snow, grain size, specific surface area (SSA), and liquid water content (LWC). Regular snow pit measurements are performed weekly during the snow season. Extensive time series of manual snow measurements are important for the monitoring of temporal and spatial changes in seasonal snowpack. This snow survey program is an excellent base for the future research of snow properties.

  10. Late Paleocene to Early Eocene marine vertebrates from the Uppermost Aruma Formation (northern Saudi Arabia): implications for the K-T transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Herbert; Roger, Jack; Halawani, Mohammed; Memesh, Abdallah; Lebret, Patrick; Bourdillon, Chantal; Buffetaut, Eric; Cappetta, Henri; Cavelier, Claude; Dutheil, Didier; Tonge, Haiyan; Vaslet, Denis

    1999-12-01

    A new assemblage of marine vertebrates from northern Saudi Arabia, east of the Nafud, leads us to reconsider the age of the top unit of the Aruma Formation, the Lina Member, hitherto referred to the Maastrichtian. This assemblage contains the remains of a dozen selachian and actinopterygian fishes, as well as those of a giant sea turtle representing a new dermochelyid taxon. It suggests a Late Paleocene to Early Eocene age for this unit. This new dating and a revision of the stratigraphic position of the Lina Member demonstrate the existence, on a regional scale, of an important hiatus at the K-T boundary.

  11. BOREAS RSS-8 Snow Maps Derived from Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Foster, James L.; Chien, Janeet Y. L.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-8 team utilized Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images to perform mapping of snow extent over the Southern Study Area (SSA). This data set consists of two Landsat TM images that were used to determine the snow-covered pixels over the BOREAS SSA on 18 Jan 1993 and on 06 Feb 1994. The data are stored in binary image format files. The RSS-08 snow map data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  12. Detecting Falling Snow from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick; Johnson, Ben; Munchak, Joe

    2012-01-01

    There is an increased interest in detecting and estimating the amount of falling snow reaching the Earth's surface in order to fully capture the atmospheric water cycle. An initial step toward global spaceborne falling snow algorithms includes determining the thresholds of detection for various active and passive sensor channel configurations, snow event cloud structures and microphysics, snowflake particle electromagnetic properties, and surface types. In this work, cloud resolving model simulations of a lake effect and synoptic snow event were used to determine the minimum amount of snow (threshold) that could be detected by the following instruments: the W -band radar of CloudSat, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) Ku and Ka band, and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) channels from 10 to 183 plus or minus 7 GHz. Eleven different snowflake shapes were used to compute radar reflectivities and passive brightness temperatures. Notable results include: (1) the W-Band radar has detection thresholds more than an order of magnitude lower than the future GPM sensors, (2) the cloud structure macrophysics influences the thresholds of detection for passive channels, (3) the snowflake microphysics plays a large role in the detection threshold for active and passive instruments, (4) with reasonable assumptions, "the passive 166 GHz channel has detection threshold values comparable to the GPM DPR Ku and Ka band radars with approximately 0.05 g per cubic meter detected at the surface, or an approximately 0.5-1 millimeter per hr. melted snow rate (equivalent to 0.5-2 centimeters per hr. solid fluffy snowflake rate). With detection levels of falling snow known, we can focus current and future retrieval efforts on detectable storms and concentrate advances on achievable results. We will also have an understanding of the light snowfall events missed by the sensors and not captured in the global estimates.

  13. Assimilation of snow cover and snow depth into a snow model to estimate snow water equivalent and snowmelt runoff in a Himalayan catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigter, Emmy E.; Wanders, Niko; Saloranta, Tuomo M.; Shea, Joseph M.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Immerzeel, Walter W.

    2017-07-01

    Snow is an important component of water storage in the Himalayas. Previous snowmelt studies in the Himalayas have predominantly relied on remotely sensed snow cover. However, snow cover data provide no direct information on the actual amount of water stored in a snowpack, i.e., the snow water equivalent (SWE). Therefore, in this study remotely sensed snow cover was combined with in situ observations and a modified version of the seNorge snow model to estimate (climate sensitivity of) SWE and snowmelt runoff in the Langtang catchment in Nepal. Snow cover data from Landsat 8 and the MOD10A2 snow cover product were validated with in situ snow cover observations provided by surface temperature and snow depth measurements resulting in classification accuracies of 85.7 and 83.1 % respectively. Optimal model parameter values were obtained through data assimilation of MOD10A2 snow maps and snow depth measurements using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Independent validations of simulated snow depth and snow cover with observations show improvement after data assimilation compared to simulations without data assimilation. The approach of modeling snow depth in a Kalman filter framework allows for data-constrained estimation of snow depth rather than snow cover alone, and this has great potential for future studies in complex terrain, especially in the Himalayas. Climate sensitivity tests with the optimized snow model revealed that snowmelt runoff increases in winter and the early melt season (December to May) and decreases during the late melt season (June to September) as a result of the earlier onset of snowmelt due to increasing temperature. At high elevation a decrease in SWE due to higher air temperature is (partly) compensated by an increase in precipitation, which emphasizes the need for accurate predictions on the changes in the spatial distribution of precipitation along with changes in temperature.

  14. Politics of Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burko, D.

    2012-12-01

    In a 2010 catalog introduction for my exhibition titled: POLITICS OF SNOW, Eileen Claussen, President of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change wrote the following: "Climate change has been taken over by politics…We are awash in talking points, briefing papers, scientific studies, and communiqués from national governments… Diane Burko's paintings remind us that all these words can often obscure or even obstruct our view of what is truly happening …..There is only so much you can do with words. People need to see that the world is changing before our eyes. When we look at Diane's images of the effects of climate change, we connect to something much deeper and more profound (and more moving) than the latest political pitch from one side or another in this debate…These paintings also connect us to something else. Even as Diane documents how things are changing, she also reminds us of the stunning beauty of nature - and, in turn, the urgency of doing everything in our power to protect it." The creation of this body of work was made possible because of the collaboration of many glacial geologists and scientists who continually share their visual data with me. Since 2006 I've been gathering repeats from people like Bruce Molnia (USGS) and Tad Pfeffer of Alaskan glaciers, from Daniel Fagre (USGS) of Glacier National Park and Lonnie Thompson and Jason Box (Ohio University's Byrd Polar Center) about Kilimanjaro, Qori Kalis and Petermann glaciers as well as from photographer David Breashears on the disappearing Himalayan glaciers. In my practice, I acknowledge the photographers, or archive agencies, such as USGS, NASA or Snow and Ice Center, in the title and all printed material. As a landscape painter and photographer my intent is to not reproduce those images but rather use them as inspiration. At first I used the documentary evidence in sets of diptychs or triptychs. Since 2010 I have incorporated geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and

  15. Measurements of snow grain hydroxyl radical at Summit, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasio, C.; Galbavy, E.; Hutterli, M.; Friel, D.; Bales, R.

    2004-12-01

    Sunlit snowpacks release a number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as formaldehyde and other carbonyls, carboxylic acids, alkenes, and alkyl halides. It has been hypothesized that this flux of VOCs to the overlying atmosphere is in part due to reactions of hydroxyl radical (OH) with snowgrain organic matter. Recent laboratory measurements by Grannas et al. support this idea by showing that the photolysis of polar snow releases formaldehyde, and that this release is enhanced by the addition of nitrate, a photochemical source of OH. In addition to its effects on organic chemistry, OH is probably also important in other snowpack reactions such as the oxidation of halides to form volatile, reactive gaseous halogens. However, the possible role of OH in these reactions has not been quantified. To begin to address the importance of OH in snowpack chemistry, we have measured the photochemical formation of hydroxyl radicals on snow grains at Summit, Greenland during the spring and summer. Measurements were made using a chemical probe technique where benzoate is added to the snow sample in order to scavenge OH and convert it into p-hydroxybenzoate, which is measured by HPLC. We found that OH is formed on snow grains during both seasons and that the rate of formation in the summer was more than an order of magnitude greater than the typical springtime value. Expressed on a bulk (melted) snow volume basis, the average summer value was approximately 200 nM/hr. Assuming that this reactivity occurs within a snowgrain "quasi-liquid layer" (QLL) that represents approximately 0.001% of the bulk liquid volume, rates of OH photoformation in the QLL are on the order of 10 mM/hr. The possible implications of this enormous rate of OH formation for snowpack chemistry (e.g., for VOC release) will be discussed. We have also examined the relative importance of nitrate and hydrogen peroxide as sources of photoformed OH on snow grains at Summit. Based on quantum yields determined in

  16. Snow and Ice Crust Changes over Northern Eurasia since 1966

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulygina, O.; Groisman, P. Y.; Razuvaev, V.; Radionov, V.

    2009-12-01

    observations has substantially changed at that year. Therefore, this analysis includes only data of 585 Russian stations from 1966 to 2008 that have all years of data with a minimal number of missing observations. Surveys run separately along all types of environment typical for the site for 1 to 2 km, describing the current snow cover properties including characteristics of snow and ice crust. Joint analysis of these characteristics of crust together with a suite of synoptic information at the stations allows us to empirically assess the process of snow and ice crust formation and development throughout the cold season and outline major factors responsible for their dynamics. Finally, regional averaging and time series analysis of both, these factors and the crust characteristics themselves, answer the question about the regional climatic changes of snow and ice crusts over Northern Eurasia, including those crust characteristics that are of practical importance for reindeer husbandry. These results for the Russian Federation will be presented at the Meeting.

  17. Source attribution of black carbon in Arctic snow.

    PubMed

    Hegg, Dean A; Warren, Stephen G; Grenfell, Thomas C; Doherty, Sarah J; Larson, Timothy V; Clarke, Antony D

    2009-06-01

    Snow samples obtained at 36 sites in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean in early 2007 were analyzed for light-absorbing aerosol concentration together with a suite of associated chemical species. The light absorption data, interpreted as black carbon concentrations, and other chemical data were input into the EPA PMF 1.1 receptor model to explore the sources for black carbon in the snow. The analysis found four factors or sources: two distinct biomass burning sources, a pollution source, and a marine source. The first three of these were responsible for essentially all of the black carbon, with the two biomass sources (encompassing both open and closed combustion) together accounting for >90% of the black carbon.

  18. Snow Micro-Structure Model

    SciTech Connect

    Micah Johnson, Andrew Slaughter

    2014-06-25

    PIKA is a MOOSE-based application for modeling micro-structure evolution of seasonal snow. The model will be useful for environmental, atmospheric, and climate scientists. Possible applications include application to energy balance models, ice sheet modeling, and avalanche forecasting. The model implements physics from published, peer-reviewed articles. The main purpose is to foster university and laboratory collaboration to build a larger multi-scale snow model using MOOSE. The main feature of the code is that it is implemented using the MOOSE framework, thus making features such as multiphysics coupling, adaptive mesh refinement, and parallel scalability native to the application. PIKA implements three equations: the phase-field equation for tracking the evolution of the ice-air interface within seasonal snow at the grain-scale; the heat equation for computing the temperature of both the ice and air within the snow; and the mass transport equation for monitoring the diffusion of water vapor in the pore space of the snow.

  19. Snow in the Middle East

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    This image from the Aqua satellite's MODIS instrument taken at 11:10 UTC on December 16, 2013 shows areas of snow in Syria, Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Territory. Snow storms in the Middle East are not frequent but not uncommon either. However, this one was unusually early in the winter and more intense than normal. The storm paralyzed Jerusalem with 30 to 50 centimeters (12 to 20 inches) of snow, knocking out power for roughly 15,000 households. The snow closed mountain roads leading into the city, effectively cutting Jerusalem off. Amman, Jordan, received about 45 cm (18 inches) of snow, and Lebanon and Syria also were unusually cold and snowy. Lower elevations near the coast received torrential rain during the storm, resulting in flooding. Some 40,000 people were forced to evacuate flooded areas in Gaza, according to the Associated Press. The floods are not visible at this scale, but tan and green plumes of sediment are visible along the Mediterranean Sea coast. Such plumes can be caused by floods and run off, though stormy, turbid waters may also bring sediment to the surface. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. Snow Micro-Structure Model

    SciTech Connect

    Micah Johnson, Andrew Slaughter

    2014-06-25

    PIKA is a MOOSE-based application for modeling micro-structure evolution of seasonal snow. The model will be useful for environmental, atmospheric, and climate scientists. Possible applications include application to energy balance models, ice sheet modeling, and avalanche forecasting. The model implements physics from published, peer-reviewed articles. The main purpose is to foster university and laboratory collaboration to build a larger multi-scale snow model using MOOSE. The main feature of the code is that it is implemented using the MOOSE framework, thus making features such as multiphysics coupling, adaptive mesh refinement, and parallel scalability native to the application. PIKA implements three equations: the phase-field equation for tracking the evolution of the ice-air interface within seasonal snow at the grain-scale; the heat equation for computing the temperature of both the ice and air within the snow; and the mass transport equation for monitoring the diffusion of water vapor in the pore space of the snow.

  1. Similarities and Differences in the Distributions of Hydrothermal Venting and the Formation of Seafloor Massive Sulfide Deposits at the Tui Malila and Mariner Vent Fields, Valu Fa Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, M. K.; Evans, G. N.; Ferrini, V. L.; Spierer, H.

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution bathymetric mapping and recovery and study of samples from precisely known locations relative to local tectonic and volcanic features provide insight into the formation of seafloor massive sulfide deposits. Additional insight comes from repeat mapping efforts in 2005 and 2016 that provide details of relations and changes that may have occurred over time. Located 21 km apart on the Valu Fa Ridge, the Tui Malila and Mariner vent fields exhibit contrasting vent fluid chemistry, mineral deposit composition, deposit morphology, and seafloor morphology. At the Tui Malila vent field, near-neutral pH fluids with low metal contents vent from Zn- and Ba-rich, but Cu-poor deposits. The highest temperature fluids are found near the intersection of two faults and between volcanic domes. In contrast, acidic, metal-rich hydrothermal fluids at the Mariner vent field vent from Cu-rich, Zn-poor deposits. No discernable faults are present. At both the Tui Malila and Mariner vent fields, intermediate temperature fluids were sampled emanating from barite-rich deposits. At the Tui Malila vent field, intermediate fluids vent from flange-dominated edifices that are located on brecciated lava flow that overlays one of the two faults. Intermediate fluids at the Mariner vent field vent from squat terrace-like edifices located peripheral (10-15 m) to high-temperature chimney edifices, and seafloor morphology is dominated by brecciated lava flows. Thermodynamic models of mixing between high-temperature hydrothermal fluids and seawater that consider subsurface deposition of sulfide minerals and iron oxyhydroxide were used to reproduce the chemistry of intermediate fluids. This study suggests that the porous, brecciated lavas characteristic of these two vent fields provide sites for subsurface mixing and contribute to mineral deposition, with the faults at the Tui Malila vent field providing a pathway for subsurface fluid flow.

  2. Exploring triggers for polar tropospheric ODEs, using a 1-D snow photochemistry model (MISTRA-SNOW).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buys, Z.; Jones, A. E.; von Glasow, R.

    2012-04-01

    Tropospheric Ozone Depletion Events (ODEs) have been known to occur in polar regions for over 20 years. During such events, ozone concentrations can fall from background amounts to below instrumental detection limits within a few minutes and remain suppressed for on the order of hours to days. The chemical destruction of ozone is driven by halogens (especially bromine radicals) that have a source associated with the sea ice zone. Although our knowledge of ODEs has increased greatly since their discovery, some of the key processes involved are not yet fully understood. We now know that heterogeneous reactions lead to the activation of Br2 and BrCI, via uptake of HOBr onto aqueous salt solutions /aerosol/ surface snowpack (Fickert et al., 1999), and it is widely accepted that bromine catalytic reaction cycles (the 'bromine explosion') in the gas phase are responsible for surface ozone destruction (Simpson et al., 2007). There is still much debate over the source of bromine in the atmosphere that drives ODEs, but there is strong evidence to suggest a source associated with the sea ice zone. A 1D Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) chemistry model (MISTRA; von Glasow et al., 2002) has been modified to be representative of Antarctic conditions. The chemistry module includes chemical reactions in the gas phase, in and on aerosol particles and takes into account transfer between the gas and aqueous phase. A new snow-photochemistry module has been developed which includes chemistry which takes place in the quasi-liquid layer on aerosol (Thomas et al., 2011), which is of great importance to our understanding of the chemistry which initiates a bromine explosion. Here we use this newly developed 1-D snow photochemistry model (MISTRA-SNOW) to look at some of the suggested triggers for, and the different meteorological conditions required to produce, tropospheric ODEs in polar regions.

  3. Sodankylä manual snow survey program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppänen, Leena; Kontu, Anna; Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Sjöblom, Heidi; Pulliainen, Jouni

    2016-05-01

    The manual snow survey program of the Arctic Research Centre of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI-ARC) consists of numerous observations of natural seasonal taiga snowpack in Sodankylä, northern Finland. The easily accessible measurement areas represent the typical forest and soil types in the boreal forest zone. Systematic snow measurements began in 1909 with snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE). In 2006 the manual snow survey program expanded to cover snow macro- and microstructure from regular snow pits at several sites using both traditional and novel measurement techniques. Present-day snow pit measurements include observations of HS, SWE, temperature, density, stratigraphy, grain size, specific surface area (SSA) and liquid water content (LWC). Regular snow pit measurements are performed weekly during the snow season. Extensive time series of manual snow measurements are important for the monitoring of temporal and spatial changes in seasonal snowpack. This snow survey program is an excellent base for the future research of snow properties.

  4. Lake Effect Snow Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An average of one foot of snow per day has fallen on Buffalo, New York, since Christmas Eve, resulting in a total of up to 5 feet from December 24-28. The snow fell very heavily, with accumulations of up to 3 inches per hour. Cold winds blowing along the surface of Lake Erie pick up warmth and moisture, which falls as snow as the warm air rises. This image was acquired by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), operated by NOAA, on December 27, 2001, at 12:32 p.m. EST. The scene shows thick bands of clouds extending from the eastern tip of Lake Erie and over Buffalo. The arrows show the wind direction, which is blowing down the length of the lake. Image and animation by Robert Simmon, based on data from the NASA GOES Project Science Office.

  5. Lake Effect Snow Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An average of one foot of snow per day has fallen on Buffalo, New York, since Christmas Eve, resulting in a total of up to 5 feet from December 24-28. The snow fell very heavily, with accumulations of up to 3 inches per hour. Cold winds blowing along the surface of Lake Erie pick up warmth and moisture, which falls as snow as the warm air rises. This image was acquired by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), operated by NOAA, on December 27, 2001, at 12:32 p.m. EST. The scene shows thick bands of clouds extending from the eastern tip of Lake Erie and over Buffalo. The arrows show the wind direction, which is blowing down the length of the lake. Image and animation by Robert Simmon, based on data from the NASA GOES Project Science Office.

  6. Radar spectral observations of snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.; Fung, A. K.; Aslam, A.

    1981-01-01

    Radar remote sensing experiments have been conducted at test sites in Kansas, Colorado, and South Dakota over the last six years to examine backscatter coefficient response to snowcovered terrain. Truck-mounted 1-35 GHz scatterometers were employed in conjunction with detailed ground-truth measurements. From these experiments and associated modeling efforts, most of the fundamental questions concerning backscatter behavior in response to important snow parameters have been, at least qualitatively, answered. The optimum angular range seems to be between 20 and 50 deg and, for these angles, the results indicate that the radar backscatter generally: (1) increases with increasing water equivalent, (2) decreases with increasing liquid water, (3) increases with increasing crystal size, (4) is insensitive to surface roughness for dry snow conditions, and (5) can be sensitive to soil state if the snowcover is dry. This paper gives a summary of these results, along with empirical and theoretical models for describing the backscatter from snow.

  7. The marine bacterium Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 degrades a wide range of lipids and hydrocarbons through the formation of oleolytic biofilms with distinct gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Julie; Camus, Arantxa; Mitteau, Isabelle; Vaysse, Pierre-Joseph; Goulas, Philippe; Grimaud, Régis; Sivadon, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophobic organic compounds (mainly lipids and hydrocarbons) represent a significant part of the organic matter in marine waters, and their degradation has an important impact in the carbon fluxes within oceans. However, because they are nearly insoluble in the water phase, their degradation by microorganisms occurs at the interface with water and thus requires specific adaptations such as biofilm formation. We show that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 develops biofilms, referred to as oleolytic biofilms, on a large variety of hydrophobic substrates, including hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, triglycerides, and wax esters. Microarray analysis revealed that biofilm growth on n-hexadecane or triolein involved distinct genetic responses, together with a core of common genes that might concern general mechanisms of biofilm formation. Biofilm growth on triolein modulated the expression of hundreds of genes in comparison with n-hexadecane. The processes related to primary metabolism and genetic information processing were downregulated. Most of the genes that were overexpressed on triolein had unknown functions. Surprisingly, their genome localization was restricted to a few regions identified as putative genomic islands or mobile elements. These results are discussed with regard to the adaptive responses triggered by M. hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 to occupy a specific niche in marine ecosystems.

  8. Anomalous enrichment of redox-sensitive trace elements in the marine black shales from the Duwi Formation, Egypt: Evidence for the late Cretaceous Tethys anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioumy, Hassan; Lehmann, Bernd

    2017-09-01

    Marine black shale beds in the Duwi Formation of NE Egypt are part of the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene Middle East-North African phosphogenic province. These black shales were analyzed for their redox-sensitive trace elements (V, Ni, Mo, U, Cu, Cr, Re, Cd, Sb, Tl, and Mn) to examine their depositional conditions. The data show that the black shales have elevated concentrations of redox-sensitive trace metals, low Mn contents, low Th/U and V/Mo ratios, and high V/Ni, Ni/Co, V/(V + Ni) and V/(V + Cr) ratios as well as a positive correlation of metal Mo to V concentrations. These geochemical data suggest that the Campanian-Maastrichtian Tethys was stratified and stagnant, with reducing bottom water conditions. The high V/Ni ratios in the study shales indicate their dominantly marine origin and suggest that the high-productivity upwelling system that persisted over ∼20 m.y. at the southern margins of the Tethys Ocean is the main source of the organic matter. A combination of elevated primary productivity, remineralization and reducing depositional conditions is the main control of enrichment of redox-sensitive trace elements in the black shales of the Duwi Formation.

  9. Evolution of the Specific Surface Area of Snow in a High Temperature Gradient Metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Baker, I.

    2014-12-01

    The structural evolution of low-density snow under a high temperature gradient over a short period usually takes place in the surface layers during diurnal recrystallization or on a clear, cold night. To relate snow microstructures with their thermal properties, we combined X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) observations with numerical simulations. Different types of snow were tested over a large range of TGs (100 K m-1- 500 K m-1). The Specific Surface Area (SSA) was used to characterize the temperature gradient metamorphism (TGM). The magnitude of the temperature gradient and the initial snow type both influence the evolution of SSA. The SSA evolution under TGM was dominated by grain growth and the formation of complex surfaces. Fresh snow experienced a logarithmic decrease of SSA with time, a feature been observed previously by others [Calonne et al., 2014; Schneebeli and Sokratov, 2004; Taillandier et al., 2007]. However, for initial rounded and connected snow structures, the SSA will increase during TGM. Understanding the SSA increase is important in order to predict the enhanced uptake of chemical species by snow or increase in snow albedo. Calonne, N., F. Flin, C. Geindreau, B. Lesaffre, and S. Rolland du Roscoat (2014), Study of a temperature gradient metamorphism of snow from 3-D images: time evolution of microstructures, physical properties and their associated anisotropy, The Cryosphere Discussions, 8, 1407-1451, doi:10.5194/tcd-8-1407-2014. Schneebeli, M., and S. A. Sokratov (2004), Tomography of temperature gradient metamorphism of snow and associated changes in heat conductivity, Hydrological Processes, 18(18), 3655-3665, doi:10.1002/hyp.5800. Taillandier, A. S., F. Domine, W. R. Simpson, M. Sturm, and T. A. Douglas (2007), Rate of decrease of the specific surface area of dry snow: Isothermal and temperature gradient conditions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface (2003-2012), 112(F3), doi: 10.1029/2006JF000514.

