Science.gov

Sample records for marine spark-ignition engine

  1. Spark-Ignited Diesel Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-27

    compression for ignition and would allow the diesel engine to operate at the more efficient and practical compression ratio of 12 to 1. To accomplish this, an...found to provide approximately equal efficiency under most operating conditions other than high load, and to provide instant cold start at the more ...high- efficiency diesel engine. The engine would be modified to have a moderate compression ratio, no swirl, and moderate to high squish to help improve

  2. Dynamical instability of spark-ignited engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, J.C.

    1984-06-15

    A simple model for spark-ignited engines is proposed in which the residual exhaust gases of a combustion event affect ignition of the subsequent charge. The model is an example of a one-dimensional, discrete, nonlinear mapping of an interval. Laminar flame correlations incorporated within models for ignition exhibit Arrhenius kinetics. Small variations of the ignition time with respect to the expansion cycle alter the work produced by each cycle, thereby altering the exhaust-gas temperature. It is shown that the mixing of hot residual gases with a fresh charge is a sufficient mechanism to produce an instability of the ignition process, resulting in oscillatory behavior. When this instability is compounded with the effects of mixture turbulence, one obtains a novel picture of the well-known phenomenon of cyclic dispersion exhibited by such engines.

  3. Fuel economy in road vehicles powered by spark ignition engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, J.C.; Springer, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents information on the following: automotive fuel economy; fuel economy and emissions; spark ignition physics and its effect on the internal combustion process; the effects of valve events on engine operation; flame propagation and heat-transfer effects in spark ignition engines; abnormal combustion effects on economy; mechanical friction and lubrication in automobiles; the rolling resistance and vehicle fuel economy; properties of sheet molding compounds; aerodynamics of road vehicles; power-train matching and fuel economy projection methods; and electronic engine control.

  4. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  5. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  6. The spark-ignition aircraft piston engine of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    Areas of advanced technology appropriate to the design of a spark-ignition aircraft piston engine for the late 1980 time period were investigated and defined. Results of the study show that significant improvements in fuel economy, weight and size, safety, reliability, durability and performance may be achieved with a high degree of success, predicated on the continued development of advances in combustion systems, electronics, materials and control systems.

  7. Simultaneous dual mode combustion engine operating on spark ignition and homogenous charge compression ignition

    DOEpatents

    Fiveland, Scott B.; Wiggers, Timothy E.

    2004-06-22

    An engine particularly suited to single speed operation environments, such as stationary power generators. The engine includes a plurality of combustion cylinders operable under homogenous charge compression ignition, and at least one combustion cylinder operable on spark ignition concepts. The cylinder operable on spark ignition concepts can be convertible to operate under homogenous charge compression ignition. The engine is started using the cylinders operable under spark ignition concepts.

  8. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  9. The spark-ignition aircraft piston engine of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each time of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  10. Researches on Preliminary Chemical Reactions in Spark-Ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlner, E.

    1943-01-01

    Chemical reactions can demonstrably occur in a fuel-air mixture compressed in the working cylinder of an Otto-cycle (spark ignition) internal-combustion engine even before the charge is ignited by the flame proceeding from the sparking plug. These are the so-called "prelinminary reactions" ("pre-flame" combustion or oxidation), and an exact knowledge of their characteristic development is of great importance for a correct appreciation of the phenomena of engine-knock (detonation), and consequently for its avoidance. Such reactions can be studied either in a working engine cylinder or in a combustion bomb. The first method necessitates a complicated experimental technique, while the second has the disadvantage of enabling only a single reaction to be studied at one time. Consequently, a new series of experiments was inaugurated, conducted in a motored (externally-driven) experimental engine of mixture-compression type, without ignition, the resulting preliminary reactions being detectable and measurable thermometrically.

  11. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  12. Utilization of waste glycerin to fuelling of spark ignition engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmasiak, Z.; Pietras, D.

    2016-09-01

    The paper discusses a possibilities of usage a simple alcohols to fuelling of spark ignition engines. Methanol and blends of methanol with glycerin, being a waste product from production of bio-components to fuels based on rapeseed oil, have been used in course of the investigations. The main objective of the research was to determine possibilities of utilization of glycerin to blending of engine fuels. The investigations have been performed using the Fiat 1100 MPI engine. Parameters obtained with the engine powered by pure methanol and by methanol- glycerin mixtures with 10÷30%vol content of glycerin were compared to parameters of the engine fuelled conventionally with the E95 gasoline. The investigations have shown increase of overall efficiency of the engine run on pure methanol with 2.5÷5.0%, and run on the mixture having 10% addition of glycerin with 2.0÷7.8%. Simultaneously, fuelling of the engine with the investigated alcohols results in reduced concentration of toxic components in exhaust gases like: CO, THC and NOx, as well as the greenhouse gas CO2.

  13. Turbulent flame propagation and combustion in spark ignition engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beretta, G. P.; Rashidi, M.; Keck, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Pressure measurements synchronized with high-speed motion-picture records of flame propagation have been made in a transparent-piston engine. The data show that the initial expansion speed of the flame front is close to that of a laminar flame. As the flame expands, its speed rapidly accelerates to a quasi-steady value comparable with that of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the unburned gas. During the quasi-steady propagation phase, a significant fraction of the gas behind the visible front is unburned. Final burnout of the charge may be approximated by an exponential decay in time. The data have been analyzed in a model-independent way to obtain a set of empirical equations for calculating mass burning rates in spark-ignition engines. The burning equations contain three parameters: the laminar burning speed, a characteristic speed (uT), and a characteristic length (lT). The laminar burning speed is known from laboratory measurements. Tentative correlations relating uT and lT to engine geometry and operating variables have been derived from the engine data.

  14. Turbulent flame propagation and combustion in spark ignition engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beretta, G. P.; Rashidi, M.; Keck, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Pressure measurements synchronized with high-speed motion-picture records of flame propagation have been made in a transparent-piston engine. The data show that the initial expansion speed of the flame front is close to that of a laminar flame. As the flame expands, its speed rapidly accelerates to a quasi-steady value comparable with that of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the unburned gas. During the quasi-steady propagation phase, a significant fraction of the gas behind the visible front is unburned. Final burnout of the charge may be approximated by an exponential decay in time. The data have been analyzed in a model-independent way to obtain a set of empirical equations for calculating mass burning rates in spark-ignition engines. The burning equations contain three parameters: the laminar burning speed, a characteristic speed (uT), and a characteristic length (lT). The laminar burning speed is known from laboratory measurements. Tentative correlations relating uT and lT to engine geometry and operating variables have been derived from the engine data.

  15. Combustion of CNG in Charged Spark Ignition Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitianiec, Wladyslaw

    2009-12-01

    The paper describes mixing of injected CNG with air and combustion process in spark ignition internal combustion engine. Because of higher ignition temperature of CNG the SI engines have more effective ignition system than conventional engines. The gas motion, turbulence, charge temperature and obviously electrical energy of the ignition coil have a big influence on the ignition and burning process in the combustion chamber. The paper includes theoretical and experimental investigations of ignition process in the high charged SI engines with direct CNG injection by using LES technique in KIVA program. Simulation of CNG combustion in the caloric chamber was carried in the environment of OpenFOAM program with LES model and also the experimental test was carried out for comparison of results in the chamber with the same geometry. The influence of the "tumble" and "swirl" on the sparking is shown by modelling of this process in premixed charge by using LES technique. The charge motion and also considerably turbulence effect influence strongly on the ignition process.

  16. Potential of spark ignition engine, 1979 summary source document. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trella, T.; Zub, R.; Colello, R.

    1980-03-01

    This report provides an assessment of the potential for spark ignition engines passenger cars and light trucks. The assessment includes: tradeoffs between fuel economy and emissions; improvements in spark ignition engine efficiency; improvements in engine parasitics; improvements due to transmissions; effect of aerodynamic drag and tire rolling resistance on fuel economy; effect on performance and fuel economy of weight and axle ratio; lubricant improvements; impact of fuels; and noise considerations.

  17. Investigations of combustion in ''squish'' chamber spark ignition engines

    SciTech Connect

    James, E.H.

    1984-02-01

    Seemingly inexplicable and intractable observations relating to flame travel time behaviour in 'squish' chambered, spark ignition (S.I.) engines are resolved using a computer model of the combustion process coupled with hot wire anemometry techniques for flow velocity measurements under 'motored' conditions. ''Reverse squish'' is shown to be present during the early part of the expansion stroke and, under certain conditions, this radically reduces combustion intervals in the engine through augmenting the expansion velocity component of flame speed. Mass burning rates are not correspondingly increased however indicating that there is no automatic correlation between flame speeds and turbulence intensities. Computer modelling of the combustion process is shown to provide much more detail than can be obtained from experiments. This technique is used to explain the relative insensitivity of flame travel times part-way across the chamber to compression ratio variation and turbulence level. The pressure dependency of laminar burning velocity as recommended by Mattavi et al is shown to be highly important in this context as also are the increased expansion velocities at the lower compression ratios. A mechanism is suggested whereby overall flame travel times at the end of combustion finally decrease with compression ratio increase to comply with normally observed trends.

  18. Spark-ignition, air-compressing, internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Chmela, F.; Herzog, W.; Meier, R.

    1988-09-20

    This patent describes a spark-ignition, air-compressing, internal combustion engine that has direct ignition of a major portion of the fuel by means of a jet onto the wall of the combustion chamber that is provided, in the shape of a body of revolution, in the piston, whereby rotary motion is imparted by means known per se to the inflowing air in the direction of the injected fuel jet so as to cause the fuel to be removed gradually in the vapor state from the wall of the combustion chamber and to be mixed with the air, the injection nozzle being located in the cylinder head near the combustion chamber rim, with the spark plug, which is disposed opposite the injection nozzle, extending into the combustion chamber in the top dead center position of the piston, with the side wall of the combustion chamber, when viewed in cross section, being formed by two arcs that blend into each other and have respective radii of curvature R/sub 1/, R/sub 2/, the first arc having a radius R/sub 1/ that extends from a restricted combustion chamber opening down to the maximum combustion chamber diameter D/sub B/, and the second arc having a radius R/sub 2/ that extends down to the bottom of the combustion chamber and blends into the latter. The maximum combustion chamber diameter D/sub B/ being 0.5 to 0.7 times the diameter D/sub K/ of the piston and being at a defined depth t/sub D/ from the piston crown relative to the depth T/sub B/ of the combustion chamber, the ratio of the diameter d/sub H/ of the combustion chamber opening to the maximum combustion chamber diameter D/sub B/.

  19. 76 FR 67184 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Air Resources Board (CARB) has notified EPA that it has amended its emission standards and certification and test procedures for large spark-ignition nonroad engines (``LSI Emission Standards''). CARB... tractors, sweepers/scrubbers, and airport ] ground support equipment. CARB requests that EPA find the...

  20. A Preliminary Study of Flame Propagation in a Spark-ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C

    1937-01-01

    The N.A.C.A. combustion apparatus was altered to operate as a fuel-injection, spark-ignition engine, and a preliminary study was made of the combustion of gasoline-air mixtures at various air-fuel ratios. Air-fuel ratios ranging from 10 to 21.6 were investigated. Records from an optical indicator and films from a high-speed motion-picture camera were the chief sources of data. Schlieren photography was used for an additional study. The results show that the altered combustion apparatus has characteristics similar to those of a conventional spark-ignition engine and should be useful in studying phenomena in spark-ignition engines. The photographs show the flame front to be irregularly shaped rather than uniformly curved. With a theoretically correct mixture the reaction, as indicated by the photographs, is not completed in the flame front but continues for some time after the combustion front has traversed the mixture.

  1. Illustrations for a Competency Based Curriculum Guide: Ethanol Spark Ignition Engine Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This document contains 56 illustrations for use in an Illinois-developed competency-based course in ethanol spark ignition engine conversion. Each illustration is related to a specific competency in the course curriculum guide. Illustrations, which include photographs and line drawings, cover some of the following topics: carburetion, compression,…

  2. Illustrations for a Competency Based Curriculum Guide: Ethanol Spark Ignition Engine Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This document contains 56 illustrations for use in an Illinois-developed competency-based course in ethanol spark ignition engine conversion. Each illustration is related to a specific competency in the course curriculum guide. Illustrations, which include photographs and line drawings, cover some of the following topics: carburetion, compression,…

  3. Conversion of a diesel engine to a spark ignition natural gas engine

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Requirements for alternatives to diesel-fueled vehicles are developing, particularly in urban centers not in compliance with mandated air quality standards. An operator of fleets of diesel- powered vehicles may be forced to either purchase new vehicles or equip some of the existing fleets with engines designed or modified to run on alternative fuels. In converting existing vehicles, the operator can either replace the existing engine or modify it to burn an alternative fuel. Work described in this report addresses the problem of modifying an existing diesel engine to operate on natural gas. Tecogen has developed a technique for converting turbocharged automotive diesel engines to operate as dedicated spark-ignition engines with natural gas fuel. The engine cycle is converted to a more-complete-expansion cycle in which the expansion ratio of the original engine is unchanged while the effective compression ratio is lowered, so that engine detonation is avoided. The converted natural gas engine, with an expansion ratio higher than in conventional spark- ignition natural gas engines, offers thermal efficiency at wide-open- throttle conditions comparable to its diesel counterpart. This allows field conversion of existing engines. Low exhaust emissions can be achieved when the engine is operated with precise control of the fuel air mixture at stoichiometry with a 3-way catalyst. A Navistar DTA- 466 diesel engine with an expansion ratio of 16.5 to 1 was converted in this way, modifying the cam profiles, increasing the turbocharger boost pressure, incorporating an aftercooler if not already present, and adding a spark-ignition system, natural gas fuel management system, throttle body for load control, and an electronic engine control system. The proof-of-concept engine achieved a power level comparable to that of the diesel engine without detonation. A conversion system was developed for the Navistar DT 466 engine. NOx emissions of 1.5 g/bhp-h have been obtained.

  4. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  5. Lightweight, low compression aircraft diesel engine. [converting a spark ignition engine to the diesel cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Bottrell, M. S.; Eagle, C. D.; Bachle, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine to the diesel cycle was investigated. Procedures necessary for converting a single cylinder GTS10-520 are described as well as a single cylinder diesel engine test program. The modification of the engine for the hot port cooling concept is discussed. A digital computer graphics simulation of a twin engine aircraft incorporating the diesel engine and Hot Fort concept is presented showing some potential gains in aircraft performance. Sample results of the computer program used in the simulation are included.

  6. About the constructive and functional particularities of spark ignition engines with gasoline direct injection: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculae, M.; Ivan, F.; Neacsu, D.

    2017-08-01

    The paper aims to analyze and compare the environmental performances between a gasoline direct engine and a multi-point injection engine. There are analyzed the stages of emission formation during the New European Driving Cycle. The paper points out the dynamic, economic and environmental performances of spark ignition engines equipped with a GDI systems. Reason why, we believe the widespread implementation of this technology is today an immediate need.

  7. Optical Diagnostic Equipment for Research on Critical Processes in Spark-Ignition Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hochgreb, Simone

    1999-08-08

    The equipment requested under grant Contract No. DE-FG02-95TE00065 was used in several projects investigating the behavior of fuel in spark-ignition engines. It has been a crucial piece of these efforts in understanding how new direct-injected engine sprays behave, as well as a key part in the determination of how liquid fuel enters the engine during port-fuel injection.

  8. Over compression influence to the performances of the spark ignition engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakosi, E.; Talif, S. G.; Manolache, G.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the theoretical and experimental results of some procedures used in improving the performances of the automobile spark ignition engines. The study uses direct injection and high over-compression applied to a standard engine. To this purpose, the paper contains both the constructive solutions and the results obtained from the test bed concerning the engine power indices, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions.

  9. Simulation of Aldehyde Emissions from an Ethanol Fueled Spark Ignition Engine and Comparison with FTIR Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros Zaránte, Paola Helena; Sodre, Jose Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model that calculates aldehyde emissions in the exhaust of a spark ignition engine fueled with ethanol. The numerical model for aldehyde emissions was developed using FORTRAN software, with the input data obtained from a dedicated engine cycle simulation software, AVL BOOST. The model calculates formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions, formed from the partial oxidation of methane, ethane and unburned ethanol. The calculated values were compared with experimental data obtained by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The experiments were performed with a mid-size sedan powered by a 1.4-liter spark ignition engine on a chassis dynamometer. In general, the results demonstrate that the concentrations of aldehydes and the source elements increased with engine speed and exhaust gas temperature. A reasonable agreement between simulated and measured values was achieved.

  10. Experimental determination of the filling coefficient for an aspirated spark-ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raţiu, S.; Alexa, V.; Kiss, I.; Cioată, V.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at determining, by experiment, the filling coefficient of a spark-ignition, normal aspirated engine, with carburettor. For this purpose, a pilot plant was designed for measuring the pressure at various points on the route, simulating a stationary air flow regime by means of a vacuum pump. Measurements were made for various lifting heights of the intake valve and various opening positions of the throttle body, thus highlighting how their influence on the pressure loss and on the filling coefficient.

  11. Combustion process in a spark ignition engine: dynamics and noise level estimation.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, T; Wendeker, M; Urbanowicz, K; Litak, G

    2004-06-01

    We analyze the experimental time series of internal pressure in a four cylinder spark ignition engine. In our experiment, performed for different spark advance angles, apart from the usual cyclic changes of engine pressure we observed additional oscillations. These oscillations are with longer time scales ranging from one to several hundred engine cycles depending on engine working conditions. Based on the pressure time dependence we have calculated the heat released per combustion cycle. Using the time series of heat release to calculate the correlation coarse-grained entropy we estimated the noise level for internal combustion process. Our results show that for a larger spark advance angle the system is more deterministic.

  12. Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner augmented spark igniter shutdown detonations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, C. E.; Mccay, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    Detonations were experienced in the Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner (FPB) augmented spark igniter (ASI) during engine cutoff. Several of these resulted in over pressures sufficient to damage the FPB ASI oxidizer system. The detonations initiated in the FPB ASI oxidizer line when residual oxidizer (oxygen) in the line mixed with backflowing fuel (hydrogen) and detonated. This paper reviews the damage history to the FPB ASI oxidizer system, an engineering assessment of the problem cause, a verification of the mechanisms, the hazards associated with the detonations, and the solution implemented.

  13. An assessment of combustion products of spark ignition engines supplied by ethanol - gasoline blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzuneanu, K.; Golgotiu, E.

    2016-08-01

    The causes of environmental pollution by internal combustion engines arise from the use of fuels containing bounded carbon, from the fact that combustion takes place on a cyclic basis and at high temperature. The first and the last causes are directly related to the fuel and therefore there is in principle a possibility to reduce pollution by acting upon the fuel used. The present paper deals with the comparison of the level of combustion products of a spark ignition engine supplied by gasoline and by a mixture of 10 % ethanol - 90% gasoline.

  14. Infrared radiation from explosions in a spark-ignition engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, Charles F , Jr; Caldwell, Frank R; Steele, Sydney

    1935-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the variations in intensity and spectral distribution of the radiant energy emitted by the flames during normal and knocking explosions in an engine. Radiation extending into the infrared was transmitted by a window of fluorite, placed either near the spark plug or over the detonation zone at opposite ends of the combustion chamber. Concave, surface-silvered mirrors focused the beam, first at the slit of a stroboscope which opened for about 2 degrees of crank angle at any desired point in the engine cycle, and then upon the target of a sensitive thermocouple for measuring radiation intensity. Spectral distribution of the radiant energy was determined by placing over the window, one at a time, a series of five filters selected with a view to identifying, as far as possible without the use of a spectrograph, the characteristic emissions of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and incandescent carbon.

  15. Orange oil and its application to spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, S.

    1982-12-01

    Orange oil can be extracted from the peel of citrus. In Japan the production of orange oil is about 2000 tons per year. No orange oil has been however used for any specific purpose. The main ingredient of orange oil consists of d-limonen. About 0.6-1.0% oil can be extracted from the peel of ''Unshu orange'', which is a kind of typical Japanese tangerine. Orange oil has 106-140 research octane number which is good for running the CFR engine. The flash point of orange oil measured by Pensky-Martens method was at 56/sup 0/C. For the use of orange oil only as fuel without blending, there was found to be some difficulty in engine startability under cold conditions.

  16. Comparative performance study of spark ignition engines burning alcohols, gasoline, and alcohol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Desoky, A.A.; Rabie, L.H.

    1983-12-01

    In recent years it has been clear that the reserves of oil, from which petrol is refined, are becoming limited. In order to conserve these stocks of oil, and to minimize motoring costs as the price of dwindling oil resources escalates, it's obviously desirable to improve the thermal efficiency of the spark ignition engine. There are also obvious benefits to be obtained from making spark ignition engines run efficiently on alternative fuel, (non-crude based fuel). It has been claimed that hydrogen is an ideal fuel for the internal combustion engine it certainly causes little pollution, but is difficult to store, high in price, and difficult to burn efficiently in the engine without it knocking and backfiring. These problems arise because of the very wide flammability limits and the very high flame velocity of hydrogen. Alcohols used an additive or substitute for gasoline could immediately help to solve both energy and pollution problems. An experimental tests were carried out at Mansoura University Laboratories using a small single cylinder SIE, fully instrumented to measure the engine performance. The engine was fueled with pure methonol, pure ethonol, gasoline methanol blends and gasaline ethanol blends. The results showed that in principle, from kechnological aspects it's possible to use alcohols as a gasoline extender or as alcohol's gasoline, blends for automobiles. With regard to energy consumptions alcohols and alcohols gasoline blends lead to interesting results. The fuel economy benefits of using alcohols gasoline blends was found to be interesting in the part throltle operation.

  17. Chemical kinetics of octane sensitivity in a spark-ignition engine (Chemical Kinetics of Octane Sensitivity in a Spark Ignition Engine)

    DOE PAGES

    Westbrook, Charles K.; Mehl, Marco; Pitz, William J.; ...

    2016-07-11

    This article uses a chemical kinetic modeling approach to study the influences of fuel molecular structure on Octane Sensitivity (OS) in Spark Ignition (SI) engines. Octane Sensitivity has the potential to identify fuels that can be used in next-generation high compression, turbocharged SI engines to avoid unwanted knocking conditions and extend the range of operating conditions that can be used in such engines. While the concept of octane numbers of different fuels has been familiar for many years, the variations of their values and their role in determining Octane Sensitivity have not been addressed previously in terms of the basicmore » structures of the fuel molecules. In particular, the importance of electron delocalization on low temperature hydrocarbon reactivity and its role in determining OS in engine fuel is described here for the first time. Finally, the role of electron delocalization on fuel reactivity and Octane Sensitivity is illustrated for a very wide range of engine fuel types, including n-alkane, 1-olefin, n-alcohol, and n-alkyl benzenes, and the unifying features of these fuels and their common trends, using existing detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms that have been collected and unified to produce an overall model with unprecedented capabilities.« less

  18. Chemical kinetics of octane sensitivity in a spark-ignition engine (Chemical Kinetics of Octane Sensitivity in a Spark Ignition Engine)

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.; Mehl, Marco; Pitz, William J.; Sjöberg, Magnus

    2016-07-11

    This article uses a chemical kinetic modeling approach to study the influences of fuel molecular structure on Octane Sensitivity (OS) in Spark Ignition (SI) engines. Octane Sensitivity has the potential to identify fuels that can be used in next-generation high compression, turbocharged SI engines to avoid unwanted knocking conditions and extend the range of operating conditions that can be used in such engines. While the concept of octane numbers of different fuels has been familiar for many years, the variations of their values and their role in determining Octane Sensitivity have not been addressed previously in terms of the basic structures of the fuel molecules. In particular, the importance of electron delocalization on low temperature hydrocarbon reactivity and its role in determining OS in engine fuel is described here for the first time. Finally, the role of electron delocalization on fuel reactivity and Octane Sensitivity is illustrated for a very wide range of engine fuel types, including n-alkane, 1-olefin, n-alcohol, and n-alkyl benzenes, and the unifying features of these fuels and their common trends, using existing detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms that have been collected and unified to produce an overall model with unprecedented capabilities.

  19. Chemical kinetics of octane sensitivity in a spark-ignition engine (Chemical Kinetics of Octane Sensitivity in a Spark Ignition Engine)

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.; Mehl, Marco; Pitz, William J.; Sjöberg, Magnus

    2016-07-11

    This article uses a chemical kinetic modeling approach to study the influences of fuel molecular structure on Octane Sensitivity (OS) in Spark Ignition (SI) engines. Octane Sensitivity has the potential to identify fuels that can be used in next-generation high compression, turbocharged SI engines to avoid unwanted knocking conditions and extend the range of operating conditions that can be used in such engines. While the concept of octane numbers of different fuels has been familiar for many years, the variations of their values and their role in determining Octane Sensitivity have not been addressed previously in terms of the basic structures of the fuel molecules. In particular, the importance of electron delocalization on low temperature hydrocarbon reactivity and its role in determining OS in engine fuel is described here for the first time. Finally, the role of electron delocalization on fuel reactivity and Octane Sensitivity is illustrated for a very wide range of engine fuel types, including n-alkane, 1-olefin, n-alcohol, and n-alkyl benzenes, and the unifying features of these fuels and their common trends, using existing detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms that have been collected and unified to produce an overall model with unprecedented capabilities.

  20. Internal combustion engine report: Spark ignited ICE GenSet optimization and novel concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Blarigan, P. Van

    1998-08-01

    In this manuscript the authors report on two projects each of which the goal is to produce cost effective hydrogen utilization technologies. These projects are: (1) the development of an electrical generation system using a conventional four-stroke spark-ignited internal combustion engine generator combination (SI-GenSet) optimized for maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, and (2) the development of a novel internal combustion engine concept. The SI-GenSet will be optimized to run on either hydrogen or hydrogen-blends. The novel concept seeks to develop an engine that optimizes the Otto cycle in a free piston configuration while minimizing all emissions. To this end the authors are developing a rapid combustion homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using a linear alternator for both power take-off and engine control. Targeted applications include stationary electrical power generation, stationary shaft power generation, hybrid vehicles, and nearly any other application now being accomplished with internal combustion engines.

  1. Flatness-based nonlinear embedded control and filtering for spark-ignited engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Arsie, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Highly efficient embedded control units for transportation means make use of advanced nonlinear control and estimation methods. In this research article a new nonlinear filtering and control method is applied to spark ignited (SI) engines. The proposed SI engine's control scheme requires the implementation of differential flatness theory together with a new nonlinear filtering approach (known as Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filtering). The considered method succeeds the efficient control of the SI engine parameters such as intake pressure and turn speed. To bring the control loop at a working stage additional problems have to be solved. These are for instance that (i) certain variables of the engine's state vector cannot be measured directly (e.g. the ones associated with input pressure), (ii) there are inaccuracies in the dynamic model of the SI engine while external perturbations and disturbances (such as friction torques) are exerted to the engine. The performance of the proposed control scheme is tested through simulation experiments.

  2. A comparison between direct spark ignition and prechamber ignition in an internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutman, L. D.

    1993-12-01

    We simulated the flow field and flame propagation near top dead center in a generic large-bore internal combustion engine using the COYOTE computer program, which is based on the full Navier-Stokes equations for a fluid mixture. The combustion chamber is a right circular cylinder, and the main charge is uniformly premixed. The calculations are axisymmetric. The results illustrate the differences in flow patterns, flame propagation, and thermal NO production between ignition with a spark plug and with a small prechamber. In the spark-ignited case, the flame propagates away from the spark plug approximately as a segment of a spherical surface, just as expected. With the prechamber, a high speed jet of hot combustion products shoots into the main chamber, quickly producing a large flame sheet that spreads along the piston face. The prechamber run consumes all of the fuel in half the time required by the spark-ignited case. The two cases produce comparable amounts of thermal NO at the end of fuel combustion.

  3. A comparison between direct spark ignition and prechamber ignition in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1993-12-03

    We simulated the flow field and flame propagation near top dead center in a generic large-bore internal combustion engine using the COYOTE computer program, which is based on the full Navier-Stokes equations for a fluid mixture. The combustion chamber is a right circular cylinder, and the main charge is uniformly premixed. The calculations are axisymmetric. The results illustrate the differences in flow patterns, flame propagation, and thermal NO production between ignition with a spark plug and with a small prechamber. In the spark-ignited case, the flame propagates away from the spark plug approximately as a segment of a spherical surface, just as expected. With the prechamber, a high speed jet of hot combustion products shoots into the main chamber, quickly producing a large flame sheet that spreads along the piston face. The prechamber run consumes all of the fuel in half the time required by the spark-ignited case. The two cases produce comparable amounts of thermal NO at the end of fuel combustion.

