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Sample records for marinos con oro

  1. Dan Marino Helping Those with Autism Spectrum Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marino Foundation. Photo: Dan Marino Foundation Former NFL star quarterback Dan Marino and his wife Claire experienced ... to succeed in life,'" says the former NFL star. "That's where the focus for The Dan Marino ...

  2. Oro-facial impairment in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, M; Ono, T; Lam, O L T; Müller, F

    2017-01-27

    Stroke is considered one of the leading causes of death and acquired disability with a peak prevalence over the age of 80 years. Stroke may cause debilitating neurological deficiencies that frequently result in sensory deficits, motor impairment, muscular atrophy, cognitive deficits and psychosocial impairment. Oro-facial impairment may occur due to the frequent involvement of the cranial nerves' cortical representation areas, central nervous system pathways or motoneuron pools. The aim of this narrative, non-systematic review was to discuss the implications of stroke on oro-facial functions and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Stroke patients demonstrate an impaired masticatory performance, possibly due to reduced tongue forces and disturbed oral sensitivity. Furthermore, facial asymmetry is common, but mostly discrete and lip restraining forces are reduced. Bite force is not different between the ipsi- and contra-lesional side. In contrast, the contra-lesional handgrip strength and tongue-palate contact during swallowing are significantly impaired. OHRQoL is significantly reduced mainly because of the functional impairment. It can be concluded that impaired chewing efficiency, dysphagia, facial asymmetry, reduced lip force and OHRQoL are quantifiable symptoms of oro-facial impairment following a stroke. In the absence of functional rehabilitation, these symptoms seem not to improve. Furthermore, stroke affects the upper limb and the masseter muscle differently, both, at a functional and a morphological level. The rehabilitation of stroke survivors should, therefore, also seek to improve the strength and co-ordination of the oro-facial musculature. This would in turn help improve OHRQoL and the masticatory function, subsequently preventing weight loss and malnutrition.

  3. OROS-Oral Reading Observation System. Observer's Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Mary Ella; And Others

    The training manual provides self-instructional materials for the Oral Reading Observation System (OROS) designed to teach accurate coding of teacher/pupil verbal interactions during oral reading instruction. The nine sections focus on specific aspects of the OROS system, include self-evaluation exercises, and have the following titles: (1)…

  4. [Echinoderms from Marino Ballena National Park, Pacific, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan José; Fernández, Cindy

    2005-12-01

    A total of 25 species of echinoderms (four asteroids, six ophiuroids, five echinoids and ten holothurians) were recorded at Marino Ballena National Park, using 25 m2 quadrants, parallel to the coast, at seven sites. The ophiuroids were the most abundant group with 581 individuals and the asteroids the less abundant (48 individuals). Echinoderms densities were low, with the exception of the ophiuroids. Diversity, density and the number of groups were higher where sedimentation was lower. We suggest that sedimentation is having a negative effect on the diversity of echinoderms and on the development of the coral reefs in this park.

  5. Epidemiology of headache in the Republic of San Marino.

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessandro, R; Benassi, G; Lenzi, P L; Gamberini, G; Sacquegna, T; De Carolis, P; Lugaresi, E

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiological survey on headache was performed in the Republic of San Marino, which is the smallest independent State in the world, located near the Adriatic Coast, within Italy. Among a random sample of 1500 inhabitants over 7 years of age the frequency of headache, severe headache and migraine in the previous year was 35.3%, 12.2%, 9.3% respectively for men, and 46.2%, 20.6%, 18% for women. The most common factors reported to provoke headache were emotional stress, physical strain, lack of sleep, particular foods or drinks and for women menstruation. Migraine patients differed from people without headache in that they had a higher consumption of coffee, more frequently reported bad sleep, allergic disease and previous appendectomy. Furthermore, migraine patients and severe headache sufferers had a higher diastolic blood pressure than non headache subjects. PMID:3258357

  6. Role of genes in oro-dental diseases.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, B; Priyadharshini, Vijayashree; Sivapathasundharam, B; Saraswathi, T R

    2010-01-01

    In oral cavity, the spectrum of diseases due to genetic alterations ranges from developmental disturbances of teeth to the pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions. Of late, significant progress has been made in the molecular analysis of tumors. With molecular genetic testing emerging as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approach, a review of genetic alterations ranging from the development of oro-facial structures to the tumors in the head and neck region are addressed in this article. The functional regulatory aspect of genes in relation to oro-facial structures are discussed separately, i.e., in relation to tooth genesis, tooth agenesis (non-syndromic, syndromic), tooth structural alterations, syndromic oro-facial defects, bone diseases, skin diseases (genodermatoses), and malignant tumors. In this literature, various genes involved in the development of the oro-facial structures and tooth in particular are discussed. The genetic basis of disorders in the tooth development (agenesis, hypodontia), tooth structural defects like amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and oro-facial structural alterations (various syndromes) are explained.

  7. Oro-facial-digital syndrome type II with otolaryngological manifestations.

    PubMed

    Havle, A; Shedge, S; Malashetti, S; Jain, V

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of oro-facial-digital syndrome type II (Mohr's syndrome) which is characterized by malformations of the oral cavity, face and digits. The facial and oral features include tongue nodules, cleft or high-arched palate, missing teeth, broad nose; cleft lip. The digital features include clinodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, brachydactyly and duplication of the hallux.

  8. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome; oro-dental manifestations and management.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T; Stephen, L X G; Fieggen, K; Beighton, P

    2009-01-01

    The major manifestations of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome are developmental delay, short stature, mental impairment and epilepsy. Clefts of the lip and palate are sometimes present. Dental problems which are overshadowed by the major syndromic manifestations warrant appropriate management. We have documented an affected South African boy, discussed his dental management and reviewed the oro-dental implications of the disorder.

  9. Oro-facial evaluation of women with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hoyuela, C P S; Furtado, R N V; Chiari, A; Natour, J

    2015-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an aggressive articular autoimmune disease that causes deformities and disability. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) might be affected by this disease. Few controlled studies have evaluated bite force (BF) and oro-facial manifestations of this disease. To characterise oro-facial alterations in patients with RA, correlate these results with clinical and disease activity parameters and correlate BF with hand strength (HS). A cross-sectional study of 150 women was performed, (75 RA patients (RA group) and 75 healthy individuals (control group). The presence of articular sounds, pain on palpation of masseter, temporal and TMJ lateral pole, changes in occlusion, range of mandibular motion, measurement of BF in the incisor and molar regions and assessment of HS were evaluated. In relation to oro-facial evaluation there were statistical differences between the groups. There was correlation between BF and HS, in the RA group, this correlation was consistent in patients with natural teeth. Patients with RA had lower scores (P < 0·05) in the HAQ, DASH and OHIP-14 questionnaires than the control group. Inverse correlations were found between BF and HAQ, but not between BF and DAS-28, DASH and OHIP-14 questionnaires in the RA group. The women with RA presented more signs and symptoms in the oro-facial region and had a lower BF than the women in the control group. BF was inversely correlated with the overall function (evaluated by the HAQ) in the patients with RA, and there were correlations between BF and HS in the RA patients and in the control group.

  10. Perspectives on next steps in classification of oro-facial pain - Part 3: biomarkers of chronic oro-facial pain - from research to clinic.

    PubMed

    Ceusters, W; Nasri-Heir, C; Alnaas, D; Cairns, B E; Michelotti, A; Ohrbach, R

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the current status of biomarkers used in oro-facial pain conditions. Specifically, we critically appraise their relative strengths and weaknesses for assessing mechanisms associated with the oro-facial pain conditions and interpret that information in the light of their current value for use in diagnosis. In the third section, we explore biomarkers through the perspective of ontological realism. We discuss ontological problems of biomarkers as currently widely conceptualised and implemented. This leads to recommendations for research practice aimed to a better understanding of the potential contribution that biomarkers might make to oro-facial pain diagnosis and thereby fulfil our goal for an expanded multidimensional framework for oro-facial pain conditions that would include a third axis.

  11. A possible cranio-oro-facial phenotype in Cockayne syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cockayne Syndrome CS (Type A – CSA; or CS Type I OMIM #216400) (Type B – CSB; or CS Type II OMIM #133540) is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disease caused by defects in DNA repair characterized by progressive cachectic dwarfism, progressive intellectual disability with cerebral leukodystrophy, microcephaly, progressive pigmentary retinopathy, sensorineural deafness photosensitivity and possibly orofacial and dental anomalies. Methods We studied the cranio-oro-facial status of a group of 17 CS patients from 15 families participating in the National Hospital Program for Clinical Research (PHRC) 2005 « Clinical and molecular study of Cockayne syndrome ». All patients were examined by two investigators using the Diagnosing Dental Defects Database (D[4]/phenodent) record form. Results Various oro-facial and dental anomalies were found: retrognathia; micrognathia; high- arched narrow palate; tooth crowding; hypodontia (missing permanent lateral incisor, second premolars or molars), screwdriver shaped incisors, microdontia, radiculomegaly, and enamel hypoplasia. Eruption was usually normal. Dental caries was associated with enamel defects, a high sugar/carbohydrate soft food diet, poor oral hygiene and dry mouth. Cephalometric analysis revealed mid-face hypoplasia, a small retroposed mandible and hypo-development of the skull. Conclusion CS patients may have associated oro-dental features, some of which may be more frequent in CS children – some of them being described for the first time in this paper (agenesis of second permanent molars and radiculomegaly). The high susceptibility to rampant caries is related to a combination of factors as well as enamel developmental defects. Specific attention to these anomalies may contribute to diagnosis and help plan management. PMID:23311583

  12. Risk factors for onset of chronic oro-facial pain--results of the North Cheshire oro-facial pain prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Vishal R; Macfarlane, Gary J; Farragher, Tracey M; McBeth, John

    2010-05-01

    Due to the cross-sectional nature of previous studies, whether mechanical factors predict the onset of Chronic oro-facial pain remains unclear. Aims of the current study were to test the hypotheses that self-reported mechanical factors would predict onset of Chronic oro-facial pain and that any observed relationship would be independent of the confounding effects of psychosocial factors and reporting of other unexplained symptoms. About 1735 subjects who had completed a baseline questionnaire were assessed at 2year follow-up for the presence of Chronic oro-facial pain, psychosocial factors (anxiety and depression, illness behaviour, life stressors and reporting of somatic symptoms), mechanical dysfunction (facial trauma, grinding, phantom bite and missing teeth) and reporting of other unexplained symptoms (chronic widespread pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue). About 1329 subjects returned completed questionnaires (adjusted response rate 87%). About 56 (5%) reported new episodes of Chronic oro-facial pain at follow-up. Univariate analyses showed that age, gender, reporting of other unexplained symptoms, psychosocial factors and two self-report mechanical factors predicted the onset of Chronic oro-facial pain. However multivariate analysis showed that mechanical factors did not independently predict onset. The strongest predictors were health anxiety (Relative Risk (RR) 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-6.2), chronic widespread pain (RR 4.0 95% C.I. 2.2-7.4) and age (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). The findings from this prospective study support the hypothesis that psychosocial factors are markers for onset of Chronic oro-facial pain. The efficacy of early psychological management of Chronic oro-facial pain to address these factors should be a priority for future investigations.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 2808 HB stars abundances (Marino+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P.; Przybilla, N.; Bergemann, M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.; Cassisi, S.; Catelan, M.; Casagrande, L.; Valcarce, A. A. R.; Bedin, L. R.; Cortes, C.; D'Antona, F.; Jerjen, H.; Piotto, G.; Schlesinger, K.; Zoccali, M.; Angeloni, R.

    2014-11-01

    To identify our stellar sample, we use the photometric catalogue of Momany et al. (2004), which has been obtained from U, B and V images collected with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) mounted at the 2.2m ESO-MPI (Max-Planck-Institut) telescope at La Silla observatory, Chile. Our spectroscopic data consist of FLAMES/GIRAFFE and FLAMES/UVES data collected under the ESO programme 086.D-0141 (PI: Marino). The GIRAFFE fibres were used with the HR12 setup, covering the spectral range from ~5820 to ~6140Å with a resolution of ~18700. (6 data files).

  14. [Missing cuff from the oro-tracheal tube during percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy].

    PubMed

    Damm, Anders Aarup Munk; Bundgaard, Helle

    2015-06-29

    During a percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy (PDT) performed at the intensive care unit of a regional hospital, subsequent to completion of the PDT a small segment of the cuff from the oro-tracheal tube was found missing, once the oro-tracheal tube was removed. The oto-rhino-laryngologist was called upon to carry out a flexible bronchoscopy and laryngoscopic examination of the patient. After deflation, the missing piece was located at the level of the tracheal tube cuff and removed successfully. We recommend examining the condition of the oro-tracheal tube cuff upon completion of the PDT procedure.

  15. A Case of Oro-antral Communication Closed by Autotransplantation of Third Molar.

    PubMed

    Nagori, Shakil Ahmed; Jose, Anson; Bhutia, Ongkila; Roychoudhury, Ajoy

    2015-03-01

    A number of surgical treatment modalities have been described in literature for closure of oro-antral communications. None of the methods however provide for immediate prosthetic rehabilitation of the communication site. We describe a case of oro-antral communication treated using autogenous third molar transplantation. At 18 months of follow-up, the transplanted tooth was functioning well with radiographic evidence of lamina dura and periodontal ligament. Its root-tip was still seen projecting into the maxillary sinus. This report suggests that when possible, autotransplantation of third molar can be a simple and excellent choice for closure of oro-antral communications.

  16. A study of operative treatment and bacteriological examination of persistent oro-antral fistulas.

    PubMed

    Sindet-Pedersen, S; Skoglund, L A; Hvidegaard, T; Holst, E

    1983-10-01

    A retrospective study of 35 patients with oro-antral fistulas of more than 2 weeks duration is presented. Treatment results by using the Rehrmann plastic procedure, as well as complications and sequelae are described. The results of bacteriological examination in 15 patients with maxillary sinusitis in association with oro-antral fistulas are presented. The bacteriological findings suggest that broad spectrum antibiotics in certain conditions should be administered in cases of persisting oro-antral fistulas associated with maxillary sinusitis. The results of the present study show that the Rehrmann-operation proves satisfactory even in treatment-resistent cases.

  17. Contaminated scrap-metal inventories at ORO-managed sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Radioactively contaminated scrap metal inventories were surveyed at facilities operating under contract with the US Department of Energy and managed through the Oak Ridge Operations Office. Nearly 90,000 tons of nickel, aluminum, copper, and ferrous metals (steels) contaminated with low-enriched uranium have accumulated, primarily at the uranium enrichment facilities. The potential value of this metal on the scrap market is over $100 million. However, existing regulations do not permit sale for unlicensed use of materials contaminated with low-enriched uranium. Therefore, current handling practices include burial and above-ground storage. Smelting is also used for shape declassification, with subsequent storage of ingots. This survey of existing inventories, generation rates, and handling capabilities is part of an overall metal waste management program to coordinate related activities among the ORO-managed sites.

  18. Optimization Review: French Gulch/Wellington-Oro Mine Site Water Treatment Plant, Breckenridge, Summit County, Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The French Gulch/Wellington-Oro Mine Site is located near the town of Breckenridge in Summit County, Colorado. Environmental contamination of surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment at the site resulted from mining activities dating to the 1880s.

  19. Multiple sclerosis in the Republic of San Marino: a prevalence and incidence study.

    PubMed

    Granieri, E; Monaldini, C; De Gennaro, R; Guttmann, S; Volpini, M; Stumpo, M; Fazio, P; Casetta, I

    2008-04-01

    Studies on the distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) carried out in Southern Europe in the last years have shown a significant increase in the frequency of the disease. A previous descriptive survey in the Republic of San Marino, northern Italian peninsula, published in 1984 established that this area is at high risk for MS. We updated the frequency estimates of the disease by adopting a complete enumeration approach. On 31 December 2005, 50 MS patients (36 women and 14 men) yielded a crude prevalence rate of 166.7 per 100, 000 (95% CI 123.7-220), 235.3 (95% CI 165-327.4) for women and 95.2 (95% CI 52-160) for men. The average incidence from 1990 to 2005 was 7.9 (95% CI 5.3-11.1) per 100,000, 11.7 (95% CI 7.6-17.3) for women and 3.9 (95% CI 1.7-7.7) for men. We did not detect any significant temporal trend over the study period. These results confirm that in San Marino the disease occurs more frequently than that suggested in the past and support the data on MS frequency in continental Italy. The marked increase in MS prevalence ratio is partly due to the increasing survival of patients and the accumulation of new incidence cases owing to the reduction in diagnostic latency for better quality of neurological diagnostic procedures. However, an increased incidence of the disease could be considered.

  20. An interview with Kate Storey and Silvia Marino. Interview by Eva Amsen.

    PubMed

    Storey, Kate; Marino, Silvia

    2010-06-01

    In February 2010, in the beautiful setting of Wiston House, nestled at the foot of the hilly South Downs in Sussex, UK, The Company of Biologists, the not-for-profit organisation that publishes Development, held the inaugural meeting of their new workshop series dedicated to biological research (for more information on these meetings, please go to http://workshops.biologists.com/). The meeting was titled 'Neural Stem Cells in Development and Disease', and was organised by Kate Storey, Professor of Neural Development at the College of Life Sciences of the University of Dundee, and Silvia Marino, Professor of Neuropathology at Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry. They were also assisted by the workshop chairman, François Guillemot, Programme Leader of the Division of Molecular Neurobiology at the National Institute for Medical Research in London. The scientific scope and themes of this workshop are covered in more detail in a meeting review published in this issue (see p. 1933) but, to get a glimpse behind the scenes, we talked to Kate Storey and Silvia Marino and asked them about the organisation of the 'Neural Stem Cells in Development and Disease' workshop.

  1. A Study of Healthy Adults' Oro-lingual Effort During Swallowing Using OroPress, A New Portable Wireless Measurement Tool.

    PubMed

    Manning, Molly; Casey, Vincent; Conway, Richard; Saunders, Jean; Perry, Alison

    2016-06-01

    OroPress is a new, low profile, portable, wireless tool that enables stable measurement of tongue pressure during isometric ('pushing') tasks and, more importantly, during swallowing. Using this tool, a pressure-time product, the OroPress Absolute (OPA) parameter, has been developed as a representative measure of lingual effort during swallowing. In a sample of 57 adults aged 20-80+ years, of both sexes and without dysphagia, tongue-palate contact pressures generated while swallowing 5 ml, 10 ml of water and 5 ml custard, were recorded using OroPress. Data were examined for effects of gender, age and bolus condition (consistency, volume). OPA was tested for stability of measure and then correlated with the criterion standard, peak pressure recorded when swallowing (PMax(SW)). Swallowing pressures (PMax(SW), OPA) were positively correlated with bolus viscosity. No significant age and gender differences were found. Excellent stability of measure (test, re-test reliability) was demonstrated and OPA was positively correlated with PMax(SW). OroPress produces valid, reliable and reproducible measurements and improved accuracy of oro-lingual pressure measurement during swallowing. With such a tool, interventions/therapy can be proactive and principled as outcomes are better validated. To enhance specificity of intervention, measurement parameters need to reflect the pressure and temporal qualities of swallow function. OPA has the potential to describe differences in effort made, and ability to sustain pressures, in adults without dysphagia. The results of these studies will enable more accurate examination of the oral phase of swallowing as we establish this highly accurate sensor as a criterion standard for oro-lingual pressure measurement in clinical populations.

  2. Prevention of oro-facial clefts in developing world.

    PubMed

    Oginni, Fadekemi O; Adenekan, Anthony T

    2012-07-01

    Oro-facial cleft (OFC) remains a prominent health issue in developed and developing countries alike. It is the commonest craniofacial birth defect in humans. Mounting evidence suggest a polygenic, multifactorial and a list of epigenetic events. Primary prevention of OFC is based on recognition of the etiologic and risk factors. While a number of preventive strategies are in place for OFC in most developed countries of the world, the majority of developing countries are distant from achieving this goal for a number of reasons. Notable among these are a huge knowledge and practice gap in the field of genetics and dearth of accurate data. In addition, improper coordination and absenteeism from antenatal care contributed greatly to this set back. With ongoing efforts aimed at determining the genetics of nonsyndromic OFC in developing countries, researches directed at identifying environmental factors should equally be in place. Pending the outcome of these, implicated environmental and attitudinal risk factors in other populations could serve as preventive template in health education and interventions. Since risk factors vary between populations, definitive and effective preventive strategies and models would vary from place to place and from time to time. Frantic effort directed at identifying specific implicated risk factors in developing countries should include developing and keeping comprehensive national perinatal database and centralization of antenatal care protocol. Additionally, active health education at every level and a focus on developing manpower in the field of genetics should be in place. These would be designed and tailored toward identified, proven, and emerging risk factors.

  3. Objects and mappings: incompatible principles of display design - a critique of Marino and Mahan.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kevin B

    2005-01-01

    Representation aiding (and similar approaches that share the general orientation) has a great deal of utility, predictive ability, and explanatory power. Marino and Mahan (2005) discuss principles that are critical to the RA approach (configurality, emergent features, and mappings) in a reasonable fashion. However, the application of these principles is far from reasonable. The authors explicitly realize the potential for interactions between nutrients: "The nutritional quality of a food product is a multidimensional concept, and higher order interactions between nutrients may exist" (p. 126). However, they made no effort to discover the nature of these interactions: "No attempt was made to identify contingent interactions between nutrients" (p. 126). Despite not knowing the nature of the interactions between nutrients, they purposely chose a highly configural display that produced numerous emergent features dependent upon these interactions: "A radial spoke display was selected because of the strong configural properties of such display formats (Bennett & Flach, 1992)" (p. 124). Finally, the authors show apparent disdain for the specific mappings among domain, agent, and display that are fundamental to the RA approach: "[O]ther configural display formats could have been used" (p. 124). It is impossible to reconcile these statements and the RA approach to display design. However, these statements make perfect sense if a perceptual object is a guiding principle in one's approach to display design. Marino and Mahan (2005) draw heavily upon the principle of a perceptual object in their design justifications, experimental predictions, and interpretations of results. As we have indicated here and elsewhere (Bennett & Flach, 1992), we believe that these two sets of organizing principles for display design (i.e., objects and mappings) are incompatible. Display design will never be an exact science; there will always be elements of art and creativity. However, the guiding

  4. A piglet model for studying Candida albicans colonization of the human oro-gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Coleman, David A; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Miller, Michael J; Hoyer, Lois L

    2014-08-01

    Pigs from a variety of sources were surveyed for oro-gastrointestinal (oro-GIT) carriage of Candida albicans. Candida albicans-positive animals were readily located, but we also identified C. albicans-free pigs. We hypothesized that pigs could be stably colonized with a C. albicans strain of choice, simply by feeding yeast cells. Piglets were farrowed routinely and remained with the sow for 4 days to acquire a normal microbiota. Piglets were then placed in an artificial rearing environment and fed sow milk replacer. Piglets were inoculated orally with one of three different C. albicans strains. Piglets were weighed daily, and culture swabs were collected to detect C. albicans orally, rectally and in the piglet's environment. Stable C. albicans colonization over the course of the study did not affect piglet growth. Necropsy revealed mucosally associated C. albicans throughout the oro-GIT with the highest abundance in the esophagus. Uninoculated control piglets remained C. albicans-negative. These data establish the piglet as a model to study C. albicans colonization of the human oro-GIT. Similarities between oro-GIT colonization in humans and pigs, as well as the ease of working with the piglet model, suggest its adaptability for use among investigators interested in understanding C. albicans-host commensal interactions.

  5. The effect of OROS methylphenidate on the sleep of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Won; Yoon, In-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Chung, Seockhoon; Lee, Hyewon; Kim, Chi-Won; Park, Sung-Kun; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of OROS methylphenidate (MPH) on sleep quality and architecture in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using both a parental sleep questionnaire and polysomnography. Twenty-four ADHD children who had no comorbid psychiatric or sleep disorders except for oppositional defiant disorder completed the 6-week, prospective, open-label, flexible-dose trial with OROS MPH (Concerta) monotherapy. After OROS MPH administration, the polysomnography data indicated that the percentage of stage 2 sleep was increased (P=0.024) and the Number of Awakenings was decreased (P=0.047). Relative to baseline, Parasomnias of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were decreased (P=0.033). Sleep Onset Latency was not changed during the treatment in general, but was increased in six children with subjective sleep difficulties (F(1)=5.832, P=0.025, eta(2)(p)=0.226). Bedtime Resistance and Sleep Onset Delay in Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were also increased during the treatment with OROS MPH only in individuals with sleep complaints (F1=5.001, P=0.036, eta(2)(p)=0.185; F(1)=7.237, P=0.013, eta(2)(p)=0.248). These results suggest that OROS MPH in open-label treatment does not seem to impair sleep and may even improve some aspects of sleep.

  6. 75 FR 39668 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Rio del Oro...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... (FEIS) for the Rio del Oro Specific Plan Project, a proposed master-planned, mixed use development... a mixed- use development in the approximately 3,828-acre Rio del Oro Specific Plan Area. In response... (City). The City is the local agency responsible for preparing an Environmental Impact Report...

  7. Prevention of oro-facial clefts in developing world

    PubMed Central

    Oginni, Fadekemi O.; Adenekan, Anthony T.

    2012-01-01

    Oro-facial cleft (OFC) remains a prominent health issue in developed and developing countries alike. It is the commonest craniofacial birth defect in humans. Mounting evidence suggest a polygenic, multifactorial and a list of epigenetic events. Primary prevention of OFC is based on recognition of the etiologic and risk factors. While a number of preventive strategies are in place for OFC in most developed countries of the world, the majority of developing countries are distant from achieving this goal for a number of reasons. Notable among these are a huge knowledge and practice gap in the field of genetics and dearth of accurate data. In addition, improper coordination and absenteeism from antenatal care contributed greatly to this set back. With ongoing efforts aimed at determining the genetics of nonsyndromic OFC in developing countries, researches directed at identifying environmental factors should equally be in place. Pending the outcome of these, implicated environmental and attitudinal risk factors in other populations could serve as preventive template in health education and interventions. Since risk factors vary between populations, definitive and effective preventive strategies and models would vary from place to place and from time to time. Frantic effort directed at identifying specific implicated risk factors in developing countries should include developing and keeping comprehensive national perinatal database and centralization of antenatal care protocol. Additionally, active health education at every level and a focus on developing manpower in the field of genetics should be in place. These would be designed and tailored toward identified, proven, and emerging risk factors. PMID:23482510

  8. Management of Oro-Nasal Fistula Using Andrew's Bridge: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Harish, P V; Bhojaraju, Nandakishore; Sowmya, G R; Gangaiah, Makam

    2014-09-01

    Oro-nasal fistula is the most common complication following the surgical closure of the cleft palate. Retention is the paramount factor in the successful prosthodontic habilitation of cleft palate patients. Various precision attachments have provided us with the opportunity to make the prosthesis fixed removable type; giving a double advantage to the patient i.e. comfort through fixed type and easy maintenance through removal type. This case report describes a case of oro-nasal fistula habilitated with an obturator attached to Andrew's bridge, which had good retention and esthetics.

  9. Reports of perceptual distortion of the face are common in patients with different types of chronic oro-facial pain.

    PubMed

    Dagsdóttir, L K; Skyt, I; Vase, L; Baad-Hansen, L; Castrillon, E; Svensson, P

    2016-06-01

    Anecdotally, chronic oro-facial pain patients may perceive the painful face area as 'swollen'. Because there are no clinical signs, these self-reported 'illusions' may represent perceptual distortions and can be speculated to contribute to the maintenance of oro-facial pain. This descriptive study investigated whether chronic oro-facial pain patients experience perceptual distortions - a kind of body image disruption. Sixty patients were consecutively recruited to fill in questionnaires regarding i) pain experience, ii) self-reports of perceptual distortion and iii) psychological condition. Perceptual distortions were examined in the total group and in three diagnostic subgroups: i) painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PPTN), ii) painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) or iii) persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP). A large proportion of oro-facial pain patients reported perceptual distortions of the face (55·0%). In the diagnostic subgroups, perceptual distortions were most pronounced in PPTN patients (81·5%) but with no significant group differences. In the total group of chronic oro-facial pain patients, the present pain intensity explained 16·9% of the variance in magnitude of the perceptual distortions (R(2) = 16·9, F(31) = 6·3, P = 0·017). This study demonstrates that many chronic oro-facial pain patients may experience perceptual distortions. Future studies may clarify the mechanisms underlying perceptual distortions, which may point towards new complementary strategies for the management of chronic oro-facial pain.

  10. Perspectives on next steps in classification of oro-facial pain - part 1: role of ontology.

    PubMed

    Ceusters, W; Michelotti, A; Raphael, K G; Durham, J; Ohrbach, R

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review existing principles of oro-facial pain classifications and to specify design recommendations for a new system that would reflect recent insights in biomedical classification systems, terminologies and ontologies. The study was initiated by a symposium organised by the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network in March 2013, to which the present authors contributed. The following areas are addressed: problems with current classification approaches, status of the ontological basis of pain disorders, insufficient diagnostic aids and biomarkers for pain disorders, exploratory nature of current pain terminology and classification systems, and problems with prevailing classification methods from an ontological perspective. Four recommendations for addressing these problems are as follows: (i) develop a hypothesis-driven classification structure built on principles that ensure to our best understanding an accurate description of the relations among all entities involved in oro-facial pain disorders; (ii) take into account the physiology and phenomenology of oro-facial pain disorders to adequately represent both domains including psychosocial entities in a classification system; (iii) plan at the beginning for field-testing at strategic development stages; and (iv) consider how the classification system will be implemented. Implications in relation to the specific domains of psychosocial factors and biomarkers for inclusion into an oro-facial pain classification system are described in two separate papers.

  11. 78 FR 35640 - Establishment of the Valle de Oro National Wildlife Refuge, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ..., New Mexico AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice advises... Mexico. This action completes the first of two acquisition phases, which will ultimately provide 570... de Oro National Wildlife Refuge in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. As an urban National...

  12. Time Course of Treatment Effect of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Robert B.; Damaraju, C. V.; Ascher, Steve; Schwarzman, Lesley; O'Neill, James; Starr, H. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the time course of the treatment effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS[R] MPH) HCl (Concerta[R], Raritan, NJ) CII in children with ADHD. Method: Data were combined from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, analog classroom studies in children (9-12 years) with ADHD.…

  13. Non-Speech Oro-Motor Exercise Use in Acquired Dysarthria Management: Regimes and Rationales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Muir, Margaret; Allen, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Non-speech oro-motor exercises (NSOMExs) are described in speech and language therapy manuals and are thought to be much used in acquired dysarthria intervention, though there is no robust evidence of an influence on speech outcome. Opinions differ as to whether, and for which dysarthria presentations, NSOMExs are appropriate. Aims:…

  14. Oro-facial functions in experimental models of cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, D C; Ferraz-Pereira, K N; Bezerra de Morais, A T; Costa-de-Santana, B J R; Quevedo, O G; Manhães-de-Castro, R; Toscano, A E

    2017-04-01

    Children who suffer from cerebral palsy (CP) often present comorbidities in the form of oro-facial dysfunctions. Studies in animals have contributed to elaborate potential therapies aimed at minimising the chronic disability of the syndrome. To systematically review the scientific literature regarding the possible effects that experimental models of CP can have on oro-facial functions. Two independent authors conducted a systematic review in the electronic databases Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science and Lilacs, using Mesh and Decs terms in animal models. The motor and sensory parameters of sucking, chewing and swallowing were considered as primary outcomes; reactivity odour, controlled salivation, postural control, head mobility during feeding and the animal's ability to acquire food were secondary outcomes. Ten studies were included in the present review. Most studies used rabbits as experimental models of CP, which was induced by either hypoxia-ischemia, inflammation or intraventricular haemorrhage. Oro-facial functions were altered in all experimental models of CP. However, we found more modifications in hypoxia-ischemia models overall. On the other hand, the model of inflammation was more effective to reproduce higher damage for coordinating sucking and swallowing. All of the CP experimental models that were assessed modified the oral functions in different animal species. However, further studies should be conducted in order to clarify the mechanisms underlying oro-facial damage in order to optimise treatment strategies for children who suffer from CP.

  15. OroSTIFF: Face-referenced measurement of perioral stiffness in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shin-Ying; Kieweg, Douglas; Lee, Jaehoon

    2010-01-01

    A new device and automated measurement technology known as OroSTIFF is described to characterize non-participatory perioral stiffness in healthy adults for eventual application to patients with orofacial movement disorders associated with neuromotor disease, traumatic injury, or congenital clefts of the upper lip. Previous studies of perioral biomechanics required head stabilization for extended periods of time during measurement which precluded sampling patients with involuntary body/head movements (dyskinesias), or pediatric subjects. The OroSTIFF device is face-referenced and avoids the complications associated with head-restraint. Supporting data of non-participatory perioral tissue stiffness using OroSTIFF are included from 10 male and 10 female healthy subjects. The OroSTIFF device incorporates a pneumatic glass air cylinder actuator instrumented for pressure, and an integrated subminiature displacement sensor to encode lip aperture. Perioral electromyograms were simultaneously sampled to confirm passive muscle state for the superior and inferior divisions of the orbicularis oris muscles. Perioral stiffness, derived as a quotient from resultant force (ΔF) and interangle span (ΔX), was modeled with multilevel regression techniques. Real-time calculation of the perioral stiffness function demonstrated a significant quadratic relation between imposed interangle stretch and resultant force. This stiffness growth function also differed significantly between males and females. This study demonstrates the OroSTIFF ‘proof-of-concept’ for cost-effective non-invasive stimulus generation and derivation of perioral stiffness in a group of healthy unrestrained adults, and a case study to illustrate the dose-dependent effects of Levodopa on perioral stiffness in an individual with advanced Parkinson’s disease who exhibited marked dyskinesia and rigidity. PMID:20185131

  16. Assessment of risk factors for oro-facial pain and recent developments in classification: implications for management.

    PubMed

    Svensson, P; Kumar, A

    2016-12-01

    Oro-facial pain research has during the last decades provided important novel insights into the basic underlying mechanisms, the need for standardised diagnostic procedures and classification systems, and multiple treatment options for successful rehabilitation of the patient in pain. Notwithstanding the significant progress in our knowledge spanning from molecules to chair, there may also be limitations in our ability to integrate and interpret the tremendous amount of new data and information, in particular in terms of the clinical implications and overriding conceptual models for oro-facial pain. The aim of the present narrative review is to briefly summarise some of the current thoughts on oro-facial pain mechanisms and recent attempts to identify biomarkers and risk factors leading to the proposal of a new risk assessment diagram for oro-facial pain (RADOP) and a provocative new concept based on stochastic variation between multiple risk factors. Finally, the implications for novel management strategies will briefly be discussed.

  17. A new surgical management for oro-antral communication: the resorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane--bone substitute sandwich technique.

    PubMed

    Ogunsalu, C

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a new technique for the closure of oro-antral fistula/communication, in which both hard tissue (bone) and soft tissue closure is achieved. The sandwich technique utilizes a suitable bone grafting material sandwiched between two sheaths of Biogide (a resorbable membrane) for the hard tissue closure of oro-antral communication post traumatic exodontia. The bone grafting material utilized for this case was Bio-oss. The result obtained was excellent with regeneration of sufficient bony tissue to allow placement of an endosseous implant. This sandwich technique is a simple and excellent technique for the closure of oro-antral communication, especially when subsequent placement of endosseous implant is considered without the need of donor site surgery for bone grafting. The otorhinolaryngologists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should find this technique very useful in the closure of oro-antral fistulae.

  18. Use of hydromorphone, with particular reference to the OROS formulation, in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lussier, David; Richarz, Ute; Finco, Gabriele

    2010-04-01

    The prevalence of pain increases with age. However, pain is often inadequately managed in elderly people, which undermines quality of life. Pain has been associated with depression, sleep disturbances, impaired ambulation, and increased healthcare use and costs. Effective treatment of pain improves the overall quality of life. However, pain management is complicated by the presence of multiple co-morbidities in elderly people, which increases the likelihood of polypharmacy, and therefore increases the chance of potential drug-drug interactions. Polypharmacy is also associated with poor adherence to therapy. Age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes reduce the therapeutic index of drugs. Therefore, elderly people are more likely to suffer from adverse events and increased sensitivity to the analgesic properties of opioids. OROS hydromorphone (Jurnista) is a once-daily, extended-release formulation that uses the OROS push-pull technology to provide controlled release of the semi-synthetic opioid hydromorphone. Compared with conventional immediate-release hydromorphone, OROS hydromorphone provides more consistent delivery of hydromorphone with lower peak concentrations and less variability in plasma concentrations over time. The bioavailability of hydromorphone from OROS hydromorphone is minimally affected by food or alcohol (ethanol). Hydromorphone is mainly metabolized in the liver and is excreted in the urine. Unlike morphine, hydromorphone does not have an active 6-glucuronide metabolite. This metabolite of morphine can accumulate in the presence of renal failure; therefore, the lack of an active 6-glucuronide metabolite makes hydromorphone a useful alternative to morphine in elderly patients with renal failure. However, hydromorphone is similar to morphine in that it is metabolized to hydromorphone-3-glucuronide, which may be neuroexcitatory. Because of its low plasma protein binding and low probability of interfering with the metabolism of other

  19. An update on pathophysiological mechanisms related to idiopathic oro-facial pain conditions with implications for management.