  10. Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold, Ice, ... the top layer gets wet from snow or freezing rain, they can peel off some clothes down ...

  11. Snow wetness measurements for melt forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.; Clapp, F. D.; Meier, M. F.; Smith, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A microwave technique for directly measuring snow pack wetness in remote installations is described. The technique, which uses satellite telemetry for data gathering, is based on the attenuation of a microwave beam in transmission through snow.

  12. New Energy-efficient Snow production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhyner, H.

    2009-04-01

    Artificial snow making is widely used in the Alps, mainly to compensate for missing snow cover. Since snow production requires both water and energy, it is necessary to develop new technologies in this field that optimise the production process. In particular in terms of energy consumption, new technologies are developed to minimize the use of energy and costs. The aims of this paper are to model the process of artificial snow making in the Swiss Alps. Several field and laboratory campaigns will be presented. The actual process of snow produciton, as it exits the snow canons and snow hoses and acummulates on the ground is modelled and validated with field and laboratory experiments. Amongst other techniques, infra-red meausurements show detailed temperature distributions. Techniques are demonstrated on how snow-making can be optimised.

  13. Multivariate Analysis of Short Term Spatial and Temporal Variations in Plankton Communities and Marine Snow in the Offshore Gulf of Mexico as Estimated by the Video Plankton Recorder and MOCNESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, F. D.; Sutor, M.

    2016-02-01

    Resolving the small-scale distributions of planktonic communities in relation to environmental parameters is critical for understanding the mechanisms driving vertical and horizontal patchiness in plankton communities over small temporal scales. In situ imaging technologies, such as the Digital Autonomous Video Plankton Recorder (DAVPR) coupled with stratified net systems (MOCNESS), can resolve plankton distributions on small spatial and temporal scales. There is little or no data of this type from the offshore waters in the Gulf of Mexico. The event of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill put a significant emphasis on the need for data characterizing the community composition and vertical distribution patterns of plankton and particles in these waters. Using the non-destructive Video Plankton Recorder (VPR), marine plankton, and coincident environmental data were collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico's offshore waters during the spring of 2011. Comparative measurements to the VPR data were made with samples collected by a 1m2 MOCNESS (Multiple Opening and Closing Net, and Environmental Sensing System). Multivariate statistical methods were used to explore differences in plankton communities at different stations and depth in relation to environmental parameters. Short-term variations in the plankton communities largely occurred in the upper 210m of the water column while the deep 210-410m samples exhibited low species variances at all stations over a three day period of observation with the exception of one near-to-shore station. Environmental data collected at all stations described a stable well stratified system with pronounced subsurface chlorophyll-a peak centered above the pycnocline.

  14. A Test of Snow Fortifications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    140). A comparison with the broaching from sand, phase I tests at Camp Riple \\ in a 30-cm-deep snow cla, and water described b\\ Lewandowski (1970...sprinkled with water during the construction of the trench. fortification construction in cold regions is contained In loose snow and in the absence of...das are required to dig one kilometer of tren~h. Sur~h an c\\- Test preparations penditure ot labor." Before the test at Camp Riple \\ , a rehearsalI \\k

  15. Periodontal status in snow leopards.

    PubMed

    Cook, R A; Stoller, N H

    1986-11-01

    Periodontal examinations were performed on ten 1- to 22-year-old snow leopards (6 males and 4 females), using dentistry methods for determining the plaque and gingival indices. All tooth surfaces were probed, and alveolar bone attachment loss was determined. After subgingival plaque removal, plaque specimens were examined for differential bacterial morphotypes. The small number of leopards evaluated precluded definitive statistical analysis. However, the progression from gingival health to gingivitis to periodontitis was similar to that seen in man. Therefore, the use of plaque index, gingival index, alveolar bone attachment loss, and differential bacterial morphotypes can be used to determine the dental health of snow leopards.

  16. Correlation and prediction of snow water equivalent from snow sensors

    Treesearch

    Bruce J. McGurk; David L. Azuma

    1992-01-01

    Since 1982, under an agreement between the California Department of Water Resources and the USDA Forest Service, snow sensors have been installed and operated in Forest Service-administered wilderness areas in the Sierra Nevada of California. The sensors are to be removed by 2005 because of the premise that sufficient data will have been collected to allow "...

  17. Millimetre-Wave Propagation Through Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, H. Bruce

    1983-09-01

    During the SNOW-ONE and SNOW-ONE-A exercises at Camp Ethan Allen, Vermont, measurements of attenuation through falling snow were made at 35, 95, 140, and 217 GHz over a two-way path length of one kilometre. Attenuations measured appeared to be a function of crystal size, free water content and snow mass concentration. Instrumentation design and the results of measurements are presented with some general observations of turbulent phenomena.

  18. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    PubMed

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  19. Physical and Optical Properties of Falling Snow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    thefallvelocity. They found that Me~lor (1966) and Rosinski et al. (1983) observed the snow fall velocities generally ranged between the fall velocities of snow...mass (after Rosinski et al. 1983). nally designed to measure rain rates (Wang et al. 1980), was modified for operation in snow. The Locatelli and...is partially collimated. Snow and measuring the melted droplet diameter. particles falling through the sample area break the Rosinski et al. (1983

  20. Microwave scattering properties of snow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelakos, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental results were presented showing backscatter dependence on frequency, angle of incidence, snow wetness, and frequency modulation. Theoretical studies were made of the inverse scattering problem yielding some preliminary results concerning the determination of the dielectric constant of the snow layer. The experimental results lead to the following conclusions: (1) snow layering affects backscatter; (2) layer response was significant up to 45 degrees of incidence; (3) wetness modifies snow layer effects; and (4) frequency modulation masks the layer response.

  1. Highway Snow Control Research in Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    addition, it was found that the vane shear strength can be expressed as a power function of the snow (* 2nsity. A28 Masao Takeuchi and Shin - etsu Kamada...region, and Yamashita (1983 [HI81), for the Kan- etsu Expressway. lchihara (1970 [H 191) discussed general problems of con- struction and maintenance...142. Yamashita, M. (1983) Snow removal operation in heavy Tamura, A. and Y. Shioda (1982) Snow control for the snow areas of the Kan- etsu Expressway

  2. Physiochemical characterization of insoluble residues in California Sierra Nevada snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamean, Jessie; Axson, Jessica; Bondy, Amy; Craig, Rebecca; May, Nathaniel; Shen, Hongru; Weber, Michael; Warner, Katy; Pratt, Kerri; Ault, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The effects atmospheric aerosols have on cloud particle formation are dependent on both the aerosol physical and chemical characteristics. For instance, larger, irregular-shaped mineral dusts efficiently form cloud ice crystals, enhancing precipitation, whereas small, spherical pollution aerosols have the potential to form small cloud droplets that delay the autoconversion of cloudwater to precipitation. Thus, it is important to understand the physiochemical properties and sources of aerosols that influence cloud and precipitation formation. We present an in-depth analysis of the size, chemistry, and sources of soluble and insoluble residues found in snow collected at three locations in the California Sierra Nevada Mountains during the 2012/2013 winter season. For all sites, February snow samples contained high concentrations of regional pollutants such as ammonium nitrate and biomass burning species, while March snow samples were influenced by mineral dust. The snow at the lower elevation sites in closer proximity to the Central Valley of California were heavily influenced by agricultural and industrial emissions, whereas the highest elevation site was exposed to a mixture of Central Valley pollutants in addition to long-range transported dust from Asia and Africa. Further, air masses likely containing transported dust typically traveled over cloud top heights at the low elevation sites, but were incorporated into the cold (-28°C, on average) cloud tops more often at the highest elevation site, particularly in March, which we hypothesize led to enhanced ice crystal formation and thus the observation of dust in the snow collected at the ground. Overall, understanding the spatial and temporal dependence of aerosol sources is important for remote mountainous regions such as the Sierra Nevada where snowpack provides a steady, vital supply of water.

  3. Observations of Precipitation Size and Fall Speed Characteristics within Coexisting Rain and Wet Snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuter, Sandra E.; Kingsmill, David E.; Nance, Louisa B.; Loeffler-Mang, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of particle size and fall speed distributions using a Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer are compa red among samples obtained in mixed precipitation (rain and wet snow) and rain in the Oregon Cascade Mountains and in dry snow in the Rock y Mountains of Colorado. Coexisting rain and snow particles are distinguished using a classification method based on their size and fall sp eed properties. The bimodal distribution of the particles' joint fall speed-size characteristics at air temperatures from 0.5 to 0 C suggests that wet-snow particles quickly make a transition to rain once mel ting has progressed sufficiently. As air temperatures increase to 1.5 C, the reduction in the number of very large aggregates with a diame ter > 10 mm coincides with the appearance of rain particles larger than 6 mm. In this setting. very large raindrops appear to be the result of aggregates melting with minimal breakup rather than formation by c oalescence. In contrast to dry snow and rain, the fall speed for wet snow has a much weaker correlation between increasing size and increasing fall speed. Wet snow has a larger standard deviation of fall spee d (120%-230% relative to dry snow) for a given particle size. The ave rage fall speed for observed wet-snow particles with a diameter great er than or equal to 2.4 mm is 2 m/s with a standard deviation of 0.8 m/s. The large standard deviation is likely related to the coexistence of particles of similar physical size with different percentages of melting. These results suggest that different particle sizes are not required for aggregation since wet-snow particles of the same size can have different fall speeds. Given the large standard deviation of fa ll speeds in wet snow, the collision efficiency for wet snow is likely larger than that of dry snow. For particle sizes between 1 and 10 mm in diameter within mixed precipitation, rain constituted I % of the particles by volume within the isothermal layer

  4. Evidence of Uppermost Proterozoic to Lower Cambrian miogeoclinal rocks and the Mojave-Snow Lake Fault: Snow Lake Pendant, central Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahren, Mary M.; Schweickert, Richard A.; Mattinson, James M.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1990-12-01

    Displaced uppermost Precambrian to Lower Cambrian miogeoclinal strata occur within Snow Lake pendant in the central Sierra Nevada. These rocks have been correlated with the Stirling Quartzite, the Wood Canyon Formation, the Zabriskie Quartzite, and the Carrara Formation in the western Mojave Desert and the San Bernardino Mountains (Lahren and Schweickert, 1989; Lahren, 1989). This correlation is based on new, updated, and previously reported data including (1) lithologic similarities, (2) overall stratigraphic sequence, (3) vertical sequence within individual formations, (4) approximate stratigraphic thicknesses, (5) Skolithos in the correct stratigraphie position, (6) depositional environments, and (7) petrographic character and provenance of quartz arenites. The correlation is strengthened by the fact that Snow Lake pendant and the western Mojave share many other close similarities including (1) initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of associated granitic rocks >0.706, (2) passive margin tectonic setting of Precambrian to Cambrian miogeoclinal rocks, (3) dikes of the Independence dike swarm, (4) possible Lower Triassic overlap sequence, the Fairview Valley Formation, (5) petrographically similar gabbroic complexes of the same age, (6) associated eugeoclinal rocks, and (7) identical(?) pre-Tertiary structural configuration. New U/Pb zircon geochronology unequivocally shows that dikes at Snow Lake pendant are coeval with the Independence dike swarm of the eastern Sierra and the western Mojave desert and that associated gabbroic complexes in both the Mojave and Snow Lake pendant are the same age. Correlation of Snow Lake pendant with the western Mojave requires about 400 km of dextral displacement of the rocks of Snow Lake pendant, together with associated rocks (Snow Lake block), from the western Mojave Desert along the Mojave-Snow Lake fault. Displacement most likely occurred after 150 Ma, the age of the Independence dike swarm, and before about 110 Ma, the age of major

  5. Utilizing Multiple Datasets for Snow Cover Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tait, Andrew B.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Snow-cover maps generated from surface data are based on direct measurements, however they are prone to interpolation errors where climate stations are sparsely distributed. Snow cover is clearly discernable using satellite-attained optical data because of the high albedo of snow, yet the surface is often obscured by cloud cover. Passive microwave (PM) data is unaffected by clouds, however, the snow-cover signature is significantly affected by melting snow and the microwaves may be transparent to thin snow (less than 3cm). Both optical and microwave sensors have problems discerning snow beneath forest canopies. This paper describes a method that combines ground and satellite data to produce a Multiple-Dataset Snow-Cover Product (MDSCP). Comparisons with current snow-cover products show that the MDSCP draws together the advantages of each of its component products while minimizing their potential errors. Improved estimates of the snow-covered area are derived through the addition of two snow-cover classes ("thin or patchy" and "high elevation" snow cover) and from the analysis of the climate station data within each class. The compatibility of this method for use with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which will be available in 2000, is also discussed. With the assimilation of these data, the resolution of the MDSCP would be improved both spatially and temporally and the analysis would become completely automated.

  6. Snow Mold Investigations in Eastern Washington

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer; A. G. Law

    1961-01-01

    "Snow mold of turf" in the Pacific Northwest must include both Fusarium Patch caused by Calonectria graminicola (Berk and Br.) (conidial stage Fusarium nivale (Fr. ) CES.), and Gray snow mold caused by Typhula itoana Imai, which occur together to give a disease complex. Snow mold of turf is the most...

  7. 44 CFR 206.227 - Snow assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Snow assistance. 206.227 Section 206.227 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Snow assistance. Emergency or major disaster declarations based on snow or blizzard conditions will...

  8. 44 CFR 206.227 - Snow assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Snow assistance. 206.227 Section 206.227 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Snow assistance. Emergency or major disaster declarations based on snow or blizzard conditions will...

  9. 44 CFR 206.227 - Snow assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Snow assistance. 206.227 Section 206.227 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Snow assistance. Emergency or major disaster declarations based on snow or blizzard conditions will...

  10. 44 CFR 206.227 - Snow assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Snow assistance. 206.227 Section 206.227 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Snow assistance. Emergency or major disaster declarations based on snow or blizzard conditions will...

  11. Shallow Snow Model for Predicting Vehicle Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    promotional purposes. Cita - tion of brand names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. Ac eeson...vehicles. 18 ’A I I Table 7. Mechanical properties of shallow snow. Snow A ir p Snow temp temp p ca c W co (critical) type (SC) ( 0C) (g/cm 3) ( APa

  12. Snow cover and snow goose Anser caerulescens caerulescens distribution during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Zacheis, Amy B.; Anthony, R. Michael; Robertson, Donna G.; Erickson, Wallace P.; Palacios, Kelly C.

    2001-01-01

    Arctic geese often use spring migration stopover areas when feeding habitats are partially snow covered. Melting of snow during the stopover period causes spatial and temporal variability in distribution and abundance of feeding habitat. We recorded changes in snow cover and lesser snow goose Anser caerulescens caerulescens distribution on a spring migration stopover area in south-central Alaska during aerial surveys in 1993-1994. Our objectives were to determine whether geese selected among areas with different amounts of snow cover and to assess how temporal changes in snow cover affected goose distribution. We also measured temporal changes in chemical composition of forage species after snow melt. We divided an Arc/Info coverage of the approximately 210 km2 coastal stopover area into 2-km2 cells, and measured snow cover and snow goose use of cells. Cells that had 10-49.9% snow cover were selected by snow geese, whereas cells that lacked snow cover were avoided. In both years, snow cover diminished along the coast between mid-April and early May. Flock distribution changed as snow geese abandoned snow-free areas in favour of cells where snow patches were interspersed with bare ground. Snow-free areas may have been less attractive to geese because available forage had been quickly exploited as bare ground was exposed, and because soils became drier making extraction of underground forage more difficult. Fiber content of two forage species increased whereas non-structural carbohydrate concentrations of forage plants appeared to diminish after snow melt, but changes in nutrient concentrations likely occurred too slowly to account for abandonment of snow-free areas by snow geese.

  13. Determining the age and Original Seawater 87Sr/86Sr From Altered Aragonite Marine Cements of the Laborcita Formation, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Rasbury, E. T.; Hanson, G. N.

    2001-12-01

    Water-rock interaction modeling suggests that altered aragonite marine cements with abundances of Sr greater than a thousand ppm should yield both accurate U-Pb ages and the original seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratio. The exact Sr concentration depends on the composition of the diagenetic fluids. Aragonitic botryoidal cements are common within the algal mounds of the Laborcita Formation of the Sacramento Mountains,New Mexico. While other aragonitic components underwent early dissolution, the botryoids have been converted to calcite but have preserved their original fibrous aragonite textures. Multiple aliquots of the altered aragonite cements with fibrous texture from several samples representing the stratigraphic range of the mounds yield a minimum 87Sr/86Sr of 0.708393+-8 that is more radiogenic than is expected (0.70793) for the Early Wolfcampian age (earliest Permian) of the Laborcita Formation. There is no apparent trend with the position of the samples in the mounds. Samples lacking fibrous texture have much higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The Sr isotopic compositions and the concentrations show a trend consistent with an end member value for the diagenetic fluids of 0.70993. The botryoidal cements also yield a concordant U-Pb age of 304+-2. While the Laborcita Formation is considered to be Wolfcampian, the 87Sr/86Sr ratio and the age suggest that it may be equivalent to the Missourian (late Pennsylvanian) from the mid continent based on Denison and Keopnick¡_s (1994) Sr isotope seawater curve. Marine cements are common in the Late Paleozoic and samples that can be precisely dated and retain their original Sr isotopic compositions offer great possibilities for sorting out biostratigraphic problems as well as for refining the Sr isotope seawater curve.

  14. Changes in Snow Albedo Resulting from Snow Darkening Caused by Black Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, J.; Kloster, S.; Bourgeois, Q.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential impact of snow darkening caused by pre-industrial and present-day black carbon (BC) emissions on snow albedo and subsequently climate. To assess this impact, we implemented the effect of snow darkening caused by BC emitted from natural as well as anthropogenic sources into the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-M ESM). Considerable amounts of BC are emitted e.g. from fires and are transported through the atmosphere for several days before being removed by rain or snow precipitation in snow covered regions. Already very small quantities of BC reduce the snow reflectance significantly, with consequences for snow melting and snow spatial coverage. We implemented the snow albedo reduction caused by BC contamination and snow aging in the one layer land surface component (JSBACH) of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM6, developed at MPI-M. For this we used the single-layer simulator of the SNow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR-Online (Flanner et al., 2007); http://snow.engin.umich.edu) model to derive snow albedo values for BC in snow concentrations ranging between 0 and 1500 ng(BC)/g(snow) for different snow grain sizes for the visible (0.3 - 0.7 μm) and near infrared range (0.7 - 1.5 μm). As snow grains grow over time, we assign different snow ages to different snow grain sizes (50, 150, 500, and 1000 μm). Here, a radius of 50 μm corresponds to new snow, whereas a radius of 1000 μm corresponds to old snow. The deposition rates of BC on snow are prescribed from previous ECHAM6-HAM simulations for two time periods, pre-industrial (1880-1889) and present-day (2000-2009), respectively. We perform a sensitivity study regarding the scavenging of BC by snow melt. To evaluate the newly implemented albedo scheme we will compare the modeled black carbon in snow concentrations to observed ones. Moreover, we will show the impact of the BC contamination and snow aging on the simulated snow albedo. The

  15. Photopolarimetric Retrievals of Snow Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottaviani, M.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.

    2015-01-01

    Polarimetric observations of snow surfaces, obtained in the 410-2264 nm range with the Research Scanning Polarimeter onboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, are analyzed and presented. These novel measurements are of interest to the remote sensing community because the overwhelming brightness of snow plagues aerosol and cloud retrievals based on airborne and spaceborne total reflection measurements. The spectral signatures of the polarized reflectance of snow are therefore worthwhile investigating in order to provide guidance for the adaptation of algorithms currently employed for the retrieval of aerosol properties over soil and vegetated surfaces. At the same time, the increased information content of polarimetric measurements allows for a meaningful characterization of the snow medium. In our case, the grains are modeled as hexagonal prisms of variable aspect ratios and microscale roughness, yielding retrievals of the grains' scattering asymmetry parameter, shape and size. The results agree with our previous findings based on a more limited data set, with the majority of retrievals leading to moderately rough crystals of extreme aspect ratios, for each scene corresponding to a single value of the asymmetry parameter.

  16. Autumn snow across the Midwest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    An autumn storm brought the first snow of the season to the Upper Mississippi River Valley and the Midwestern United States in early November, 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true color image on November 6 just as the storm was clearing. A long band of snow stretching from Colorado in the southwest to Wisconsin in the northeast marked the path of the blowing storm. According to WeatherBug, up to 10 inches blanketed Gordon, Nebraska and Pipestone, Minnesota. Most snow totals in the Central and Northern Plains and Upper Mississippi Valley ranged from 2-5 inches, while Minneapolis-St. Paul metro area picked up 1-2 inches of new snow from the event. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  17. Snow hydrology in a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Susan; Roads, John O.; Glatzmaier, Gary

    1994-01-01

    A snow hydrology has been implemented in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). The snow hydrology consists of parameterizations of snowfall and snow cover fraction, a prognostic calculation of snow temperature, and a model of the snow mass and hydrologic budgets. Previously, only snow albedo had been included by a specified snow line. A 3-year GCM simulation with this now more complete surface hydrology is compared to a previous GCM control run with the specified snow line, as well as with observations. In particular, the authors discuss comparisons of the atmospheric and surface hydrologic budgets and the surface energy budget for U.S. and Canadian areas. The new snow hydrology changes the annual cycle of the surface moisture and energy budgets in the model. There is a noticeable shift in the runoff maximum from winter in the control run to spring in the snow hydrology run. A substantial amount of GCM winter precipitation is now stored in the seasonal snowpack. Snow cover also acts as an important insulating layer between the atmosphere and the ground. Wintertime soil temperatures are much higher in the snow hydrology experiment than in the control experiment. Seasonal snow cover is important for dampening large fluctuations in GCM continental skin temperature during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Snow depths and snow extent show good agreement with observations over North America. The geographic distribution of maximum depths is not as well simulated by the model due, in part, to the coarse resolution of the model. The patterns of runoff are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to observed patterns of streamflow averaged over the continental United States. The seasonal cycles of precipitation and evaporation are also reasonably well simulated by the model, although their magnitudes are larger than is observed. This is due, in part, to a cold bias in this model, which results in a dry model atmosphere and enhances the hydrologic cycle everywhere.

  18. Snow hydrology in a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Susan; Roads, John O.; Glatzmaier, Gary

    1994-01-01

    A snow hydrology has been implemented in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). The snow hydrology consists of parameterizations of snowfall and snow cover fraction, a prognostic calculation of snow temperature, and a model of the snow mass and hydrologic budgets. Previously, only snow albedo had been included by a specified snow line. A 3-year GCM simulation with this now more complete surface hydrology is compared to a previous GCM control run with the specified snow line, as well as with observations. In particular, the authors discuss comparisons of the atmospheric and surface hydrologic budgets and the surface energy budget for U.S. and Canadian areas. The new snow hydrology changes the annual cycle of the surface moisture and energy budgets in the model. There is a noticeable shift in the runoff maximum from winter in the control run to spring in the snow hydrology run. A substantial amount of GCM winter precipitation is now stored in the seasonal snowpack. Snow cover also acts as an important insulating layer between the atmosphere and the ground. Wintertime soil temperatures are much higher in the snow hydrology experiment than in the control experiment. Seasonal snow cover is important for dampening large fluctuations in GCM continental skin temperature during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Snow depths and snow extent show good agreement with observations over North America. The geographic distribution of maximum depths is not as well simulated by the model due, in part, to the coarse resolution of the model. The patterns of runoff are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to observed patterns of streamflow averaged over the continental United States. The seasonal cycles of precipitation and evaporation are also reasonably well simulated by the model, although their magnitudes are larger than is observed. This is due, in part, to a cold bias in this model, which results in a dry model atmosphere and enhances the hydrologic cycle everywhere.

  19. The Effect of Black Carbon and Snow Grain Size on Snow Surface Albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadley, O. L.; Kirchstetter, T.; Flanner, M.