  4. Onboard Hydrogen Generation for a Spark Ignition Engine via Thermochemical Recuperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Isaac Alexander

    A method of exhaust heat recovery from a spark-ignition internal combustion engine was explored, utilizing a steam reforming thermochemical reactor to produce a hydrogen-rich effluent, which was then consumed in the engine. The effects of hydrogen in the combustion process have been studied extensively, and it has been shown that an extension of the lean stability limit is possible through hydrogen enrichment. The system efficiency and the extension of the operational range of an internal combustion engine were explored through the use of a methane fueled naturally aspirated single cylinder engine co-fueled with syngas produced with an on board methane steam reformer. It was demonstrated that an extension of the lean stability limit is possible using this system.

  5. Comparison of Waste Heat Recovery from the Exhaust of a Spark Ignition and a Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, K. T.; Schmidt, M.; Zybala, R.; Merkisz, J.; Fuć, P.; Lijewski, P.

    2010-09-01

    We present herein a design for and performance measurements of a prototype thermoelectric generator (TEG) mounted on both a spark ignition engine (0.9 dm3) and a self-ignition engine (1.3 dm3). Using the prototype TEG as a tool, benchmark studies were performed in order to compare its parameters in terms of heat recovery from exhaust gases of both engine types. The test bed study was performed with an Automex AMX-210/100 eddy-current brake dynamometer. To provide a comprehensive overview of the TEG operating conditions, characterization of its parameters such as temperature distribution, heat flux density, and efficiency was done at engine speeds and loads similar to those within the range of operation of real road conditions.

  6. Lean-burn hydrogen spark-ignited engines: the mechanical equivalent to the fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Fuel cells are considered as the ideal power source for future vehicles, due to their high efficiency and low emissions. However, extensive use of fuel cells in light-duty vehicles is likely to be years away, due to their high manufacturing cost. Hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited, homogeneous-charge engines offer a near-term alternative to fuel cells. Hydrogen in a spark-ignited engine can be burned at very low equivalence ratios, so that NO[sub x] emissions can be reduced to less than 10 ppm without catalyst. HC and CO emissions may result from oxidation of engine oil, but by proper design are negligible (a few ppm). Lean operation also results in increased indicated efficiency due to the thermodynamic properties of the gaseous mixture contained in the cylinder. The high effective octane number of hydrogen allows the use of a high compression ratio, further increasing engine efficiency. In this paper, a simplified engine model is used for predicting hydrogen engine efficiency and emissions. The model uses basic thermodynamic equations for the compression and expansion processes, along with an empirical correlation for heat transfer, to predict engine indicated efficiency. A friction correlation and a supercharger/turbocharger model are then used to calculate brake thermal efficiency. The model is validated with many 1345 experimental points obtained in a recent evaluation of a hydrogen research engine. The experimental data are used to adjust the empirical constants in the heat release rate and heat transfer correlation. The adjusted engine model predicts pressure traces, indicated efficiency and NO,, emissions with good accuracy over the range of speed, equivalence ratio and manifold pressure experimentally covered.

  7. A Photographic Study of Combustion and Knock in a Spark-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C

    1938-01-01

    Report presents the results of a photographic study of the combustion in a spark-ignition engine using both Schlieren and flame photographs taken at high rates of speed. Although shock waves are present after knock occurs, there was no evidence of any type of sonic or supersonic compression waves existing in the combustion gases prior to the occurrence of knock. Artificially induced shock waves in the engine did not in themselves cause knock. The photographs also indicate that, although auto-ignition ahead of the flame front may occur in conjunction with knock, it is not necessary for the occurrence of knock. There is also evidence that the reaction is not completed in the flame front but continues for some time after the flame front has passed through the charge.

  8. Preknock Vibrations in a Spark-Ignition Engine Cylinder as Revealed by High-Speed Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Cearcy D; Logan, Walter O , Jr

    1944-01-01

    The high-speed photographic investigation of the mechanics of spark-ignition engine knock recorded in three previous reports has been extended with use of the NACA high-speed camera and combustion apparatus with a piezoelectric pressure pickup in the combustion chamber. The motion pictures of knocking combustion were taken at the rate of 40,000 frames per second. Existence of the preknock vibrations in the engine cylinder suggested in Technical Report no.727 has been definitely proved and the vibrations have been analyzed both in the high-speed motion pictures and the pressure traces. Data are also included to show that the preknock vibrations do not progressively build up to cause knock. The effect of tetraethyl lead on the preknock vibrations has been studied and results of the tests are presented. Photographs are presented which in some cases clearly show evidence of autoignition in the end zone a considerable length of time before knock occurs.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of turbulent combustion in a spark ignition engine. Experimental evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beretta, G. P.; Rashidi, M.; Keck, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A method independent of physical modeling assumptions is presented to analyze high speed flame photography and cylinder pressure measurements from a transparent piston spark ignition research engine. The method involves defining characteristic quantities of the phenomena of flame propagation and combustion, and estimating their values from the experimental information. Using only the pressure information, the mass fraction curves are examined. An empirical burning law is presented which simulates such curves. Statistical data for the characteristics delay and burning angles which show that cycle to cycle fractional variations are of the same order of magnitude for both angles are discussed. The enflamed and burnt mass fractions are compared as are the rates of entrainment and burning.

  10. Stochastic Modelling and Estimation for Cyclic Pressure Variations in Spark Ignition Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. B.; Peyton Jones, J. C.; Landsborough, K. J.

    2001-03-01

    A new method of fitting linearised, parametric stochastic models of cycle-by-cycle variations of pressure, during the combustion region of a spark ignition petrol engine, is described. The technique is based on stochastically fitting the combustion models to the covariance function of the measured pressure fluctuations, obtained by averaging over the entire ensemble of measured cycles. Comparisons, for two specific combustion models, with corresponding results obtained by deterministic fitting on a cycle-by-cycle basis, show that the new method gives a similar degree of fit, but with much improved computational efficiency. It is also demonstrated that the degree of fit to the data can be further improved by modelling the residual error between the data and the combustion models in terms of Chebyshev polynomials: the parameters in these polynomials may be determined by stochastic fitting. The technique has wider applications in the condition monitoring of rotating machinery.

  11. "Simultaneous measurement of flame impingement and piston surface temperatures in an optically accessible spark ignition engine"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Carl-Philipp; Honza, Rene; Böhm, Benjamin; Dreizler, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    This paper shows the results of spatially resolved temperature measurements of the piston surface of an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine during flame impingement. High-speed thermographic phosphor thermometry (TPT), using Gd3Ga5O12:Cr,Ce, and planar laser-induced fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical (OH-PLIF) were used to investigate the temperature increase and the time and position of flame impingement at the piston surface. Measurements were conducted at two operating cases and showed heating rates of up to 16,000 K/s. The OH-PLIF measurements were used to localize flame impingement and calculate conditioned statistics of the temperature profiles. The TPT coating was characterized and its influence on the temperature measurements evaluated.

  12. Studies on exhaust emissions of catalytic coated spark ignition engine with adulterated gasoline.

    PubMed

    Muralikrishna, M V S; Kishor, K; Venkata Ramana Reddy, Ch

    2006-04-01

    Adulteration of automotive fuels, especially, gasoline with cheaper fuels is widespread throughout south Asia. Some adulterants decrease the performance and life of the engine and increase the emission of harmful pollutants causing environmental and health problems. The present investigation is carried out to study the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine with kerosene blended gasoline with different versions of the engine, such as conventional engine and catalytic coated engine with different proportions of the kerosene ranging from 0% to 40% by volume in steps of 10% in the kerosene-gasoline blend. The catalytic coated engine used in the study has copper coating of thickness 400 microns on piston and inner surface of the cylinder head. The pollutants in the exhaust, carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC) are measured with Netel Chromatograph CO and HC analyzer at peak load operation of the engine. The engine is provided with catalytic converter with sponge iron as a catalyst to control the pollutants from the exhaust of the engine. An air injection is also provided to the catalytic converter to further reduce the pollutants. The pollutants found to increase drastically with adulterated gasoline. Copper-coated engine with catalytic converter significantly reduced pollutants, when compared to conventional engine.

  13. Analysis of an Increase in the Efficiency of a Spark Ignition Engine Through the Application of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Galant, Marta; Siedlecki, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    We have analyzed the increase of the overall efficiency of a spark ignition engine through energy recovery following the application of an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design. The design of the generator was developed following emission investigations during vehicle driving under city traffic conditions. The measurement points were defined by actual operation conditions (engine speed and load), subsequently reproduced on an engine dynamometer. Both the vehicle used in the on-road tests and the engine dynamometer were fit with the same, downsized spark ignition engine (with high effective power-to-displacement ratio). The thermodynamic parameters of the exhaust gases (temperature and exhaust gas mass flow) were measured on the engine testbed, along with the fuel consumption and electric current generated by the thermoelectric modules. On this basis, the power of the ATEG and its impact on overall engine efficiency were determined.

  14. Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions of a Supercharged Spark Ignited Hydrogen Fueled Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieran, Sean

    A spark ignited hydrogen fueled engine was operated at three equivalence ratios (0.4, 0.5, and 0.6) with a supercharger. During steady-state road load conditions, the engine produced exceptionally low unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter emissions. The oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of the supercharged engine were 31.4, 149.5, and 787.0 mg*NOx/km for the equivalence ratios 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 respectively. Given that the current EPA regulations are 99.4 mg*NOx/km, this engine configuration represents a possible replacement option for gasoline fueled engines without the need for exhaust after treatment. During engine start-up, some of the supercharged tests exhibited particulate matter emission spikes. These particulate matter spikes do not seem to be related to equivalence ratio, coolant temperature, testing order, or start-up acceleration. Currently, there is no explanation why some of the tests produced particulate matter during engine start-up and others did not.

  15. Flatness-based embedded control in successive loops for spark-ignited engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos

    2015-11-01

    Embedded control units for transportation systems make use of advanced nonlinear control methods. In this research article a new nonlinear control method is applied to spark ignited (SI) engines. The proposed SI engine's control scheme is based on differential flatness theory The considered method succeeds the efficient control of the SI engine parameters such as intake pressure and turn speed. The method makes use of a state-space model of the SI-engine in the so-called triangular form. The controller design proceeds by showing that each row of the state-space model of the SI engine stands for a differentially flat system, where the flat output is chosen to be the associated state variable. Next, for each subsystem which is linked with a row of the state-space model, a virtual control input is computed, that can invert the subsystem's dynamics and can eliminate the subsystem's tracking error. From the last row of the state-space description, the control input that is actually applied to the SI engine is found. This control input contains recursively all virtual control inputs which were computed for the individual subsystems associated with the previous rows of the state-space equation. Thus, by tracing the rows of the state-space model backwards, at each iteration of the control algorithm, one can finally obtain the control input that should be applied to the SI-engine so as to assure that all its state vector elements will converge to the desirable setpoints.

  16. Characterizing dilute combustion instabilities in a multi-cylinder spark-ignited engine using symbolic analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Daw, C. Stuart; Finney, Charles E. A.; Kaul, Brian C.; ...

    2014-12-29

    Spark-ignited internal combustion engines have evolved considerably in recent years in response to increasingly stringent regulations for emissions and fuel-economy. One new advanced engine strategy utilizes high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce combustion temperatures, thereby increasing thermodynamic efficiency and reducing nitrogen oxide emissions. While this strategy can be highly effective, it also poses major control and design challenges due to the large combustion oscillations that develop at sufficiently high EGR levels. Previous research has documented that combustion instabilities can propagate between successive engine cycles in individual cylinders via self-generated feedback of reactive species and thermal energy inmore » the retained residual exhaust gases. In this work, we use symbolic analysis to characterize multi-cylinder combustion oscillations in an experimental engine operating with external EGR. At low levels of EGR, intra-cylinder oscillations are clearly visible and appear to be associated with brief, intermittent coupling among cylinders. As EGR is increased further, a point is reached where all four cylinders lock almost completely in phase and alternate simultaneously between two distinct bi-stable combustion states. From a practical perspective, it is important to understand the causes of this phenomenon and develop diagnostics that might be applied to ameliorate its effects. We demonstrate here that two approaches for symbolizing the engine combustion measurements can provide useful probes for characterizing these instabilities.« less

  17. Characterizing dilute combustion instabilities in a multi-cylinder spark-ignited engine using symbolic analysis.

    PubMed

    Daw, C S; Finney, C E A; Kaul, B C; Edwards, K D; Wagner, R M

    2015-02-13

    Spark-ignited internal combustion engines have evolved considerably in recent years in response to increasingly stringent regulations for emissions and fuel economy. One new advanced engine strategy ustilizes high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce combustion temperatures, thereby increasing thermodynamic efficiency and reducing nitrogen oxide emissions. While this strategy can be highly effective, it also poses major control and design challenges due to the large combustion oscillations that develop at sufficiently high EGR levels. Previous research has documented that combustion instabilities can propagate between successive engine cycles in individual cylinders via self-generated feedback of reactive species and thermal energy in the retained residual exhaust gases. In this work, we use symbolic analysis to characterize multi-cylinder combustion oscillations in an experimental engine operating with external EGR. At low levels of EGR, intra-cylinder oscillations are clearly visible and appear to be associated with brief, intermittent coupling among cylinders. As EGR is increased further, a point is reached where all four cylinders lock almost completely in phase and alternate simultaneously between two distinct bi-stable combustion states. From a practical perspective, it is important to understand the causes of this phenomenon and develop diagnostics that might be applied to ameliorate its effects. We demonstrate here that two approaches for symbolizing the engine combustion measurements can provide useful probes for characterizing these instabilities. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterizing dilute combustion instabilities in a multi-cylinder spark-ignited engine using symbolic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C. Stuart; Finney, Charles E. A.; Kaul, Brian C.; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M.

    2014-12-29

    Spark-ignited internal combustion engines have evolved considerably in recent years in response to increasingly stringent regulations for emissions and fuel-economy. One new advanced engine strategy utilizes high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce combustion temperatures, thereby increasing thermodynamic efficiency and reducing nitrogen oxide emissions. While this strategy can be highly effective, it also poses major control and design challenges due to the large combustion oscillations that develop at sufficiently high EGR levels. Previous research has documented that combustion instabilities can propagate between successive engine cycles in individual cylinders via self-generated feedback of reactive species and thermal energy in the retained residual exhaust gases. In this work, we use symbolic analysis to characterize multi-cylinder combustion oscillations in an experimental engine operating with external EGR. At low levels of EGR, intra-cylinder oscillations are clearly visible and appear to be associated with brief, intermittent coupling among cylinders. As EGR is increased further, a point is reached where all four cylinders lock almost completely in phase and alternate simultaneously between two distinct bi-stable combustion states. From a practical perspective, it is important to understand the causes of this phenomenon and develop diagnostics that might be applied to ameliorate its effects. We demonstrate here that two approaches for symbolizing the engine combustion measurements can provide useful probes for characterizing these instabilities.

  19. Experimental cross-correlation nitrogen Q-branch CARS thermometry in a spark ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockett, R. D.; Ball, D.; Robertson, G. N.

    2013-07-01

    A purely experimental technique was employed to derive temperatures from nitrogen Q-branch Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) spectra, obtained in a high pressure, high temperature environment (spark ignition Otto engine). This was in order to obviate any errors arising from deficiencies in the spectral scaling laws which are commonly used to represent nitrogen Q-branch CARS spectra at high pressure. The spectra obtained in the engine were compared with spectra obtained in a calibrated high pressure, high temperature cell, using direct cross-correlation in place of the minimisation of sums of squares of residuals. The technique is demonstrated through the measurement of air temperature as a function of crankshaft angle inside the cylinder of a motored single-cylinder Ricardo E6 research engine, followed by the measurement of fuel-air mixture temperatures obtained during the compression stroke in a knocking Ricardo E6 engine. A standard CARS programme (SANDIA's CARSFIT) was employed to calibrate the altered non-resonant background contribution to the CARS spectra that was caused by the alteration to the mole fraction of nitrogen in the unburned fuel-air mixture. The compression temperature profiles were extrapolated in order to predict the auto-ignition temperatures.

  20. FUEL EFFECTS ON COMBUSTION WITH EGR DILUTION IN SPARK IGNITED ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P

    2016-01-01

    The use of EGR as a diluent allows operation with an overall stoichiometric charge composition, and the addition of cooled EGR results in well-understood thermodynamic benefits for improved fuel consumption. This study investigates the effect of fuel on the combustion and emission response of EGR dilution in spark ignited engines. A 2.0 L GM Ecotec LNF engine equipped with the production side-mounted direct injection (DI) fueling system is used in this study. Ethanol, isooctane and certified gasoline are investigated with EGR from 0% to the EGR dilution tolerance. Constant BMEP at 2000 rpm was operated with varying CA50 from 8 CAD to 16 CAD aTDCf. The results show that ethanol gives the largest EGR tolerance at a given combustion phasing, engine load and speed. The improved EGR dilution tolerance with ethanol is attributed to a faster flame speed, which manifests itself as shorter combustion duration. Data shows that the combustion stability limit occurs at a critical combustion duration that is fuel independent. Due to different flame speeds, this critical combustion duration occurs at different EGR levels for the different fuels.

  1. LES FOR SIMULATING THE GAS EXCHANGE PROCESS IN A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE

    SciTech Connect

    Ameen, Muhsin M; yang, xiaofeng; kuo, tang-wei; Xue, Qingluan; Som, Sibendu

    2015-01-01

    The gas exchange process is known to be a significant source of cyclic variability in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). Traditionally, Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are expected to capture these cycle-to-cycle variations. This paper reports a numerical effort to establish best practices for capturing cyclic variability with LES tools in a Transparent Combustion Chamber (TCC) spark ignition engine. The main intention is to examine the sensitivity of cycle averaged mean and Root Mean Square (RMS) flow fields and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) modes to different computational hardware, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and LES sub-grid scale (SGS) models, since these aspects have received little attention in the past couple of decades. This study also examines the effect of near-wall resolution on the predicted wall shear stresses. LES is pursued with commercially available CONVERGE code. Two different SGS models are tested, a one-equation eddy viscosity model and dynamic structure model. The results seem to indicate that both mean and RMS fields without any SGS model are not much different than those with LES models, either one-equation eddy viscosity or dynamic structure model. Computational hardware results in subtle quantitative differences, especially in RMS distributions. The influence of AMR on both mean and RMS fields is negligible. The predicted shear stresses near the liner walls is also found to be relatively insensitive to near-wall resolution except in the valve curtain region.

  2. Neural network controller development and implementation for spark ignition engines with high EGR levels.

    PubMed

    Vance, Jonathan Blake; Singh, Atmika; Kaul, Brian C; Jagannathan, Sarangapani; Drallmeier, James A

    2007-07-01

    Past research has shown substantial reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) concentrations by using 10%-25% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition (SI) engines (see Dudek and Sain, 1989). However, under high EGR levels, the engine exhibits strong cyclic dispersion in heat release which may lead to instability and unsatisfactory performance preventing commercial engines to operate with high EGR levels. A neural network (NN)-based output feedback controller is developed to reduce cyclic variation in the heat release under high levels of EGR even when the engine dynamics are unknown by using fuel as the control input. A separate control loop was designed for controlling EGR levels. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is given and the boundedness of the control input is demonstrated by relaxing separation principle, persistency of excitation condition, certainty equivalence principle, and linear in the unknown parameter assumptions. Online training is used for the adaptive NN and no offline training phase is needed. This online learning feature and model-free approach is used to demonstrate the applicability of the controller on a different engine with minimal effort. Simulation results demonstrate that the cyclic dispersion is reduced significantly using the proposed controller when implemented on an engine model that has been validated experimentally. For a single cylinder research engine fitted with a modern four-valve head (Ricardo engine), experimental results at 15% EGR indicate that cyclic dispersion was reduced 33% by the controller, an improvement of fuel efficiency by 2%, and a 90% drop in NOx from stoichiometric operation without EGR was observed. Moreover, unburned hydrocarbons (uHC) drop by 6% due to NN control as compared to the uncontrolled scenario due to the drop in cyclic dispersion. Similar performance was observed with the controller on a different engine.

  3. Devices to improve the performance of a conventional two-stroke spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Nagalingam, B.; Gopalakrishnan, K.V.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents research efforts made in three different phases with the objective of improving the fuel economy of and reducing exhaust emissions from conventional, carbureted, two-stroke spark ignition (SI) engines, which are widely employed in two-wheel transportation in India. A review concerning the existing two-stroke engine technology for this application is included. In the first phase, a new scavenging system was developed and tested to reduce the loss of fresh charge through the exhaust port. In die second phase, the following measures were carried out to improve the combustion process: (1) using an in-cylinder catalyst, such as copper, chromium, and nickel, in the form of coating; (2) providing moderate thermal insulation in the combustion chamber, either by depositing thin ceramic material or by metal inserts; (3) developing a high-energy ignition system; and (4) employing high-octane fuel, such as methanol, ethanol, eucalyptus oil, and orange oil, as a blending agent with gasoline. Based on the effectiveness of the above measures, an optimized design was developed in the final phase to achieve improved performance. Test results indicate that with an optimized two-stroke SI engine, the maximum percentage improvement in brake thermal efficiency is about 31%, together with a reduction of 3400 ppm in hydrocarbons (HC) and 3% by volume of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions over the normal engine (at 3 kW, 3000 rpm). Higher cylinder peak pressures (3-5 bar), lower ignition delay (2-4{degrees}CA){degrees} and shorter combustion duration (4-10 {degrees}CA) are obtained. The knock-limited power output is also enhanced by 12.7% at a high compression ratio (CR) of 9:1. The proposed modifications in the optimized design are simple, low-cost and easy to adopt for both production and existing engines.

  4. Analysis of biomass and waste gasification lean syngases combustion for power generation using spark ignition engines.

    PubMed

    Marculescu, Cosmin; Cenuşă, Victor; Alexe, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study for food processing industry waste to energy conversion using gasification and internal combustion engine for power generation. The biomass we used consisted in bones and meat residues sampled directly from the industrial line, characterised by high water content, about 42% in mass, and potential health risks. Using the feedstock properties, experimentally determined, two air-gasification process configurations were assessed and numerically modelled to quantify the effects on produced syngas properties. The study also focused on drying stage integration within the conversion chain: either external or integrated into the gasifier. To comply with environmental regulations on feedstock to syngas conversion both solutions were developed in a closed system using a modified down-draft gasifier that integrates the pyrolysis, gasification and partial oxidation stages. Good quality syngas with up to 19.1% - CO; 17% - H2; and 1.6% - CH4 can be produced. The syngas lower heating value may vary from 4.0 MJ/Nm(3) to 6.7 MJ/Nm(3) depending on process configuration. The influence of syngas fuel properties on spark ignition engines performances was studied in comparison to the natural gas (methane) and digestion biogas. In order to keep H2 molar quota below the detonation value of ⩽4% for the engines using syngas, characterised by higher hydrogen fraction, the air excess ratio in the combustion process must be increased to [2.2-2.8]. The results in this paper represent valuable data required by the design of waste to energy conversion chains with intermediate gas fuel production. The data is suitable for Otto engines characterised by power output below 1 MW, designed for natural gas consumption and fuelled with low calorific value gas fuels.

  5. STS-55 pad abort: Engine 2011 oxidizer preburner augmented spark igniter check valve leak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The STS-55 initial launch attempt of Columbia (OV102) was terminated on KSC launch pad A March 22, 1993 at 9:51 AM E.S.T. due to violation of an ME-3 (Engine 2011) Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) limit exceedance. The event description and timeline are summarized. Propellant loading was initiated on 22 March, 1993 at 1:15 AM EST. All SSME chill parameters and launch commit criteria (LCC) were nominal. At engine start plus 1.44 seconds, a Failure Identification (FID) was posted against Engine 2011 for exceeding the 50 psia Oxidizer Preburner (OPB) purge pressure redline. The engine was shut down at 1.50 seconds followed by Engines 2034 and 2030. All shut down sequences were nominal and the mission was safely aborted. The OPB purge pressure redline violation and the abort profile/overlay for all three engines are depicted. SSME Avionics hardware and software performed nominally during the incident. A review of vehicle data table (VDT) data and controller software logic revealed no failure indications other than the single FID 013-414, OPB purge pressure redline exceeded. Software logic was executed according to requirements and there was no anomalous controller software operation. Immediately following the abort, a Rocketdyne/NASA failure investigation team was assembled. The team successfully isolated the failure cause to the oxidizer preburner augmented spark igniter purge check valve not being fully closed due to contamination. The source of the contaminant was traced to a cut segment from a rubber O-ring which was used in a fine clean tool during valve production prior to 1992. The valve was apparently contaminated during its fabrication in 1985. The valve had performed acceptably on four previous flights of the engine, and SSME flight history shows 780 combined check valve flights without failure. The failure of an Engine 3 (SSME No. 2011) check valve to close was sensed by onboard engine instruments even though all other engine operations were normal. This

  6. STS-55 pad abort: Engine 2011 oxidizer preburner augmented spark igniter check valve leak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The STS-55 initial launch attempt of Columbia (OV102) was terminated on KSC launch pad A March 22, 1993 at 9:51 AM E.S.T. due to violation of an ME-3 (Engine 2011) Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) limit exceedance. The event description and timeline are summarized. Propellant loading was initiated on 22 March, 1993 at 1:15 AM EST. All SSME chill parameters and launch commit criteria (LCC) were nominal. At engine start plus 1.44 seconds, a Failure Identification (FID) was posted against Engine 2011 for exceeding the 50 psia Oxidizer Preburner (OPB) purge pressure redline. The engine was shut down at 1.50 seconds followed by Engines 2034 and 2030. All shut down sequences were nominal and the mission was safely aborted. The OPB purge pressure redline violation and the abort profile/overlay for all three engines are depicted. SSME Avionics hardware and software performed nominally during the incident. A review of vehicle data table (VDT) data and controller software logic revealed no failure indications other than the single FID 013-414, OPB purge pressure redline exceeded. Software logic was executed according to requirements and there was no anomalous controller software operation. Immediately following the abort, a Rocketdyne/NASA failure investigation team was assembled. The team successfully isolated the failure cause to the oxidizer preburner augmented spark igniter purge check valve not being fully closed due to contamination. The source of the contaminant was traced to a cut segment from a rubber O-ring which was used in a fine clean tool during valve production prior to 1992. The valve was apparently contaminated during its fabrication in 1985. The valve had performed acceptably on four previous flights of the engine, and SSME flight history shows 780 combined check valve flights without failure. The failure of an Engine 3 (SSME No. 2011) check valve to close was sensed by onboard engine instruments even though all other engine operations were normal. This

  7. Some aspects of the CI engine modification aimed at operation on LPG with the application of spark ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaparuk, J.; Luft, S.; Skrzek, T.; Wojtyniak, M.

    2016-09-01

    A lot of investigation on modification of the compression ignition engine aimed at operation on LPG with the application of spark ignition has been carried out in the Laboratory of Vehicles and Combustion Engines at Kazimierz Pulaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom. This paper presents results of investigation on establishment of the proper ignition advance angle in the modified engine. Within the framework of this investigation it was assessed the effect of this regulation on basic engine operating parameters, exhaust emission as well as basic combustion parameters.

  8. Multifractal and statistical analyses of heat release fluctuations in a spark ignition engine.

    PubMed

    Sen, Asok K; Litak, Grzegorz; Kaminski, Tomasz; Wendeker, Mirosław

    2008-09-01

    Using multifractal and statistical analyses, we have investigated the complex dynamics of cycle-to-cycle heat release variations in a spark ignition engine. Three different values of the spark advance angle (Delta beta) are examined. The multifractal complexity is characterized by the singularity spectrum of the heat release time series in terms of the Holder exponent. The broadness of the singularity spectrum gives a measure of the degree of mutifractality or complexity of the time series. The broader the spectrum, the richer and more complex is the structure with a higher degree of multifractality. Using this broadness measure, the complexity in heat release variations is compared for the three spark advance angles (SAAs). Our results reveal that the heat release data are most complex for Delta beta=30 degrees followed in order by Delta beta=15 degrees and 5 degrees. In other words, the complexity increases with increasing SAA. In addition, we found that for all the SAAs considered, the heat release fluctuations behave like an antipersistent or a negatively correlated process, becoming more antipersistent with decreasing SAA. We have also performed a statistical analysis of the heat release variations by calculating the kurtosis of their probability density functions (pdfs). It is found that for the smallest SAA considered, Delta beta=5 degrees, the pdf is nearly Gaussian with a kurtosis of 3.42. As the value of the SAA increases, the pdf deviates from a Gaussian distribution and tends to be more peaked with larger values of kurtosis. In particular, the kurtosis has values of 3.94 and 6.69, for Delta beta=15 degrees and 30 degrees, respectively. A non-Gaussian density function with kurtosis in excess of 3 is indicative of intermittency. A larger value of kurtosis implies a higher degree of intermittency. (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Cycle Engine Modelling Of Spark Ignition Engine Processes during Wide-Open Throttle (WOT) Engine Operation Running By Gasoline Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, M. F. Abdul; Rahman, M. M.; Bakar, R. A.