    PubMed

    Forssell, H; Jääskeläinen, S; List, T; Svensson, P; Baad-Hansen, L

    2015-04-01

    Chronic oro-facial pain conditions such as persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP), atypical odontalgia (AO) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS), usually grouped together under the concept of idiopathic oro-facial pain, remain a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Lack of understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of these pain conditions is one of the important reasons behind the problems in diagnostic and management. During the last two decades, neurophysiological, psychophysical, brain imaging and neuropathological methods have been systematically applied to study the trigeminal system in idiopathic oro-facial pain. The findings in these studies have provided evidence for neuropathic involvement in the pathophysiology of PIFP, AO and BMS. The present qualitative review is a joint effort of a group of oro-facial pain specialists and researchers to appraise the literature on idiopathic oro-facial pain with special focus on the currently available studies on their pathophysiological mechanisms. The implications of the findings of these studies for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic oro-facial pain conditions are discussed.

  20. Gastrointestinal diseases and their oro-dental manifestations: Part 1: Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, C X W; Brand, H S; de Boer, N K H; Forouzanfar, T

    2016-12-16

    Widely varying prevalence rates of oral lesions in patients with Crohn's disease have been reported, ranging from 0.5% to 37%. These manifestations may coincide with or precede intestinal symptoms. Oral manifestations can be classified as specific lesions, when macroscopic examination shows similar changes to those observed endoscopically in the intestine, and non-specific lesions including aphthous ulcerations. The most frequently observed oral lesions are oedema, ulcers and hyperplastic lesions on the buccal mucosa. In most patients these lesions are asymptomatic, however, some patients may experience discomfort. In this review we describe the most relevant oro-dental manifestations observed in patients with Crohn's disease and discuss the potential implications for oro-dental management.

  1. Oro-facio-dental findings of rubinstein-taybi syndrome as a useful diagnostic feature.

    PubMed

    Tirali, R Ebru; Sar, Cagla; Cehreli, S Burcak

    2014-01-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS) is a rare multiple congenital syndrome characterized by distinctive facial features, mental and growth retardation, broad thumbs and great toes. This case report describes the oro-dental manifestations, as well as, orthodontic evaluation of a 9-year-old male patient who had RTS. The remarkable oro-dental features were talon-like cingulum on maxillary central incisors, unerupted supernumerary teeth. Cone-beam computerized tomography was taken in order to identify his skeletal anomalies, bilateral cross-bite and a narrow maxilla were diagnosed. Dental treatments were completed under i.v sedation due to the patient's inability to cooperate during dental treatment. Perioparetive and postoperative courses were uneventful. Following dental treatments, orthodontic therapy was initiated with a fixed rapid maxillary expansion appliance.

  2. Non-syndromal oro-facial clefts in the Canterbury/ West Coast region, 1960-2000.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Peter; Esson, Ian

    2005-09-01

    The paper-based clinical assessment notes from Christchurch Hospital Cleft Clinic were transferred to electronic form in 2002. This enabled analysis of the types of non-syndromal orofacial clefts presenting within the Canterbury and West Coast region over a 41 year period. The incidence of oro-facial clefting was similar to that described in previous New Zealand studies, but higher than that found in United Kingdom studies. Orthodontists providing care in the cleft clinics in New Zealand have begun to investigate the use of a standardised electronic national database of patients presenting with oro-facial clefts. It is expected that this could provide the basis for a more detailed, robust and standardised database for future analysis.

  3. Development of the Chinese version of the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; He, S L

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale among Chinese-speaking patients. The original Oro-facial Esthetic Scale was cross-culturally adapted in accordance with the international standards to develop a Chinese version (OES-C). Unlike the original Oro-facial Esthetic Scale, the version employed in this study used a 5-point Likert scale with items rated from unsatisfactory to most satisfactory. Psychometric evaluation included the reliability and validity of the OES-C. The reliability of the OES-C was determined through internal consistency and test-retest methods. The validity of OES-C was analysed by content validity, discriminative validity, construct validity and convergent validity. The corrected item-total correlation coefficients of the OES-C ranged from 0·859 to 0·910. The inter-item correlation coefficients between each two of the eight items of the OES-C ranged from 0·766 to 0·922. The values of ICC ranged from 0·79 (95% CI = 0·54-0·98) to 0·93 (95% CI = 0·87-0·99), indicating an excellent agreement. Construct validity was proved by the presence of one-factor structure that accounted for 83·507% of the variance and fitted well into the model. Convergent validity was confirmed by the association between OES-C scores and self-reported oral aesthetics and three questions from the Oral Health Impact Profile related to aesthetics (correlation coefficients ranged from -0·830 to -0·702, P < 0·001). OES-C scores discriminated aesthetically impaired patients from healthy controls. This study provides preliminary evidence concerning the reliability and validity of the OES-C. The results show that the OES-C may be a useful tool for assessment of oro-facial esthetics in China.

  4. Management of Oro-antral Communication and Fistula: Various Surgical Options

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Pulkit; Hajira, Neha

    2017-01-01

    Oro-antral communication and fistula can occur as a result of inadequate and improper treatment. Inadvertent communication with the maxillary sinus can occur during certain surgical procedures in the maxillary posterior region. Though, spontaneous healing may occur in defects which are smaller than 2 mm but larger communications require immediate attention and should be treated without delay, in order to avoid sinusitis and further complications leading to patient discomfort. PMID:28289607

  5. Fore arc tectonothermal evolution of the El Oro metamorphic province (Ecuador) during the Mesozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riel, Nicolas; Martelat, Jean-Emmanuel; Guillot, Stéphane; Jaillard, Etienne; Monié, Patrick; Yuquilema, Jonatan; Duclaux, Guillaume; Mercier, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    The El Oro metamorphic province of SW Ecuador is a composite massif made of juxtaposed terranes of both continental and oceanic affinity that has been located in a fore-arc position since Late Paleozoic times. Various geochemical, geochronological, and metamorphic studies have been undertaken on the El Oro metamorphic province, providing an understanding of the origin and age of the distinct units. However, the internal structures and geodynamic evolution of this area remain poorly understood. Our structural analysis and thermal modeling in the El Oro metamorphic province show that this fore-arc zone underwent four main geological events. (1) During Triassic times (230-225 Ma), the emplacement of the Piedras gabbroic unit at crustal-root level (~9 kbar) triggered partial melting of the metasedimentary sequence under an E-W extensional regime at pressure-temperature conditions ranging from 4.5 to 8.5 kbar and from 650 to 900°C for the migmatitic unit. (2) At 226 Ma, the tectonic underplating of the Arenillas-Panupalí oceanic unit (9 kbar and 300°C) thermally sealed the fore-arc region. (3) Around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, the shift from trench-normal to trench-parallel subduction triggered the exhumation and underplating of the high-pressure, oceanic Raspas Ophiolitic Complex (18 kbar and 600°C) beneath the El Oro Group (130-120 Ma). This was followed by the opening of a NE-SW pull-apart basin, which tilted the massif along an E-W subhorizontal axis (110 Ma). (4) In Late Cretaceous times, an N-S compressional event generated heterogeneous deformation due to the presence of the Cretaceous Celica volcanic arc, which acted as a buttress and predominantly affected the central and eastern part of the massif.

  6. Human bite injuries in the oro-facial region at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Shubi, Farrid M; Hamza, Omar JM; Kalyanyama, Boniphace M; Simon, Elison NM

    2008-01-01

    Background Human bites in the maxillofacial region compromise function and aesthetics, resulting in social and psychological effects. There is paucity of information regarding human bite injuries in Tanzania. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence, treatment modalities and prognosis of human bite injuries in the oro-facial region at the Muhimbili National Hospital Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods In a prospective study the details of patients with human bite injuries in the oro-facial region who attended at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Muhimbili National Hospital between January 2001 and December 2005 were recorded. Data included information on age, sex, site, duration of the injury at the time of reporting to hospital, reasons, details of treatment offered and outcome after treatment. Results A total of 33 patients, 13 males and 20 females aged between 12 and 49 years with human bite injuries in the oro-facial region were treated. Thirty patients presented with clean uninfected wounds while 3 had infected wounds. The most (45.5%) frequently affected site was the lower lip. Treatment offered included thorough surgical cleansing with adequate surgical debridement and primary suturing. Tetanus prophylaxis and a course of broad-spectrum antibiotics were given to all the patients. In 90% of the 30 patients who were treated by suturing, the healing was uneventful with only 10% experiencing wound infection or necrosis. Three patients who presented with wounds that had signs of infection were treated by surgical cleansing with debridement, antibiotics and daily dressing followed by delayed primary suturing. Conclusion Most of the human bite injuries in the oro-facial region were due to social conflicts. Although generally considered to be dirty or contaminated they could be successfully treated by surgical cleansing and primary suture with a favourable outcome. Management of such injuries often need multidisciplinary approach. PMID

  7. Comparison between videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic endoscopy and scintigraphy for diagnosis of oro-pharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Fattori, B; Giusti, P; Mancini, V; Grosso, M; Barillari, M R; Bastiani, L; Molinaro, S; Nacci, A

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare videofluoroscopy (VFS), fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and oro-pharyngo- oesophageal scintigraphy (OPES) with regards to premature spillage, post-swallowing residue and aspiration to assess the reliability of these tests for detection of oro-pharyngeal dysphagia. Sixty patients affected with dysphagia of various origin were enrolled in the study and submitted to VFS, FEES and OPES using a liquid and semi-solid bolus. As a reference, we used VFS. Both the FEES and the OPES showed good sensitivity with high overall values (≥ 80% and ≥ 90% respectively). The comparison between FEES vs VFS concerning drop before swallowing showed good specificity (84.4% for semi-solids and 86.7% for liquids). In the case of post-swallowing residue, FEES vs VFS revealed good overall validity (75% for semi-solids) with specificity and sensitivity well balanced for the semi-solids. OPES vs. VFS demonstrated good sensitivity (88.6%) and overall validity (76.7%) for liquids. The analysis of FEES vs. VFS for aspiration showed that the overall validity was low (≤ 65%). On the other hand, OPES demonstrated appreciable overall validity (71.7%). VFS, FEES and OPES are capable of detecting oro-pharyngeal dysphagia. FEES gave significant results in the evaluation of post-swallowing residues.

  8. Reconstruction of complex oro-facial defects using the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap.

    PubMed

    Saleh, D B; Fourie, L; Mizen, K D

    2014-07-01

    Oro-facial defects require reconstruction that provides suitable colour match and texture. Moreover inner and outer cheek lining and bulk are key considerations. In cases of severe oro-facial infections concomitant mandibular abnormality, for example trismus, can mandate the need for tissue to obturate mandibular defects. We assessed the use of the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap (MSA) in non-oncological patients with such defects. Twenty two consecutive patients were included in this case series. All patients were survivors of Cancrum Oris (NOMA). Demographic details, nutritional status and co-morbidities were recorded. Defects were classified according to the tissues destroyed; cheek, mandible, oral cavity, lip(s), nose and eye(s). Simultaneous procedures carried out were recorded. The surgical anatomy of the MSA is described. All patients had composite defects of the cheek and oral cavity plus another local anatomical structure. Adjunct procedures such as trismus release were carried out in 18/22 patients. Four patients required a return to theatre. There was no trismus recurrence observed. No flap losses were incurred. The MSA is a robust flap with minimal incidence of major complications. The MSA negates the need for microsurgical tissue transfer. Furthermore the MSA provides adequate bulk to obturate these defects. Future applications of the MSA may include complex oro-facial oncological defects.

  9. Clinical applications of oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy in the study of dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Fattori, B; Grosso, M; Ursino, F; Matteucci, F; Mancini, V; Rizza, E; Mattone, V; Mariani, G; Nacci, A

    2007-01-01

    Summary The diagnostic approach to patients with dysphagia is well established and relies mainly on videofluoroscopy and endoscopy. Oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy permits both a functional and a semi-quantitative study of the various stages of swallowing. Moreover, by means of this investigation, it is possible to estimate the amount of inhaled bolus. Oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy with 99mTc-nanocolloid has been found to be easy to use, economical, well tolerated and, supplying precise indications regarding the extent of the swallowing disorder, then permits a better clinical definition of the patient. The limitations of swallowing scintigraphy are: poor definition in visualizing anatomic structures and low specificity when used as the only diagnostic test. Scintigraphy plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of dysphagia, and its use, together with other diagnostic techniques, increases diagnostic accuracy. In this study, the role of oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy has been analysed in patients with post-surgical, neurological and oesophageal dysphagia. PMID:17957850

  10. Guidelines and recommendations for assessment of somatosensory function in oro-facial pain conditions--a taskforce report.

    PubMed

    Svensson, P; Baad-Hansen, L; Pigg, M; List, T; Eliav, E; Ettlin, D; Michelotti, A; Tsukiyama, Y; Matsuka, Y; Jääskeläinen, S K; Essick, G; Greenspan, J D; Drangsholt, M

    2011-05-01

    The goals of an international taskforce on somatosensory testing established by the Special Interest Group of Oro-facial Pain (SIG-OFP) under the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) were to (i) review the literature concerning assessment of somatosensory function in the oro-facial region in terms of techniques and test performance, (ii) provide guidelines for comprehensive and screening examination procedures, and (iii) give recommendations for future development of somatosensory testing specifically in the oro-facial region. Numerous qualitative and quantitative psychophysical techniques have been proposed and used in the description of oro-facial somatosensory function. The selection of technique includes time considerations because the most reliable and accurate methods require multiple repetitions of stimuli. Multiple-stimulus modalities (mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical) have been applied to study oro-facial somatosensory function. A battery of different test stimuli is needed to obtain comprehensive information about the functional integrity of the various types of afferent nerve fibres. Based on the available literature, the German Neuropathic Pain Network test battery appears suitable for the study of somatosensory function within the oro-facial area as it is based on a wide variety of both qualitative and quantitative assessments of all cutaneous somatosensory modalities. Furthermore, these protocols have been thoroughly described and tested on multiple sites including the facial skin and intra-oral mucosa. Standardisation of both comprehensive and screening examination techniques is likely to improve the diagnostic accuracy and facilitate the understanding of neural mechanisms and somatosensory changes in different oro-facial pain conditions and may help to guide management.

  11. Oro-dental mucoadhesive proniosomal gel formulation loaded with lornoxicam for management of dental pain.

    PubMed

    Abdelbary, Ghada Ahmed; Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Oro-dental diseases are generally associated with pain that is controlled using oral tablets containing NSAIDs. Lornoxicam, a relatively new NSAID, is effective in relieving pain accompanying different oro-dental problems. The aim of the current research is to prepare oro-dental analgesic and anti-inflammatory gel using provesicular approach to deliver lornoxicam directly to the site of action in the oral cavity. Local administration of lornoxicam is expected to be superior to systemic delivery in pain relieving and poses less GIT adverse effects. Different surfactants were utilized to prepare the proniosomal gels that rapidly transform into nano-sized niosomes after hydration with the oral saliva. The effect of the surfactant structure on vesicles size distribution and entrapment efficiency percentage (EE%) was investigated. The proniosomal formulations were incorporated into carbopol hydrogels that were characterized regarding rheological and mucoadhesion properties. Moreover, ex-vivo mucosal membrane permeation studies were conducted for selected proniosomal gels to quantify the permeation parameters and assess the amount of drug deposited within the oral mucosa. Results revealed that mucoadhesive proniosomes formulation prepared using Span 60 was optimal as it was nano-sized and also showed the highest EE%. The transmucosal flux of lornoxicam, from these proniosomal formulations, across the oral mucosa was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than lornoxicam containing carbopol gel and the percent drug diffused increased more than twofolds. The results collectively suggest that the mucoadhesive proniosomal gels can be assertively considered as a promising carrier for transmucosal delivery of lornoxicam into the oral cavity.

  12. Oro-dental features of Pallister-Killian syndrome: Evaluation of 21 European probands.

    PubMed

    Bagattoni, Simone; D'Alessandro, Giovanni; Sadotti, Agnese; Alkhamis, Nadia; Rocca, Alessandro; Cocchi, Guido; Krantz, Ian David; Piana, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare sporadic multi-systemic developmental disorder caused by a mosaic tetrasomy of the short arm of chromosome 12. A wide range of clinical characteristics including intellectual disability, seizures, and congenital malformations has previously been described. Individuals with PKS show a characteristic facial phenotype with frontal bossing, alopecia, sparse eyebrows, depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, telecanthus, and posteriorly rotated ears. Oro-dental features, such as "Pallister lip," macroglossia, delayed eruption of primary teeth, high arched-palate, prognathism, and cleft palate have been occasionally reported in the medical literature. The aim of the study was to assess the oro-dental phenotype of PKS and to describe the oral health status in a cohort participating in the First European Workshop on PKS. A clinical dental examination was performed in 21 Caucasian probands and data regarding medical and dental history collected. Twelve probands (57%) showed an atypical dental pattern, with multiple missing teeth (primarily the first permanent molars) and 2 (10%) a double teeth. The severity of gingivitis and dental caries increased with age and gingival overgrowth was a common finding. A characteristic occlusive phenotype was found: a high-arched palate with mandibular prognathism associated with an anterior openbite and crossbite and with posterior crossbite (unilateral or bilateral). The prevalence of oral habits (non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing, bruxism) was high, even in older probands. This study suggests that individuals affected by PKS should be observed closely for oro-dental diseases and a multidisciplinary approach is needed to implement the right preventive measures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Pathological deglutition pattern after tumor surgery of the oro- and hypopharynx. Analysis by differentiated deglutition].

    PubMed

    Oursin, C; Trabucco, P; Bongartz, G; Steinbrich, W

    1999-03-01

    Dysphagia is a common complaint following surgical intervention in the oral cavity and hypopharynx, often leading to prolonged postoperative recovery. Videofluoroscopy allows detailed visualization of deglutition, demonstrating the morphology as well as the functional aspects. Therefore, videofluoroscopy provides the basis for further therapeutic management. We discuss the pathology of deglutition in 19 patients recovering from tumor surgery of the oro- and hypopharynx. In most cases the results demonstrated severe impairment of both the oral and pharyngeal phase of deglutition. Our data emphasize the importance of the oral phase of deglutition for preparation and initiation of the following phases.

  14. [Pathologic swallowing pattern after tumor surgery of oro- and hypopharynx. Analysis with differentiated deglutition imaging].

    PubMed

    Oursin, C; Trabucco, P; Bongartz, G; Steinbrich, W

    1998-02-01

    Dysphagia is a common complaint following surgical intervention in the oral cavity and hypopharynx, often leading to prolonged postoperative recovery. Videofluoroscopy allows detailed visualization of deglutition, demonstrating the morphology as well as the functional aspects. Therefore, videofluoroscopy provides the basis for further therapeutic management. We discuss the pathology of deglutition in 19 patients recovering from tumor surgery of the oro- and hypopharynx. In most cases the results demonstrated severe impairment of both the oral and pharyngeal phase of deglutition. Our data emphasize the importance of the oral phase of deglutition for preparation and initiation of the following phases.

  15. Maté drinking and oral and oro-pharyngeal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Silverman, Amanda J; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2010-02-01

    In Latin America, maté is consumed as a beverage regularly. Among the cancers that are associated with maté drinking is oral and oro-pharyngeal cancer, incidence of which is high in the region. In order to further understand this association between maté drinking and the risk of oral and oro-pharyngeal cancer, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of related studies. All relevant studies published in English as original articles up to June 2009 were identified through a literature search using PubMed and Medline and by reviewing the references from the retrieved articles. Four case-control studies done in Latin America were identified. There were 879 maté users and 1128 non- or low-maté users in those studies with a total of 566 oral and oro-pharyngeal cancers. The adjusted association between maté drinking and oral and oro-pharyngeal cancer was significant within 3 of those studies. Meta-analysis yielded a significant summary odds ratio (OR) of 2.11 (95% confidence interval=1.39-3.19). Population Attributable Risk for maté drinking was 16%. While the epidemiological data indicate that maté users have an increased risk of oral and oro-pharyngeal cancer, little is known about whether this increased risk is due to the high temperature of the beverage when it is consumed or due to certain carcinogenic constituents that are present in maté. More human and animal studies are needed before a conclusion can be made on the oral and oro-pharyngeal carcinogenic risk of maté to humans.

  16. An Audit of Malignant Oro-facial Tumors Presenting at a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos.

    PubMed

    Gbotolorun, O M; Emeka, C I; Effiom, O; Adewole, R A; Ayodele, A S

    2016-01-01

    Oro-facial malignancies are reported to have a high mortality and morbidity, this is further worsened when patient report late. To analyze the malignant oro-facial lesions seen at a Hospital in the Lagos, Nigeria. Successive patients that presented in the hospital and met criteria of study during 15 months period were recruited into the study. Demographics, clinical variables, and treatment provided for each patient in the hospital was recorded. Data collected were presented as tables and percentages. There were 36 cases seen, their ages ranged from 10 to 72 years (median 49 years), and there were 21 males and 15 females. Time lapse before presentation to the clinic ranged from 2 to 30 months, mean (9.9 (±5.5 months and the largest dimension of lesions at presentation ranged from 2 cm to 12 cm (mean 6.4 ± 2.0 cm). Most common site of presentation was posterior tongue (16.7%; 6/36) and Squamous cell carcinoma (41.6%; 15/36) was the most common histopathologic diagnosis. Twenty-three patients (63.9%; 23/36) had primary surgeries in the hospital. Patients seen in this case series generally reported late with large lesions.

  17. Movement sequencing in normal aging: speech, oro-facial, and finger movements.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau-Mercure, Mylène; Kirouac, Vanessa; Langlois, Nancy; Ouellet, Claudie; Gasse, Isabelle; Tremblay, Pascale

    2015-08-01

    The manner and extent to which normal aging affects the ability to speak are not fully understood. While age-related changes in voice fundamental frequency and intensity have been documented, changes affecting the planning and articulation of speech are less well understood. In the present study, 76 healthy, cognitively normal participants aged between 18 and 93 years old were asked to produce auditorily and visually triggered sequences of finely controlled movements (speech, oro-facial, and manual movement). These sequences of movements were either (1) simple, in which at least two of the three movements were the same, or (2) complex, in which three different movements were produced. For each of the resulting experimental condition, accuracy was calculated. The results show that, for speech and oro-facial movements, accuracy declined as a function of age and complexity. For these movements, the negative effect of complexity on performance accuracy increased with age. No aging or complexity effects were found for the manual movements on accuracy, but a significant slowing of movement was found, particularly for the complex sequences. These results demonstrate that there is a significant deterioration of fine motor control in normal aging across different response modalities.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of ethanol-associated oro-esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Chen, Hao; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol drinking is a major etiological factor of oro-esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OESCC). Both local and systemic effects of ethanol may promote carcinogenesis, especially among chronic alcoholics. However, molecular mechanisms of ethanol-associated OESCC are still not well understood. In this review, we summarize current understandings and propose three mechanisms of ethanol-associated OESCC: (1) Disturbance of systemic metabolism of nutrients: during ethanol metabolism in the liver, systemic metabolism of retinoids, zinc, iron and methyl groups is altered. These nutrients are known to be associated with the development of OESCC. (2) Disturbance of redox metabolism in squamous epithelial cells: when ethanol is metabolized in oro-esophageal squamous epithelial cells, reactive oxygen species are generated and produce oxidative damage. Meanwhile, ethanol may also disturb fatty-acid metabolism in these cells. (3) Disturbance of signaling pathways in squamous epithelial cells: due to its physico-chemical properties, ethanol changes cell membrane fluidity and shape, and may thus impact multiple signaling pathways. Advanced molecular techniques in genomics, epigenomics, metabolomics and microbiomics will help us elucidate how ethanol promotes OESCC.

  19. Co-Processed Chitin-Mannitol as a New Excipient for Oro-Dispersible Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Daraghmeh, Nidal; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Leharne, Stephen A.; Al Omari, Mahmoud M. H.; Badwan, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the preparation, characterization and performance of a novel excipient for use in oro-dispersible tablets (ODT). The excipient (Cop–CM) consists of chitin and mannitol. The excipient with optimal physicochemical properties was obtained at a chitin: mannitol ratio of 2:8 (w/w) and produced by roll compaction (RC). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform-Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were used to characterize Cop–CM, in addition to characterization of its powder and ODT dosage form. The effect of particle size distribution of Cop–CM was investigated and found to have no significant influence on the overall tablet physical properties. The compressibility parameter (a) for Cop–CM was calculated from a Kawakita plot and found to be higher (0.661) than that of mannitol (0.576) due to the presence of the highly compressible chitin (0.818). Montelukast sodium and domperidone ODTs produced, using Cop–CM, displayed excellent physicochemical properties. The exceptional binding, fast wetting and superdisintegration properties of Cop–CM, in comparison with commercially available co-processed ODT excipients, results in a unique multifunctional base which can successfully be used in the formulation of oro-dispersible and fast immediate release tablets. PMID:25830680

  20. Influence of Education on Oro-dental Knowledge among School Hygiene Instructors

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Soussan; Meschi, Marjane; Goodarzi, Azizollah

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims Recent progresses in preventive dentistry and their correct application in many developed coun-tries have remarkably decreased the rate of oro-dental diseases in children and teenagers, while the rate of oro-dental diseases is on the rise among the children in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of educating school health care instructors by measuring their level of oral health knowledge and their opinions about the impact of oral health and preventive dentistry. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study. Questionnaires were administered before and after an educational lecture to school health care instructors in Hamadan, Iran. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. Results In this study, 31 school health care instructors took part. The percentage of instructors in poor knowledge level was 22.6% before the educational lecture (education), which decreased to 0 percent after the education (P < 0.05). The percentage of instructors with good knowledge level was 3.2%, which increased to 80.6% after the education (P < 0.05). Conclusion Close cooperation between universities and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education will lead to im-provements in the level of knowledge and awareness of school health care instructors. PMID:23230483

  1. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of an oral once-a-day osmotic controlled-release OROS (methylphenidate HCl) formulation.

    PubMed

    Modi, N B; Lindemulder, B; Gupta, S K

    2000-04-01

    Methylphenidate is used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). OROS (methylphenidate HCl) is an osmotic controlled-release delivery system designed for once-daily oral dosing. The pharmacokinetics of OROS (methylphenidate HCl) 18 mg qd, sustained-release (SR) methylphenidate 20 mg qd, and the immediate-release (IR) formulation given as three 5 mg doses every 4 hours (tid) were compared in adults. In addition, the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of the OROS formulation were studied. Following OROS (methylphenidate HCl), there was a gradual increase in the mean methylphenidate plasma concentrations with peak concentrations noted at 6 to 8 hours. With the SR formulation, peak plasma concentrations were noted at approximately 4 hours. Following the IR regimen, methylphenidate plasma concentrations fluctuated in tandem with oral dosing; peak concentrations were noted at 6.5 hours. The terminal half-life of methylphenidate was similar for the three formulations. The dose-normalized methylphenidate Cmax for OROS (methylphenidate HCl) was significantly lower than for IR and SR methylphenidate. The bioavailability of methylphenidate and PPA from OROS (methylphenidate HCl) relative to the IR and SR formulations was complete. Mean methylphenidate AUC and terminal half-life were similar after single (32.9 ng.h/mL and 3.9 hours) and multiple doses (35.2 ng.h/mL and 3.9 hours) of OROS (methylphenidate HCl).

  2. Effects of MPH-OROS on the Organizational, Time Management, and Planning Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Gallagher, Richard; Zambenedetti, Maurizio; Seyffert, Michael; Boorady, Roy; McCarthy, John

    2009-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study was done to evaluate the effects of methylphenidate-osmotic-release oral systems (MPH-OROS) on the organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results show significant improvements on the OTMP of children with ADHD in…

  3. ADHD Treatment with Once-Daily OROS Methylphenidate: Final Results from a Long-term Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy; McBurnett, Keith; Stein, Mark; Lerner, Marc; Spencer, Thomas; Wolraich, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have assessed effectiveness and tolerability of stimulants when used for prolonged periods in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article presents final results from an open-label, multisite study of a once-daily formulation of methylphenidate (MPH), OROS[R] MPH. Method: Subjects received OROS…

  4. Dentists' Preferences for Diagnosis, Management and Referral of Chronic Oro-Facial Pain: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Vishal R.; Joughin, Amy; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Appelbe, Priscilla; Tickle, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To explore the diagnosis, treatment and referral patterns of chronic oro-facial pain patients by generalist primary care dentists (GDPs) in the UK. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a non-stratified random sample of 500 GDPs who were selected from the General Dental Council register. A self-complete postal questionnaire…

  5. Non-Speech Oro-Motor Exercises in Post-Stroke Dysarthria Intervention: A Randomized Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, C.; Muir, M.; Allen, C.; Jensen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been little robust evaluation of the outcome of speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention for post-stroke dysarthria. Non-speech oro-motor exercises (NSOMExs) are a common component of dysarthria intervention. A feasibility study was designed and executed, with participants randomized into two groups, in one of which…

  6. A Randomized, Single-Blind, Substitution Study of OROS Methylphenidate (Concerta) in ADHD Adults Receiving Immediate Release Methylphenidate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Mick, Eric; Surman, Craig B. H.; Hammerness, Paul; Doyle, Robert; Aleardi, Megan; Kotarski, Meghan; Williams, Courtney G.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and compliance of an extended-release formulation of methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in adults with ADHD receiving immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH). Method: Participants were outpatient adults with ADHD who were stable on IR-MPH-administered TID. Participants…

  7. Evaluation of oro-facial function in young subjects with temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, F Y; Gavião, M B D; Montes, A B M; Marquezin, M C S; Castelo, P M

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bite force (BF) and oro-facial functions at different dentition phases (initial-mixed, intermediate-mixed, final-mixed and permanent dentition) in children and adolescents diagnosed with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). The sample was selected from four public schools in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Of the 289 participants recruited, aged 8-14 years old, 46 were placed into the TMD group. TMD was diagnosed using Axis I of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (2011). Oro-facial functions were evaluated using the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S), which involves both an interview and a clinical examination. BF was measured using a digital gnathodynamometer. Age and body mass index (BMI) were also considered. The data were analysed by the following tests: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t-test, Spearman and Pearson coefficients, Qui-square test, Fisher's exact or binomial test, as indicated. Moreover, univariate and multivariable logistic regression were applied. For the TMD group, scores associated with NOT-S interview and NOT-S total were higher than for the control group (P = 0.033 and P = 0.0062, respectively). No differences in BF between genders or groups (P > 0.05) were detected. Variables included in the multivariate logistic regression were BMI and NOT-S total. Based on this analysis, NOT-S total was associated with TMDs. Reported sensory function was the specific domain within NOT-S interview that established the significant difference between the groups (P = 0.021). The TMD group also had a greater number of alterations in the face-at-rest domain of the NOT-S exam (P = 0.007). Concluding, it did not detect an association between TMDs and either dentition phase or BF. Instead, BF correlated with age and BMI. Oro-facial dysfunction was associated with TMD in the studied sample, but this association may be bidirectional, requiring further researches.

  8. Evolution of developmental pattern for vertebrate dentitions: an oro-pharyngeal specific mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Gareth J; Smith, Moya Meredith

    2011-03-15

    Classically the oral dentition with teeth regulated into a successional iterative order was thought to have evolved from the superficial skin denticles migrating into the mouth at the stage when jaws evolved. The canonical view is that the initiation of a pattern order for teeth at the mouth margin required development of a sub-epithelial, permanent dental lamina. This provided regulated tooth production in advance of functional need, as exemplified by the Chondrichthyes. It had been assumed that teeth in the Osteichthyes form in this way as in tetrapods. However, this has been shown not to be true for many osteichthyan fish where a dental lamina of this kind does not form, but teeth are regularly patterned and replaced. We question the evolutionary origin of pattern information for the dentition driven by new morphological data on spatial initiation of skin denticles in the catshark. We review recent gene expression data for spatio-temporal order of tooth initiation for Scyliorhinus canicula, selected teleosts in both oral and pharyngeal dentitions, and Neoceratodus forsteri. Although denticles in the chondrichthyan skin appear not to follow a strict pattern order in space and time, tooth replacement in a functional system occurs with precise timing and spatial order. We suggest that the patterning mechanism observed for the oral and pharyngeal dentition is unique to the vertebrate oro-pharynx and independent of the skin system. Therefore, co-option of a successional iterative pattern occurred in evolution not from the skin but from mechanisms existing in the oro-pharynx of now extinct agnathans.

  9. The Holocene history of Oro Lake, one of the western Canada's longest continuous lacustrine records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, William M.; Vance, Robert E.

    2002-04-01

    Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the Holocene history of the Great Plains region of western Canada. However, despite this increased interest, paleolimnological research is limited by a paucity of study sites with relatively long, uninterrupted stratigraphic sequences. To date, only three Canadian Great Plains lakes have provided complete, uninterrupted sequences spanning the past 10,000 years. Oro Lake is one of these. Oro Lake is small, perennial, and saline. It occupies a topographically closed basin on the Missouri Coteau in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Its 10,000-year stratigraphic sequence consists mainly of well-bedded, calcareous, and gypsiferous clayey silts. A short-lived early Holocene freshwater siliciclastic-dominated lake occupied the newly formed basin immediately after deglaciation. At ˜9300 BP, limnological conditions changed dramatically and abruptly. Since then, alkaline, high-salinity brines with high Mg/Ca ratios have prevailed. Stable meromictic conditions existed from about 9300 to ˜7400 BP, with maximum salinities (>75 ppt) occurring at 8300 BP. About 7400 years ago, gradually increasing aridity during the mid-Holocene resulted in increased eolian sedimentation, reorganization of the groundwater influx, and occasional breakdown of meromixis. About 4000 BP, the lake returned to a mainly stratified water column with subaqueous soluble salts being precipitated from the monimolimnion, and aragonite and Mg-carbonates being generated from the mixolimnion. During the most recent 1000 years, periodic hypersaline conditions became more common, coincident with decreased concentrations of Ca 2+ and complimentary increased proportions of Mg 2+ and Na + ions.

  10. Association of naso-Oro-pharyngeal structures with the sleep architecture in suspected obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Pawan; Gupta, Ravi; Sharma, Rajanish; Mishra, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the association of various naso-oro-pharyngeal structures with sleep macro-architecture in suspected obstructive sleep apnea subjects. Study included 51 subjects with suspected obstructive sleep apnea. Subjects with possible central apnea and those consuming any substance that can affect sleep architecture were excluded. Level I polysomnography was performed after thorough physical examination. Overnight study was scored in 30 s epochs to find out the polysomnographic variables. Surgical treatment was offered wherever indicated. Subjects with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were manually titrated on CPAP with the polysomnogram. SPSS v 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. We did not find any difference in the sleep architecture between genders. Sleep Efficiency was better in subjects with dental overjet, dental attrition, high tongue base, macroglossia, lesser oral cavity volume, edematous uvula, increased submental fat, hypertrophied facial muscles and Mallampatti grade III-IV. Shorter Sleep Latency was seen in subjects with tender TMJ and Mallampatti Gr III-IV. REM latency was shorter in subjects with high tongue base, macroglossia and hypertrophied muscles of mastication. Increased REM was observed in subjects with high tongue base, edematous uvula and tender TMJ. Enlarged tonsils had reversed effect with poor sleep efficiency, increased REM latency and decreased REM. CPAP therapy (N = 20) lessened awake time, decreased N2 and increased REM. Oro-pharyngeal structures affect the sleep architecture in suspected OSA subjects. Nasal structures do not affect the sleep architecture in these subjects and enlarged tonsils have opposite effect. Sleep architecture changes on the titration night with CPAP.

  11. Dental implants after the use of bichat's buccal fat pad for the sealing of oro-antral communications. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Cosimo; Cammaroto, Giovanni; Galletti, Francesco; Camps-Font, Octavi; Gay-Escoda, Cosme; Bara-Casaus, José-Javier

    2016-12-01

    Oro-antral communications are frequent complications in oral surgery, and generally occur after molar extractions, maxillary sinus elevations or dental implant procedures. The presence of these defects may increase the morbidity and often need a surgical approach. The present report describes an oro-antral communication in a 52-year-old female who presented a 2 week-course of painless nasal obstruction and rhinorrea after a right maxillary sinus floor elevationwith simultaneous dental implant placement. Based on the anamnesis, clinical examination and a computed tomographyof the paranasal sinuses, a diagnosis of odontogenic rhinosinusitis associated with a 1.5 cm diameter oro-antral communicationwas establishedand its surgical closure using Bichat's buccal fat pad was planned.After 15 months, the patient was successfully rehabilitated with an implant-supported 3 unit fixed partial denture. Key words:Dental implants, buccal fat pad, oro-antral communications.

  12. Dental implants after the use of bichat’s buccal fat pad for the sealing of oro-antral communications. A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Cammaroto, Giovanni; Galletti, Francesco; Camps-Font, Octavi; Gay-Escoda, Cosme; Bara-Casaus, José-Javier

    2016-01-01

    Oro-antral communications are frequent complications in oral surgery, and generally occur after molar extractions, maxillary sinus elevations or dental implant procedures. The presence of these defects may increase the morbidity and often need a surgical approach. The present report describes an oro-antral communication in a 52-year-old female who presented a 2 week-course of painless nasal obstruction and rhinorrea after a right maxillary sinus floor elevationwith simultaneous dental implant placement. Based on the anamnesis, clinical examination and a computed tomographyof the paranasal sinuses, a diagnosis of odontogenic rhinosinusitis associated with a 1.5 cm diameter oro-antral communicationwas establishedand its surgical closure using Bichat’s buccal fat pad was planned.After 15 months, the patient was successfully rehabilitated with an implant-supported 3 unit fixed partial denture. Key words:Dental implants, buccal fat pad, oro-antral communications. PMID:27957285

  13. Aquifer-storage change in the lower Canada del Oro Subbasin, Pima County, Arizona, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Aquifer storage was monitored using gravity methods in the Lower Canada del Oro subbasin from 1996 through 1998 to determine areas of infiltration and amounts of recharge along the Canada del Oro Wash after major surface flow and to estimate aquifer-storage change and specific-yield values for the regional aquifer.  Both purposes were addressed by periodic monitoring of changes in aquifer storage and water levels at a network of gravity stations and monitor wells.  Water levels and gravity were also monitored near an active withdrawal well for several months for the purpose of estimating specific yield of the aquifer within the cone of water-leel depression at the well.