    2009-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) has been measured in snow and ice cores at levels that climate models predict are high enough to be the second leading cause in arctic ice melt and glacial retreat after greenhouse gas warming. BC deposited on snow reduces the snow surface albedo; however, in addition to BC content, snow albedo also depends on sky cover, solar angle, snow grain size and shape, surface roughness, and depth. Quantifying the albedo reduction due to BC separately from these other variables is difficult to achieve in field measurements. We are conducting laboratory experiments that isolate the effect of BC and snow grain size on snow albedo. Snow is made by spraying and freezing drops of water; BC contaminated snow is made from BC hydrosol. Snow albedo is measured with a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere over the entire visible spectrum (400-1000 nm). Snow grain size distribution and shape are characterized using a digital microscope to calculate the effective radius of the snow. Measured snow albedo is compared to that predicted using the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiative Model. Preliminary results indicate good agreement between measured and modeled albedo for pure and BC contaminated snow.

  20. Formation of carbonatite-related giant rare-earth-element deposits by the recycling of marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zengqian; Liu, Yan; Tian, Shihong; Yang, Zhiming; Xie, Yuling

    2015-01-01

    Carbonatite-associated rare-earth-element (REE) deposits are the most significant source of the world’s REEs; however, their genesis remains unclear. Here, we present new Sr-Nd-Pb and C-O isotopic data for Cenozoic carbonatite-hosted giant REE deposits in southwest China. These REE deposits are located along the western margin of the Yangtze Craton that experienced Proterozoic lithospheric accretion, and controlled by Cenozoic strike-slip faults related to Indo-Asian continental collision. The Cenozoic carbonatites were emplaced as stocks or dykes with associated syenites, and tend to be extremely enriched in Ba, Sr, and REEs and have high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (>0.7055). These carbonatites were likely formed by melting of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), which had been previously metasomatized by high-flux REE- and CO2-rich fluids derived from subducted marine sediments. The fertility of these carbonatites depends on the release of REEs from recycled marine sediments and on the intensity of metasomatic REE refertilization of the SCLM. We suggest that cratonic edges, particularly along ancient convergent margins, possess the optimal configuration for generating giant REE deposits; therefore, areas of metamorphic basement bounded or cut by translithospheric faults along cratonic edges have a high potential for such deposits. PMID:26035414

  1. Modeling the chemistry of the marine boundary layer: Sulphate formation and the role of sea-salt aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Ad; Dentener, Frank; Lelieveld, Jos

    2000-05-01

    A one-dimensional model is presented that interactively simulates the dynamics and the gas-aqueous phase chemistry of the cloud-topped marine boundary layer. The model is described and tested using observations from the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment/Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange (ASTEX/MAGE) measurement campaign. The comparison generally indicates satisfactory agreement for dynamical properties and chemical species, except for SO2. We present several explanations for this discrepancy. However, a conclusive account is dependent on quantitative information about free tropospheric SO2 and H2O2 that is not available. Furthermore, a series of sensitivity runs is presented to explain the large quantities of non-sea-salt sulphate associated with sea-salt particles, as observed during ASTEX/MAGE. The main conclusions are that most sulphate associated with sea-salt particles is formed in cloud droplets that subsequently evaporate and that only a small amount is formed in deliquesced aerosol particles. The model results are sensitive to changes in the assumed sea-salt emission rate and the overall aerosol size distribution. The latter indicates that a shift in the sea-salt aerosol distribution toward the smaller particle sizes might explain the observed amount of sulphate associated with sea-salt particles.

  2. Snow complexity representation and GCM climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Emanuel; Viterbo, Pedro; Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2010-05-01

    Accurate simulations of the snow cover strongly impact on the quality of weather and climate predictions as the solar radiation absorption at land-atmosphere interface is modified by a factor up to 4 in response to snow presence (albedo effect). In Northern latitudes and Mountainous regions snow acts also as an important energy and water reservoir and a correct representation of snow mass and snow density is crucial for temperature predictions at all time-scales, with direct consequences for soil hydrology (thermal insulation effect). Three different complexity snow schemes implemented in the ECMWF land surface scheme HTESSEL are tested within the EC-EARTH framework. The snow schemes are: 1) OLD, the original HTESSEL single bulk layer snow scheme (same as in the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalysis); 2) OPER, a new snow scheme in operations since September 2009, with a liquid water reservoir and revised formulations of snow density, fractional cover and snow albedo; and 3) ML3, a multi-layer version of OPER. All three snow schemes in HTESSEL are energy- and mass- balance models. The multi-layer snow scheme, ML3, was validated in offline mode covering several spatial and temporal scales: (i) site simulations for several observation locations from the Snow Models intercomparison project-2 (SnowMip2) and (ii) global simulations driven by the meteorological forcing from the Global Soil Wetness Project-2 (GSWP2) and the ECMWF ERA-Interim re-analysis. On point locations ML3 improve snow mass simulations, while on a global scale the impacts are residual pointing to the need of coupled atmosphere simulations. The 3 schemes are compared in the framework of the atmospheric model of EC-EARTH, based on the current seasonal forecast system of ECMWF. The standard configuration runs at T159 horizontal spectral resolution with 62 vertical levels. Three member ensembles of 30 years (1979-2008) simulations, with prescribed SSTs and sea ice, were performed for each of the snow schemes

  3. Comparison of the Snow Simulations in Community Land Model Using Two Snow Cover Fraction Parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhipeng; Hu, Zeyong

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is an important component of local- and regional-scale energy and water budgets, especially in mountainous areas. This paper evaluates the snow simulations by using two snow cover fraction schemes in CLM4.5 (NY07 is the original snow-covered area parameterization used in CLM4, and SL12 is the default scheme in CLM4.5). Off-line simulations are carried out forced by the China Meteorological forcing dataset from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2010 over the Tibetan Plateau. Simulated snow cover fraction (SCF), snow depth, and snow water equivalent (SWE) were compared against a set of observations including the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) snow cover product, the daily snow depth dataset of China, and China Meteorological Administration (CMA) in-situ snow depth and SWE observations. The comparison results indicate significant differences existing between those two SCF parameterizations simulations. Overall, the SL12 formulation shows a certain improvement compared to the NY07 scheme used in CLM4, with the percentage of correctly modeled snow/no snow being 75.8% and 81.8% when compared with the IMS snow product, respectively. Yet, this improvement varies both temporally and spatially. Both these two snow cover schemes overestimated the snow depth, in comparison with the daily snow depth dataset of China, the average biases of simulated snow depth are 7.38cm (8.77cm), 6.97cm (8.2cm) and 5.49cm (5.76cm) NY07 (and SL12) in the snow accumulation period (September through next February), snowmelt period (March through May) and snow-free period (June through August), respectively. When compared with the CMA in-situ snow depth observations, averaged biases are 3.18cm (4.38cm), 2.85cm (4.34cm) and 0.34cm (0.34cm) for NY07 (SL12), respectively. Though SL12 does worse snow depth simulation than NY07, the simulated SWE by SL12 is better than that by NY07, with average biases being 2.64mm, 6.22mm, 1.33mm for NY07, and 1.47mm, 2.63mm, 0.31mm

  4. Simulating wind fields and snow redistribution using terrain-based parameters to model snow accumulation and melt over a semi-arid mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstral, Adam; Marks, Danny

    2002-12-01

    In mountainous regions, wind plays a prominent role in determining snow accumulation patterns and turbulent heat exchanges, strongly affecting the timing and magnitude of snowmelt runoff. In this study, digital terrain analysis was employed to quantify aspects of the upwind topography related to wind shelter and exposure, to efficiently develop a distributed time-series of snow accumulation rates and wind speeds to force a distributed snow model. Parameters are presented that determined each grid cell's topographic exposure and potential for drift development relative to observed winds. Using meteorological data taken from both an exposed and a sheltered site in the Reynolds Mountain East watershed (0·38 km2) in southwestern Idaho, the terrain parameters were used to distribute rates of snow accumulation and wind speeds at an hourly time step for input to ISNOBAL, an energy and mass balance snow model. Model runs were initiated prior to the development of the seasonal snow cover and continued through complete meltout for the 1986 (precipitation 128% of average), 1987 (66%), and 1989 (108%) water years. A comprehensive dataset consisting of a time series of aerial photographs taken during meltout, measured runoff, and snow data from the sheltered meteorological site were used to validate the simulations. ISNOBAL forced with accumulation rates and wind fields generated from the applied terrain parameterizations accurately modelled the observed snow distribution (including the formation of drifts and scoured wind-exposed ridges) and snowmelt runoff for all three years of study. By contrast, ISNOBAL forced with spatially constant accumulation rates and wind speeds taken from the sheltered meteorological site, a typical snow-monitoring site, overestimated peak snowmelt inputs and tended to underestimate snowmelt inputs prior to the runoff peak. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Application of a distributed snow model for the assessment of past snow cover changes in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marke, Thomas; Hanzer, Florian; Siegmann, Marcel; Strasser, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Snow depth and snow cover duration in mountain regions are subject to high spatial and temporal variability. Information on this natural variability and climate change induced modifications in snow conditions is a prerequisite for science and stakeholders to understand past and present snow conditions, but also for the interpretation of future snow projections. While instrumental time series of the relevant meteorological and snow cover variables are essential for climate studies, only few long-term climate and snow observation time series are available, and their spatial representativity is strongly limited. This study applies the hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN to improve the spatial density of snow information in Austria by continuously simulating daily snow accumulation and ablation at a spatial resolution of 1 x 1 km for all of Austria and the period 1948-2009. The model is driven with homogenized and quality-checked meteorological station observations of daily temperature (minimum and maximum) and precipitation. Model output comprises daily maps of snow water equivalent, snow depth, and freshly fallen snow. Following a thorough validation of the snow model through comparison of simulations to snow observations (point scale) as well as to remotely sensed snow cover patterns, changes in the Austrian snow cover are elaborated and presented in this study. Beside the illustration of changes in the spatial distribution of snow in Austria for the 1 x 1 km raster, temporal trends are elaborated by statistical analyses of mean snow cover change for different elevation ranges providing more detailed insights in the temporal variability and changes in snow cover conditions.

  6. Imaging of the CO snow line in a solar nebula analog.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chunhua; Öberg, Karin I; Wilner, David J; D'Alessio, Paola; Bergin, Edwin; Andrews, Sean M; Blake, Geoffrey A; Hogerheijde, Michiel R; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2013-08-09

    Planets form in the disks around young stars. Their formation efficiency and composition are intimately linked to the protoplanetary disk locations of "snow lines" of abundant volatiles. We present chemical imaging of the carbon monoxide (CO) snow line in the disk around TW Hya, an analog of the solar nebula, using high spatial and spectral resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of diazenylium (N2H(+)), a reactive ion present in large abundance only where CO is frozen out. The N2H(+) emission is distributed in a large ring, with an inner radius that matches CO snow line model predictions. The extracted CO snow line radius of ~30 astronomical units helps to assess models of the formation dynamics of the solar system, when combined with measurements of the bulk composition of planets and comets.

  7. A stable snow-atmosphere coupled mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Zhu, Yuxiang; Liu, Haiwen; Liu, Zhongfang; Liu, Yanju; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Snow is both an important lower boundary forcing of the atmosphere and a response to atmospheric forcing in the extratropics. It is still unclear whether a stable snow-atmosphere coupled mode exists in the extratropics, like the ENSO in the tropics. Using Sliding Correlation analysis over Any Window, the present study quantitatively evaluates the stability of coupling relationships between the major modes of winter snow over the Northern Hemisphere and the winter atmospheric Arctic Oscillation (AO), the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) and the Siberian High over the period 1872-2010, and discusses their possible relationships for different seasons. Results show that the first mode of the winter snow cover fraction and the winter AO together constitute a stable snow-atmosphere coupled mode, the SNAO. The coupled mode is stronger during recent decades than before. The snow anomaly over Europe is one key factor of the SNAO mode due to the high stability there, and the polar vortex anomaly in the atmosphere is its other key factor. The continuity of signals in the SNAO between autumn and winter is weaker than that between winter and spring. The second winter snow mode is generally stably correlated with the winter AAO and was more stable before the 1970s. The AAO signal with boreal snow has a strong continuity in seasonal transition. Generally, through these coupled modes, snow and atmosphere can interact in the same season or between different seasons: autumn snow can influence the winter atmosphere; the winter atmosphere can influence spring snow.

  8. Noble Gas Signatures in Snow: a New Experimental Investigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalberti, J.; Hall, C. M.; Castro, C.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved noble gases in groundwater (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) have been widely used to improve our knowledge of surface and groundwater dynamics. However, a recent rainwater study [1] recorded noble gas concentration anomalies originating from conditions at high altitude. Potential anomaly sources might include fog, orographic rain, synoptic rain and snow, depending on the region considered. Here, we outline a methodology for measuring noble gases in freshly collected snow samples. Their fine-grained nature leads to significant experimental challenges. Overall, our results (Fig. 1) show that snow has elevated He concentrations with depleted concentrations of all other noble gases. Similar results have been recorded in ice [2, 3]. In addition, our results show relatively homogeneous (< 14%) He and Ne concentrations while Ar, Kr and Xe display large concentration variability (> 80%). These observations led us to investigate the structure of snow and potential host-sites (available empty space) within the crystal structure. Noble gases are chemically inert and do not form bonds that could affect the ice crystal structure. Therefore, host-sites control the solubility of each noble gas. Our results show that He and Ne, which are known to have small atomic radii, are likely dissolved into the ice/snow crystal lattice, while heavy noble gas (Ar, Kr and Xe) are likely accommodated into defects. Consequently, smaller variability recorded in light noble gases, may result from He and Ne being hosted within the crystal lattice, whereas heavy noble gases rely on the presence of defects, which may randomly appear within the structure during snow formation. These new results can be used to better constrain the source of ground ice [3], groundwater systems and to investigate the structural transition mechanisms from snow to firn and ice. Figure 1: Noble gas concentrations (C) in snow (filled circles symbols) and ice (half-filled square symbols) normalized to air saturated water

  9. Snow-ice-tephra-lava interactions during the 2010 Fimmvorduhals eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haklar, J.; Edwards, B. R.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    On March 20th a small basaltic fissure opened at the northern edge of Fimmvorduhals, a popular hiking pass between Eyjafjallajökull, to the west, and Myrdalsjökull, to the east. Immediately prior to the eruption, the vent area was covered with typically 1-3 meters of snow and locally snow-covered, isolated remnants of glacial ice. Fieldwork conducted during June and July documented evidence for a variety of different types of interactions between volcanism (tephra and lava) and snow/ice, including direct contact (e.g. ash-covered snow, lava blocks on snow/ice, lava flows on ash-covered snow), indirect melting (e.g. arcuate snow/ice melting patterns at lava flow fronts, partly collapsed sheet lava flows), and the formation of small bomb-cored mounds via post-depositional snow melting. Many of these features are likely ephemeral, and may leave no trace in the geological record; however under certain circumstances they may leave subtle clues that could aide in identifying the presence of snow during eruptions. The field relationships documented are consistent with varied mechanisms of heat transfer during the eruption to the surrounding environment. The arcuate-shaped snow and ice-banks at the edges of flows appear to closely mimic the shape of the adjacent lava lobes. The geometric relationships are consistent with snow/ice melting several meters in front of the advancing flows by radiant heat from the front of the lava lobes. Also, in at least two areas we observed features that are consistent with snow melting beneath lava, possibly by slower heat conduction. One example is a small cave beneath the lava at the lava-snow contact. The other is a ~1 m thick sheet flow that has partly collapsed, forming a fracture that appears to have been controlled by incipient polygonal jointing; melting of underlying snow may have undermined part of the sheet flow based and facilitated its collapse. However, under at least two separate types of conditions lava seems to have

  10. MODIS Snow and Sea Ice Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the suite of Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua snow and sea ice products. Global, daily products, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, are archived and distributed through the National Snow and Ice Data Center at various resolutions and on different grids useful for different communities Snow products include binary snow cover, snow albedo, and in the near future, fraction of snow in a 5OO-m pixel. Sea ice products include ice extent determined with two different algorithms, and sea ice surface temperature. The algorithms used to develop these products are described. Both the snow and sea ice products, available since February 24,2000, are useful for modelers. Validation of the products is also discussed.

  11. Rabi, Snow, and "The Two Cultures"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Michael A.

    2003-04-01

    John Rigden in his biography of I. I. Rabi, "Rabi: Scientist and Citizen" (1987, 2000 with a new preface) includes an intriguing footnote concerning Rabi's influence on C. P. Snow. According to the footnote, when Snow and his son were visiting the Rabis in New York City, Rabi's wife heard Snow tell his son that Rabi was "the man who gave me [Snow] the idea for the two cultures." In this talk, after a brief overview of Rabi's views on science and society, the mutual influence between Rabi and Snow is explored. On the basis of chronology and an interpretation of Rabi's works (published and unpublished) as well as letters between Rabi and Snow, a case is made that Rabi could very well have been the man who gave Snow the idea for "The Two Cultures."

  12. Microbes in High Arctic Snow and Implications for the Cold Biosphere ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Tommy; Jungblut, Anne D.; Lovejoy, Connie; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2011-01-01

    We applied molecular, microscopic, and culture techniques to characterize the microbial communities in snow and air at remote sites in the Canadian High Arctic (Ward Hunt Island, Ellesmere Island, and Cornwallis Island, latitudes 74 to 83oN). Members of the Bacteria and Eukarya were prevalent in the snow, and their small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene signatures indicated strong local aerial transport within the region over the preceding 8 months of winter snowpack accumulation. Many of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were similar to previously reported SSU rRNA gene sequences from the Arctic Ocean, suggesting the importance of local aerial transport processes for marine microbiota. More than 47% of the cyanobacterial OTUs in the snow have been previously found in microbial mats in the region, indicating that this group was also substantially derived from local sources. Viable cyanobacteria isolated from the snow indicated free exchange between the snow and adjacent mat communities. Other sequences were most similar to those found outside the Canadian Arctic but were from snow, lake and sea ice, glaciers and permafrost, alpine regions, Antarctica, and other regions of the Arctic, supporting the concept of global distribution of microbial ecotypes throughout the cold biosphere. PMID:21460114

  13. Volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in Antarctic superficial snow sampled during Italian ITASE expeditions.

    PubMed

    Zoccolillo, Lelio; Amendola, Luca; Cafaro, Claudia; Insogna, Susanna

    2007-05-01

    In order to detect the presence of some volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHCs) and to understand their transport and deposition mechanism, superficial snow was sampled during two Italian ITASE (International Trans Antarctic Scientific Expedition) expeditions: the first traverse was carried out in 1998/1999 from Terra Nova Bay to Dome Concordia; the second traverse was carried out in 2001/2002 through Adélie, George V, Oates and Northern Victoria Lands. Some VCHCs (chloroform; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; tetrachloromethane; 1,1,2-trichloroethylene; tetrachloroethylene) were analysed using a highly sensitive and selective hyphenated technique composed of a purge-and-trap injector coupled to a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometric detector (PTI-GC-MS) operating in SIM mode. Investigated VCHCs were present in all analysed snow samples with concentration levels of several units, tens, or sometimes hundreds of ng kg(-1). VCHC snow concentration levels remained approximately constant with changing distance from the coast and the comparison between fresh and aged snow did not show any substantial differences; on the basis of this evidence marine aerosol and dry deposition may be rejected as principal VCHC transport and deposition mechanism hypotheses. VCHC concentration levels in Antarctic snow samples were comparable to or greater than those found in snow from temperate zones.

  14. Microbes in high arctic snow and implications for the cold biosphere.

    PubMed

    Harding, Tommy; Jungblut, Anne D; Lovejoy, Connie; Vincent, Warwick F

    2011-05-01

    We applied molecular, microscopic, and culture techniques to characterize the microbial communities in snow and air at remote sites in the Canadian High Arctic (Ward Hunt Island, Ellesmere Island, and Cornwallis Island, latitudes 74 to 83(o)N). Members of the Bacteria and Eukarya were prevalent in the snow, and their small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene signatures indicated strong local aerial transport within the region over the preceding 8 months of winter snowpack accumulation. Many of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were similar to previously reported SSU rRNA gene sequences from the Arctic Ocean, suggesting the importance of local aerial transport processes for marine microbiota. More than 47% of the cyanobacterial OTUs in the snow have been previously found in microbial mats in the region, indicating that this group was also substantially derived from local sources. Viable cyanobacteria isolated from the snow indicated free exchange between the snow and adjacent mat communities. Other sequences were most similar to those found outside the Canadian Arctic but were from snow, lake and sea ice, glaciers and permafrost, alpine regions, Antarctica, and other regions of the Arctic, supporting the concept of global distribution of microbial ecotypes throughout the cold biosphere.

  15. Erosional remnants and adjacent unconformities along an eolian-marine boundary of the Page Sandstone and Carmel Formation, Middle Jurassic, south-central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.S.; Blakey, R.C. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-09-01

    Sandstone ridges along the marine-eolian boundary of the Middle Jurassic Page Sandstone (eolian) with the lower Carmel Formation (restricted marine) in south-central Utah have been identified as erosional remnants consisting of strata of siliciclastic sabkha and eolian origin. The ridges lie within two distinct units of the Thousand Pockets Tongue of the Page. Two equally plausible models explain the genesis of these ridges. One model involves (1) early cementation of eolian and sabkha strata, (2) wind erosion leading to development of yardangs and unconformities, (3) yardang tilting due to evaporite dissolution, and (4) renewed deposition and burial. The alternative model explains ridge development through (1) subsidence, with tilting, of eolian and sabkha strata into evaporites due to loading from linear dunes, (2) evaporite dissolution and unconformity development, and (3) renewed deposition and burial. These models provide important clues about the nature of a missing part of the rock record. Reconstruction of units that were deposited but later eroded improves paleogeographic interpretation and here indicates that the Carmel paleo-shoreline was considerably farther to the northwest than previously believed.

  16. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxyl Radical in Red-Soil-Polluted Seawater in Okinawa, Japan -Potential Impacts on Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, T.; Hamdun, A. M.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Ikota, H.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.

    2004-12-01

    Development of pineapple farmlands and construction of recreational facilities caused runoff of red soil into coastal ocean (locally termed as red-soil-pollution) in the north of Okinawa Island, Japan. In an attempt to understand the impacts of red soil on oxidizing power of the seawater, we studied formation of hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent oxidant in the environment, in red-soil-polluted seawaters, using 313 nm monochromatic light. Photo-formation rates of OH radical showed a good correlation with dissolved iron concentrations (R = 0.98). The major source of OH radical was found to be the Fenton reaction (a reaction between Fe(II) and HOOH). The un-filtered red-soil-polluted seawater samples exhibited faster OH radical formation rates than the filtered samples, suggesting that iron-bearing red soil particles enhanced formation of OH radical.

  17. Springtime peaks of trace metals in Antarctic snow.

    PubMed Central

    Ikegawa, M; Kimura, M; Honda, K; Makita, K; Fujii, Y; Itokawa, Y

    1997-01-01

    Drifting snow samples were collected at Asuka Station (71 degrees 32'S, 24 degrees 08'E, 930 m above sea level) over a period from July to December 1991; 36 elements (including Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Li, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb, Sr, Cd, Pb, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Th) in snow were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) by direct sample introduction. Concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, and SO(4)2- in the snow were also determined by ion chromatography. In late September to early October, there was a pronounced peak concentration of most of the elements together with non-sea salt sulfate. Enrichment factor analyses suggest that Na, Mg, Ca, K, and Sr are of marine origin and Al, Fe, Mn, Rb, Cr, Ni, Ga, V, and all the rare earth elements are of crustal origins. Volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (June 1991) and Mt. Hudson (August 1991) could be the reason for the precipitation of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Se together with non-sea salt sulfates in the austral spring at Asuka Station. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9288501

  18. Influence of snow depth and surface flooding on light transmission through Antarctic pack ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Stefanie; Meiners, Klaus M.; Ricker, Robert; Krumpen, Thomas; Katlein, Christian; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2017-03-01

    Snow on sea ice alters the properties of the underlying ice cover as well as associated physical and biological processes at the interfaces between atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean. The Antarctic snow cover persists during most of the year and contributes significantly to the sea-ice mass due to the widespread surface flooding and related snow-ice formation. Snow also enhances the sea-ice surface reflectivity of incoming shortwave radiation and determines therefore the amount of light being reflected, absorbed, and transmitted to the upper ocean. Here, we present results of a case study of spectral solar radiation measurements under Antarctic pack ice with an instrumented Remotely Operated Vehicle in the Weddell Sea in 2013. In order to identify the key variables controlling the spatial distribution of the under-ice light regime, we exploit under-ice optical measurements in combination with simultaneous characterization of surface properties, such as sea-ice thickness and snow depth. Our results reveal that the distribution of flooded and nonflooded sea-ice areas dominates the spatial scales of under-ice light variability for areas smaller than 100 m-by-100 m. However, the heterogeneous and highly metamorphous snow on Antarctic pack ice obscures a direct correlation between the under-ice light field and snow depth. Compared to the Arctic, light levels under Antarctic pack ice are extremely low during spring (<0.1%). This is mostly a result of the distinctly different dominant sea ice and snow properties with seasonal snow cover (including strong surface melt and summer melt ponds) in the Arctic and a year-round snow cover and widespread surface flooding in the Southern Ocean.