    2012-09-01

    One-dimensional engine model is developed to simulate spark ignition engine processes in a 4-stroke, 4 cylinders gasoline engine. Physically, the baseline engine is inline cylinder engine with 3-valves per cylinder. Currently, the engine's mixture is formed by external mixture formation using piston-type carburettor. The model of the engine is based on one-dimensional equation of the gas exchange process, isentropic compression and expansion, progressive engine combustion process, and accounting for the heat transfer and frictional losses as well as the effect of valves overlapping. The model is tested for 2000, 3000 and 4000 rpm of engine speed and validated using experimental engine data. Results showed that the engine is able to simulate engine's combustion process and produce reasonable prediction. However, by comparing with experimental data, major discrepancy is noticeable especially on the 2000 and 4000 rpm prediction. At low and high engine speed, simulated cylinder pressures tend to under predict the measured data. Whereas the cylinder temperatures always tend to over predict the measured data at all engine speed. The most accurate prediction is obtained at medium engine speed of 3000 rpm. Appropriate wall heat transfer setup is vital for more precise calculation of cylinder pressure and temperature. More heat loss to the wall can lower cylinder temperature. On the hand, more heat converted to the useful work mean an increase in cylinder pressure. Thus, instead of wall heat transfer setup, the Wiebe combustion parameters are needed to be carefully evaluated for better results.

  10. A Description and Test Results of a Spark-Ignition and a Compression-Ignition 2-Stroke-Cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Whitney, E G

    1935-01-01

    This report presents performance results of air cooled and water-cooled engines. The results obtained were sufficiently promising to warrant further investigation with fuel injection and spark ignition, with the same arrangement of inlet ports and exhaust valves at the bottom of the cylinder and the exhaust gases discharged through two poppet valves in the cylinder head. The displacement of the engine was 118 cubic inches. Optimum performance was obtained with the inlet air directed into the cylinder at an angle of 20 degrees to the radial.

  11. Analysis of Spark-Ignition Engine Knock as Seen in Photographs Taken at 200,000 Frames Per Second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Cearcy D; Olsen, H Lowell; Logan, Walter O , Jr; Osterstrom, Gordon E

    1946-01-01

    A motion picture of the development of knock in a spark-ignition engine is presented, which consists of 20 photographs taken at intervals of 5 microseconds, or at a rate of 200,000 photographs per second, with an equivalent wide-open exposure time of 6.4 microseconds for each photograph. A motion picture of a complete combustion process, including the development of knock, taken at the rate of 40,000 photographs per second is also presented to assist the reader in orienting the photographs of the knock development taken at 200,000 frames per second.

  12. Properties, performance and emissions of medium concentration methanol-gasoline blends in a single-cylinder, spark-ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sapre, A.R

    1988-01-01

    Methanol-gasoline blends containing 30 to 70 percent by volume methanol have potential to eliminate, or at least alleviate, major technical problems with the use of neat methanol such as safety, cold start and the reduced vehicle range. However, little information exits on their properties, performance and emissions. Experiments were carried out in a spark-ignited, single-cylinder, variable compression ratio, Waukesha RDH engine with primarily commercial grade unleaded gasoline, commercial grade methanol, M30, M50 and M70 methanol-gasoline blends to compare efficiency, performance and emissions characteristics. The fuels were compared at their knock-limited compression ratios and MBT spark-timing.

  13. Relation Between Spark-Ignition Engine Knock, Detonation Waves, and Autoignition as Shown by High-Speed Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Cearcy D

    1946-01-01

    A critical review of literature bearing on the autoignition and detonation-wave theories of spark-ignition engine knock and on the nature of gas vibrations associated with combustion and knock results in the conclusion that neither the autoignition theory nor the detonation-wave theory is an adequate explanation of spark-ignition engine knock. A knock theory is proposed, combining the autoignition and detonation-wave theories, which introduces the idea that the detonation wave develops in autoignited or after-burning gases, and ascribes comparatively low-pitched heavy knocks to autoignition but high-pitched pinging knocks to detonation waves with the possibility of combinations of the two types of knocks. Analysis of five shots of knocking combustion, taken with the NACA high-speed motion-picture camera at the rate of 40,000 photographs per second reveals propagation speeds ranging from 3250 to more than 5500 feet per second. The range of propagation speeds from 3250 to more than 5500 feet per second is held to be considered with the proposed combined theory but not with either the simple autoignition theory or the simple detonation-wave theory.

  14. Analysis of Spark-Ignition Engine Knock as Seen in Photographs Taken at 200,000 Frames Per Second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Cearcy D.; Olsen, H. Lowell; Logan, Walter O., Jr.; Osterstrom, Gordon E

    1946-01-01

    A motion picture of the development of knock in a spark-ignition engine, is presented, which consists of 20 photographs taken at intervals of 5 microseconds, or at a rate of 200,000 photographs a second, with an equivalent wide-open exposure time of 6.4 microseconds for each photograph. A motion picture of a complete combustion process, including the development of knock, taken at the rate of 40,000 photographs a second is also presented to assist the reader in orienting the photographs of the knock development taken at 200,000 frames per second. The photographs taken at 200,000 frames per second are analyzed and the conclusion is made that the type of knock in the spark-ignition engine involving violent gas vibration originates as self-propagating disturbance starting at a point in the.burn1ig or autoigniting gases and spreading out from that point through the incompletely burned gases at a rate as high as 6800 feet per second, or about twice the speed of sound in the burned gases. Apparent formation of free carbon particles in both the burning and the burned gas is observed within 10 microseconds after passage of the knock disturbance through the gases.

  15. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Edward; Gough, Charles

    2015-07-07

    This report summarizes activities conducted in support of the project “The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-EE0005654, as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated May 2012.

  16. Identification of Knock in NACA High-Speed Photographs of Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Cearcy D; Olsen, H Lowell

    1943-01-01

    Report presents the results of a study of combustion in a spark-ignition engine given in NACA Technical Reports 704 and 727. The present investigation was made with the NACA high-speed motion-picture camera, operating at 40,000 photographs a second, and with a cathode-ray oscillograph operating on a piezoelectric pick-up in the combustion chamber. Photographs are presented showing that the origin of knock is not necessarily in the end gas. The data obtained indicates that knock takes place only in a part of the cylinder charge which has been previously ignited either by autoignition or by the passage of the flame fronts but which has not burned to completion. Mottled regions in the high-speed Schlieren photographs are demonstrated to represent combustion regions.

  17. A High-Speed Motion-Picture Study of Normal Combustion, Knock and Preignition in a Spark-Ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C; Miller, Cearcy D

    1941-01-01

    Combustion in a spark-ignition engine was investigated by means of the NACA high-speed motion-picture cameras. This camera is operated at a speed of 40,000 photographs a second and therefore makes possible the study of changes that take place in the intervals as short as 0.000025 second. When the motion pictures are projected at the normal speed of 16 frames a second, any rate of movement shown is slowed down 2500 times. Photographs are presented of normal combustion, of combustion from preignitions, and of knock both with and without preignition. The photographs of combustion show that knock may be preceded by a period of exothermic reaction in the end zone that persists for a time interval of as much as 0.0006 second. The knock takes place in 0.00005 second or less.

  18. Effects of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR) on the particulate matter emissions from a direct injection spark ignition engine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Chen, Longfei; Stone, Richard

    2011-10-15

    Emissions of fine particles have been shown to have a large impact on the atmospheric environment and human health. Researchers have shown that gasoline engines, especially direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, tend to emit large amounts of small size particles compared to diesel engines fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs). As a result, the particle number emissions of DISI engines will be restricted by the forthcoming EU6 legislation. The particulate emission level of DISI engines means that they could face some challenges in meeting the EU6 requirement. This paper is an experimental study on the size-resolved particle number emissions from a spray guided DISI engine and the performance of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR), as the EU legislation seeks to exclude volatile particles. The performance of the catalytic VPR was evaluated by varying its temperature and the exhaust residence time. The effect of the catalytic VPR acting as an oxidation catalyst on particle emissions was also tested. The results show that the catalytic VPR led to a marked reduction in the number of particles, especially the smaller size (nucleation mode) particles. The catalytic VPR is essentially an oxidation catalyst, and when post three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust was introduced to the catalytic VPR, the performance of the catalytic VPR was not affected much by the use of additional air, i.e., no significant oxidation of the PM was observed.

  19. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carolyn; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-08-30

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition

  20. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul M.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition.

  1. The Effect of Compression Ratio, Fuel Octane Rating, and Ethanol Content on Spark-Ignition Engine Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Leone, Thomas G; Anderson, James E; Davis, Richard S; Iqbal, Asim; Reese, Ronald A; Shelby, Michael H; Studzinski, William M

    2015-09-15

    Light-duty vehicles (LDVs) in the United States and elsewhere are required to meet increasingly challenging regulations on fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as criteria pollutant emissions. New vehicle trends to improve efficiency include higher compression ratio, downsizing, turbocharging, downspeeding, and hybridization, each involving greater operation of spark-ignited (SI) engines under higher-load, knock-limited conditions. Higher octane ratings for regular-grade gasoline (with greater knock resistance) are an enabler for these technologies. This literature review discusses both fuel and engine factors affecting knock resistance and their contribution to higher engine efficiency and lower tailpipe CO2 emissions. Increasing compression ratios for future SI engines would be the primary response to a significant increase in fuel octane ratings. Existing LDVs would see more advanced spark timing and more efficient combustion phasing. Higher ethanol content is one available option for increasing the octane ratings of gasoline and would provide additional engine efficiency benefits for part and full load operation. An empirical calculation method is provided that allows estimation of expected vehicle efficiency, volumetric fuel economy, and CO2 emission benefits for future LDVs through higher compression ratios for different assumptions on fuel properties and engine types. Accurate "tank-to-wheel" estimates of this type are necessary for "well-to-wheel" analyses of increased gasoline octane ratings in the context of light duty vehicle transportation.

  2. Nonlinear torque and air-to-fuel ratio control of spark ignition engines using neuro-sliding mode techniques.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting; Javaherian, Hossein; Liu, Derong

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the calibration and control of spark ignition engines using a combination of neural networks and sliding mode control technique. Two parallel neural networks are utilized to realize a neuro-sliding mode control (NSLMC) for self-learning control of automotive engines. The equivalent control and the corrective control terms are the outputs of the neural networks. Instead of using error backpropagation algorithm, the network weights of equivalent control are updated using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Moreover, a new approach is utilized to update the gain of corrective control. Both modifications of the NSLMC are aimed at improving the transient performance and speed of convergence. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we built neural network models for the engine torque (TRQ) and the air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) dynamics and developed NSLMC controllers to achieve tracking control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values under various operating conditions. From simulation studies, the feasibility and efficiency of the approach are illustrated. For both control problems, excellent tracking performance has been achieved.

  3. A Study by High-Speed Photography of Combustion and Knock in a Spark-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Cearcy D

    1942-01-01

    The study of combustion in a spark-ignition engine given in Technical Report no. 704 has been continued. The investigation was made with the NACA high-speed motion-picture camera and the NACA optical engine indicator. The camera operates at the rate of 40,000 photographs a second and makes possible the study of phenomena occurring in time intervals as short as 0.000025 second. Photographs are presented of combustion without knock and with both light and heavy knocks, the end zone of combustion being within the field of view. Time-pressure records covering the same conditions as the photographs are presented and their relations to the photographs are studied. Photographs with ignition at various advance angles are compared with a view to observing any possible relationship between pressure and flame depth. A tentative explanation of knock is suggested, which is designed to agree with the indications of the high-speed photographs and the time-pressure records.

  4. Effects of Fuel Laminar Flame Speed Compared to Engine Tumble Ratio, Ignition Energy, and Injection Strategy on Lean and EGR Dilute Spark Ignition Combustion

    DOE PAGES

    Kolodziej, Christopher P.; Pamminger, Michael; Sevik, James; ...

    2017-03-28

    Previously we show that fuels with higher laminar flame speed also have increased tolerance to EGR dilution. In this work, the effects of fuel laminar flame speed on both lean and EGR dilute spark ignition combustion stability were examined. Fuels blends of pure components (iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, ethanol, and methanol) were derived at two levels of laminar flame speed. Each fuel blend was tested in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine under both lean-out and EGR dilution sweeps until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure increased above thresholds of 3% and 5%. The relative importance of fuel laminar flamemore » speed to changes to engine design parameters (spark ignition energy, tumble ratio, and port vs. direct injection) was also assessed. Our results showed that fuel laminar flame speed can have as big an effect on lean or EGR dilute engine operation as engine design parameters, with the largest effects seen during EGR dilute operation and when changes were made to cylinder charge motion.« less

  5. Ethanol Blends and Engine Operating Strategy Effects on Light-Duty Spark-Ignition Engine Particle Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Barone, Teresa L; Storey, John Morse; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Spark ignition (SI) engines with direct injection (DI) fueling can improve fuel economy and vehicle power beyond that of port fuel injection (PFI). Despite this distinct advantage, DI fueling often increases particle emissions such that SI exhaust may be subject to future particle emissions regulations. Challenges in controlling particle emissions arise as engines encounter varied fuel composition such as intermediate ethanol blends. Furthermore, modern engines are operated using unconventional breathing strategies with advanced cam-based variable valve actuation systems. In this study, we investigate particle emissions from a multi-cylinder DI engine operated with three different breathing strategies, fueling strategies and fuels. The breathing strategies are conventional throttled operation, early intake valve closing (EIVC) and late intake valve closing (LIVC); the fueling strategies are single injection DI (sDI), multi-injection DI (mDI), and PFI; and the fuels are emissions certification gasoline, E20 and E85. The results indicate the dominant factor influencing particle number concentration emissions for the sDI and mDI strategies is the fuel injection timing. Overly advanced injection timing results in particle formation due to fuel spray impingement on the piston, and overly retarded injection timing results in particle formation due to poor fuel and air mixing. In addition, fuel type has a significant effect on particle emissions for the DI fueling strategies. Gasoline and E20 fuels generate comparable levels of particle emissions, but E85 produces dramatically lower particle number concentration. The particle emissions for E85 are near the detection limit for the FSN instrument, and particle number emissions are one to two orders of magnitude lower for E85 relative to gasoline and E20. We found PFI fueling produces very low levels of particle emissions under all conditions and is much less sensitive to engine breathing strategy and fuel type than the DI

  6. High-speed fuel tracer fluorescence and OH radical chemiluminescence imaging in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James D.; Sick, Volker

    2005-11-01

    An innovative technique has been demonstrated to achieve crank-angle-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of fuel followed by OH* chemiluminescence imaging in a firing direct-injected spark-ignition engine. This study used two standard KrF excimer lasers to excite toluene for tracking fuel distribution. The intensified camera system was operated at single crank-angle resolution at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) for 500 consecutive cycles. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that toluene and OH* can be imaged through the same optical setup while similar signal levels are obtained from both species, even at these high rates. The technique is useful for studying correlations between fuel distribution and subsequent ignition and flame propagation without the limitations of phase-averaging imaging approaches. This technique is illustrated for the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and will be useful for studies of misfire causes. Finally, a few general observations are presented as to the effect of preignition fuel distribution on subsequent combustion.

  7. Fractal approach to the evaluation of burning rates in the vicinity of the piston in a spark-ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, F.; Mounaim-Rousselle, C.

    2005-11-01

    The burning rate in the vicinity of a piston is estimated from a fractal analysis. The fractal parameters are determined from laser sheet tomography flame images for methane-air mixtures with three equivalence ratios (1, 0.9, 0.8) in a transparent spark-ignition engine. Two imaging configurations were used: five horizontal planes placed at different distances from the piston (0, 1, 2, 3, and 5 mm) and a vertical one passed through the center of the combustion chamber. The methodology proposed by Foucher et al. [F. Foucher, S. Burnel, C. Mounaim-Rousselle, Proc. Combust. Inst. 29 (2002) 751-757] allows the effect of cyclic variations to be avoided. The fractal formulation is modified to take into account the flame-piston distance and flame quenching. Far from the piston, evolution of the fractal dimension versus q{sup '}/S{sub L}{sup 0} is found to be in good agreement with literature results. Near the piston, the fractal dimension evolves significantly when the distance is about twice the integral length scale and tends toward 2, the fractal dimension of a laminar flame front. The quenching ratio parameter Q{sub R} is introduced to consider the quenching of the flame by the piston. Finally, the burning rate is determined as a function of the distance between the wall and the mean flame contour and compared to a flame density approach, and similar results are found.

  8. High-speed fuel tracer fluorescence and OH radical chemiluminescence imaging in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine.

    PubMed

    Smith, James D; Sick, Volker

    2005-11-01

    An innovative technique has been demonstrated to achieve crank-angle-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of fuel followed by OH* chemiluminescence imaging in a firing direct-injected spark-ignition engine. This study used two standard KrF excimer lasers to excite toluene for tracking fuel distribution. The intensified camera system was operated at single crank-angle resolution at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) for 500 consecutive cycles. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that toluene and OH* can be imaged through the same optical setup while similar signal levels are obtained from both species, even at these high rates. The technique is useful for studying correlations between fuel distribution and subsequent ignition and flame propagation without the limitations of phase-averaging imaging approaches. This technique is illustrated for the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and will be useful for studies of misfire causes. Finally, a few general observations are presented as to the effect of preignition fuel distribution on subsequent combustion.

  9. Potential benefits of oxygen-enriched intake air in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, H. K.; Sekar, R. R.

    1994-04-01

    A production vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine (3.1-L Chevrolet Lumina, model year 1990) was tested. The test used oxygen-enriched intake air containing 25 and 28% oxygen by volume to determine (1) if the vehicle would run without difficulties and (2) if emissions benefits would result. Standard Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions test cycles were run satisfactorily. Test results of catalytic converter-out emissions (emissions out of the converter) showed that both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were reduced significantly in all three phases of the emissions test cycle. Test results of engine-out emissions (emissions straight out of the engine, with the converter removed) showed that carbon monoxide was significantly reduced in the cold phase. All emission test results were compared with those for normal air (21% oxygen). The catalytic converter also had an improved carbon monoxide conversion efficiency under the oxygen-enriched-air conditions. Detailed results of hydrocarbon speciation indicated large reductions in 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzene from the engine with the oxygen-enriched air. Catalytic converter-out ozone was reduced by 60% with 25%-oxygen-content air. Although NO(x) emissions increased significantly, both for engine-out and catalytic converter-out emissions, we anticipate that they can be ameliorated in the near future with new control technologies. The automotive industry currently is developing exhaust-gas control technologies for an oxidizing environment; these technologies should reduce NO(x) emissions more efficiently in vehicles that use oxygen-enriched intake air. On the basis of estimates made from current data, several production vehicles that had low NO(x) emissions could meet the 2004 Tier 2 emissions standards with 25%-oxygen-content air.

  10. Potential benefits of oxygen-enriched intake air in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R.

    1994-04-01

    A production vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine (3.1-L Chevrolet Lumina, model year 1990) was tested. The test used oxygen-enriched intake air containing 25 and 28% oxygen by volume to determine (1) if the vehicle would run without difficulties and (2) if emissions benefits would result. Standard Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions test cycles were run satisfactorily. Test results of catalytic converter-out emissions (emissions out of the converter) showed that both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were reduced significantly in all three phases of the emissions test cycle. Test results of engine-out emissions (emissions straight out of the engine, with the converter removed) showed that carbon monoxide was significantly reduced in the cold phase. All emission test results were compared with those for normal air (21% oxygen). The catalytic converter also had an improved carbon monoxide conversion efficiency under the oxygen-enriched-air conditions. Detailed results of hydrocarbon speciation indicated large reductions in 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzene from the engine with the oxygen-enriched air. Catalytic converter-out ozone was reduced by 60% with 25%-oxygen-content air. Although NO{sub x} emissions increased significantly, both for engine-out and catalytic converter-out emissions, we anticipate that they can be ameliorated in the near future with new control technologies. The automotive industry currently is developing exhaust-gas control technologies for an oxidizing environment; these technologies should reduce NO{sub x} emissions more efficiently in vehicles that use oxygen-enriched intake air. On the basis of estimates made from current data, several production vehicles that had low NO{sub x} emissions could meet the 2004 Tier II emissions standards with 25%-oxygen-content air.

  11. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  12. Selection Criteria and Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Advanced Spark-Ignition Engines

    DOE PAGES

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina; Fouts, Lisa; ...

    2017-03-28

    Here, we describe a study to identify potential biofuels that enable advanced spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency strategies to be pursued more aggressively. A list of potential biomass-derived blendstocks was developed. An online database of properties and characteristics of these bioblendstocks was created and populated. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a bioblendstock met the requirements for advanced SI engines. Criteria included melting point (or cloud point) < -10 degrees C and boiling point (or T90) <165 degrees C. Compounds insoluble or poorly soluble in hydrocarbon were eliminatedmore » from consideration, as were those known to cause corrosion (carboxylic acids or high acid number mixtures) and those with hazard classification as known or suspected carcinogens or reproductive toxins. Compounds predicted to be less anaerobically biodegradable than methyl-tert-butyl ether with water solubility greater than 10,000 mg/L were also eliminated. A minimum Research octane number (RON) of 98 was applied. These criteria produced a list of 40 bioblendstocks with promising properties. Additional property data, including Motor octane number (MON), heat of vaporization, and lower heating value, were acquired for these bioblendstocks. A subset of the bioblendstocks representing all functional groups were blended into gasoline or a gasoline surrogate to measure their effect on vapor pressure, distillation curve, oxidation stability, RON, and MON. For blending into a conventional or reformulated blendstock for E10 blending, ethanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, and diisobutylene have the most desirable properties for blending of a high-octane advanced SI engine fuel.« less

  13. Large-Eddy Simulations of Motored Flow and Combustion in a Homogeneous-Charge Spark-Ignition Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhawat, Yajuvendra Singh

    Cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) of flow and combustion in internal combustion engines (ICE) limit their fuel efficiency and emissions potential. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is the most practical simulation tool to understand the nature of these CCV. In this research, multi-cycle LES of a two-valve, four-stroke, spark-ignition optical engine has been performed for motored and fired operations. The LES mesh quality is assessed using a length scale resolution parameter and a energy resolution parameter. For the motored operation, two 50-consecutive-cycle LES with different turbulence models (Smagorinsky model and dynamic structure model) are compared with the experiment. The pressure comparison shows that the LES is able to capture the wave-dynamics in the intake and exhaust ports. The LES velocity fields are compared with particle-image velocimetry (PIV) measurements at three cutting planes. Based on the structure and magnitude indices, the dynamic structure model is somewhat better than the Smagorinsky model as far as the ensemble-averaged velocity fields are concerned. The CCV in the velocity fields is assessed by proper-orthogonal decomposition (POD). The POD analysis shows that LES is able to capture the level of CCV seen in the experiment. For the fired operation, two 60-cycle LES with different combustion models (thickened frame model and coherent frame model) are compared with experiment. The in-cylinder pressure and the apparent heat release rate comparison shows higher CCV for LES compared to the experiment, with the thickened frame model showing higher CCV than the coherent frame model. The correlation analysis for the LES using thickened frame model shows that the CCV in combustion/pressure is correlated with: the tumble at the intake valve closing, the resolved and subfilter-scale kinetic energy just before spark time, and the second POD mode (shear flow near spark gap) of the velocity fields just before spark time.

  14. Report on Investigation of Alcohol Combustion Associated Wear in Spark Ignition Engines, Mechanisms and Lubricant Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    investigated four - alcohol -containing fuels: pure methanol , pure ethanol, methanol in unleaded gaso- line, and ethanol in unleaded gasoline (gasohol...testing indicated that pure alcohol fuels reduced the buildup of engine .. deposits. Also neat methanol greatly increased engine wear rates at engine...results from reactions between methanol combustion products and the cast-iron cylinder liner, where the presence of liquid methanol in the combustion

  15. An analytical investigation of NO sub x control techniques for methanol fueled spark ignition engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, L. H.; Argenbright, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    A thermokinetic SI engine simulation was used to study the effects of simple nitrogen oxide control techniques on performance and emissions of a methanol fueled engine. As part of this simulation, a ring crevice storage model was formulated to predict UBF emissions. The study included spark retard, two methods of compression ratio increase and EGR. The study concludes that use of EGR in high turbulence, high compression engines will both maximize power and thermal efficiency while minimizing harmful exhaust pollutants.

  16. Practical Possibilities of High-Altitude Flight with Exhaust-Gas Turbines in Connection with Spark Ignition Engines Comparative Thermodynamic and Flight Mechanical Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weise, A.

    1947-01-01

    As a means of preparing for high-altitude flight with spark-ignition engines in conjunction with exhaust-gas turbosuperchargers, various methods of modifying the exhaust-gas temperatures, which are initially higher than a turbine can withstand are mathematically compared. The thermodynamic results first obtained are then examined with respect to the effect on flight speed, climbing speed, ceiling, economy, and cruising range. The results are so presented in a generalized form that they may be applied to every appropriate type of aircraft design and a comparison with the supercharged engine without exhaust-gas turbine can be made.

  17. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nick; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Mike; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an aerosol sample. One method is a Dekati Thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented for this project in an engine test cell built around a direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. Direct injection is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency but this comes with the production of a significant amount of (PM) and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition. The first interesting observation is that PM number distributions, acquired using a TSI SMPS, have a large accumulation mode (30-294 nm) but a very small nuclei mode (8-30 nm). This is understood to represent a lack of condensation particles meaning that neither the exhaust conditions nor the sample handling conditions are conducive to condensation. This lack of nuclei mode does not, however, represent a lack of VOCs in the sample. It has been observed, using mass spectral analysis (limited to PM>50 nm), that PM from the DISI engine has approximately 40% organic content through varying operating conditions. This begs the question of how effective different sample handling methods are at removing these VOCs. For one specific operating condition, called Cold Start, the un-treated PM was 40% organic. The TD

  18. Schlieren-based temperature measurement inside the cylinder of an optical spark ignition and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine.

    PubMed

    Aleiferis, Pavlos; Charalambides, Alexandros; Hardalupas, Yannis; Soulopoulos, Nikolaos; Taylor, A M K P; Urata, Yunichi

    2015-05-10

    Schlieren [Schlieren and Shadowgraphy Techniques (McGraw-Hill, 2001); Optics of Flames (Butterworths, 1963)] is a non-intrusive technique that can be used to detect density variations in a medium, and thus, under constant pressure and mixture concentration conditions, measure whole-field temperature distributions. The objective of the current work was to design a schlieren system to measure line-of-sight (LOS)-averaged temperature distribution with the final aim to determine the temperature distribution inside the cylinder of internal combustion (IC) engines. In a preliminary step, we assess theoretically the errors arising from the data reduction used to determine temperature from a schlieren measurement and find that the total error, random and systematic, is less than 3% for typical conditions encountered in the present experiments. A Z-type, curved-mirror schlieren system was used to measure the temperature distribution from a hot air jet in an open air environment in order to evaluate the method. Using the Abel transform, the radial distribution of the temperature was reconstructed from the LOS measurements. There was good agreement in the peak temperature between the reconstructed schlieren and thermocouple measurements. Experiments were then conducted in a four-stroke, single-cylinder, optical spark ignition engine with a four-valve, pentroof-type cylinder head to measure the temperature distribution of the reaction zone of an iso-octane-air mixture. The engine optical windows were designed to produce parallel rays and allow accurate application of the technique. The feasibility of the method to measure temperature distributions in IC engines was evaluated with simulations of the deflection angle combined with equilibrium chemistry calculations that estimated the temperature of the reaction zone at the position of maximum ray deflection as recorded in a schlieren image. Further simulations showed that the effects of exhaust gas recirculation and air

  19. Fundamental Studies of Ignition Process in Large Natural Gas Engines Using Laser Spark Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Azer Yalin; Bryan Willson

    2008-06-30

    Past research has shown that laser ignition provides a potential means to reduce emissions and improve engine efficiency of gas-fired engines to meet longer-term DOE ARES (Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems) targets. Despite the potential advantages of laser ignition, the technology is not seeing practical or commercial use. A major impediment in this regard has been the 'open-path' beam delivery used in much of the past research. This mode of delivery is not considered industrially practical owing to safety factors, as well as susceptibility to vibrations, thermal effects etc. The overall goal of our project has been to develop technologies and approaches for practical laser ignition systems. To this end, we are pursuing fiber optically coupled laser ignition system and multiplexing methods for multiple cylinder engine operation. This report summarizes our progress in this regard. A partial summary of our progress includes: development of a figure of merit to guide fiber selection, identification of hollow-core fibers as a potential means of fiber delivery, demonstration of bench-top sparking through hollow-core fibers, single-cylinder engine operation with fiber delivered laser ignition, demonstration of bench-top multiplexing, dual-cylinder engine operation via multiplexed fiber delivered laser ignition, and sparking with fiber lasers. To the best of our knowledge, each of these accomplishments was a first.