  14. A population based study of Helicobacter pylori infection in a European country: the San Marino Study. Relations with gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Gasbarrini, G; Pretolani, S; Bonvicini, F; Gatto, M R; Tonelli, E; Mégraud, F; Mayo, K; Ghironzi, G; Giulianelli, G; Grassi, M

    1995-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is present worldwide but few large population studies exist on the epidemiology of the infection. A random cross sectional study was performed of H pylori infection in the adult population of San Marino, a European country with high gastric cancer rate, to assess its prevalence and to evaluate its relations with gastrointestinal disease. In 2237 subjects (77% of the initial sample) H pylori IgG antibodies were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. A questionnaire including questions about occupation, place of birth, and smoking was given to all subjects. Dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer in the subjects, relatives, and partners as well as use of drug, dental treatment/prostheses, and gastrointestinal endoscopies, were evaluated by multivariate analysis. H pylori prevalence was of 51%, increased with age from 23% (20-29 years) to 68% (> or = 70 years), and was higher among manual workers. H pylori was independently associated with ulcer (OR = 1.63, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.16 to 2.27), H2 antagonists (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.10), and benzodiazepines (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.42), dental prostheses (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.49), gastroscopy in the past five years (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.14), peptic ulcer in siblings (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.09 to 2.12), gastric cancer in father (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.52). The association of seropositivity with history of ulcer, gastric cancer in family, gastroscopy, and H2 antagonists suggests that H pylori is an epidemiological key factor in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases in this area. PMID:7615270

  15. Comparison of oro-sensory exposure duration and intensity manipulations on satiation.

    PubMed

    Lasschuijt, M P; Mars, M; Stieger, M; Miquel-Kergoat, S; de Graaf, C; Smeets, Pam

    2017-02-04

    Oro-sensory exposure (OSE) is an important factor in the regulation of food intake with increasing OSE leading to lower food intake. Oral processing time and taste intensity both play an important role in OSE but their individual contribution to satiation is unknown. We aimed to determine the independent and combined effects of oral processing time and taste intensity on satiation. Fifty eight participants (23±9y, BMI 22±2kg/m(2)) participated in a 2×2 factorial randomized crossover study in which they consumed one of four gel-based model foods until satiation during four sessions. Model foods were offered ad libitum and differed in texture (soft or hard texture, yielding shorter and longer oral processing time) and sweetness (low or high intensity). Model foods were isocaloric and were matched for flavor and palatability. Outcome measures were intake of the model food and the microstructure of eating behavior, such as number of chews and eating rate. There was an overall significant effect of texture (p<0.001) but not sweetness (p=0.33) on intake with a 29.2% higher intake of the soft model foods compared to the hard model foods. After correction for palatability the difference in intake between the soft and hard model foods was 21.5% (p<0.001). The number of chews was significantly lower for the soft (10.1±6.2) than for the hard (26.9±6.2) model foods (p<0.001), which resulted in a significantly lower eating rate (soft, 26.3±10.2 and hard, 15.3±7.1g/min, p<0.001). These results show that increasing texture hardness of gel model foods decreases food intake independent of sweet taste intensity. The higher number of chews and faster eating rate may cause this effect. In conclusion, oro-sensory exposure duration rather than taste intensity appears to be the main determinant of food intake.

  16. Surgical Management of Oro-Antral Communications Using Resorbable GTR Membrane and FDMB Sandwich Technique: A Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Sandhya, G; Reddy, P Bal; Kumar, K A Jeevan; Sridhar Reddy, B; Prasad, N; Kiran, G

    2013-09-01

    The paper describes a new technique for closure of the oro-antral communication, in which both hard (bone) and soft tissue closure was achieved. The technique uses a Guided Tissue Regeeration (GTR) membrane and Freez Dried Mineralized Bone (FDMB) allograft for closure of the defect. Aim of the study was to assess the advantages of the surgical management of oro-antral communications using resorbable GTR membrane and FDMB sandwich technique. A total 10 patients were selected in whom dental extractions were complicated by formation of oro-antral communication (OAC). The resorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane (PERIOCOL-GTR) and freeze dried mineralized bone allograft material was used. Some cancellous granules of freeze dried bone allograft was sandwiched between sheaths of appropriately trimmed collagen membrane which was previously sutured together on three sides using 3/0 resorbable polyglycolic acid suture (vicryl). The fourth side was then adequately closed using the same suture after the bone graft had been inserted, thus creating a closed sandwich. The prepared sandwich was then tucked into the OAC in such a way that it formed a convexity towards the sinus and a concavity towards the alveolar bone. The rough surface of the sandwich is faced to the alveolar bone and additional bone graft is filled into this concavity. Suturing done without tension. Post-operative orthopantomogram was taken to radiologically quantify the amount of bone grafting/augmentation and closure of oro-antral fistula. There was an average of 11.84 mm bone formation after 6 months, the average width preserved and obtained was 6.9 mm. By the end of 4 months there was evidence of bone formation in 7 subjects and in three subjects bony trabeculae formed was almost similar to the adjacent bone. By the end of 6 months follow-up of 7 subjects showed trabeculae indistinguishable from the adjacent bone. The study was done in 10 patients with a follow-up period of 6 months and found to

  17. Coordination of oro-pharyngeal food transport during chewing and respiratory phase.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B

    2015-04-01

    When eating solid food, the tongue intermittently propels triturated food to the oropharynx or valleculae, where a bolus accumulates before swallowing. The tongue motion during this food transport (stage II transport, STII) is distinctly different from that during chewing, and is more similar to the oral propulsive stage of swallowing. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the onset of STII cycles was more likely to occur during expiration than inspiration. Videofluorography was recorded in a lateral projection while 10 healthy subjects ate solid foods. Respiration was concurrently monitored with plethysmography. Jaw motion cycles were classified as masticatory or swallowing. Masticatory cycles were further divided into chewing cycles and STII cycles. STII cycles were defined as those with bolus propulsion through the fauces by the tongue squeezing against the palate (without swallowing). Overall, 28% (62/223) of chewing cycles were initiated during inspiration, compared with only 12% (9/76) of STII cycles in this phase. The fraction of masticatory cycles occurring during inspiration was significantly smaller for STII cycles than for chewing cycles (Odds Ratio: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.17-0.78], p=0.01). All 36 swallowing cycles had onset during expiration. Our findings reveal that stage II oro-pharyngeal food transport is linked to expiration, as is the oral propulsive stage of swallowing. This suggests a similarity in the neural control of these two feeding behaviors.

  18. Video endoscopic oro-nasal visualisation of the anterior wall of maxillary sinus: a new technique.

    PubMed

    Trimarchi, M; Tomazic, P V; Bertazzoni, G; Rathburn, A; Bussi, M; Stammberger, H

    2014-08-01

    The anterior wall of the maxillary sinus represents a blind spot in maxillary sinus endoscopic surgery because of the absence of proper visualisation and instrumentation to reach it. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach through the oral cavity into the nose with a flexible video endoscope (oro-nasal endoscopic approach; ONEA) to visualise the entire anterior maxillary wall including the anteromedial angle. We started from a dried bone cadaver model, and then dissected fresh-frozen cadavers. The maxillary sinus was explored with a rigid and a flexible endoscope entering from the nose. Next, a flexible endoscope was introduced through the mouth and back up through the choana, it accessed the maxillary middle antrostomy, entering inside the sinus and looking at the anterior wall. A small ruler inserted inside the sinus demonstrated all the angles visualised. The new ONEA technique allows complete visualisation of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus with inspection of all blind spots. It is therefore possible to detect lesions that would normally not be visible with a normal rigid endoscope. We demonstrate the validity of a novel technique that allows visualisation of the infero-medial angle of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus.

  19. Normative values for the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P; John, M T; Nilner, K; List, T

    2014-02-01

    This study reports the findings and challenges of the assessment of oro-facial aesthetics in the Swedish general population and the development of normative values for the self-reporting Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES). In a Swedish national sample of 1406 adult subjects (response rate: 47%), OES decile norms were established. The influence of sociodemographics (gender, age, and education), oral health status and general health status on OES scores was analysed. Mean ± standard deviation of OES scores was 50.3 ± 15.6 units (0, worst score; 70, best score); <1% of the subjects had the minimum score of 0, and 11% had the maximum score of 70 OES units. Orofacial Esthetic Scale score differences were (i) substantial (>5 OES units) for subjects with excellent/very good versus good to poor oral or general health status; ii) small (2 units), but statistically significant for gender (P = 0.01) and two age groups (P = 0.02), and (iii) absent for subjects with college versus no college education (P = 0.31) or with and without dentures (P = 0.90). To estimate normative values for a self-reporting health status, instrument is considered an important step in standardisation, and the developed norms provide a frame of reference in the general population to interpret the Orofacial Esthetic Scale scores.

  20. Oro-facial pain distribution in the Singapore Armed Forces: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, F K; Tay, D K; Tan, W K

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to obtain information on the pain distribution in 140 consecutive patients referred to a Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and Craniofacial pain clinic from January 1992 to April 1994 via questionnaire, oral history and clinical examination. A cross-sectional study of 130 patients in the general military population was also done to serve as a control and to obtain initial data on the prevalence of signs and symptoms of TMD in the SAF. The control was age and sex matched with the TMD patient sample. The data showed that the "TMD patient" infrequently presented with temporomandibular joint pain alone. Neck pain, shoulder pain, ear ache and headaches were found quite frequently in addition to masticatory muscle tenderness and should be checked for in any TMD patient. Initial findings support the recommendation that the routine palpation of the styloid regions be included in any clinical screening protocol for patients presenting with head, neck and oro-facial pains. A history of macrotrauma and parafunctional habits were also important. Interesting observations relating to the TMD patients in the SAF are briefly described and discussed and there is a need to further explore the correlation between certain SAF vocations and TMD.

  1. Lansoprazole oro-dispersible tablet : pharmacokinetics and therapeutic use in acid-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    Lansoprazole is an H+, K+-adenosine triphosphatase proton pump inhibitor (PPI) used for management of acid-related disorders. Lansoprazole has been reformulated as an oro-dispersible tablet (LODT) that quickly dissolves in the mouth without water. In healthy adults the safety and bioavailability of LODT 15-30 mg, taken without water or dispersed in water, were found to be comparable with those of lansoprazole 15-30 mg capsules. Moreover, the bioavailability of LODT administered without water has been found to be similar to that of water-dispersed LODT given via a nasogastric tube. In a clinical study, the vast majority of patients found the mouth feel of LODT acceptable and almost all found it easy to take. A comparison of LODT with esomeprazole in a small group of patients with non-erosive reflux disease showed similar decreases in symptoms from baseline and no significant difference between groups. In conclusion, LODT is effective, bioequivalent to the capsule formulation and acceptable to patients. LODT offers an alternative dose administration method to all patients requiring a PPI, especially those who have difficulty swallowing, and may increase patient convenience and compliance.

  2. A Multicenter, Open-Label Trial to Evaluate the Quality of Life in Adults with ADHD Treated with Long-Acting Methylphenidate (OROS MPH): Concerta Quality of Life (CONQoL) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattos, Paulo; Rodrigues Louza, Mario; Fernandes Palmini, Andre Luis; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Lopes Rocha, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The available literature provides few studies on the effectiveness of methylphenidate in improving quality of life in individuals with ADHD. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of Methyphenidate OROS formulation (OROS MPH) through QoL in adults with ADHD. Method: A 12-week, multicenter, open-label trial involving 60 patients was used. The…

  3. Formulation and evaluation of microsphere based oro dispersible tablets of itopride hcl

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present work is to mask the intensely bitter taste of Itopride HCl and to formulate an Oro dispersible tablet (ODT) of the taste-masked drug by incorporation of microspheres in the tablets for use in specific populations viz. pediatrics, geriatrics and patients experiencing difficulty in swallowing. Methods With this objective in mind, microspheres loaded with Itopride HCl were prepared by solvent evaporation method using acetone as solvent for pH-sensitive polymer, Eudragit EPO and light liquid paraffin as the encapsulating medium. The prepared microspheres were characterized with regard to yield, drug content, flow properties, particle size and size distribution, surface features, in vitro drug release and taste. The ODTs so prepared from these microspheres were evaluated for hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, moisture uptake, in vitro dispersion, in vitro disintegration, in vitro drug release and stability. Results The average size of microspheres was found to be satisfactory in terms of the size and size distribution. Microspheres prepared were of a regular spherical shape. Comparison of the dissolution profiles of microspheres in different pH media showed that microspheres having drug: polymer ratio of 1:2 produced a retarding effect in simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8) and were further used for formulation into ODTs after addition of suitable amounts of excipients such as superdisintegrant, diluent, sweetener and flavor of directly compressible grade. Conclusions Effective taste-masking was achieved for Itopride HCl by way of preparation of microspheres and ODTs of acceptable characteristics. PMID:23351176

  4. Novel expression and transcriptional regulation of FoxJ1 during oro-facial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Venugopalan, Shankar R.; Amen, Melanie A.; Wang, Jianbo; Wong, Leeyean; Cavender, Adriana C.; D'Souza, Rena N.; Akerlund, Mikael; Brody, Steve L.; Hjalt, Tord A.; Amendt, Brad A.

    2008-01-01

    Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome (ARS) patients with PITX2 point mutations exhibit a wide range of clinical features including mild craniofacial dysmorphism and dental anomalies. Identifying new PITX2 targets and transcriptional mechanisms are important to understand the molecular basis of these anomalies. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate PITX2 binding to the FoxJ1 promoter and PITX2C transgenic mouse fibroblasts and PITX2-transfected cells have increased endogenous FoxJ1 expression. FoxJ1 is expressed at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) in early tooth germs, then down-regulated from E15.5–E17.5 and re-expressed in the inner enamel epithelium, oral epithelium, tongue epithelium, sub-mandibular salivary gland and hair follicles during E18.5 and neonate day 1. FoxJ1 and Pitx2 exhibit overlapping expression patterns in the dental and oral epithelium. PITX2 activates the FoxJ1 promoter and, Lef-1 and β-catenin interact with PITX2 to synergistically regulate the FoxJ1 promoter. FoxJ1 physically interacts with the PITX2 homeodomain to synergistically regulate FoxJ1, providing a positive feedback mechanism for FoxJ1 expression. Furthermore, FoxJ1, PITX2, Lef-1 and β-catenin act in concert to activate the FoxJ1 promoter. The PITX2 T68P ARS mutant protein physically interacts with FoxJ1; however, it cannot activate the FoxJ1 promoter. These data indicate a mechanism for the activity of the ARS mutant proteins in specific cell types and provides a basis for craniofacial/ tooth anomalies observed in these patients. These data reveal novel transcriptional mechanisms of FoxJ1 and demonstrate a new role of FoxJ1 in oro-facial morphogenesis. PMID:18723525

  5. Texture and satiation: the role of oro-sensory exposure time.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Cees

    2012-11-05

    One of the characteristics of the current obesogenic food supply is the large availability of foods that can be ingested quickly. Controlled nutrition intervention studies have shown that the ingestion of simple energy containing beverages, which are consumed very quickly, do not lead to a lower compensatory intake of other foods. One of the theories behind this observation is that calories that are ingested quickly are not well sensed by the sense of taste, and do not lead to an adequate satiety response. This idea is confirmed by the results of a series of studies, where we have shown that the low satiation/satiety response of beverages can be largely attributed to their short oral residence time. Prolonging the oro-sensory exposure time to foods leads to earlier meal termination and/or a higher satiety response. The low satiation/satiety response to simple energy containing beverages is congruent with the observation from studies on the cephalic phase response to foods, i.e. the physiological response to sensory signals. Energy containing beverages do not lead to an adequate cephalic phase response. Various recent studies showed that slower eating leads to higher levels of satiety hormones. These results are in line with the idea that the sense of taste is a nutrient sensor which informs the brain and the gut about the inflow of nutrients. The sense of taste has an important contribution to the satiating effect of foods. One of the challenges in future research is to see whether or not these proofs of principles can be applied in longer term studies with regular commercial foods. This may make our obesogenic food supply more satiating, and may lead to a lower energy intake.

  6. Assessment of Oro-Maxillofacial Trauma According to Gender, Age, Cause and Type of the Injury

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Marko; Sikora, Miroslav; Leović, Dinko; Mumlek, Ivan; Macan, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The occurrence and causes of maxillofacial trauma varies in different regions of the world. The aim of this study was to identify the occurrence, types and causes of maxillofacial injuries according to the age and gender differences in patients treated at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Center Osijek, between January 2011 and December 2013. Materials and methods A total of 64 patients, 41 males (64.1%) and 23 females (35.9%), aged from 18 to 86 years (mean age 42) participated in the study. Data collected and analyzed included gender, age, cause of injury and the type of maxillofacial injuries. Results The most common cause of injuries in both gender groups was falling down (39% males; 65% females). The second leading cause of injuries in males was interpersonal violence (29%) and in females traffic accident (26%) (p<0.05). The most common type of injury in both gender groups was bone injury (50%; in males zygomatic bones 55%, in females mandible 40%) (p>0.05). The most common causes of injuries in the youngest patients was violence (43%), and in others fall (50-70%; p<0.05). The most common reported type of injury in all age groups was bone injury (more than 50%; p>0.05). The majority of the falls and violence caused bone tissue injuries, and soft tissue and dentalveolar injuries were detected in traffic and sports accidents (p>0.05). Conclusion Falling down was the most common cause of oro-maxillofacial injuries in both men and women and in all three age groups. The leading type of injury was bone injury. The data obtained from this study provide important information for future prevention from injuries. PMID:27688419

  7. The Feasibility and Outcome of Oro-esophageal Tube Feeding in Patients with Various Etiologies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyong; Seo, Han Gil; Lee, Goo Joo; Han, Tai Ryoon; Oh, Byung-Mo

    2015-12-01

    The oro-esophageal tube (OE tube) is widely used in dysphagia patients although its success rate for transition to oral feeding is reported only in stroke patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of OE tube feeding for patients with dysphagia resulting from various etiologies. The authors reviewed the medical records of 1995 dysphagic patients that had undergone videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) in a tertiary hospital from April 2002 through December 2009. Of these, 97 patients were recommended to use OE tube feeding based on the VFSS findings. Follow-up VFSS were performed on 54 patients. The mean duration of tube use at the time of follow-up VFSS was 274 days. We evaluated clinical information including age, sex, diet, etiology of dysphagia, location of lesions, duration of intervention, and complications of OE tube feeding. Initially, all 54 patients were fed using the OE tube. After their last follow-up evaluation, 19 patients (35.2 %) resumed full oral feeding without the OE tube, 12 patients (22.2 %) used partial OE tube feeding, and 23 patients (42.6 %) continued OE tube feeding only. Full oral feeding was achieved again most often in brain tumor, stroke, and head and neck cancer patients (54.5, 27.3, and 20.0 %, respectively). Mild adverse events, such as blood-tinged sputum, nausea, dyspepsia, and regurgitation of food, were reported in 4 patients. OE tube feeding is a feasible feeding method also in conditions other than stroke such as brain tumors, and head and neck cancers.

  8. Two new oro-cervical radiographic indexes for chronological age estimation: a pilot study on an Italian population.

    PubMed

    Lajolo, Carlo; Giuliani, Michele; Cordaro, Massimo; Marigo, Luca; Marcelli, Antonio; Fiorillo, Fabio; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Oliva, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Chronological age (CA) plays a fundamental role in forensic dentistry (i.e. personal identification and evaluation of imputability). Even though several studies outlined the association between biological and chronological age, there is still great variability in the estimates. The aim of this study was to determine the possible correlation between biological and CA age through the use of two new radiographic indexes (Oro-Cervical Radiographic Simplified Score - OCRSS and Oro-Cervical Radiographic Simplified Score Without Wisdom Teeth - OCRSSWWT) that are based on the oro-cervical area. Sixty Italian Caucasian individuals were divided into 3 groups according to their CA: Group 1: CAG 1 = 8-14 yr; Group 2: CAG 2 = 14-18 yr; Group 3: CAG 3 = 18-25 yr; panorexes and standardised cephalograms were evaluated according Demirjian's Method for dental age calculation (DM), Cervical Vertebral Maturation method for skeletal age calculation (CVMS) and Third Molar Development for age estimation (TMD). The stages of each method were simplified in order to generate OCRSS, which summarized the simplified scores of the three methods, and OCRSSWWT, which summarized the simplified DM and CVMS scores. There was a significant correlation between OCRSS and CAGs (Slope = 0.954, p < 0.001, R-squared = 0.79) and between OCRSSWWT and CAGs (Slope = 0.863, p < 0.001, R-squared = 0.776). Even though the indexes, especially OCRSS, appear to be highly reliable, growth variability among individuals can deeply influence the anatomical changes from childhood to adulthood. A multi-disciplinary approach that considers many different biomarkers could help make radiological age determination more reliable when it is used to predict CA.

  9. A review of OROS methylphenidate (Concerta(®)) in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Martin A; Sternat, Tia

    2014-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioural disorder with onset during childhood. It affects a child's development, both at home and at school, and impacts on social, emotional and cognitive functioning, in both the home and the school environment. Untreated ADHD is very often associated with poor academic achievement, low occupational status, increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. Current practice guidelines recommend a multimodal approach in the treatment of ADHD, which includes educational, behavioural and mental health interventions, and pharmacological management. Stimulant medications, including methylphenidate (MPH) and amphetamine products, are recommended as first-line pharmacotherapy in the treatment of ADHD. The choice of stimulant is influenced by several factors; the most influential factor is the duration of action. Long-acting medication provides benefits long after school and work. It also increases the likelihood of once-daily dosing, thereby eliminating the need for mid-day dosing, making the treatment more private, avoiding stigma and improving adherence to medication. MPH is the most widely used psychotropic medication in child psychiatry. It was first developed for use in children as an oral, immediate-release formulation and more recently as various extended-release formulations. These latter formulations include the 12 h preparation Concerta(®) (osmotic-release oral system [OROS] MPH), which utilizes an osmotic pump system, designed to overcome the difficulties of multiple daily dosing. Since it received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration in August 2000, OROS MPH has been quickly and widely accepted as one of the preferred treatments for ADHD because of its once-daily dosing. This paper reviews the data in support of long-acting OROS MPH in children, adolescents and adults, both in ADHD and in association with its comorbidities.

  10. Late production of CXCL8 in ruminant oro-nasal turbinate cells in response to Chlamydia abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Doull, L; Wattegedera, S R; Longbottom, D; Mwangi, D; Nath, M; Glass, E J; Entrican, G

    2015-11-15

    Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is an important cause of ovine abortion worldwide. There are reports of abortions in cattle, but these are very rare compared to the reported incidence in sheep. The bacterium is transmitted oro-nasally and can establish a sub-clinical infection until pregnancy, when it can invade the placenta and induce an inflammatory cascade leading to placentitis and abortion. Early host-pathogen interactions could explain differential pathogenesis and subsequent disease outcome in ruminant species. In this study, we assessed the ability of sheep and cattle oro-nasal turbinate cells to sense and respond to C. abortus infection. The cells expressed toll like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) mRNA. In response to C. abortus infection, both ovine and bovine turbinate cells produce CXCL8 mRNA and protein late in the bacterial developmental cycle, but do not produce IL-1β or TNF-α. The UV-inactivated bacteria did not elicit a CXCL8 response, suggesting that intracellular multiplication of the bacteria is important for activating the signalling pathways. The production of innate immune cytokines from cattle and sheep turbinate cells in response to C. abortus infection was found to be largely similar.

  11. Oro-dental health in children with chronic renal failure and after renal transplantation: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Victoria S; Roberts, Graham J

    2005-10-01

    As a consequence of chronic renal failure (CRF) and its treatment, a number of oro-dental changes occur that persist after the end-stage is reached. An early effect is enamel hypoplasia due to a defect of enamel development and mineralisation. This is usually reparable to a high aesthetic standard using dental composite filling material. Children with CRF have significantly less dental caries than healthy children due to the inhibitory effect of increased salivary urea levels. Grafted patients frequently develop gingival enlargement as a result of immunosuppression with cyclosporine A, which is further exacerbated by the additional use of antihypertensive calcium-blocking agents. Surgical reduction of gingival hyperplasia is effective and is required in approximately one third of adolescents. A very high standard of home care should be encouraged for all children with CRF in the form of thorough mechanical tooth cleaning and plaque inhibition through the use of an antibacterial mouthwash. In transplanted children presenting an increased risk of infection, antibiotic prophylaxis may be indicated for dental treatment procedures. The drug dosage should be adapted to the reduced renal function. Pediatric nephrologists should be aware that dental surgeons can make a considerable contribution to the general health and well-being of children with CRF. Thus, only oro-dental problems that are mainly encountered and treated by dental surgeons are reviewed.

  12. Risk factors for cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, L Fernandez; Herrero, R; Reyes, R M Ortiz; Vaccarella, S; Anta, J Lence; Ferbeye, L; Muñoz, N; Franceschi, S

    2001-01-01

    In terms of worldwide levels, Cuba has an intermediate incidence of cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx. We studied 200 cases of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, of whom 57 women (median age = 64) and 200 hospital controls, frequency matched with cases by age and sex, in relation to smoking and drinking history, intake of 25 foods or food groups, indicators of oral hygiene and sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from unconditional multiple logistic regressions and adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, education, and smoking and drinking habits. In the multivariate model, high educational level and white-collar occupation, but not white race, were associated with halving of oral cancer risk. Smoking ≥30 cigarettes per day showed an OR of 20.8 (95% CI: 8.9–48.3), similar to smoking ≥4 cigars daily (OR = 20.5). Drinking ≥ 70 alcoholic drinks per week showed an OR of 5.7 (95% CI: 1.8–18.5). Hard liquors were by far the largest source of alcohol. Increased risk was associated with the highest tertile of intake for maize (OR = 1.9), meat (OR = 2.2) and ham and salami (OR = 2.0), whereas high fruit intake was associated with significantly decreased risk (OR = 0.4). Among indicators of dental care, number of missing teeth and poor general oral condition at oral inspection showed ORs of 2.7 and 2.6, respectively. Number of sexual partners, marriages or contacts with prostitutes, practice of oral sex and history of various sexually transmitted diseases, including genital warts, were not associated with oral cancer risk. 82% of oral cancer cases in Cuba were attributable to tobacco smoking, 19% to smoking cigars or pipe only. The fractions attributable to alcohol drinking (7%) and low fruit intake (11%) were more modest. Thus, decreases in cigarette and cigar smoking are at present the key to oral cancer prevention in Cuba. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign

  13. Contrast of Hemispheric Lateralization for Oro-Facial Movements between Learned Attention-Getting Sounds and Species-Typical Vocalizations in Chimpanzees: Extension in a Second Colony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallez, Catherine; Schaeffer, Jennifer; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies involving oro-facial asymmetries in nonhuman primates have largely demonstrated a right hemispheric dominance for communicative signals and conveyance of emotional information. A recent study on chimpanzee reported the first evidence of significant left-hemispheric dominance when using attention-getting sounds and rightward bias for…

  14. An Analysis of Patient Adherence to Treatment during a 1-Year, Open-Label Study of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Zimmerman, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Treatment adherence is an important aspect of ADHD symptom management, but there are many factors that may influence adherence. Method: This analysis assessed adherence to OROS methylphenidate during a 1-year, open-label study in children. Adherence was defined as the number of days medication was taken divided by the number of days in…

  15. Parental perceived benefits of OROS-methylphenidate treatment for the child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and for parents themselves.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-W; Park, S; Kim, B-N; Shin, M-S; Cho, S-C; Kim, J-H; Son, J-W; Shin, Y-M; Chung, U-S; Han, D-H

    2013-06-01

    Given the shortage of studies on parental perceived benefits of OROS-methylphenidate treatment in Asian populations, we assessed parental response to OROS-methylphenidate treatment of Korean children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in relation to children's academic performance and behavioral symptoms as well as parental rearing stress and depressive symptoms.We enrolled 132 medication-naïve children with ADHD into a multicenter, open-label, 12-week trial of OROS-MPH. The outcome measures were the ADHD rating scale-IV (ADHD-RS), the comprehensive attention test and academic performance rating scale, and the clinical global impression (CGI)-severity/improvement instrument (for the children) and Beck depression inventory and parenting stress index (for their parents).We found parent-perceived improvements in children's ADHD-related behavioral symptoms and academic function and their parents' depressive symptoms and parenting stress. Investigator-rated ADHD symptoms and subjects' neuropsychological function were also improved (p<0.001).Parents of Korean children with ADHD perceive that OROS-methylphenidate treatment improves their children's academic function and behavior as well as their own child-rearing stress and emotional state. These findings must be interpreted with caution, due to a non-comparative open-label trial.

  16. Recent advances and key challenges in investigations of the flow inside human oro-pharyngeal-laryngeal airway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, A.; Uddin, M.; Shinneeb, A.-M.; Ball, C. G.

    2012-07-01

    The oro-pharyngeal-laryngeal human airway is a complex geometry; the flow physics within are subjected to and influenced by a variety of different factors that produce jet-like flow, re-circulating flows that are enhanced by curvature, detached and secondary flows. Simulation and experiment are the tools available to the fluid dynamics researcher. Simulation results obtained from direct and large-eddy simulation, and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and associated models of turbulence are reviewed. Experimental data obtained through the use of flow visualisation, hot-wire anemometry and particle image velocimetry are also reviewed. A comparison of data obtained from the application of these tools reveals many inconsistencies that are explored in this article. While much progress has been made to understand some of the physics of the flow in the human airway, we continue to uncover new and significant fluid dynamic behaviour. Finally, future research directions are suggested.

  17. Perspectives on next steps in classification of oro-facial pain - part 2: role of psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Durham, J; Raphael, K G; Benoliel, R; Ceusters, W; Michelotti, A; Ohrbach, R

    2015-12-01

    This study was initiated by a symposium, in which the present authors contributed, organised by the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network in March 2013. The purpose of the study was to review the status of biobehavioural research - both quantitative and qualitative - related to oro-facial pain (OFP) with respect to the aetiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of OFP conditions, and how this information can optimally be used for developing a structured OFP classification system for research. In particular, we address representation of psychosocial entities in classification systems, use of qualitative research to identify and understand the full scope of psychosocial entities and their interaction, and the usage of classification system for guiding treatment. We then provide recommendations for addressing these problems, including how ontological principles can inform this process.

  18. Dynamic response to valley breeze circulation in Santa María del Oro, a volcanic lake in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, David; Filonov, Anatoliy; Tereshchenko, Irina

    2002-07-01

    The paper discusses the dynamic response to valley breeze circulation in Santa Maria del Oro, a volcanic lake in Mexico. Hourly records of wind measurements were used to construct a hydrodynamical model of the level fluctuations of the lake's water as well as integrated drift currents. The calculations show that the valley breeze circulation stimulates barotropic seiches in the lake with a period of 2.6 minutes and maximal level in the southwest part up to 18 mm. The drift current form two circulating rings having an opposite directions: anticyclonical in northern part of the lake and cyclonical in the southern. At the external edge of these rings the current speed can reach 20 cm/s. The measurements have shown that most part of the year the lake is strongly stratified. The maximal vertical temperature gradients are over 1°C/m in November and August, in a layer of 17-20 m.

  19. Blocking opioid receptors alters short-term feed intake and oro-sensorial preferences in weaned calves.

    PubMed

    Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2012-05-01

    Opioid peptides may participate in the control of feed intake through mechanisms involving pleasure reward linked to consumption of palatable feed. The objective of this study was to determine whether blocking opioid receptors might void oro-sensorial preferences of calves, and affect circulating glucose, insulin, and anorexigenic hormones in fasted and fed calves. Two experiments involved 32 Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=86.5±1.73 kg, age=72±0.6 d]. In experiment 1, all calves received an ad libitum choice of the same feed either unflavored or flavored with a sweetener (Luctarom SFS-R, Lucta, Montornès del Vallès, Spain). Feed consumption was recorded every 2 h from 0800 to 1400 h for 3 consecutive days to verify the establishment of an oro-sensorial preference for sweet feed (SF). The SF was preferred over the control feed (CF) at all recorded times. In experiment 2, calves were subjected to a 2 × 2 factorial design to study the interaction between opioid activity and metabolic state. Half of the calves were fasted for 14 h (FAS), whereas the other half remained well fed (FED). Within each of these groups, at feeding time (0800 h), half of the calves received an i.v. injection of naloxone (NAL, an opioid receptor antagonist; 1 mg/kg of BW) and the other half was injected with saline solution (SAL; 0.9% NaCl). Therefore, treatments were FED-NAL, FED-SAL, FAS-NAL, and FAS-SAL. Blood samples were taken at -10, 20, 180, and 240 min relative to NAL or SAL injections. As expected, cumulative consumption of starter feed was greater in FAS than in FED calves. Total feed consumption 2 h after feeding was lower in NAL than in SAL calves. Calves in the FAS group did not discern between CF and SF during the first 4 h after feed offer. Preference for SF was greater in SAL than in NAL calves. Calves in the FED-SAL treatment preferred SF at 2 and 6 h after feed offer and tended to prefer SF at 4 h after feeding. However, FED-NAL calves did not discern between SF and CF

  20. Once-Daily OROS Hydromorphone for Management of Cancer Pain: an Open-Label, Multi-Center, Non-Interventional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Extended-release osmotic extended-release oral delivery system (OROS) hydromorphone is a strong synthetic opioid designed to maintain a constant blood concentration by once daily dosing. The objective of this observational study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of OROS hydromorphone in patients with cancer pain of moderate to severe intensity. Patients with cancer pain who required strong opioids were administered with OROS hydromorphone for 4 weeks. We assessed changes in pain intensity using a numerical rating scale (NRS) as well as levels of sleep disturbance, breakthrough pain, end-of-dose failure, patient satisfaction, and overall assessment of drug effectiveness based on investigator evaluation. Of the 648 enrolled patients, 553 patients were included in the full analysis set. The mean pain intensity was significantly decreased from the NRS value of 5.07 ± 1.99 to 2.75 ± 1.94 (mean % change of 42.13 ± 46.53, P < 0.001). The degree of sleep disturbance significantly improved (mean NRS change of 1.61 ± 2.57, P < 0.001), and the incidence of breakthrough pain was significantly decreased (mean NRS change of 1.22 ± 2.30, P < 0.001). The experience of end-of-dose failure also significantly decreased from 4.60 ± 1.75 to 3.93 ± 1.70, P = 0.007). The patient satisfaction rate was 72.7%, and 72.9% of investigators evaluated the study drug as effective. OROS hydromorphone was an effective and tolerable agent for cancer pain management. It effectively lowered pain intensity as well as improved sleep disturbance, breakthrough pain, and end-of-dose failure (Identifier: NCT 01273454). PMID:27822929

  1. Movement of water through the thick unsaturated zone underlying Oro Grande and Sheep Creek Washes in the western Mojave Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, J.A.; Radyk, J.; Michel, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that a small quantity of recharge occurs from infiltration of streamflow in intermittent streams in the upper Mojave River basin, in the western Mojave Desert, near Victorville, California. Chloride, tritium, and stable isotope data collected in the unsaturated zone between 1994 and 1998 from boreholes drilled in Oro Grande and Sheep Creek Washes indicate that infiltration of streamflow occurs to depths below the root zone, and presumably to the water table, along much of Oro Grande Wash and near the mountain front along Sheep Creek Wash. Differences in infiltration at sites along each wash are the result of hydrologic variables such as proximity to the mountain front, quantity of streamflow, and texture of the subsurface deposits. Differences in infiltration between the washes are the result of large-scale geomorphic processes. For example, Oro Grande wash is incised into the Victorville fan and infiltration has occurred at approximately the same location over recent geologic time. In contrast, Sheep Creek Wash overlies an active alluvial fan and the stream channel can move across the fan surface through time. Infiltration does not occur to depths below the root zone at control sites outside of the washes.

  2. Movement of water through the thick unsaturated zone underlying Oro Grande and Sheep Creek Washes in the western Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbicki, John A.; Radyk, John; Michel, Robert L.

    2002-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that a small quantity of recharge occurs from infiltration of streamflow in intermittent streams in the upper Mojave River basin, in the western Mojave Desert, near Victorville, California. Chloride, tritium, and stable isotope data collected in the unsaturated zone between 1994 and 1998 from boreholes drilled in Oro Grande and Sheep Creek Washes indicate that infiltration of streamflow occurs to depths below the root zone, and presumably to the water table, along much of Oro Grande Wash and near the mountain front along Sheep Creek Wash. Differences in infiltration at sites along each wash are the result of hydrologic variables such as proximity to the mountain front, quantity of streamflow, and texture of the subsurface deposits. Differences in infiltration between the washes are the result of large-scale geomorphic processes. For example, Oro Grande wash is incised into the Victorville fan and infiltration has occurred at approximately the same location over recent geologic time. In contrast, Sheep Creek Wash overlies an active alluvial fan and the stream channel can move across the fan surface through time. Infiltration does not occur to depths below the root zone at control sites outside of the washes.