  19. Snow hydrology in a general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, S. ); Roads, J.O. ); Glatzmaier, G. )

    1994-08-01

    A snow hydrology has been implemented in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). The snow hydrology consists of parameterizations of snowfall and snow cover fraction, a prognostic calculation of snow temperature, and a model of the snow mass and hydrologic budgets. Previously, only snow albedo had been included. A 3-year GCM simulation with this more complete surface hydrology is compared to a previous GCM control run with the specified snow line, as well as with observations. In particular, the authors discuss comparisons of the atmospheric and surface hydrologic budgets and the surface energy budget for U.S. and Canadian areas. The new snow hydrology changes the annual cycle of the surface moisture and energy budgets in the model. There is a noticeable shift in the runoff maximum from winter in the control run to spring in the snow hydrology run. A substantial amount of GCM winter precipitation is now stored in the seasonal snowpack. Snow cover also acts as an important insulating layer between the atmosphere and the ground. Wintertime soil temperatures are much higher in the snow, hydrology experiment than in the control experiment. Seasonal snow cover is important for dampening large fluctuations in GCM continental skin temperature during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Snow depths and snow extent show good agreement with observations over North America. The geographic distribution of maximum depths is not as well simulated by the model due, in part, to the coarse resolution of the model. The patterns of runoff are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to observed patterns of streamflow averaged over the continental United States. The seasonal cycles of precipitation and evaporation are also reasonably well simulated by the model, although their magnitudes are larger than is observed. This is due, in part, to a cold bias in this model, which results in a dry model atmosphere and enhances the hydrologic cycle everywhere. 52 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Analysis and improvement of estimated snow water equivalent (SWE) using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E Azar, A.; Ghedira, H.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2005-12-01

    The goal of this study is to improve the retrieval of SWE/Snow depth in Great lakes area, United States using passive microwave images along with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Passive microwave images have been successfully used to estimate snow characteristics such as Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) and snow depth. Despite considerable progress, challenges still exist with respect to accuracy and reliability. In this study, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) channels which are available in Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-GRID) format are used. The study area is covered by a 28 by 35 grid of EASE-Grid pixels, 25km by 25km each. To have a comprehensive data set of brightness temperatures (Tb) of SSM/I channels, an assortment of pixels were selected based on latitude and land cover. A time series analysis was conducted for three winter seasons to assess the SSM/I capability to estimates snow depth and SWE for various land covers. Ground truth data' were obtained from the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) and the National Operational Hydrological Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC). The NCDC provided daily snow depth measurements reported from various stations located in the study area. Measurements were recorded and projected to match EASE-GRID formatting. The NOHRSC produces SNODAS dataset using airborne Gamma radiation and gauge measurements combined with a physical model. The data set consisted of different snow characteristics such as SWE and snow depth. Landcover characteristics are introduced by using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm has been employed to evaluate the effect of landcover in estimating snow depth and Snow Water Equivalent (SWE). The model is trained using SSM/I channels (19v, 19h, 37v, 37h, 22v, 85v, 85h) and the mean and standard deviation of NDVI for the each pixel. The preliminary time series results showed various degrees of

  1. Isotopic composition and speciation of sulfur in the Miocene Monterey Formation: Reevaluation of sulfur reactions during early diagenesis in marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Zaback, D.A.; Pratt, L.M. )

    1992-02-01

    The timing and pathways of early diagenetic sulfur transfer from dissolved species in pore waters to solid inorganic and organic compounds in sediments have been studied in the Miocene Monterey Formation, Santa Maria Basin (onshore), California. Correlation between concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur (TS), in addition to concentrations of titanium, aluminum, total iron, and reactive iron, have been used to infer organic matter reactivity, redox conditions, and relative rates of clastic and biogenic input for each lithofacies. Isotopic compositions of six sulfur species (acid-volatile, disulfide, kerogen, bitumen, sulfate, and elemental) have provided information regarding relative timing of sulfur incorporation, sulfate diffusivity in the upper centimeters of the sediments, and the sources of sulfur for individual species. Consistent ordering of isotopic values for sulfur species (disulfide < acid-volatile sulfide {le} kerogen) indicates that pyrite precipitated nearest to the sediment-water interface under mildly reducing conditions and with little or no decrease in sulfate concentration relative to seawater. Enrichment of {sup 34}S in acid-volatile sulfide and kerogen sulfur resulted from formation of these species at greater depths or in restricted micro-environments under more reducing conditions and with low concentrations of porewater sulfate. The formation of acid-volatile sulfide after pyrite but during early diagenesis is significant because it implies more strongly reducing conditions than are generally recognized in deep-water marine sediments.

  2. A new species of Ischyodus (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali: Callorhynchidae) from Upper Maastrichtian Shallow marine facies of the Fox Hills and Hell Creek Formations, Williston basin, North Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoganson, J.W.; Erickson, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A new species of chimaeroid, Ischyodus rayhaasi sp. nov., is described based primarily upon the number and configuration of tritors on palatine and mandibular tooth plates. This new species is named in honour of Mr Raymond Haas. Fossils of I. rayhaasi have been recovered from the Upper Maastrichtian Fox Hills Formation and the Breien Member and an unnamed member of the Hell Creek Formation at sites in south-central North Dakota and north-central South Dakota, USA. Ischyodus rayhaasi inhabited shallow marine waters in the central part of the Western Interior Seaway during the latest Cretaceous. Apparently it was also present in similar habitats at that time in the Volga region of Russia. Ischyodus rayhaasi is the youngest Cretaceous species Ischyodus known to exist before the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinction, and the species apparently did not survive that event. It was replaced by Ischyodus dolloi, which is found in the Paleocene Cannonball Formation of the Williston Basin region of North Dakota and is widely distributed elsewhere. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  3. Non-marine carbonate facies, facies models and palaeogeographies of the Purbeck Formation (Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous) of Dorset (Southern England).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallois, Arnaud; Bosence, Dan; Burgess, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Non-marine carbonates are relatively poorly understood compared with their more abundant marine counterparts. Sedimentary facies and basin architecture are controlled by a range of environmental parameters such as climate, hydrology and tectonic setting but facies models are few and limited in their predictive value. Following the discovery of extensive Early Cretaceous, non-marine carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs in the South Atlantic, the interest of understanding such complex deposits has increased during recent years. This study is developing a new depositional model for non-marine carbonates in a semi-arid climate setting in an extensional basin; the Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous) in Dorset (Southern England). Outcrop study coupled with subsurface data analysis and petrographic study (sedimentology and early diagenesis) aims to constrain and improve published models of depositional settings. Facies models for brackish water and hypersaline water conditions of these lacustrine to palustrine carbonates deposited in the syn-rift phase of the Wessex Basin will be presented. Particular attention focusses on the factors that control the accumulation of in-situ microbialite mounds that occur within bedded inter-mound packstones-grainstones in the lower Purbeck. The microbialite mounds are located in three units (locally known as the Skull Cap, the Hard Cap and the Soft Cap) separated by three fossil soils (locally known as the Basal, the Lower and the Great Dirt Beds) respectively within three shallowing upward lacustrine sequences. These complex microbialite mounds (up to 4m high), are composed of tabular small-scale mounds (flat and long, up to 50cm high) divided into four subfacies. Many of these small-scale mounds developed around trees and branches which are preserved as moulds (or silicified wood) which are surrounded by a burrowed mudstone-wackestone collar. Subsequently a thrombolite framework developed on the upper part only within

  4. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - gas-particle partitioning, mass size distribution, and formation along transport in marine and continental background air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Mulder, Marie D.; Shahpoury, Pourya; Kukučka, Petr; Lišková, Hana; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) are ubiquitous in polluted air but little is known about their abundance in background air. NPAHs were studied at one marine and one continental background site, i.e. a coastal site in the southern Aegean Sea (summer 2012) and a site in the central Great Hungarian Plain (summer 2013), together with the parent compounds, PAHs. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model was used to track air mass history. Based on Lagrangian particle statistics, the urban influence on samples was quantified for the first time as a fractional dose to which the collected volume of air had been exposed. At the remote marine site, the 3-4-ring NPAH (sum of 11 targeted species) concentration was 23.7 pg m-3 while the concentration of 4-ring PAHs (6 species) was 426 pg m-3. The most abundant NPAHs were 2-nitrofluoranthene (2NFLT) and 3-nitrophenanthrene. Urban fractional doses in the range of < 0.002-5.4 % were calculated. At the continental site, the Σ11 3-4-ring NPAH and Σ6 4-ring PAH were 58 and 663 pg m-3, respectively, with 9-nitroanthracene and 2NFLT being the most concentrated amongst the targeted NPAHs. The NPAH levels observed in the marine background air are the lowest ever reported and remarkably lower, by more than 1 order of magnitude, than 1 decade before. Day-night variation of NPAHs at the continental site reflected shorter lifetime during the day, possibly because of photolysis of some NPAHs. The yields of formation of 2NFLT and 2-nitropyrene (2NPYR) in marine air seem to be close to the yields for OH-initiated photochemistry observed in laboratory experiments under high NOx conditions. Good agreement is found for the prediction of NPAH gas-particle partitioning using a multi-phase poly-parameter linear free-energy relationship. Sorption to soot is found to be less significant for gas-particle partitioning of NPAHs than for PAHs. The NPAH levels determined in the south-eastern outflow of Europe confirm intercontinental transport

  5. A new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae) from the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, Wadi El-Hitan, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Sanaa E; Kora, Mahmoud A; Sallam, Hesham M; Claeson, Kerin M; Seiffert, Erik R; Antar, Mohammed S

    2017-01-01

    Wadi El-Hitan, the UNESCO World Heritage Site, of the Fayum Depression in the northeast part of the Western Desert of Egypt, has produced a remarkable collection of Eocene vertebrates, in particular the fossil whales from which it derives its name. Here we describe a new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae), Qarmoutus hitanensis, from the base of the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, based on a partial neurocranium including the complete left side, partial right dentary, left suspensorium, two opercles, left pectoral girdle and spine, nuchal plates, first and second dorsal spines, Weberian apparatus and a disassociated series of abdominal vertebrae. All of the elements belong to the same individual and some of them were found articulated. Qarmoutus gen. nov. is the oldest and the most complete of the Paleogene marine catfishes unearthed from the Birket Qarun Formation. The new genus exhibits distinctive features not seen in other African Paleogene taxa, such as different sculpturing on the opercle and pectoral girdle with respect to that on the neurocranium and nuchal plates, denticulate ornamentation on the skull bones arranged in longitudinal rows and forming a radiating pattern on the sphenotic, pterotic, extrascapular and the parieto-supraoccipital, indentations or pitted ornamentation on the nuchal plates as well as the parieto-supraoccipital process, strut-like radiating pattern of ornamentation on the opercle from the proximal articulation to margins, longitudinal, curved, reticulate ridges and tubercular ornamentations on the cleithrum, sinuous articulation between the parieto-supraoccipital process and the anterior nuchal plate, long, narrow, and arrowhead shaped nuchal shield, very small otic capsules restricted to the prootic. Multiple parsimony and Bayesian morphological phylogenetic analyses of Ariidae, run with and without "molecular scaffolds", yield contradictory results for the placement of Qarmoutus; the genus is either

  6. A new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae) from the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, Wadi El-Hitan, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Wadi El-Hitan, the UNESCO World Heritage Site, of the Fayum Depression in the northeast part of the Western Desert of Egypt, has produced a remarkable collection of Eocene vertebrates, in particular the fossil whales from which it derives its name. Here we describe a new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae), Qarmoutus hitanensis, from the base of the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, based on a partial neurocranium including the complete left side, partial right dentary, left suspensorium, two opercles, left pectoral girdle and spine, nuchal plates, first and second dorsal spines, Weberian apparatus and a disassociated series of abdominal vertebrae. All of the elements belong to the same individual and some of them were found articulated. Qarmoutus gen. nov. is the oldest and the most complete of the Paleogene marine catfishes unearthed from the Birket Qarun Formation. The new genus exhibits distinctive features not seen in other African Paleogene taxa, such as different sculpturing on the opercle and pectoral girdle with respect to that on the neurocranium and nuchal plates, denticulate ornamentation on the skull bones arranged in longitudinal rows and forming a radiating pattern on the sphenotic, pterotic, extrascapular and the parieto-supraoccipital, indentations or pitted ornamentation on the nuchal plates as well as the parieto-supraoccipital process, strut-like radiating pattern of ornamentation on the opercle from the proximal articulation to margins, longitudinal, curved, reticulate ridges and tubercular ornamentations on the cleithrum, sinuous articulation between the parieto-supraoccipital process and the anterior nuchal plate, long, narrow, and arrowhead shaped nuchal shield, very small otic capsules restricted to the prootic. Multiple parsimony and Bayesian morphological phylogenetic analyses of Ariidae, run with and without “molecular scaffolds”, yield contradictory results for the placement of Qarmoutus; the genus is

  7. Forthcoming Northern Hemisphere Snow and Ice Earth System Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. A.; Estilow, T. W.; Anderson, M. R.; Hall, D. K.; Henderson, G. R.; Mote, T. L.; Tschudi, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    For approximately the past five years, a multi-institutional team has been assembling satellite-derived Northern Hemisphere (NH) snow cover Earth System Data Records (ESDR). With the culmination of our NASA-supported Making Earth Science Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) project come mid 2014, it is timely to bring the user community that encompasses the research community, decision-makers, and stakeholders up to date on our progress and with products soon to be available. Datasets include snow extent and melt state over NH continents, snowmelt state over Greenland, snowmelt onset and age of sea ice. Fused snow extent and melt state products over land and ice are also being generated. Visible and microwave satellite data are employed in these efforts. Datasets of both individual and integrated ESDRs will be available for downloading from the National Snow and Ice Data Center. Products are being generated at 25 km (1999-2010) or 100 km (1967-2010) resolution using the Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid 2.0 and are available in netCDF format. Extensive metadata will accompany the datasets. Project data and information are also available at http://snowcover.org. Here, we will present examples of the development and utility of these individual and fused datasets.

  8. Snow and ice: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littell, Jeremy; McAfee, Stephanie A.; O'Neel, Shad; Sass, Louis; Burgess, Evan; Colt, Steve; Clark, Paul; Hayward, Gregory D.; Colt, Steve; McTeague, Monica L.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature and precipitation are key determinants of snowpack levels. Therefore, climate change is likely to affect the role of snow and ice in the landscapes and hydrology of the Chugach National Forest region.Downscaled climate projections developed by Scenarios Network for Alaska and Arctic Planning (SNAP) are useful for examining projected changes in snow at relatively fine resolution using a variable called “snowday fraction (SDF),” the percentage of days with precipitation falling as snow.We summarized SNAP monthly SDF from five different global climate models for the Chugach region by 500 m elevation bands, and compared historical (1971–2000) and future (2030–2059) SDF. We found that:Snow-day fraction and snow-water equivalent (SWE) are projected to decline most in late autumn (October to November) and at lower elevations.Snow-day fraction is projected to decrease 23 percent (averaged across five climate models) from October to March, between sea level and 500 m. Between sea level and 1000 m, SDF is projected to decrease by 17 percent between October and March.Snow-water equivalent is projected to decrease most in autumn (October and November) and at lower elevations (below 1500 m), an average of -26 percent for the 2030–2059 period compared to 1971– 2000. Averaged across the cool season and the entire domain, SWE is projected to decrease at elevations below 1000 m because of increased temperature, but increase at higher elevations because of increased precipitation.Compared to 1971–2000, the percentage of the landscape that is snowdominant in 2030–2059 is projected to decrease, and the percentage in which rain and snow are co-dominant (transient hydrology) is projected to increase from 27 to 37 percent. Most of this change is at lower elevations.Glaciers on the Chugach National Forest are currently losing about 6 km3 of ice per year; half of this loss comes from Columbia Glacier (Berthier et al. 2010).Over the past decade, almost all

  9. Recent and potential future effects of climate change on snow-avalanche activity in western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.

    2017-04-01

    Meteorological records for western Norway show the general trend that the last 100 years, and especially the last three decades, have been warmer and wetter than the time periods before. As snow-avalanche formation is mainly governed by meteorological conditions as, e.g., air temperature fluctuations, heavy precipitation and wind conditions, it is likely that the frequency and magnitude of both ordinary and extreme snow-avalanche events is and will be modified through the documented effects of current and future climate change. This work focuses on recent and possible future effects of climate change on snow-avalanche activity along the western side of the Jostedalsbreen ice cap representing one of the areas with the highest snow-avalanche activity in entire Norway. We have analyzed long-term homogenized meteorological data from five meteorological stations in different elevations above sea level, three of them with a long-term record of 120 years (1895-2015). Daily precipitation and air temperature data are analyzed from the highest situated meteorological station (located 872 m asl.) in order to reveal the percentage share of precipitation which occurs actually as snow within the snow avalanche source areas (generally located at this and higher elevations above sea level). In addition to the statistical analyses of long-term datasets, gained results and insights from a four-year (2009-2012) high-resolution snow avalanche monitoring study conducted in the same study area are incorporated. The statistical analyses of mean monthly air temperature, monthly precipitation sums and mean monthly snow depths showed that there is a trend of increasing air temperatures and precipitation sums whereas no clear trend was found for mean snow depths. Magnitude-frequency analyses conducted for three defined time intervals (120, 90, 60 years) of monthly precipitation sums exhibit an increase of precipitation especially during the last 30 years with the tendency that more

  10. On charging of snow particles in blizzard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shio, Hisashi

    1991-01-01

    The causes of the charge polarity on the blizzard, which consisted of fractured snow crystals and ice particles, were investigated. As a result, the charging phenomena showed that the characteristics of the blizzard are as follows: (1) In the case of the blizzard with snowfall, the fractured snow particles drifting near the surface of snow field (lower area: height 0.3 m) had positive charge, while those drifting at higher area (height 2 m) from the surface of snow field had negative charge. However, during the series of blizzards two kinds of particles positively and negatively charged were collected in equal amounts in a Faraday Cage. It may be considered that snow crystals with electrically neutral properties were separated into two kinds of snow flakes (charged positively and negatively) by destruction of the snow crystals. (2) In the case of the blizzard which consisted of irregularly formed ice drops (generated by peeling off the hardened snow field), the charge polarity of these ice drops salting over the snow field was particularly controlled by the crystallographic characteristics of the surface of the snow field hardened by the powerful wind pressure.

  11. Snow mapping from space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itten, K. I.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers problems of optimum resolution, periodicity, and wavelength bands used for snow mapping. Analog and digital methods were used for application of satellite data; techniques were developed for producing steamflow forecasts, hydroelectric power generation regulation data, irrigation potentials, and information on the availability of drinking water supplies. Future systems will utilize improved spectral band selection, new spectral regions, higher repetition rates, and more rapid access to satellite data.

  12. Dirty snow after nuclear war

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, S. G.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that smoke from fires started by nuclear explosions could continue to cause significant disruption even after it has fallen from the atmosphere, by lowering the reflectivity of snow and sea ice surfaces, with possible effects on climate in northern latitudes caused by enhanced absorption of sunlight. The reduced reflectivity could persist for several years on Arctic sea ice and on the ablation area of the Greenland ice sheet.

  13. Snow in northeastern United States

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Snow covered the northeastern United States on last day of meteorological winter, 2014. Climatologists and meteorologists break seasons down into three-month groups, based on annual temperature and our calendar. This method is helpful for weather observing and forecasting, and for planning consistent agricultural dates, such as expected first frosts or best planting date. Meteorological winter – the season where temperatures are, on average, coldest and when snow is most likely to fall – runs from December 1 to February 28 in the United States and Canada. Winter can also be defined by the astronomical calendar, which is based on the rotation of the Earth around the sun. In this method, the seasons are defined by two solstices (times when the sun’s path is furthest from the Earth’s equator) and two equinoxes (the times when the sun passes directly above the equator). In the Northern Hemisphere, winter begins on the winter solstice, which falls on or around December 22 and ends on or around March 21, at the vernal (spring) equinox. On February 28, 2014, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image of a sunny winter day in the northeastern United States. Snow stretches from Maine west to Indiana and south along the ridges of the Appalachian Mountains well into West Virginia. In Canada, the landscape appears greener, primarily because snow lies on conifers (evergreen) trees in the boreal forest regions. The Great Lakes, with the exception of Lake Ontario, are almost completely covered with ice. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on

  14. The Inverted Snow Globe Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-01-01

    Our high school optics course finishes with an assignment that students usually appreciate. They must take pictures of everyday situations representing optical phenomena such as reflection, refraction, or dispersion, and post them on Instagram.1 When the photos were presented to the class, one student revealed an intriguing photo, similar to Fig. 1, showing a snow globe exposed to sunlight and its inverted shadow. This paper offers an explanation of the problem, which occurs due to light refraction from the globe.

  15. Dirty snow after nuclear war

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, S. G.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that smoke from fires started by nuclear explosions could continue to cause significant disruption even after it has fallen from the atmosphere, by lowering the reflectivity of snow and sea ice surfaces, with possible effects on climate in northern latitudes caused by enhanced absorption of sunlight. The reduced reflectivity could persist for several years on Arctic sea ice and on the ablation area of the Greenland ice sheet.

  16. Glass formation and unusual hygroscopic growth of iodic acid solution droplets with relevance for iodine mediated particle formation in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, B. J.; Haddrell, A. E.; Peppe, S.; Davies, J. F.; Reid, J. P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Price, H. C.; Kumar, R.; Saunders, R. W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Umo, N. S.; Wilson, T. W.

    2012-09-01

    Iodine oxide particles are known to nucleate in the marine boundary layer where gas phase molecular iodine and organoiodine species are produced by macroalgae. These ultra-fine particles may then grow through the condensation of other materials to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. There has been some debate over the chemical identity of the initially nucleated particles. In laboratory simulations, hygroscopic measurements have been used to infer that they are composed of insoluble I2O4, while elemental analysis of laboratory generated particles suggests soluble I2O5 or its hydrated form iodic acid, HIO3 (I2O5·H2O). In this paper we explore the response of super-micron sized aqueous iodic acid solution droplets to varying humidity using both Raman microscopy and single particle electrodynamic traps. These measurements reveal that the propensity of an iodic acid solution droplet to crystallise is negligible on drying to ~0% relative humidity (RH). On applying mechanical pressure to these droplets they shatter in a manner consistent with an ultra-viscous liquid or a brittle glass. Water retention in amorphous material at low RH is important for understanding the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles and uptake of other condensable material. Subsequent water uptake between 10 and 20% RH causes their viscosity to reduce sufficiently that the cracked droplets flow and merge. The persistence of iodic acid solution in an amorphous state, rather than a crystalline state, suggests they will more readily accommodate other condensable material and are therefore more likely to grow to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. On increasing the humidity to ~90% the mass of the droplets only increases by ~20% with a corresponding increase in radius of only 6%, which is remarkably small for a highly soluble material. We suggest that the small growth factor of aqueous iodic acid solution droplets is consistent with the small aerosol growth

  17. Snow water equivalent mapping in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveito, O. E.; Udnæs, H.-C.; Engeset, R.; Førland, E. J.; Isaksen, K.; Mengistu, Z.