  20. Active flow control for maximizing performance of spark ignited stratified charge engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fedewa, Andrew; Stuecken, Tom; Timm, Edward; Schock, Harold J.; Shih, Tom-I.P.; Koochesfahani, Manooch; Brereton, Giles

    2002-10-15

    Reducing the cycle-to-cycle variability present in stratified-charge engines is an important step in the process of increasing their efficiency. As a result of this cycle-to-cycle variability, fuel injection systems are calibrated to inject more fuel than necessary, in an attempt to ensure that the engines fire on every cycle. When the cycle-to-cycle variability is lowered, the variation of work per cycle is reduced and the lean operating limit decreases, resulting in increased fuel economy. In this study an active flow control device is used to excite the intake flow of an engine at various frequencies. The goal of this excitation is to control the way in which vortices shed off of the intake valve, thus lowering the cycle-to-cycle variability in the flow field. This method of controlling flow is investigated through the use of three engines. The results of this study show that the active flow control device did help to lower the cycle-to-cycle variability of the in-cylinder flow field; however, the reduction did not translate directly into improved engine performance.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Mixture Preparation Processes in New Direct-Injection Spark Ignition Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Teruyuki; Kakuho, Akihiko; Hiraya, Koji; Takahashi, Eiji; Urushihara, Tomonori

    Visualization plays an effective role in the establishment of a new combustion concept by helping to find the optimal results quickly among many different parameters and contributing to a shorter development period. Laser-induced fluorescence, Raman scattering and infrared absorption were used to measure the air/fuel ratio quantitatively in a third-generation direct-injection gasoline (DIG) engine with a spray-guided mixture formation process and comparisons were made with the mixture formation concepts of the first- and second-generation DIG engines. The optimum combination of fuel spray, gas flow and combustion chamber configuration was found to be different for the three generations of DIG engines. The characteristics of the stable combustion region for obtaining higher thermal efficiency and cleaner exhaust emissions differed among the three mixture formation concepts.

  2. Emissions and new technology programs for conventional spark-ignition aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    A long-range technology plan in support of general aviation engines was formulated and is being implemented at the Lewis Research Center. The overall program was described, and that part of the program that represents the in-house effort at Lewis was presented in detail. Three areas of government and industry effort involving conventional general-aviation piston engines were part of a coordinated overall plan: (1) FAA/NASA joint program, (2) NASA contract exhaust emissions pollution reduction program, and (3) NASA in-house emissions reduction and new technology program.

  3. Investigation of a Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine via IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Stephen; White, Allen R.; Gross, Kevin; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2010-06-01

    Previous work has shown that the automotive fuel components of isopropanoland ethanol can be excited by a 10.2 um and 9.3 um CO2 lasers, respectively. Through the use of a monochromator and an indium antimonide detector, the decay time of the excited molecules was measured and found to be significantly long enough to allow for the possibility of experimentation in an internal combustion (IC) engine. In order to pursue In Situ measurements in an internal combustion engine, a MegaTech Mark III transparent engine was modified with a sapphire combustion chamber. This modification will allow the transmission of infrared radiation for time-resolved spectroscopic measurements by an infrared spectrometer. By using a Telops FIRST-MWE imaging Fourier transform spectrometer, temporally and spatially resolved infrared spectral data can be acquired and compared for combustion in the engine both with and without laser excitation. Measurements performed with system provide insight into the energy transfer vectors that precede combustion as well as provide an in situ measurement of the progress of combustion.

  4. Combustion parameters of spark ignition engine using waste potato bioethanol and gasoline blended fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Abasian, M.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the combustion parameters of a SI engine operating on bioethanol-gasoline blends (E0-E20: 20% bioethanol and 80% gasoline by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for bioethanol production from potato wastes. The results showed that increasing the bioethanol content in the blend fuel will decrease the heating value of the blended fuel and increase the octane number. Combustion parameters were evaluated and analyzed at different engine speeds and loads (1000-5000 rpm). The results revealed that using bioethanol-gasoline blended fuels will increase the cylinder pressure and its 1st and 2nd derivatives (P(θ), P•(θ) and P••(θ)). Moreover, using bioethanol- gasoline blends will increase the heat release (Q•(θ)) and worked of the cycle. This improvement was due to the high oxygen percentage in the ethanol.

  5. Cold start fuel/air mixture supply device for spark ignition internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G.E.D.

    1984-06-05

    A combined accelerator pump and cold start fuel/air mixture supply device has an automatic throttle valve in a mixture supply passage, a fuel control valve controlling flow of fuel drawn into the passage through an inlet upstream of the throttle valve, and an air valve upstream of the fuel inlet. A primary spring tends to seat the air valve. A light, secondary spring urges a plunger against the air valve to augment the load of the primary spring for a predetermined time interval after the engine begins to run under its own power. A valve in a pipe opens automatically at the end of the predetermined time interval to apply engine inlet manifold depression to the end of the plunger remote from the air valve and thereby to separate the plunger from the air valve so that only the primary spring acts on the air valve.

  6. Direct Observation of Oil Consumption Mechanisms in a Production Spark Ignition Engine Using Fluorescence Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    investigated for different piston ring end-gap configurations. A radiotracer was used to perform direct measurement of the oil consumption while Laser- induced ...and Instrumentation . . . . 43 3.1 General .......... ................... .. 43 3.2 Engine Description ....... ............. .. 43 3.3 Laser Induced ...Duty Diesels h" Non-dimensionalized Ah. k Proportionality constant for surface tension 11 (NI [mK]). Kpa kilo-Pascal LIF Laser Induced Fluorescence

  7. Performance of a Fuel-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine Using a Hydrogenated Safety Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1934-01-01

    This report presents the performance of a single-cylinder test engine using a hydrogenated safety fuel. The safety fuel has a flash point of 125 degrees f. (Cleveland open-dup method), which is high enough to remove most of the fire hazard, and an octane number of 95, which permits higher compression ratios to be used than are permissible with most undoped gasolines.

  8. Evaluation of Knock Behavior for Natural Gas - Gasoline Blends in a Light Duty Spark Ignited Engine

    DOE PAGES

    Pamminger, Michael; Sevik, James; Scarcelli, Riccardo; ...

    2016-01-01

    The compression ratio is a strong lever to increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine. However, among others, it is limited by the knock resistance of the fuel used. Natural gas shows a higher knock resistance compared to gasoline, which makes it very attractive for use in internal combustion engines. The current paper describes the knock behavior of two gasoline fuels, and specific incylinder blend ratios with one of the gasoline fuels and natural gas. The engine used for these investigations is a single cylinder research engine for light duty application which is equipped with two separate fuel systems.more » Both fuels can be used simultaneously which allows for gasoline to be injected into the intake port and natural gas to be injected directly into the cylinder to overcome the power density loss usually connected with port fuel injection of natural gas. Adding natural gas at wide open throttle helps to reduce knock mitigating measures and increases the efficiency and power density compared to the other gasoline type fuels with lower knock resistance. The used methods, knock intensity and number of pressure waves, do not show significant differences in knock behavior for the natural gas - gasoline blends compared to the gasoline type fuels. A knock integral was used to describe the knock onset location of the fuels tested. Two different approaches were used to determine the experimental knock onset and were compared to the knock onset delivered by the knock integral (chemical knock onset). The gasoline type fuels show good agreement between chemical and experimental knock onset. However, the natural gas -gasoline blends show higher discrepancies comparing chemical and experimental knock onset.« less

  9. Evaluation of Knock Behavior for Natural Gas - Gasoline Blends in a Light Duty Spark Ignited Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Pamminger, Michael; Sevik, James; Scarcelli, Riccardo; Wallner, Thomas; Wooldridge, Steven; Boyer, Brad; Hall, Carrie M.

    2016-10-17

    The compression ratio is a strong lever to increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine. However, among others, it is limited by the knock resistance of the fuel used. Natural gas shows a higher knock resistance compared to gasoline, which makes it very attractive for use in internal combustion engines. The current paper describes the knock behavior of two gasoline fuels, and specific incylinder blend ratios with one of the gasoline fuels and natural gas. The engine used for these investigations is a single cylinder research engine for light duty application which is equipped with two separate fuel systems. Both fuels can be used simultaneously which allows for gasoline to be injected into the intake port and natural gas to be injected directly into the cylinder to overcome the power density loss usually connected with port fuel injection of natural gas. Adding natural gas at wide open throttle helps to reduce knock mitigating measures and increases the efficiency and power density compared to the other gasoline type fuels with lower knock resistance. The used methods, knock intensity and number of pressure waves, do not show significant differences in knock behavior for the natural gas - gasoline blends compared to the gasoline type fuels. A knock integral was used to describe the knock onset location of the fuels tested. Two different approaches were used to determine the experimental knock onset and were compared to the knock onset delivered by the knock integral (chemical knock onset). The gasoline type fuels show good agreement between chemical and experimental knock onset. However, the natural gas -gasoline blends show higher discrepancies comparing chemical and experimental knock onset.

  10. Spark Ignition Characteristics of a LO2/LCH4 Engine at Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Sarmiento, Charles; Marshall, William

    2012-01-01

    The use of non-toxic propellants in future exploration vehicles would enable safer, more cost effective mission scenarios. One promising "green" alternative to existing hypergols is liquid methane/liquid oxygen. To demonstrate performance and prove feasibility of this propellant combination, a 100lbf LO2/LCH4 engine was developed and tested under the NASA Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project. Since high ignition energy is a perceived drawback of this propellant combination, a test program was performed to explore ignition performance and reliability versus delivered spark energy. The sensitivity of ignition to spark timing and repetition rate was also examined. Three different exciter units were used with the engine's augmented (torch) igniter. Propellant temperature was also varied within the liquid range. Captured waveforms indicated spark behavior in hot fire conditions was inconsistent compared to the well-behaved dry sparks (in quiescent, room air). The escalating pressure and flow environment increases spark impedance and may at some point compromise an exciter.s ability to deliver a spark. Reduced spark energies of these sparks result in more erratic ignitions and adversely affect ignition probability. The timing of the sparks relative to the pressure/flow conditions also impacted the probability of ignition. Sparks occurring early in the flow could trigger ignition with energies as low as 1-6mJ, though multiple, similarly timed sparks of 55-75mJ were required for reliable ignition. An optimum time interval for spark application and ignition coincided with propellant introduction to the igniter and engine. Shifts of ignition timing were manifested by changes in the characteristics of the resulting ignition.

  11. Spark Ignition Characteristics of a L02/LCH4 Engine at Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Sarmiento, Charles; Marshall, William

    2012-01-01

    The use of non-toxic propellants in future exploration vehicles would enable safer, more cost effective mission scenarios. One promising "green" alternative to existing hypergols is liquid methane/liquid oxygen. To demonstrate performance and prove feasibility of this propellant combination, a 100lbf LO2/LCH4 engine was developed and tested under the NASA Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project. Since high ignition energy is a perceived drawback of this propellant combination, a test program was performed to explore ignition performance and reliability versus delivered spark energy. The sensitivity of ignition to spark timing and repetition rate was also examined. Three different exciter units were used with the engine s augmented (torch) igniter. Propellant temperature was also varied within the liquid range. Captured waveforms indicated spark behavior in hot fire conditions was inconsistent compared to the well-behaved dry sparks (in quiescent, room air). The escalating pressure and flow environment increases spark impedance and may at some point compromise an exciter s ability to deliver a spark. Reduced spark energies of these sparks result in more erratic ignitions and adversely affect ignition probability. The timing of the sparks relative to the pressure/flow conditions also impacted the probability of ignition. Sparks occurring early in the flow could trigger ignition with energies as low as 1-6mJ, though multiple, similarly timed sparks of 55-75mJ were required for reliable ignition. An optimum time interval for spark application and ignition coincided with propellant introduction to the igniter and engine. Shifts of ignition timing were manifested by changes in the characteristics of the resulting ignition.

  12. Knocking Combustion Observed in a Spark-Ignition Engine with Simultaneous Direct and Schlieren High-Speed Motion Pictures and Pressure Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osterstrom, Gordon E

    1948-01-01

    Simultaneous direct and Schlieren photographs at 40,000 frames per second and correlated pressure records were taken of knocking combustion in a special spark-ignition engine to ascertain the intensity of certain end-zone reactions previously noted from Schlieren photography alone. A violent propagated homogeneous autoignition, or a similar phenomenon, previously observed, was again observed. The pressure records show autoignition of varying violence before the passage of a probable detonation wave. Extensive autoignition without occurrence of gas vibrations was seen in one explosion.

  13. Cycle-by-cycle combustion variations in spark-ignited engines

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.; Finney, C.E.A.; Connolly, F.T.

    1997-09-01

    Under constant nominal operating conditions, internal combustion engines can exhibit substantial variation in combustion efficiency from one cycle to the next. Previous researchers have attempted to explain these variations as resulting from stochastic, linear, or chaotic physical processes. Our investigations indicate that cyclic combustion variations can be explained as the result of interactions between a global low-dimensional nonlinearity and small-scale, high-dimensional processes that perturb the nonlinearity. Using this approach, we have proposed a simple model that accurately simulates experimentally observed patterns in cyclic combustion variations. Our model also explains the apparent discrepancies among previous investigators regarding the basic nature of cyclic variations. Further, it appears that symbol dynamics are useful for characterizing the observed model and experimental behavior.

  14. A study of combustion of hydrogen-enriched gasoline in a spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolescu, N.; Chiriac, R.

    1996-09-01

    An investigation has been done on the influence of small amounts of hydrogen added to hydrocarbons-air mixtures on combustion characteristics. The effect of hydrogen addition to a hydrocarbon-air mixture was firstly approached in an experimental bomb, to measure the laminar burning velocity and the shift of lean flammability limit. Experiments carried out with a single-cylinder four stroke SI engine confirmed the possibility of expanding the combustion stability limit, which correlates well with the general trend of enhancing the rate of combustion. An increase of brake thermal efficiency has been obtained with a reduction of HC emissions; the NO{sub x} emissions were higher, except for very lean mixtures.

  15. CARS temperature measurements and the cyclic dispersion of knock in spark ignition engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D. |; Kalghatgi, G.T.; Morley, C.; Snowdon, P.; Yeo, J.

    1994-12-31

    The use is described of the coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) technique in a single-cylinder research engine to measure end-gas temperature in the regime that leads to the onset of knock. The investigations, under nominally the same running conditions, covered a large cyclic dispersion of knock, with knock occurring in about 80% of the cycles. In-cylinder pressures were measured with a transducer, and an ion gap signified flame arrival towards the end of the flame travel and just before autoignition. In general, the temperature increased by over 100 K, both with and without knock, as a result of exothermic preflame reactions. This measured elevation was supported by computations with a simple five-step model of autoignition, calibrated against measured autoignition times in a rapid compression machine. The temperatures measured just prior to knock increased with the severity of the knock. The observed severe cyclic dispersion of knock, under the conditions of the study, is attributed primarily to the cyclic dispersion of flame speeds. An increase in flame speed is associated with an increase in temperature and greater propensity to knock.

  16. Effects of Fuel Composition on EGR Dilution Tolerance in Spark Ignited Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P

    2016-01-01

    Fuel-specific differences in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) dilution tolerance are studied in a modern, direct-injection single-cylinder research engine. A total of 6 model fuel blends are examined at a constant research octane number (RON) of 95 using n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and ethanol. Laminar flame speeds for these mixtures, which were calculated two different methods (an energy fraction mixing rule and a detailed kinetic simulation), spanned a range of about 6 cm/s. A constant fueling nominal load of 350 kPa IMEPg at 2000 rpm was operated with varying CA50 from 8-20 CAD aTDCf, and with EGR increasing until a COV of IMEP of 5% is reached. The results illustrate that flame speed affects EGR dilution tolerance; fuels with increased flame speeds increase EGR tolerance. Specifically, flame speed correlates most closely to the initial flame kernel growth, measured as the time of ignition to 5% mass fraction burned. The effect of the latent heat of vaporization on the flame speed is taken into account for the ethanol-containing fuels. At a 30 vol% blend level, the increased enthalpy of vaporization of ethanol compared to conventional hydrocarbons can decrease the temperature at the time of ignition by a maximum of 15 C, which can account for up to a 3.5 cm/s decrease in flame speed. The ethanol-containing fuels, however, still exhibit a flame speed advantage, and a dilution tolerance advantage over the slower flame-speed fuels. The fuel-specific differences in dilution tolerance are significant at the condition examined, allowing for a 50% relative increase in EGR (4% absolute difference in EGR) at a constant COV of IMEP of 3%.

  17. Direct spark ignition system

    SciTech Connect

    Gann, R.A.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a direct spark ignition system having a gas burner, an electrically operable valve connected to the burner to admit fuel thereto, a gated oscillator having a timing circuit for timing a trial ignition, a spark generator responsive to the oscillator for igniting fuel emanating from the burner, and a flame sensor for sustaining oscillations of the oscillator while a flame exists at the burner. The spark generator has an inverter connected to a low voltage dc source and responsive to the oscillator for converting the dc voltage to a high ac voltage, a means for rectifying the high ac voltage, a capacitor connected to the rectifying means for storing the rectified high voltage, an ignition coil in series between the storage capacitor and a switch, and a means for periodically turning on the switch to produce ignition pulses through the coil. The ignition system is powered from the dc source but controlled by the oscillator. An improvement described here is wherein the inverter is comprised of a step-up transformer having its primary winding connected in series with the dc source and a common emitter transistor having its collector connected to the primary winding. The transistor has its base connected to be controlled by the oscillator to chop the dc into ac in the primary winding, and a diode connected between the storage capacitor and the collector of the transistor, the diode being poled to couple into the capacitor back EMF energy when the transistor is turned off.

  18. Research of some operating parameters and the emissions level variation in a spark ignited engine through on-board investigation methods in different loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iosif, Ferenti; Baldean, Doru Laurean

    2014-06-01

    The present paper shows research made on a spark ignited engine with port fuel injection in different operation conditions in order to improve the comprehension about the cold start sequence, acceleration when changing the gear ratios, quality of combustion process and also any measures to be taken for pollutant reduction in such cases. The engineering endeavor encompasses the pollutants investigation during the operation time of gasoline supplied engine with four inline cylinders in different conditions. The temperature and any other parameters were measured with specific sensors installed on the engine or in the exhaust pipes. All the data collected has been evaluated using electronic investigation systems and highly developed equipment. In this manner it has enabled the outline of the idea of how pollutants of engine vary in different operating conditions. Air quality in the everyday environment is very important for the human health, and thus the ambient air quality has a well-known importance in the European pollution standards and legislation. The high level of attention directed to the pollution problem in the European lifestyle is a driving force for all kinds of studies in the field of the reduction of engine emission.

  19. Mixture distribution in a multi-valve twin-spark ignition engine equipped with high-pressure multi-hole injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitroglou, N.; Arcoumanis, C.; Mori, K.; Motoyama, Y.

    2006-07-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence has been mainly used to characterise the two-dimensional fuel vapour concentration inside the cylinder of a multi-valve twin-spark ignition engine equipped with high-pressure multi-hole injectors. The effects of injection timing, in-cylinder charge motion and injector tip layout have been quantified. The flexibility in nozzle design of the multi-hole injectors has proven to be a powerful tool in terms of matching overall spray cone angle and number of holes to specific engine configurations. Injection timing was found to control spray impingement on the piston and cylinder wall, thus contributing to quick and efficient fuel evaporation. It was confirmed that in-cylinder charge motion plays a major role in engine's stable operation by assisting in the transportation of the air-fuel mixture towards the ignition locations (i.e. spark-plugs) in the way of a uniformly distributed charge or by preserving stratification of the charge depending on operating mode of the engine.

  20. Effects of air/fuel ratio on gas emissions in a small spark-ignited non-road engine operating with different gasoline/ethanol blends.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Waldir Nagel; Olanyk, Luciano Zart; Guedes, Carmen Luisa Barbosa; Quessada, Talita Pedroso; Ribeiro, Camilo Bastos; Capanema, Marlon André

    2017-07-13

    This study investigates the effects of several blends of gasoline and anhydrous ethanol on exhaust emission concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (HCs), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a small spark-ignited non-road engine (SSINRE). Tests were carried out for different air/fuel equivalence ratios as measured by lambda (λ). A 196 cm(3) single-cylinder four-stroke engine-generator operating at a constant load of 2.0 kW was used; pollutant gas concentrations were measured with an automatic analyzer similar to those typically used in vehicle inspections. The results showed that as the ethanol content of the mixture increased the concentrations of CO, HCs, and NOx reduced by 15, 53, and 34%, respectively, for values of λ < 1 (rich mixture) and by 52, 31, and 16% for values of λ > 1 (lean mixture). Overall, addition of anhydrous ethanol to the gasoline helped to reduce emissions of the pollutant gases investigated, what contributes to photochemical smog reduction and quality of life in urban areas.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Spark-Ignited Combustion with High-Octane Biofuels and EGR. 1. Engine Load Range and Downsize Downspeed Opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2013-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in midlevel alcohol gasoline blends with 24% vol/vol isobutanol gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol/vol ethanol gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine was used with an 11.85:1 compression ratio, hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and was capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Experiments were conducted with all fuels to full-load conditions with = 1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. Higher octane number biofuel blends exhibited increased stoichiometric torque capability at this compression ratio, where the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg (indicated mean effective pressure gross) at = 1. EGR provided thermodynamic advantages and was a key enabler for increasing engine efficiency for all fuel types. However, with E30, EGR was less useful for knock mitigation than gasoline or IB24. Torque densities with E30 with 15% EGR at = 1 operation were similar or better than a modern EURO IV calibration turbo-diesel engine. The results of the present study suggest that it could be possible to implement a 40% downsize + downspeed configuration (1.2 L engine) into a representative midsize sedan. For example, for a midsize sedan at a 65 miles/h cruise, an estimated fuel consumption of 43.9 miles per gallon (MPG) (engine out 102 g-CO2/km) could be achieved with similar reserve power to a 2.0 L engine with 87AKI (38.6 MPG, engine out 135 g-CO2/km). Data suggest that, with midlevel alcohol gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol gasoline blends and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  2. Cyclic variations of fuel-droplet distribution during the early intake stroke of a lean-burn stratified-charge spark-ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleiferis, P. G.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Ishii, K.; Urata, Y.

    2005-11-01

    Lean-burn spark-ignition engines exhibit higher efficiency and lower specific emissions in comparison with stoichiometrically charged engines. However, as the air-to-fuel (A/F) ratio of the mixture is made leaner than stoichiometric, cycle-by-cycle variations in the early stages of in-cylinder combustion, and subsequent indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), become more pronounced and limit the range of lean-burn operation. Viable lean-burn engines promote charge stratification, the mixture near the spark plug being richer than the cylinder volume averaged value. Recent work has shown that cycle-by-cycle variations in the early stages of combustion in a stratified-charge engine can be associated with variations in both the local value of A/F ratio near the spark plug around ignition timing, as well as in the volume averaged value of the A/F ratio. The objective of the current work was to identify possible sources of such variability in A/F ratio by studying the in-cylinder field of fuel-droplet distribution during the early intake stroke. This field was visualised in an optical single-cylinder 4-valve pentroof-type spark-ignition engine by means of laser-sheet illumination in planes parallel to the cylinder head gasket 6 and 10 mm below the spark plug. The engine was run with port-injected isooctane at 1500 rpm with 30% volumetric efficiency and air-to-fuel ratio corresponding to both stoichiometric firing (A/F=15, Φ =1.0) and mixture strength close to the lean limit of stable operation (A/F=22, Φ =0.68). Images of Mie intensity scattered by the cloud of fuel droplets were acquired on a cycle-by-cycle basis. These were studied in order to establish possible correlations between the cyclic variations in size, location and scattered-light intensity of the cloud of droplets with the respective variations in IMEP. Because of the low level of Mie intensity scattered by the droplets and because of problems related to elastic scattering on the walls of the combustion

  3. Knock Resistance and Fine Particle Emissions for Several Biomass-Derived Oxygenates in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Burton, Jonathan; Sindler, Petr; Christensen, Earl; Fouts, Lisa; Chupka, Gina M.; McCormick, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    Several high octane number oxygenates that could be derived from biomass were blended with gasoline and examined for performance properties and their impact on knock resistance and fine particle emissions in a single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The oxygenates included ethanol, isobutanol, anisole, 4-methylanisole, 2-phenylethanol, 2,5-dimethyl furan, and 2,4-xylenol. These were blended into a summertime blendstock for oxygenate blending at levels ranging from 10 to 50 percent by volume. The base gasoline, its blends with p-xylene and p-cymene, and high-octane racing gasoline were tested as controls. Relevant gasoline properties including research octane number (RON), motor octane number, distillation curve, and vapor pressure were measured. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis was used to estimate heat of vaporization and particulate matter index (PMI). Experiments were conducted to measure knock-limited spark advance and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The results show a range of knock resistances that correlate well with RON. Molecules with relatively low boiling point and high vapor pressure had little effect on PM emissions. In contrast, the aromatic oxygenates caused significant increases in PM emissions (factors of 2 to 5) relative to the base gasoline. Thus, any effect of their oxygen atom on increasing local air-fuel ratio was outweighed by their low vapor pressure and high double-bond equivalent values. For most fuels and oxygenate blend components, PMI was a good predictor of PM emissions. However, the high boiling point, low vapor pressure oxygenates 2-phenylethanol and 2,4-xylenol produced lower PM emissions than predicted by PMI. This was likely because they did not fully evaporate and combust, and instead were swept into the lube oil.

  4. The Use of Large Valve Overlap in Scavenging a Supercharged Spark-ignition Engine Using Fuel Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1932-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the effect of more complete scavenging on the full throttle power and the fuel consumption of a four-stroke-cycle engine. The NACA single-cylinder universal test engine equipped with both a fuel-injection system and a carburetor was used. The engine was scavenged by using a large valve overlap and maintaining a pressure in the inlet manifold of 2 inches of mercury above atmospheric. The maximum valve overlap used was 112 degrees. Tests were conducted for a range of compression ratios from 5.5 to 8.5. Except for variable speed tests, all tests were conducted at an engine speed of 1,500 r.p.m. The results of the tests show that the clearance volume of an engine can be scavenged by using a large valve overlap and about 2 to 5 inches of mercury pressure difference between the inlet and exhaust valve. With a fuel-injection system when the clearance volume was scavenged, a b.m.e.p. of over 185 pounds per square inch and a fuel consumption of 9.45 pound per brake horsepower per hour were obtained with a 6.5 compression ratio. An increase of approximately 10 pounds per square inch b.m.e.p. was obtained with a fuel-injection system over that with a carburetor.

  5. The influence of deposit control additives on nitrogen oxides emissions from spark ignition engines (case study: Tehran).

    PubMed

    Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Zand, Ali Daryabeigi; Tabrizi, Alireza Mikaeili; Pezeshk, Hamid; Baghvand, Akbar

    2007-04-15

    In the present research, the influence of a deposit control additive on NOx emissions from two types of gasoline engine vehicles i.e., Peykan (base on Hillman) and Pride (South Korea Kia motors) was studied. Exhaust NOx emissions were measured in to stages, before decarbonization process and after that. Statistical analysis was conducted on the measurement results. Results showed that NOx emissions from Peykans increased 0.28% and NOx emissions from Pride automobiles decreased 6.18% on average, due to the elimination of engine deposits. The observed variations were not statistically and practically significant. The results indicated that making use of detergent additives is not an effective way to reduce the exhaust NOx emissions from gasoline engine vehicles.

  6. Extending lean operating limit and reducing emissions of methane spark-ignited engines using a microwave-assisted spark plug

    DOE PAGES

    Rapp, Vi H.; DeFilippo, Anthony; Saxena, Samveg; ...