  3. Vulvovaginal candida in a young sexually active population: prevalence and association with oro-genital sex and frequent pain at intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, E; Berglund, A; Krassny, C; Petrini, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of vulvovaginal candida among sexually active adolescents. To determine past and present symptoms, including pain at intercourse and potential behavioural risk factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods: At an adolescent centre, 219 sexually active women who underwent genital examination, also completed a questionnaire on a history of genital symptoms and infections, sexual and hygiene habits, and the use of contraceptives. Symptoms and clinical signs were registered. Vaginal samples were analysed for candida species and urine for Chlamydia trachomatis. Results: Candida culture was positive in 42% of the women and only 15% were asymptomatic. A history of recurrent candidiasis was given by 22%. Frequent pain at intercourse was reported by 24% and frequent oro-genital sex by 42% of the women. Frequent pain at intercourse was significantly associated with both the growth of candida and a history of recurrent candidiasis. Oro-genital sex was an independent risk factor for the growth of candida. Conclusion: In sexually active adolescents, who underwent genital examination, candida cultures were positive in 42%. The habit of frequent oro-genital sex was associated with the growth of candida. Pain at intercourse was associated with the growth of candida and recurrent candidiasis. PMID:14755037

  4. The Oro-Facial Investment Scale (OFIS) – A Novel Outcomes and Evaluation Measure for Self-Appraised Oro-Facial Behavioural and Aesthetic Constructs among Professional Healthcare Students of Belagavi : A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ankola, Anil V; Jalihal, Sagar G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have shown that self perceived dental appearance is an important determinant in the decision to seek treatment. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the self-perceived oral health knowledge, attitude, practice, behaviour and perception among 18-20 year old students of professional healthcare institutions in Belagavi city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods The novel 21 item Oro-Facial Investment Scale (OFIS) formulated for this study was distributed to 600 students of professional healthcare institutions (200 each from Medical, Physiotherapy and Ayurveda specialties respectively). Psychometric properties of the questionnaire were assessed. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were applied. Results Total 98.17% practiced the use of facial and oral care products on a regular basis. All 600 participants disagreed that they hate their facial appearance and the way their teeth looked. Out of 200 Ayurveda students, 37 were unsatisfied with the appearance of their teeth. Also, majority of the respondents agreed that they take prompt care of oral wounds or lesions. While majority of the subjects did not feel conscious when a dentist checks their teeth, a robust 153 respondents expressed their reservations for their dental examination to be performed. Conclusion The OFIS seamlessly amalgamates the dental unit with the immediate facial components; hence, bringing together, in harmony, a multifaceted dimension in self assessment of the overall facial and dental behavioural practices. PMID:28050503

  5. The restart of meteorological observations in the 19th century in Lisbon: the contribution of Marino Miguel FRANZINI (1779-1861)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcoforado, Maria-Joao; Nunes, Fatima

    2013-04-01

    After the early meteorological observations of the 1770s to the 1790s in continental Portugal (including a 5 year daily series by J. Velho), there were hardly any until 1815. In December 1815, a meteorological station was set up in Lisbon by Marino Miguel Franzini (1779-1861), an engineer who was also actively involved in Politics (liberal party). Following the tradition of the 18th century enlightenment movement, he took a keen interest in Nature and Sciences, particularly in the "influence" of weather and climate on health and agriculture. Franzini started his observations by request of a physician who sought to understand the reasons why the maximum mortality occurred on the summer months, unlike in northern countries of Europe where maximum mortality occurred in winter (as it happens nowadays in Portugal). The deterministic background of the two scientists is clear. Franzini was a member of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (founded in 1799) and had contact with foreign Academies and foreign scientists. His instruments were carefully constructed and described, including graduation scales, and stations' location was indicated. Data from two years observations (several meteorological variables) was published in the Academy of Sciences Memoirs. From 1818 until 1826 and from 1835 until 1856 data was divulged in journals and newspapers, such as the "Journal of Medical Sciences", together with data on necrology in some of Lisbon parishes (illustrating the interest of physicians on weather); meteorological data and information about agriculture was also published in the "Lisbon Gazette". Unfortunately, there are hardly any daily data, as Franzini grouped his records according to weather types, as will be explained. Franzini's series will be presented in our talk. The gap between 1826 and 1835 was due to the political activities in which Franzini was involved: the civil war (liberals against absolutist) disruptedscientific research in Portugal. Official meteorological

  6. Tactile sensory and pain thresholds in the face and tongue of subjects asymptomatic for oro-facial pain and headache.

    PubMed

    Okayasu, I; Komiyama, O; Ayuse, T; De Laat, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the tactile sensory and pain thresholds in the face, tongue, hand and finger of subjects asymptomatic for pain. Sixteen healthy volunteers (eight men and eight women, mean age 35·7 years, range 27-41) participated. Using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, the tactile detection threshold (TDT) and the filament-prick pain detection threshold (FPT) were measured at five sites: on the cheek skin (CS), tongue tip (TT), palm side of the thenar skin (TS), dorsum of the hand (DH) and the finger tip (FT). The difference between the tactile sensory and pain threshold (FPT-TDT) was also calculated. Both for the TDT and FPT, TT and DH had the lowest and highest values, respectively. As for the FPT-TDT, there were no significant differences among the measurement sites. As the difference between FPT and TDT (FPT-TDT) is known to be an important consideration in interpreting QST (quantitative sensory testing) data and can be altered by neuropathology, taking the FPT-TDT as a new parameter in addition to the TDT and FPT separately would be useful for case-control studies on oro-facial pain patients with trigeminal neuralgia, atypical facial pain/atypical odontalgia and burning mouth syndrome/glossodynia.

  7. Processing capabilties for the elimination of contaminated metal scrapyards at DOE/ORO-managed sites. [Metal smelting facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.E.; Williams, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Capabilities exist for reducing all the contaminated nickel, aluminum, and copper scrap to ingot form by smelting. Processing these metals at existing facilities could be completed in about 5 or 6 years. However, these metals represent only about 20% of the total metal inventories currently on hand at the DOE/ORO-managed sites. No provisions have been made for the ferrous scrap. Most of the ferrous scrap is unclassified and does not require secured storage. Also, the potential resale value of the ferrous scrap at about $100 per ton is very low in comparison. Consequently, this scrap has been allowed to accumulate. With several modifications and equipment additions, the induction melter at PGDP could begin processing ferrous scrap after its commitment to nickel and aluminum. The PGDP smelter is a retrofit installation, and annual throughput capabilities are limited. Processing of the existing ferrous scrap inventories would not be completed until the FY 1995-2000 time frame. An alternative proposal has been the installation of induction melters at the other two enrichment facilities. Conceptual design of a generic metal smelting facility is under way. The design study includes capital and operating costs for scrap preparation through ingot storage at an annual throughput of 10,000 tons per year. Facility design includes an induction melter with the capability of melting both ferrous and nonferrous metals. After three years of operation with scrapyard feed, the smelter would have excess capacity to support on-site decontamination and decomissioning projects or upgrading programs. The metal smelting facility has been proposed for FY 1984 line item funding with start-up operations in FY 1986.

  8. Can a partially molten metasedimentary sequence convect? Insights from the El Oro Complex (Ecuador) and 1D thermal modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riel, Nicolas; Mercier, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    It is now widely accepted that the formation and the evolution of high elevation plateaus such as the Tibet and the Altiplano-Puna are strongly linked to mantel magma underplating at crustal root level and partial melting of the lower crust. Understanding the rheological behavior of the deep continental crust during these episodes is therefore crucial to constrain the evolution of such plateau. In this study we present results obtained from pressure-temperature estimates and thermal modeling of gabbro underplating at crustal root level (25km) in the El Oro Metamorphic Complex (Ecuador). The aim of this study is: (1) to complete previously published P-Tmax estimates in the northern part of the migmatitic unit, close to the magmatic contact with the gabbroic unit, to obtain better constraints on the metamorphic gradient during partial melting, (2) to characterize the effects of melt extraction, latent heat capture and release and a temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity on the thermal evolution of the system using a specifically developed numerical model, and (3) in the light of the thermal modeling results, to discuss the geological processes involved during partial melting of the metasedimentary crust. Our modeling results show that the estimate metamorphic gradient cannot be reproduced when solely taking into account latent heat, melt extraction and thermal-dependent diffusivity. In the light of geological, geochemical and modeling evidence we show that the lower migmatitic unit, controlled by biotite-dehydration melting reactions was subject to convective motion that contributed to lower the metamorphic gradient and rapidly transfer heat upward. For a biotite-rich rock (~20%) containing 15-20% of melt, we estimate the maximum viscosity of the rock that allows convection at ~7.5e17 Pa.s. Our results also suggest that convection can be maintained as long as heat is provided and that temperature lies in the stability field of biotite-dehydration melting (750-900°C).

  9. Professional knowledge among Swedish and Saudi healthcare practitioners regarding oro-facial pain in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Al-Khotani, A; Naimi-Akbar, A; Björnsson, O; Christidis, N; Alstergren, P

    2016-01-01

    Oro-facial pain (OFP) and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents are a growing problem. To meet patients' healthcare needs, professionals must perform their work intuitively and with quality. Therefore, a high degree of professional knowledge is necessary. To investigate the professional knowledge regarding OFP/TMD in children and adolescents among Swedish and Saudi Arabian dental and medical specialists compared with Swedish OFP specialists. One questionnaire including the four domains Chronic pain and behaviour; Aetiology; Diagnosis and classification; Treatment and prognosis was distributed to 383 potential participants, that is physicians and dentists in Sweden and Saudi Arabia. The Swedish OFP/TMD specialists were used as a reference group. The response rates from Sweden and Saudi Arabia were 49% and 86%, respectively. The degree of agreement was highest in the domain Chronic pain and behaviour, especially for the Swedish groups. Regarding the other three domains, the agreement was modest to poor. In general, Swedish groups showed a higher agreement with Swedish OFP/TMD specialists than Saudi Arabian groups. This study shows that professional knowledge regarding OFP/TMD in children and adolescents is limited among Swedish and Saudi Arabian dental and medical professionals compared to Swedish OFP/TMD specialists. In Swedish groups, the professional knowledge is more accurate than in the corresponding Saudi Arabian. With these results in mind, and the frequent prevalence of OFP/TMD in children and adolescents, one can draw the conclusion that there is a need for modern medical education regarding OFP/TMD among both physicians and dentists, especially in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Long-term side effects on the temporomandibular joints and oro-facial function in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea treated with a mandibular advancement device.

    PubMed

    Knappe, S W; Bakke, M; Svanholt, P; Petersson, A; Sonnesen, L

    2017-01-17

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in long-term treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) to increase the upper airway space may develop changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the oro-facial function due to the protruded jaw position during sleep. The aim was to investigate the influence of long-term MAD treatment on the TMJs, oro-facial function and occlusion. This prospective study included 30 men and 13 women (median age 54) with OSA [Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (AHI): 7-57]. They were examined with the Nordic Orofacial Test Screening (NOT-S), the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the TMJs. The examination was performed before MAD treatment (T0), and 3-6 months (T1, no CBCT), 1 year (T2) and 3 years (T3) after treatment start. The results were analysed as long term (T0-T3, n = 14) and short term (T0-T2, n = 24) by t-test, Fisher's exact test and anova. Both long- and short-term analyses revealed a reduction in AHI (P < 0·002). Significant long term were increased scores in the NOT-S Interview (P < 0·045), reduced vertical overbite (P < 0·031) and increased jaw protrusive movement (P < 0·027). TMJ changes were found as joint sounds in terms of reciprocal clicking and crepitus, short term as a decrease and subsequent recurrence (P < 0·053; P < 0·037). No significant radiological changes were found. In conclusion, MAD treatment is beneficial to some OSA patients, but might induce changes in the TMJs, the oro-facial function and the occlusion. However, these changes seemed to be less harmful than previously reported with careful adaptation, control and follow-ups.

  11. New geochronological control for the tectono-magmatic evolution of the metamorphic basement, Cordillera Real and El Oro Province of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspden, J. A.; Harrison, S. H.; Rundle, C. C.

    1992-08-01

    Some 150 new isotopic age determinations on metamorphic rocks from the Cordillera Real and parts of El Oro Province in Ecuador, using K-Ar, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd methods, help to clarify a complex succession of magmatic and tectonic events. The earliest regional metamorphic/plutonic event recognized, from the Tahuin Group in El Oro, is dated as between ca. 220 and 200 Ma (Late Triassic-Early Jurassic). Similar but less well constrained ages were also obtained from orthogneisses of the Sabanilla and Tres Lagunas subdivisions in the Cordillera Real. Major calc-alkaline granitoids were emplaced ca. 190-150 Ma (Middle-Late Jurassic) in the eastern part of the Cordillera Real, to the north of 2°S, and throughout the sub-Andean zone. Between ca. 140 and 120 Ma (Early Cretaceous), the Oriente region was uplifted and eroded and the Cordillera was affected by an important shearing (dynamothermal) event which results in the resetting of older plutonic ages. From ca. 20 to 85 Ma, conditions were relatively stable, but during ca. 85 to 65 Ma (Late Cretaceous), the Cordillera and Oriente were again uplifted. This uplift corresponds to a second widespread thermal overprinting, which produced a regional disturbance in the K-Ar isotopic systems. Throughout the Cordillera, a number of generally small, undeformed, dominantly lower Tertiary plutons are also present. A few older ( i.e., pre-Mesozoic) dates have been obtained but their interpretation remains uncertain.

  12. The Cuenca de Oro, a Pull-Apart Basin Hosting Precious Metal Deposits Along the Re- Activated Seri-Tahue Terrane Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinstein, M. N.; Goodell, P. C.

    2007-05-01

    At the intersection of Chihuahua, Sonora, and Sinaloa a boundary between the Seri and Tahue terranes has been hypothesized, and further refined as the Sinforosa Lineament. Near the western termination of the Sinforosa Lineament lies a topographic basin. Part of this study will be to better define this pull-apart basin, informally named the Cuenca de Oro due to its numerous precious metal deposits. The intention of this study is to test that the Seri-Tahue terrane boundary was re-energized during the beginning of extension related to the opening of the Sea of Cortez (~30ma). It is probable that the precious metal occurrences are related to the initiation of extension(alunite at El Sauzal has been dated at ~30ma). Five field excursions totaling sixty days of field work have been completed and a first draft of a regional geologic map has been made. Large shear zones support the hypothesis of a pull-apart basin. A study of the alteration and lineament intersections determine the location of many known precious metal deposits. By creating multiple cross-sections the basin can be modeled in three dimensions and a tectonic history can be interpreted. This study will present a structural analysis of the Cuenca de Oro and develop a tectonic history related temporally with the epithermal mineralization events.

  13. Magnetic Mineralogy as Indicator of dry Conditions in Lacustrine Sediments From Santa María del Oro, Nayarit, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, B.; Vazquez, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    2007-05-01

    Combined magnetic and geochemical analysis were conducted on laminated sediments from Santa Maria del Oro, a crater lake in Nayarit (Mexico), to build up a model of paleoenvironmental conditions for the late Holocene. The occurrence of a severe drought at the end of the archeological Classic period (100 - 900 AD) has been documented in sites of central Mexico (Zirahuen lake and Lerma basin), the Gulf of Mexico coast (Los Tuxtlas) and the Yucatan peninsula. The effects of this climatic event are considered to have stressed the social and political situation in the Yucatan area and other sites in Mesoamerica, and resulted in the "collapse" of the Maya civilization. Santa Maria del Oro sediments between ca. 600 - 1140 AD are characterized by repeated sequences of ocher silt laminae with high inorganic carbon content, authigenic siderite, and low concentration of SD magnetic minerals, followed upward by an increase of concentrations of fine grained SD and SP ferrimagnetic minerals in brown silt laminae. This sequence is considered to represent dissolution-precipitation cycles of magnetic minerals in low erosion, concentrated waters and anoxic water-sediment interface environments. Dissolution of magnetite occurs in reductive conditions, which are considered as warmer and dryer periods. Above the ocher silt, precipitation of fine grained magnetite occurs when conditions change to oxic environments. Ostracode C and O isotopy document a negative precipitation/evaporation balance during this time period.

  14. Late Holocene Multiproxy Record (Palynology, Stable Isotope and Multi-Element Geochemistry) of Lake Santa Maria del Oro, Western Mesoamerica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, S.; Caballero, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Roy, P.; Sosa, S.

    2007-05-01

    We present the palynological, stable isotope and major element (ITRAX X-Ray fluorescence) data from a 850-cm sediment sequence from the deepest part of lake Santa María del Oro (SMO) in order to document changes in the climatic and limnological conditions and in the vegetation for the last ca. 5000 yr. SMO is a crater lake of (750 m asl, 2 km diam.) located in a tropical sub-humid climate (1250 mm/yr, average annual temperature 21° C) at the transition between the temperate central Mexican highlands and the arid northern regions. Tropical deciduous forests which loose their leaves for 8 months in a year and the tropical oak forests are the main plant communities in the lake catchments. The western part of Mesoamerica is the cradle of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays ) agriculture; this region is probably one of the two centers of maize domestication based on the presence of one of its closets wild relative teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis ). Chronology was established with 8 AMS radiocarbon dates. Sediments are finely laminated, with some intervals dominated by black and brown clayey silt and others by brown clayey silt and calcareous silt. In some levels, laminae are characterized by silts and fine sands. Authigenic carbonate laminations are formed during the summer season, when the highest temperatures are reached in the area. Throughout the pollen analysis, teosinte pollen and maize pollen was recorded. The major element concentration (Ca and Ti) in the bulk sediments was analyzed by ITRAX multi-element scanner and the isotopic data (δ13C and δ18O) in authigenic carbonates by mass spectrometer. Ca and Ti ITRAX intensities were calibrated to mass % by using the linear relationship between ITRAX intensity and mass % obtained through conventional XRF analysis. Preliminary pollen data of SMO sediments indicates abundant pollen of teosinte from ca. 2000 to 100 BC and maize presence at ca. 1300 BC and ca. 900 BC along with high charcoal particle concentrations

  15. Predictors and impact of non-adherence in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder receiving OROS methylphenidate: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication non-adherence has an important impact on treatment efficacy and healthcare burden across a range of conditions and therapeutic areas. The aim of this analysis was to determine predictors of non-adherence and impact of non-adherence on treatment response in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Post-hoc analysis of a 13-week randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study of OROS methylphenidate (MPH) 54 and 72 mg/day. Primary efficacy variable was the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale – Screening Version (CAARS:O-SV). Daily adherence was calculated as average daily adherence (100 × capsules taken/2), with overall adherence calculated as the average daily adherence. Predictors of adherence were assessed using mixed-effects logistic regression. Descriptive statistics were generated for change in CAARS:O-SV score for adherent (> 95% adherence) and non-adherent subjects. Predictors of change were analyzed using a mixed model. Results Subjects were allocated to OROS MPH (54 mg, n = 87; 72 mg, n = 92) or placebo (n = 97). Mean adherence was 92.6% and 93.3% (OROS MPH 54 and 72 mg/day, respectively), versus 97.5% (placebo). Adherence was higher and less variable in completers. Factors significantly associated with non-adherence included female sex, shorter time since ADHD diagnosis, higher education level (completion of university) and score on the Drug Use Screening Inventory psychiatric disorders subscale. Improvements from baseline in CAARS:O-SV score were numerically greater in subjects defined as adherent than in those who were non-adherent. Significant predictors of CAARS:O-SV change in patients who completed the study included percentage adherence up to the point of assessment (p < 0.0001), baseline score (p < 0.0001) and family history of ADHD (p = 0.0003). Conclusion The results of this analysis suggest that newly diagnosed patients, those with a high score on the DUSI-R psychiatric disorder scale, women

  16. Oro-mandibular dystonia.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Yazad R

    2010-07-01

    Dystonia is an involuntary, repetitive, sustained (tonic), or spasmodic (rapid or clonic) muscle contraction. The spectrum of dystonias can involve various regions of the body. Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) can involve the masticatory, lower facial and the tongue muscles which may results in trismus, bruxism, involuntary jaw opening or closure and involuntary tongue movement. Here, we report a case of OMD in a 68 year old man.

  17. Distinctive Skeletal Abnormalities With No Microdeletions or Microduplications on Array-CGH in a Boy With Mohr Syndrome (Oro-Facial-Digital Type II)

    PubMed Central

    Kaissi, Ali Al; Pospischill, Renata; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    We describe a constellation of distinctive skeletal abnormalities in an 8-year-old boy who presented with the full clinical criteria of oro-facial-digital (OFD) type II (Mohr syndrome): bony changes of obtuse mandibular angle, bimanual hexadactyly and unilateral synostosis of the metacarpo-phalanges of 3-4, bilateral coxa valga associated with moderate hip subluxation, over-tubulation of the long bones, vertical talus of the left foot and talipes equinovarus of the right foot respectively. Interestingly, we encountered variable minor malformations in his parents, confirming the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. There were no microdeletions or microduplications after performing array-CGH-analysis. We report what might be a constellation of unreported skeletal abnormalities in a child with OFD type II (Mohr syndrome). PMID:26566416

  18. ConSCRIPT

    PubMed Central

    Mottarella, Scott E.; Rosa, Mario; Bangura, Abdul; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Craig, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Structural Biology Extensible Visualization Scripting Language (SBEVSL) project is to allow users who are experts in one scripting language to use that language in a second molecular visualization environment without requiring the user to learn a new scripting language. ConSCRIPT, the first SBEVSL release, is a plug-in for PyMOL that accepts RasMol scripting commands either as premade scripts or as line-by-line entries from PyMOL's own command line. The plug-in is available for download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/sbevsl/files in the ConSCRIPT folder. PMID:21567873

  19. Oro-facial dyskinesia and the sub-commissural part of the globus pallidus in the cat: role of acetylcholine and its interaction with GABA.

    PubMed

    Spooren, W P; Cuypers, E; Cools, A R

    1989-01-01

    The possible role of cholinergic mechanisms in the sub-commissural part of the globus pallidus (scGP) in the induction of oro-facial dyskinesia (OFD) was studied in cats. Local injections of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into the scGP elicited tongue protrusions in a dose dependent way (100-1000 ng/0.5 microliters). The effect elicited by 1000 ng carbachol was selectively antagonized by the cholinergic antagonist scopolamine (10 micrograms/0.5 microliters); this dose of scopolamine was ineffective when injected alone. The tongue protrusions resulted from both normal and abnormal movements: whereas normal movements simply consisted of protruding the flat tongue, abnormal movements implied a variety of movements, especially curling upwards the lateral side(s) or tip of the tongue inside or outside the oral cavity. The abnormal carbachol-induced tongue protrusions formed part of a syndrome marked by dyskinetic movements of the muscles of the eye, ear and cheek, and were identical to those seen previously after local injections of picrotoxin (250-500 ng). Intra-pallidal injections of the abovementioned dose of scopolamine had no effect on the tongue protrusions induced by local injections of 375 ng picrotoxin. However, local injections of 100 ng muscimol, which was previously found to attenuate significantly the effect of 375 ng picrotoxin and which was ineffective when injected alone, significantly attenuated the tongue protrusions induced by local injections of 1000 ng carbachol. These data suggest that the cholinergic effects are mediated via a GABAergic mechanism, but not vice versa. The results are discussed in view of GABAergic and anti-cholinergic therapies used in oro-facial dyskinesia.

  20. A new zebrafish model of oro-intestinal pathogen colonization reveals a key role for adhesion in protection by probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rendueles, Olaya; Ferrières, Lionel; Frétaud, Maxence; Bégaud, Evelyne; Herbomel, Philippe; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial contribution of commensal bacteria to host health and homeostasis led to the concept that exogenous non-pathogenic bacteria called probiotics could be used to limit disease caused by pathogens. However, despite recent progress using gnotobiotic mammal and invertebrate models, mechanisms underlying protection afforded by commensal and probiotic bacteria against pathogens remain poorly understood. Here we developed a zebrafish model of controlled co-infection in which germ-free zebrafish raised on axenic living protozoa enabled the study of interactions between host and commensal and pathogenic bacteria. We screened enteric fish pathogens and identified Edwardsiella ictaluri as a virulent strain inducing a strong inflammatory response and rapid mortality in zebrafish larvae infected by the natural oro-intestinal route. Using mortality induced by infection as a phenotypic read-out, we pre-colonized zebrafish larvae with 37 potential probiotic bacterial strains and screened for survival upon E. ictaluri infection. We identified 3 robustly protective strains, including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and 2 Escherichia coli strains. We showed that the observed protective effect of E. coli was not correlated with a reduced host inflammatory response, nor with the release of biocidal molecules by protective bacteria, but rather with the presence of specific adhesion factors such as F pili that promote the emergence of probiotic bacteria in zebrafish larvae. Our study therefore provides new insights into the molecular events underlying the probiotic effect and constitutes a potentially high-throughput in vivo approach to the study of the molecular basis of pathogen exclusion in a relevant model of vertebrate oro-intestinal infection.

  1. The Con Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the format of the Con Test, an Australian television game show which followed the same general rules and game play as the UK show PokerFace. At the end of each round a contestant needs to decide whether or not he or she should fold. A contestant needs to know how likely it is that he or she is in last place.…

  2. Knowledge and attitudes of coaches of secondary school athletes in Ibadan, Nigeria regarding oro-facial injuries and mouthguard use by the athletes.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, C O; Adegbesan, O A

    2003-08-01

    - The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of secondary school sports' coaches about oro-facial injuries and mouth protector usage in sports by the adolescent athletes. A 10-item, self-completion questionnaire was distributed to 42 coaches from 23 secondary schools randomly selected from different parts of Ibadan city in Nigeria between May and June, 2002. The questionnaire sought information on why a mouth protector (mouthguard) is used, when it is required; the types of mouth protector used, the major reasons for choosing a specific mouth protector, and personal feeling as to whether mouthguards prevent oral injury. Descriptive statistics were used for the data while the chi-square statistic was employed to test the significance of association between variables. All the coaches, 25 (59.5%) males and 17 (40.5%) females with age range of 19-51 years and mean age of 38.07 +/- 8.97 years (mean +/- SD), completed and returned the forms (100% completion rate). 95.2% of the coaches believed that mouthguards prevent oral injuries and 95.2% of them also would like more information on different types of mouthguard, while 4.8% each felt otherwise. The main factor determining the choice of the type of mouthguard for athletes by the coaches was the quality of oral protection (57.1%), and the next was the cost (23.8%). Acceptance of mouthguard was scored as positive by 88.1% of the athletes. 81.0% of the coaches felt that mouthguard should be worn at all times (during practices and competitions) while 19.0% would prefer the use during competitions only. The majority of the coaches (71.4%) believed that boxing needs mouthguards, 2.4% each indicated football (soccer) and Judo while 11.9% of the coaches did not indicate any sport. The majority of these Nigerian coaches agreed on the protective effectiveness of mouthguard against sport-related oro-facial injuries, but they are yet to be adequately informed about mouthguards generally so as to correctly advise and

  3. Metamorphic and geochronogical study of the Triassic El Oro metamorphic complex, Ecuador: Implications for high-temperature metamorphism in a forearc zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riel, N.; Guillot, S.; Jaillard, E.; Martelat, J.-E.; Paquette, J.-L.; Schwartz, S.; Goncalves, P.; Duclaux, G.; Thebaud, N.; Lanari, P.; Janots, E.; Yuquilema, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the forearc of the Andean active margin in southwest Ecuador, the El Oro metamorphic complex exhibits a well exposed tilted forearc section partially migmatized. We used Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous matter (RSCM) thermometry and pseudosections coupled with mineralogical and textural studies to constrain the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of the El Oro metamorphic complex during Triassic times. Our results show that anatexis of the continental crust occurred by white-mica and biotite dehydration melting along a 10 km thick crustal domain (from 4.5 to 8 kbar) with increasing temperature from 650 to 700 °C. In the biotite dehydration melting zone, temperature was buffered at 750-820 °C in a 5 km thick layer. The estimated average thermal gradient during peak metamorphism is of 30 °C/km within the migmatitic domain can be partitioned into two apparent gradients parts. The upper part from surface to 7 km depth records a 40-45 °C/km gradient. The lower part records a quasi-adiabatic geotherm with a 10 °C/km gradient consistent with an isothermal melting zone. Migmatites U-Th-Pb geochronology yielded zircon and monazite ages of 229.3 ± 2.1 Ma and 224.5 ± 2.3 Ma, respectively. This thermal event generated S-type magmatism (the Marcabeli granitoid) and was immediately followed by underplating of the high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) Arenillas-Panupalí unit at 225.8 ± 1.8 Ma. The association of high-temperature low-pressure (HT-LP) migmatites with HP-LT unit constitutes a new example of a paired metamorphic belt along the South American margin. We propose that in addition to crustal thinning, underplating of the Piedras gabbroic unit before 230 Ma provided the heat source necessary to foster crustal anatexis. Furthermore, its MORB signature shows that the asthenosphere was involved as the source of the heat anomaly. S-type felsic magmatism is widespread during this time and suggests that a large-scale thermal anomaly affected a large part of the

  4. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  5. Data from a thick unsaturated zone underlying Oro Grande and Sheep Creek washes in the western part of the Mojave Desert, near Victorville, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Clark, Dennis A.; Pimental, Maria I.; Land, Michael; Radyk, John C.; Michel, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents data on the physical properties of unsaturated alluvial deposits and on the chemical and isotopic composition of soil water and soil gas collected at 12 monitoring sites in the western part of the Mojave Desert, near Victorville, California. Sites were installed using the ODEX air-hammer method. Seven sites were located in the active channels of Oro Grande and Sheep Creek Washes. The remaining five sites were located away from the active washes. Most sites were drilled to a depth of about 100 feet below land surface; two sites were drilled to the water table almost 650 feet below land surface. Drilling procedures, lithologic and geophysical data, and site construction and instrumentation are described. Core material was analyzed for water content, bulk density, water potential, particle size, and water retention. The chemical composition of leachate from almost 1,000 subsamples of cores and cuttings was determined. Water extracted from selected subsamples of cores was analyzed for tritium and the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. Water from suction-cup lysimeters and soil-gas samples also were analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition. In addition, data on the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk precipitation from five sites and on ground water from two water-table wells are reported.

  6. Oro-nasal fistula development and velopharyngeal insufficiency following primary cleft palate surgery--an audit of 148 children born between 1985 and 1997.

    PubMed

    Inman, D S; Thomas, P; Hodgkinson, P D; Reid, C A

    2005-12-01

    We present an audit of primary cleft palate surgery in our unit including rates of two important post-operative complications. Multidisciplinary audit clinics ran from March 1998 to April 2002 to follow up all local patients with a cleft lip or palate who had undergone primary palatal surgery in our unit. One hundred and forty eight patients were studied. Patient ages at follow-up ranged from 3 years and 10 months to 17 years and 4 months. Two surgeons performed the primary surgery. One hundred and twenty eight Wardill-Kilner and 20 Von Langenbeck repairs were performed. We found a 4.7% rate of oro-nasal fistula development requiring surgical closure, and a 26.4% rate of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) requiring subsequent pharyngoplasty. We noted that the type of cleft involved affected the rate of VPI, 16% of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate versus 29.2% of patients with a solitary cleft palate requiring secondary surgery. Outcome of surgery was determined by a 'Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech' (CAPS) speech therapy assessment at follow-up clinics. Only 14.9% of all patients assessed demonstrated any degree of hypernasality. Our results compare favourably with other recent studies including the Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) report into treatment of children with cleft lip and palate.

  7. Late Holocene Sediment Study From Santa María del Oro Crater Lake, Nayarit, México, Using Environmental Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, G.; Ortega, B.; Rodriguez, A.

    2007-05-01

    The lake is located near the Pacific coast of Mexico, at the western end of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. It is a deep lake (ca. 65 m) with steep sides and only a small bay (Agua Caliente) has shallower water (ca. 12 m). Four parallel cores between 4 and 9 m long were recovered in March 2002 from this shallower area. Sediments are characterized by alternated laminations (few millimeters to 2 cm) of sand, brown silt, green silt, reddish silt, ochre silt, and peat. The 14-C dated sequence spans the last ca. 2,600 yrs. Given this age, it is possible that each set of laminations represent annual sedimentation cycles. The record is a potential high- resolution archive of environmental and climatic variability for western Mexico for late Holocene. Magnetic measurements of susceptibility along the cores show a high variability in the concentration of magnetic mineralogy. Different magnetic and non-magnetic properties show two sets of facies in relation to its magnetic mineralogy; one group composed by sand, brown silt, green silt and peat has the magnetite and Ti-magnetite as the principal magnetic phase; the second group, composed by reddish and ochre silt, has a low Ti magnetite component and siderite, as the principal paramagnetic component. The effects of climatic variations such as the drought occurred in the archeological Classic period (100 - 900 dC), the Medieval Warm Period (950 - 1350 dC), the Little Ice Age (1400 - 1800 dC), and the droughts over the last 700 years, documented in sites along central Mexico, are recognized in the magnetic mineralogy of Santa Maria del Oro.

  8. One stage combined endoscopic and per-oral buccal fat pad approach for large oro-antral-fistula closure with secondary chronic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Gilad; Koren, Ilan; Carmel, Narin Nard; Balaban, Sagi; Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Fliss, Dan M; Kleinman, Shlomi; Reiser, Vadim

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous surgical approaches for oro-antral-fistula (OAF) closure. Secondary sinus disease is still considered by many experts a relative contra indication for primary closure. To describe a single-stage combined endoscopic sinus surgery and per-oral buccal fat pad (BFP) flap approach for large OAF causing chronic maxillary sinusitis. The records of all the patients with OAF and chronic manifestations of secondary rhinosinusitis that were treated between 2010 and 2013 in our tertiary care medical center were reviewed. The exclusion criteria were: OAF ≤ 5 mm, resolved sino-nasal disease, OAF secondary to malignancy, recurrent fistula, medical history that included radiotherapy to the maxillary bone and age <18 years. Each procedure was performed by a team consisting of a rhinologist and a maxillofacial surgeon. The surgical approach included an endoscopic middle antrostomy with maxillary sinus drainage, and a per-oral BFP regional flap for OAF closure. Total OAF closure, complications and need for revision surgeries. Forty-five patients that underwent OAF closure together with sinus surgery using a combined endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and BFP flap approach met the inclusion criteria. There were 28 males and 17 females with a mean ± SD age of 53.5 ± 14.9 years (range 22-80 years). The presenting signs and symptoms included purulent rhinorrhea (n = 22, 48.9 %), foreign body in sinus (n = 10, 22.2 %) nasal congestion (n = 7, 15.5 %), halitosis (n = 6, 13.3 %) and pain (n = 5, 12.2 %). Surgical complications included local pain (n = 2, 4.4 %), persistent rhinitis (n = 2, 4.4 %) and synechia (n = 1, 2.2 %). One patient required revision surgery due to an unresolved OAF. The OAF of all the other 44 patients (97.8 %) was closed after the first procedure and the paranasal sinuses on the treated side were completely recovered. The mean follow-up time for the group was 7.6 ± 4.3 months (7-21 months), and no untoward sequelae or recurrence were reported

  9. Climatic variability and human impact in Mesoamerica during the last 3,000 yr: the case of Lake Santa Maria Del Oro, Western Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Margarita; Sosa, Susana; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Lozano, Socorro; Vázquez, Gabriel; Ortega, Beatriz; Vilaclara, Gloria

    2010-05-01

    During the last decades a number of lacustrine records from Mesoamerica have documented climatic changes and episodes of intense human impact. These records are concentrated in the Maya region and the in high altitude basins of central and eastern Mexico, few studies have been undertaken in western Mexico. We believe that a regional perspective of the recorded changes can provide a better understanding of the climatic trends and mechanisms controlling these changes as well as of the regional extent, intensity and timing of the episodes of human impact. For this reason we started a multidisciplinary project to study the lake sediments from Santa Maria del Oro (SMO), a crater lake in western-central Mexico (750 m asl). SMO is located in a region with tropical sub-humid climate(annual pp 1,250 mm/yr, mean annual temperature 21°C), with a short summer rainy season mainly related with the onset of the North American Monsoon (NAM) and the entrance of Pacific tropical storms and/or hurricanes. This site is therefore site sensitive to variations in the intensity of the NAM circulation. Two master sequences are available from this lake. A ca. 9 m long core (ca. 2,500 yr BP, with 8 AMS 14-C dates) was recovered using a Usinger piston corer from a relatively shallow area of the lake (12 m). These sediments are laminated, mostly with alternation of brown silt and sand layers. It has been studied for: magnetic mineralogy, ostracodes, geochemistry, TIC and TOC. We are now including diatom and pollen data to improve previous paleolimnological interpretations. The second sequence, also ca. 9 m long (ca. 4,500 yr BP, with 6 14-C AMS dates), was recovered using the Limnological Research Center (LRC at the U. of Minnesota) Kullemberg gravity corer (MOLE Mexico-USA-UK collaborative project). This sequence is also laminated, mostly between brown and black silts with finely laminated carbonate layers. High resolution ITRAX XRD elemental analysis data are available for this core. The

  10. ORO. The physical developer replacement?

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael A; James, Tim

    2009-12-01

    In the process of fingerprint development Physical Developer has been largely the method of choice on porous surfaces after coming into contact with wet environments. It is only recently that a new technique has been identified which could replace this standard technique. This study aims to build on previous research and expand knowledge regarding the technique. The study built on previous research and compared Physical Developer to Oil Red O, testing both on four paper types, while being placed in three different water types and an accelerant for various amounts of time. Marks were placed with both heavily 'loaded' sebaceous fingers and 'normal' un-washed fingers. Results show that Oil Red O consistently produced clearer more detailed marks from the 'loaded' fingers, but neither technique proved to work better on the 'normal' marks. Neither technique developed any prints from the accelerant.