    2003-04-01

    In high latitude area snow covers the ground large parts of the year. Information about the water volume as snow is of major importance in many respects. Flood forecasters at NVE need it in order to assess possible flood risks. Hydropower producers need it to plan the most efficient production of the water in their reservoirs, traders to estimate the potential energy available for the market. Meteorologists on their side use the information as boundary conditions in weather forecasting models. The Norwegian meteorological institute has provided snow accumulation maps for Norway for more than 50 years. These maps are now produced twice a month in the winter season. They show the accumulated precipitation in the winter season from the day the permanent snow cover is established. They do however not take melting into account, and do therefore not give a good description of the actual snow amounts during and after periods with snowmelt. Due to an increased need for a direct measure of water volumes as snow cover, met.no and NVE initialized a joint project in order to establish maps of the actual snow cover expressed in water equivalents. The project utilizes recent developments in the use of GIS in spatial modeling. Daily precipitation and temperature are distributed in space by using objective spatial interpolation methods. The interpolation considers topographical and other geographical parameters as well as weather type information. A degree-day model is used at each modeling point to calculate snow-accumulation and snowmelt. The maps represent a spatial scale of 1x1 km2. The modeled snow reservoir is validated by snow pillow values as well traditional snow depth observations. Preliminary results show that the new snow modeling approach reproduces the snow water equivalent well. The spatial approach also opens for a wide use in the terms of areal analysis.

  18. Spatiotemporal analysis of snow trends in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Roland; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    This study presents the spatiotemporal analysis of Austrian snow observations. A set of consistent and reliable long-term time series of snow depth on a daily scale from selected meteorological sites across Austria is used. The time series were collected by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the Hydrographical Central Bureau of Austria (HZB). The data cover a time period from the late nineteenth century until today. In the first part of the study spatiotemporal characteristics of seasonal snow depth observations were investigated by the method of principal component analysis (PCA). Furthermore, the spatial patterns of variability have been used for a regionalisation, identifying regions with similar conditions during the base period 1961 to 2010. The results show a clear separation of four major regions including various sub-regions. However, the regionalisation was limited due to sparse data coverage. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistical test had been used to assess the significance of trends in snow indices, e.g. snow depth, maximum snow depth, snow cover duration, at monthly and seasonal time scales. In order to remove the influence of the lag-1 serial correlation from the snow data, the trend-free pre-whitening approach was applied. In the monthly and seasonal time series during the period 1961-2010, negative trends in snow indices were significant at the 95% confidence level primarily at stations in the Western and Southern part of Austria. In addition, the correlation between snow observations and gridded HISTALP winter temperature and precipitation fields was investigated. The analysis has shown an increased temperature and decreased precipitation during the 1990s, yielding a pronounced reduction in snow depth and duration. As a matter of fact, the results indicate major shifts of the snow depth and snow cover duration around the 1970s and especially the 1990s, which are predominantly responsible for trends.

  19. Nitrate photolysis in salty snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, D. J.; Morenz, K.; Shi, Q.; Murphy, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate photolysis from snow can have a significant impact on the oxidative capacity of the local atmosphere, but the factors affecting the release of gas phase products are not well understood. Here, we report the first systematic study of the amounts of NO, NO2, and total nitrogen oxides (NOy) emitted from illuminated snow samples as a function of both nitrate and total salt (NaCl and Instant Ocean) concentration. We show that the release of nitrogen oxides to the gas phase is directly related to the expected nitrate concentration in the brine at the surface of the snow crystals, increasing to a plateau value with increasing nitrate, and generally decreasing with increasing NaCl or Instant Ocean (I.O.). In frozen mixed nitrate (25 mM) - salt (0-500 mM) solutions, there is an increase in gas phase NO2 seen at low added salt amounts: NO2 production is enhanced by 35% at low prefreezing [NaCl] and by 70% at similar prefreezing [I.O.]. Raman microscopy of frozen nitrate-salt solutions shows evidence of stronger nitrate exclusion to the air interface in the presence of I.O. than with added NaCl. The enhancement in nitrogen oxides emission in the presence of salts may prove to be important to the atmospheric oxidative capacity in polar regions.

  20. Digging of 'Snow White' Begins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began excavating a new trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil located near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The trench is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) long. The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.'

    At this early stage of digging, the Phoenix team did not expect to find any of the white material seen in the first trench, now called 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' That trench showed white material at a depth of about 5 centimeters (2 inches). More digging of Snow White is planned for coming sols, or Martian days.

    The dark portion of this image is the shadow of the lander's solar panel; the bright areas within this region are not in shadow.

    Snow White was dug on Sol 22 (June 17, 2008) with Phoenix's Robotic Arm. This picture was acquired on the same day by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager. This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Estimating small-scale snow depth and ice thickness from total freeboard for East Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, Adam; Heil, Petra; Watson, Christopher; Massom, Robert A.; Lieser, Jan L.; Ozsoy-Cicek, Burcu

    2016-09-01

    Deriving the snow depth on Antarctic sea ice is a key factor in estimating sea-ice thickness distributions from space or airborne altimeters. Using a linear regression to model snow depth from observed 'total freeboard', or the snow/ice surface elevation relative to sea level is an efficient and promising method for the estimation of snow depth for instruments which only detect the uppermost surface of the sea-ice conglomerate (e.g. laser altimetry). However the Antarctic pack-ice zone is subject to substantial variability due to synoptic-scale weather forcing. Ice formation, motion and melt undergo large spatio-temporal variability throughout the year. In this paper we estimate snow depth from total freeboard for the ARISE (2003), SIPEX (2007) and SIPEX-II (2012) research voyages to the East Antarctic pack-ice zone. Using in situ data we investigate variability in snow depth and show that for East Antarctica, relationships between snow depth and total freeboard vary between each voyage. At a resolution of metres to tens of metres, we show how regression-based snow-depth models track total freeboard and generally over-estimate snow depth, especially on highly deformed sea ice and at sites where ice freeboard makes a substantial contribution to total freeboard. For a set of 3192 records we obtain an in situ mean snow depth of 0.21 m (σ = 0.19 m). Using a regression model derived from all in situ points we obtain the same mean, with a slightly lower variability (σ = 0.16 m). Using voyage-specific subsets of the data to derive regression models and estimate snow depth, mean snow depths ranged from 0.19 m (model derived from SIPEX observations) to 0.25 m (model derived from SIPEX-II observations). While small, these discrepancies impact ice thickness estimation using the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. Mean in situ ice thickness for all samples is 1.44 m (σ = 1.19 m). Using empirical models for snow depth, ice thickness varies from 1.0 to 1.8 m with the best

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Surface Snow Accumulation and Snow Chemistry at East Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoyama, H.; Ito, K.; Hirabayashi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Snow stakes along the traverse routes have been observed for long term monitoring program 'the variation of ice sheet surface mass balance' from the 1960's by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition in Shirase glacier drainage basin, East Antarctica. During the traverse route between coastal S16 point (69 02'S, 40 03'E, 580m a.s.l.) to inland Dome Fuji (77 22'S, 39 42'E, 3,810m a.s.l.), the snow stake observations every 2 km have been carried out from 1993. Yearly net snow accumulations from S16 to Dome Fuji were calculated. Heavy, modern and light snow events were observed. They were different in way accumulating spatial pattern depending on places. The yearly accumulation rates were compared with seasonal change of AAO-index (SAM). As a result, yearly accumulation rate and AAO-index showed the positive correlation.Surface snow samplings were conducted every 10km along the traverse route. Generally, the snow surface features are classified into three regions. (1) the coastal region: smooth surface, high snow accumulation (2) the katabatic slope region: rough sastrugi surface and smooth glazed surface(3) the high plateau region: smooth surface, little snow accumulation The chemistry of surface snow changes from the coast to inland. Furthermore, the chemical properties of snow are different for each surface at the same area. We can classify the surface snow with fresh drifting snow, deposited drift snow, soft and hard surface snow, sustrugi, surface hoar and so on. The value of each isotope ration and ion concentration greatly varied. Sometimes, snow might deposit thick equally. But the deposited snow was redistributed by the wind. When the snowstorm occurred, the blowing snow started to deposit in a certain opportunity. As for it, the area was not the uniform. It is necessary to discuss inhomogeneity of the depositional condition quantitatively.

  3. Storing snow for the next winter: Two case studies on the application of snow farming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Snow farming is the conservation of snow during the warm half-year. This means that large piles of snow are formed in spring in order to be conserved over the summer season. Well-insulating materials such as chipped wood are added as surface cover to reduce melting. The aim of snow farming is to provide a "snow guaranty" for autumn or early winter - this means that a specific amount of snow will definitively be available, independent of the weather conditions. The conserved snow can then be used as basis for the preparation of winter sports grounds such as cross-country tracks or ski runs. This helps in the organization of early winter season sport events such as World Cup races or to provide appropriate training conditions for athletes. We present a study on two snow farming projects, one in Davos (Switzerland) and one in the Martell valley of South Tyrol. At both places snow farming has been used for several years. For the summer season 2015, we monitored both snow piles in order to assess the amount of snow conserved. High resolution terrestrial laser scanning was performed to measure snow volumes of the piles at the beginning and at the end of the summer period. Results showed that only 20% to 30 % of the snow mass was lost due to ablation. This mass loss was surprisingly low considering the extremely warm and dry summer. In order to identify the most relevant drivers of snow melt we also present simulations with the sophisticated snow cover models SNOWPACK and Alpine3D. The simulations are driven by meteorological input data recorded in the vicinity of the piles and enable a detailed analysis of the relevant processes controlling the energy balance. The models can be applied to optimize settings for snow farming and to examine the suitability of new locations, configurations or cover material for future snow farming projects.

  4. [The research of the relationship between snow properties and the bidirectional polarized reflectance from snow surface].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-Qiu; Wu, Zheng-Fang; Zhao, Yun-Sheng

    2014-10-01

    In the context of remote sensing, the reflectance of snow is a key factor for accurate inversion for snow properties, such as snow grain size, albedo, because of it is influenced by the change of snow properties. The polarized reflectance is a general phenomenon during the reflected progress in natural incident light In this paper, based on the correct measurements for the multiple-angle reflected property of snow field in visible and near infrared wavelength (from 350 to 2,500 nm), the influence of snow grain size and wet snow on the bidirectional polarized property of snow was measured and analyzed. Combining the results measured in the field and previous conclusions confirms that the relation between polarization and snow grain size is obvious in infrared wavelength (at about 1,500 nm), which means the degree of polarization increasing with an increase of snow grain size in the forward scattering direction, it is because the strong absorption of ice near 1,500 nm leads to the single scattering light contributes to the reflection information obtained by the sensor; in other word, the larger grain size, the more absorption accompanying the larger polarization in forward scattering direction; we can illustrate that the change from dry snow to wet snow also influences the polarization property of snow, because of the water on the surface of snow particle adheres the adjacent particles, that means the wet snow grain size is larger than the dry snow grain size. Therefore, combining the multiple-angle polarization with reflectance will provide solid method and theoretical basis for inversion of snow properties.

  5. Snow depth and snow persistence patterns in the Arctic from analysis of the entire Landsat archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macander, M. J.; Swingley, C. S.; Parr, C.; Sturm, M.; Selkowitz, D.; Larsen, C.

    2016-12-01

    The entire archive of Landsat 5 TM, Landat 7 ETM+, and Landsat 8 OLI imagery collected between March 1 and August 31, 1999-2016 was analyzed to map the presence or absence of snow, with consideration given to clouds, cloud shadows, terrain shadows, and canopy cover. Google Earth Engine was utilized to rapidly classify and summarize the entire time-series. The time-series of observations were then pooled across all the years and a binary classification tree determined the day of year that based split the observations into a snow-covered and a snow-free season. The analysis was completed for arctic Alaska and covers approximately one million square kilometers. The snow persistence product was validated using SNOTEL sites and MODIS time series metrics. The snow persistence patterns are highly correlated with end of winter snow depth patterns. We compared the Landsat snow persistence to the normal snow depth from repeat LIDAR surveys and field snow depth measurements and applied the results to estimate snow distribution over much larger regions. A nonlinear relationship between normal snow-free day of year and mean end of winter snow depth was observed. A polynomial model (r-squared = 0.95) was developed and was extrapolated to the surrounding area to produce a regional map of modeled mean end of winter snow depth.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Hyperspectral and Multispectral Data for Mapping Snow Cover and Snow Grain Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anul Haq, M.

    2014-11-01

    The present study demonstrates the potential of imaging spectroscopy to produce the snow cover maps and estimation of snow grain size in the Himalayan region. Snow cover maps and snow grain size produce from imaging spectroscopy data were also compared with multispectral imagery (i.e. Landsat 8 and ASTER). Snow grain size was estimated using the snow grain index and compared with the asymptotic radiative transfer (ART) theory method. The overall matching area was 78.29 % among different snow grain size classes using grain index Method and ART method. An attempt has been made to derive the snow grain size using Landsat 8 and ASTER data for the same area. It was found that grain size derived from Landsat 8 and ASTER data show correlation of 81.67 % and 86.34 % respectively. The snow cover maps were produced using Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI). Snow cover maps were also produced using ASTER imagery for the same area and compared with Hyperion snow cover maps. The correlation between both snow cover maps were show 91 % correlation.

  7. Mechanism and Performance of CO2 Snow Jet in Co-Axial Type Injection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yi-Jun; Wang, Muh-Rong

    This paper describes the characteristics of CO2 snow formation with co-axial type injection systems. The injection of CO2 snow flow is controlled by a co-axial type nitrogen auxiliary nozzle. Five cases of co-axial nitrogen nozzle with different diameters and injection types of auxiliary nitrogen are presented. Flow field visualization and spray characteristics are performed by the particle image velocimetry (PIV). Result shows that the CO2 snow particles would collide with each other and generate lager particles in the recirculation zone of the formation chamber. Results also show that the particle size distribution is influenced by the geometry of the injection device. The length of the formation chamber influence the region and strength of recirculation flow. In the region after reattach zone of recirculation flow, the fine particles deposit on the chamber wall and form a deposition layer. The particles in the main stream further impinge onto the deposition layer and result in the snowballs. It turns out that the mean particle size becomes larger as the length of chamber is increased. Results also show that CO2 snow jet has higher velocity and the flow-focusing takes place with nitrogen auxiliary gas. Furthermore, the mist layer of the jet flow caused by lower temperature of CO2 snow is eliminated when co-axial nitrogen flow is injected. The velocity of CO2 snow jet is increased under higher injection pressure of co-axial nitrogen flow. Furthermore, smaller diameter of nitrogen auxiliary nozzle results in higher injection velocity of CO2 snow jet. Hence the injection power of the CO2 snow jet can be controlled by the design of the nitrogen auxiliary nozzle. It will be useful in the medical applications of cryotherapy treatment and the dry cleaning of the semiconductor and solar cell manufacturing processes.

  8. Complete genome sequence of Marinobacter adhaerens type strain (HP15), a diatom-interacting marine microorganism.

    PubMed

    Gärdes, Astrid; Kaeppel, Eva; Shehzad, Aamir; Seebah, Shalin; Teeling, Hanno; Yarza, Pablo; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2010-09-28

    Marinobacter adhaerens HP15 is the type strain of a newly identified marine species, which is phylogenetically related to M. flavimaris, M. algicola, and M. aquaeolei. It is of special interest for research on marine aggregate formation because it showed specific attachment to diatom cells. In vitro it led to exopolymer formation and aggregation of these algal cells to form marine snow particles. M. adhaerens HP15 is a free-living, motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium, which was originally isolated from marine particles sampled in the German Wadden Sea. M. adhaerens HP15 grows heterotrophically on various media, is easy to access genetically, and serves as a model organism to investigate the cellular and molecular interactions with the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. Here we describe the complete and annotated genome sequence of M. adhaerens HP15 as well as some details on flagella-associated genes. M. adhaerens HP15 possesses three replicons; the chromosome comprises 4,422,725 bp and codes for 4,180 protein-coding genes, 51 tRNAs and three rRNA operons, while the two circular plasmids are ~187 kb and ~42 kb in size and contain 178 and 52 protein-coding genes, respectively.

  9. Aryl sulfate formation in sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) ingesting marine algae (Fucus distichus) containing 2,6-dimethylnapthalene

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.; Roubal, W.T.

    1982-04-01

    The metabolism of tritiated 2,6-dimethylnapthalene (2,6-DMN) was studied in sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) feeding on marine algae (Fucus distichus). The Fucus accumulated this hydrocarbon from sea water without converting it to metabolites. Most of the tritium accumulated by the sea urchins (e.g., 70.8% after 3 days) from feeding on 2,6-DMN-exposed Fucus was present in the exoskeleton (shell and spines). Moreover, after 3 days feeding, about 90% of the tritium in the total metabolite fraction of the gonads and digestive tract of the sea urchin was present as sulfate derivatives. These metabolites were identified through hydrolysis with aryl sulfatase, followed by thin-layer chromatography of the products. After 14 days of feeding, the tritium associated with the sulfate derivatives decreased in the gonads and digestive tract to 61 and 65%, respectively, of the total metabolite fraction. Hydroxy compounds from sulfatase hydrolysis were chromatographed using multiple elutions with toluene. The hydroxy isomers were separated and the R/sub f/ values were compared to those of pure reference compounds. The data indicated that 80% of the 2,6-dimethylnaphtyl sulfate contained the sulfate on the 1 and/or 3 position of the aromatic ring. Moreover, 6-methyl-2-naphthalenemethanol was not detected, which implies that sea urchins, unlike fish, metabolize alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons primarily through aromatic ring oxidations.

  10. Formation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments. Gas hydrate growth and stability conditioned by host sediment properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clennell, M.B.; Henry, P.; Hovland, M.; Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Thomas, M.

    2000-01-01

    The stability conditions of submarine gas hydrates (methane clathrates) are largely dictated by pressure, temperature, gas composition, and pore water salinity. However, the physical properties and surface chemistry of the host sediments also affect the thermodynamic state, growth kinetics, spatial distributions, and growth forms of clathrates. Our model presumes that gas hydrate behaves in a way analogous to ice in the pores of a freezing soil, where capillary forces influence the energy balance. Hydrate growth is inhibited within fine-grained sediments because of the excess internal phase pressure of small crystals with high surface curvature that coexist with liquid water in small pores. Therefore, the base of gas hydrate stability in a sequence of fine sediments is predicted by our model to occur at a lower temperature, and so nearer to the seabed than would be calculated from bulk thermodynamic equilibrium. The growth forms commonly observed in hydrate samples recovered from marine sediments (nodules, sheets, and lenses in muds; cements in sand and ash layers) can be explained by a requirement to minimize the excess of mechanical and surface energy in the system.

  11. Isotopic constraints on the role of hypohalous acids in sulfate aerosol formation in the remote marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qianjie; Geng, Lei; Schmidt, Johan A.; Xie, Zhouqing; Kang, Hui; Dachs, Jordi; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Schauer, Andrew J.; Camp, Madeline G.; Alexander, Becky

    2016-09-01

    Sulfate is an important component of global atmospheric aerosol, and has partially compensated for greenhouse gas-induced warming during the industrial period. The magnitude of direct and indirect radiative forcing of aerosols since preindustrial times is a large uncertainty in climate models, which has been attributed largely to uncertainties in the preindustrial environment. Here, we report observations of the oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O) of sulfate aerosol collected in the remote marine boundary layer (MBL) in spring and summer in order to evaluate sulfate production mechanisms in pristine-like environments. Model-aided analysis of the observations suggests that 33-50 % of sulfate in the MBL is formed via oxidation by hypohalous acids (HOX = HOBr + HOCl), a production mechanism typically excluded in large-scale models due to uncertainties in the reaction rates, which are due mainly to uncertainties in reactive halogen concentrations. Based on the estimated fraction of sulfate formed via HOX oxidation, we further estimate that daily-averaged HOX mixing ratios on the order of 0.01-0.1 parts per trillion (ppt = pmol/mol) in the remote MBL during spring and summer are sufficient to explain the observations.

  12. Iron snow dynamo models for Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Ulrich R.

    2015-02-01

    Ganymede's internal magnetic field is dominated by the axial dipole. The measurements by the Galileo spacecraft only place an upper limit on the quadrupole moment. Ganymede's magnetic field has the lowest ratio of quadrupole power to dipole power for all known planetary dynamos, not only at the planetary surface but possibly also at the top of the dynamo region. The dynamo operates in a fluid iron core that probably contains a significant amount of sulfur. Crystallization of the core will then proceed from the top by formation of iron snow in a layer that develops a stable compositional gradient. Remelting of the snow at the bottom of this layer enriches the underlying fluid in iron and drives compositional convection. Here we explore the consequences for the dynamo process of this scenario by numerical modeling. Convection is driven by an imposed buoyancy flux at the top of a convecting core region that is surrounded by a conducting fluid shell with a strongly stabilizing density gradient. Only horizontal flow is allowed in the outer shell. It is shown that this is a valid approximation in the case where the stabilizing density contrast in the upper shell exceeds by far the unstable density contrast in the convecting region. We vary the basic control parameters, concentrating on the regime where the magnetic field is dominantly dipolar. Compared to reference cases without an extra layer above the dynamo, we find that a stable fluid conducting layer with a thickness of 100 km or larger reduces the ratio of quadrupole power R2 to dipole power R1 by a factor of at least four. With a stable outer layer R2 /R1 is compatible with the Galileo observations for all tested dipolar models, whereas in the absence of such layer R2 /R1 is too large or at best marginally compatible. For plausible values of the buoyancy flux the models reproduce Ganymede's observed dipole moment. A stable layer that is comparable in thickness to the unstable region is found to promote a

  13. Obscuration By Helicopter-Produced Snow Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, John F.

    1983-02-01

    Measurement data from a helicopter snow obscuration field test conducted at the SNOW ONE-A test at Camp Ethan Allen, Vermont, are discussed relative to temporal and spatial effects of helicopter-downwash-produced snow clouds on visible and infrared transmission. Two tests were conducted-one on December 15, 1981 and one on December 17, 1981. Intervening between these two dates was a snowstorm which left approximately 20 cm of new snow on the ground. During each test a helicopter performed several different flight patterns including hovering at fixed altitude, landing, rapid and slow descent, and forward motion flights, both perpendicular and parallel to the transmissometer line of sight. Application of the multispectral and temporal data for understanding transmission through helicopter-produced snow clouds is discussed. Also reported on briefly in this paper is the phenomenon of helicopter contrast enhancement resulting from obscuration of the (dark) background by the blowing snow cloud.

  14. Fragmentation of wind-blown snow crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comola, Francesco; Kok, Jasper F.; Gaume, Johan; Paterna, Enrico; Lehning, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the dynamics driving the transformation of snowfall crystals into blowing snow particles is critical to correctly account for the energy and mass balances in polar and alpine regions. Here we propose a fragmentation theory of fractal snow crystals that explicitly links the size distribution of blowing snow particles to that of falling snow crystals. We use discrete element modeling of the fragmentation process to support the assumptions made in our theory. By combining this fragmentation model with a statistical mechanics model of blowing snow, we are able to reproduce the characteristic features of blowing snow size distributions measured in the field and in a wind tunnel. In particular, both model and measurements show the emergence of a self-similar scaling for large particle sizes and a systematic deviation from this scaling for small particle sizes.

  15. Snow Depth Depicted on Mt. Lyell by NASA Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-02

    A natural color image of Mt. Lyell, the highest point in the Tuolumne River Basin top image is compared with a three-dimensional color composite image of Mt. Lyell from NASA Airborne Snow Observatory depicting snow depth bottom image.