    2012-01-01

    Amore » microwave-assisted spark plug was used to extend the lean operating limit (lean limit) and reduce emissions of an engine burning methane-air. In-cylinder pressure data were collected at normalized air-fuel ratios of λ = 1.46, λ = 1.51, λ = 1.57, λ = 1.68, and λ = 1.75. For each λ, microwave energy (power supplied to the magnetron per engine cycle) was varied from 0 mJ (spark discharge alone) to 1600 mJ. At lean conditions, the results showed adding microwave energy to a standard spark plug discharge increased the number of complete combustion cycles, improving engine stability as compared to spark-only operation. Addition of microwave energy also increased the indicated thermal efficiency by 4% at λ = 1.68. At λ = 1.75, the spark discharge alone was unable to consistently ignite the air-fuel mixture, resulting in frequent misfires. Although microwave energy produced more consistent ignition than spark discharge alone at λ = 1.75, 59% of the cycles only partially burned. Overall, the microwave-assisted spark plug increased engine performance under lean operating conditions (λ = 1.68) but did not affect operation at conditions closer to stoichiometric.« less

  7. Signal Analysis of Automotive Engine Spark Ignition System using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Case-based Maintenance (CBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Vong, C. M.; Wong, P. K.

    2010-05-21

    With the development of modern technology, modern vehicles adopt electronic control system for injection and ignition. In traditional way, whenever there is any malfunctioning in an automotive engine, an automotive mechanic usually performs a diagnosis in the ignition system of the engine to check any exceptional symptoms. In this paper, we present a case-based reasoning (CBR) approach to help solve human diagnosis problem. Nevertheless, one drawback of CBR system is that the case library will be expanded gradually after repeatedly running the system, which may cause inaccuracy and longer time for the CBR retrieval. To tackle this problem, case-based maintenance (CBM) framework is employed so that the case library of the CBR system will be compressed by clustering to produce a set of representative cases. As a result, the performance (in retrieval accuracy and time) of the whole CBR system can be improved.

  8. Some aspects on use of kerosene and petrol blends in spark-ignition engine using surge technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, B.B.

    1980-12-01

    The object of the study reported in this paper was to investigate the possibility of using the blend of kerosene with petrol in a gasoline engines, without much losses in performance. The authors carried out experiments on a four-stroke cycle Briggs and Stratton S. I. Engine using five blends of kerosene with petrol at a compression ratios 5.3 and 7.47 to 1 with and without surge chambers, at a constant engine speed of 1500 rev/min with the following conclusions: 1. At part-load and the lower compression ratio the brake thermal efficiency is improved with percentage increase of kerosene but at the higher compression ratio it is improved only upto 50% kerosene blend with petrol. 2. The knock-free maximum bhp is reduced with (a) the percentage increase of kerosene, (b) the increase of compression ratio. 3. Use of a surge chamber increase the knock-free maximum bhp, and reduces the brake thermal efficiency.

  9. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature on a Small Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine’s Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    engine through a gearing system. Cadou et al (8) asserts that utilizing this setup allows for a more accurate measurement of the torque because there...supercharger, a Delta VFD-F variable frequency drive part number VFD185F43A, an automatic belt tensioner, a mounting plate, and pulley . A guard for...the drive belt was constructed to prevent injury in the case of belt failure. The motor pulley to compressor pulley has a measured ratio of 3.362:1

  10. A historical analysis of the co-evolution of gasoline octane number and spark-ignition engines

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A.; Pawlowski, Alex E.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2016-01-06

    In our work, the authors reviewed engine, vehicle, and fuel data since 1925 to examine the historical and recent coupling of compression ratio and fuel antiknock properties (i.e., octane number) in the U.S. light-duty vehicle market. The analysis identified historical timeframes, trends, and illustrated how three factors: consumer preferences, technical capabilities, and regulatory legislation, affect personal mobility. Data showed that throughout history these three factors have a complex and time sensitive interplay. Long term trends in the data were identified where interaction and evolution between all three factors was observed. Transportation efficiency per unit power (gal/ton-mi/hp) was found to be a good metric to integrate technical, societal, and regulatory effects into the evolutional pathway of personal mobility. From this framework, discussions of future evolutionary changes to personal mobility are also presented.

  11. A historical analysis of the co-evolution of gasoline octane number and spark-ignition engines

    DOE PAGES

    Splitter, Derek A.; Pawlowski, Alex E.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2016-01-06

    In our work, the authors reviewed engine, vehicle, and fuel data since 1925 to examine the historical and recent coupling of compression ratio and fuel antiknock properties (i.e., octane number) in the U.S. light-duty vehicle market. The analysis identified historical timeframes, trends, and illustrated how three factors: consumer preferences, technical capabilities, and regulatory legislation, affect personal mobility. Data showed that throughout history these three factors have a complex and time sensitive interplay. Long term trends in the data were identified where interaction and evolution between all three factors was observed. Transportation efficiency per unit power (gal/ton-mi/hp) was found to bemore » a good metric to integrate technical, societal, and regulatory effects into the evolutional pathway of personal mobility. From this framework, discussions of future evolutionary changes to personal mobility are also presented.« less

  12. Experimental Investigation of Augmented Spark Ignition of a LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine at Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Sarmiento, Charles; Marshall, William

    2012-01-01

    The use of nontoxic propellants in future exploration vehicles would enable safer, more cost-effective mission scenarios. One promising green alternative to existing hypergols is liquid methane (LCH4) with liquid oxygen (LO2). A 100 lbf LO2/LCH4 engine was developed under the NASA Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development project and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center Altitude Combustion Stand in a low pressure environment. High ignition energy is a perceived drawback of this propellant combination; so this ignition margin test program examined ignition performance versus delivered spark energy. Sensitivity of ignition to spark timing and repetition rate was also explored. Three different exciter units were used with the engine s augmented (torch) igniter. Captured waveforms indicated spark behavior in hot fire conditions was inconsistent compared to the well-behaved dry sparks. This suggests that rising pressure and flow rate increase spark impedance and may at some point compromise an exciter s ability to complete each spark. The reduced spark energies of such quenched deliveries resulted in more erratic ignitions, decreasing ignition probability. The timing of the sparks relative to the pressure/flow conditions also impacted the probability of ignition. Sparks occurring early in the flow could trigger ignition with energies as low as 1 to 6 mJ, though multiple, similarly timed sparks of 55 to 75 mJ were required for reliable ignition. Delayed spark application and reduced spark repetition rate both correlated with late and occasional failed ignitions. An optimum time interval for spark application and ignition therefore coincides with propellant introduction to the igniter.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 1045.5 - Which engines are excluded from this part's requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND... natural gas engines. Propulsion marine engines powered by natural gas with maximum engine power at...

  19. 40 CFR 1045.5 - Which engines are excluded from this part's requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND... natural gas engines. Propulsion marine engines powered by natural gas with maximum engine power at...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.5 - Which engines are excluded from this part's requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND... natural gas engines. Propulsion marine engines powered by natural gas with maximum engine power at...

  1. 78 FR 50412 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to Spark Ignition Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    .... The Public Reading Room is open to the public on all federal government work days from 8:30 a.m. to 4... has interpreted that subsection in the context of section 209(b) motor vehicle waivers).\\9\\ \\6\\ States... 209(a), California's nonroad standards and enforcement procedures must not apply to new motor...

  2. 75 FR 56491 - Technical Amendments for Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... ] indicated that this issue applies to existing systems and tanks as well as those built to comply with EPA's... environment and lead to fuel savings. In the ``Rules and Regulations'' section of this Federal Register, we... by these parties indicated that this issue applies to existing fuel systems and tanks as well...

  3. 75 FR 56477 - Technical Amendments for Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... these parties indicated that this issue applies to existing systems and tanks as well as those built to... result in a net benefit to the environment and lead to fuel savings. DATES: This rule is effective on... indicated that this issue applies to existing fuel systems and tanks as well as those built to comply...

  4. Testing of the J-2X Augmented Spark Igniter (ASI) and Its Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Reliable operation of the spark ignition system electronics in the J-2X Augmented Spark Igniter (ASI) is imperative in assuring ASI ignition and subsequent Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) ignition events are reliable in the J-2X Engine. Similar to the man-rated J-2 and RS-25 engines, the J-2X ignition system electronics are equipped with spark monitor outputs intended to indicate that the spark igniters are properly energized and sparking. To better understand anomalous spark monitor data collected on the J-2X development engines at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), a comprehensive subsystem study of the engine's low- and high-tension spark ignition system electronics was conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Spark monitor output data were compared to more detailed spark diagnostics to determine if the spark monitor was an accurate indication of actual sparking events. In addition, ignition system electronics data were closely scrutinized for any indication of an electrical discharge in some location other than the firing tip of the spark igniter - a problem not uncommon in the development of high voltage ignition systems.

  5. 75 FR 47520 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... combustion engines. In this ] notice, we are announcing a 30-day extension of the public comment period for... combustion engines. After publication of the proposed rule, EPA received requests from the American...

  6. 40 CFR 1045.310 - How must I select engines for production-line testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.310 How must I select engines for production-line testing...

  7. 40 CFR 1045.650 - Do delegated-assembly provisions apply for marine engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Do delegated-assembly provisions apply for marine engines? 1045.650 Section 1045.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  8. 40 CFR 1045.650 - Do delegated-assembly provisions apply for marine engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Do delegated-assembly provisions apply for marine engines? 1045.650 Section 1045.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  9. 40 CFR 1045.650 - Do delegated-assembly provisions apply for marine engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Do delegated-assembly provisions apply for marine engines? 1045.650 Section 1045.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  10. 40 CFR 1045.650 - Do delegated-assembly provisions apply for marine engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do delegated-assembly provisions apply for marine engines? 1045.650 Section 1045.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  11. 40 CFR 1045.650 - Do delegated-assembly provisions apply for marine engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Do delegated-assembly provisions apply for marine engines? 1045.650 Section 1045.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  12. 40 CFR 1045.225 - How do I amend my application for certification to include new or modified engines or change an FEL?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying Engine Families § 1045.225 How do I amend...

  13. 40 CFR 1045.225 - How do I amend my application for certification to include new or modified engines or change an FEL?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying Engine Families § 1045.225 How do I amend my...

  14. 40 CFR 1045.5 - Which engines are excluded from this part's requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND... respect to reduced-scale models of vessels that are not capable of transporting a person. (c) Large...

  15. 40 CFR 1045.5 - Which engines are excluded from this part's requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND... respect to reduced-scale models of vessels that are not capable of transporting a person. (c) Large...

  16. Effect of cooled EGR on performance and exhaust gas emissions in EFI spark ignition engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohadi, Heru; Syaiful, Bae, Myung-Whan

    2016-06-01

    Fuel needs, especially the transport sector is still dominated by fossil fuels which are non-renewable. However, oil reserves are very limited. Furthermore, the hazardous components produced by internal combustion engine forces many researchers to consider with alternative fuel which is environmental friendly and renewable sources. Therefore, this study intends to investigate the impact of cooled EGR on the performance and exhaust gas emissions in the gasoline engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends. The percentage of wet methanol blended with gasoline is in the range of 5 to 15% in a volume base. The experiment was performed at the variation of engine speeds from 2500 to 4000 rpm with 500 intervals. The re-circulated exhaust gasses into combustion chamber was 5%. The experiment was performed at the constant engine speed. The results show that the use of cooled EGR with wet methanol of 10% increases the brake torque up to 21.3%. The brake thermal efficiency increases approximately 39.6% using cooled EGR in the case of the engine fueled by 15% wet methanol. Brake specific fuel consumption for the engine using EGR fueled by 10% wet methanol decreases up to 23% at the engine speed of 2500 rpm. The reduction of CO, O2 and HC emissions was found, while CO2 increases.

  17. DESIGN OF A HIGH COMPRESSION, DIRECT INJECTION, SPARK-IGNITION, METHANOL FUELED RESEARCH ENGINE WITH AN INTEGRAL INJECTOR-IGNITION SOURCE INSERT, SAE PAPER 2001-01-3651

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified charge research engine and test stand were designed and built for this work. The primary goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of using a removal integral injector ignition source insert which allows a convenient method of charging the relative locat...

  18. DESIGN OF A HIGH COMPRESSION, DIRECT INJECTION, SPARK-IGNITION, METHANOL FUELED RESEARCH ENGINE WITH AN INTEGRAL INJECTOR-IGNITION SOURCE INSERT, SAE PAPER 2001-01-3651

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified charge research engine and test stand were designed and built for this work. The primary goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of using a removal integral injector ignition source insert which allows a convenient method of charging the relative locat...

  19. Influence of Injector Location on Part-Load Performance Characteristics of Natural Gas Direct-Injection in a Spark Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sevik, James; Pamminger, Michael; Wallner, Thomas; Scarcelli, Riccardo; Boyer, Brad; Wooldridge, Steven; Hall, Carrie; Miers, Scott

    2016-04-05

    Interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel source to petroleum fuels for light-duty vehicle applications has increased due to its domestic availability and stable price compared to gasoline. With its higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, natural gas has the potential to reduce engine out carbon dioxide emissions, which has shown to be a strong greenhouse gas contributor. For part-load conditions, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can lead to an increased duration in the inflammation process with traditional port-injection. Direct-injection of natural gas can increase in-cylinder turbulence and has the potential to reduce problems typically associated with port-injection of natural gas, such as lower flame speeds and poor dilution tolerance. A study was designed and executed to investigate the effects of direct-injection of natural gas at part-load conditions. Steady-state tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine representative of current gasoline direct-injection engines. Tests were performed with direct-injection in the central and side location. The start of injection was varied under stoichiometric conditions in order to study the effects on the mixture formation process. In addition, exhaust gas recirculation was introduced at select conditions in order to investigate the dilution tolerance. Relevant combustion metrics were then analyzed for each scenario. Experimental results suggest that regardless of the injector location, varying the start of injection has a strong impact on the mixture formation process. Delaying the start of injection from 300 to 120°CA BTDC can reduce the early flame development process by nearly 15°CA. While injecting into the cylinder after the intake valves have closed has shown to produce the fastest combustion process, this does not necessarily lead to the highest efficiency, due to increases in pumping and wall heat losses. When comparing the two injection configurations, the side location shows the best

  20. Influence of Injector Location on Part-Load Performance Characteristics of Natural Gas Direct-Injection in a Spark Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sevik, James; Pamminger, Michael; Wallner, Thomas; Scarcelli, Riccardo; Boyer, Brad; Wooldridge, Steve; Hall, Carrie; Miers, Scott A.

    2016-12-01

    Interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel source to petroleum fuels for light-duty vehicle applications has increased due to its domestic availability and stable price compared to gasoline. With its higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, natural gas has the potential to reduce engine out carbon dioxide emissions, which has shown to be a strong greenhouse gas contributor. For part-load conditions, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can lead to an increased duration in the inflammation process with traditional port-injection. Direct-injection of natural gas can increase in-cylinder turbulence and has the potential to reduce problems typically associated with port-injection of natural gas, such as lower flame speeds and poor dilution tolerance. A study was designed and executed to investigate the effects of direct-injection of natural gas at part-load conditions. Steady-state tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine representative of current gasoline direct-injection engines. Tests were performed with direct-injection in the central and side location. The start of injection was varied under stoichiometric conditions in order to study the effects on the mixture formation process. In addition, exhaust gas recirculation was introduced at select conditions in order to investigate the dilution tolerance. Relevant combustion metrics were then analyzed for each scenario. Experimental results suggest that regardless of the injector location, varying the start of injection has a strong impact on the mixture formation process. Delaying the start of injection from 300 to 120°CA BTDC can reduce the early flame development process by nearly 15°CA. While injecting into the cylinder after the intake valves have closed has shown to produce the fastest combustion process, this does not necessarily lead to the highest efficiency, due to increases in pumping and wall heat losses. When comparing the two injection configurations, the side location shows the best

  1. Influence of Injector Location on Part-Load Performance Characteristics of Natural Gas Direct-Injection in a Spark Ignition Engine

    DOE PAGES

    Sevik, James; Pamminger, Michael; Wallner, Thomas; ...

    2016-12-01

    Interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel source to petroleum fuels for light-duty vehicle applications has increased due to its domestic availability and stable price compared to gasoline. With its higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, natural gas has the potential to reduce engine out carbon dioxide emissions, which has shown to be a strong greenhouse gas contributor. For part-load conditions, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can lead to an increased duration in the inflammation process with traditional port-injection. Direct-injection of natural gas can increase in-cylinder turbulence and has the potential to reduce problems typically associated with port-injection of naturalmore » gas, such as lower flame speeds and poor dilution tolerance. A study was designed and executed to investigate the effects of direct-injection of natural gas at part-load conditions. Steady-state tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine representative of current gasoline direct-injection engines. Tests were performed with direct-injection in the central and side location. The start of injection was varied under stoichiometric conditions in order to study the effects on the mixture formation process. In addition, exhaust gas recirculation was introduced at select conditions in order to investigate the dilution tolerance. Relevant combustion metrics were then analyzed for each scenario. Experimental results suggest that regardless of the injector location, varying the start of injection has a strong impact on the mixture formation process. Delaying the start of injection from 300 to 120°CA BTDC can reduce the early flame development process by nearly 15°CA. While injecting into the cylinder after the intake valves have closed has shown to produce the fastest combustion process, this does not necessarily lead to the highest efficiency, due to increases in pumping and wall heat losses. When comparing the two injection configurations, the side location shows the

  2. Mutagenicity of used crankcase oils from diesel and spark ignition automobiles. [Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Dutcher, J.S.; Li, A.P.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-06-01

    The salmonella mutagenicity assay was used to compare the mutagenic activity of used crankcase oil (UCO) from diesel and spark-ignition (gasoline) engine passenger cars. UCO samples were obtained during periodic oil changes from 9 spark-ignition and 10 diesel-powered vehicles. Five samples of unused motor oil were also tested. Direct tests of UCO did not detect mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA-98. Therefore, an extraction procedure was used to concentrate the mutagens and remove interfering chemicals. Extracts were tested both with and without Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9). Dose-dependent mutagenicity with and without S-9 was observed in both diesel and spark-ignition engine UCO extracts. Mutagenic activity was also found in unused oil extracts, but it was lower than that in UCO extracts and generally required addition of S-9. The mutagenic potency of diesel UCO extracts was similar to that of gasoline UCO extracts, both with and without addition of S-9. This indicated that potential health risks associated with disposal, handling, and recycling of diesel UCO may not be significantly different from those of UCO from gasoline engines.

  3. Mutagenicity of used crankcase oils from diesel and spark ignition automobiles.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, J S; Li, A P; McClellan, R O

    1986-06-01

    The Salmonella mutagenicity assay was used to compare the mutagenic activity of used crankcase oil (UCO) from diesel and spark-ignition (gasoline) engine passenger cars. UCO samples were obtained during periodic oil changes from 9 spark-ignition and 10 diesel-powered vehicles. Five samples of unused motor oil were also tested. Direct tests of UCO did not detect mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA-98. Therefore, an extraction procedure was used to concentrate the mutagens and remove interfering chemicals. Extracts were tested both with and without Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9). Dose-dependent mutagenicity with and without S-9 was observed in both diesel and spark-ignition engine UCO extracts. Mutagenic activity was also found in unused oil extracts, but it was lower than that in UCO extracts and generally required addition of S-9. The mutagenic potency of diesel UCO extracts was similar to that of gasoline UCO extracts, both with and without addition of S-9. This indicated that potential health risks associated with disposal, handling, and recycling of diesel UCO may not be significantly different from those of UCO from gasoline engines.

  4. Spark Ignited Turbulent Flame Kernel Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Santavicca, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    An experimental study of the effects of spark power and of incomplete fuel-air mixing on spark-ignited flame kernel growth was conducted in turbulent propane-air mixtures at 1 atm, 300K conditions. The results showed that increased spark power resulted in an increased growth rate, where the effect of short duration breakdown sparks was found to persist for times of the order of milliseconds. The effectiveness of increased spark power was found to be less at high turbulence and high dilution conditions. Increased spark power had a greater effect on the 0-5 mm burn time than on the 5-13 mm burn time, in part because of the effect of breakdown energy on the initial size of the flame kernel. And finally, when spark power was increased by shortening the spark duration while keeping the effective energy the same there was a significant increase in the misfire rate, however when the spark power was further increased by increasing the breakdown energy the misfire rate dropped to zero. The results also showed that fluctuations in local mixture strength due to incomplete fuel-air mixing cause the flame kernel surface to become wrinkled and distorted; and that the amount of wrinkling increases as the degree of incomplete fuel-air mixing increases. Incomplete fuel-air mixing was also found to result in a significant increase in cyclic variations in the flame kernel growth. The average flame kernel growth rates for the premixed and the incompletely mixed cases were found to be within the experimental uncertainty except for the 33%-RMS-fluctuation case where the growth rate was significantly lower. The premixed and 6%-RMS-fluctuation cases had a 0% misfire rate. The misfire rates were 1% and 2% for the 13%-RMS-fluctuation and 24%-RMS-fluctuation cases, respectively; however, it drastically increased to 23% in the 33%-RMS-fluctuation case.

  5. Spark ignition of aviation fuel in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisman, Alex; Lu, Tianfeng; Borghesi, Giulio; Chen, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent spark ignition occurs in combustion engines where the spark must establish a viable flame kernel that leads to stable combustion. A competition exists between kernel growth, due to flame propagation, and kernel attenuation, due to flame stretch and turbulence. This competition can be measured by the Karlovitz number, Ka, and kernel viability decreases rapidly for Ka >> 1 . In this study, the evolution of an initially spherical flame kernel in a turbulent field is investigated at two cases: Ka- (Ka = 25) and Ka+ (Ka = 125) using direct numerical simulation (DNS). A detailed chemical mechanism for jet fuel (Jet-A) is used, which is relevant for many practical conditions, and the mechanism includes a pyrolysis sub-model which is important for the ignition of large hydrocarbon fuels. An auxiliary non-reacting DNS generates the initial field of isotropic turbulence with a turbulent Reynolds number of 500 (Ka-) and 1,500 (Ka+). The kernel is then imposed at the center of the domain and the reacting DNS is performed. The Ka- case survives and the Ka+ case is extinguished. An analysis of the turbulence chemistry interactions is performed and the process of extinction is described. Department of Energy - Office of Basic Energy Science under Award No. DE-SC0001198.

  6. Review: Fuel Volatility Standards and Spark-Ignition Vehicle Driveability

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, Janet; McCormick, Robert L.

    2016-03-14

    We've put spark-ignition engine fuel standards in place in order to ensure acceptable hot and cold weather driveability (HWD and CWD). Vehicle manufacturers and fuel suppliers have developed systems that meet our driveability requirements so effectively that drivers overwhelmingly find that their vehicles reliably start up and operate smoothly and consistently throughout the year. For HWD, fuels that are too volatile perform more poorly than those that are less volatile. Vapor lock is the apparent cause of poor HWD, but there is conflicting evidence in the literature as to where in the fuel system it occurs. Most studies have found a correlation between degraded driveability and higher dry vapor pressure equivalent or lower TV/L = 20, and less consistently with a minimum T50. For CWD, fuels with inadequate volatility can cause difficulty in starting and rough operation during engine warmup. The Driveability Index (DI)-a function of T10, T50, and T90-is well correlated with CWD in hydrocarbon fuels. For ethanol-containing fuels, a correction factor to the DI equation improves the correlation with CWD, although the best value for that factor has still not been determined. Ethanol increases the heat of vaporization. But, this is likely insignificant for E15 and lower concentration fuels. The impact of ethanol on driveability is likely due to its direct effect on vapor pressure at cold temperatures. For E51-E83 or flex-fuel blends, ASTM sets a minimum vapor pressure; however, published data suggest that a correction for the amount of ethanol in the fuel is needed to accurately predict CWD, possibly because ethanol has a higher lower-flammability limit.

  7. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  8. 40 CFR 91.410 - Engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine test cycle. 91.410 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.410 Engine... in dynamometer operation tests of marine engines. (b) During each non-idle mode the specified speed...

  9. 40 CFR 91.410 - Engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine test cycle. 91.410 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.410 Engine... in dynamometer operation tests of marine engines. (b) During each non-idle mode the specified...

  10. 40 CFR 91.410 - Engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine test cycle. 91.410 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.410 Engine... in dynamometer operation tests of marine engines. (b) During each non-idle mode the specified...

  11. Spark ignited turbulent flame kernel growth. Annual report, January--December, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Santavicca, D.A.

    1994-06-01

    Cyclic combustion variations in spark-ignition engines limit the use of dilute charge strategies for achieving low NO{sub x} emissions and improved fuel economy. Results from an experimental study of the effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing (ifam) on spark-ignited flame kernel growth in turbulent propane-air mixtures are presented. The experiments were conducted in a turbulent flow system that allows for independent variation of flow parameters, ignition system parameters, and the degree of fuel-air mixing. Measurements were made at 1 atm and 300 K conditions. Five cases were studied; a premixed and four incompletely mixed cases with 6%, 13%, 24% and 33% RMS (root-mean-square) fluctuations in the fuel/air equivalence ratio. High speed laser shadowgraphy at 4,000 frames-per-second was used to record flame kernel growth following spark ignition, from which the equivalent flame kernel radius as a function of time was determined. The effect of ifam was evaluated in terms of the flame kernel growth rate, cyclic variations in the flame kernel growth, and the rate of misfire. The results show that fluctuations in local mixture strength due to ifam cause the flame kernel surface to become wrinkled and distorted; and that the amount of wrinkling increases as the degree of ifam. Ifam was also found to result in a significant increase in cyclic variations in the flame kernel growth. The average flame kernel growth rates for the premixed and the incompletely mixed cases were found to be within the experimental uncertainty except for the 33%-RMS-fluctuation case where the growth rate is significantly lower. The premixed and 6%-RMS-fluctuation cases had a 0% misfire rate. The misfire rates were 1% and 2% for the 13%-RMS-fluctuation and 24%-RMS-fluctuation cases, respectively; however, it drastically increased to 23% in the 33%-RMS-fluctuation case.

  12. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at...

  13. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at...

  14. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine...

  15. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied...

  16. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied...

  17. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied...

  18. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied...

  19. 40 CFR 91.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 91.409... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.409 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only adjustments in accordance with...

  20. 40 CFR 91.506 - Engine sample selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing... manufacturer will begin to randomly select engines from each engine family for production line testing at a rate of one percent. Each engine will be selected from the end of the assembly line. (1) For...

  1. 40 CFR 91.506 - Engine sample selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing... manufacturer will begin to randomly select engines from each engine family for production line testing at a rate of one percent. Each engine will be selected from the end of the assembly line. (1) For...

  2. 40 CFR 91.506 - Engine sample selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program § 91... will begin to randomly select engines from each engine family for production line testing at a rate of one percent. Each engine will be selected from the end of the assembly line. (1) For newly...

  3. 40 CFR 91.506 - Engine sample selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing... manufacturer will begin to randomly select engines from each engine family for production line testing at a rate of one percent. Each engine will be selected from the end of the assembly line. (1) For...

  4. Laser induced spark ignition of methane-oxygen mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santavicca, D. A.; Ho, C.; Reilly, B. J.; Lee, T.-W.

    1991-01-01

    Results from an experimental study of laser induced spark ignition of methane-oxygen mixtures are presented. The experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure and 296 K under laminar pre-mixed and turbulent-incompletely mixed conditions. A pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser was used as the ignition source. Laser sparks with energies of 10 mJ and 40 mJ were used, as well as a conventional electrode spark with an effective energy of 6 mJ. Measurements were made of the flame kernel radius as a function of time using pulsed laser shadowgraphy. The initial size of the spark ignited flame kernel was found to correlate reasonably well with breakdown energy as predicted by the Taylor spherical blast wave model. The subsequent growth rate of the flame kernel was found to increase with time from a value less than to a value greater than the adiabatic, unstretched laminar growth rate. This behavior was attributed to the combined effects of flame stretch and an apparent wrinkling of the flame surface due to the extremely rapid acceleration of the flame. The very large laminar flame speed of methane-oxygen mixtures appears to be the dominant factor affecting the growth rate of spark ignited flame kernels, with the mode of ignition having a small effect. The effect of incomplete fuel-oxidizer mixing was found to have a significant effect on the growth rate, one which was greater than could simply be accounted for by the effect of local variations in the equivalence ratio on the local flame speed.

  5. 40 CFR 1045.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is my engine's maximum engine power? 1045.140 Section 1045.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND...

  6. 40 CFR 1045.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is my engine's maximum engine power? 1045.140 Section 1045.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND...

  7. 40 CFR 1045.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is my engine's maximum engine power? 1045.140 Section 1045.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND...

  8. 40 CFR 1045.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is my engine's maximum engine power? 1045.140 Section 1045.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND...

  9. Component Testing of the J-2X Augmented Spark Igniter (ASI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Robin J.; Peters, Warren T.; Gaspar, Kenny C.; Hauger, Katherine; Kwapisz, Mike J.