  11. A Phase IIIb, Multicentre, Randomised, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of OROS Hydromorphone in Subjects with Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Pain Induced by Osteoarthritis of the Hip or the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Vojtaššák, Jozef; Vojtaššák, Jozef; Jacobs, Adam; Rynn, Leonie; Waechter, Sandra; Richarz, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Background. Opioid analgesics are included in treatment guidelines for the symptomatic management of osteoarthritis (OA). Starting with a low dose of opioid and slowly titrating to a higher dose may help avoid intolerable side effects. Methods. Subjects aged ≥40 years, with moderate to severe pain induced by OA of the hip or knee not adequately controlled by previous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or paracetamol treatment, were enrolled. Subjects received OROS hydromorphone 4 mg or placebo once-daily. The dose was titrated every 3-4 days in case of unsatisfactory pain control during the 4-week titration phase. A 12 week maintenance phase followed. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in “pain on average” measured on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) scale from baseline to the end of the maintenance phase. Results. 139 subjects received OROS hydromorphone and 149 subjects received placebo. All efficacy endpoints showed similar improvements from baseline to end of study in the 2 groups. The safety results were consistent with the safety profile of OROS hydromorphone. Conclusion.The study did not meet the primary endpoint; although many subjects' pain was not adequately controlled at inclusion, their pain may have improved with continued paracetamol or NSAID treatment. PMID:22110921

  12. A Phase IIIb, Multicentre, Randomised, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of OROS Hydromorphone in Subjects with Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Pain Induced by Osteoarthritis of the Hip or the Knee.

    PubMed

    Vojtaššák, Jozef; Vojtaššák, Jozef; Jacobs, Adam; Rynn, Leonie; Waechter, Sandra; Richarz, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Background. Opioid analgesics are included in treatment guidelines for the symptomatic management of osteoarthritis (OA). Starting with a low dose of opioid and slowly titrating to a higher dose may help avoid intolerable side effects. Methods. Subjects aged ≥40 years, with moderate to severe pain induced by OA of the hip or knee not adequately controlled by previous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or paracetamol treatment, were enrolled. Subjects received OROS hydromorphone 4 mg or placebo once-daily. The dose was titrated every 3-4 days in case of unsatisfactory pain control during the 4-week titration phase. A 12 week maintenance phase followed. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in "pain on average" measured on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) scale from baseline to the end of the maintenance phase. Results. 139 subjects received OROS hydromorphone and 149 subjects received placebo. All efficacy endpoints showed similar improvements from baseline to end of study in the 2 groups. The safety results were consistent with the safety profile of OROS hydromorphone. Conclusion.The study did not meet the primary endpoint; although many subjects' pain was not adequately controlled at inclusion, their pain may have improved with continued paracetamol or NSAID treatment.

  13. Crater-lake Santa Maria del Oro as a Pristine Reference for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP' s) and Heavy Metals Content in Environmental Investigations in Western Mexico (Project Conacyt-Semarnat 2002-C01-0463, in Progress).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate-Del Valle, P. F.; Gomez-Hermosillo, C. M.; Venegas-Garcia, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    Santa Maria del Oro Lake ( SMO) (21.37° N, 104.57° W; 750 m a.s.l.) is a quaternary crater-lake located at western Mexico in the natural border between two geological provinces: the plio-quaternary Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the oligo-miocenic silicic volcanic province Sierra Madre Occidental. SMO, a tropical freshwater lake, is a warm-monomictic lake having a diameter of ca. 2 km and a mean depth at the depocenter of ca. 60 m, where three benthos cores were recovered. Contents of POP' s, total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC) and heavy metals were analyzed. Geochemistry and mineralogy also were studied in shallow sediments which corresponded to the decade of 50-60's, otherwise the beginning of industrial development of central Mexico; which is considered the possible source of emission of POP' s and heavy metals. Dioxin, furan, plaguicides and PCB' s contents were analyzed by a GC-MS applying USEPA methods. In the first 40 cm (n= 20) of the sedimentary column ( SC) the absence of POP' s was evidenced, applying a method detection limit ( MDL) of 5 μ g/ml for dioxin, furan and PCB' s. For plaguicides like chlordane and toxaphene the MDL was 0.5 μ g/ml and for plaguicides like DDT, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlore and mirex the MDL was 5 μ g/ml. The MDL for HCB was 1 μ g/ml. The average (n= 30) for TIC, TOC and total carbon (TC) for the first 40 cm of the SC is as follows: TIC 2.4 %, TOC 3.7 % and TC 6.12 %. The average (n= 20) content (in ppm) of heavy metals for the first 20 cm of the SC is as follows: As 5.97, Cr 27.54, Cu 16.31, Ni 12.29, Pb 21.35 and Zn 82.46. These contents are roughly similar to the clarke of these metals in volcanic rocks. After the criteria of severe effect level ( SEL) of heavy metal in sediments, the content of these metals is below SEL levels. These results permit us to conclude that the sediments of SMO can be considered in unaffected state with respect to antropogenic contamination like POP' s and heavy

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of cleft lip/palate: The surface rendered oro-palatal (SROP) view of the fetal lips and palate, a tool to improve information-sharing within the orofacial team and with the parents.

    PubMed

    Levaillant, Jean-Marc; Nicot, Romain; Benouaiche, Laurence; Couly, Gérard; Rotten, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The ultrasonographic surface rendered oro-palatal (SROP) view is a 3D reconstructed view of the fetal perioral region, which combines ultrasound insonation in a trans oral, upward directed axial direction and the surface rendered mode. It allows the simultaneous visualization on a single scan of the superior lip, alveolar ridge and secondary palate. It corresponds prenatally to the submental intra oral photography of the palate of neonates. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the benefice of using the SROP view in the management of cleft lip with or without cleft palate, uni- or bi-lateral, diagnosed prenatally (22-28 gestational weeks). The SROP view allowed the representation on a single view of the characteristics of the defect useful to the different members of the orofacial team to exactly evaluate the difformity and to plan the ulterior therapeutic steps (e.g. side, extension of the cleft to the secondary palate, tooth organization). Also, being easier to read by lay people thanks to the use of a surface rendered representation rather than the usual multiplanar reconstructions in the three traditional orthogonal planes, the SROP view makes it easier to bring exact information to the parents about the malformation and its consequences.

  15. A preliminary combined geochemical and rock-magnetic study of tailings of non-magnetic ores from Tlalpujahua-El Oro mining districts, Michoacán and Estado de México States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J.; Hernández-Bernal, M.; Corona-Chávez, P.

    2013-05-01

    Mining activities in Mexico have been continuously developed since 1550. Since then several thousands of million tons of waste produced as a result of the mining activity have been accumulated and scattered throughout the territory. These wastes can contain minerals with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, which show a distribution and mobility in the environment according to the chemical species in which are hosted. The Tlalpujahua - El Oro mining district (TOMD) concentrates an impressive number of mines and historical tailings. Due to their in-slope hydrographic position, the mining activities increase the risk of generating anthropogenic effluent that could contribute with a certain amount of mine-water with high contents of PTEs. Although magnetic methods have been widely applied to pollution studies of regions with high anthropogenic impact, its application to tailings is scarce in spite of the several studies that document the environmental effects as a result of the mining waste. We present the results obtained by combined geochemical and rock-magnetic studies in these tailings. Similarly to the traditional EPTs vs SiO2 diagrams, EPTs vs Fe show good linear (inverse) correlation with most of these health-risk elements. Fe concentrations determined magnetically from room-temperature susceptibility measurements agrees with those obtained by traditionally geochemical methods.

  16. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation.

  17. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  18. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  19. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  20. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods.

  1. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  2. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  3. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  4. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  5. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  6. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  7. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  8. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  9. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  10. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  11. Finemet versus ferrite -- Pros and cons

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng and Z.B. Qian

    1999-05-19

    There is a new magnetic alloy called Finemet which has very constant {mu}'{sub p}Qf up to {approximately} 2 kG and is very stable at high magnet flux density and temperature. It may be a good can-didate for high-gradient rf cavities. However, it has a rather low quality factor and is therefore very lossy. We compare the pros and cons of Finemet versus the common ferrite, when used in low-energy accelerating cavities, insertion for space-charge compensation, and barrier cavities.

  12. Energy Star program benefits Con Edison

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Impressed with savings in energy costs achieved after upgrading the lighting and air conditioning systems at its Manhattan headquarters, Home Box Office (HBO) wanted to do more, James Flock, vice president for computer and office systems, contacted Con Edison Co. of New York in March 1991 to determine what the company could do to save money by reducing energy consumed by personal computers. Arthur Kressner, Con Edison Research and Development manager contacted industry organizations and manufacturers for advice, but was told only to shut off computers at night and on weekends. Kressner arranged a series of meetings with IBM and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to discuss the issue, then approached the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which was designing a program to promote the introduction and use of energy-efficient office equipment. In 1992, the EPA announced the Energy Star program for PCs, enabling manufacturers to display the Energy Star logo on machines meeting program criteria, including the ability to enter a sleep mode in which neither the computer nor monitor consume more than 30 W or electricity. Industry experts estimate national energy consumption by office equipment could double by the year 2000, but Energy Star equipment is expected to improve efficiency and help maintain electric loads.

  13. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing. PMID:22905327

  14. Pros and cons of the proteomics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    The number of proteins produced by the 30,000-40,000 genes of the human genome is estimated to be three or four orders of magnitude higher. Proteomics is a rapidly developing science. In principle, two main areas in the field of proteomics have been developed, each of them having its pros and cons. These fields are profiling and functional proteomics. The aim of the proteomic profiling is to describe and index the whole set of proteins of a biological sample, which could be an organism, an organ, or a cell, or parts there of like individual's tissue or organelles. In our understanding, both types of proteomics (profiling and functional) are valuable tools complementing other biological methodologies.

  15. Pros and cons of phage therapy

    PubMed Central

    Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Many publications list advantages and disadvantages associated with phage therapy, which is the use of bacterial viruses to combat populations of nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. The goal of this commentary is to discuss many of those issues in a single location. In terms of “Pros,” for example, phages can be bactericidal, can increase in number over the course of treatment, tend to only minimally disrupt normal flora, are equally effective against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, often are easily discovered, seem to be capable of disrupting bacterial biofilms, and can have low inherent toxicities. In addition to these assets, we consider aspects of phage therapy that can contribute to its safety, economics, or convenience, but in ways that are perhaps less essential to the phage potential to combat bacteria. For example, autonomous phage transfer between animals during veterinary application could provide convenience or economic advantages by decreasing the need for repeated phage application, but is not necessarily crucial to therapeutic success. We also consider possible disadvantages to phage use as antibacterial agents. These “Cons,” however, tend to be relatively minor. PMID:22334867

  16. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  17. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  18. Games Con Men Play: The Semiosis of Deceptive Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankiss, Agnes

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes some of the most frequent deceptive interactions as rendered through case histories of male con artists and their victims taken from police records. Discusses the recurrent elements in both the con-games strategies and victims' way of interpreting those strategies. (JMF)

  19. Breath Analysis Science at PittCon 2012, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘PittCon 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, PittCon is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...

  20. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Schempf, H.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

  1. [Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U

    2016-09-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives.

  2. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  3. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia.

  4. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  6. Canceling Some d-CON Mouse and Rat Control Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has reached agreement with the manufacturer, to cancel 12 d-CON products that do not meet our testing protocols that better protect children, pets and non-target wildlife from accidental exposure to the pesticide. These products will be phased out.

  7. Three dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and rudders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyzes, C.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions for the definition of grids adapted to the calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and on submarine rudders and fins are described. The particular geometry of such bodies (oblique shaped hull, curved fins) required special adaptations. The grids were verified on examples from a test basin.

  8. Providers debate pros and cons of pneumonia vaccination at discharge.

    PubMed

    2001-02-01

    When to vaccinate against pneumonia? Does it makes sense when patients are in the hospital? Or should patients wait for the first post-op visit with the PCP? Office-based and hospital-based physicians weigh the pros and cons of each.

  9. International Field Reversible Thermal Connector (RevCon) Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    of Figures Figure Page Figure 1: Comparison Temperature History of T3 from each Thermal Connector........................ 6...OHP Thermal Connector Delivered by MissStateU .................................................. 54 Figure 49: Comparison Temperature History of T1...88 Figure A2: Schematic of Temperature Monitoring and Vibration Detection Setup for RevCon IV

  10. Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and cons of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…

  11. Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

  12. LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

  13. A complex photoreceptor system mediates the regulation by light of the conidiation genes con-10 and con-6 in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, María; Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Luque, Eva M; Corrochano, Luis M

    2010-04-01

    Genes con-10 and con-6 in Neurospora crassa are activated during conidiation or after illumination of vegetative mycelia. Light activation requires the white-collar complex (WCC), a transcription factor complex composed of the photoreceptor WC-1 and its partner WC-2. We have characterized the photoactivation of con-10 and con-6, and we have identified 300bp required for photoactivation in the con-10 promoter. A complex stimulus-response relationship for con-10 and con-6 photoactivation suggested the activity of a complex photoreceptor system. The WCC is the key element for con-10 activation by light, but we suggest that other photoreceptors, the cryptochrome CRY-1, the rhodopsin NOP-1, and the phytochrome PHY-2, modify the activity of the WCC for con-10 photoactivation, presumably through a repressor. In addition we show that the regulatory protein VE-1 is required for full photocarotenogenesis. We propose that these proteins may modulate the WCC in a gene-specific way.

  14. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si

  15. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning.

    PubMed

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs.

  16. Molecular diagnostics: Molecular Med Tri-Con 2013.

    PubMed

    Klein, Roger D

    2013-07-01

    The 20th annual Molecular Med Tri-Con conference, sponsored by Cambridge Health Institute (MA, USA), consisted of over 250 presentations within five parallel 'channels': 'Diagnostics, Therapeutics, Clinical, Informatics and Cancer', along with five preliminary symposia, 15 short courses, a plenary keynote session entitled 'Personalized Oncology - Fulfilling the Promise for Today's Patients' and a keynote panel entitled, 'Emerging Technologies and Industry Perspectives'. Over 3000 individuals from academia, clinical laboratories and industry were in attendance. This article will focus on the Keynote Session of 'Molecular Diagnostics' track within the Diagnostics Channel.

  17. TESORO DE ORO, BOOKS FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARRIGAN, JOAN

    THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BILINGUAL MATERIALS RELATED TO THE SPANISH-AMERICAN CULTURAL HERITAGE OF THE UNITED STATES, SUITABLE FOR ELEMENTARY AND OLDER STUDENTS. ALSO INCLUDED IS A DIRECTORY OF PUBLISHERS OF THESE MATERIALS AND A LIST OF CRITERIA APPLIED TO THE SELECTION OF THESE MATERIALS. (FS)

  18. Coordination in oro-pharyngeal biomechanics during human swallowing.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Kondoh, Jugo; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Tamine, Kenichi; Inoue, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Chen, Yongjin; Ono, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    In swallowing, the tongue contacts against the hard palate to generate pressure for propelling a bolus from the oral cavity into the pharynx. Meanwhile, the hyoid and larynx move upward and forward to facilitate the bolus from the pharynx into the esophagus. It has been well known that sequential coordination between those actions is critical for safety accomplishment of swallowing. However, the absence of noninvasive assessment for it limits the detection to the physiological symptom of dysphagia. We applied a sensor sheet on the hard palate to measure tongue contact pressure and a bend sensor on the frontal neck to monitor the laryngeal movement, which was synchronized with hyoid motion for assessing the coordination between both actions in 14 healthy male subjects when swallowing 5ml of water. The sequential order of tongue pressure and hyoid movement was successfully displayed. Tongue pressure was produced after slight movement of the hyoid and closely to the hyoid elevation, then reached a maximum when the hyoid stabilized in the most anterior-superior position, and ceased concurrently with the onset of hyoid descent. Additionally, the synchronized data from both sensors showed positive correlations between identified time points on the laryngeal signal waveform and onset, peak and offset of tongue pressure. Our sensing system successfully showed the coordination between tongue pressure production and hyoid motion, and could be a simple and noninvasive method for clinicians to evaluate the oral and pharyngeal stages of swallowing.

  19. Oro-pharyngo-laryngeal foreign bodies: some interesting cases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajnish Chander; Dogra, Sunder Singh; Mahajan, Vikram K

    2012-06-01

    Ingestion of variety of foreign bodies causing respiratory distress and/or dysphagia is worldwide among all age groups. Securing airway by tracheostomy is important and direct laryngoscopy provides immediate diagnosis. The importance of contributory history and its visualization is emphasized in the diagnosis and early management in the described six cases.

  20. Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called ‘endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and cons evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:16501583

  1. Endoscopic scoring systems for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Bisschops, Raf; Neumann, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Endoscopy plays a pivotal role for diagnosis and assessment of disease activity and extent in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. International guidelines recommend the use of endoscopic scoring systems for evaluation of the prognosis and efficacy of medical treatments. Ideal scoring systems are easy to use, reproducible, reliable, responsive to changes, and validated in different clinical settings in order to guide therapeutic strategies. However, currently available endoscopic scoring systems often appear as complex for routine endoscopy and suffer from insufficient interobserver agreement and lack of formal validation which often limit their use in clinical trials. Here, we describe the role of endoscopic scoring systems in inflammatory bowel diseases focusing on pros and cons in the era of advanced endoscopic imaging and mucosal healing.

  2. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs. PMID:27314106

  3. Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.

  4. Balancing Ethical Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Derived Gametes.

    PubMed

    Segers, Seppe; Mertes, Heidi; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Pennings, Guido

    2017-01-13

    In this review we aim to provide an overview of the most important ethical pros and cons of stem cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes), as a contribution to the debate about reproductive tissue engineering. Derivation of gametes from stem cells holds promising applications both for research and for clinical use in assisted reproduction. We explore the ethical issues connected to gametes derived from embryonic stem cells (both patient specific and non-patient specific) as well as those related to gametes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. The technology of SCD-gametes raises moral concerns of how reproductive autonomy relates to issues of embryo destruction, safety, access, and applications beyond clinical infertility.

  5. Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia

    2006-05-01

    In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called 'endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and cons evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy.

  6. [Modern tribology in total hip arthroplasty: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, F

    2014-01-01

    The wear products and adverse reactions that occur on bearing surfaces represent one of the greatest challenges in prosthetic replacements, as the latter experience increasing demands due to the large number of young and older adult patients that have a long life expectancy and remarkable activity. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pros and cons of the new advances in the bearing components of the articular surfaces of current total hip arthroplasties. We also discuss the strategies used historically, their problems, results and the surgeon's role in prescribing the tribologic couple that best fits each patient's needs. We conclude with practical recommendations for the prescription and management of the latest articular couples for total hip arthroplasty.

  7. Pros and Cons of the Acceleration Scheme (NF-IDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir

    2008-07-01

    The overall goal of the acceleration systems: large acceptance acceleration to 25 GeV and beam shaping can be accomplished by various fixed field accelerators at different stages. They involve three superconducting linacs: a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair of multi-pass Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) and finally a nonâ scaling FFAG ring. The present baseline acceleration scenario has been optimized to take maximum advantage of appropriate acceleration scheme at a given stage. Pros and cons of various stages are discussed here in detail. The solenoid based Pre-accelerator offers very large acceptance and facilitates correction of energy gain across the bunch and significant longitudinal compression trough induced synchrotron motion. However, far off-crest acceleration reduces the effective acceleration gradient and adds complexity through the requirement of individual RF phase control for each cavity. Close proximity of strong solenoids and superc

  8. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  9. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J. ); Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S. )

    1996-01-01

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  10. Modulation of ConA-induced inflammatory ascites by histamine - short communication.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2015-03-01

    The early phase of the ConA-induced inflammatory ascites was studied, with special reference to histamine. Concanavalin A (ConA), a cell-surface binding lectin was injected i.p. (25 mg/kg bw) to mice. After 1 h the animals were killed, the ascitic fluid collected and measured. Other agents were injected s.c., 10 min before the ConA-challenge. Exogenous histamine markedly inhibited the ConA-induced ascites. Release of endogenous vasoactive agents from the mast cells by Compound 48/80 had a similar, but slight effect. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, and chloropyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist was ineffective. Although histamine increases endothelial permeability, it did not enhance the formation of ascitic fluid, on the contrary, it inhibited the ConA-induced ascites, presumably due to its known hypotonic effect. It is concluded that ConA-induced ascites is not mediated by mast cell histamine.

  11. Laparoscopy for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, T C; Wexner, S D

    1998-04-01

    The role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of colorectal malignancies is still under investigation, although it can offer significant benefits to many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to assess the pros and cons of the laparoscopic management of IBD. Data were obtained from a review of the literature published since 1992, when the first report of laparoscopic surgery for IBD appeared in print. From 1992 to 1997 several series of laparoscopic colorectal surgery for the management of IBD have been reported. A close evaluation of these studies revealed that laparoscopy in patients with terminal ileal Crohn's disease or anal Crohn's disease in need of fecal diversion offers significant advantages compared to laparotomy, including decreased pain, length of hospitalization, and disability. An additional bonus is improved cosmesis and a reduction in symptomatic postoperative adhesions. These many benefits can be achieved without any increase in morbidity or expense. Conversely, the use of this technology for restorative proctocolectomy in patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis is associated with a longer operative time and an increased incidence of both intra- and postoperative complications compared to laparotomy. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery can thus be advantageous for treatment of terminal ileal Crohn's disease but cannot be routinely justified for the treatment of mucosal ulcerative colitis.

  12. Pros and cons of circumcision: an evidence-based overview.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Khoury, J; Petersiel, N; Yahalomi, T; Paul, M; Neuberger, A

    2016-09-01

    Based on three large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in Africa, it can clearly be stated that circumcision lowers the risk of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among males in settings of high HIV and STI endemicity. Similar effects on STI risk may exist for females, although this may result from an indirect effect of decreasing risk of infection among male partners. It is unknown whether circumcision prevents HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM), although there might be a protective effect for men who engage mainly in insertive anal intercourse. When the effects of adult circumcision on sexual function and satisfaction of men are examined, high-quality evidence strongly supports lack of harm. Whether circumcision alters sexual satisfaction of female partners is not known as fewer and smaller studies reported conflicting results. Circumcision rarely causes serious complications if practiced by trained practitioners, in a sterile setting, and with a proper follow-up. These conclusions are limited by the lack of high-quality data from areas outside of Africa. RCTs have not been conducted to assess the effects of circumcising infants or MSM. Circumcision has well-proven benefits for people residing in areas with high prevalence of STIs, including HIV, and is not unethical for those who choose to be circumcised or have their children circumcised on religious, social, or cultural grounds. For many others, a definite pro or con recommendation, based on a risk-benefit ratio, cannot be made.

  13. Pros, Cons, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and cons of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.

  14. Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at PittCon 2010, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "PittCon" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. PittCon began in 1950 as a small sp...

  15. Synergistic hemolysins of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Różalska, Małgorzata; Derczyńska, Anna; Maszewska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    A total of 104 coagulase negative staphylococci, belonging to S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus and S. warneri, originating from the collection of the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology (ZMF), Medical University of Lodz, Poland, were tested for their synergistic hemolytic activity. 83% of strains produced δ-hemolysin, however, the percentage of positive strains of S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. capitis and S. hominis was different - 98%, 78%, 75% and 68%, respectively. Highly pure hemolysins were obtained from culture supernatants by protein precipitation with ammonium sulphate (0-70% of saturation) and extraction by using a mixture of organic solvents. The purity and molecular mass of hemolysins was determined by TRIS/Tricine PAGE. All CoNS hemolysins were small peptides with a molar mass of about 3.5 kDa; they possessed cytotoxic activity against the line of human foreskin fibroblasts ATCC Hs27 and lysed red cells from different mammalian species, however, the highest activity was observed when guinea pig, dog and human red blood cells were used. The cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts occurred within 30 minutes. The S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain was used as a control. The antimicrobial activity was examined using hemolysins of S. capitis, S. hominis, S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Hemolysins of the two S. cohnii subspecies did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity. Cytolysins of S. capitis and S. hominis had a very narrow spectrum of action; out of 37 examined strains, the growth of only Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pasteurella multocida was inhibited.

  16. Surgical animal models of neuropathic pain: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Challa, Siva Reddy

    2015-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges for discovering more efficacious drugs for the control of neuropathic pain has been the diversity of chronic pain states in humans. It is now acceptable that different mechanisms contribute to normal physiologic pain, pain arising from tissue damage and pain arising from injury to the nervous system. To study pain transmission, spot novel pain targets and characterize the potential analgesic profile of new chemical entities, numerous experimental animal pain models have been developed that attempt to simulate the many human pain conditions. Among the neuropathic pain models, surgical models have paramount importance in the induction of pain states. Many surgical animal models exist, like the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), spared nerve injury (SNI), brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), sciatic nerve transaction (SNT) and sciatic nerve trisection. Most of these models induce responses similar to those found in causalgia, a syndrome of sustained burning pain often seen in the distal extremity after partial peripheral nerve injury in humans. Researchers most commonly use these surgical models in both rats and mice during drug discovery to screen new chemical entities for efficacy in the area of neuropathic pain. However, there is scant literature that provides a comparative discussion of all these surgical models. Each surgical model has its own benefits and limitations. It is very difficult for a researcher to choose a suitable surgical animal model to suit their experimental set-up. Therefore, particular attention has been given in this review to comparatively provide the pros and cons of each model of surgically induced neuropathic pain.

  17. Self-Exfoliated Guanidinium-Based Ionic Covalent Organic Nanosheets (iCONs).

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shouvik; Kandambeth, Sharath; Biswal, Bishnu P; Khayum M, Abdul; Choudhury, Chandan K; Mehta, Mihir; Kaur, Gagandeep; Banerjee, Subhrashis; Prabhune, Asmita; Verma, Sandeep; Roy, Sudip; Kharul, Ulhas K; Banerjee, Rahul

    2016-03-02

    Covalent organic nanosheets (CONs) have emerged as functional two-dimensional materials for versatile applications. Although π-π stacking between layers, hydrolytic instability, possible restacking prevents their exfoliation on to few thin layered CONs from crystalline porous polymers. We anticipated rational designing of a structure by intrinsic ionic linker could be the solution to produce self-exfoliated CONs without external stimuli. In an attempt to address this issue, we have synthesized three self-exfoliated guanidinium halide based ionic covalent organic nanosheets (iCONs) with antimicrobial property. Self-exfoliation phenomenon has been supported by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation as well. Intrinsic ionic guanidinium unit plays the pivotal role for both self-exfoliation and antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using such iCONs, we have devised a mixed matrix membrane which could be useful for antimicrobial coatings with plausible medical benefits.

  18. Antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS): emergence of teicoplanin-non-susceptible CoNS strains with inducible resistance to vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao Xue; Wang, En Hua; Liu, Yong; Luo, En Jie

    2011-11-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have become increasingly recognized as important agents of nosocomial infection. One of the characteristics of CoNS is their resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. CoNS strains (n = 745) isolated from a university teaching hospital in China between 2004 and 2009 were tested for antibiotic resistance. The antibiotics were placed into three categories based on resistance levels of the CoNS strains to these antibiotics: high resistance (resistance rate >70 %), including penicillin G, oxacillin and erythromycin; medium resistance (resistance rate between 30 and 70 %), including tetracycline, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol; and low resistance (resistance rate <30 %), including rifampicin, ceftizoxime and gentamicin. We also found that the prevalence of strains non-susceptible to teicoplanin increased from 4.5 to 6.7 % between 2008 and 2009. A one-step vancomycin agar selection experiment and subsequent population analysis revealed potentially vancomycin-resistant subpopulations that have been selected from the teicoplanin-non-susceptible strains. Vigilant surveillance of nosocomial isolates of CoNS is needed to determine their resistance to glycopeptides.

  19. Analyses of muscular dystrophy and Con A deficiency traits in testcross progeny of chickens.

    PubMed

    Kline, K; Sanders, B G

    1984-01-01

    Hereditary muscular dystrophic chickens of the Storrs strain possess two genetic disorders, muscular dystrophy (MD) and a deficient concanavalin A (Con A), a T-cell mitogen, mediated splenic lymphocyte blastogenic response. A possible amelioration of the MD phenotype in MD chickens expressing normal Con A was postulated on the basis of progeny segregating for these two traits in F2 genetic analyses. To test this possibility, testcross progeny were examined for segregation of MD and Con A deficiency traits, and for the degree of muscle destruction and Con A deficiency. The data show both traits to be inherited independently as autosomal recessive traits, and do not support any phenotypic modifications occurring in chickens expressing MD with normal Con A. In the testcross progeny, the Con A deficiency disorder is equally deficient in normal and MD progeny, and the degree of muscle destruction as measured by serum creatine phosphokinase levels is equally great in MD chickens with or without the Con A deficiency trait. The reduced numbers of MD chickens in the testcross progeny can be accounted for by chance and probably reflect losses during in ovo development.

  20. Targeted Drug Delivery in Covalent Organic Nanosheets (CONs) via Sequential Postsynthetic Modification.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shouvik; Sasmal, Himadri Sekhar; Kundu, Tanay; Kandambeth, Sharath; Illath, Kavya; Díaz Díaz, David; Banerjee, Rahul

    2017-03-29

    Covalent organic nanosheets (CONs) have emerged as a new class of functional two-dimensional (2D) porous organic polymeric materials with a high accessible surface, diverse functionality, and chemical stability. They could become versatile candidates for targeted drug delivery. Despite their many advantages, there are limitations to their use for target specific drug delivery. We anticipated that these drawbacks could be overturned by judicious postsynthetic modification steps to use CONs for targeted drug delivery. The postsynthetic modification would not only produce the desired functionality, it would also help to exfoliate to CONs as well. In order to meet this requirement, we have developed a facile, salt-mediated synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA). The COFs were subjected to sequential postsynthetic modifications to yield functionalized targeted CONs for targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to breast cancer cells. This postsynthetic modification resulted in simultaneous chemical delamination and functionalization to targeted CONs. Targeted CONs showed sustained release of the drug to the cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, which led to cancer cell death via apoptosis. Considering the easy and facile COF synthesis, functionality based postsynthetic modifications, and chemical delamination to CONs for potential advantageous targeted drug delivery, this process can have a significant impact in biomedical applications.

  1. Abundancias químicas de estrellas de Mercurio-Manganeso obtenidas con espectros EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.

    Se determinan las abundancias químicas de estrellas de HgMn usando espectros obtenidos con EBASIM en CASLEO en un rango de longitud de onda comprendido entre los 400 y 890 nm. Los valores iniciales de temperatura efectiva y gravedad superficial se calculan con la fotometría uvbyβ. Las abundancias se calculan usando WIDTH9 y SYNTHE. Los resultados se comparan análisis realizados por los autores usando espectros obtenidos con el espectrógrado REOSC del CASLEO, el espectrógrafo echelle del Telescopio Anglo-Australiano y el espectrógrafo Coudé del Dominion Astrophysical Observatory.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CALIFA color/metallicity gradients connections (Marino+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sanchez, S. F.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Cardiel, N.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Pascual, S.; Vilchez, J.; Kehrig, C.; Molla, M.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Catalan-Torrecilla, C.; Florido, E.; Perez, I.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Ellis, S.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Gonzalez Delgado, R. M.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Galbany, L.; Zibetti, S.; Cortijo, C.; Kalinova, V.; Mast, D.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Papaderos, P.; Walcher, C. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2016-03-01

    We have selected the 350 galaxies observed by the CALIFA survey (Sanchez et al., 2012A&A...538A...8S) at the CAHA 3.5m telescope with Potsdam Multi Aperture Spectrograph (PMAS) in the PPak mode and processed by the CALIFA v1.5 pipeline up to September 2014. The SDSS g' and r' SB and (g'-r') color profiles were derived using the DR10 data products, in particular, we used the swarp mosaicking code (Ahn et al., 2014ApJS..211...17A). We obtain spectroscopic information for ~15130 HII regions (or complexes) from our 324 CALIFA data cubes using HII explorer. (2 data files).

  3. The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM)

    Cancer.gov

    The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM) was formed to promote international, multidisciplinary collaborations to advance our understanding of the etiology and outcomes of kidney cancer.

  4. Characterization of the effector cells in Con A-induced cytotoxicity against HEp 2 tumour targets.

    PubMed

    Pócsik, E; González-Cabello, R; Benedek, K; Perl, A; Láng, I; Gergely, P

    1983-01-01

    Con A-induced cytotoxic activity of human lymphocyte subpopulations obtained by cell fractionation procedures was studied in a test system using human epipharynx carcinoma cells (HEp 2) as targets. Only T lymphocytes were cytotoxic, non-T cells exerted no cytotoxic activity, but enhanced the adherence of the tumour cells. Tnon-G lymphocytes (Fc-receptor negative T cells) were more active than TG cells (Fc-receptor-positive T cells) in mediating the Con A-induced cytotoxic reaction.

  5. SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230

    SciTech Connect

    DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

    2009-07-16

    The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to the basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.

  6. Pros and cons: prospective predictors of marijuana use on a college campus.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Carey, Kate B

    2013-03-01

    Marijuana use on college campuses is prevalent and associated with high rates of abuse and dependence. The Marijuana Decisional Balance (MDB) scales measure perceived pros and cons toward marijuana use. Evidence supports reliability and concurrent validity of these scales, but the predictive validity has not yet been assessed. The current study evaluated the prospective predictive validity of pros and cons scales for marijuana use, as well as explored predictive validity for marijuana problem indicators. Secondary analyses included test-retest reliability and internal consistency, to provide additional evidence of psychometric properties. A total of 149 college students (57% recent marijuana users, 77% lifetime users) participated in a baseline survey, then completed a second survey one month later. All provided data on marijuana pros and cons, as well as use status in the past month. Users at each time point reported on use frequency, problems, and disorder symptoms. In the month between assessments, 55% of the students used marijuana. Both pros and cons subscales prospectively predicted use status in the subsequent month, but not use frequency. Pros prospectively predicted marijuana problems and dependence symptoms at follow-up, and remained a significant predictor of later dependence symptoms even after controlling for baseline dependence symptoms. In contrast, pros only marginally predicted abuse. Cons did not predict problems, abuse, or dependence symptoms. Pros and cons showed strong test-retest reliability (rs = 0.80-0.85) and internal consistency (alphas = 0.92-0.95). In a college sample, pros and cons of marijuana use demonstrated stability over one month, and prospectively predicted use. Pros may also have utility in predicting problems and dependence potential on college campuses.

  7. ConA-based glucose sensing using the long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Brian; Simpson, Jonathan; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Laursen, Bo W.; Graham, Duncan; Birch, David; Coté, Gerard

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescent glucose sensing technologies have been identified as possible alternatives to current continuous glucose monitoring approaches. We have recently introduced a new, smart fluorescent ligand to overcome the traditional problems of ConA-based glucose sensors. For this assay to be translated into a continuous glucose monitoring device where both components are free in solution, the molecular weight of the smart fluorescent ligand must be increased. We have identified ovalbumin as a naturally-occurring glycoprotein that could serve as the core-component of a 2nd generation smart fluorescent ligand. It has a single asparagine residue that is capable of displaying an N-linked glycan and a similar isoelectric point to ConA. Thus, binding between ConA and ovalbumin can potentially be monovalent and sugar specific. This work is the preliminary implementation of fluorescently-labeled ovalbumin in the ConA-based assay. We conjugate the red-emitting, long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+) dye to ovalbumin, as ADOTA have many advantageous properties to track the equilibrium binding of the assay. The ADOTA-labeled ovalbumin is paired with Alexa Fluor 647-labeled ConA to create a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay that is glucose dependent. The assay responds across the physiologically relevant glucose range (0-500 mg/dL) with increasing intensity from the ADOTA-ovalbumin, showing that the strategy may allow for the translation of the smart fluorescent ligand concept into a continuous glucose monitoring device.

  8. ConTour: Data-Driven Exploration of Multi-Relational Datasets for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Partl, Christian; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Strobelt, Hendrik; Wassermann, Anne-Mai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Large scale data analysis is nowadays a crucial part of drug discovery. Biologists and chemists need to quickly explore and evaluate potentially effective yet safe compounds based on many datasets that are in relationship with each other. However, there is a lack of tools that support them in these processes. To remedy this, we developed ConTour, an interactive visual analytics technique that enables the exploration of these complex, multi-relational datasets. At its core ConTour lists all items of each dataset in a column. Relationships between the columns are revealed through interaction: selecting one or multiple items in one column highlights and re-sorts the items in other columns. Filters based on relationships enable drilling down into the large data space. To identify interesting items in the first place, ConTour employs advanced sorting strategies, including strategies based on connectivity strength and uniqueness, as well as sorting based on item attributes. ConTour also introduces interactive nesting of columns, a powerful method to show the related items of a child column for each item in the parent column. Within the columns, ConTour shows rich attribute data about the items as well as information about the connection strengths to other datasets. Finally, ConTour provides a number of detail views, which can show items from multiple datasets and their associated data at the same time. We demonstrate the utility of our system in case studies conducted with a team of chemical biologists, who investigate the effects of chemical compounds on cells and need to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  9. Soluciones analiticas AL problema de jets con velocidad de eyeccion variable EN EL tiempo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, J.; Raga, A. C.; D'Alessio, P.