  16. Simulation of the melt season using a resolved sea ice model with snow cover and melt ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyllingstad, Eric D.; Shell, Karen M.; Collins, Lee; Polashenski, Chris

    2015-07-01

    A three-dimensional sea ice model is presented with resolved snow thickness variations and melt ponds. The model calculates heating from solar radiative transfer and simulates the formation and movement of brine/melt water through the ice system. Initialization for the model is based on observations of snow topography made during the summer melt seasons of 2009, 2010, and 2012 from a location off the coast of Barrow, AK. Experiments are conducted to examine the importance of snow properties and snow and ice thickness by comparing observed and modeled pond fraction and albedo. One key process simulated by the model is the formation of frozen layers in the ice as relatively warm fresh water grid cells freeze when cooled by adjacent, cold brine-filled grid cells. These layers prevent vertical drainage and lead to flooding of melt water commonly observed at the beginning of the melt season. Flooding persists until enough heat is absorbed to melt through the frozen layer. The resulting long-term melt pond coverage is sensitive to both the spatial variability of snow cover and the minimum snow depth. For thin snow cover, initial melting results in earlier, reduced flooding with a small change in pond fraction after drainage of the melt water. Deeper snow tends to generate a delayed, larger peak pond fraction before drainage.

  17. Parsimonious snow model explains reindeer population dynamics and ranging behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.; Aanes, R.; Hansen, B. B.; Loe, L.; Severinsen, T.; Stien, A.

    2008-12-01

    Winter snow is a key factor affecting polar ecosystems. One example is the strong negative correlation of winter precipitation with fluctuations in population in some high-arctic animal populations. Ice layers within and at the base of the snowpack have particularly deleterious effects on such populations. Svalbard reindeer have small home ranges and are vulnerable to local "locked pasture" events due to ground-ice formation. When pastures are locked, reindeer are faced with the decision of staying, living off a diminishing fat store, or trying to escape beyond the unknown spatial borders of the ice. Both strategies may inhibit reproduction and increase mortality, leading to population declines. Here we assess the impact of winter snow and ice on the population dynamics of an isolated herd of Svalbard reindeer near Ny-Ålesund, monitored annually since 1978, with a retrospective analysis of the winter snowpack. Because there are no long-term observational records of snow or snow properties, such as ice layers, we must recourse to snowpack modeling. A parsimonious model of snow and ground-ice thickness is driven with daily temperature and precipitation data collected at a nearby weather station. The model uses the degree-day concept and has three adjustable parameters which are tuned to correlate model snow and ground-ice thicknesses to the limited observations available: April snow accumulation measurements on two local glaciers, and a limited number of ground-ice observations made in recent years. Parameter values used are comparable to those reported elsewhere. We find that modeled mean winter ground-ice thickness explains a significant percentage of the observed variance in reindeer population growth rate. Adding other explanatory parameters, such as modeled mean winter snowpack thickness or previous years' population size does not significanly improve the relation. Furthermore, positioning data from a small subset of reindeer show that model icing events are

  18. Evaluating snow models for hydrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, T.; Magnusson, J.; Wever, N.; Essery, R.; Helbig, N.

    2014-12-01

    Much effort has been invested in developing snow models over several decades, resulting in a wide variety of empirical and physically-based snow models. Within the two categories, models are built on the same principles but mainly differ in choices of model simplifications and parameterizations describing individual processes. In this study, we demonstrate an informative method for evaluating a large range of snow model structures for hydrological applications using an existing multi-model energy-balance framework and data from two well-instrumented sites with a seasonal snow cover. We also include two temperature-index snow models and one physically-based multi-layer snow model in our analyses. Our results show that the ability of models to predict snowpack runoff is strongly related to the agreement of observed and modelled snow water equivalent whereas such relationship is not present for snow depth or snow surface temperature measurements. For snow water equivalent and runoff, the models seem transferable between our two study sites, a behaviour which is not observed for snow surface temperature predictions due to site-specificity of turbulent heat transfer formulations. Uncertainties in the input and validation data, rather than model formulation, appear to contribute most to low model performances in some winters. More importantly, we find that model complexity is not a determinant for predicting daily snow water equivalent and runoff reliably, but choosing an appropriate model structure is. Our study shows the usefulness of the multi-model framework for identifying appropriate models under given constraints such as data availability, properties of interest and computational cost.

  19. Some Optical Properties of Blowing Snow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    1956, " Etudes de Glaclologle en Terre Adelie," Expeditions Polaires Francaises, Paris 5W. F. Budd, W. R. J. Oingle, and U. Radok, 1966, "The Byrd Snow...Snow Transport," Voprosy ispol’zovaniya snega, Institut Geografii Akademii Nauk SSSR, 106-119. ’H. Lister, 1960, "Glaciology I Solid Precipitation...1960, "Glaciology I Solid Precipitation and Drift Snow," T.A.E. Scientific Report No. 5, Trans-Antarctic Expedition Committee, London 13 9- where B

  20. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a brief summary of the utility of a wideband active and passive (radar and radiometer, respectively) instrument (8-40 GHz) to support the snow science community. The effort seeks to improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors and to demonstrate their science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE). In addition the effort seeks to advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  1. Improving Snow Roads and Airstrips in Antarctica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    in Antarctica Sung M. Lee, Wilbur M. Haas, Robert L. Brown and Albert F. Wuori -LECTE ALIG2 2 1989 Prepared for DIVISION OF POLAR PROGRAMS NATIONAL...Snow Roads and Airstrips in Antarctica 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lee, Sung M., Haas, Wilbur M., Brown, Robert L. and Wuori, Albert F. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT...identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Aircraft skiway Snow roads Antarctica Snow runways 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and

  2. Erosion and entrainment of snow and ice by pyroclastic density currents: some outstanding questions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walder, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    a hot grain flow over snow, although improperly scaled for investigating erosive processes, does demonstrate that snow hydrology and snowpack stability may be critical in the transformation of pyroclastic density currents to lahars. When such an experiment is run in a sloping flume, with meltwater able to drain freely at the base of the snow layer, the hot grain flow spreads over the snow surface and then comes to rest--no slurry is produced. In contrast, if meltwater drainage is blocked, the wet snow layer fails at its bed, mobilizes as a slush flow, and mixes with the hot grains to form a slurry. Ice layers within a natural snowpack would likewise block meltwater drainage and be conducive to the formation of slush flows. Abrasion and particle impacts—processes that have been studied intensively by engineers concerned with the wear of surfaces in machinery—probably play an important role in the erosion of glacier ice by pyroclastic density currents. A prime example may be the summit ice cap of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, which was left grooved by the eruption of 1985 (Thouret, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., v. 41, 1990). Erosion of glacier ice is also strongly controlled by the orientation of crevasses, which can “capture” pyroclastic currents. This phenomenon was well displayed at Mount Redoubt, Alaska during the eruptions of 1989-90 and 2009.

  3. Brief communication "Snow profile associated measurements (SPAM) - a new instrument for quick snow profile measurements"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, P.

    2011-06-01

    A new instrument concept (SPAM) for snow profile associated measurements is presented. The potential of the concept is demonstrated by presenting preliminary results obtained with the prototype instrument. With this concept it is possible to retrieve rapid snow profiles of e.g. light extinction, reflectance, temperature and snow layer structure with high vertical resolution. As a side-product, also snow depth is retrieved.

  4. New nitrogen uptake strategy: specialized snow roots.

    PubMed

    Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Makarov, Mikhail I; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Ivanov, Viktor B; Akhmetzhanova, Assem A; Tekeev, Dzhamal K; Ermak, Anton A; Salpagarova, Fatima S; Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2009-08-01

    The evolution of plants has yielded a wealth of adaptations for the acquisition of key mineral nutrients. These include the structure, physiology and positioning of root systems. We report the discovery of specialized snow roots as a plant strategy to cope with the very short season for nutrient uptake and growth in alpine snow-beds, i.e. patches in the landscape that remain snow-covered well into the summer. We provide anatomical, chemical and experimental (15)N isotope tracking evidence that the Caucasian snow-bed plant Corydalis conorhiza forms extensive networks of specialized above-ground roots, which grow against gravity to acquire nitrogen directly from within snow packs. Snow roots capture nitrogen that would otherwise partly run off down-slope over a frozen surface, thereby helping to nourish these alpine ecosystems. Climate warming is changing and will change mountain snow regimes, while large-scale anthropogenic N deposition has increased snow N contents. These global changes are likely to impact on the distribution, abundance and functional significance of snow roots.

  5. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Tim; Speed, Kerry; Lange, Robert; Olsen, Art; Smith, Brett; Taylor, Robert; Schmidt, Mark; hide

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses current efforts to develop a Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM). The objective of the effort are as follows: to advance the utility of a wideband active and passive instrument (8-40 gigahertz) to support the snow science community; improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors; demonstrate science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE); and advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  6. Microwave emission from dry and wet snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, T. C.; Gloersen, P.

    1975-01-01

    A microscopic model was developed to study the microwave emission from snow. In this model, the individual snow particles are considered to be the scattering centers. Mie scattering theory for spherical particles is then used to compute the volume scattering and extinction coefficients of the closely packed scattering spheres, which are assumed not to interact coherently. The results of the computations show significant volume scattering effects in the microwave region which result in low observed emissivities from cold, dry snow. In the case of wet snow, the microwave emissivities are increased considerably, in agreement with earlier experimental observations in which the brightness temperatures have increased significantly at the onset of melting.

  7. Interannual turbulence variability with seasonal snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, M.; Weijs, S. V.; Higgins, C. W.; Lehning, M.; Parlange, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Wind plays a crucial role in the spatial variability of snow in the mountains. It dictates where the snow is deposited, accumulated and eroded. To better understand the interactions between the snow and the wind field an experiment was deployed in the upper Val Ferret (Switzerland) during the winter 2011-2012. Poles and automated cameras were used to monitor the depth of the snowpack at various points around a small hill. A 10 meters meteorological tower with four sonic anemometers was deployed to obtain turbulence measurements data and regular snow profiles were undertaken. We present first results of this field campaign. The impact of the land surface on the wind characteristics is studied. These results suggest that the presence of snow at the land surface reduces the wind turbulent kinetic energy. The variability of snow from the windward to the lee side of the hill is as also presented. At our field site, the classic expected snow structures have been created by the wind. A large accumulation can be observed on the lee side of the hill, whereas the top is eroded and results in a snow depth twice smaller than the one in the accumulation area. The snowcover at the top of the hill is much more compact and typically melted slower than the snow in the accumulation zone.

  8. Approximating snow surface temperature from standard temperature and humidity data: new possibilities for snow model and remote sensing validation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raleigh, M. S.; Landry, C.; Hayashi, M.; Quinton, W. L.; Lundquist, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The snow surface skin temperature (Ts) is important in the snowmelt energy balance, land-atmosphere interactions, weak layer formation (avalanche risk), and winter recreation, but is rarely measured at observational networks. Reliable Ts datasets are needed to validate remote sensing and distributed modeling, in order to represent land-atmosphere feedbacks. Previous research demonstrated that the dew point temperature (Td) close to the snow surface approximates Ts well because air is saturated immediately above snow. However, standard height (2 to 4 m) measurements of the saturation temperatures, Td and wet-bulb temperature (Tw), are much more readily available than measurements of Ts or near-surface Td. There is limited understanding of how these standard height variables approximate Ts, and how the approximations vary with climate, seasonality, time of day, and atmospheric conditions (stability and radiation). We used sub-daily measurements from seven sites in varying snow climates and environments to test Ts approximations with standard height temperature and moisture. Td produced the lowest bias (-2.2 °C to +2.6 °C) and root mean squared error (RMSE) when approximating mean daily Ts, but tended to underestimate daily extremes in Ts. For comparison, air temperature (Ta) was biased +3.2 °C to +6.8 °C. Ts biases increased with increasing frequency in nighttime stability and daytime clear sky conditions. We illustrate that mean daily Td can be used to detect systematic input data bias in physically-based snowmelt modeling, a useful tool when validating spatially distributed snow models in data sparse regions. Thus, improved understanding of Td variations can advance understanding of Ts in space and time, providing a simple yet robust measure of surface feedback to the atmospheric energy budget.

  9. Rockfall and snow avalanche impacts leave different anatomical signatures in tree rings of juvenile Larix decidua.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, Markus; Hitz, Oliver M

    2008-11-01

    Rockfall and snow avalanche events often cause injury to European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) trees, giving rise to the formation of callus tissue and tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs). We analyzed and quantified anatomical reactions of juvenile trees injured before the start of the growing season by snow avalanches (15 trees, 324 cross sections) or rockfalls (18 trees, 270 cross sections). Traumatic resin ducts were observed in the growth ring formed following injury in 94.3% of the rockfall samples and 87.3% of the snow avalanche samples. Traumatic resin ducts were formed at the beginning of the new annual ring around wounds caused by rockfalls. In contrast, in trees injured by snow avalanches, TRDs were not formed until after the formation of several rows of early earlywood (EE) tracheids (mean +/- SD = 4.19 +/- 2.56 rows). The dimensions of the EE tracheids observed in the snow avalanche samples were greatly reduced in the tissues bordering the wound, with radial width reaching an average of only 50% and lumen cross-sectional area an average of only 46% of pre-event values. It is therefore possible to differentiate injuries due to past snow avalanches from injuries due to rockfall based on anatomical growth reactions in the tissues bordering scars.

  10. Modeling of falling snow properties for snowpack models: towards a better link between falling snow and snow on the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vionnet, Vincent; Milbrandt, Jason; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Morrison, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Falling snow is made of different types of solid hydrometeors including single ice crystals, aggregates at different riming stages and graupel. This variability results from complex in-cloud processes (deposition, riming and aggregation) and sub-cloud processes (melting and sublimation). It has consequences for the properties of fresh fallen snow accumulating on the ground including density and specific surface area (SSA). These properties strongly affect the evolution of snow on the ground by modifying for example the albedo and the thermal conductivity. Detailed snowpack models such as Crocus or SNOWPACK use near-surface wind speed, air temperature and humidity to compute the density and SSA of falling snow. The shape, size and degree of riming of falling solid hydrometeors are not directly taken into account, which limit the accurate determination of properties of fresh fallen snow. An alternative is offered by new bulk cloud microphysics schemes implemented in numerical weather prediction system that can be used to drive snowpack model. In particular, the scheme P3 (Predicted Particle Properties) proposes an innovative representation of all ice-phase particles by predicting several physical properties (e.g. size, rime fraction, rime density …). In this study, we first theoretically analyze the strengths and limitations of P3 to represent the density and SSA of falling snow. Parameterizations are then proposed to derive density and SSA from P3 output. Finally, P3 implemented in the Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) weather prediction model is used to simulate snowfall events observed at the Falling Snow Observatory (Nagoaka, Japan). Model predictions are compared with (i) observations of the type of falling snow particles derived from disdrometer data and (ii) manual measurements of fresh fallen snow density and SSA. This study is a first step towards the development of a more integrated approach between falling snow and snow on the ground.

  11. Tool and Method for Testing the Resistance of the Snow Road Cover to Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelykevich, R.; Lysyannikov, A.; Kaiser, Yu; Serebrenikova, Yu; Lysyannikova, N.; Shram, V.; Kravtsova, Ye; Plakhotnikova, M.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the design of the tool for efficient determination of the hardness of the snow road coating. The tool increases vertical positioning of the rod with the tip through replacement of the rod slide friction of the ball element by roll friction of its outer bearing race in order to enhance the accuracy of determining the hardness of the snow-ice road covering. A special feature of the tool consists in possibility of creating different impact energy by the change of the lifting height of the rod with the tip (indenter) and the exchangeable load mass. This allows the study of the influence of the tip shape and the impact energy on the snow strength parameters in a wide range, extends the scope of application of the durometer and makes possible to determine the strength of snow-ice formations by indenters with various geometrical parameters depending on climatic conditions.

  12. Subpixel Snow-Covered-Area and Snow Grain Size From Mixture Analysis with AVIRIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green Robert O.; Painter, Thomas H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Dozier, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Snow-covered-area (SCA) and snow grain size are crucial inputs to hydrologic and climatologic modeling of alpine and other seasonally snow-covered regions. SCA is necessary to parameterize energy budget calculations in climate models, to determine in which regions point snowmelt models are to be run for distributed snowmelt modeling efforts and to provide a basis from which estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) may be made. Snow grain size, SWE and snow impurities determine the spectral albedo of snow, which controls the net solar flux at the snowpack surface. Snow albedo is of the utmost importance in snowmelt modeling, yet the difficulty with which grain size, SWE, and impurities are mapped has left the spatial distribution of snow albedo in alpine catchments poorly understood. The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been used to estimate sub-pixel snow-covered-area and snow grain size independently. In this paper we present a technique which improves estimates of both snow parameters by treating their mapping simultaneously.

  13. The Morphology of Polar Snow Surfaces: A Race Between Time and Snow Grain Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filhol, S. V. P.; Sturm, M.

    2014-12-01

    Polar snow surfaces are rough, composed of multiple forms shaped by the interaction of snow grains and the wind. Based on the literature and new three-dimensional laser scanning data acquired in the Alaskan Arctic, we revisited the existing classifications of snow forms, and suggest a new genetic classification. Next we compared the morphology of aeolian snow features to analogous sand features, and then investigated the processes responsible for the differences. Although previous studies have suggested close similitudes between sand and snow features (barchan dunes, transverse dunes, etc.), we find significant differences, including: 1) snow features are smaller by a factor of a 100, 2) snow dunes are flatter, 3) snow dunes move four orders of magnitude faster than sand dunes, and 4) sand dunes last millennia, while snow dunes are by and large ephemeral. Coupling equations for dune age, propagation speed, snow flux, and wind speed, we find that the lower density of snow grains vs. sand (which should produce a higher flux) is balanced by sintering, which serves as a countdown timer, eventually bonding grains together, reducing material fluxes, and thereby limiting the growth and age of snow dunes.

  14. Operational snow mapping with simplified data assimilation using the seNorge snow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloranta, Tuomo M.

    2016-07-01

    Frequently updated maps of snow conditions are useful for many applications, e.g., for avalanche and flood forecasting services, hydropower energy situation analysis, as well as for the general public. Numerical snow models are often applied in snow map production for operational hydrological services. However, inaccuracies in the simulated snow maps due to model uncertainties and the lack of suitable data assimilation techniques to correct them in near-real time may often reduce the usefulness of the snow maps in operational use. In this paper the revised seNorge snow model (v.1.1.1) for snow mapping is described, and a simplified data assimilation procedure is introduced to correct detected snow model biases in near real-time. The data assimilation procedure is theoretically based on the Bayesian updating paradigm and is meant to be pragmatic with modest computational and input data requirements. Moreover, it is flexible and can utilize both point-based snow depth and satellite-based areal snow-covered area observations, which are generally the most common data-sources of snow observations. The model and analysis codes as well as the "R" statistical software are freely available. All these features should help to lower the challenges and hurdles hampering the application of data-assimilation techniques in operational hydrological modeling. The steps of the data assimilation procedure (evaluation, sensitivity analysis, optimization) and their contribution to significantly increased accuracy of the snow maps are demonstrated with a case from eastern Norway in winter 2013/2014.

  15. Isotopic composition and speciation of sulfur in the Miocene Monterey Formation: Reevaluation of sulfur reactions during early diagenesis in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaback, Doreen A.; Pratt, Lisa M.

    1992-02-01

    The timing and pathways of early diagenetic sulfur transfer from dissolved species in pore waters to solid inorganic and organic compounds in sediments have been studied in the Miocene Monterey Formation, Santa Maria Basin (onshore), California. Correlation between concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur (TS), in addition to concentrations of titanium, aluminum, total iron, and reactive iron, have been used to infer organic matter reactivity, redox conditions, and relative rates of clastic and biogenic input for each lithofacies. Isotopic compositions of six sulfur species (acid-volatile, disulfide, kerogen, bitumen, sulfate and elemental) have provided information regarding relative timing of sulfur incorporation, sulfate diffusivity in the upper centimeters of the sediments, and the sources of sulfur for individual species. Isotopically, the disulfide species expresses the greatest fractionation relative to estimated values of Miocene seawater sulfate (~ +22‰ CDT). On average, disulfide is depleted in 34S by 10.4%. relative to kerogen and by 9.9‰ relative to acid-volatile sulfide. The δ 34S of bitumen shows no systematic change relative to δ 34S keregon, suggesting the presence of migrated bitumen. Isotopic similarity of sulfate and elemental sulfur to sulfides and bitumen indicates that sulfate and elemental sulfur are chemical and/or biological oxidation products derived from sulfides and bitumen. Consistent ordering of isotopic values for sulfur species (disulfide < acid-volatile sulfide ≤ kerogen) indicates that pyrite precipitated nearest to the sediment-water interface under mildly reducing conditions and with little or no decrease in sulfate concentration relative to seawater. Enrichment of 34S in acid-volatile sulfide and kerogen sulfur resulted from formation of these species at greater depths or in restricted micro-environments under more reducing conditions and with low concentrations of porewater sulfate. The formation of

  16. Authigenic molybdenum formation in marine sediments: A link to pore water sulfide in the Santa Barbara Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Yen; Anderson, Robert F.; VanGeen, A.; Kuwabara, J.

    2000-01-01

    Pore water and sediment Mo concentrations were measured in a suite of multicores collected at four sites along the northeastern flank of the Santa Barbara Basin to examine the connection between authigenic Mo formation and pore water sulfide concentration. Only at the deepest site (580 m), where pore water sulfide concentrations rise to >0.1 ??M right below the sediment water interface, was there active authigenic Mo formation. At shallower sites (550,430, and 340 m), where pore water sulfide concentrations were consistently <0.05 ??M, Mo precipitation was not occuring at the time of sampling. A sulfide concentration of ???0.1 ??M appears to be a threshold for the onset of Mo-Fe-S co-precipitation. A second threshold sulfide concentration of ???100 ??M is required for Mo precipitation without Fe, possibly as Mo-S or as particle-bound Mo. Mass budgets for Mo were constructed by combining pore water and sediment results for Mo with analyses of sediment trap material from Santa Barbara Basin as well as sediment accumulation rates derived from 210Pb. The calculations show that most of the authigenic Mo in the sediment at the deepest site is supplied by diffusion from overlying bottom waters. There is, however, a non-lithogenic particulate Mo associated with sinking particles that contributes ???15% to the total authigenic Mo accumulation. Analysis of sediment trap samples and supernant brine solutions indicates the presence of non-lithogenic particulate Mo, a large fraction of which is easily remobilized and, perhaps, associated with Mn-oxides. Our observations show that even with the very high flux of organic carbon reaching the sediment of Santa Barbara Basin, active formation of sedimentary authigenic Mo requires a bottom water oxygen concentration below 3 ??M. However, small but measurable rates of authigenic Mo accumulation were observed at sites where bottom water oxygen ranged between 5 and 23 ??M, indicating that the formation of authigenic Mo occured in the

  17. Use of low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to compare and characterize three classes of snow cover.