    2013-01-01

    In support of the development of the J-2X engine, 201 low pressure, liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) J-2X Augmented Spark Igniter (ASI) subsystem ignition tests were conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The main objective of these tests was to start the ASI within the anticipated J-2X engine start box, as well as outside of it, to check for ignition margin. The setup for the J-2X ASI component testing simulated, as much as possible, the tank-head start-up configuration of the ASI within the J-2X Engine. The ignition tests were divided into 124 vacuum start tests to simulate altitude start on a flight engine, and 77 sea-level start tests to simulate the first set of ground tests for the J-2X Engine at Stennis Space Center (SSC). Other ignition parameters that were varied included propellant tank pressures, oxidizer temperature entering the ASI oxidizer feedline, oxidizer valve timing, spark igniter condition (new versus damaged), and oxidizer and fuel feedline orifice sizes. Propellant blowdowns using venturis sized to simulate the ASI resistance allowed calculation of transient propellant mass flow rates as well as global mixture ratio for all ignition tests. Global mixture ratio within the ASI at the time of ignition varied from 0.2 to 1.2. Detailed electronics data obtained from an instrumented ignition lead allowed characterization of the breakdown voltage, sustaining voltage and energy contained in each spark as the ASI propellants ignited. Results indicated that ignition always occurred within the first five sparks when both propellants were present in the ASI chamber.

  10. Spark Ignition: Effects of Fluid Dynamics and Electrode Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, Sally; Ziegler, Jack; Shepherd, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    The concept of minimum ignition energy (MIE) has traditionally formed the basis for studying ignition hazards of fuels, and standard test methods for determining the MIE use a capacitive spark discharge as the ignition source. Developing the numerical tools necessary to quantitatively predict ignition is a challenging research problem and remains primarily an experimental issue. In this work a two-dimensional model of spark discharge in air and spark ignition was developed using the non-reactive and reactive Navier-Stokes equations. The simulations were performed with three different electrode geometries to investigate the effect of the geometry on the fluid mechanics of the evolving spark kernel and on flame formation. The computational results were compared with high-speed schlieren visualization of spark and ignition kernels. It was found that the electrode geometry had a significant effect on the fluid motion following spark discharge and hence influences the ignition process and the required spark energy.

  11. 40 CFR 91.804 - Maintenance, procurement and testing of in-use engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Testing and Recall Regulations § 91.804 Maintenance, procurement and testing of in-use engines. (a) A test..., according to the test procedure outlined in subpart E of this part, is required for each in-use engine. (d...

  12. 40 CFR 1045.135 - How must I label and identify the engines I produce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engines I produce? 1045.135 Section 1045.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.135 How must I label and identify the engines I...

  13. 40 CFR 1045.135 - How must I label and identify the engines I produce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engines I produce? 1045.135 Section 1045.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.135 How must I label and identify the engines I...

  14. 40 CFR 1045.135 - How must I label and identify the engines I produce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engines I produce? 1045.135 Section 1045.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.135 How must I label and identify the engines I...

  15. 40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying Engine Families § 1045.240 How do I demonstrate that my... deterioration factors that represent the expected deterioration in emissions over your engines' full useful...

  16. 40 CFR 1045.645 - What special provisions apply for converting an engine to use an alternate fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1045.645 What special provisions apply... modified engine for a partial useful life. For example, if the engine is modified halfway through...

  17. 40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying Engine Families § 1045.240 How do I demonstrate that my... deterioration factors that represent the expected deterioration in emissions over your engines' full useful...

  18. 40 CFR 1045.25 - How do the requirements related to evaporative emissions apply to engines and their fuel systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Overview and Applicability § 1045.25 How do the requirements... new portable marine fuel tanks must be certified to the applicable requirements of 40 CFR part...

  19. 40 CFR 1045.640 - What special provisions apply to branded engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What special provisions apply to branded engines? 1045.640 Section 1045.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.310 - How must I select engines for production-line testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must I select engines for production-line testing? 1045.310 Section 1045.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  1. 40 CFR 1045.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When must I test my production-line engines? 1045.301 Section 1045.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND...

  2. 40 CFR 1045.601 - What compliance provisions apply to these engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What compliance provisions apply to these engines? 1045.601 Section 1045.601 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  3. 40 CFR 1045.640 - What special provisions apply to branded engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What special provisions apply to branded engines? 1045.640 Section 1045.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  4. 40 CFR 1045.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must I prepare and test my production-line engines? 1045.305 Section 1045.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  5. 40 CFR 1045.640 - What special provisions apply to branded engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What special provisions apply to branded engines? 1045.640 Section 1045.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  6. 40 CFR 1045.640 - What special provisions apply to branded engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What special provisions apply to branded engines? 1045.640 Section 1045.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  7. 40 CFR 1045.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I prepare and test my production-line engines? 1045.305 Section 1045.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  8. 40 CFR 1045.230 - How do I select engine families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I select engine families? 1045.230 Section 1045.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS...

  9. 40 CFR 1045.601 - What compliance provisions apply to these engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What compliance provisions apply to these engines? 1045.601 Section 1045.601 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  10. 40 CFR 1045.415 - What happens if in-use engines do not meet requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if in-use engines do not meet requirements? 1045.415 Section 1045.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  11. 40 CFR 1045.640 - What special provisions apply to branded engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What special provisions apply to branded engines? 1045.640 Section 1045.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  12. 40 CFR 1045.601 - What compliance provisions apply to these engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What compliance provisions apply to these engines? 1045.601 Section 1045.601 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  13. 40 CFR 1045.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I test my production-line engines? 1045.301 Section 1045.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND...

  14. 40 CFR 1045.415 - What happens if in-use engines do not meet requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens if in-use engines do not meet requirements? 1045.415 Section 1045.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  15. 40 CFR 1045.601 - What compliance provisions apply to these engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What compliance provisions apply to these engines? 1045.601 Section 1045.601 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  16. 40 CFR 1045.415 - What happens if in-use engines do not meet requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What happens if in-use engines do not meet requirements? 1045.415 Section 1045.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  17. 40 CFR 1045.601 - What compliance provisions apply to these engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What compliance provisions apply to these engines? 1045.601 Section 1045.601 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  18. 40 CFR 1045.230 - How do I select engine families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I select engine families? 1045.230 Section 1045.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS...

  19. 40 CFR 1045.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I prepare and test my production-line engines? 1045.305 Section 1045.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.310 - How must I select engines for production-line testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must I select engines for production-line testing? 1045.310 Section 1045.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  1. 40 CFR 1045.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I prepare and test my production-line engines? 1045.305 Section 1045.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  2. 40 CFR 1045.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must I prepare and test my production-line engines? 1045.305 Section 1045.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  3. 40 CFR 1045.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must I test my production-line engines? 1045.301 Section 1045.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND...

  4. 40 CFR 1045.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must I test my production-line engines? 1045.301 Section 1045.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND...

  5. 40 CFR 1045.230 - How do I select engine families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I select engine families? 1045.230 Section 1045.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS...

  6. 40 CFR 1045.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When must I test my production-line engines? 1045.301 Section 1045.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND...

  7. 40 CFR 1045.135 - How must I label and identify the engines I produce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must I label and identify the engines I produce? 1045.135 Section 1045.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  8. X-Ray Radiography Measurements of the Thermal Energy in Spark Ignition Plasma at Variable Ambient Conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Matusik, Katarzyna E.; Duke, Daniel J.; Kastengren, Alan L.; ...

    2017-04-09

    The sparking behavior in an internal combustion engine affects the fuel efficiency, engine-out emissions, and general drivability of a vehicle. As emissions regulations become progressively stringent, combustion strategies, including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lean-burn, and turbocharging are receiving increasing attention as models of higher efficiency advanced combustion engines with reduced emissions levels. Because these new strategies affect the working environment of the spark plug, ongoing research strives to understand the influence of external factors on the spark ignition process. Due to the short time and length scales involved and the harsh environment, experimental quantification of the deposited energy from themore » sparking event is difficult to obtain. We present the results of x-ray radiography measurements of spark ignition plasma generated by a conventional spark plug. Our measurements were performed at the 7-BM beamline of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The synchrotron x-ray source enables time-resolved measurements of the density change due to glow discharge in the spark gap with 153 ns temporal and 5 μm spatial resolutions. We also explore the effects of charging time, EGR-relevant gas compositions, and gas pressure on the sparking behavior. We also quantify the influence of the measurement technique on the obtained results.« less

  9. Spark Ignition of Monodisperse Fuel Sprays. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danis, Allen M.; Cernansky, Nicholas P.; Namer, Izak

    1987-01-01

    A study of spark ignition energy requirements was conducted with a monodisperse spray system allowing independent control of droplet size, equivalent ratio, and fuel type. Minimum ignition energies were measured for n-heptane and methanol sprays characterized at the spark gap in terms of droplet diameter, equivalence ratio (number density) and extent of prevaporization. In addition to sprays, minimum ignition energies were measured for completely prevaporized mixtures of the same fuels over a range of equivalence ratios to provide data at the lower limit of droplet size. Results showed that spray ignition was enhanced with decreasing droplet size and increasing equivalence ratio over the ranges of the parameters studied. By comparing spray and prevaporized ignition results, the existence of an optimum droplet size for ignition was indicated for both fuels. Fuel volatility was seen to be a critical factor in spray ignition. The spray ignition results were analyzed using two different empirical ignition models for quiescent mixtures. Both models accurately predicted the experimental ignition energies for the majority of the spray conditions. Spray ignition was observed to be probabilistic in nature, and ignition was quantified in terms of an ignition frequency for a given spark energy. A model was developed to predict ignition frequencies based on the variation in spark energy and equivalence ratio in the spark gap. The resulting ignition frequency simulations were nearly identical to the experimentally observed values.

  10. Near-frictionless carbon coatings for spark-ignited direct-injected fuel systems. Final report, January 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Hershberger, J.; Ozturk, O.; Ajayi, O. O.; Woodford, J. B.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2002-04-05

    This report describes an investigation by the Tribology Section of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) into the use of near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coatings for spark-ignited, direct-injected (SIDI) engine fuel systems. Direct injection is being pursued in order to improve fuel efficiency and enhance control over, and flexibility of, spark-ignited engines. SIDI technology is being investigated by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) as one route towards meeting both efficiency goals and more stringent emissions standards. Friction and wear of fuel injector and pump parts were identified as issues impeding adoption of SIDI by the OTT workshop on ''Research Needs Related to CIDI and SIDI Fuel Systems'' and the resulting report, Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Argonne's NFC coatings consistently reduced friction and wear in existing and reformulated gasolines. (2) Compared to three commercial DLC coatings, NFC provided the best friction reduction and protection from wear in gasoline and alternative fuels. (3) NFC was successfully deposited on production fuel injectors. (4) Customized wear tests were performed to simulate the operating environment of fuel injectors. (5) Industry standard lubricity test results were consistent with customized wear tests in showing the friction and wear reduction of NFC and the lubricity of fuels. (6) Failure of NFC coatings by tensile crack opening or spallation did not occur, and issues with adhesion to steel substrates were eliminated. (7) This work addressed several of the current research needs of the OAAT SIDI program, as defined by the OTT report Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines.

  11. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions and Existing Spark Ignition 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at an Area Source of HAP... Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and Reconstructed Spark Ignition 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions and Existing Spark Ignition 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at an Area Source of HAP... Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at...

  13. Effect of unsteady stretch on spark-ignited flame kernel survival

    SciTech Connect

    Eichenberger, D.A.; Roberts, W.L.

    1999-08-01

    The chemistry-turbulence interaction remains one of the most important topics in combustion research. The ignition of premixed reactants in a highly turbulent environment is fundamentally coupled to this chemistry-turbulence interaction. The spark-ignition (SI) internal combustion (IC) engine relies on the ability of the flame kernel to survive the high-strain-rate, unsteady environment of a turbulent flowfield and successfully transition into a fully developed flame to operate cleanly and efficiently. If certain length and velocity scales within the turbulence spectrum are found to promote flame kernel growth, then by tailoring the flow passages and aerodynamics of the intake valves, piston, and combustion chamber, it may be possible to increase the efficiency and reduce the emissions of SI IC engines. This paper describes a novel experimental investigation of a spark-generated flame kernel interacting with a single vortex toroid with well-defined length and velocity scales. This experiment measured the ability of a vortex to quench a growing kernel in a very lean methane-air mixture at atmospheric pressure. The absence of superequilibrium OH concentrations, qualitatively determined by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), was used as in indicator of quenching. It was found that larger eddies are more effective at globally quenching the flamefront, requiring a lower strength, when compared to vortices with a smaller characteristic length. At the globally quenching condition, the maturity of the kernel was then increased incrementally until the vortex was no longer able to completely strain out the kernel. The result of this was surprising in that the larger vortices had a much narrower range of kernel maturity for which the vortex could still quench the growing kernel.

  14. Alternative Automobile Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Gordon

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

  15. Alternative Automobile Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Gordon

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

  16. Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Barone, Teresa L

    2010-01-01

    Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size

  17. A comparative study of laser ignition and spark ignition with gasoline-air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cangsu; Fang, Donghua; Luo, Qiyuan; Ma, Jian; Xie, Yang

    2014-12-01

    The ignition probability and minimum ignition energy (MIE) of premixed gasoline-air mixture for different equivalence ratio was experimentally studied using a nanosecond pulse at 532 nm and 1064 nm from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in a constant-volume combustion chamber (CVCC) The result was compared with the spark ignition. The initial pressure and temperature of the mixture was 0.1 MP and 363 K, respectively. The research indicates that within the flammable range, the probability increases when the ignition energy increases and the distribution of MIE with the equivalence ratios is U-shape for both laser and spark ignition. For laser ignition with 532 nm, when the incident energy is higher than 110 mJ or the absorbed energy is high than 31 mJ, 100% of ignition could be obtained within equivalence ratios of 0.8-1.6. For 1064 nm it is 235 mJ and 30 mJ. To get the same ignition probability of mixture with identical equivalence ratio, the incident energy of 1064 nm is twice more than the incident energy of 532 nm, while the absorbed energy values are virtually the same. It indicates that significant wavelength dependence is expected for the initial free electrons but irrelevant for the process of absorbing energy. The initial free electrons are produced from impurities in gasoline-air mixture because the intensity in the focus (1012 W/cm2) is too low to ionize gas molecules via the multi-photon ionization process, which requires higher irradiance (≥1014 W/cm2). The MIE obtained with a laser-spark ignition is greater than that measured by electrical sparks. The MIE for laser ignition was obtained at equivalence ratio of 1.0 both of 532 nm and 1064 nm, and it was 13.5 mJ and 9.5 mJ, respectively. But for spark ignition, the MIE is 3.76 mJ with equivalence ratio of 1.6. What's more, laser ignition extends the lean flammability limit from 0.8 to 0.6.

  18. Effect of cavity configuration on kerosene spark ignition in a scramjet combustor at Ma 4.5 flight condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Heng; Zhou, Jin; Pan, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Spark ignition experiments of liquid kerosene are conducted in a scramjet model equipped with dual-cavities at Ma 4.5 flight condition with a stagnation temperature of 1032 K. The ignition ability of two cavities with different length is compared and analyzed based on the wall pressure distribution along the combustor and the thrust evolution. The experimental results indicate that the longer cavity (L/D=7) is more suitable than the smaller cavity (L/D=5) in spark ignition. When employing the smaller cavity, three steady combustion states are observed after spark ignition. The concept of 'local flame' is adopted to explain the expanding problem of weak combustion. The local equivalence ratio in the shear layer is the dominated factor in determining the developing process of local flame. The final steady combustion mode of the combustor is dependent on the flame developing process. When employing the longer cavity, the establishment of intense combustion state can be much easier.

  19. Spectrographic analysis of bismuth-tin eutectic alloys by spark-ignited low-voltage ac-arc excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, E. A.; Kulpa, S. J.

    1969-01-01

    Spectrographic method determines individual stainless steel components in molten bismuth-42 w/o tin eutectic to determine the solubility of Type 304 stainless steels. It utilizes the high sensitivity and precision of the spark-ignited, low-voltage ac-arc excitation of samples rendered homogeneous by dissolution.

  20. Spark ignited turbulent flame kernel growth. Annual report, January--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Santavicca, D.A.

    1994-06-01

    An experimental study of the effect of spark power on the growth rate of spark-ignited flame kernels was conducted in a turbulent flow system at 1 atm, 300 K conditions. All measurements were made with premixed, propane-air at a fuel/air equivalence ratio of 0.93, with 0%, 8% or 14% dilution. Two flow conditions were studied: a low turbulence intensity case with a mean velocity of 1.25 m/sec and a turbulence intensity of 0.33 m/sec, and a high turbulence intensity case with a mean velocity of 1.04 m/sec and a turbulence intensity of 0.88 m/sec. The growth of the spark-ignited flame kernel was recorded over a time interval from 83 {mu}sec to 20 msec following the start of ignition using high speed laser shadowgraphy. In order to evaluate the effect of ignition spark power, tests were conducted with a long duration (ca 4 msec) inductive discharge ignition system with an average spark power of ca 14 watts and two short duration (ca 100 nsec) breakdown ignition systems with average spark powers of ca 6 {times} 10{sup 4} and ca 6 {times} 10{sup 5} watts. The results showed that increased spark power resulted in an increased growth rate, where the effect of short duration breakdown sparks was found to persist for times of the order of milliseconds. The effectiveness of increased spark power was found to be less at high turbulence and high dilution conditions. Increased spark power had a greater effect on the 0--5 mm burn time than on the 5--13 mm burn time, in part because of the effect of breakdown energy on the initial size of the flame kernel. And finally, when spark power was increased by shortening the spark duration while keeping the effective energy the same there was a significant increase in the misfire rate, however when the spark power was further increased by increasing the breakdown energy the misfire rate dropped to zero.

  1. Particulate emissions from 'in-use' motor vehicles—I. Spark ignition vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. J.; Milne, J. W.; Roberts, D. B.; Kimberlee, M. C.

    A detailed study has been undertaken of the exhaust particulate matter (EPM) emitted by 22 spark ignition (S.I.) vechicles driven over an urban drive cycle on a chassis dynamometer. A super-grade petrol (97 octane) containing 0.4 g Pbℓ -1 was used throughout the tests. Emission rates were found to vary between 0.29 and 1.70 g kg -1 fuel for the ADR 37 test cycle with an average value of 0.67 g kg -1. Emission rates were generally highest during the first 505 s of the cycle and covered the range 0.4-2.85 g kg -1. High EPM emission rates were associated with high non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) levels but were not correlated with CO, NOx or odometer readings. The bulk (85%) of the EPM was aerodynamically < 1 μm in diameter. The major species in the EPM were C, Pb and Br -, and C being very largely organic rather than sooty in nature. When 13C-labelled lubricating oil was added to two vehicles, the oil contribution to the EPM was found to be 15% w/w.

  2. Measurement of OH density and gas temperature in incipient spark-ignited hydrogen-air flame

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2008-01-15

    To investigate the electrostatic ignition of hydrogen-air mixtures, the density of OH radicals and the gas temperature are measured in an incipient spark-ignited hydrogen-air flame using laser-induced predissociation fluorescence (LIPF). The assessment of the electrostatic hazard of hydrogen is necessary for developing hydrogen-based energy systems in which hydrogen is used in fuel cells. The spark discharge occurs across a 2-mm gap with pulse duration approximately 10 ns. First, a hydrogen (50%)-air mixture is ignited by spark discharge with E=1.35E{sub -}, where E is the spark energy and E{sub -} is the minimum ignition energy. In this mixture, OH density decreases after spark discharge. It is 3 x 10{sup 16}cm{sup -3} at t=0{mu}s and 4 x 10{sup 15}cm{sup -3} at t=100{mu}s, where t is the postdischarge time. On the other hand, the gas temperature increases after spark discharge. It is 900 K at t=30{mu}s and 1400 K at t=200{mu}s. Next, a stoichiometric (hydrogen (30%)-air) mixture is ignited by spark discharge with E=1.25E{sub -}. In this mixture, OH density is approximately constant at 4 x 10{sup 16}cm{sup -3} for 150 {mu}s after spark discharge, and the gas temperature increases from 1000 K (t=0{mu}s) to 1800 K (t=150{mu}s). (author)

  3. 77 FR 20388 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Board's (CARB's) request for authorization of California's emission standards and certification and test... CARB, are contained in the public docket. Publicly available docket materials are available either... Regulations By letter dated December 10, 2008, CARB submitted to EPA its request pursuant to section 209(e) of...

  4. 40 CFR 1048.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.330 May I sell engines from an...

  5. An Overview of NASA Research on Positive Displacement Type General Aviation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E.; Willis, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    The general aviation positive displacement engine program encompassing conventional, lightweight diesel, and rotary combustion engines is described. Lean operation of current production type spark ignition engines and advanced alternative engine concepts are emphasized.

  6. 40 CFR 1045.1 - Does this part apply for my products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Overview... exhaust emissions apply to new, spark-ignition propulsion marine engines beginning with the 2010...

  7. 40 CFR 1045.1 - Does this part apply for my products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Overview... exhaust emissions apply to new, spark-ignition propulsion marine engines beginning with the 2010...

  8. 40 CFR 1045.1 - Does this part apply for my products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Overview... exhaust emissions apply to new, spark-ignition propulsion marine engines beginning with the 2010...

  9. 40 CFR 1045.1 - Does this part apply for my products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Overview... exhaust emissions apply to new, spark-ignition propulsion marine engines beginning with the 2010...

  10. 40 CFR 1045.1 - Does this part apply for my products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Overview... exhaust emissions apply to new, spark-ignition propulsion marine engines beginning with the 2010...

  11. 40 CFR 1068.120 - What requirements must I follow to rebuild engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commonly within the useful life period. For example, replacing a water pump is not rebuilding an engine. (c... following records for all engines except spark-ignition engines with total displacement below 225 cc:...

  12. 40 CFR 1068.120 - What requirements must I follow to rebuild engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commonly within the useful life period. For example, replacing a water pump is not rebuilding an engine. (c... following records for all engines except spark-ignition engines with total displacement below 225 cc:...

  13. 40 CFR 1054.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.330 May I sell engines from...

  14. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  15. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2011-12-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  16. Performance and emissions of a spark-ignited engine driven generator on biomass based syngas.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajay; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; To, Suminto D Filip; Columbus, Eugene P

    2010-06-01

    The emergence of biomass based energy warrants the evaluation of syngas from biomass gasification as a fuel for personal power systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the performance and exhaust emissions of a commercial 5.5 kW generator modified for operation with 100% syngas at different syngas flows and to compare the results with those obtained for gasoline operation at same electrical power. The maximum electrical power output for syngas operation was 1392 W and that for gasoline operation was 2451 W. However, the overall efficiency of the generator at maximum electrical power output for both the fuels were found to be the same. The concentrations of CO and NO(x) in the generator exhaust were lower for the syngas operation, respectively by 30-96% and 54-84% compared to the gasoline operation. However, the concentrations of CO(2) in the generator exhaust were significantly higher by 33-167% for the syngas operation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural and fractal properties of particles emitted from spark ignition engines.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W Patrick; Garro, Mark A; Walker, John

    2006-11-01

    Size, morphology, and microstructure of particles emitted from one light-duty passenger vehicle (Buick Century; model year 1990; PM (particulate matter) mass emission rate 3.1 mg/km) and two light-duty trucks (Chevrolet C2; model year 1973; PM mass emission rate 282 mg/km, and Chevrolet El Camino; model year 1976; PM mass emission rate 31 mg/km), running California's unified driving cycles (UDC) on a chassis dynamometer, were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images yielded particle properties including three-dimensional density fractal dimensions, monomer and agglomerate number size distributions, and three different shape descriptors, namely aspect ratio, root form factor, and roundness. The density fractal dimension of the particles was between 1.7 and 1.78, while the number size distribution of the particles placed the majority of the particles in the accumulation mode (0.1-0.3 microm). The shape descriptors were found to decrease with increasing particle size. Partial melting of particles, a rare and previously unreported phenomenon, was observed upon exposure of particles emitted during phase 2 of the UDC to the low accelerating voltage electron beam of the SEM. The rate of melting was quantified for individual particles, establishing a near linear relationship between the melting rate and the organic carbon 1 to elemental carbon ratio.

  18. 40 CFR 1068.120 - What requirements must I follow to rebuild engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Unscheduled maintenance that occurs commonly within the useful life period. For example, replacing a water... following records for all engines except spark-ignition engines with total displacement below 225 cc:...

  19. 40 CFR 1068.120 - What requirements must I follow to rebuild engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Unscheduled maintenance that occurs commonly within the useful life period. For example, replacing a water... following records for all engines except spark-ignition engines with total displacement below 225 cc:...

  20. 40 CFR 1048.135 - How must I label and identify the engines I produce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES... emission standards that the engine meets or does not meet (such as California standards). You may also add...

  1. 40 CFR 1048.135 - How must I label and identify the engines I produce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES... emission standards that the engine meets or does not meet (such as California standards). You may also add...

  2. Source apportionment of diesel and spark ignition exhaust aerosol using on-road data from the Minneapolis metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jason P.; Kittelson, David B.; Watts, Winthrop F.

    Air quality measurements were made on interstate highways in the Minneapolis metropolitan area. Gas and aerosol concentrations were measured on weekdays and weekends. By exploiting the difference in the relative volumes of heavy duty (HD) diesel and light duty (LD) spark ignition (SI) vehicles on weekdays and weekends, we were able to estimate apportioned fuel specific emissions. The on-road, apportioned, fuel specific particle number emissions factors, estimated from condensation particle counter (CPC) measurements were 1.34±0.2×10 16 particles kg -1 for diesels and 7.1±1.6×10 15 particles kg -1 for spark ignition vehicles. Estimates from the scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) measurements were 2.1±0.3×10 15 particles kg -1 for diesels and 3.9±0.6×10 14 particles kg -1 for SI vehicles. The difference between CPC and SMPS measurements is mainly due to different lower size detection limits of the instruments, ˜3 and ˜10 nm, respectively. On a weekly weighted basis and on weekdays, the majority of particle number was attributed to HD diesel traffic. Weekend production of particles can be primarily attributed to light duty SI automobiles. On a per vehicle basis, HD vehicles produced substantially greater numbers of particles. On a fuel specific basis, HD vehicles produce slightly higher concentrations of particles than light duty vehicles. The relative contribution of LD vehicles to particle number emissions increased as particle size decreased. The HD apportioned size distributions were similar to size distributions measured during other on-road and laboratory studies. The LD apportioned size distribution was bounded by laboratory and on-road size distributions. Our work is representative of summer, highway cruise conditions. It is likely that under cold start and high load operating conditions LD emissions will increase relative to HD emissions.

  3. 40 CFR 1045.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION... your certificate of conformity can cover that engine: (1) Correct the problem and retest the engine to...

  4. 40 CFR 1045.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION... your certificate of conformity can cover that engine: (1) Correct the problem and retest the engine to...

  5. Job Prospects for Marine Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Marine engineering is one of the smaller disciplines that have grown during recent decades. Job prospects in this field, salaries, types of employers (particularly Navy shipbuilding and infrastructure work), and marine/ocean engineers involvement with environmental issues are discussed. (JN)

  6. New Technology Sparks Smoother Engines and Cleaner Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Automotive Resources, Inc. (ARI) has developed a new device for igniting fuel in engines-the SmartPlug.TM SmartPlug is a self-contained ignition system that may be retrofitted to existing spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. The SmartPlug needs as little as six watts of power for warm-up, and requires no electricity at all when the engine is running. Unlike traditional spark plugs, once the SmartPlug ignites the engine, and the engine heats up, the power supply for the plug is no longer necessary. In the utility industry, SmartPlugs can be used in tractors, portable generators, compressors, and pumps. In addition to general-purpose applications, such as lawn mowers and chainsaws, SmartPlugs can also be used in the recreational, marine, aviation, and automotive industries. Unlike traditional ignition systems, the SmartPlug system requires no distributor, coil points, or moving parts. SmartPlugs are non-fouling, with a faster and cleaner burn than traditional spark plugs. They prevent detonation and are not sensitive to moisture, allowing them to be used on a variety of engines. Other advantages include no electrical noise, no high voltage, exceptionally high altitude capabilities, and better cold-start statistics than those of standard spark ignition systems. Future applications for the SmartPlug are being evaluated by manufacturers in the snowmobile industry.

  7. 40 CFR 1054.135 - How must I label and identify the engines I produce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND... meet (such as California standards). You may include this information by adding it to the statement we...

  8. 40 CFR 1054.5 - Which nonroad engines are excluded from this part's requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION... described in § 1054.20. (d) Engines used in reduced-scale models of vehicles that are not capable of...