    1998-11-01

    Se presenta un nuevo metodo que permite resolver de manera exacta y analitica las ecuaciones que describen un jet hipersonico con velocidad de eyeccion variable en el tiempo. El metodo se basa en consideraciones sencillas de conservacion de momento para las superficies de trabajo que se forman en el interior del jet. Como ejemplo, se presentan soluciones para jets con variacion sinusoidal en la velocidad de eyeccion, y tambien para el caso de un incremento lineal en el tiempo. Estas soluciones analiticas tienen una clara aplicacion en la interpretacion de las observaciones de jets asociados a objetos Herbig-Haro.

  10. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  11. Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''PittCon'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...

  12. "Con todo mi corazón": Mentoring Latinas in Educational Leadership Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Mariela A.

    2016-01-01

    Personal narrative essays were used to analyze the experiences of four Latina doctoral students who completed their first year in an educational leadership doctoral program in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) in the southwestern U.S. Four themes emerged from their "testimonios" 1) "Con todo el corazón"; 2) "Somos como…

  13. End-User Use of Data Base Query Language: Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholes, Walter

    1988-01-01

    Man-machine interface, the concept of a computer "query," a review of database technology, and a description of the use of query languages at Brigham Young University are discussed. The pros and cons of end-user use of database query languages are explored. (Author/MLW)

  14. Impact of the ConRed program on different cyberbulling roles.

    PubMed

    Del Rey, Rosario; Casas, José A; Ortega, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results from an evaluation of the ConRed cyberbullying intervention program. The program's impacts were separately determined for the different roles within cyberbullying that students can take, i.e., cyber-victims, cyber-bullies, cyber-bully/victims, and bystanders. The ConRed program is a theory-driven program designed to prevent cyberbullying and improve cyberbullying coping skills. It involves students, teachers, and families. During a 3-month period, external experts conducted eight training sessions with students, two with teachers and one with families. ConRed was evaluated through a quasi-experimental design, in which students from three secondary schools were separated into experimental and control groups. The sample comprised 875 students, aged between 11 and 19 years. More students (n = 586) were allocated to the experimental groups at the specific insistence of the management of all schools; the remainder (n = 289) formed the control. Repeated measures MANOVA showed that cyber victims, cyber aggressors and cyberbully/victims reduced their involvement in cyberbullying. Moreover, cyber-victims and bystanders adjusted their perceptions about their control of personal information on the Internet, and cyber aggressors and bystanders reduced their Internet dependence. The ConRed program had stronger effects on male participants, especially in heightening their affective empathy.

  15. Are You Ready to Go Digital?: The Pros and Cons of Electronic Portfolio Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing need for educators to have professional portfolios, which are considered to be authentic tools for evaluating the knowledge, skill, beliefs and attitudes of prospective educators. Electronic portfolios are gaining in popularity and their relative pros and cons are examined.

  16. Mandated Mental Health Insurance: A Complex Case of Pros and Cons. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    The pros and cons of state laws mandating mental health insurance are discussed in this report. The history of a 1985 Supreme Court case which held that states could mandate mental health benefits introduces the report. In an overview of the issue, the long-standing argument between the insurance industry and the mental health establishment is…

  17. ConMap: Investigating New Computer-Based Approaches to Assessing Conceptual Knowledge Structure in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Ian D.

    There is a growing consensus among educational researchers that traditional problem-based assessments are not effective tools for diagnosing a student's knowledge state and for guiding pedagogical intervention, and that new tools grounded in the results of cognitive science research are needed. The ConMap ("Conceptual Mapping") project, described…

  18. The Con Edison Emergency Child Care Plan for Management Employees: Summary Plan Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consolidated Edison Co., Brooklyn, NY.

    This summary plan description offers guidelines for participation in a pilot program that provides short-term emergency care for children of Con Edison managers who are under 13 years old. The plan offers professional, in-home child care that can be used when usual arrangements have collapsed. The summary plan description addresses the following…

  19. A National Look at Postmodernism's Pros and Cons in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsell, Rhodena

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to take a look at the pros and cons of postmodernism. It is imperative for administrators to closely examine educational theories and practices prior to instituting changes. The ability to read and digest challenging material keeps one informed and prepared to lead effectively. This paper will list the pros and cons…

  20. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5-cm-long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10-20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90-95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2-3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA, USA) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-to-vacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer.

  1. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5 cm long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10–20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90–95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2–3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-tovacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer. PMID:25667060

  2. ConMap - a new spatial data mining framework for terrain based digital soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, T.; Schmidt, K.; Scholten, T.

    2009-04-01

    In this talk, we present a new digital terrain analysis framework for digital soil mapping based on spatial data mining, referred to as the contextual elevation mapping (ConMap). Aiming at integrating different scales, which can be important at landscape scale level due to interrelations of topo- and climofunctions, it comprises local surface function approximations in terms of standard local terrain attributes as well as the incorporation of geomorphic arrangements within larger neighborhoods. In contrast to common digital terrain analysis of deriving multiple terrain attributes, ConMap is based on elevation differences from the center pixel to each pixel in a local neighborhood. These differences are then used as predictors in machine learning approaches such as Random Forests. Thus, it is not necessary to choose a specific set of terrain attributes. Additionally, possibly unknown surface functions can be taken into account, as well as larger geomorphic settings. We applied and validated the framework by predicting topsoil silt content for an area of 1150 km2 in Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse, Germany, based on 342 samples, a 20 m resolution DEM, and neighborhood sizes up to 12 km. Cross-validation R2 values increase from 0.15 for standard digital terrain analysis to 0.61 using ConMap. This effect is due to a spatial trend in the data. As ConMap is able to map this trend and as it is based on the pedological concept of integrating scales it can be seen as a new entry to spatial prediction approaches such as Kriging or Geographically Weighted Regression. We conclude that ConMap shows a great potential for future digital soil mapping studies.

  3. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The operational goal of the ATD-1 ConOps is to enable aircraft, using their onboard FMS capabilities, to fly Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from cruise to the runway threshold at a high-density airport, at a high throughput rate, using primarily speed control to maintain in-trail separation and the arrival schedule. The three technologies in the ATD-1 ConOps achieve this by calculating a precise arrival schedule, using controller decision support tools to provide terminal controllers with speeds for aircraft to fly to meet times at a particular meter points, and onboard software providing flight crews with speeds for the aircraft to fly to achieve a particular spacing behind preceding aircraft.

  4. BeadCons: detection of nucleic acid sequences by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Horejsh, Douglas; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2005-11-01

    Molecular beacons are single-stranded nucleic acid structures with a terminal fluorophore and a distal, terminal quencher. These molecules are typically used in real-time PCR assays, but have also been conjugated with solid matrices. This unit describes protocols related to molecular beacon-conjugated beads (BeadCons), whose specific hybridization with complementary target sequences can be resolved by cytometry. Assay sensitivity is achieved through the concentration of fluorescence signal on discrete particles. By using molecular beacons with different fluorophores and microspheres of different sizes, it is possible to construct a fluid array system with each bead corresponding to a specific target nucleic acid. Methods are presented for the design, construction, and use of BeadCons for the specific, multiplexed detection of unlabeled nucleic acids in solution. The use of bead-based detection methods will likely lead to the design of new multiplex molecular diagnostic tools.

  5. NASA KSC/AFRL Reusable Booster System (RBS) Concept of Operations (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeno, Dnany; Mosteller, Ted; McCleskey, Carey; Jhnson, Robert; Hopkins, Jason; Miller, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study and findings of the study on the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for Reusable Booster System (RBS) centering on rapid turnaround and launch of a two-stage partially reusable payload delivery system (i.e., 8 hours between launches). The study was to develop rapid ground processing (aircraft like concepts) and identify areas for follow-on study, technology needs, and proof-of-concept demonstrations.

  6. The pros and cons of endovascular and open surgical treatments for patients with acute limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Branco, B C; Montero-Baker, M F; Mills, J L

    2015-06-01

    The present review addresses the pros and cons of the current, wide variety of therapeutic options available for the treatment of acute limb ischemia (ALI). Despite five prospective randomized controlled trials comparing catheter directed thrombolysis and open surgical revascularization, no single treatment strategy can yet be considered optimal for patients with ALI. This report includes 20 years of published data to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of thrombolytic agents and adjunctive endovascular techniques when compared to open surgical revascularization.

  7. Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y δ =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

  8. Simulaciones numéricas hidrodinámicas con formación estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, M. G.; Merchan, M.; García Lambas, D.

    Se realizan simulaciones numéricas cosmológicas utilizando el código HYDRA modificado para incluir formación estelar. A partir de éstas, se estiman diferentes parámetros observacionales como la relación Tully- Fisher, función de luminosidad y la tasa de formación estelar en función del redshift. Estos resultados son comparados con datos observacionales de diferentes autores.

  9. Extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion: Do the cons outweigh the pros?

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Major factors prompted the development of minimally invasive (MIS) extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF; NuVasive Inc., San Diego, CA, USE) for the thoracic/lumbar spine. These include providing interbody stabilization and indirect neural decompression while avoiding major visceral/vessel injury as seen with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and to avert trauma to paraspinal muscles/facet joints found with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), and posterior-lateral fusion techniques (PLF). Although anticipated pros of MIS XLIF included reduced blood loss, operative time, and length of stay (LOS), they also included, higher fusion, and lower infection rates. Unanticipated cons, however, included increased morbidity/mortality rates. Methods: We assessed the pros and cons (e.g., risks, complications, comparable value/superiority/inferiority, morbidity/mortality) of MIS XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Results: Pros of XLIF included various biomechanical and technical surgical advantages, along with multiple cons vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. For example, XLIF correlated with a considerably higher frequency of major neurological deficits vs. other constructs; plexus injuries 13.28%, sensory deficits 0–75% (permanent in 62.5%), motor deficits 0.7–33.6%, and anterior thigh pain 12.5–25%. XLIF also disproportionately contributed to other major morbidity/mortality; sympathectomy, major vascular injuries (some life-ending others life-threatening), bowel perforations, and seromas. Furthermore, multiple studies documented no superiority, and the potential inferiority of XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Conclusion: Reviewing the pros of XLIF (e.g. radiographic, technical, biomechanical) vs. the cons (inferiority, increased morbidity/mortality) vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF, we question whether XLIF should remain part of the lumbar spinal surgical armamentarium. PMID:27843688

  10. Mound-ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} feasibility study. Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    A portion of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal paralleling the Greater Miami River receives the runoff and storm-water discharge from Mound Laboratory. In 1969, a low-level plutonium leak contaminated sediment as far away as 1.5 mi from the Mound site along the old canal system. An estimated one million cubic feet of sediment requires remediation. The technology being evaluated for the remediation of the low-level plutonium-238 contamination of the sediment involves two processes: washing the sediments with ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution to dissolve the contaminant, followed by extraction of the solution and processing with the MAG*SEP{sup SM} process to concentrate the contaminant and allow reuse of the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution. The processes are being optimized for pilot-scale and field demonstration. Phase 2 of the project primarily involved identification at the laboratory scale of the optimal ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} formulation, identification of the ion-exchanger and MAG*SEP{sup SM} particles, verification of the plutonium mobility in the treated soil, and evaluation of other process parameters according to a series of tasks.

  11. ConA and UEA-I lectin histochemistry of parotid gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Ana Paula V; Rego, Moacyr J B M; Cavalacanti, Carmelita L B; Carvalho, Luiz B; Beltrão, Eduardo I C

    2010-03-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) corresponds to 5-12% of all salivary gland tumours, and is classified as low, intermediate or high grade. Traditionally, immunohistochemistry was considered as the complementary tool for diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasia. Lectin histochemistry has also been increasingly used in recent years. In this work, lectins were used as histochemical markers for normal and transformed parotid glands. Biopsy specimens of 15 cases diagnosed as MEC (low, intermediate and high grade) of the parotid gland were trypsin- and methanol-H(2)O(2)-treated and incubated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated lectins, Concanavalin A (Con A-HRP) and Ulex europeus I (UEA-I-HRP). Con A stained the neoplasic cells of MEC (all grades). In high and intermediate cases, ductal cells were weakly stained by Con A. UEA-I weakly stained normal cells of the excretory duct and neoplasic cells in high grade. Neoplasic cells in intermediate grade were moderately stained and in low grade, the cell membrane was intensely stained with UEA-I. Stroma presented a direct relation between malignancy and staining intensity for UEA-I. The results indicated that lectin histochemistry distinguished the cell biology among histological grades of MEC.

  12. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-07-08

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree.

  13. What are the pros and cons of electronically monitoring inhaler use in asthma? A multistakeholder perspective

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sam; Lang, Alexandra; Sharples, Sarah; Shaw, Dominick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) are the optimal method for collecting objective data on inhaler use in asthma. Recent research has investigated the attitudes of patients with asthma towards these devices. However, no research to date has formally considered the opinions of stakeholders and decision-makers in asthma care. These individuals have important clinical requirements that need to be taken into account if EMDs are to be successfully provisioned, making collecting their opinions on the key barriers facing these devices a valuable process. Methods Three rounds of surveys in a Delphi format were used to assess the most important pros and cons of EMDs for asthma care in a sample of 31 stakeholders which included healthcare professionals and members of clinical commissioning groups. Results The respondents identified 29 pros and 32 cons. Pros that were rated as most important included new visual evidence to aid clinical discussions with a patient and an increase in patient involvement and motivation. The cons that were rated as most important included a need for more clinical evidence of the effectiveness of EMDs, as well as better clarity over who has responsibilities in managing, interpreting and discussing data with a patient. Conclusions The research provides a guide for EMD developers by highlighting where these devices may provide the most benefit as well as prioritising the key issues that need addressing if they are to be used effectively in everyday asthma care. PMID:27933181

  14. Nuevas observaciones de 3C10 con el VLA*: estudio de la expansión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynoso, E. M.; Moffett, D. A.:; Dubner, G. M.; Giacani, E. B.; Reynolds, S. P.; Goss, W. M.; Dickel, J.

    Se presentan nuevos resultados sobre la expansión del remanente de la supernova de Tycho a lo largo de un intervalo de 10.9 años, comparando nuevas observaciones tomadas con el VLA a 1375 y 1635 MHz durante 1994 y 1995, con observaciones previas realizadas entre 1983 y 1984 (Dickel y col. ~1991 AJ 101, 2151), usando las mismas configuraciones, anchos de banda, calibradores y tiempos de integración. El coeficiente de expansión se calcula para sectores radiales de 4o de ancho cada uno, ajustando la correlación cruzada de las derivadas de los perfiles promedio para cada época. A partir de la expansión medida, se estima el índice (parámetro de expansión) de la ley potencial R∝ tm como m≡ d ln R/d ln t . Este valor se compara con coeficientes teóricos para diferentes fases evolutivas de remanentes de supernova.

  15. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial.

  16. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  17. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  18. The Transcription Factor Con7-1 Is a Master Regulator of Morphogenesis and Virulence in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the essential role of morphogenetic regulation in Fusarium oxysporum pathogenesis, including processes such as cell-wall biogenesis, cell division, and differentiation of infection-like structures. We identified three F. oxysporum genes encoding predicted transcription factors showing significant identities to Magnaporthe oryzae Con7p, Con7-1, plus two identical copies of Con7-2. Targeted deletion of con7-1 produced nonpathogenic mutants with altered morphogenesis, including defects in cell wall structure, polar growth, hyphal branching, and conidiation. By contrast, simultaneous inactivation of both con7-2 copies caused no detectable defects in the resulting mutants. Comparative microarray-based gene expression analysis indicated that Con7-1 modulates the expression of a large number of genes involved in different biological functions, including host-pathogen interactions, morphogenesis and development, signal perception and transduction, transcriptional regulation, and primary and secondary metabolism. Taken together, our results point to Con7-1 as general regulator of morphogenesis and virulence in F. oxysporum.

  19. Wildland Fire Induced Heating of Dome 375 Perma-Con®

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, Eugene Michael

    2016-08-09

    AET-1 was tasked by ADEM with determining the temperature rise in the drum contents of drums stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® at TA-54 given a wildland fire. The wildland fire causes radiative and convective heating on the Perma-Con® exterior. The wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heating environment were provided to AET-1 by EES-16. If the calculated temperature rise results in a drum content temperature over 40 °C, then ADEM desires a design solution to ensure the peak temperature remains below 40 °C. An axi-symmetric FE simulation was completed to determine the peak temperature of the contents of a drum stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® during a wildland fire event. Three wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heat transfer were provided by EES-16 and were inputs for the FE simulation. The maximum drum content temperature reached was found to be 110 °C while using inputs from the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx time history input and not including the SWB in the model. Including the SWB in the results in a peak drum content temperature of 61 °C for the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx inputs. EES-16 decided that by using fuel mitigation efforts, such as mowing the grass and shrubs near the Perma-Con® they could reduce the shrub/grass fuel loading near the Perma-Con® from 1.46 kg/m2 to 0.146 kg/m2 and by using a less conservative fuel loading for the debris field inside the Dome 375 perimeter, reducing it from 0.58 kg/m2 to 0.058 kg/m2 in their model. They also greatly increased the resolution of their radiation model and increased the accuracy of their model’s required convergence value. Using this refined input the maximum drum content temperature was found to be 28 °C with no SWB present in the model. Additionally, this refined input model was modified to include worst case emissivity values for the concrete, drum and Perma-Con® interior, along with adding a

  20. Con_A-carbone nanotube conjugate with short wave near-infrared laser ablation for tumor therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan-Yao; Peng, Ching-An; Tang, Ming-Jer; Reindhart, Kit; Szu, Harold H.

    2009-04-01

    Using the characteristics of T cell mitogen called lectin protein from the jack-beam Canavalia ensiformis Concanavalin A (Con_A) with dual activities, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation, we have shown it has a therapeutic effect on hepatoma. Injection of Con_A can eradicate the established malign tumor, because Con_A can induce tumor cell autophagic, cell-programmed death, as well as activate the effector T cells. Combined, in this paper, with the absorption exceeding the Carbon NanoTube (CNT) band-gap (ɛbg=~1/CNT diameter) with an active short wave near-infrared (SWIR) (1.2~1.5 micron wavelengths), which happened to be translucent to the irradiation upon animal skin, similar to that used in hospital fingertip-clamped Pulse Oxymetry. Once the Con_ACNT is guided to hepatoma cells, it is bonded and internalized into the mitochondria (MC) compartment, the cellular energy factory. Con_A has the higher specificity for tumor cells useful for targeting because of the abnormal glycosylation on tumor cells. When CNT hitch hike with Con_A, they can t together like a laser-denotable chemical missile surgically targeting at the tumor cells precisely by Con_A-guidance. We switch on SWIR laser, when the Con_A-CNT conjugated complex has been bonded and internalized to MC of malign cells and already commenced cellular programmed death. Thus, it might appear to casual readers that we have initiated an overkill, chemical drugged autophage followed with physical laser ablation, but what if we can eradicate hepatoma totally if no blue print is left behind inadvertently in case of a partial failure. We conclude that using Con_A-CNT conjugated complex targeting specifically at malign tumor cells is a novel targeted-laser-radiation therapy for tumors in mice.

  1. Lectin-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in an invertebrate model: Con A does not act as a bridge.

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, C A; Bayne, C J

    1986-01-01

    The plant lectin concanavalin A (Con A) has been used in an invertebrate model of lectin-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (LDCC). Macrophage-like cells from the susceptible host snail Biomphalaria glabrata become cytotoxic effectors when they encounter sporocysts of the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni that have been treated with Con A. The sugar alpha-methyl mannoside and rabbit anti-Con A antibodies fail to block this LDCC. Con A is effective only when the target, not the effector cell, has been exposed to it. These results constitute evidence against the molecular bridging hypothesis and support the notion that surface modulation of the target may be the stimulus that provokes cytotoxicity. Results from this invertebrate model are discussed in the context of murine T lymphocyte LDCC. PMID:3949370

  2. Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.

    Recordamos que entre el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'', el Observatorio Astronómico de Beijing y el Observatorio Astronómico de La Plata, se ha convenido en desarrollar un Proyecto de Investigación conjunto, para la observación sistemática de estrellas en el Hemisferio Sur, con el objeto de la elaboración de un Catálogo Estelar Global utilizando un Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing, que ha sido usado con éxito en la República de China. En este trabajo se presenta el Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur, derivado de las observaciones realizadas con el PAII instalado en el OAFA, durante el períiodo Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. En este lapso se han observado mas de 400000 pasajes estelares, obteniéndose las correcciones Δ α y Δ δ de 5241 estrellas del FK4, FK5, FK5 Ext., SRS, CAMC y GC. Las precisiones medias son del orden de ± 3,2 ms en ascensión recta y ±0."057 en declinación. Rango de magnitudes : 2,0 a 11,5 Rango de declinaciones : -3o a -60o Epoca Media : 1994.9 Se analizan los residuos en función de la magnitud y tipo espectral, correcciones de grupo y frecuencia de distribución Δ α y Δ δ.

  3. A phase 2 trial of long-acting TransCon growth hormone in adult GH deficiency.

    PubMed

    Höybye, Charlotte; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Ferone, Diego; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Gilfoyle, David; Christoffersen, Eva Dam; Mortensen, Eva; Leff, Jonathan A; Beckert, Michael

    2017-04-01

    TransCon growth hormone is a sustained-release human growth hormone prodrug under development in which unmodified growth hormone is transiently linked to a carrier molecule. It is intended as an alternative to daily growth hormone in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. This was a multi-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial designed to compare the safety (including tolerability and immunogenicity), pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of three doses of weekly TransCon GH to daily growth hormone (Omnitrope). Thirty-seven adult males and females diagnosed with adult growth hormone deficiency and stable on growth hormone replacement therapy for at least 3 months were, following a wash-out period, randomized (regardless of their pre-study dose) to one of three TransCon GH doses (0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 mg GH/kg/week) or Omnitrope 0.04 mg GH/kg/week (divided into 7 equal daily doses) for 4 weeks. Main outcomes evaluated were adverse events, immunogenicity and growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. TransCon GH was well tolerated; fatigue and headache were the most frequent drug-related adverse events and reported in all groups. No lipoatrophy or nodule formation was reported. No anti-growth hormone-binding antibodies were detected. TransCon GH demonstrated a linear, dose-dependent increase in growth hormone exposure without accumulation. Growth hormone maximum serum concentration and insulin-like growth factor 1 exposure were similar after TransCon GH or Omnitrope administered at comparable doses. The results suggest that long-acting TransCon GH has a profile similar to daily growth hormone but with a more convenient dosing regimen. These findings support further TransCon GH development.

  4. The pros and cons about the digital recording of Intangible Cultural Heritage and some strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Intangible Cultural Heritage (referred to as ICH), whose fundamental nature different from the tangible cultural heritage is "Intangible", and the related physical presence of the heritage is not the core content. Digital means have irreplaceable advantages in recording intangible and dynamic ICH resources, while it also needs flexible and rigorous recording means as a support, thus striving to maximize resources recording and protection. This article will focus on the pros and cons about the digital recording of ICH, and preliminarily discuss some strategies used in the process of recording.

  5. La interacción de estrellas WN con el medio circundante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Cappa, C.; Rizzo, J. R.; Cichovolski, S.

    Se presentan resultados preliminares de un estudio de la distribución del hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas WR de la serie del nitrógeno. Los datos observacionales de la línea de 21 cm provienen de un relevamineto de baja resolución angular (36'), así como de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas con el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de H I en expansión vinculadas a las estrellas que componen la muestra.

  6. On application of optimal control to SEIR normalized models: Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    de Pinho, Maria do Rosario; Nogueira, Filipa Nunes

    2017-02-01

    In this work we normalize a SEIR model that incorporates exponential natural birth and death, as well as disease-caused death. We use optimal control to control by vaccination the spread of a generic infectious disease described by a normalized model with L1 cost. We discuss the pros and cons of SEIR normalized models when compared with classical models when optimal control with L1 costs are considered. Our discussion highlights the role of the cost. Additionally, we partially validate our numerical solutions for our optimal control problem with normalized models using the Maximum Principle.

  7. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Westmark, Cara J

    2016-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition.

  8. Nano anti-cancer drugs: pros and cons and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran

    2011-02-01

    For last one decade, scientists are working for developing nano anti-cancer drugs with claim of ideal ones due to their targeted chemotherapic nature. These drugs have many beneficial properties such as targeted drug delivery and gene therapy modalities with minimum side effects. This article describes pros and cons and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. Efforts have been made to address importance, special features, toxicities (general, blood identities, immune system and environmental) and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. It was concluded that nano anti-cancer drugs may be magic bullet drugs for cancer treatment leading to bright future of the whole world.

  9. Highlights from day three of the EuroSciCon 2015 Sports Science Summit

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Amit; McGregor, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This EuroSciCon Sports Science Summit represented a significant gathering of leading professionals in the field of sports science. The conference was held on 13–15 January 2015 at the O2 arena, London, UK. The chairman on the third day was Mr Greg Robertson, a specialist trainee Orthopedic surgeon from Edinburgh. The conference attracted over 80 attendants from all over the world, with 32 presentations from invited speakers and peer-reviewed submissions. This meeting report provides a summary of the best abstracts from the conference. PMID:28031889

  10. Confrontando teorías físicas con la Cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Hay numerosas teorías físicas que no pueden contrastarse con el experimento en laboratorio y eso las hace poco interesantes como descripción de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, algunas de estas teorías tienen consecuencias cosmológicas observables y se abre la posibilidad de contrastación a través de la observación. Se discuten las observaciones capaces de poner a prueba tales teorías y se examinan ejemplos de teorías limitadas por la observación.

  11. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara J.

    2017-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition. PMID:28149839

  12. The pros and cons of risk communication: A project manager`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, S.D.

    1995-12-31

    Communicating risk is in itself a risky, yet essential, part of any successful hazardous waste project`s community relations strategy. Essential, because no project requiring public involvement can achieve success without effective communication of technical data and associated risks. Risky, because the stakes are high, the public and media are often contentious, and their science and engineering are difficult to relate to non-technical audiences. Given that communicating project risks cannot be avoided, or are avoided at one`s own peril, project managers lacking mastery of communication skills can build winning strategies by heeding the following ``pros`` and ``cons`` of risk communication.

  13. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  14. RETOS EN LA INTERVENCIÓN CON ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS QUE MANIFIESTAN COMPORTAMIENTO SUICIDA*

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    Presentamos un estudio de caso de una adolescente puertorriqueña con comportamiento suicida. Esta comenzó una Terapia Socio Cognitivo-Conductual para el Comportamiento Suicida (TSCC-CS) de tipo ambulatorio luego de una hospitalización por intento suicida. La TSCC-CS incorpora una perspectiva ecológica y de desarrollo a la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Inicialmente mostró baja autoestima y severos síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. Al finalizar el tratamiento, manifestó un cambio significativo en su sintomatología clínica y evidenció una mejoría en sus destrezas de manejo. No presentó ideas suicidas durante meses previos, ni durante el seguimiento. El análisis de este caso permitió realizar cambios en el protocolo de tratamiento, particularmente en las sesiones de familia y de comunicación con el fin de aumentar la viabilidad del tratamiento. PMID:26702337

  15. Targeting of proConA to the plant vacuole depends on its nine amino-acid C-terminal propeptide.

    PubMed

    Saint-Jore-Dupas, Claude; Claude, Saint-Jore-Dupas; Gilbert, Marie-Agnès; Marie-Agnès, Gilbert; Ramis, Catalina; Catalina, Ramis; Paris, Nadine; Nadine, Paris; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Marie-Christine, Kiefer-Meyer; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Jean-Marc, Neuhaus; Faye, Loïc; Loïc, Faye; Gomord, Véronique; Véronique, Gomord

    2005-10-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA) is a well characterized and extensively used lectin accumulated in the protein bodies of jack bean cotyledons. ConA is synthesized as an inactive precursor proConA. The maturation of inactive proConA into biologically active ConA is a complex process including the removal of an internal glycopeptide and a C-terminal propeptide (CTPP), followed by a head-to-tail ligation of the two largest polypeptides. The cDNA encoding proConA was cloned and expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells. ProConA was slowly transported to the vacuole where its maturation into ConA was similar to that in jack bean cotyledons, apart from an incomplete final ligation. To investigate the role of the nine amino acid CTPP, a truncated form lacking the propeptide (proConADelta9) was expressed in BY-2 cells. In contrast to proConA, proConADelta9 was rapidly chased out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and secreted into the culture medium. The CTPP was then fused to the C-terminal end of a secreted form of green fluorescent protein (secGFP). When expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells and leaf protoplasts, the chimaeric protein was located in the vacuole whereas secGFP was located in the culture medium and in the vacuole. Altogether, our results show we have isolated a new C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant.

  16. Overcoming the aggregation problem: A new type of fluorescent ligand for ConA-based glucose sensing

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Brian M.; Li, Mingchien; Locke, Andrea K.; Birch, David J.S.; Vigh, Gyula; Coté, Gerard L.

    2016-01-01

    Competitive binding assays based on the lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) have displayed significant potential to serve in continuous glucose monitoring applications. However, to date, this type of fluorescent, affinity-based assay has yet to show the stable, glucose predictive capabilities that are required for such an application. This instability has been associated with the extensive crosslinking between traditionally-used fluorescent ligands (presenting multiple low-affinity moieties) and ConA (presenting multiple binding sites) in free solution. The work herein introduces the design and synthesis of a new type of fluorescent ligand that can avoid this aggregation and allow the assay to be sensitive across the physiologically relevant glucose concentration range. This fluorescent ligand (APTS–MT) presents a single high-affinity trimannose moiety that is recognized by ConA’s full binding site and a fluorophore that can effectively track the ligand’s equilibrium binding via fluorescent anisotropy. This is confirmed by comparing its measured fluorescent lifetime to experimentally-determined rotational correlation lifetimes of the free and bound populations. Using an assay comprised of 200 nM APTS–MT and 1 μM ConA, the fluorescence anisotropy capably tracks the concentration of monosaccharides that are known to bind to ConA’s primary binding site, and the assay displays a MARD of 6.5% across physiologically relevant glucose concentrations. Ultimately, this rationally-designed fluorescent ligand can facilitate the realization of the full potential of ConA-based glucose sensing assays and provide the basis for a new set of competing ligands to be paired with ConA. PMID:25058939

  17. Overcoming the aggregation problem: a new type of fluorescent ligand for ConA-based glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Brian M; Li, Mingchien; Locke, Andrea K; Birch, David J S; Vigh, Gyula; Coté, Gerard L

    2015-01-15

    Competitive binding assays based on the lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) have displayed significant potential to serve in continuous glucose monitoring applications. However, to date, this type of fluorescent, affinity-based assay has yet to show the stable, glucose predictive capabilities that are required for such an application. This instability has been associated with the extensive crosslinking between traditionally-used fluorescent ligands (presenting multiple low-affinity moieties) and ConA (presenting multiple binding sites) in free solution. The work herein introduces the design and synthesis of a new type of fluorescent ligand that can avoid this aggregation and allow the assay to be sensitive across the physiologically relevant glucose concentration range. This fluorescent ligand (APTS-MT) presents a single high-affinity trimannose moiety that is recognized by ConA's full binding site and a fluorophore that can effectively track the ligand's equilibrium binding via fluorescent anisotropy. This is confirmed by comparing its measured fluorescent lifetime to experimentally-determined rotational correlation lifetimes of the free and bound populations. Using an assay comprised of 200 nM APTS-MT and 1 µM ConA, the fluorescence anisotropy capably tracks the concentration of monosaccharides that are known to bind to ConA's primary binding site, and the assay displays a MARD of 6.5% across physiologically relevant glucose concentrations. Ultimately, this rationally-designed fluorescent ligand can facilitate the realization of the full potential of ConA-based glucose sensing assays and provide the basis for a new set of competing ligands to be paired with ConA.

  18. Bioenergetics and diving activity of internesting leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea at Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Bryan P; Williams, Cassondra L; Paladino, Frank V; Morreale, Stephen J; Lindstrom, R Todd; Spotila, James R

    2005-10-01

    Physiology, environment and life history demands interact to influence marine turtle bioenergetics and activity. However, metabolism and diving behavior of free-swimming marine turtles have not been measured simultaneously. Using doubly labeled water, we obtained the first field metabolic rates (FMRs; 0.20-0.74 W kg(-1)) and water fluxes (16-30% TBW day(-1), where TBW=total body water) for free-ranging marine turtles and combined these data with dive information from electronic archival tags to investigate the bioenergetics and diving activity of reproductive adult female leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea. Mean dive durations (7.8+/-2.4 min (+/-1 s.d.), bottom times (2.7+/-0.8 min), and percentage of time spent in water temperatures (Tw) < or =24 degrees C (9.5+/-5.7%) increased with increasing mean maximum dive depths (22.6+/-7.1 m; all P< or =0.001). The FMRs increased with longer mean dive durations, bottom times and surface intervals and increased time spent in Tw< or =24 degrees C (all r2> or =0.99). This suggests that low FMRs and activity levels, combined with shuttling between different water temperatures, could allow leatherbacks to avoid overheating while in warm tropical waters. Additionally, internesting leatherback dive durations were consistently shorter than aerobic dive limits calculated from our FMRs (11.7-44.3 min). Our results indicate that internesting female leatherbacks maintained low FMRs and activity levels, thereby spending relatively little energy while active at sea. Future studies should incorporate data on metabolic rate, dive patterns, water temperatures, and body temperatures to develop further the relationship between physiological and life history demands and marine turtle bioenergetics and activity.

  19. Contribution of the Kallikrein/Kinin System to the Mediation of ConA-Induced Inflammatory Ascites.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2016-03-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of concanavalin A (ConA, 25 mg/kg b.w.), a cell-binding plant lectin was used for inducing inflammatory ascites, and potential inhibitors were tested in 1 h and 2.5 h experiments, i.e. still before the major influx of leucocytes. At the end of the experiment the peritoneal fluid was collected and measured. The ConA-induced ascites was significantly (p<0.01) and dose-dependently inhibited by icatibant (HOE-140), a synthetic polypeptide antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor protein also had significant (p<0.01), but less marked inhibitory effect. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, and atropine methylnitrate, an anticholinergic compound, were ineffective. It is concluded, that the kallikrein/kinin system contributes to the mediation of the ConA-induced ascites by increasing subperitoneal vascular permeability, independent of the eventual vasodilation produced by NO. It is known, that membrane glycoproteins are aggregated by the tetravalent ConA and the resulting distortion of membrane structure may explain the activation of the labile prekallikrein. Complete inhibition of the ConA-induced ascites could not be achieved by aprotinin or icatibant, which indicates the involvement of additional mediators.

  20. Comparison of phenotypic methods in predicting methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) from animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifan; Wang, Xiaogang; LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Zervos, Marcus; Bhargava, Kanika

    2011-02-01

    Phenotypic detection of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) of animal origin has been challenging due to the heterogeneous expression of mecA. To compare different phenotypic methods in predicting the mecA presence in CoNS, a total of 87 CoNS isolates from agricultural animals were analyzed in this study by agar dilution, disk diffusion, and broth microdilution. mecA was present in 81 CoNS isolates. Broth microdilution demonstrated the highest sensitivity of 100% in predicting the mecA presence, followed by 72.8% by agar dilution and 70.4% by disk diffusion. The results indicate that broth microdilution may be more suitable for predicting the presence of mecA in CoNS from animals than the other two methods, although staphylococcal species may also be a factor affecting the sensitivities of the methods as the top three staphylococcal species in this study were Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus sciuri, and Staphylococcus xylosus (a total of 75 of 87).

  1. Multipotent (adult) and pluripotent stem cells for heart regeneration: what are the pros and cons?

    PubMed

    Liao, Song-Yan; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2013-12-24

    Heart failure after myocardial infarction is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Existing medical and interventional therapies can only reduce the loss of cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction but are unable to replenish the permanent loss of cardiomyocytes after the insult, which contributes to progressive pathological left ventricular remodeling and progressive heart failure. As a result, cell-based therapies using multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells) have been explored as potential therapeutic approaches to restore cardiac function in heart failure. Nevertheless, the optimal cell type with the best therapeutic efficacy and safety for heart regeneration is still unknown. In this review, the potential pros and cons of different types of multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells that have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies are reviewed, and the future perspective of stem cell-based therapy for heart regeneration is discussed.

  2. From in vitro Experiments to in vivo and Clinical Studies; Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Manayi, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical investigators use different methods including experimental animals, tissue, and cell cultures as well as computational simulations and clinical studies finding the ways to treat human diseases and disorders. All the mentioned procedures have their own advantages and disadvantages. For instance although animal models provide some drawbacks like difference in biokinetics parameters or extrapolation of results to human, they are more reliable than in vitro tests. The disadvantage of the in vitro procedures is that they are mostly performed on cancerous cell lines that have a substantially abnormal function. Furthermore, although in vitro models are fruitfully used in biological fields, finding an end point, the initial aim of chemical attack, and extrapolation of the effects to the human are some real weaknesses. Absence of biokinetics in in vitro methods may lead to a misinterpretation of the data. The present review has criticized the pros and cons of both methods, especially in the fields of pharmacology, toxicology, and medical sciences.