    PubMed

    Foster, James; Kelly, Richard; Rango, Albert; Armstrong, Richard; Erbe, Eric F; Pooley, Christopher; Wergin, William P

    2006-01-01

    This study, which uses low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM), systematically sampled and characterized snow crystals that were collected from three unique classes of snow cover: prairie, taiga, and alpine. These classes, which were defined in previous field studies, result from exposure to unique climatic variables relating to wind, precipitation, and air temperature. Snow samples were taken at 10 cm depth intervals from the walls of freshly excavated snow pits. The depth of the snow pits for the prairie, taiga, and alpine covers were 28, 81, and 110 cm, respectively. Visual examination revealed that the prairie snow cover consisted of two distinct layers whereas the taiga and alpine covers had four distinct layers. Visual measurements were able to establish the range of crystal sizes that occurred in each layer, the temperature within the pit, and the snow density. The LTSEM observations revealed the detailed structures of the types of crystals that occurred in the snow covers, and documented the metamorphosis that transpired in the descending layers. Briefly, the top layers from two of the snow covers consisted of freshly fallen snow crystals that could be readily distinguished as plates and columns (prairie) or graupel (taiga). Alternatively, the top layer in the alpine cover consisted of older dendritic crystal fragments that had undergone early metamorphosis, that is, they had lost their sharp edges and had begun to show signs of joining or bonding with neighboring crystals. A unique layer, known as sun crust, was found in the prairie snow cover; however, successive samplings from all three snow covers showed similar stages of metamorphism that led to the formation of depth hoar crystals. These changes included the gradual development of large, three-dimensional crystals having clearly defined flat faces, sharp edges, internal depressions, and facets. The study, which indicates that LTSEM can be used to enhance visual data by systematically

  18. Invertebrate Paleontology of the Wilson Grove Formation (Late Miocene to Late Pliocene), Sonoma and Marin Counties, California, with some Observations on Its Stratigraphy, Thickness, and Structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Allen, James R.; Holland, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    The Wilson Grove Formation is exposed from Petaluma north to northern Santa Rosa, and from Bennett Valley west to Bodega Bay. A fauna of at least 107 invertebrate taxa consisting of two brachiopods, 95 mollusks (48 bivalves and 46 gastropods), at least eight arthropods, and at least two echinoids have been collected, ranging in age from late Miocene to late Pliocene. Rocks and fossils from the southwest part of the outcrop area, along the Estero de San Antonio, were deposited in a deep-water marine environment. At Meacham Hill, near the Stony Point Rock Quarry, and along the northern margin of the outcrop area at River Road and Wilson Grove, the Wilson Grove Formation was deposited in shallow marine to continental environments. At Meacham Hill, these shallow water deposits represent a brackish bay to continental environment, whereas at River Road and Wilson Grove, fossils suggest normal, euhaline (normal marine salinity) conditions. A few taxa from the River Road area suggest water temperatures slightly warmer than along the adjacent coast today because their modern ranges do not extend as far north in latitude as River Road. In addition, fossil collections from along River Road contain the bivalve mollusks Macoma addicotti (Nikas) and Nuttallia jamesii Roth and Naidu, both of which are restricted to the late Pliocene. The late Miocene Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992) also crops out northeast of the River Road area and underlies the late Pliocene section at Wilson Grove by almost 300 m. Outcrops in the central part of the region are older than those to the northeast, and presumably younger than deposits to the southwest. The Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992) occurs at Steinbeck Ranch in the central portion of the outcrop area. At Spring Hill, also in the central part of the outcrop area, the sanddollar Scutellaster sp., cf. S. oregonensis (Clark) has been recently collected. This species, questionably identified here, is restricted to the late Miocene from

  19. Carbonate Geochemistry of Marine Authigenic Carbonates and Host Sediments: Exploring Mineral Formation Pathways and Organic Preservation Potential in Modern Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnoff, M. N.; Loyd, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Ancient authigenic dolomites (e.g., concretions) have been long studied in order to determine formation conditions and provide insight into shallow diagenetic environments. The formation of these dolomites is commonly attributed to the anaerobic microbial degradation of organic matter (a process that can increase the local pore water alkalinity), based on carbon isotope as well as other geochemical data. Authigenic dolomites also occur in modern, "still soft" sediments rich in organic matter. However, a comprehensive carbon isotopic characterization of these precipitates has yet to be conducted. Preliminary data show a wide range of δ13C values (about -11 to +12‰). Positive values that typify dolomites of the Gulf of California and the southwestern African margin indicate methanogenesis. Dolomites of the Peru margin and Cariaco Basin yield negative values that may represent a variety of organic matter degradation mechanisms. Regardless of specific mechanisms, organic matter degradation can promote authigenesis. Ultimately, mineralization encases primary sedimentary components and may act to preserve organic matter from subsequent degradation due to permeability reduction resulting from cementation. Concretionary carbonates have been found to preserve macro and micro fossils, metastable sedimentary grains, magnetic minerals, sedimentary structures, various specific organic compounds, and overmature organic matter exposed in outcrop. However, a similar protective relationship has not been demonstrated for disseminated, bulk organic matter in still-soft sediments. The study of these sediments 1) reveal the relationship between organic carbon degradation and authigenesis and 2) may provide insight into the potential of cementation to preserve organic matter during subsequent burial.

  20. Formation evaluation of gas hydrate-bearing marine sediments on the Blake Ridge with downhole geochemical log measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Wendlandt, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The analyses of downhole log data from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) boreholes on the Blake Ridge at Sites 994, 995, and 997 indicate that the Schlumberger geochemical logging tool (GLT) may yield useful gas hydrate reservoir data. In neutron spectroscopy downhole logging, each element has a characteristic gamma ray that is emitted from a given neutron-element interaction. Specific elements can be identified by their characteristic gamma-ray signature, with the intensity of emission related to the atomic elemental concentration. By combining elemental yields from neutron spectroscopy logs, reservoir parameters including porosities, lithologies, formation fluid salinities, and hydrocarbon saturations (including gas hydrate) can be calculated. Carbon and oxygen elemental data from the GLT was used to determine gas hydrate saturations at all three sites (Sites 994, 995, and 997) drilled on the Blake Ridge during Leg 164. Detailed analyses of the carbon and oxygen content of various sediments and formation fluids were used to construct specialized carbon/oxygen ratio (COR) fan charts for a series of hypothetical gas hydrate accumulations. For more complex geologic systems, a modified version of the standard three-component COR hydrocarbon saturation equation was developed and used to calculate gas hydrate saturations on the Blake Ridge. The COR-calculated gas hydrate saturations (ranging from about 2% to 14% bulk volume gas hydrate) from the Blake Ridge compare favorably to the gas hydrate saturations derived from electrical resistivity log measurements.

  1. Marine petroleum source rocks and reservoir rocks of the Miocene Monterey Formation, California, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaacs, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Miocene Monterey Formation of California, a biogenous deposit derived mainly from diatom debris, is important both as a petroleum source and petroleum reservoir. As a source, the formation is thought to have generated much of the petroleum in California coastal basins, which are among the most prolific oil provinces in the United States. Oil generated from the Monterey tends to be sulfur-rich and heavy (<20° API), and has chemical characteristics that more closely resemble immature source extracts than "normal" oil. Thermal-maturity indicators in Monterey kerogens appear to behave anomalously, and several lines of evidence indicate that the oil is generated at lower than expected levels of organic metamorphism. As a reservoir, the Monterey is important due both to conventional production from permeable sandstone beds and to fracture production from fine-grained rocks with low matrix permeability. Fractured reservoirs are difficult to identify, and conventional well-log analysis has not proven to be very useful in exploring for and evaluating these reservoirs. Lithologically similar rocks are broadly distributed throughout the Circum-Pacific region, but their petroleum potential is unlikely to be realized without recognition of the distinctive source and reservoir characteristics of diatomaceous strata and their diagenetic equivalents.

  2. Weekly LiDAR snow depth mapping for operational snow hydrology - the NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.; McGurk, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Operational hydrologic simulation and forecasting in snowmelt-dominated watersheds currently relies on indices of snow accumulation and melt from measurements at a small number of point locations or geographically-limited manual surveys. These data sources cannot adequately characterize the spatial distribution of snow depth/water equivalent, which is the primary determinant of snowpack volume and runoff rates. The NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory's airborne laser scanning system maps snow depth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, providing an unprecedented snowpack monitoring capability and enabling a new operational paradigm. In the Spring of 2013, the ASO mapped snow depth in the Tuolumne River Basin in California's Yosemite National Park on a nominally weekly basis, and provided fast-turnaround spatial snow depth and water equivalent maps to the operators of Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, the water supply for 2.5 million people on the San Francisco peninsula. These products enabled more accurate runoff simulation and optimal reservoir management in a year of very low snow accumulation. We present the initial results from this new application of multi-temporal LiDAR mapping in operational snow hydrology.

  3. Digging in 'Snow White' Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 44th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 43 (July 7, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing, showing the current sample scraping area in the trench informally called 'Snow White.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Compressibility Characteristics of Compacted Snow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    Cornpressibility characteristics 7Jj i C’p of compacted snowifAG2� 004 t Cover: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a - Thn***o htgrp fpoyrsaliekAmgife i ote rm...nwcmrse to7 asa 10 Phtgahb nhn Gow1 CRREL Report 76-21 Compressibility characteristics of compacted snow %i" Gunars Abele and Anthony J. Cow I ~ June 1976 A ...c , I fu. A AD,:j ly M3rs CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERZ]NG LABORATORY HANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE Approved for public

  5. Microbes influence the biogeochemical and optical properties of maritime Antarctic snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, A. J.; Nowak, A.; Cook, J.; Sabacka, M.; Wharfe, E. S.; Pearce, D. A.; Convey, P.; Vieira, G.

    2017-06-01

    Snowmelt in the Antarctic Peninsula region has increased significantly in recent decades, leading to greater liquid water availability across a more expansive area. As a consequence, changes in the biological activity within wet Antarctic snow require consideration if we are to better understand terrestrial carbon cycling on Earth's coldest continent. This paper therefore examines the relationship between microbial communities and the chemical and physical environment of wet snow habitats on Livingston Island of the maritime Antarctic. In so doing, we reveal a strong reduction in bacterial diversity and autotrophic biomass within a short (<1 km) distance from the coast. Coastal snowpacks, fertilized by greater amounts of nutrients from rock debris and marine fauna, develop obvious, pigmented snow algal communities that control the absorption of visible light to a far greater extent than with the inland glacial snowpacks. Absorption by carotenoid pigments is most influential at the surface, while chlorophyll is most influential beneath it. The coastal snowpacks also indicate higher concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon and CO2 in interstitial air, as well as a close relationship between chlorophyll and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). As a consequence, the DOC resource available in coastal snow can support a more diverse bacterial community that includes microorganisms from a range of nearby terrestrial and marine habitats. Therefore, since further expansion of the melt zone will influence glacial snowpacks more than coastal ones, care must be taken when considering the types of communities that may be expected to evolve there.

  6. Fe isotope fractionation during Fe(II) oxidation by the marine photoferrotroph Rhodovulum iodosum in the presence of Si - Implications for Precambrian iron formation deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenfang; Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.; Schoenberg, Ronny; Pan, Yongxin; Kappler, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    The iron (Fe) isotopic composition of Precambrian iron formations (IFs), besides providing geological context through its mineralogical properties, was suggested to function as a biosignature that can be used to infer a potential microbial role in the formation of the deposited Fe minerals. Anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (photoferrotrophs), capable of oxidizing Fe(II) anoxically using light energy, were potentially involved in Fe(II) oxidation in anoxic or suboxic Precambrian oceans. The effect of Si on Fe isotopic fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe-Si-co-precipitates has been investigated before. However, it is currently unknown how stable Fe isotopes are fractionated during enzymatic Fe(II) oxidation under marine hydrogeochemical conditions, and particularly how the presence of Si affects the Fe isotope composition and the isotopic exchange among different Fe phases. We therefore studied Fe isotope fractionation during Fe(II) oxidation by the marine photoferrotroph Rhodovulum iodosum in simulated Precambrian seawater amended with 1 mM dissolved Si. Our results show that the change in the Fe isotope compositions over time for both the initial aqueous Fe(II) (Feaq) and the Fe(III) precipitates (Feppt) follow a Rayleigh distillation model. Moreover, the fractionation (ε56Feppt-aq) determined independently from either δ56Feaq or δ56Feppt data resulted in a value of 2.3 ± 0.3 (2SD, N = 6). This value differs from the fractionation factor determined previously for Fe(II) oxidation by R. iodosum in the absence of Si, where the fractionation calculated from δ56Feaq (i.e. 0.96-1.18) was different from that calculated from δ56Feppt (1.96-1.98). This difference was attributed to isotopic exchange processes with soluble and sorbed Fe species. The present study suggests that Si present in Precambrian oceans retards Fe isotopic exchange, likely through combined effects of complexation of dissolved Fe species by Si and sorption of Si to Fe

  7. Water losses during technical snow production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    These days, the production of technical snow can be seen as a prerequisite for winter tourism. Huge amounts of water are used for technical snow production by ski resorts, especially in the beginning of the winter season. The aim is to guarantee an appropriate amount of snow to reliably provide optimal ski runs until the date of season opening in early December. Technical snow is generated by pumping pressurized water through the nozzles of a snow machine and dispersing the resulting spray of small water droplets which freeze during their travel to the ground. Cooling and freezing of the droplets can only happen if energy is emitted to the air mass surrounding the droplets. This heat transfer is happening through convective cooling and though evaporation and sublimation of water droplets and ice particles. This means that also mass is lost from the droplets and added in form of vapor to the air. It is important to note that not all water that is pumped through the snow machine is converted to snow distributed on the ground. Significant amounts of water are lost due to wind drift, sublimation and evaporation while droplets are traveling through the air or to draining of water which is not fully frozen when arriving at the ground. Studies addressing this question are sparse and the quantity of the water losses is still unclear. In order to assess this question in more detail, we obtained several systematic field observations at a test site near Davos, Switzerland. About a dozen of snow making tests had been performed during the last winter seasons. We compare the amount of water measured at the intake of the snow machine with the amount of snow accumulating at the ground during a night of snow production. The snow mass was calculated from highly detailed repeated terrestrial laser scanning measurements in combination with manually gathered snow densities. In addition a meteorological station had been set up in the vicinity observing all relevant meteorological

  8. Comparison of PALSAR-2 Interferometric Estimates of Snow Water Equivalent, Airborne Snow Observatory Snow Depths, and Results from a Distributed Energy Balance Snow Model (iSnobal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, E. J.; Marshall, H. P.; Painter, T. H.; Marks, D. G.; Hedrick, A. R.; Havens, S.; Forster, R. R.; Siqueira, P.

    2016-12-01

    The interferometric approach to estimating snow water equivalent (SWE) leverages the fact that at relatively low frequencies ( 1 GHz, L-Band), differences in snow microstructure and layering do not significantly affect the radar backscatter of dry snow. At these frequencies, the main contribution of the radar backscatter is the snow/ground interface, and the difference in the timing of the radar propagation through the snowpack is controlled by snow depth, density and liquid water content. While engineering limitations prevent direct measurement of absolute radar travel-time, interferometric phase shift between acquisitions can be used to monitor changes in radar travel-time, caused by changes in snow properties. PALSAR-2 is a L-Band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) aboard the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) ALOS-2 satellite. Launched in 2014, PALSAR-2 interferometric pairs geographically and temporally overlap data collected by the NASA/JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) which provides spatial distribution of snow depths across basins (e.g. Tuolumne, CA and Grand Mesa, CO) identified as contributing significantly to NASA's multi-year airborne SnowEx campaign. As part of ASO's operational requirements, a spatially distributed energy balance snow model (iSnobal) is run over these domains estimating density (and other snow properties) and providing SWE products for water resource managers as well as other cryospheric science applications. This effort identifies PALSAR-2 satellite pairs closely coincident with ASO collections, processes interferometric products of coherence and phase change, and compares these results with the spatially distributed snow depths from ASO and modeled snow densities from iSnobal. Moreover, for satellite acquisitions not temporally matching the ASO collections, the modeled snow properties (depths and densities) from iSnobal are used for comparison with interferometric estimates of SWE. The integration of ground measurements

  9. Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing of Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwald, H.; Higgins, C. W.; Diebold, M.; Lehning, M.; Tyler, S. W.; Selker, J. S.; Parlange, M. B.

    2009-12-01

    Physical properties of seasonal and perennial snow covers can vary significantly on the order of a few meters with direct impact on snow dynamics, thermodynamics, temporal evolution, and ultimately on local snow water storage representing a challenge for measurement and modeling efforts. Detailed knowledge on small scale variability in snow internal temperature, density, and resulting subsurface heat fluxes is relatively limited, and pertinent snow cover internal data are also difficult to obtain. Uncertainty in the quantification of the components of the surface and snow internal energy budget is a consequence. From an experimental point of view, acquisition of distributed temperature data in the snow pack is non-trivial since accumulation, ablation, metamorphosis, etc., lead to continuous changes in the snow surface level. To provide better observational evidence of small scale variability and the associated snow physical processes we use fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS), a rapidly emerging technology in environmental sensing, which provides high resolution temperature measurements in space (1 meter) and time (a few minutes) with a resolution better than 0.1C over distances of several kilometers. Innovative experimental designs such as 2D transects and high resolution vertical temperature profiles using fiber optic cables were deployed and tested at high altitude sites in the Swiss Alps. The results of the experiments yield both expertise in the application of the novel measurement systems and new insight in snow pack thermodynamics such as 2D conductive heat fluxes. Also, wind pumping processes were investigated with a complimentary experimental system of synchronized high frequency measurements of atmospheric turbulence and barometric pressure fluctuations in the snow.

  10. Snowpack displacement measured by terrestrial radar interferometry as precursor for wet snow avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caduff, Rafael; Wiesmann, Andreas; Bühler, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Wet snow and full depth gliding avalanches commonly occur on slopes during springtime when air temperatures rise above 0°C for longer time. The increase in the liquid water content changes the mechanical properties of the snow pack. Until now, forecasts of wet snow avalanches are mainly done using weather data such as air and snow temperatures and incoming solar radiation. Even tough some wet snow avalanche events are indicated before the release by the formation of visible signs such as extension cracks or compressional bulges in the snow pack, a large number of wet snow avalanches are released without any previously visible signs. Continuous monitoring of critical slopes by terrestrial radar interferometry improves the scale of reception of differential movement into the range of millimetres per hour. Therefore, from a terrestrial and remote observation location, information on the mechanical state of the snow pack can be gathered on a slope wide scale. Recent campaigns in the Swiss Alps showed the potential of snow deformation measurements with a portable, interferometric real aperture radar operating at 17.2 GHz (1.76 cm wavelength). Common error sources for the radar interferometric measurement of snow pack displacements are decorrelation of the snow pack at different conditions, the influence of atmospheric disturbances on the interferometric phase and transition effects from cold/dry snow to warm/wet snow. Therefore, a critical assessment of those parameters has to be considered in order to reduce phase noise effects and retrieve accurate displacement measurements. The most recent campaign in spring 2015 took place in Davos Dorf/GR, Switzerland and its objective was to observe snow glide activity on the Dorfberg slope. A validation campaign using total station measurements showed good agreement to the radar interferometric line of sight displacement measurements in the range of 0.5 mm/h. The refinement of the method led to the detection of numerous gliding

  11. Relationships between aerosol and snow chemistry at King Col, Mt. Logan Massif, Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, Kaplan; Wake, Cameron P.; Dibb, Jack E.; Whitlow, Sallie I.

    Simultaneous samples of aerosol ( n=48) and recent snow ( n=193) chemistry were collected at King Col (4135 m) in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, between 17 May and 11 June 2001. Major ion concentrations in aerosol samples were low with the total ionic burden averaging 5.52 neq m -3 at standard temperature and pressure (STP). Interspecies aerosol relationships indicate the presence of (NH 4) 2SO 4 aerosol at King Col. An aerosol Cl - deficiency relative to seawater suggests volatilization of HCl by reaction with unneutralized SO42- that is present in half of the samples. Backwards trajectories for select aerosol concentration peaks document the transport of Asian dust and anthropogenic emissions, the eruption plume from the 22 May eruption of Sheveluch, Kamchatka, and sea salt from the marine boundary layer over the Gulf of Alaska to King Col during the sampling period. Fresh snow chemistry generally mimics aerosol chemistry with similar relative abundances and interspecies relationships except for large enrichments in snow Cl - and NO3- relative to aerosol due to snow scavenging of gas-phase HCl and HNO 3. Although relatively strong correlations between aerosol and snow concentrations were observed for species associated with accumulation mode aerosols, e.g. NH4+ ( r=0.56) and SO42- ( r=0.43), only weak correlations were observed for dust and sea-salt species. These results are influenced by greater variability in concentrations between replicate snow samples for species associated with coarse mode dust and sea-salt particles and by snow scavenging of gas-phase HCl and HNO 3.

  12. Vegetation and Variable Snow Cover: Spatial Patterns of Shrubland, and Grassland Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liston, G. E.; Hiemstra, C. A.; Strack, J. E.

    2003-12-01

    Regions that experience long winters with snowfall and high winds frequently exhibit heterogeneous snow distribution patterns that arise from interactions among snow, wind, topography, and vegetation. Variable snow cover and resultant heterogeneities in albedo and growing season length can affect local weather patterns and energy budgets, and produce spatially co-variable ecosystem properties. While snow influences local atmospheric processes and ecosystems, an important and underappreciated feedback exists between vegetation and snow cover. Plant size, canopy density, and rigidity determine how much snow accumulates on the lee side of individual plants (e.g., shrubland vs. grassland). In addition, the canopy can also influence how much energy reaches the snowpack, thereby hindering or accelerating snowmelt. An overhanging canopy reduces incoming solar radiation while providing a source of turbulent sensible and longwave radiative energy. Historically, most snow vegetation interaction studies have been limited to areas that experience an abundance of snow (e.g., mountainous areas) where trees have a large influence on seasonal snow-cover. In contrast, snow cover patterns associated with shrublands and grasslands have received little attention, despite covering vast expanses (53%) of the seasonally snow-covered globe. In this study, snow depths were measured every two weeks from December through March in a small, 0.25 km2 study area located in North Park, Colorado. The study area possesses little topographic relief and consists of shrub patches, dominated by greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), embedded in a matrix of graminoids (sedges, rushes, and grasses). Snow cover patterns and spatial statistics were dramatically different in graminoid-dominated cover compared with shrub cover. The graminoid snow cover was thinner, less variable, and more ephemeral than the shrub snow pack. Snow was readily eroded by wind from graminoid

  13. Addressing frequency and magnitude of recent snow avalanches in Northern Iceland and Western Norway by using dendrogeomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decaulne, Armelle; Eggertsson, Ólafur; Laute, Katja; Sæmundsson, Şorsteinn; Beylich, Achim A.; Páll Jónsson, Helgi

    2010-05-01

    Snow avalanches are common in mountain areas of various kinds of cold environments. The more or less severity of wintry conditions determines the thickness, durability and stability of snow cover during the cold season. Winter conditions therefore influence the frequency and magnitude of snow avalanches. The aim of this research is (i) to use dendrogeomorphology as a proxy to extract the chronology of snow avalanches on colluvial surfaces (talus and cones) by analysing the tree-ring growth, and (ii) to study the various impacts snow avalanches on trees, i.e. the formation and dating of reaction wood. The study sites are located in Northern Iceland (Dalsmynni, Ljósavatnskarð and Fnjóskadalur valleys), and in Western Norway (Erdalen and Bødalen valleys). All sites are typical U-shaped valleys with important bedrock valley walls that develop downslope in slope accumulations, swept by numerous snow avalanches leaving geomorphological evidence of a significant activity. The currently investigated tree specie is Betula sp., birches being common in both areas. The results provide a temporal catalogue of snow-avalanche events during the last ± 100 years in areas with shortest historical records, and determine the changes in snow-avalanches regime during the same period. This can be correlated with snow-cover changes in the upper catchment areas. Such results are of interest for (i) the understanding of global changes on snow-avalanche activity in cold mountain areas, and (ii) getting a better knowledge of past frequency and magnitude of snow avalanches in areas of poor historical records, in relation with natural hazards.

  14. Soot on snow experiment: bidirectional reflectance factor measurements of contaminated snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, J. I.; Gritsevich, M.; Hakala, T.; Dagsson-Waldhauserová, P.; Arnalds, Ó.; Anttila, K.; Hannula, H.-R.; Kivekäs, N.; Lihavainen, H.; Meinander, O.; Svensson, J.; Virkkula, A.; de Leeuw, G.

    2015-06-01

    In order to quantify the effects of absorbing contaminants on snow, a series of spectral reflectance measurements were conducted. Chimney soot, volcanic sand, and glaciogenic silt were deposited on a natural snow surface in a controlled way as a part of the Soot on Snow (SoS) campaign. The bidirectional reflectance factors of these soiled surfaces and untouched snow were measured using the Finnish Geodetic Institute's Field Goniospectropolariradiometer, FIGIFIGO. A remarkable feature is the fact that the absorbing contaminants on snow enhanced in our experiments the metamorphosis of snow under strong sunlight. Immediately after deposition, the contaminated snow surface appeared darker than the pure snow in all viewing directions, but the absorbing particles sank deep into the snow in minutes. The nadir measurement remained the darkest, but at larger zenith angles the surface of the contaminated snow changed back to almost as white as clean snow. Thus, for a ground observer the darkening caused by impurities can be completely invisible, overestimating the albedo, but a nadir observing satellite sees the darkest points, now underestimating the albedo. By a reciprocity argument, we predict, that at noon the albedo should be lower than in the morning or afternoon. When sunlight stimulates sinking more than melting, the albedo should be higher in the afternoon than in the morning, and vice versa when melting dominates. However, differences in the hydrophobic properties, porosity, clumping, or size of the impurities may cause different results than observed in these measurements.