  9. 40 CFR 1054.5 - Which nonroad engines are excluded from this part's requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION... described in § 1054.20. (d) Engines used in reduced-scale models of vehicles that are not capable of...

  10. 40 CFR 1054.5 - Which nonroad engines are excluded from this part's requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION... described in § 1054.20. (d) Engines used in reduced-scale models of vehicles that are not capable of...

  11. 40 CFR 1054.5 - Which nonroad engines are excluded from this part's requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION... described in § 1054.20. (d) Engines used in reduced-scale models of vehicles that are not capable of...

  12. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Spark-Ignited Combustion with High-Octane Biofuels and EGR. 2. Fuel and EGR Effects on Knock-Limited Load and Speed

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2013-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in midlevel alcohol gasoline blends with 24% vol/vol isobutanol gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol/vol ethanol gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with an 11.85:1 compression ratio, hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and was capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Experiments were conducted with all fuels to full-load conditions with = 1, using both 0% and 15% external-cooled EGR. Higher octane number biofuel blends exhibited increased stoichiometric torque capability at this compression ratio, where the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with E30 as compared to that of 87AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg (indicating mean effective pressure gross) at = 1. The results demonstrate that for all fuels, EGR is a key enabler for increasing engine efficiency but is less useful for knock mitigation with E30 than for 87AKI gasoline or IB24. Under knocking conditions, 15% EGR is found to offer 1 CA of CA50 timing advance with E30, whereas up to 5 CA of CA50 advance is possible with knock-limited 87AKI gasoline. Compared to 87AKI, both E30 and IB24 are found to have reduced adiabatic flame temperature and shorter combustion durations, which reduce knocking propensity beyond that indicated by the octane number. However, E30+0% EGR is found to exhibit the better antiknock properties than either 87AKI+15% EGR or IB24+15% EGR, expanding the knock limited operating range and engine stoichiometric torque capability at high compression ratio. Furthermore, the fuel sensitivity (S) of E30 was attributed to reduced speed sensitivity of E30, expanding the low-speed stoichiometric torque capability at high compression ratio. The results illustrate that intermediate alcohol gasoline blends exhibit exceptional antiknock properties and performance beyond that indicated by the octane

  14. The influence of CO2 in biogas flammability limit and laminar burning velocity in spark ignited premix combustion at various pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggono, W.; Wardana, I. N. G.; Lawes, M.; Hughes, K. J.; Wahyudi, S.; Hamidi, N.; Hayakawa, A.

    2016-03-01

    Biogas is an alternative energy source that is sustainable and renewable containing more than 50% CH4 and its biggest impurity or inhibitor is CO2. Demands for replacing fossil fuels require an improved fundamental understanding of its combustion processes. Flammability limits and laminar burning velocities are important characteristics in these processes. Thus, this research focused on the effects of CO2 on biogas flammability limits and laminar burning velocities in spark ignited premixed combustion. Biogas was burned in a spark ignited spherical combustion bomb. Spherically expanding laminar premixed flames, freely propagating from spark ignition in initial, were continuously recorded by a high-speed digital camera. The combustion bomb was filled with biogas-air mixtures at various pressures, CO2 levels and equivalence ratios (ϕ) at ambient temperature. The results were also compared to those of the previous study into inhibitorless biogas (methane) at various pressures and equivalence ratios (ϕ). Either the flammable areas become narrower with increased percentages of carbon dioxide or the pressure become lower. In biogas with 50% CO2 content, there was no biogas flame propagation for any equivalence ratio at reduced pressure (0.5 atm). The results show that the laminar burning velocity at the same equivalence ratio declined in respect with the increased level of CO2. The laminar burning velocities were higher at the same equivalence ratio by reducing the initial pressure.

  15. An Analysis of Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) soot morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Teresa L; Storey, John Morse; Youngquist, Adam D; Szybist, James P

    2012-01-01

    We have characterized particle emissions produced by a 4-cylinder, 2.0 L DISI engine using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image analysis. Analyses of soot morphology provide insight to particle formation mechanisms and strategies for prevention. Particle emissions generated by two fueling strategies were investigated, early injection and injection modified for low particle number concentration emissions. A blend of 20% ethanol and 80% emissions certification gasoline was used for the study given the likelihood of increased ethanol content in widely available fuel. In total, about 200 particles and 3000 primary soot spherules were individually measured. For the fuel injection strategy which produced low particle number concentration emissions, we found a prevalence of single solid sub-25 nm particles and fractal-like aggregates. The modal diameter of single solid particles and aggregate primary particles was between 10 and 15 nm. Solid particles as small as 6 nm were present. Although nanoparticle aggregates had fractal-like morphology similar to diesel soot, the average primary particle diameter per aggregate had a much wider range that spanned from 7 to 60 nm. For the early fuel injection strategy, liquid droplets were prevalent, and the modal average primary particle diameter was between 20 and 25 nm. The presence of liquid droplets may have been the result of unburned fuel and/or lubricating oil originating from fuel impingement on the piston or cylinder wall; the larger modal aggregate primary particle diameter suggests greater fuel-rich zones in-cylinder than for the low particle number concentration point. However, both conditions produced aggregates with a wide range of primary particle diameters, which indicates heterogeneous fuel and air mixing.

  16. Particulate Emissions from a Pre-Emissions Control Era Spark-Ignition Vehicle: A Historical Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    John M.E. Storey; C. Scott Sluder; Douglas A. Blom; Erin Higinbotham

    2000-06-19

    This study examined the particulate emissions from a pre-emissions control era vehicle operated on both leaded and unleaded fuels for the purpose of establishing a historical benchmark. A pre-control vehicle was located that had been rebuilt with factory original parts to approximate an as-new vehicle prior to 1968. The vehicle had less than 20,000 miles on the rebuilt engine and exhaust. The vehicle underwent repeated FTP-75 tests to determine its regulated emissions, including particulate mass. Additionally, measurements of the particulate size distribution were made, as well as particulate lead concentration. These tests were conducted first with UTG96 certification fuel, followed by UTG96 doped with tetraethyl lead to approximate 1968 levels. Results of these tests, including transmission electron micrographs of individual particles from both the leaded and unleaded case are presented. The FTP composite PM emissions from this vehicle averaged 40.5 mg/mile using unleaded fuel. The results from the leaded fuel tests showed that the FTP composite PM emissions increased to an average of 139.5 mg/mile. Analysis of the particulate size distribution for both cases demonstrated that the mass-based size distribution of particles for this vehicle is heavily skewed towards the nano-particle range. The leaded-fuel tests showed a significant increase in mass concentration at the <0.1 micron size compared with the unleaded-fuel test case. The leaded-fuel tests produced lead emissions of nearly 0.04 g/mi, more than a 4-order-of-magnitude difference compared with unleaded-fuel results. Analysis of the size-fractionated PM samples showed that the lead PM emissions tended to be distributed in the 0.25 micron and smaller size range.

  17. Marine Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are presented for each of ten terminal objectives for a two-semester course (3 hours daily). This 540-hour intermediate course includes advanced troubleshooting techniques on outboard marine engines, inboard-outboard marine engines, inboard marine engines, boat…

  18. Standardized Curriculum for Outboard Marine Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for outboard marine engine mechanics was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all outboard marine engine mechanics programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for outboard marine engine…

  19. Potential of spark ignition engine, effect of vehicle design variables on top speed, performance, and fuel economy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zub, R.W.; Neckyfarow, C.M.; Lew, W.M.; Colello, R.G.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the effect of vehicle characteristics on vehicle performance and fuel economy. The studies were performed using the VEHSIM (vehicle simulation) program at the Transportation Systems Center. The computer simulation offers repeatability and can predict minute changes in fuel economy based on relatively small vehicle alterations. The degree to which each vehicle parameter is modified is based upon projections presented in current literature. The results are assessed and an explanation of the interaction of the vehicle design characteristics on performance is presented.

  20. Investigation of Combustion Phenomena in a Single-Cylinder Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engine with Optical Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanaban, Vishnu

    Identifying new groundwater resources in Africa is important because climate change may cause the Nile recharge to decrease by the end of the century, affecting water stability in the eleven countries that rely on this river as a water source. Further exacerbating the demand for water in Egypt in particular is a growing population that already lives on a small per capita amount of water. I report results from drainage analysis using a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) that corroborate evidence suggesting that the Kharga Basin in Egypt's Western Desert is a closed basin that could have held water in the past. Combined with evidence from other studies, this suggests water from Pleistocene humid periods still resides within the Kharga Basin. Fractures possibly facilitate the vertical movement of this groundwater, consistent with vegetation and tufa deposits following fractures in the basin. Thermal inertia analysis, due to its relation to soil moisture, may help locate areas of relatively shallow groundwater, possibly due to the vertical movement of water along fractures. I report results from remote sensing analysis of optical and thermal images (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) used to create thermal inertia images. Furthermore, I report results from remote sensing analysis of optical (Landsat Operational Land Imager) and radar (Radarsat-1) images and DEMs (SRTM and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, ASTER) on the fracture intensity and kinematics in the Kharga Basin. The thermal inertia and fracture density maps were combined with previously published hydraulic conductivity and aquifer thickness maps to perform multi-map analysis and determine the best locations for future water wells. The results suggest the southern end of the major north-south fault is the most conducive to shallow groundwater drilling. For all results, I performed digital image processing and spatial analysis using ENVI and ArcMap.

  1. On the study of threshold intensity dependence on the gain and loss processes in laser induced spark ignition of molecular hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, M. M. Aboulfotouh, A. M.; Gamal, Y. E. E.

    2015-03-30

    In the present work, a numerical analysis is performed to investigate the comparative contribution of the mechanisms responsible for electron gain and losses in laser spark ignition and plasma formation of H{sub 2}. The analysis considered H{sub 2} over pressure range 150 -3000 torr irradiated by a Nd:YAG laser radiation at wavelengths 1064 and 532 nm with pulse length 5.5 ns. The study based on a modified electron cascade model by one of the authors which solves numerically the time dependent Boltzmann equation as well as a set of rate equations that describe the rate of change of the excited states population. The model includes most of the physical processes that might take place during the interaction. Computations of The threshold intensity are performed for the combined and separate contribution of each of the gain and loss processes. Reasonable agreement with the measured values over the tested pressure range is obtained only for the case of the combined contribution. Basing on the calculation of the electron energy distribution function, the determined relations of the time evolution of the electrons density for selected values of the tested gas pressure region revealed that photo-ionization of the excited states could determine the time of electron generation and hence spark ignition. Collisional ionization contributes to this phenomenon only at the high pressure regime. Loss processes due to electron diffusion, vibrational excitation are found to have significant effect over examined pressure values for the two applied laser wavelengths.

  2. Time-resolved imaging of flame kernels: Laser spark ignition of H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Spiglanin, T.A.; Mcilroy, A.; Fournier, E.W.; Cohen, R.B.; Syage, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    The shape and structure of developing flame kernels in laser-induced spark ignited hydrogen/air mixtures is investigated as a function of gas composition and time. Using planar laser-induce fluorescence (PLIF) to measure the spatial distribution of OH radicals produced inside the reacting zone, the authors have recorded the evolution of the nascent flame kernel in a series of images following the laser-induced spark. This series provides the rate of flame growth, the evolution of the flame shape, and the intensity of the PLIF signal as a function of time for both igniting flames and nonignition events. The reaction zones grow quickly at early times, but slowly decrease in propagation rate as the energy density within the flame kernel decreases. A distinct anisotropy is observed in the expanding spark and flame kernel. At short times (t<100 {micro}s), as toroidal shape is observed similar to that seen previously for electrode-spark ignitions and for laser ignitions in methane/air. There is also a tendency for the flame to grow back toward the ignition laser. Successful ignitions appear virtually identical to failed ignitions during the first 100 {micro}s. Significant differences, notably in intensity, appear between 100 and 500 {micro}s following the spark. These observations imply that early flame kernel growth is dominated by gas motion induced by the short-duration spark. The ultimate fate of an ignition lies with the chemistry of the reactions which determines whether the gas undergoes a transition from hot plasma to propagating flame.

  3. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to...

  4. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to...

  5. 40 CFR 90.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 90.409... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.409 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only...

  6. 40 CFR 90.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine dynamometer test run. 90.409... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.409 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only...

  7. 40 CFR 90.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 90.409... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.409 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only...

  8. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to...

  9. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  10. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  11. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  12. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  13. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  14. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  15. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  16. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  17. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. ...

  18. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. ...

  19. Free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine and drive system for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.; Slaby, J. G.; Nussle, R. C.; Miao, D.

    1982-01-01

    The calculated fuel economy for an automotive free piston Stirling hydraulic engine and drive system using a pneumatic accumulator with the fuel economy of both a conventional 1980 spark ignition engine in an X body class vehicle and the estimated fuel economy of a 1984 spark ignition vehicle system are compared. The results show that the free piston Stirling hydraulic system with a two speed transmission has a combined fuel economy nearly twice that of the 1980 spark ignition engine - 21.5 versus 10.9 km/liter (50.7 versus 25.6 mpg) under comparable conditions. The fuel economy improvement over the 1984 spark ignition engine was 81 percent. The fuel economy sensitivity of the Stirling hydraulic system to system weight, number of transmission shifts, accumulator pressure ratio and maximum pressure, auxiliary power requirements, braking energy recovery, and varying vehicle performance requirements are considered. An important finding is that a multispeed transmission is not required. The penalty for a single speed versus a two speed transmission is about a 12 percent drop in combined fuel economy to 19.0 km/liter (44.7 mpg). This is still a 60 percent improvement in combined fuel economy over the projected 1984 spark ignition vehicle.

  20. Computer program for Stirling engine performance calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, R. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamic characteristics of the Stirling engine were analyzed and modeled on a computer to support its development as a possible alternative to the automobile spark ignition engine. The computer model is documented. The documentation includes a user's manual, symbols list, a test case, comparison of model predictions with test results, and a description of the analytical equations used in the model.

  1. Small Engines and Outboard Marine Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum guide is a handbook for the development of small engine and outboard marine mechanics programs. Based on a survey of Alaskan small engines and marine mechanics employers, it includes all competencies a student should acquire in such a mechanics program. The handbook stresses the importance of understanding the…

  2. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to...

  3. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to...

  4. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to...

  5. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to...

  6. 40 CFR 90.706 - Engine sample selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine sample selection. 90.706 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program § 90.706 Engine sample selection. (a) At the start of each model year, the small...

  7. 40 CFR 90.410 - Engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine test cycle. 90.410 Section 90...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.410 Engine test cycle. (a) Follow the appropriate 6-mode test cycle for Class I, I-B and II...

  8. 40 CFR 90.410 - Engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine test cycle. 90.410 Section 90...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.410 Engine test cycle. (a) Follow the appropriate 6-mode test cycle for Class I, I-B and II...

  9. 40 CFR 90.706 - Engine sample selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine sample selection. 90.706... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program § 90.706 Engine sample selection. (a) At the start of each model year,...

  10. 40 CFR 90.410 - Engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine test cycle. 90.410 Section 90...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.410 Engine test cycle. (a) Follow the appropriate 6-mode test cycle for Class I, I-B and...

  11. 40 CFR 90.410 - Engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine test cycle. 90.410 Section 90...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.410 Engine test cycle. (a) Follow the appropriate 6-mode test cycle for Class I, I-B and...

  12. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  13. 46 CFR 90.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 90.20-1 Section 90.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 90.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  14. 46 CFR 90.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 90.20-1 Section 90.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 90.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  15. 46 CFR 90.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 90.20-1 Section 90.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 90.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  16. 46 CFR 90.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 90.20-1 Section 90.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 90.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  17. 46 CFR 24.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 24.20-1 Section 24.20-1... Engineering Requirements § 24.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details relative to... 40 feet in length will be found in subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. ...

  18. 40 CFR 1048.230 - How do I select engine families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I select engine families? 1048... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Certifying Engine Families § 1048.230 How do I select engine families? (a) For purposes of certification, divide your...

  19. 40 CFR 91.1005 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Exclusion and Exemption of Marine SI Engines § 91... SI engines may request a testing exemption to cover marine SI engines intended for use in test...

  20. 40 CFR 91.1007 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Exclusion and Exemption of Marine SI Engines § 91.1007 Display exemption. An uncertified marine SI engine is a display engine when it is to be used...

  1. 40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... already certified to the requirements that apply to spark-ignition engines under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 or... 1068.505. (d) Specific requirements. If you are an engine or vehicle manufacturer and meet all the following criteria and requirements regarding your new engine or vehicle, the vehicle using the engine...

  2. 40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... already certified to the requirements that apply to spark-ignition engines under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 or... 1068.505. (d) Specific requirements. If you are an engine or vehicle manufacturer and meet all the following criteria and requirements regarding your new engine or vehicle, the vehicle using the engine...

  3. 40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... already certified to the requirements that apply to spark-ignition engines under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 or... 1068.505. (d) Specific requirements. If you are an engine or vehicle manufacturer and meet all the following criteria and requirements regarding your new engine or vehicle, the vehicle using the engine...

  4. 40 CFR 1048.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  5. 40 CFR 1048.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  6. 40 CFR 1048.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  7. 46 CFR 91.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 91.25-35 Section 91.25-35... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of marine engineering equipment and systems, see subchapter F (Marine Engineering)...

  8. 46 CFR 71.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 71.25-35 Section 71.25-35... CERTIFICATION Annual Inspection § 71.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of marine engineering equipment and systems, see subchapter F. (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b)...

  9. 46 CFR 71.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 71.25-35 Section 71.25-35... CERTIFICATION Annual Inspection § 71.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of marine engineering equipment and systems, see subchapter F. (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b)...

  10. 46 CFR 24.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 24.20-1 Section 24.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 24.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering details relative to...

  11. 46 CFR 24.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 24.20-1 Section 24.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 24.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering details relative to...

  12. 46 CFR 91.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 91.25-35 Section 91.25-35... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of marine engineering equipment and systems, see subchapter F (Marine Engineering)...

  13. 46 CFR 71.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 71.25-35 Section 71.25-35... CERTIFICATION Annual Inspection § 71.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of marine engineering equipment and systems, see subchapter F. (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b)...

  14. 46 CFR 91.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 91.25-35 Section 91.25-35... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of marine engineering equipment and systems, see subchapter F (Marine Engineering)...

  15. 46 CFR 91.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 91.25-35 Section 91.25-35... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of marine engineering equipment and systems, see subchapter F (Marine Engineering)...

  16. 46 CFR 189.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 189.25-35 Section 189.25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of Marine Engineering equipment and systems, see Subchapter F (Marine Engineering)...

  17. 46 CFR 189.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 189.25-35 Section 189.25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of Marine Engineering equipment and systems, see Subchapter F (Marine Engineering)...

  18. 46 CFR 189.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 189.25-35 Section 189.25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of Marine Engineering equipment and systems, see Subchapter F (Marine Engineering)...

  19. 46 CFR 24.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 24.20-1 Section 24.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 24.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details relative...

  20. 46 CFR 71.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 71.25-35 Section 71.25-35... CERTIFICATION Annual Inspection § 71.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of marine engineering equipment and systems, see subchapter F. (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b)...

  1. 46 CFR 24.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 24.20-1 Section 24.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 24.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering details relative to...

  2. 46 CFR 189.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 189.25-35 Section 189.25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of Marine Engineering equipment and systems, see Subchapter F (Marine Engineering)...

  3. 46 CFR 90.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 90.20-1 Section 90.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 90.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details such as piping, valves, fittings, boilers, pressure vessels, etc., and their appurtenances...

  4. 46 CFR 91.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 91.25-35 Section 91.25-35... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of marine engineering equipment and systems, see subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of...

  5. 46 CFR 189.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 189.25-35 Section 189.25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of Marine Engineering equipment and systems, see Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of...

  6. 46 CFR 71.25-35 - Marine engineering equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering equipment. 71.25-35 Section 71.25-35... CERTIFICATION Annual Inspection § 71.25-35 Marine engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of marine engineering equipment and systems, see subchapter F. (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) ...

  7. 40 CFR 90.105 - Useful life periods for Phase 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engines. 90.105 Section 90.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.105 Useful life periods for Phase 2 engines. (a...

  8. 40 CFR 1054.1 - Does this part apply for my engines and equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following table: Table 1 to § 1054.1—Part 1054 Applicability by Model Year Engine type Enginedisplacement... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does this part apply for my engines... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND...

  9. 40 CFR 1054.1 - Does this part apply for my engines and equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following table: Table 1 to § 1054.1—Part 1054 Applicability by Model Year Engine type Enginedisplacement... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does this part apply for my engines... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND...

  10. 40 CFR 1054.1 - Does this part apply for my engines and equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following table: Table 1 to § 1054.1—Part 1054 Applicability by Model Year Engine type Enginedisplacement... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does this part apply for my engines... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND...

  11. 40 CFR 1054.1 - Does this part apply for my engines and equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... following table: Table 1 to § 1054.1—Part 1054 Applicability by Model Year Engine type Enginedisplacement... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does this part apply for my engines... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND...

  12. 40 CFR 1054.1 - Does this part apply for my engines and equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... following table: Table 1 to § 1054.1—Part 1054 Applicability by Model Year Engine type Enginedisplacement... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Does this part apply for my engines... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND...

  13. 40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conformity issued under 40 CFR part 86 or 1048. (2) You must not make any changes to the certified engine... already certified to the requirements that apply to spark-ignition engines under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 or... section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 or 1048 for each engine to also be a...

  14. On-Road Development of John Deere 6081 Natural Gas Engine: Final Technical Report, July 1999 - January 2001

    SciTech Connect

    McCaw, D. L.; Horrell, W. A.

    2001-09-24

    Report that discusses John Deere's field development of a heavy-duty natural gas engine. As part of the field development project, Waste Management of Orange County, California refitted four existing trash packers with John Deere's prototype spark ignited 280-hp 8.1 L CNG engines. This report describes the project and also contains information about engine performance, emissions, and driveability.

  15. 40 CFR 1048.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fails the production-line testing requirements? 1048.315 Section 1048.315 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.315 How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? This section describes the pass/fail criteria for...

  16. 40 CFR 1048.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the production-line testing requirements? 1048.325 Section 1048.325 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.325 What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? (a) We may suspend your certificate of conformity for...

  17. 40 CFR 1048.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fails the production-line testing requirements? 1048.315 Section 1048.315 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.315 How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? This section describes the pass/fail criteria for...

  18. 40 CFR 1054.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  19. 40 CFR 1054.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  20. 40 CFR 1048.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the production-line testing requirements? 1048.325 Section 1048.325 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.325 What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? (a) We may suspend your certificate of conformity for...

  1. 40 CFR 1054.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  2. 40 CFR 1048.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the production-line testing requirements? 1048.325 Section 1048.325 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.325 What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? (a) We may suspend your certificate of conformity for...

  3. 40 CFR 1048.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fails the production-line testing requirements? 1048.315 Section 1048.315 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.315 How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? This section describes the pass/fail criteria for...

  4. 40 CFR 1048.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fails the production-line testing requirements? 1048.315 Section 1048.315 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.315 How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? This section describes the pass/fail criteria for...

  5. 40 CFR 1048.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the production-line testing requirements? 1048.325 Section 1048.325 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.325 What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? (a) We may suspend your certificate of conformity for...

  6. 40 CFR 1048.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the production-line testing requirements? 1048.325 Section 1048.325 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.325 What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? (a) We may suspend your certificate of conformity for...

  7. Marine Engine Technology. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seminole Community Coll., Sanford, FL.

    This instructor's manual covers 20 competency-based instructional units designed to prepare entry-level outboard marine technicians. The first section explains how to use the materials and lists the units and the modules that constitute each. The second section lists the competencies taught in the course. The third section suggests instructional…

  8. Marine Engine Technology. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seminole Community Coll., Sanford, FL.

    This instructor's manual covers 20 competency-based instructional units designed to prepare entry-level outboard marine technicians. The first section explains how to use the materials and lists the units and the modules that constitute each. The second section lists the competencies taught in the course. The third section suggests instructional…

  9. 40 CFR 1048.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.340 When may EPA revoke my... case we will decide whether production-line testing will be enough for us to evaluate the change or... testing production-line engines as described in this subpart. (3) We will issue a new or...

  10. 40 CFR 1048.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.340 When may EPA revoke my... case we will decide whether production-line testing will be enough for us to evaluate the change or... testing production-line engines as described in this subpart. (3) We will issue a new or...

  11. 40 CFR 1048.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.340 When may EPA revoke my... case we will decide whether production-line testing will be enough for us to evaluate the change or... testing production-line engines as described in this subpart. (3) We will issue a new or...

  12. 40 CFR 1054.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fails the production-line testing requirements? 1054.315 Section 1054.315 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.315 How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? This section describes the pass-fail criteria...

  13. 40 CFR 1054.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the production-line testing requirements? 1054.325 Section 1054.325 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.325 What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? (a) We may suspend your certificate of conformity for...

  14. 40 CFR 1054.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fails the production-line testing requirements? 1054.315 Section 1054.315 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.315 How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? This section describes the pass-fail criteria...

  15. 40 CFR 1054.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the production-line testing requirements? 1054.325 Section 1054.325 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.325 What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? (a) We may suspend your certificate of conformity for...

  16. 40 CFR 1054.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the production-line testing requirements? 1054.325 Section 1054.325 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.325 What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? (a) We may suspend your certificate of conformity for...

  17. 40 CFR 1054.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the production-line testing requirements? 1054.325 Section 1054.325 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.325 What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? (a) We may suspend your certificate of conformity for...

  18. 40 CFR 1054.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fails the production-line testing requirements? 1054.315 Section 1054.315 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.315 How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? This section describes the pass-fail criteria...

  19. 40 CFR 1054.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the production-line testing requirements? 1054.325 Section 1054.325 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.325 What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? (a) We may suspend your certificate of conformity for...

  20. 40 CFR 1054.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fails the production-line testing requirements? 1054.315 Section 1054.315 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.315 How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? This section describes the pass-fail criteria...

  1. Advances in genetic engineering of marine algae.

    PubMed

    Qin, Song; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Algae are a component of bait sources for animal aquaculture, and they produce abundant valuable compounds for the chemical industry and human health. With today's fast growing demand for algae biofuels and the profitable market for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals made from algal natural products, the genetic engineering of marine algae has been attracting increasing attention as a crucial systemic technology to address the challenge of the biomass feedstock supply for sustainable industrial applications and to modify the metabolic pathway for the more efficient production of high-value products. Nevertheless, to date, only a few marine algae species can be genetically manipulated. In this article, an updated account of the research progress in marine algal genomics is presented along with methods for transformation. In addition, vector construction and gene selection strategies are reviewed. Meanwhile, a review on the progress of bioreactor technologies for marine algae culture is also revisited.

  2. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test... CVS grab “bag” samples from spark-ignition engines. Since various configurations can produce accurate... and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted. (See §§ 91.317 and...

  3. 46 CFR 126.470 - Marine-engineering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine-engineering systems. 126.470 Section 126.470... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 126.470 Marine-engineering systems. The inspection procedures for marine-engineering systems contained in subchapter F of this chapter apply....

  4. 46 CFR 126.470 - Marine-engineering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine-engineering systems. 126.470 Section 126.470... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 126.470 Marine-engineering systems. The inspection procedures for marine-engineering systems contained in subchapter F of this chapter apply....

  5. 46 CFR 126.470 - Marine-engineering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine-engineering systems. 126.470 Section 126.470... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 126.470 Marine-engineering systems. The inspection procedures for marine-engineering systems contained in subchapter F of this chapter apply....

  6. 46 CFR 126.470 - Marine-engineering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine-engineering systems. 126.470 Section 126.470... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 126.470 Marine-engineering systems. The inspection procedures for marine-engineering systems contained in subchapter F of this chapter apply....

  7. 46 CFR 126.470 - Marine-engineering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine-engineering systems. 126.470 Section 126.470... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 126.470 Marine-engineering systems. The inspection procedures for marine-engineering systems contained in subchapter F of this chapter apply. ...