  3. What to consider when regulating electronic cigarettes: Pros, cons and unintended consequences.

    PubMed

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Saitta, Daniela; Sweanor, David; Polosa, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    Many public health experts, medical research societies, large health organizations and policy makers have expressed concerns about the increased popularity of electronic cigarettes and have pushed for more restrictive measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products either as medicines or as tobacco products. But these concerns have never been adequately qualified nor quantified. Without judicious assessment and thorough evaluation, regulations may have unintended consequences that can do more damage than good in public health terms. In this article, we will appraise the existing prominent regulatory frameworks for e-cigarettes, namely, general consumer product, medicinal product and tobacco product regulation, to highlight their pros and cons. Moreover, we provide concrete examples of the unintended consequences which may arise from inappropriate regulatory action.

  4. Pros and cons of healthcare information technology implementation: the pros win.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Roxana

    2006-01-01

    Countless studies and investigations have been performed siding either for or against the implementation of technology in the healthcare setting. This article presents both sides of this debate, with an obvious conclusion that the pros of this debate win. The practice of information technology in the medical domain lags behind its knowledge and discovery by at least 7 years. The key to closing this gap is to show, through various studies, how information technology systems provide decision support to users at the point in time when decisions are needed. What the reader will obtain from this article is that the pros for information technology implementation in healthcare settings weigh much more and have a greater effect than the cons.

  5. The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: pros and cons for pediatric and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L

    2008-01-01

    The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a research breakthrough for pediatric/adolescent health to prevent cervical cancer and related morbidity. The annual heath care cost for the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts is estimated to be more than three billion dollars a year. The new HPV vaccine has incredible potential to improve reproductive health promotion, reduce health care costs, and close health care disparity gaps. However, issues both for and against the new HPV vaccine, including mandating vaccination, high cost of the vaccine, the short duration of protection offered, and the perceived promotion of sexual activity, cause confusion. Pediatric nurses, including those in advanced practice, benefit by understanding the pros and cons of these issues in advocating for their patients.

  6. [Funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali nel disturbo dello spettro dell'autismo e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività: risultati preliminari].

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Catania, Valentina; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Di Giorgio, Rosa; Zingale, Marinella; Trubia, Grazia; Torrisi, Anna; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. I deficit delle funzioni esecutive (FE) sono frequentemente osservati nei disturbi dello spettro dell'autismo (ASD) e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività (ADHD). Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare e confrontare le funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali di bambini con ASD e ADHD, sia fra di loro che con un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Il campione è costituito da un totale di 58 soggetti, di cui 17 con ASD senza disabilità intellettiva, 18 con ADHD-manifestazione combinata e 23 con sviluppo tipico, abbinati per genere, età cronologica e livello intellettivo. Le valutazioni hanno riguardato alcune aree del funzionamento esecutivo, nello specifico pianificazione, flessibilità mentale, generatività e inibizione della risposta, che rappresentano sia le funzioni esecutive metacognitive sia quelle emozionali/motivazionali. Risultati. I risultati hanno rilevato un'ampia sovrapposizione delle disfunzioni esecutive nei due gruppi clinici con ASD e ADHD, e non sono stati indicativi della presenza di due profili realmente distinti del funzionamento esecutivo. Tuttavia, nell'ADHD è stato trovato un deficit più severo nell'inibizione della risposta prepotente (funzione emozionale/motivazionale). Conclusioni. I risultati del nostro studio sono parzialmente in accordo con quelli della letteratura. Ulteriori ricerche con gruppi più numerosi potranno chiarire più approfonditamente quali punti di forza e debolezza, nell'ampio spettro delle funzioni esecutive, differenzino fra loro le prestazioni di persone con ASD e ADHD.

  7. DESAFÍOS ÉTICOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CON ANIMALES, MANIPULACIÓN GENÉTICA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    En la investigación con animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en el uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y requisito previo para ensayos en humanos como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos son: no representar exactamente la condición humana como modelos, realizar pruebas de toxicidad con grave daño para los animales, alterar su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas, riesgos de la introducción de organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano, impone al ser humano la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, al estar trabajando con seres vivientes y sentientes. PMID:23338641

  8. Formación estelar en NGC 6357: viendo a través del polvo con Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, G.; Morrell, N.; Barbá, R.

    Presentamos aquí los primeros resultados de fotometría JHKs obtenidos con Flamingos I en el telescopio Gemini Sur. El mosaico comprendido por tres posiciones adyacentes tomadas a lo largo de varios semestres nos permite caracterizar la población estelar en la zona que presenta una interacción más importante entre las estrellas masivas y la nube molecular que les dió origen. Los diagramas color-magnitud nos permiten identificar numerosas fuentes con exceso infrarrojo, la mayoría de ellas imposible de detectarse en el rango óptico debido a la fuerte absorción del polvo presente en la región. Es altamente probable que la mayoría de estas fuentes con exceso sean protoestrellas, aunque es necesario realizar espectroscopía infrarroja de las mismas para confirmar su naturaleza.

  9. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good practice ORO 651 revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.H.

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy publishes a document containing UF{sub 6} handling procedures and descriptions of the approved UF{sub 6} cylinders. Since its initial publication in 1966, it has been frequently revised to provide more and better information. The principle additions to the sixth revision which will be discussed are: (1) more detail on the physical and chemical properties of UF{sub 6}; (2) cold trap description and operation; (3) cylinder emptying and filling concepts; (4) basis for cylinder fill limits; (5) short- and long-term cylinder storage; and (6) cylinder photographs and drawings showing major dimensions.

  10. Odontogenic sinusitis, oro-antral fistula and surgical repair by Bichat's fat pad: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Bravo Cordero, Gustavo; Minzer Ferrer, Simona; Fernández, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic sinusitis accounts for 10-12% of maxillary sinusitis. It occurs due to an interruption of the mucoperiosteum in response to a series of conditions, most frequently the extraction of a superior tooth. Its treatment has two bases: treating the infection and managing the oroantral fistula that perpetuates the infection. Communications smaller than 5mm can resolve spontaneously; bigger ones must be closed by a flap. Bichat's fat pad flap was first used in 1977 to close an oroantral fistula. It is a pedicled flap that has been shown to be successful, with advantages that make it the best option in oroantral fistula treatment. Its location allows easy access, minimum dissection, great versatility, good mobility, good blood supply, low rate of complications, no morbidity in the donor site, low risk of infection, shortened surgical time and fast cover by epithelium, and it leaves no visible scar, amongst other benefits. That is why we encourage the use of this technique and choose it as the best option for management of our patients.

  11. Agreement between quantitative and qualitative sensory testing of changes in oro-facial somatosensory sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Agbaje, J; De Laat, A; Constantinus, P; Svensson, P; Baad-Hansen, L

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative somatosensory testing (QualST) is a simple chairside test. It can be used to roughly assess the presence or absence of altered somatosensory function. To use QualST clinically, it is important to assess its agreement with quantitative sensory testing (QST). The aims of this study were to assess the agreement between QST and QualST when testing the modulation of facial sensitivity by capsaicin in healthy participants and to explore the agreement between QST and QualST in assessing the intraoral sensory function in clinical atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. Eighteen healthy pain-free adults and data from 27 AO patients were included in the study. Thirteen QST and three QualST parameters were evaluated at each site. Z-scores were computed for healthy participants, and Loss-Gain scores were created. The agreement observed between QST and QualST in participants with no alterations in facial sensation (placebo) was good, that is ranging from 89% to 94%. A poorer agreement was seen after capsaicin application in all test modalities with agreement ranging from 50% to 72%. The commonest misclassification observed was participants classified as normal according to QST, but hyper- or hyposensitive according to QualST after capsaicin application, especially for cold and pinprick. A similar trend was observed in AO patients where patients classified as normal using QST were misclassified as hypersensitive and in few patients as hyposensitive by QualST. In conclusion, the study showed that QualST may be used as a screening tool in the clinical setting, especially to show that subjects have normal sensory function.

  12. Laser therapy in the management of dental and oro-facial trauma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbar, Arun A.

    2007-02-01

    This is a clinical presentation demonstrating the efficacy of laser therapy in the treatment of patients presenting with trauma to both the hard and soft tissue in the orofacial region. The use of laser therapy aids the management of these cases where the patients often present with anxiety and a low pain threshold. The outcomes in these cases indicate good patient acceptance of the treatment, enhanced repair and tissue response suggesting that this form of treatment can be indicated for these patients. A combination of hard and soft lasers are used for the comprehensive dental management and treatment of these cases. The lasers used are a 810nm diode and an Er.CrYSGG.

  13. Pioneer-Venus radio occultation (ORO) data reduction: Profiles of 13 cm absorptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1990-01-01

    In order to characterize possible variations in the abundance and distribution of subcloud sulfuric acid vapor, 13 cm radio occultation signals from 23 orbits that occurred in late 1986 and 1987 (Season 10) and 7 orbits that occurred in 1979 (Season 1) were processed. The data were inverted via inverse Abel transform to produce 13 cm absorptivity profiles. Pressure and temperature profiles obtained with the Pioneer-Venus night probe and the northern probe were used along with the absorptivity profiles to infer upper limits for vertical profiles of the abundance of gaseous H2SO4. In addition to inverting the data, error bars were placed on the absorptivity profiles and H2SO4 abundance profiles using the standard propagation of errors. These error bars were developed by considering the effects of statistical errors only. The profiles show a distinct pattern with regard to latitude which is consistent with latitude variations observed in data obtained during the occultation seasons nos. 1 and 2. However, when compared with the earlier data, the recent occultation studies suggest that the amount of sulfuric acid vapor occurring at and below the main cloud layer may have decreased between early 1979 and late 1986.

  14. Prevalence of oro-dental anomalies among schoolchildren in Sana'a city, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Basalamah, M; Baroudi, K

    2016-04-19

    Practitioners and policy-makers need information about the relative frequency of dental anomalies among children in their region. This study investigated the prevalence of different oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Sana'a city, Yemen. A sample of 1000 private and public schoolchildren aged 4-12 years were examined by the same examiner using disposable tongue blades. The total prevalence of oral anomalies was 15.1%, most commonly in boys (male:female ratio 3.2:1) aged 7-12 years. The most prevalent dental anomaly related to hard tissues was tooth hypoplasia (2.8%), followed by hypocalcification (2.6%), then microdontia (0.5%), macrodontia (0.4%), hypodontia (0.4%), supernumerary teeth (0.3%), tooth transposition (0.3%), dental fusion (0.2%) and gemination (0.2%). The most prevalent soft tissues anomaly was fissured tongue (4.0%), followed by ankyloglossia (1.8%), geographic tongue (0.9%), macroglossia (0.4%) and hairy tongue (0.3%). Appropriate measures need to be taken early to mitigate the negative impact and later costs of treatment of anomalies.

  15. Comparison of two multimetal resistant bacterial strains: Enterobacter sp. YSU and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ORO2.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Andrew; Vinayak, Anubhav; Benton, Cherise; Esbenshade, Aaron; Heinselman, Carlisle; Frankland, Daniel; Kulkarni, Samatha; Kurtanich, Adrienne; Caguiat, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    The Y-12 plant in Oak Ridge, TN, which manufactured nuclear weapons during World War II and the Cold War, contaminated East Fork Poplar Creek with heavy metals. The multimetal resistant bacterial strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Oak Ridge strain O2 (S. maltophilia O2), was isolated from East Fork Poplar Creek. Sequence analysis of 16s rDNA suggested that our working strain of S. maltophilia O2 was a strain of Enterobacter. Phylogenetic tree analysis and biochemical tests confirmed that it belonged to an Enterobacter species. This new strain was named Enterobacter sp. YSU. Using a modified R3A growth medium, R3A-Tris, the Hg(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Au(III), Cr(VI), Ag(I), As(III), and Se(IV) MICs for a confirmed strain of S. maltophilia O2 were 0.24, 0.33, 5, 5, 0.25, 7, 0.03, 14, and 40 mM, respectively, compared to 0.07, 0.24, 0.8, 3, 0.05, 0.4, 0.08, 14, and 40 mM, respectively, for Enterobacter sp. YSU. Although S. maltophilia O2 was generally more metal resistant than Enterobacter sp. YSU, in comparison to Escherichia coli strain HB101, Enterobacter sp. YSU was resistant to Hg(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Au(III), Ag(I), As(III), and Se(IV). By studying metal resistances in these two strains, it may be possible to understand what makes one microorganism more metal resistant than another microorganism. This work also provided benchmark MICs that can be used to evaluate the metal resistance properties of other bacterial isolates from East Fork Poplar Creek and other metal contaminated sites.

  16. [Oro-maxillofacial bone tissue engineering combining biomaterials, stem cells, and gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Myon, L; Ferri, J; Chai, F; Blanchemain, N; Raoul, G

    2011-09-01

    Improvements have been made in regenerative medicine, due to the development of tissue engineering and cellular therapy. Bone regeneration is an ambitious project, leading to many applications involving skull, maxillofacial, and orthopaedic surgery. Scaffolds, stem cells, and signals support bone tissue engineering. The scaffold physical and chemical properties promote cell invasion, guide their differentiation, and enable signal transmission. Scaffold may be inorganic or organic. Their conception was improved by the use of new techniques: self-assembled nanofibres, electrospinning, solution-phase separation, micropatterned hydrogels, bioprinting, and rapid prototyping. Cellular biology processes allow us to choose between embryonic stem cells or adult stem cells for regenerative medicine. Finally, communication between cells and their environment is essential; they use various signals to do so. The study of signals and their transmission led to the discovery and the use of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP). The development of cellular therapy led to the emergence of a specific field: gene therapy. It relies on viral vectors, which include: retroviruses, adenoviruses and adeno-associated vectors (AAV). Non-viral vectors include plasmids and lipoplex. Some BMP genes have successfully been transfected. The ability to control transfected cells and the capacity to combine and transfect many genes involved in osseous healing will improve gene therapy.

  17. FLUOROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF ORO-PHARYNGEAL DYSPHAGIA: ANATOMY, TECHNIQUE, AND COMMON ETIOLOGIES

    PubMed Central

    Edmund, Dr; Au, Frederick Wing-Fai; Steele, Catriona M.

    2015-01-01

    Target Audience Radiologists and other professionals involved in imaging of oropharyngeal swallowing Objectives To review anatomy of the upper GI tract To review techniques and contrast agents used in the fluoroscopic examination of the oropharynx and hypopharynx To provide a pictorial review of some important causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia, and to link these to key findings in the clinical history to assist in establishing a clinical diagnosis To provide self-assessment questions to reinforce key learning points PMID:25539237

  18. Microorganisms’ colonization and their antibiotic resistance pattern in oro - tracheal tube

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Shoar, Saeed; Shoar, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Recently, nosocomial infections have been discussed as a critical issue among intubated patients leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, the pattern of microbiological colonization and antibiotic resistance are much valuable in this regard. We aimed to investigate the pattern of microorganism colonization and antibiotic resistance in patients with endotracheal tube or tracheostomy to propose a proper empirical antibiotic therapy in this setting. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study was conducted among 880 patients admitted in Imam Khomeini hospital between 2008 and 2011 who were subsequently intubated or underwent tracheostomy due to insufficient self ventilation. Samples for microbiological cultures were obtained after extubation and then sent to the central laboratory for further assessment. Antibiograms and microbiological cultures were obtained for each sample. Results Of 880 patients enrolled in this study, 531 (60.3%) were male and 349 (39.7%) were female. Nineteen different organisms were isolated including Acinetobacter (213, 24.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (147, 16.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (106, 12%), Proteus mirabilis (90, 10.2%), and other organisms (324, 36.8%). Antibiotic resistance was mainly seen in Acinetobacter (ciprofloxacin, ceftazidim, cefepim, and penicillin), S. aureus (imipenem) and Klebsiella (pipracillintazobactam and ampicillin-sulbactam). Conclusion This study represents the most common microorganisms colonizing tracheal tube of hospitalized patients and their pattern of antibiotic resistance. Acinetobacter was the most common microorganism isolated from endotracheal tube. Hence, it may be possible to initiate the empiric antibiotic treatment before the results of culture are become available. Ciprofloxacin was also the most prevalent antibiotic revealing resistant pattern. Moreover, most of the microorganisms were sensitive to imipenem and pipracillin-tazobactam. PMID:23825725

  19. Oro-facial thermal injury caused by food heated in a microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Yasha; Pemberton, Michael N

    2009-01-01

    Burns to the oral mucosa usually result from the accidental ingestion of hot food or beverages. The burns are usually of short duration and little consequence. The widespread use of microwave ovens, however, has added a new dimension to the problem. Microwave ovens heat food much quicker than a conventional oven, but they produce uneven heating within the food and extremely high temperatures can be reached. We describe two cases of patients who suffered inadvertent injury to the oral mucosa from the ingestion of microwave-heated food.

  20. A new extended release formulation (OROS) of hydromorphone in the management of pain.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Sharon M

    2009-02-01

    Opioid analgesics are essential in the treatment of moderate to severe cancer-related pain. Opioids are also recognized as important in the management of other severe, persistent refractory painful conditions, such as sickle cell disease and arthritis. In the clinical practice of pain management, stable opioid dosing generally depends on achieving maximal analgesia with tolerable side effects typical of opioid analgesics. There is a wide interindividual variability of responsiveness to exogenous opioids both in terms of analgesic efficacy and side effects. Optimizing pain management for the individual patient may require sequential trials of opioid medications until the regimen with the most favorable therapeutic ratio of efficacy to side effects is determined.

  1. Liquorice Health Check, Oro-Dental Implications, and a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Touyz, Louis Z. G.

    2009-01-01

    Liquorice has an active substance, Glycyrrhizin which inhibits the conversion of precursor cortisol to cortisone by inhibiting the enzyme 11-betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. When imbibed, liquorice acts like hyperaldosteronism which presents with typical symptoms including high blood pressure, low blood potassium, and muscle pain and weakness. This article appraises physiological and pharmacological effects on health of liquorice, critiques products containing liquorice, describes a typical case report of liquorice-induced hypertension, and appraises oral effects from consumption of liquorice products. PMID:19707475

  2. Burning mouth syndrome: controversial place as a symptom of Oro-dental pathology.

    PubMed

    Coculescu, E C; Manole, G; Coculescu, B I; Purcărea, V L

    2015-01-01

    As defined by WHO experts, disease involves a change of the physical, mental and social welfare, generating chronic stress condition if unresolved. One of the symptoms almost constantly found in any condition is pain. This feeling manifests differently depending on the subjective perception. The burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is included in such a framework. The BMS is considered as one of the characteristic states of chronic stress syndromes associated with nonspecific clinical manifestations and requires special medical attention in terms of assessing and treating the condition. However, the insufficient knowledge of its etiopathogenic mechanisms requires comprehensive research undertaken on such a subject.

  3. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  4. Rapid Diagnosis of Arbovirus and Arenavirus Infections by Immunofluorescence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    and Barrera Oro, J.G. 1975. Serologia do a fiebre hemorragica Argentina. II. Comparacion de Is prueba indirecta de anticuerpos fluorescentes con Is... prueba de fijacion de complemento. Acts - - lioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana, 9: 141-146. Hotchin, J., and Kinch, W. 1975. Microplaque reduction: New

  5. Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys (EE-Con)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Florian; Brantl, Dirk; Meyer, Lukas; Steininger, Karl; Sass, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The Alps and their population are particularly vulnerable to geomorphological and hydrological hazards and this problem might be amplified by ongoing climate change. Natural disasters cause severe monetary damage which often leads to the difficult question whether it socially pays to protect settlements at high costs or whether alternatively settlement areas should better be abandoned. By investigations in the Johnsbachtal and the Kleinsölktal (Styria), the interdisciplinary project "Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys" (EE-Con), funded by the Austrian Academy of Sciences, seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Are natural hazards and associated damages in fact increasing, and is this due to meteorological triggers, to anthropogenic factors or to internal process dynamics? (2) What is the perception and knowledge of local people, how is risk and risk prevention communicated? (3) What is the respective cost ratio between protection infrastructure, soft measures of adaptation and other options (e.g. reduction of settlement area)? (4) What legitimate claims to compensation do people have, how far does societal responsibility go and where does individual responsibility start if parts of the settlement area had to be abandoned? These questions will be tackled in an interdisciplinary cooperation between geography, economics and normative theory (philosophy). EE-Con will follow broadly the path of risk analysis and risk assessment, focusing on the temporal dimension (past - present - future) with the aim to unravel the history of natural hazards in the areas and to analyse the economic values involved. In the following, natural hazard scenarios for the future (2050 and 2100) will be developed considering the economic consequences. Besides this, the project deals with local knowledge, risk perception and risk communication, which will be investigated via group interviews and stakeholder workshops and be integrated into a human

  6. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  7. Self-efficacy, pros, and cons as variables associated with adjacent stages of change for regular exercise in Japanese college students.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Sakano, Yuji

    2016-01-18

    This study examined self-efficacy (confidence to exercise), pros (exercise's advantages), and cons (exercise's disadvantages) as variables associated across the transtheoretical model's six stages of change in 403 Japanese college students. A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that higher pros and lower cons were associated with being in contemplation compared to precontemplation. Lower cons were associated with being in preparation compared to contemplation. Higher self-efficacy was associated with being in action compared to preparation as well as being in maintenance compared to action. Lower cons were associated with being in termination compared to maintenance.

  8. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Scardina, John; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the goals, benefits, technologies, and procedures of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1), and provides an update to the previous versions of the document [ref 1 and ref 2].

  9. iPathCons and iPathDB: an improved insect pathway construction tool and the database

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zan; Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Jie, Wencai; Lei, Wenjie; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Insects are one of the most successful animal groups on earth. Some insects, such as the silkworm and honeybee, are beneficial to humans, whereas others are notorious pests of crops. At present, the genomes of 38 insects have been sequenced and made publically available. In addition, the transcriptomes of dozens of insects have been sequenced. As gene data rapidly accumulate, constructing the pathway of molecular interactions becomes increasingly important for entomological research. Here, we developed an improved tool, iPathCons, for knowledge-based construction of pathways from the transcriptomes or the official gene sets of genomes. Considering the high evolution diversity in insects, iPathCons uses a voting system for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology assignment. Both stand-alone software and a web server of iPathCons are provided. Using iPathCons, we constructed the pathways of molecular interactions of 52 insects, including 37 genome-sequenced and 15 transcriptome-sequenced ones. These pathways are available in the iPathDB, which provides searches, web server, data downloads, etc. This database will be highly useful for the insect research community. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ipath/ PMID:25388589

  10. Treatment of plutonium contaminated soil/sediment from the Mound site using the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M.C.; Swift, N.A.; North, J.P.

    1996-10-01

    The removal and/or treatment of contaminated soil is a major problem facing the US DOE. The EG&G Mound Applied Technologies site in Miamisburg, Ohio, has an estimated 1.5 million cubic feet of soils from past disposal and waste burial practices awaiting remediation from plutonium contamination. This amount includes sediment from the Miami-Erie Canal that was contaminated in 1969 following a pipe- rupture accident. Conventional soil washing techniques that use particle separation would generate too large a waste volume to be economically feasible. Therefore, innovative technologies are needed for the cleanup. The ACT*DE*CON process was developed by SELENTEC for washing soils to selectively dissolve and remove heavy metals and radionuclides. ACT*DE*CON chemically dissolves and removes heavy metals and radionuclides from soils and sediments into an aqueous medium. The ACT*DE*CON process uses oxidative carbonate/chelant chemistry to dissolve the contaminant from the sediment and hold the contaminant in solution. The objective of recent work was to document the proves conditions necessary to achieve the Mound-site and regulatory-cleanup goals using the ACT*DE*CON technology.

  11. Pro/Con debate: Is occupational asthma induced by isocyanates an immunoglobulin E-mediated disease?

    PubMed

    Wisnewski, A V; Jones, M

    2010-08-01

    Isocyanates, low-molecular weight chemicals essential to polyurethane production, are one of the most common causes of occupational asthma, yet the mechanisms by which exposure leads to disease remain unclear. While isocyanate asthma closely mirrors other Type I Immune Hypersensitivity (Allergic) disorders, one important characteristic of hypersensitivity ('allergen'-specific IgE) is reportedly absent in a large portion of affected individuals. This variation from common environmental asthma (which typically is induced by high-molecular weight allergens) is important for two reasons. (1) Allergen-specific IgE is an important mediator of many of the symptoms of bronchial hyper-reactivity in 'allergic asthma'. Lack of allergen-specific IgE in isocyanate hypersensitive individuals suggests differences in pathogenic mechanisms, with potentially unique targets for prevention and therapy. (2) Allergen-specific IgE forms the basis of the most commonly used diagnostic tests for hypersensitivity (skin prick and RAST). Without allergen-specific IgE, isocyanates may go unrecognized as the cause of asthma. In hypersensitive individuals, chronic exposure can lead to bronchial hyperreactivity that persists years after exposure ceases. Thus, the question of whether or not isocyanate asthma is an IgE-mediated disease, has important implications for disease screening/surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The present Pro/Con Debate, addresses contemporary, controversial issues regarding IgE in isocyanate asthma.

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of N doped Fe_mCon superlattices: First principles calculations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Miyoung; Freeman, A. J.

    2001-03-01

    Magnetic alloys and multilayers have been widely investigated because of their potential for magnetic device applications. In this, materials exhibiting high magnetization as well as good soft magnetic properties are desirable. We investigated the magnetic and structural properties of Fe_mCon superlattices with various compositions via first principles local density full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method^(1) calculations. For the 25% Co composition which showed the maximum magnetic moments, we inserted N atoms to make (Fe_3Co)_4N_2, in order to examine the possible magnetic enhancement by N, which has drawn much attention since the first report (in 1972) of a giant magnetic moment for the quasi-stable α-Fe_16N_2. The structural optimization was fully accomplished by total energy and atomic force calculations. Despite the lattice expansion due to the N insertion, the magnetic moment of (Fe_3Co)_4N2 was found to be reduced from the value of the Fe_3Co superlattice by the strong hybridization of N with Fe and Co. (1) E. Wimmer, H. Krakauer, M. Weinert and A. J. Freeman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 864 (1981).

  13. A new millimeter-wave observation of the weakly bound CO-N2 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surin, L. A.; Potapov, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Schlemmer, S.

    2015-01-01

    New millimeter-wave transitions of the CO-N2 van der Waals complex have been observed using the intracavity OROTRON jet spectrometer in the frequency range of 103-159 GHz. For the less abundant form, CO-paraN2, a total of 37 rotational transitions were assigned to three K = 0-0, 0-1, 2-1 subbands connecting the (jCO, jN2) = (1, 1) and (jCO, jN2) = (0, 1) internal rotor states. The upper K = 0 and K = 2 "stacks" of rotational levels were probed for the first time here by millimeter-wave spectroscopy following a recent infrared study by Rezaei et al. (2013). The observation of new subbands fixes with higher precision not only these upper K = 0 and K = 2 but also lower K = 1(f) levels, not linked with other stacks in earlier rotational studies. For the more abundant form, CO-orthoN2, five new P-branch rotational transitions of the K = 0-0 "CO bending" subband are reported, thus extending previous measurements. Nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure due to the presence of two equivalent 14N nuclei was partly resolved and analyzed to give additional information about the angular orientation of the N2 molecule in the complex.

  14. Assessing ComSciCon 2013: A science communication workshop for STEM graduate students (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, S.; Ranjan, S.; Sanders, N.; Morey, S.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the efficacy of Communicating Science 2013, a science communication workshop for graduate students. Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. Science graduate students are a prime group to target for communication training, as they will be our future scientists, educators, and EPO professionals. To this end, Communicating Science 2013 (ComSciCon), a workshop organized by and for STEM graduate students, was held in June of this year. This workshop taught graduate students from around the nation to effectively communicate science to both their peers and the public. To learn about grad students' attitudes toward science communication and establish the workshop's efficacy, we surveyed the participants both before and after the workshop. This assessment probed topics such as communication preparation the participants have already received, how science communication is perceived in their home department, and what participants gained from the workshop. We report the results here.

  15. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Pros and Cons of Histologic Systems of Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-13

    The diagnostic phenotype of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)--in particular, the most significant form in terms of prognosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)--continues to rely on liver tissue evaluation, in spite of remarkable advances in non-invasive algorithms developed from serum-based tests and imaging-based or sonographically-based tests for fibrosis or liver stiffness. The most common tissue evaluation remains percutaneous liver biopsy; considerations given to the needle size and the location of the biopsy have the potential to yield the most representative tissue for evaluation. The pathologist's efforts are directed to not only global diagnosis, but also assessment of severity of injury. Just as in other forms of chronic liver disease, these assessments can be divided into necroinflammatory activity, and fibrosis with parenchymal remodeling, in order to separately analyze potentially reversible (grade) and non-reversible (stage) lesions. These concepts formed the bases for current methods of evaluating the lesions that collectively comprise the phenotypic spectra of NAFLD. Four extant methods have specific applications; there are pros and cons to each, and this forms the basis of the review.

  16. Pros and cons in endocrine practice: pre-surgical treatment with somatostatin analogues in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Losa, Marco; Bollerslev, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this commentary is to balance the pros and cons for pre-surgical SSA treatment in a modern perspective ending up with a pragmatic recommendation for treatment based on the current evidence and expertise of the authors. Even though prospective and randomized studies in this particular area are hampered by obvious limitations, the interpretation of the four published trials has in general been in favor of pre-treatment with SSA, showing a better outcome following surgery. However, major drawbacks of these studies, such as non-optimal diagnostic criteria for cure, potential selection bias, and timing of the postoperative evaluation in SSA pre-treated patients, limit their overall interpretation. Three matched-controlled studies showed remarkably similar results with no apparent beneficial effect of SSA pre-treatment on surgical outcome. Both prospective, randomized studies and retrospective studies did not find any significant difference in the rate of endocrine and non-endocrine complications related to surgery, despite the beneficial clinical effects of SSA treatment in most acromegalic patients. The newly diagnosed patient with acromegaly should be carefully evaluated in the trans-disciplinary neuroendocrine team and treatment individualized accordingly. The issue of SSA pre-treatment to improve surgical outcome is yet to be settled and further methodologically sound studies are probably necessary to clarify this point.

  17. Synthesis of colloidal metal nanocrystals in droplet reactors: the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan

    2014-07-09

    Droplet reactors have received considerable attention in recent years as an alternative route to the synthesis and potentially high-volume production of colloidal metal nanocrystals. Interfacial adsorption will immediately become an important issue to address when one seeks to translate a nanocrystal synthesis from batch reactors to droplet reactors due to the involvement of higher surface-to-volume ratios for the droplets and the fact that nanocrystals tend to be concentrated at the water-oil interface. Here we report a systematic study to compare the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption of metal nanocrystals during their synthesis in droplet reactors. On the one hand, interfacial adsorption can be used to generate nanocrystals with asymmetric shapes or structures, including one-sixth-truncated Ag octahedra and Au-Ag nanocups. On the other hand, interfacial adsorption has to be mitigated to obtain nanocrystals with uniform sizes and controlled shapes. We confirmed that Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, could effectively alleviate interfacial adsorption while imposing no impact on the capping agent typically needed for a shape-controlled synthesis. With the introduction of a proper surfactant, droplet reactors offer an attractive platform for the continuous production of colloidal metal nanocrystals.

  18. Ground and lowest-lying electronic states of CoN. A multiconfigurational study.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, João Paulo; Borin, Antonio Carlos

    2006-12-28

    The lowest-lying X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II electronic states of CoN have been investigated at the ab initio MRCI and MS-CASPT2 levels, with extended atomic basis sets and inclusion of scalar relativistic effects. Among the singlet states, the A1Phi and B1II states have been described for the first time. Potential energy curves, excitation energies, spectroscopic constants, and bonding character for all states are reported. Comparison with other early transition-metal nitrides (ScN, TiN, VN, and CrN), isoelectronic (NiC) and isovalent (RhN and IrN) species has been made, besides analyzing the B1II <=> X1+ electronic transition in terms of Franck-Condon factors, Einstein coefficients, and radiative lifetimes. At both levels of theory, the following energetic order has been obtained: X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II, with good agreement with experimental results. In contrast, previous DFT and MRCI calculations predicted the ground state to be the 5Delta state.

  19. Pros and cons of condom use among gay and bisexual men as explored via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Gullette, Donna L; Turner, Joan G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey utilizing Internet technology related to gay and bisexual men's condom use behavior as an expression of safer sexual practices. A total of 241 self-identified gay and bisexual men responded to the questionnaire in a 3-month period of time. Confidentiality was assured by utilizing an electronic system whereby the respondents e-mail address was eliminated. The study was conceptually guided by the use of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavioral Change (TMC) and the pros and cons of condom of use were explored. Fifty-six percent of the participants reported that one advantage (pro) of using condoms with casual partners was that it would make them safer from disease. About half of the respondents (n = 119, 49%) reported a history of one or more sexually transmitted diseases. There were 14 variables found to be significantly associated with using a condom with primary and casual partners among gay and bisexual men. Essentially, findings from this study corresponded to results obtained by more traditional data collection methods. Therefore, the authors conclude that electronic data collection may well be an alternative means for collecting sensitive data such as those collected in this study.

  20. Pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Gabizon, Alberto A; Shmeeda, Hilary; Zalipsky, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Coating of liposomes with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) by incorporation in the liposome bilayer of PEG-derivatized lipids results in inhibition of liposome uptake by the reticulo-endothelial system and significant prolongation of liposome residence time in the blood stream. Parallel developments in drug loading technology have improved the efficiency and stability of drug entrapment in liposomes, particularly with regard to cationic amphiphiles such as anthracyclines. An example of this new generation of liposomes is a formulation of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin known as Doxil or Caelyx, whose clinical pharmacokinetic profile is characterized by slow plasma clearance and small volume of distribution. A hallmark of these long-circulating liposomal drug carriers is their enhanced accumulation in tumors. The mechanism underlying this passive targeting effect is the phenomenon known as enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) which has been described in a broad variety of experimental tumor types. Further to the passive targeting effect, the liposome drug delivery platform offers the possibility of grafting tumor-specific ligands on the liposome membrane for active targeting to tumor cells, and potentially intracellular drug delivery. The pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer targeting are discussed vis-à-vis nontargeted drugs, using as an example a liposome drug delivery system targeted to the folate receptor.

  1. Thromboprophylaxis in carriers of antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) without previous thrombosis: "Pros" and "Cons".

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Chighizola, Cecilia; Finazzi, Guido; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Valesini, Guido

    2012-06-01

    The presence of anti-phospholipid (aPL) is necessary but not sufficient to induce a thrombotic event. The "second hit" hypothesis suggested that an additional trigger may be needed to develop a vascular event in aPL carriers. In this article, pro and con of primary thromboprophylaxis in aPL carriers is deeply discussed, concluding that univocal data are not available, due to conflicting results of available clinical trials. However, in clinical practice the primary thromboprophylaxis is not indicated in all unselected asymptomatic aPL carriers, and the best strategy begin with the assessment of the peculiar risk profile of the subject. Thus, it is mandatory to eliminate modifiable prothrombotic risk factors (i.e. smoking, oral contraceptive), to treat the irreversible risk factors (i.e. hypertension, diabetes) and to introduce an aggressive prophylaxis with subcutaneous LMWH in high-risk situations (i.e. surgical procedures with prolonged immobilization). A different evaluation should be addressed to aPL carriers with a concomitant autoimmune disease that are considered as an additional pro-thrombotic risk factor. Similarly, concomitant positivity for more than one anti-phospholipid test confer a stronger risk of developing the thrombotic manifestations. Specific trials with larger cohorts of patients are needed to better clarify this issue.

  2. Pros and cons of BCG vaccination in countries with low incidence of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tala, E O; Tala-Heikkilä, M M

    1994-07-01

    Preventive bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, together with case finding and effective chemotherapy, has formed an integral part of the tuberculosis (TB) control program in most countries. In some low-incidence countries the balance of prevention has been more on the side of chemoprophylaxis than of BCG vaccination. The time clearly has come when the strategy of mass BCG vaccination no longer is indicated medically, nor is it cost-effective. The pros and cons of the programs need to be critically evaluated against the present epidemiological background, taking into account the facts that TB, the killer disease, is recovering strength, human immunodeficiency virus infection is on the increase, and multidrug-resistant TB has changed the outcome of this previously fully curable disease. Although no longer appropriate for mass programs, BCG vaccination still should be considered for the protection of selected risk groups in low-incidence countries. The overall efficacy may be of the order 50% to 80%, but the variation is great. Therefore, further research urgently is needed on the effectiveness of BCG as an intervention in local TB programs.