  15. Soot on Snow experiment: bidirectional reflectance factor measurements of contaminated snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, J. I.; Gritsevich, M.; Hakala, T.; Dagsson-Waldhauserová, P.; Arnalds, Ó.; Anttila, K.; Hannula, H.-R.; Kivekäs, N.; Lihavainen, H.; Meinander, O.; Svensson, J.; Virkkula, A.; de Leeuw, G.

    2015-12-01

    In order to quantify the effects of absorbing contaminants on snow, a series of spectral reflectance measurements were conducted. Chimney soot, volcanic sand, and glaciogenic silt were deposited on a natural snow surface in a controlled way as a part of the Soot on Snow (SoS) campaign. The bidirectional reflectance factors of these soiled surfaces and untouched snow were measured using the Finnish Geodetic Institute's Field Goniospectropolariradiometer, FIGIFIGO. A remarkable feature is the fact that the absorbing contaminants on snow enhanced the metamorphism of snow under strong sunlight in our experiments. Immediately after deposition, the contaminated snow surface appeared darker than the natural snow in all viewing directions, but the absorbing particles sank deep into the snow in minutes. The nadir measurement remained the darkest, but at larger zenith angles, the surface of the contaminated snow changed back to almost as white as clean snow. Thus, for a ground observer the darkening caused by impurities can be completely invisible, overestimating the albedo, but a nadir-observing satellite sees the darkest points, underestimating the albedo. Through a reciprocity argument, we predict that at noon, the albedo perturbation should be lower than in the morning or afternoon. When sunlight stimulates sinking more than melting, the albedo should be higher in the afternoon than in the morning, and vice versa when melting dominates. However, differences in the hydrophobic properties, porosity, clumping, or size of the impurities may cause different results than observed in these measurements.

  16. Modeling the spatial variability of snow instability with the snow cover model SNOWPACK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Bettina; Reuter, Benjamin; Gaume, Johan; Fierz, Charles; Bavay, Mathias; van Herwijnen, Alec; Schweizer, Jürg

    2016-04-01

    Snow stratigraphy - key information for avalanche forecasting - can be obtained using numerical snow cover models driven by meteorological data. Simulations are typically performed for the locations of automatic weather station or for virtual slopes of varying aspect. However, it is unclear to which extent these simulations can represent the snowpack properties in the surrounding terrain, in particular snow instability, which is known to vary in space. To address this issue, we implemented two newly developed snow instability criteria in SNOWPACK relating to failure initiation and crack propagation, two fundamental processes for dry-snow slab avalanche release. Snow cover simulations were performed for the Steintälli field site above Davos (Eastern Swiss Alps), where snowpack data from several field campaigns are available. In each campaign, about 150 vertical snow penetration resistance profiles were sampled with the snow micro-penetrometer (SMP). For each profile, SMP and SNOWPACK- based instability criteria were compared. In addition, we carried out SNOWPACK simulations for multiple aspects and slope angles, allowing to obtain statistical distributions of the snow instability at the basin scale. Comparing the modeled to the observed distributions of snow instability suggests that it is feasible to obtain an adequate spatial representation of snow instability without high resolution distributed modeling. Hence, for the purpose of regional avalanche forecasting, simulations for a selection of virtual slopes seems sufficient to assess the influence of basic terrain features such as aspect and elevation.

  17. Red and near-infrared spectral reflectance of snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, H. W.; Munis, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance of snow in the range of 0.60 to 2.50 microns wavelengths was studied in a cold laboratory using natural snow and simulated preparations of snow. A white barium sulfate powder was used as the standard for comparison. The high reflectance (usually nearly 100%) of fresh natural snow in visible wavelengths declines rapidly at wavelengths longer than the visible, as the spectral absorption coefficients of ice increase. Aging snow becomes only somewhat less reflective than fresh snow in the visible region and usually retains a reflectance greater than 80%. In the near infrared, aging snow tends to become considerably less reflective than fresh snow.

  18. Kindergarten Explorations with Snow, Ice, and Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Martha A.

    1978-01-01

    Using winter snow, kindergarten students can explore the properties of water. Students demonstrate melting, freezing, expansion, and evaporation through a number of activities involving a paper cup and a scoop of snow. Procedures and student reactions are described in detail by the teacher-author. (MA)

  19. Kindergarten Explorations with Snow, Ice, and Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Martha A.

    1978-01-01

    Using winter snow, kindergarten students can explore the properties of water. Students demonstrate melting, freezing, expansion, and evaporation through a number of activities involving a paper cup and a scoop of snow. Procedures and student reactions are described in detail by the teacher-author. (MA)

  20. Brilliant Colours from a White Snow Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Shaw, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Surprisingly colourful views are possible from sparkling white snow. It is well known that similarly colourful features can exist in the sky whenever appropriate ice crystals are around. However, the transition of light reflection and refraction from ice crystals in the air to reflection and refraction from those in snow on the ground is not…

  1. A drought index accounting for snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudinger, Maria; Stahl, Kerstin; Seibert, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is the most widely used index to characterize and monitor droughts that are related to precipitation deficiencies. However, the SPI does not always deliver the relevant information for hydrological drought management when precipitation deficiencies are not the only reason for droughts as it is the case for example in snow influenced catchments. If precipitation is temporarily stored as snow, then there is a significant difference between meteorological and hydrological drought because the delayed release of melt water from the snow accumulation to the stream. In this study we introduce an extension to the SPI, the Standardized Snow Melt and Rain Index (SMRI), that captures both rain and snow melt deficits, which in effect modify streamflow. The SMRI does not require any snow data instead observations of temperature and precipitation are used to model snow. The SMRI is evaluated for seven Swiss catchments with varying degrees of snow influence. In particular for catchments with a larger component of snowmelt in runoff generation, we found the SMRI to be a good complementary index to the SPI to describe streamflow droughts. In a further step, the SPI and the SMRI were compared for the summer drought of 2003 and the spring drought of 2011 for Switzerland, using gridded products of precipitation and temperature including the entire country.

  2. LANDSAT-D investigations in snow hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Thematic mapper radiometric characteristics, snow/cloud reflectance, and atmospheric correction are discussed with application to determining the spectral albedo of snow. The geometric characterics of TM and digital elevation data are examined. The geometric transformations and resampling required to coregister these data are discussed.

  3. Comments on Nancy Snow, "Generativity and Flourishing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamtekar, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    In her rich and wide-ranging paper, Nancy Snow argues that there is a virtue of generativity--an other-regarding desire to invest one's substance in forms of life and work that will outlive the self (p. 10). By "virtue" Snow means not just a desirable or praiseworthy quality of a person, but more precisely, as Aristotle defined it, a…

  4. Comments on Nancy Snow, "Generativity and Flourishing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamtekar, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    In her rich and wide-ranging paper, Nancy Snow argues that there is a virtue of generativity--an other-regarding desire to invest one's substance in forms of life and work that will outlive the self (p. 10). By "virtue" Snow means not just a desirable or praiseworthy quality of a person, but more precisely, as Aristotle defined it, a…

  5. Blast noise propagation above a snow cover.

    PubMed

    Albert, D G; Hole, L R

    2001-06-01

    A porous medium model of a snow cover, rather than a viscoelastic treatment, has been used to simulate measured, horizontally traveling acoustic waveform propagation above a dry snow cover 11-20 cm thick. The waveforms were produced by explosions of 1-kg charges at propagation distances of 100 to 1400 m. These waveforms, with a peak frequency around 30 Hz, show pulse broadening effects similar to those previously seen for higher-frequency waves over shorter propagation distances. A rigid-ice-frame porous medium ("rigid-porous") impedance model, which includes the effect of the pores within the snow but ignores any induced motion of the ice particles, is shown to produce much better agreement with the measured waveforms compared with a viscoelastic solid treatment of the snow cover. From the acoustic waveform modeling, the predicted average snow cover depth of 18 cm and effective flow resistivities of 16-31 kPa s m(-2) agree with snow pit observations and with previous acoustic measurements over snow. For propagation in the upwind direction, the pulse broadening caused by the snow cover interaction is lessened, but the overall amplitude decay is greater because of refraction of the blast waves.

  6. Brilliant Colours from a White Snow Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Shaw, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Surprisingly colourful views are possible from sparkling white snow. It is well known that similarly colourful features can exist in the sky whenever appropriate ice crystals are around. However, the transition of light reflection and refraction from ice crystals in the air to reflection and refraction from those in snow on the ground is not…

  7. Expanding Snow Treatment in CESM Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perket, J.; Flanner, M.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The CESM land model accounts for precipitation interception, throughfall & drip in the canopy hydrology. Portions of falling snow and rain are intercepted by the canopy and maintained in a water storage term. The remainder falls through to the ground, and intercepted water also drips from the canopy. The Community Land Model uses exposed leaf and stem area indices to determine the throughfall flux and drip flux for liquid and frozen water. The interception by vegetation and the water mass storage term does not differentiate between liquid or frozen precipitation based on the justification that a lower evaporation rate roughly negates the difference. Observations show, however, that leaf capacities for water are about double those of snow. Optical parameters are influenced by the canopy storage and area indices through a wetted fraction of vegetation. Different optical properties are assumed when air temperature is below the freezing temperature of water. This is an efficient method to account for snow in vegetation albedo and radiative flux calculations, but doesn't account for the different morphologies and mechanics of snow. Canopy snow can be blown off by wind, or slide off without wind intervention if the branches provide an unstable or slanting support. We fully separated the liquid and solid terms in CLM's hydrology, creating a canopy snow throughfall and canopy snow storage term. Snow in vegetation can convert to meltwater and vapor. Using these new simulation developments, we are able to quantify radiative and hydrological sensitivity to improved model representation.

  8. Permeability measurements on new and equitemperature snow

    Treesearch

    R. A. Sommerfeld; J. R. Rocchio

    1993-01-01

    During the month of February, between 46 and 53% of the land area of the northern hemisphere is snow covered. Continental snowpacks act as chemical reservoirs; pollutants can accumulate in the pack over the entire winter and are released during a relatively short spring melt period. Interactions between the snow and the atmosphere can change the quantities of different...

  9. Formation of haloacetic acids, halonitromethanes, bromate and iodate during chlorination and ozonation of seawater and saltwater of marine aquaria systems.

    PubMed

    Shi, Honglan; Qiang, Zhimin; Adams, Craig

    2013-03-01

    This manuscript addresses identification, analysis, formation and occurrence of key disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during chlorination and/or ozonation of both natural seawater (NSW), and synthetic high- and low-bromide saltwater (HBSW and LBSW, respectively). In this study, several groups of water disinfection byproducts were studied, including haloacetic acids (HAAs), halonitromethanes (HNMs), bromate and iodate. Three different water systems were studied including filtered natural seawater (NSW, ca. 64.9 mg L(-1) Br(-)), a high-bromide (Br(-)) saltwater (HBSW, ca. 24.8 mg L(-1) Br), and low-Br(-) saltwater (LBSW, ca. 4.3 mg L(-1)Br). Because ozone reacts with Cl(-) to form free chlorine in seawater and salt water systems, similar DBP patterns were observed for both chlorine and ozone oxidants. The results revealed that some HAAs and HNMs are formed at greater than 100 μg L(-1) concentrations and are greatly affected by water constituents and formulations when treated with chlorine and ozone. The results showed that in low-Br(-) water salt water, chlorinated HAAs and HNMs predominated, while much greater concentrations of brominated HAAs and HNMs were produced in both natural and synthetic higher Br(-) saltwater. Concentrations of bromate and iodate were strongly impacted by factors other than Br(-) and I(-) concentrations including whether the system was open or closed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring Wind Ventilation of Dense Surface Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, S. A.; Huwald, H.; Selker, J. S.; Higgins, C. W.; Lehning, M.; Thomas, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Wind ventilation enhances exposure of suspended, canopy-captured and corniced snow to subsaturated air and can significantly increase sublimation rate. Although sublimation rate may be high for highly ventilated snow this snow regime represents a small fraction snow that resides in a basin potentially minimizing its influence on snow mass balance. In contrast, the vast majority of a seasonal snowpack typically resides as poorly ventilated surface snow. The sublimation rate of surface snow is often locally so small as to defy direct measurement but regionally pervasive enough that the integrated mass loss of frozen water across a basin may be significant on a seasonal basis. In a warming climate, sublimation rate increases even in subfreezing conditions because the equilibrium water vapor pressure over ice increases exponentially with temperature. To better understand the process of wintertime surface snow sublimation we need to quantify the depth to which turbulent and topographically driven pressure perturbations effect air exchange within the snowpack. Hypothetically, this active layer depth increases the effective ventilated snow surface area, enhancing sublimation above that given by a plane, impermeable snow surface. We designed and performed a novel set of field experiments at two sites in the Oregon Cascades during the 2014 winter season to examine the spectral attenuation of pressure perturbations with depth for dense snow as a function of turbulence intensity and snow permeability. We mounted a Campbell Scientific Irgason Integrated CO2 and H2O Open Path Gas Analyzer and 3-D Sonic Anemometer one meter above the snow to capture mean and turbulent wind forcing and placed outlets of four high precision ParoScientific 216B-102 pressure transducers at different depths to measure the depth-dependent pressure response to wind forcing. A GPS antenna captured data acquisition time with sufficient precision to synchronize a Campbell Scientific CR-3000 acquiring

  11. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  12. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  13. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  14. Remote sensing of snow and ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews remote sensing of snow and ice, techniques for improved monitoring, and incorporation of the new data into forecasting and management systems. The snowcover interpretation of visible and infrared data from satellites, automated digital methods, radiative transfer modeling to calculate the solar reflectance of snow, and models using snowcover input data and elevation zones for calculating snowmelt are discussed. The use of visible and near infrared techniques for inferring snow properties, microwave monitoring of snowpack characteristics, use of Landsat images for collecting glacier data, monitoring of river ice with visible imagery from NOAA satellites, use of sequential imagery for tracking ice flow movement, and microwave studies of sea ice are described. Applications of snow and ice research to commercial use are examined, and it is concluded that a major problem to be solved is characterization of snow and ice in nature, since assigning of the correct properties to a real system to be modeled has been difficult.

  15. Facies architecture and high resolution sequence stratigraphy of an aeolian, fluvial and shallow marine system in the Pennsylvanian Piauí Formation, Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Lucas Valadares; Scherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos

    2017-07-01

    The Pennsylvanian Piauí Formation records the deposition of aeolian, fluvial and shallow marine systems accumulated in the cratonic sag Parnaíba basin. Characterization of the facies associations and sequence stratigraphic framework was done by detailed description and logging of outcrops. Six facies associations were recognized: aeolian dunes and interdunes, aeolian sandsheets, fluvial channels, tidally-influenced fluvial channels, shoreface and shoreface-shelf transition. Through correlation of stratigraphic surfaces, the facies associations were organized in system tracts, which formed eight high frequency depositional sequences, bounded by subaerial unconformities. These sequences are composed of a lowstand system tract (LST), that is aeolian-dominated or fluvial-dominated, a transgressive system tract (TST) that is formed by tidally-influenced fluvial channels and/or shoreface and shoreface-shelf transition deposits with retrogradational stacking, and a highstand system tract (HST), which is formed by shoreface-shelf transition and shoreface deposits with progradational stacking. Two low frequency cycles were determined by observing the stacking of the high frequency cycles. The Lower Sequence is characterized by aeolian deposits of the LST and an aggradational base followed by a progressive transgression, defining a general TST. The Upper Sequence is characterized by fluvial deposits and interfluve pedogenesis concurring with the aeolian deposits of the LST and records a subtle regression followed by transgression. The main control on sedimentation in the Piauí Formation was glacioeustasy, which was responsible for the changes in relative sea level. Even though, climate changes were associated with glacioeustatic phases and influenced the aeolian and fluvial deposition.

  16. Evidence for a Significant Source of Sea Salt Aerosol from Blowing Snow Above Sea Ice in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, M. M.; Brooks, I. M.; Anderson, P. A.; Nishimura, K.; Yang, X.; Jones, A. E.; Wolff, E. W.

    2014-12-01

    Over most of the Earth, sea salt aerosol (SSA) derives from sea spray and bubble bursting at the open ocean surface. SSA as the major component of marine aerosol contributes directly to the radiative balance and can act as cloud condensation nuclei. SSA can also significantly impact the lifetime of methane, ozone or mercury through the photochemical release of reactive halogens. A recent model study suggested that the sublimation of saline blowing snow above sea ice can generate more SSA than is produced from a similar area of open ocean. A winter cruise through the Weddell Sea during June - August 2013 provided unique access to a potential SSA source region in the Antarctic sea ice zone to test this hypothesis.Reported are first measurements of snow particle as well as aerosol concentrations, size distributions and chemical composition, during blowing snow events above sea ice. Snow particle spectra are found to be similar to those observed on the continent. Even though the salinity of surface and blowing snow was very low (<0.1 psu) a significant increase of aerosol in the SSA size range was observed during and after blowing snow events. This is consistent with model runs including a blowing snow parameterisation which suggest low sensitivity of SSA number densities to snow salinity within the observed range. First estimates of SSA flux from blowing snow using eddy correlation are significant, although falling below published values of the sea spray source function. We discuss the dependance of observed SSA production rates on ambient conditions as well as the significance to the Southern Ocean environment.

  17. Uncertainty in alpine snow mass balance simulations due to snow model parameterisation and windflow representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musselman, K. N.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Essery, R.; Leroux, N.

    2013-12-01

    Despite advances in alpine snow modelling there remain two fundamental areas of divergent scientific thought in estimating alpine snow mass balances: i) blowing snow sublimation losses, and ii) wind flow representation. Sublimation calculations have poorly understood humidity feedbacks that vary considerably and mathematical representations of alpine windflow vary in complexity - these differences introduce uncertainty. To better estimate and restrain this uncertainty, a variety of physically based, spatially distributed snowmelt models that consider the physics of wind redistribution and sublimation of blowing snow were evaluated for their ability to simulate seasonal snow distribution and melt patterns in a windy alpine environment in the Canadian Rockies. The primary difference in the snow models was their calculation of blowing snow sublimation losses which ranged from large to small estimates. To examine the uncertainty introduced by windflow calculations on the snow model simulations, each model was forced with output from windflow models of varying computational complexity and physical realism from a terrain-based empirical interpolation of station observations to a simple turbulence model to a computational fluid dynamics model that solves for the Navier-Stokes equations. The high-resolution snow simulations were run over a 1 km2 spatial extent centred on a ridgetop meteorological station within the Marmot Creek Research basin, Alberta, Canada. The three windflow simulations all produced reasonable results compared to wind speeds measured on two opposing slopes (bias better than ×0.3 m s-1; RMSE < 1.1 m s-1), however there was great sensitivity in SWE simulated by the snow models to the driving windflow simulation used. Specifically, there were distinct differences in the magnitude and location of snow drifts from all snow models that depended on the windflow scheme. When compared to measurements from airborne LiDAR, snow surveys, and automated snow depth

  18. Marine boundary layer cloud regimes and POC formation in an LES coupled to a bulk aerosol scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, A. H.; Bretherton, C. S.; Wood, R.; Muhlbauer, A.

    2013-07-01

    A large-eddy simulation (LES) coupled to a new bulk aerosol scheme is used to study long-lived regimes of aerosol-boundary layer cloud-precipitation interaction and the development of pockets of open cells (POCs) in subtropical stratocumulus cloud layers. The aerosol scheme prognoses mass and number concentration of a single log-normal accumulation mode with surface and entrainment sources, evolving subject to processing of activated aerosol and scavenging of dry aerosol by cloud and rain. The LES with the aerosol scheme is applied to a range of steadily-forced simulations idealized from a well-observed POC case. The long-term system evolution is explored with extended two-dimensional simulations of up to 20 days, mostly with diurnally-averaged insolation. One three-dimensional two-day simulation confirms the initial development of the corresponding two-dimensional case. With weak mean subsidence, an initially aerosol-rich mixed layer deepens, the capping stratocumulus cloud slowly thickens and increasingly depletes aerosol via precipitation accretion, then the boundary layer transitions within a few hours into an open-cell regime with scattered precipitating cumuli, in which entrainment is much weaker. The inversion slowly collapses for several days until the cumulus clouds are too shallow to efficiently precipitate. Inversion cloud then reforms and radiatively drives renewed entrainment, allowing the boundary layer to deepen and become more aerosol-rich, until the stratocumulus layer thickens enough to undergo another cycle of open-cell formation. If mean subsidence is stronger, the stratocumulus never thickens enough to initiate drizzle and settles into a steady state. With lower initial aerosol concentrations, this system quickly transitions into open cells, collapses, and redevelops into a different steady state with a shallow, optically thin cloud layer. In these steady states, interstitial scavenging by cloud droplets is the main sink of aerosol number. The

  19. Arctic Light Snow Observations: Missing Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Rabin, Robert; Pavolonis, Michael; Heymsfield, Andrew; Girard, Eric; Burrows, William

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work is to describe measurement conditions for light snow that is important for meteorological and hydrometeorological applications. Snow microphysical properties play a crucial role for developing better nowcasting/forecasting techniques, and to validate numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations and assess climate change. Observations collected during the Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) and Satellite Applications for Arctic Weather and SAR (Search And Rescue) Operations (SAAWSO) projects that took place over the cold climatic regions of Canada, including Yellowknife, St. John's, and Goose Bay, respectively, were studied to assess missing snow effect on weather and climate change simulations. The Ground Cloud Imaging Probe (GCIP) together with other microphysical precipitation sensors (e.g. fog device, distrometer) can be used to better understand fog deposition, freezing drizzle, light rain, and light snow spectral characteristics and shape. Light snow particle size range based on GCIP measurements is between 7.5 and 940 µm, and provides particle size spectra over 60 channels at 15 µm intervals, as well as particle shape. The GCIP measurements together with hydrometeor measurements obtained from a distrometer called laser precipitation monitor (LPM) were used in an integrated approach for snow precipitation analysis because of the measurements uncertainties in the particle sizes less than 500 µm. The results suggest that missing light snow depth measurement as less than 1 mm/d can affect the energy budget of Arctic environments over a 6 month time period up to -2 to -5 W/m2 if snow sublimates. These values can be comparable with other feedbacks in climate simulations such as aerosol effects. In this study, GCIP used for light snow measurements and ice fog will be discussed and challenges related to measurement of light snow precipitation microphysics will be emphasized.

  20. Impact of snow on surface brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, George J.; Brown, Jeffrey A.

    The snow-covered land surface has different albedo than the snow-free surface, depending primarily on the type and density of the vegetation, the relief, and the continuity and age of the snow blanket. This is clearly demonstrated by the winter mosaic of east central Asia shown on the front cover. It is a section of a larger composite assembled from cloud-free satellite images to portray the land surface under continuous snow cover. The mosaic is a valuable tool for distinguishing (from remote positions) snow from clouds and for charting snow cover where illumination is poor. It also can be used to determine relative sensitivity of surface albedo to the occurrence of snow.Segments with a minimum of clouds along the orbital subtrack were selected from the transparencies of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Satellite sensors record in the spectral band 0.4-1.2 µm. The satellite is in polar orbit at a mean altitude of 830 km (450 nm) and crosses the equator at approximately local noon. The spatial resolution along the orbital subtrack is about 0.6 km [Dickinson et al., 1974]. The mosaic is assembled from imagery taken between mid-January and mid-February of 1979. The original hard-copy transparencies (on loan from the DMSP library) were reproduced as contact negatives to preserve detail.The snow cover marks the land surface with a characteristic signature that depends on the distribution, density, and type of vegetation; relief; presence of water bodies; distribution and type of land use, etc. This signature can be readily utilized, among others, to distinguish snow-covered land from clouds and from snow-free land [Barnes et al., 1974; Lillesand et al., 1982]. We have compared the brightness fields in the imagery with the vegetation density and land-use patterns charted in the World Forestry Atlas [Wiebecke, 1971].