  8. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  9. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  10. 40 CFR 1045.620 - What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition? 1045.620 Section 1045.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  11. 40 CFR 1045.620 - What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition? 1045.620 Section 1045.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  12. 40 CFR 1045.635 - What special provisions apply for small-volume engine manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What special provisions apply for small-volume engine manufacturers? 1045.635 Section 1045.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  13. 40 CFR 1045.635 - What special provisions apply for small-volume engine manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What special provisions apply for small-volume engine manufacturers? 1045.635 Section 1045.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  14. 40 CFR 1045.635 - What special provisions apply for small-volume engine manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What special provisions apply for small-volume engine manufacturers? 1045.635 Section 1045.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  15. 40 CFR 1045.620 - What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition? 1045.620 Section 1045.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  16. 40 CFR 1045.635 - What special provisions apply for small-volume engine manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What special provisions apply for small-volume engine manufacturers? 1045.635 Section 1045.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  17. 40 CFR 1045.635 - What special provisions apply for small-volume engine manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What special provisions apply for small-volume engine manufacturers? 1045.635 Section 1045.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  18. 40 CFR 1045.620 - What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition? 1045.620 Section 1045.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  19. 40 CFR 1045.620 - What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition? 1045.620 Section 1045.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  1. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  2. 40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  3. A stirling engine computer model for performance calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, R.; Jefferies, K.; Miao, D.

    1978-01-01

    To support the development of the Stirling engine as a possible alternative to the automobile spark-ignition engine, the thermodynamic characteristics of the Stirling engine were analyzed and modeled on a computer. The modeling techniques used are presented. The performance of an existing rhombic-drive Stirling engine was simulated by use of this computer program, and some typical results are presented. Engine tests are planned in order to evaluate this model.

  4. 40 CFR 1054.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.340 When may EPA... case we will decide whether production-line testing will be enough for us to evaluate the change or... testing production-line engines as described in this subpart. (3) We will issue a new or...

  5. 40 CFR 1054.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.340 When may EPA... case we will decide whether production-line testing will be enough for us to evaluate the change or... testing production-line engines as described in this subpart. (3) We will issue a new or...

  6. 40 CFR 1054.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.340 When may EPA... case we will decide whether production-line testing will be enough for us to evaluate the change or... testing production-line engines as described in this subpart. (3) We will issue a new or...

  7. 40 CFR 1045.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND... applicable dates shown in paragraph (5) of the definition of new propulsion marine engine in § 1045.801....

  8. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  9. 40 CFR 1045.401 - What testing requirements apply to my engines that have gone into service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What testing requirements apply to my engines that have gone into service? 1045.401 Section 1045.401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  10. 40 CFR 1045.660 - How do I certify outboard or personal watercraft engines for use in jet boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I certify outboard or personal watercraft engines for use in jet boats? 1045.660 Section 1045.660 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  11. 40 CFR 1045.660 - How do I certify outboard or personal watercraft engines for use in jet boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I certify outboard or personal watercraft engines for use in jet boats? 1045.660 Section 1045.660 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  12. 40 CFR 1045.401 - What testing requirements apply to my engines that have gone into service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What testing requirements apply to my engines that have gone into service? 1045.401 Section 1045.401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  13. 40 CFR 1045.660 - How do I certify outboard or personal watercraft engines for use in jet boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I certify outboard or personal watercraft engines for use in jet boats? 1045.660 Section 1045.660 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  14. 40 CFR 1045.401 - What testing requirements apply to my engines that have gone into service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What testing requirements apply to my engines that have gone into service? 1045.401 Section 1045.401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  15. 40 CFR 1045.505 - How do I test engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I test engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles? 1045.505 Section 1045.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  16. 40 CFR 1045.660 - How do I certify outboard or personal watercraft engines for use in jet boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I certify outboard or personal watercraft engines for use in jet boats? 1045.660 Section 1045.660 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  17. 40 CFR 1045.401 - What testing requirements apply to my engines that have gone into service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What testing requirements apply to my engines that have gone into service? 1045.401 Section 1045.401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  18. 40 CFR 1045.505 - How do I test engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I test engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles? 1045.505 Section 1045.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  19. 40 CFR 1045.505 - How do I test engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I test engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles? 1045.505 Section 1045.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.505 - How do I test engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I test engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles? 1045.505 Section 1045.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  1. 40 CFR 1045.401 - What testing requirements apply to my engines that have gone into service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What testing requirements apply to my engines that have gone into service? 1045.401 Section 1045.401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  2. 40 CFR 1045.505 - How do I test engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I test engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles? 1045.505 Section 1045.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  3. 40 CFR 1045.410 - How must I select, prepare, and test my in-use engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must I select, prepare, and test my in-use engines? 1045.410 Section 1045.410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  4. Potential for energy savings in old and new auto engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, John R.

    1985-11-01

    This paper disucsses the potential for energy savings in the transportation sector through the use of both improved and entirely new automotive engines. Although spark-ignition and diesel internal combustion engines will remain the dominant choices for passenger-car use throughout the rest of this century, improved versions of these engines (lean-burn, low-friction spark-ignition and adiabatic, low-friction diesel engines) could, in the long term, provide a 20-30 percent improvement in fuel economy over what is currently available. The use of new materials, and modifications to both vehicle structure and vehicle transmissions may yield further improvements. Over a longer time frame, the introduction of the high-temperature gas-turbine engine and the use of new synfuels may provide further opportunities for energy conservation.

  5. An overview of NASA research on positive displacement general-aviation engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The research and technology program related to improved and advanced general aviation engines is described. Current research is directed at the near-term improvement of conventional air-cooled spark-ignition piston engines and at future alternative engine systems based on all-new spark-ignition piston engines, lightweight diesels, and rotary combustion engines that show potential for meeting program goals in the midterm and long-term future. The conventional piston engine activities involve efforts on applying existing technology to improve fuel economy, investigation of key processes to permit leaner operation and reduce drag, and the development of cost effective technology to permit flight at high-altitudes where fuel economy and safety are improved. The advanced engine concepts activities include engine conceptual design studies and enabling technology efforts on the critical or key technology items.

  6. Metabolic engineering for the microbial production of marine bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangzhao; Liu, Zhen; Sun, Jianan; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-03-06

    Many marine bioactive compounds have medicinal and nutritional values. These bioactive compounds have been prepared using solvent-based extraction from marine bio-resources or chemical synthesis, which are costly, inefficient with low yields, and environmentally unfriendly. Recent advances in metabolic engineering allowed to some extent more efficient production of these compounds, showing promises to meet the increasing demand of marine natural bioactive compounds. In this paper, we review the strategies and statuses of metabolic engineering applied to microbial production of marine natural bioactive compounds including terpenoids and their derivatives, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and marine natural drugs, and provide perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased use of gas turbines as commercial marine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, C. O.; Luck, D. L.

    1994-04-01

    Over the last three decades, aeroderivative gas turbines have become established naval ship propulsion engines, but use in the commercial marine field has been more limited. Today, aeroderivative gas turbines are being increasingly utilized as commercial marine engines. The primary reason for the increased use of gas turbines is discussed and several recent GE aeroderivative gas turbine commercial marine applications are described with particular aspects of the gas turbine engine installations detailed. Finally, the potential for future commercial marine aeroderivative gas turbine applications is presented.

  8. 78 FR 77671 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; NSPS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... request (ICR), ``NSPS for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (40 CFR Part 60, Subpart...: Owners or operators of stationary spark ignition internal combustion engines. Respondent's obligation...

  9. Study of flame quenching and near-wall combustion of lean burn fuel-air mixture in a catalytically activated spark-ignited lean burn engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nedunchezhian, N.; Dhandapani, S.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the catalytic activation of charge near the combustion chamber wall and of the flame quenching phenomenon was carried out to identify whether flame quenches due to catalytic activation or due to thermal quenching. It was found that (1) the diffusion rate of fuel into the boundary sublayer limits the catalytic surface reaction rate during combustion; (2) the results of the present flame quench model indicate that the flame quenches due to the heat loss to walls, and the depletion of fuel due to the catalyst coated on the combustion chamber walls does not affect flame quenching; (3) the catalysts coated on the combustion chamber surface do not contribute increased hydrocarbon emissions, but actually reduce them; (4) each catalyst has a specific surface temperature, at which the Damkoehler number for surface reaction is unity.

  10. Hydrogen-air mixing evaluation in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, L; Naegeli, D

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the results of a computational study of fuel-air mixing in a hydrogen jet using a spark-ignited, hydrogen-fueled engine. The computational results were compared with experimental measurement being conducted at the Musashi Institute of Technology in Tokyo, Japan. The hydrogen-air mixing work was directed at understanding the extreme sensitivity of ignition to spark plug location and spark timing in direct-injected, hydrogen-fueled engines.

  11. Development of Kinetic Mechanisms for Next-Generation Fuels and CFD Simulation of Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, William J.; McNenly, Matt J.; Whitesides, Russell; Mehl, Marco; Killingsworth, Nick J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2015-12-17

    Predictive chemical kinetic models are needed to represent next-generation fuel components and their mixtures with conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. These kinetic models will allow the prediction of the effect of alternative fuel blends in CFD simulations of advanced spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. Enabled by kinetic models, CFD simulations can be used to optimize fuel formulations for advanced combustion engines so that maximum engine efficiency, fossil fuel displacement goals, and low pollutant emission goals can be achieved.

  12. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZ, Table 1a Table 1a to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63—Emission..., 2007 or Minimize the engine's time spent at idle and minimize the engine's startup time at startup to a period needed for appropriate and safe loading of the engine, not to exceed 30 minutes, after which...

  13. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  14. A simplified life-cycle cost comparison of various engines for small helicopter use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Fishbach, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    A ten-year, life-cycle cost comparison is made of the following engines for small helicopter use: (1) simple turboshaft; (2) regenerative turboshaft; (3) compression-ignition reciprocator; (4) spark-ignited rotary; and (5) spark-ignited reciprocator. Based on a simplified analysis and somewhat approximate data, the simple turboshaft engine apparently has the lowest costs for mission times up to just under 2 hours. At 2 hours and above, the regenerative turboshaft appears promising. The reciprocating and rotary engines are less attractive, requiring from 10 percent to 80 percent more aircraft to have the same total payload capability as a given number of turbine powered craft. A nomogram was developed for estimating total costs of engines not covered in this study.

  15. 40 CFR 1045.735 - What records must I keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging, Banking... English if we ask for them. You must keep these records readily available. We may review them at any...

  16. 77 FR 37670 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ...; expires on 03/31/2015; Approved without change. EPA ICR Number 0959.14; Facility Ground-Water Monitoring... Certification and Compliance Requirements for Marine and Nonroad Spark-ignition Engines (Transfer Burden...

  17. 40 CFR 91.1203 - Emission warranty, warranty period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Warranty and Maintenance... owner's choosing, such items as spark plugs, points, condensers, and any other part, item, or...

  18. 40 CFR 91.1107 - Warranty provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Prohibited Acts and General Enforcement Provisions... spark plugs, points, condensers, and any other part, item, or device related to emission control...

  19. 40 CFR 91.1107 - Warranty provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Prohibited Acts and General Enforcement Provisions... spark plugs, points, condensers, and any other part, item, or device related to emission control...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.730 - What ABT reports must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging... family (see § 1045.140). (6) Useful life. (7) Calculated positive or negative emission credits for...

  1. 40 CFR 1045.730 - What ABT reports must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging... family (see § 1045.140). (6) Useful life. (7) Calculated positive or negative emission credits for...

  2. 40 CFR 1045.730 - What ABT reports must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging... family (see § 1045.140). (6) Useful life. (7) Calculated positive or negative emission credits for...

  3. 40 CFR 1045.730 - What ABT reports must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging... family (see § 1045.140). (6) Useful life. (7) Calculated positive or negative emission credits for...

  4. 40 CFR 91.315 - Analyzer initial calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91... recommendations. The combustion flame of the HFID analyzer must be optimized in order to meet the specifications...

  5. 40 CFR 91.505 - Right of entry and access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing... being, has been, or will be used for production line or other testing. (2) By written request, signed...

  6. 40 CFR 91.505 - Right of entry and access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing... being, has been, or will be used for production line or other testing. (2) By written request, signed...

  7. 40 CFR 91.505 - Right of entry and access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing... being, has been, or will be used for production line or other testing. (2) By written request, signed...

  8. 40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing...'s production, as specified in paragraph (a) of § 91.122, in cases where there were one or more...

  9. 40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing...'s production, as specified in paragraph (a) of § 91.122, in cases where there were one or more...

  10. 40 CFR 91.505 - Right of entry and access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing... being, has been, or will be used for production line or other testing. (2) By written request, signed...

  11. 40 CFR 91.505 - Right of entry and access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing... being, has been, or will be used for production line or other testing. (2) By written request, signed...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZ, Table 1a Table 1a to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63—Emission... emissions by 75 percent or more until June 15, 2007 or Minimize the engine's time spent at idle and minimize the engine's startup time at startup to a period needed for appropriate and safe loading of the...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZ, Table 1a Table 1a to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63—Emission... emissions by 75 percent or more until June 15, 2007 or Minimize the engine's time spent at idle and minimize the engine's startup time at startup to a period needed for appropriate and safe loading of the...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZ, Table 1a Table 1a to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63—Emission... emissions by 75 percent or more until June 15, 2007 or Minimize the engine's time spent at idle and minimize the engine's startup time at startup to a period needed for appropriate and safe loading of the...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZ, Table 1a Table 1a to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63—Emission... emissions by 75 percent or more until June 15, 2007 or Minimize the engine's time spent at idle and minimize the engine's startup time at startup to a period needed for appropriate and safe loading of the...

  16. Remanufacture Systems for Category 1 and 2 Marine Diesel Engines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA maintains a list of remanufacture systems, or “kits”, certified for use with Category 1 and 2 marine diesel engines according to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 1042, Subpart I, and is periodically updated.

  17. 46 CFR 31.30-1 - Marine engineering regulations and material specifications-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine engineering regulations and material... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Marine Engineering § 31.30-1 Marine engineering regulations and material..., of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter, whenever applicable, except as such regulations...

  18. 46 CFR 31.30-1 - Marine engineering regulations and material specifications-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine engineering regulations and material... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Marine Engineering § 31.30-1 Marine engineering regulations and material..., of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter, whenever applicable, except as such regulations...

  19. 46 CFR 31.30-1 - Marine engineering regulations and material specifications-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering regulations and material... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Marine Engineering § 31.30-1 Marine engineering regulations and material..., of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter, whenever applicable, except as such regulations...

  20. 46 CFR 31.30-1 - Marine engineering regulations and material specifications-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine engineering regulations and material... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Marine Engineering § 31.30-1 Marine engineering regulations and material..., of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter, whenever applicable, except as such regulations...

  1. 46 CFR 31.30-1 - Marine engineering regulations and material specifications-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine engineering regulations and material... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Marine Engineering § 31.30-1 Marine engineering regulations and material..., of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter, whenever applicable, except as such regulations...

  2. Tropical rainforest response to marine sky brightening climate engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Kristjánsson, Jón Egill

    2015-04-01

    Tropical forests represent a major atmospheric carbon dioxide sink. Here the gross primary productivity (GPP) response of tropical rainforests to climate engineering via marine sky brightening under a future scenario is investigated in three Earth system models. The model response is diverse, and in two of the three models, the tropical GPP shows a decrease from the marine sky brightening climate engineering. Partial correlation analysis indicates precipitation to be important in one of those models, while precipitation and temperature are limiting factors in the other. One model experiences a reversal of its Amazon dieback under marine sky brightening. There, the strongest partial correlation of GPP is to temperature and incoming solar radiation at the surface. Carbon fertilization provides a higher future tropical rainforest GPP overall, both with and without climate engineering. Salt damage to plants and soils could be an important aspect of marine sky brightening.

  3. Evaluation of heat engine for hybrid vehicle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. Focus is on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines. It is concluded that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  4. Evaluation of heat engine for hybrid vehicle application

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.W.

    1984-08-01

    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. Focus is on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines. It is concluded that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  5. The Environmental Impacts of Boating; Proceedings of a Workshop held at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole MA USA, December 7 to 9, 1994.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Crankcase -scavenged Air / Fuel Mixture In -^- f" Exhaust Out There are basically two types of gasoline fueled engines for marine vessels: the two...stroke, crankcase -scavenged spark ignited engine used for outboards and the four- stroke, otto cycle, spark ignited engine used for inboards and I...into the crankcase . Combustion occurs and the process cycles on, delivering torque to the propeller. As you can see, this design has some

  6. 40 CFR 91.705 - Prohibited acts; penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Importation of Nonconforming Marine Engines § 91.705 Prohibited acts; penalties. (a) The importation of a marine SI engine, including a marine engine incorporated into marine vessels or equipment, which is not covered by a certificate of...

  7. 40 CFR 91.705 - Prohibited acts; penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Importation of Nonconforming Marine Engines § 91.705 Prohibited acts; penalties. (a) The importation of a marine SI engine, including a marine engine incorporated into marine vessels or equipment, which is not covered by a certificate of...

  8. 40 CFR 91.705 - Prohibited acts; penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Importation of Nonconforming Marine Engines § 91.705 Prohibited acts; penalties. (a) The importation of a marine SI engine, including a marine engine incorporated into marine vessels or equipment, which is not covered by a certificate of...

  9. 40 CFR 91.705 - Prohibited acts; penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Importation of Nonconforming Marine Engines § 91.705 Prohibited acts; penalties. (a) The importation of a marine SI engine, including a marine engine incorporated into marine vessels or equipment, which is not covered by a certificate of...

  10. 40 CFR 91.1004 - Who may request an exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Exclusion and Exemption of Marine SI....1005. (b) Any marine SI engine manufacturer may request a national security exemption under § 91.1008. (c) For marine SI engine manufacturers, marine SI engines for export purposes are exempt without...

  11. Hydrogen engine development: Experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blarigan, P.

    1996-10-01

    In the continuing development of a hydrogen fueled IC engine optimized for application to a generator set or hybrid vehicle, experiments were performed at Sandia National Laboratories on two engine configurations. The intent is to maximize thermal efficiency while complying with strict emissions standards. The initial investigation was conducted utilizing a spark ignited 0.491 liter single cylinder Onan engine and has progressed to a spark ignited 0.850 liter modified for single cylinder operation Perkins engine. Both combustion chamber geometries were {open_quotes}pancake{close_quotes} shaped and achieved a compression ratio of 14:1. The engines were operated under premixed conditions. The results demonstrate that both engines can comply with the California Air Resources Board`s proposed Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicle standards for NO{sub x} during operation at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The Onan engine achieved an indicated thermal efficiency of 43% at 1800 RPM, as determined by integration of the pressure-volume relationships. Initial experiments with the larger displacement Perkins engine have realized a gain, relative to the Onan engine, in indicated thermal efficiency of 2% at 1800 RPM, and 15% at 1200 RPM.

  12. 40 CFR 91.1008 - National security exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Exclusion and Exemption of Marine SI Engines § 91.1008 National security exemption. (a)(1) Any marine SI engine, otherwise subject to this part... request a national security exemption for any marine SI engine, otherwise subject to this part, which does...

  13. 46 CFR 127.620 - Marine engineering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine engineering requirements. 127.620 Section 127.620 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Construction and Arrangements for OSVs Carrying More Than 36 Offshore Workers. § 127.620...

  14. Complete modeling for systems of a marine diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahim, Hassan Moussa; Younes, Rafic; Nohra, Chadi; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a simulator model of a marine diesel engine based on physical, semi-physical, mathematical and thermodynamic equations, which allows fast predictive simulations. The whole engine system is divided into several functional blocks: cooling, lubrication, air, injection, combustion and emissions. The sub-models and dynamic characteristics of individual blocks are established according to engine working principles equations and experimental data collected from a marine diesel engine test bench for SIMB Company under the reference 6M26SRP1. The overall engine system dynamics is expressed as a set of simultaneous algebraic and differential equations using sub-blocks and S-Functions of Matlab/Simulink. The simulation of this model, implemented on Matlab/Simulink has been validated and can be used to obtain engine performance, pressure, temperature, efficiency, heat release, crank angle, fuel rate, emissions at different sub-blocks. The simulator will be used, in future work, to study the engine performance in faulty conditions, and can be used to assist marine engineers in fault diagnosis and estimation (FDI) as well as designers to predict the behavior of the cooling system, lubrication system, injection system, combustion, emissions, in order to optimize the dimensions of different components. This program is a platform for fault simulator, to investigate the impact on sub-blocks engine's output of changing values for faults parameters such as: faulty fuel injector, leaky cylinder, worn fuel pump, broken piston rings, a dirty turbocharger, dirty air filter, dirty air cooler, air leakage, water leakage, oil leakage and contamination, fouling of heat exchanger, pumps wear, failure of injectors (and many others).

  15. 40 CFR 94.104 - Test procedures for Category 2 marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engine air inlet restriction pressures do not apply for marine engines. (2) For marine engine testing, charge air temperatures, engine speed and load, and engine air inlet restriction pressures shall be... in 40 CFR 92.129 through the 2010 model year. Measure CO2 as specified in 40 CFR 1042.235 starting...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.610 - Certifying auxiliary marine engines to land-based standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.610 Certifying auxiliary marine engines... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certifying auxiliary marine engines...

  17. 40 CFR 1042.610 - Certifying auxiliary marine engines to land-based standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.610 Certifying auxiliary marine engines... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying auxiliary marine engines...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.610 - Certifying auxiliary marine engines to land-based standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.610 Certifying auxiliary marine engines... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certifying auxiliary marine engines...

  19. 40 CFR 1042.610 - Certifying auxiliary marine engines to land-based standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.610 Certifying auxiliary marine engines... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certifying auxiliary marine engines...

  20. 40 CFR 1042.610 - Certifying auxiliary marine engines to land-based standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.610 Certifying auxiliary marine engines... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certifying auxiliary marine engines...

  1. Marine Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are presented for each of six terminal objectives for a two-semester course (2 hours daily) which provides training in the terminology, construction, and function of both two- and four-cycle fuel-air mixture internal combustion engines with emphasis on outboard marine…

  2. Uses for Marine Mattresses in Coastal Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    engineer to design groins using a pyramid of three stacked triangular-shaped, 14-ton precast concrete block units encasing a rock core (Olsen 2001). The...filter layers of gravel or geotextile filter cloth must be included in the cross-section design . A primary mattress failure mode under wave action...CHL CHETN-III-72 February 2006 where Tm,d and Tm,u are minimum mattress thicknesses, H is the design wave height (assume breaking wave height for

  3. 40 CFR 91.1009 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Exclusion and Exemption of Marine SI Engines § 91.1009 Export exemptions. (a) A new marine SI engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged... maintain a list of foreign countries that have in force marine SI emission standards identical to U.S. EPA...

  4. Low current extended duration spark ignition system

    DOEpatents

    Waters, Stephen Howard; Chan, Anthony Kok-Fai

    2005-08-30

    A system for firing a spark plug is disclosed. The system includes a timing controller configured to send a first timing signal and a second timing signal. The system also includes an ignition transformer having a primary winding and a secondary winding and a spark-plug that is operably associated with the secondary winding. A first switching element is disposed between the timing controller and the primary winding of the ignition transformer. The first switching element controls a supply of power to the primary winding based on the first timing signal. Also, a second switching element is disposed between the timing controller and the primary winding of the ignition transformer. The second switching element controls the supply of power to the primary winding based on the second timing signal. A method for firing a spark plug is also disclosed.

  5. Simulation of air pollution due to marine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, L. C.

    2017-08-01

    This paperwork tried to simulate the combustion inside the marine engines using the newest computer methods and technologies with the result of a diverse and rich palette of solutions, extremely useful for the study and prediction of complex phenomena of the fuel combustion. The paperwork is contributing to the theoretical systematization of the area of interest bringing into attention a thoroughly inventory of the thermodynamic description of the phenomena which take place in the combustion process into the marine diesel engines; to the in depth multidimensional combustion models description along with the interdisciplinary phenomenology taking place in the combustion models; to the FEA (Finite Elements Method) modelling for the combustion chemistry in the nonpremixed mixtures approach considered too; the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model was issued for the combustion area and a rich palette of results interesting for any researcher of the process.

  6. Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 rocket engine assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoke, D. R.; Williams, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication and test of rocket engine assemblies (REA) for Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 are reported. The fabrication, assembly and flight acceptance test of seven REA's including the type approval test of one engine and fabrication of one additional kit consisting of detail parts for an engine ready for catalyst loading are presented. The MV/M '73 REA which is a nominal 51 lbs thrust monopropellant engine is described. Under steady state operation the specific impulse is not less than 228 lb-sec at 55 lb and 218.5 lb-sec at 10 lb thrust varying linearly between these limits. The characteristic velocity is not less than 4100 ft/sec at any thrust level.

  7. MAN B&W`s latest HFO marine auxiliary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kunberger, K.

    1996-09-01

    The ability to operate marine auxiliary generator sets on heavy fuel oil (HFO) provides the advantages of using a single fuel source onboard ships for all engine power, but also requires attention directed to engine maintenance, reliability and emissions. MAN B&W Diesel in Holeby, Denmark, has a world reputation and substantial market share for HFO burning auxiliary engines above 500 kW. Offering a guaranteed 20000 operating hours before major overhaul on its HFO auxiliary gen-sets, the company has promoted the unifuel concept for ship propulsion and auxiliary power plants for many years. Based on this experience, a new generation of small HFO burning diesels has been designed. Low operating and maintenance costs, low initial cost, heavy fuel capabilities with unrestricted load profile, high reliability at long maintenance intervals and low emmisions were the main design targets. The design, specifications, and performance of these engines are discussed in this article.

  8. An overview of NASA research on positive displacement type general aviation engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E.; Willis, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper surveys the current status of the aviation positive displacement engine programs underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel, and rotary combustion engines. Attention is given to topics such as current production type engine improvement, cooling drag reduction, fuel injection, and experimental and theoretical combustion studies. It is shown that the program's two major technical thrusts are directed toward lean operation of current production type spark ignition engines and advanced alternative engine concepts. Finally, an Otto cycle computer model is also covered.

  9. Fluid motion within the cylinder of internal combustion engines - The 1986 Freeman Scholar Lecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, John B.

    1987-03-01

    Aspects of gas motion into, within, and out of the engine cylinder which govern the combustion characteristics and capabilities of spark-ignition engines and compression-ignition or diesel engines are considered. Flow characteristics through inlet and exhaust valves in four-stroke cycle engines, and through ports in the cylinder liner in two-stroke cycle engines, are discussed. Features and turbulence characteristics of common in-cylinder flows including the large scale rotating flows precipitated by the conical intake jet and two-stroke scavenger flows are reviewed. The flow phenomenon near walls are then discussed, with application to heat transfer and hydrocarbon emissions phenomena.

  10. An overview of NASA research on positive displacement type general aviation engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E.; Willis, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper surveys the current status of the aviation positive displacement engine programs underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel, and rotary combustion engines. Attention is given to topics such as current production type engine improvement, cooling drag reduction, fuel injection, and experimental and theoretical combustion studies. It is shown that the program's two major technical thrusts are directed toward lean operation of current production type spark ignition engines and advanced alternative engine concepts. Finally, an Otto cycle computer model is also covered.

  11. 40 CFR 94.109 - Test procedures for Category 3 marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedures for Category 3 marine... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 94.109 Test procedures for Category 3 marine engines. (a) Gaseous emissions shall be measured using the...

  12. 40 CFR 94.104 - Test procedures for Category 2 marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedures for Category 2 marine... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 94.104 Test procedures for Category 2 marine engines. (a) Gaseous and particulate emissions shall be...

  13. 40 CFR 94.104 - Test procedures for Category 2 marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedures for Category 2 marine... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 94.104 Test procedures for Category 2 marine engines. (a) Gaseous and particulate emissions shall be...

  14. 40 CFR 94.103 - Test procedures for Category 1 marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedures for Category 1 marine... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 94.103 Test procedures for Category 1 marine engines. (a) Gaseous and particulate emissions shall be...

  15. 40 CFR 94.103 - Test procedures for Category 1 marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedures for Category 1 marine... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 94.103 Test procedures for Category 1 marine engines. (a) Gaseous and particulate emissions shall be...

  16. 40 CFR 91.803 - Manufacturer in-use testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Testing and Recall Regulations... marine engine applications. Such alternatives shall be designed to determine whether the engine family is... with the manufacturer (i.e., consumer-owned engines, independently-owned fleet engines, etc.)....

  17. 40 CFR 91.1302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1302... also apply to this subpart: Averaging means the exchange of marine engine in-use emission credits among...

  18. 40 CFR 91.1303 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....1303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1303 General provisions. (a) The in-use credit program for eligible marine engines is described in this...

  19. 40 CFR 91.1302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1302... also apply to this subpart: Averaging means the exchange of marine engine in-use emission credits among...

  20. 40 CFR 91.1104 - General enforcement provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consumer, of a new marine SI engine that fails to comply with applicable standards of the Administrator... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Prohibited Acts and General Enforcement... manufacturer of new marine SI engines and other persons subject to the requirements of this part must...