  3. Pros and cons of liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients.

    PubMed

    Baccarani, Umberto; Righi, Elda; Adani, Gian Luigi; Lorenzin, Dario; Pasqualucci, Alberto; Bassetti, Matteo; Risaliti, Andrea

    2014-05-14

    Before the introduction of combined highly active antiretroviral therapy, a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serological status represented an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplant (SOT). The advent of highly effective combined antiretroviral therapy in 1996 largely contributed to the increased demand for SOT in HIV-positive individuals due to increased patients' life expectancy associated with the increasing prevalence of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Nowadays, liver failure represents a frequent cause of mortality in the HIV-infected population mainly due to coinfection with hepatitis viruses sharing the same way of transmission. Thus, liver transplantation (LT) represents a reasonable approach in HIV patients with stable infection and ESLD. Available data presently supports with good evidence the practice of LT in the HIV-positive population. Thus, the issue is no longer "whether it is correct to transplant HIV-infected patients", but "who are the patients who can be safely transplanted" and "when is the best time to perform LT". Indeed, the benefits of LT in HIV-infected patients, especially in terms of mid- and long-term patient and graft survivals, are strictly related to the patients' selection and to the correct timing for transplantation, especially when hepatitis C virus coinfection is present. Aim of this article is to review the pros and cons of LT in the cohort of HIV infected recipients.

  4. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  5. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...

  7. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Keir X.X.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M.D.; Warren, Jason D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2014-01-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease. PMID:24841985

  8. 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of the Day Nui Con Voi Metamorphic Complex, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Lo, C.; Yeh, M.; Chung, S.; Lee, T.

    2009-12-01

    The garnet bearing gneiss within the Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) Metamorphic Complex along the Red River Shear Zone (RRSZ) in North Vietnam, recorded a long tectonothermal history since the Indosinian orogeny. In-situ 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of biotite inclusions within garnet porphyroblasts and matrix biotites, combining with microstructural and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, deciphered the timing and duration of thermal events. Biotites from two matrix fabrics from different deformation events show approximately similar 40Ar/39Ar age ranges in 19-24Ma, depending grain size. These matrix biotite ages are best interpreted to record a rapid cooling event associating with the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ. Whereas, all biotite inclusions exhibit age zoning patterns with 40Ar/39Ar ages gradually increase from 17 Ma to more than 28 Ma according to their diffusion pathways. These age variations may have resultant from a combination effect of argon retention by garnet shielding, which provides a best recorder to the metamorphic event, and argon diffusion loss along the deformed cracks during the shearing event of the RRSZ. Diffusion modeling of these age zoning indicated that the total duration of argon diffusion loss may have lasted for nearly 9 Myr and argon diffusion may have occurred sometime around 24.5Ma. These results are generally in good agreement with previous interpretation, but provide better resolution of 40Ar/39Ar age data for deciphering the history of thermal event in the DNCV Metamorphic Complex and the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ in Vietnam, as well.

  9. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  10. Perfiles de luminosidad en galaxias con núcleo tipo Seyfert 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N.; Rodriguez-Ardilla, A. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.

    Presentamos imágenes CCD en los filtros BVI y Hα de una muestra de 10 galaxias Seyfert 1 y Narrow Line Seyfert 1. Recientes observaciones muestran que hay una diferencia significante en el índice espectral óptico entre NLS1s y Sy1 normales, siendo para las primeras del orden de 2. Otra característica importante es que la mayor parte de las NLS1s muestran tasas de FeII/Hβ mayores que las observadas en otras Sy1s. Desde el punto de vista fotométrico, estas galaxias no tienenningún tipo de estudio previo. Presentamos magnitudes totales, perfiles de luminosidad y mapas de color junto con un detallado análisis de la formación estelar en estos objetos. Encontramos que la descomposición en bulbo + disco representa adecuadamente los perfiles de luminosidad de las galaxias de la muestra. Sin embargo, en todos los casos es necesario que el disco tenga un agujero en su centro. El radio de este agujero va desde los 3 a los 9 kpc. Si bien no tenemos aún una explicación para este hecho, los agujeros parecen estar asociados a anillos circumnucleares de alto oscurecimiento E(B-V) ~1. Los perfiles presentan también un fuerte gradiente de color, siendo notablemente más azules hacia la región nuclear. Los objetos de la muestra cubren todo el rango de tipos morfológicos, no obstante, no encontramos regiones de formación estelar en las regiones exteriores de las galaxias. La formación estelar está confinada a la región nuclear y se data en alrededor de 5 x 107 años.

  11. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yong, Keir X X; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M D; Warren, Jason D; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2014-08-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease.

  12. "Pros and cons" of total hip arthroplasty with metaphyseal Proxima endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Wraźen, Waldemar; Golec, Edward B; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Golec, Piotr; Jaworowski, Michał de Lubicz; Dudkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The authors present their own experience concerning total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. Proxima, a metaphyseal prosthesis, provides an innovative supplement to total hip arthroplasty. In this study, the authors present their own experience using Proxima in patients with hip osteoarthritis. This study was performed between 2008 to 2013 and comprised of 62 patients, of which 38 were male (61.3%) and 24 female (38.7%). All patients were operated on due to hip osteoarthritis using total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. The age of patients included into the study ranged from 23 years to 62 years with the mean age of 46 years. The authors paid close attention to the "pros and cons" of surgical techniques and assessed clinical and radiological results in both the short and long-term observation periods. The clinical evaluation was based on the Harris Hip Score and radiological assessment of fixation of the acetabular cup of the endoprosthesis was based on Pradhan's criteria. The endoprosthesis Proxima stem was positioned using the manufacturer's recommended method, evaluating the direction, scope and duration of the displacement in the marrow cavity of the proximal stump of the femur. According to the authors' analysis, the surgery gives good functional and radiological results both in the short- and long-term observation periods. The effectiveness depends on precise qualification for surgery, proper surgical techniques and specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femur stump. The most common reasons for primary and secondary dislocations of the metaphyseal endoprosthesis Proxima stem occur during the first three months post surgery. This is due to incorrect surgical techniques, which disregard the importance of specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femoral stump, which affects Proxima implantation, and cause deviations towards a varus or valgus orientation.

  13. Outreach Opportunities for Early Career Scientists at the Phoenix ComiCon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Walker, S. I.; Forrester, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Phoenix ComiCon (PCC) is a rapidly growing annual four-day pop culture event, featuring guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. In 2013, PCC began experimenting with science discussion panels. The popularity of the science programming resulted in an expansion of the track for 2014, which Horodyskyj was responsible for coordinating. Thirty hours of programming were scheduled, including 25 discussion panels, NASA's FameLab, and a Mars room. Panelists included industry specialists, established scientists, STEM outreach enthusiasts, and early career scientists. The majority of the panelists were early career scientists recruited from planetary sciences and biology departments at ASU and UA. Panel topics included cosmology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, space exploration, astrobiology, and the cross-linkages of each with pop culture. Formats consisted of Q&A, presentations, and interactive game shows. Although most panels were aimed at the general audience, some panels were more specialized. PCC 2014 attracted 77,818 attendees. The science programming received rave reviews from the audience, the PCC management, and the panelists themselves. Many panel rooms were filled to capacity and required crowd control to limit attendance. We observed the formation of science "groupies" who sought out the science panels exclusively and requested more information on other science public events in the Phoenix area. We distributed surveys to several select sessions to evaluate audience reasons for attending the science panels and their opinion of the scientists they observed. We will present the results of these surveys. As the PCC continues to grow at an exponential rate, the science programming will continue to expand. We will discuss ideas for continued expansion of the PCC science programming both to serve the public and as a unique public outreach opportunity for early career scientists.

  14. Estereotipos Sexuales y su Relación con Conductas Sexuales Riesgosas1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Los estereotipos sexuales son creencias generalmente aceptadas y poco cuestionadas que podrían contribuir a cómo los hombres y las mujeres debemos expresar nuestra sexualidad. Los objetivos de este estudio eran identificar cuántos hombres y mujeres heterosexuales en Puerto Rico endosaban ciertos estereotipos acerca de la sexualidad masculina y femenina y explorar la relación entre el endoso de estos estereotipos sexuales y las actitudes hacia el condón masculino y su uso en relaciones sexuales vaginales Llevamos a cabo un estudio descriptivo-correlacional mediante el cual le administramos dos escalas, una sobre sexualidad masculina y otra sobre sexualidad femenina a un grupo de 429 personas heterosexuales. Encontramos que los hombres endosaron estereotipos sexuales masculinos y femeninos más que las mujeres y que estos tienden a tener una visión más conservadora respecto a la sexualidad femenina que la que tienen sobre su propia sexualidad. Las mujeres, por otra parte, tienden a ver su propia sexualidad y la sexualidad masculina en términos menos estereotipados y más equitativos. También encontramos que a mayor endoso de creencias tradicionales sobre la sexualidad masculina y femenina, peor la actitud hacia el uso del condón masculino. Sin embargo, el endosar estereotipos sexuales masculinos y/o femeninos no se relacionó con el uso del condón. Estos hallazgos contradicen la literatura que sugiere que estos estereotipos sexuales y de género resultan en conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, lo cual tiene implicaciones importantes para el desarrollo e implementación de programas de prevención. PMID:24575164

  15. Strain Rate into South American Plate by SIRGAS-CON Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, G. S.; Franca, G. S.; Monico, J. G.; Fuck, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this study were investigated the surface strain rates computed from the direction variations and velocity values estimated from the coordinates of the continuous monitoring geodetic network called SIRGAS-CON. That investigation was done using points located in the South American plate. The determination of the strain rate was based on the Finite Element method using points defined by Delaunay triangulation (sub-networks). Each one of sub-networks was considered as an homogeneous solid body. Using these methods was possible to separate the strain from the plate movement. The results showed that there are differences of strain rate along the South American plate. From the results were suggest that near to the west board of the plate, the strain is more significant, as expected, because this region is near to one area where Nazca Plate subduct South American Plate. It was detected that the contraction region founded in this area coincides whit the region where occurs most of earthquakes of greater magnitude. Far from the board, there are some areas with anomalies of significant strain of extension and contraction that can be originated by differences of stress aligned with different geological composites. By the results, It may be concluded that large surface movements occur in regions with more heterogeneous geological structures and multiple event of rupture, that large earthquakes arising from large tectonic activity into South American Plate are concentrated in areas with contraction strain rates predominantly oriented towards northeast-southwest, that significant amounts of elastic strain can be accumulated over geological structures away from fault plate boundary and that the behavior of contractions and extensions are similar to that found by different researches involving geophysical studies. Dilation and principal components of strain rate

  16. Iliac crest autograft versus alternative constructs for anterior cervical spine surgery: Pros, cons, and costs

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Grafting choices available for performing anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF) procedures have become a major concern for spinal surgeons, and their institutions. The “gold standard”, iliac crest autograft, may still be the best and least expensive grafting option; it deserves to be reassessed along with the pros, cons, and costs for alternative grafts/spacers. Methods: Although single or multilevel ACDF have utilized iliac crest autograft for decades, the implant industry now offers multiple alternative grafting and spacer devices; (allografts, cages, polyether-etherketone (PEEK) amongst others). While most studies have focused on fusion rates and clinical outcomes following ACDF, few have analyzed the “value-added” of these various constructs (e.g. safety/efficacy, risks/complications, costs). Results: The majority of studies document 95%-100% fusion rates when iliac crest autograft is utilized to perform single level ACDF (X-ray or CT confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months). Although many allograft studies similarly quote 90%-100% fusion rates (X-ray alone confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months), a recent “post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicenter trial” (Riew KD et. al., CSRS Abstract Dec. 2011; unpublished) revealed a much higher delayed fusion rate using allografts at one year 55.7%, 2 years 87%, and four years 92%. Conclusion: Iliac crest autograft utilized for single or multilevel ACDF is associated with the highest fusion, lowest complication rates, and significantly lower costs compared with allograft, cages, PEEK, or other grafts. As spinal surgeons and institutions become more cost conscious, we will have to account for the “value added” of these increasingly expensive graft constructs. PMID:22905321

  17. Pros and cons of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Radl, Alice C; Reinthaller, Alexander; Schauer, Christian; Petru, Edgar; Concin, Nicole; Braun, Stephan; Marth, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Development of the pros and cons of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer based on the most prominent data published on the evolution of IP chemotherapy and on experience with this therapeutic strategy in clinical routine. The literature published on IP chemotherapy in ovarian cancer between 1970 and 2008 was identified systematically by computer-based searches in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Furthermore, a preliminary analysis of data recorded during an observational nationwide multicenter study of the Austrian AGO on IP-IV chemotherapy using the GOG-172 treatment regimen was performed. The literature review unequivocally revealed a significantly greater toxicity for IP than for intravenous (IV) cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, according to a Cochrane meta-analysis, IP-IV administration of chemotherapy is associated with a 21.6% decrease in the risk for death. In agreement with earlier reports, the most frequently mentioned side-effects in the Austria-wide observational study were long-lasting neurotoxicity, abdominal pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal and metabolic toxicities, and catheter-related complications. Most of these toxicities were identified as mirroring the toxicity profile of high-dose IV cisplatin (>or=100 mg/m(2)). In some patients, the classic IP-IV regimen with cisplatin/paclitaxel was changed to an alternative schedule comprising carboplatin AUC 5 (d1) and weekly paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) (d1, 8, 15) completely administered via the IP route. This treatment was better tolerated and quality of life was significantly less compromised. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were the limiting side-effects of this IP regimen. In cases where optimal cytoreduction with residual disease

  18. Single step purification of concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production from jack bean using glucosylated magnetic nano matrix.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Cho, Eun Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jack bean (JB, Canavalia ensiformis) is the source of bio-based products, such as proteins and bio-sugars that contribute to modern molecular biology and biomedical research. In this study, the use of jack bean was evaluated as a source for concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production. A novel method for purifying Con A from JBs was successfully developed using a glucosylated magnetic nano matrix (GMNM) as a physical support, which facilitated easy separation and purification of Con A. In addition, the enzymatic conversion rate of 2% (w/v) Con A extracted residue to bio-sugar was 98.4%. Therefore, this new approach for the production of Con A and bio-sugar is potentially useful for obtaining bio-based products from jack bean.

  19. The ConNECT Framework: a model for advancing behavioral medicine science and practice to foster health equity.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Sly, Jamilia; Ashing, Kimlin; Fleisher, Linda; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Ford, Sabrina; Yi, Jean C; Lu, Qian; Meade, Cathy D; Menon, Usha; Gwede, Clement K

    2017-02-01

    Health disparities persist despite ongoing efforts. Given the United States' rapidly changing demography and socio-cultural diversity, a paradigm shift in behavioral medicine is needed to advance research and interventions focused on health equity. This paper introduces the ConNECT Framework as a model to link the sciences of behavioral medicine and health equity with the goal of achieving equitable health and outcomes in the twenty-first century. We first evaluate the state of health equity efforts in behavioral medicine science and identify key opportunities to advance the field. We then discuss and present actionable recommendations related to ConNECT's five broad and synergistic principles: (1) Integrating Context; (2) Fostering a Norm of Inclusion; (3) Ensuring Equitable Diffusion of Innovations; (4) Harnessing Communication Technology; and (5) Prioritizing Specialized Training. The framework holds significant promise for furthering health equity and ushering in a new and refreshing era of behavioral medicine science and practice.

  20. UniCon3D: de novo protein structure prediction using united-residue conformational search via stepwise, probabilistic sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Cao, Renzhi; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Recent experimental studies have suggested that proteins fold via stepwise assembly of structural units named ‘foldons’ through the process of sequential stabilization. Alongside, latest developments on computational side based on probabilistic modeling have shown promising direction to perform de novo protein conformational sampling from continuous space. However, existing computational approaches for de novo protein structure prediction often randomly sample protein conformational space as opposed to experimentally suggested stepwise sampling. Results: Here, we develop a novel generative, probabilistic model that simultaneously captures local structural preferences of backbone and side chain conformational space of polypeptide chains in a united-residue representation and performs experimentally motivated conditional conformational sampling via stepwise synthesis and assembly of foldon units that minimizes a composite physics and knowledge-based energy function for de novo protein structure prediction. The proposed method, UniCon3D, has been found to (i) sample lower energy conformations with higher accuracy than traditional random sampling in a small benchmark of 6 proteins; (ii) perform comparably with the top five automated methods on 30 difficult target domains from the 11th Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment and on 15 difficult target domains from the 10th CASP experiment; and (iii) outperform two state-of-the-art approaches and a baseline counterpart of UniCon3D that performs traditional random sampling for protein modeling aided by predicted residue-residue contacts on 45 targets from the 10th edition of CASP. Availability and Implementation: Source code, executable versions, manuals and example data of UniCon3D for Linux and OSX are freely available to non-commercial users at http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/UniCon3D/. Contact: chengji@missouri.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are

  1. Induction of Antibodies Directed Against Branched Core O-Mannosyl Glycopeptides-Selectivity Complimentary to the ConA Lectin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Grant, Oliver C; Pett, Christian; Stahl, Sabine; Woods, Robert J; Westerlind, Ulrika

    2017-03-08

    Mammalian protein O-mannosylation, initiated by attachment of α-mannopyranose to Ser or Thr residues, comprise a group of post-translational modifications (PTMs) involved in muscle and brain development. Recent advances in glycoproteomics methodology and the "SimpleCell" strategy have enabled rapid identification of glycoproteins and specific glycosylation sites. Despite the enormous progress made, the biological impact of the mammalian O-mannosyl glycoproteome remains largely unknown to date. Tools are still needed to investigate the structure, role, and abundance of O-mannosyl glycans. Although O-mannosyl branching has been shown to be of relevance in integrin-dependent cell migration, and also plays a role in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, a broader understanding of the biological roles of branched O-mannosyl glycans is lacking in part due to the paucity of detection tools. In this work, a glycopeptide vaccine construct was synthesized and used to generate antibodies against branched O-mannosyl glycans. Glycopeptide microarray screening revealed high selectivity of the induced antibodies for branched glycan core structures presented on different peptide backbones, with no cross-reactivity observed with related linear glycans. For comparison, microarray screening of the mannose-binding lectin concanavalin A (ConA), which is commonly used in glycoproteomics workflows to enrich tryptic O-mannosyl peptides, showed that the ConA lectin did not recognize branched O-mannosyl glycans. The binding preference of ConA for short linear O-mannosyl glycans was rationalized in terms of molecular structure using crystallographic data augmented by molecular modeling. The contrast between the ConA binding specificity and that of the new antibodies indicates a novel role for the antibodies in studies of protein O-mannosylation.

  2. Violación del Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, S. J.; Sisterna, P. D.; Vucetich, H.

    Se estudian las violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas. En estos modelos, algunas de las constantes fundamentales dependen del espacio y del tiempo. Se muestra que los experimentos de caída libre no tienen aún precisión como para poner límites a los parámetros de la teoría.

  3. Con_A-CNT (Carbon Nanotube) Conjugate with Short Wave Near-Infrared (SWIR) Laser Ablation for Tumor Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-11

    originate from hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow during childhood development for “adaptive immune system” in Thymus organ with a variety of “T...cells,” short for Thymus cells,: so-called helper, cytotoxic, memory, regulator, natural killer (NK), alpha-beta-gamma-delta receptor called T cells...cells [17-19]. We have reported Concanavalin A (Con A), a plant lectin isolated from Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean) seeds, can agglutinate cells with

  4. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  5. Nqrs Data for C10H12CoN2NaO8 (Subst. No. 1263)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H12CoN2NaO8 (Subst. No. 1263)

  6. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E.; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  7. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  8. [Malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami con coinvolgimento della corteccia frontale e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici resistenti: un caso clinico].

    PubMed

    Gramaglia, Carla; Feggi, Alessandro; Vecchi, Camilla; Di Marco, Sarah; Venesia, Alessandra; Delicato, Claudia; Chieppa, Nunzia; De Marchi, Fabiola; Cantello, Roberto; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Descrivere il management di un paziente con malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami (MBD) associata a lesioni frontali corticali, senza sintomi specifici al primo accesso in Pronto Soccorso, e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici atipici. Metodi. Descriviamo il caso di un paziente di 44 anni con storia di abuso cronico di alcol, a cui è stata diagnosticata la MBD. Risultati. La risonanza magnetica ha evidenziato lesioni nello splenio e corpo del corpo calloso e lesioni bilaterali della corteccia frontale. Il paziente ha sviluppato sintomi psichiatrici atipici a insorgenza tardiva, che sono risultati essere resistenti alle terapie farmacologiche impostate. Discussione. Il caso che descriviamo sembra supportare le attuali, ma ancora scarse evidenze che descrivono il coinvolgimento corticale nella MBD, suggerendone l'associazione con una prognosi peggiore. I sintomi psichiatrici possono risultare difficili da trattare a causa della resistenza alle terapie. Conclusione. Il coinvolgimento di psichiatri, radiologi e neurologi secondo un approccio di consultazione-liaison si è dimostrato di fondamentale importanza per la diagnosi e l'impostazione della terapia adeguata al paziente.

  9. ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Stefan H.; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J.J.; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J.; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. PMID:26721389

  10. Pros and cons of prostate cancer screening: associations with screening knowledge and attitudes among urban African American men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stacy N; Diefenbach, Michael A; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Chen, Tianle; Hall, Simon J; Thompson, Hayley S

    2010-03-01

    Discussion of the pros and cons of prostate cancer screening tests, rather than routine screening, is recommended to support informed screening decisions, particularly among African American men. This study explored physician explanation of pros and cons of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal exam (DRE) and its association with knowledge and screening attitudes. Two hundred-one African American men were asked if a physician had ever provided a comprehensive explanation of pros and cons of the PSA test and DRE. All men completed a 10-item prostate cancer knowledge scale and a subset completed a 26-item attitudes measure. Only 13% of the sample reported receiving a comprehensive explanation. Also, prostate cancer knowledge in the sample was low (mean = 43% correct). Multivariate analyses revealed that total prostate cancer knowledge was associated with men receiving a comprehensive explanation (p = .05), as well as past prostate cancer screening (p = .02) and younger age (p = .009). Although comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening was related to total prostate cancer knowledge, it was unrelated to a subset of items that may be central to fully informed screening decisions. Furthermore, comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening (p = .02), along with DRE recommendation (p = .009) and older age (p = .02), were related to fewer negative screening attitudes. Findings suggest that continued focus on patient education and physician communication is warranted.

  11. Cálculos ab initio con correlación electrónica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchán Bonete, M.

    Estamos entrando en una era donde la ortogonalidad entre las investigaciones de carácter experimental y de naturaleza teórica se irá difuminando progresivamente y la problemática a resolver quedará en escena como el único actor principal de la obra. Como premisa para una cooperación teórico-experimental de igual a igual, la metodología químico-cuántica utilizada debe ser capaz de ofrecer resultados de carácter predictivo. Sin duda, esta madurez en la metodología químico-cuántica ya la hemos alcanzado hace algunos años, tal y como muestra entre otras muchas, la labor que nuestro grupo ha realizado en el transcurso de la última década, dentro del campo de la Espectroscopía Teórica. Los estudios realizados comprenden una amplia gama de sistemas, variando tanto en tamaño como en complejidad, abordando problemáticas espectroscópicas consideradas tradicionalmente como especialmente controvertidas. Nuestra contribución científica más relevante reside en el carácter cuantitativo de las asignaciones espectroscópicas que hemos propuesto en base a resultados ab initio. Recordemos que en los años noventa los resultados ab initio solían presentar para las energías de excitación de sistemas de tamaño molecular moderado, como el benceno, errores de más de 1 eV. En comparación con el éxito relativo de los métodos semiempíricos, la frustración de la metodología ab initio quedaba todavía más patente. Los estudios que hemos presentado representan una comprensión profunda de los espectros electrónicos en sistemas orgánicos claves, mostrando el camino a seguir para obtener asignaciones espectroscópicas precisas (entre 0.1-0.2 eV). La naturaleza del método CASPT2 junto al diseño de estrategias computacionales nos ha permitido alcanzar el carácter cuantitativo con el que se caracterizan nuestras contribuciones[1,2]. Por todo ello, algunos de los trabajos publicados se consideran clásicos dentro del campo, pues en cierto modo definen el

  12. Stellate Cell Activation and Imbalanced Expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 in Acute Autoimmune Liver Lesions Induced by ConA in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Lei; Zhang, Jinping; Qian, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To study the pathogenic feature of liver injury, activation of hepatic stellate cells, and dynamic expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 to reveal their role in liver injury induced by ConA. Methods. Mice were randomly divided into control group and ConA treatment group. ConA (20 mg/kg) was injected through vena caudalis in ConA treatment group; the controls received the same volume of saline injection. After injection for 2 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h, animals were terminated. Blood, liver, and spleen were harvested. Liver function and histopathology were studied. α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 were detected. Results. After ConA injection, liver damage started to increase. Expression of α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 was significantly enhanced; all above indicators reached peak at 8 h; but from 24 h after ConA injection, TGF-β3 expression began to decline, while the TGF-β1/TGF-β3 ratio at 48 h was significantly lower than control. Conclusion. (1) Autoimmune liver injury induced by ConA showed time-based features, in which the most serious liver lesions happened at 8 h after ConA injection. (2) Early activation of HSC and imbalance expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 existed in ConA-induced acute autoimmune liver injury, which may be associated with liver dysfunction and the mechanisms of progression to fibrosis. PMID:28246592

  13. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  14. Nanoparticulas basadas en complejos de Fe(II) con transicion de espin: sintesis, caracterizacion y aplicaciones en electronica molecular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrabal Capilla, Maria

    Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, con una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, con un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, con el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y con un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la

  15. Análisis del espectro infrarrojo del polvo interestelar asociado con cúmulos globulares y de su evolución temporal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizza, L. J.; Forte, J. C.; Carpintero, D.

    El trabajo que se presenta investiga la dinámica de las partículas de polvo interestelar eyectadas por estrellas gigantes rojas en un cúmulo globular utilizando simulaciones numéricas de su interacción con el campo gravitatorio y con la radiación electromagnética de las estrellas. Se pretende con ello determinar la distribución espacial de ese material como una función del tiempo en un sistema similar a NGC 104 (47 Tuc). A partir de la distribución espacial resultante se obtuvo el espectro infrarrojo integrado el cual sugiere que el máximo contraste con la radiación estelar ocurre en longitudes de onda cercanas a 300 μm y que decrece rápidamente hacia longitudes de onda menores, en las que suelen realizarse las observaciones.

  16. Assessment of Response to Lithium Maintenance Treatment in Bipolar Disorder: A Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) Report

    PubMed Central

    Manchia, Mirko; Adli, Mazda; Akula, Nirmala; Ardau, Raffaella; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Backlund, Lena; Banzato, Claudio EM.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bellivier, Frank; Bengesser, Susanne; Biernacka, Joanna M.; Brichant-Petitjean, Clara; Bui, Elise; Calkin, Cynthia V.; Cheng, Andrew Tai Ann; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Scott; Czerski, Piotr M.; Dantas, Clarissa; Zompo, Maria Del; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Etain, Bruno; Falkai, Peter; Frisén, Louise; Frye, Mark A.; Fullerton, Jan; Gard, Sébastien; Garnham, Julie; Goes, Fernando S.; Grof, Paul; Gruber, Oliver; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Joanna; Heilbronner, Urs; Hoban, Rebecca; Hou, Liping; Jamain, Stéphane; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kassem, Layla; Kato, Tadafumi; Kelsoe, John R.; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Kusumi, Ichiro; Laje, Gonzalo; Lavebratt, Catharina; Leboyer, Marion; Leckband, Susan G.; López Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Maj, Mario; Malafosse, Alain; Martinsson, Lina; Masui, Takuya; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mondimore, Frank; Monteleone, Palmiero; Nallet, Audrey; Neuner, Maria; Novák, Tomás; O’Donovan, Claire; Ösby, Urban; Ozaki, Norio; Perlis, Roy H.; Pfennig, Andrea; Potash, James B.; Reich-Erkelenz, Daniela; Reif, Andreas; Reininghaus, Eva; Richardson, Sara; Rouleau, Guy A.; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Schalling, Martin; Schofield, Peter R.; Schubert, Oliver K.; Schweizer, Barbara; Seemüller, Florian; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Severino, Giovanni; Seymour, Lisa R.; Slaney, Claire; Smoller, Jordan W.; Squassina, Alessio; Stamm, Thomas; Steele, Jo; Stopkova, Pavla; Tighe, Sarah K.; Tortorella, Alfonso; Turecki, Gustavo; Wray, Naomi R.; Wright, Adam; Zandi, Peter P.; Zilles, David; Bauer, Michael; Rietschel, Marcella; McMahon, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The assessment of response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) is complicated by variable length of treatment, unpredictable clinical course, and often inconsistent compliance. Prospective and retrospective methods of assessment of lithium response have been proposed in the literature. In this study we report the key phenotypic measures of the “Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder” scale currently used in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) study. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine ConLiGen sites took part in a two-stage case-vignette rating procedure to examine inter-rater agreement [Kappa (κ)] and reliability [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)] of lithium response. Annotated first-round vignettes and rating guidelines were circulated to expert research clinicians for training purposes between the two stages. Further, we analyzed the distributional properties of the treatment response scores available for 1,308 patients using mixture modeling. Results Substantial and moderate agreement was shown across sites in the first and second sets of vignettes (κ = 0.66 and κ = 0.54, respectively), without significant improvement from training. However, definition of response using the A score as a quantitative trait and selecting cases with B criteria of 4 or less showed an improvement between the two stages (ICC1 = 0.71 and ICC2 = 0.75, respectively). Mixture modeling of score distribution indicated three subpopulations (full responders, partial responders, non responders). Conclusions We identified two definitions of lithium response, one dichotomous and the other continuous, with moderate to substantial inter-rater agreement and reliability. Accurate phenotypic measurement of lithium response is crucial for the ongoing ConLiGen pharmacogenomic study. PMID:23840348

  17. Sophocarpine Protects Mice from ConA-Induced Hepatitis via Inhibition of the IFN-Gamma/STAT1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Cong-En; Liu, Shi-Jing; Shen, Hong-Hui; Guo, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-01-01

    Sophocarpine is the major pharmacologically active compound of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Radix Sophorae Subprostratae which has been used in treating hepatitis for years in China. It has been demonstrated that Sophocarpine exerts an activity in immune modulation and significantly decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines. However, the protective effects of Sophocarpine in T cell-dependent immune hepatitis remained unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of Sophocarpine on Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, an experimental model of T cell-mediated liver injury. BALB/C mice were pretreated with Sophocarpine or Bicyclol for five consecutive days. Thirty minutes after the final administration, the mice were injected with 15 mg⋅kg-1 of ConA intravenously. The results indicated that pretreatment with Sophocarpine significantly ameliorated liver inflammation and injury as evidenced by both biochemical and histopathological observations. Moreover, in Sophocarpine-pretreated mice, liver messenger RNA expression levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, CXC chemokine ligand 10, and Intercellular adhesion molecule-1, were markedly reduced. Further studies revealed that Sophocarpine significantly downregulated the expression of T-bet via inhibition of signal transducers and activators of transcription1 (STAT1) activation and overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling1, inhibiting the activation of Th1 cells and the expression of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Altogether, these results suggest new opportunities to use Sophocarpine in the treatment of T cell-mediated liver disease. In summary, Sophocarpine could attenuate ConA-induced liver injury, and the protective effect of Sophocarpine was associated with its inhibition effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and the IFN-γ/STAT1 signaling pathway. PMID:28377718

  18. The InterCon network: a program for education partnerships at the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Bouldin, P A; Farver, D W; Maugans, L A; Sanders, L C; Booker, J

    1999-04-01

    The University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center (UT-Houston) has created programs and activities to address the state's pressing needs in minority education. Through InterCon, a network of universities and K-12 schools, UT-Houston works with its partners to identify competitive candidates in the current pool of minority graduates with bachelor's degrees and to help them--along with their non-minority counterparts--progress in their education. Another objective is to expand the pool of minorities underrepresented in medicine who complete high school and go to college. In 1994 UT-Houston and Prairie View A&M University created a collaborative venture to provide new educational opportunities at UT-Houston for Prairie View's predominantly African American students. A three-track summer internship program--a result of that collaboration--has since been expanded to partnerships with other minority and majority universities throughout Texas. In 1998, for example, 108 undergraduate students from these universities (and 40 other universities nationwide) participated in research, professional, and administrative summer internships at UT-Houston. The InterCon network also has partnerships with K-12 schools. UT-Houston works with inner-city, suburban, and rural school districts to develop education models that can be transferred throughout the state. The partnerships deal with helping to teach basic academic skills and computer literacy, improve science-related instruction, meet demands for health promotion materials and information for school-initiated health and wellness programs, and develop distance-learning paradigms. UT-Houston views InterCon as a program helping Texas institutions to engage and adapt to the socioeconomic factors, demographic changes, and technology explosion that currently challenge public education.

  19. Influence of parameter values and variances and algorithm architecture in ConsExpo model on modeled exposures.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susan F; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of parameter values and variances and model architecture on modeled exposures, and identified important data gaps that influence lack-of-knowledge-related uncertainty, using Consexpo 4.1 as an illustrative case study. Understanding the influential determinants in exposure estimates enables more informed and appropriate use of this model and the resulting exposure estimates. In exploring the influence of parameter placement in an algorithm and of the values and variances chosen to characterize the parameters within ConsExpo, "sensitive" and "important" parameters were identified: product amount, weight fraction, exposure duration, exposure time, and ventilation rate were deemed "important," or "always sensitive." With this awareness, exposure assessors can strategically focus on acquiring the most robust estimates for these parameters. ConsExpo relies predominantly on three algorithms to assess the default scenarios: inhalation vapors evaporation equation using the Langmuir mass transfer, the dermal instant application with diffusion through the skin, and the oral ingestion by direct uptake algorithm. These algorithms, which do not necessarily render health conservative estimates, account for 87, 89 and 59% of the inhalation, dermal and oral default scenario assessments,respectively, according them greater influence relative to the less frequently used algorithms. Default data provided in ConsExpo may be useful to initiate assessments, but are insufficient for determining exposure acceptability or setting policy, as parameters defined by highly uncertain values produce biased estimates that may not be health conservative. Furthermore, this lack-of-knowledge uncertainty makes the magnitude of this bias uncertain. Significant data gaps persist for product amount, exposure time, and exposure duration. These "important" parameters exert influence in requiring broad values and variances to account for their uncertainty. Prioritizing

  20. Antidepressant-like effect of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr) lectin in mice: evidence for the involvement of the glutamatergic system.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Débora K; Costa, Ana Paula; Budni, Josiane; Moretti, Morgana; Barbosa, Sabrina Giovana Rocha; Nascimento, Kyria S; Teixeira, Edson H; Cavada, Benildo S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Leal, Rodrigo B

    2014-07-01

    Lectins recognize and reversibly bind to carbohydrates attached to proteins and lipids modulating a variety of signaling pathways. We previously showed that ConBr, a lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds, produced an antidepressant-like effect in mice by modulating the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Moreover, ConBr blocked hippocampal neurotoxicity induced by quinolinic acid in vivo and by glutamate in vitro, suggesting a neuroprotective activity of ConBr via glutamatergic system modulation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the antidepressant-like action displayed by ConBr in the forced swimming test (FST). With the aim of verifying the involvement of NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of ConBr (10 μg/site, i.c.v.), an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) pretreatment with either NMDA (0.1 pmol/site) or D-serine (30 μg/site) was carried out. The results show that both treatments blocked the effect of ConBr. Furthermore, the coadministration of subeffective doses of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.001 mg/kg, i.p.) or ketamine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.; NMDA receptor antagonist) and ConBr (0.1 μg/site, i.c.v.) caused a synergistic reduction in immobility time. In order to verify the dependence of the L-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway, on the effect of ConBr in the FST, a pretreatment with the NO precursor, L-arginine (750 mg/kg, i.p.), or the PDE5 inhibitor, sildenafil (5 mg/kg, i.p.), was performed. Both drugs abolished the antidepressant-like action of ConBr. Finally, the administration of subeffective doses of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 30 pmol/site, i.c.v.) and ConBr (0.1 μg/site, i.c.v.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the FST. Taken together, the results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of ConBr in the FST involves NMDA

  1. Hacia el consumo informado de tabaco en México: efecto de las advertencias con pictogramas en población fumadora

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el efecto de las advertencias sanitarias (AS) con pictogramas en las cajetillas de tabaco en adultos fumadores. Material y métodos Cohorte de fumadores con representatividad poblacional de siete ciudades mexi canas, antes (2010) y después (2011) de la implementación de AS con pictogramas (ASP). Para determinar el cambio en las variables sobre el impacto cognitivo y conductual de las advertencias, se estimaron modelos bivariados y ajustados de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada. En el Segundo levantamiento (2011), se estimaron modelos para determiner los factores que se asocian con el reporte de recordar cada advertencia que había entrado al mercado, además de los factores asociados con el autorreporte del impacto de cada advertencia vigente. Resultados Se observaron incrementos importantes de 2010 a 2011 en los conocimientos sobre los riesgos de fumar, los componentes tóxicos del tabaco y el número telefónico para recibir consejos sobre dejar de fumar. La recordación e impacto de las primeras advertencias con pictogramas parecen ser amplios y equitativos a través de la población fumadora. En comparación con 2010, un mayor nivel de ex fumadores entrevistados en 2011 reportaron que las advertencias habían influido mucho en dejar de fumar (RM=2.44, 95% IC 1.27–4.72). Conclusiones Las AS con pictogramas han logrado un impacto importante en el conocimiento y conducta, información relevante para la población y en tomadores de decisiones. PMID:22689162

  2. Pros and Cons of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagri, Durgadas S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes pros and cons of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).

  3. Cámara CCD Directa con el Telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO: algunos diagnósticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.

    Se efectuaron algunas pruebas con la cámara CCD (+ Reductor Focal) instalada en el foco Cassegrain del Telescopio de 2.15 m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). Las conclusiones más significativas son: Los tiempos de exposición efectivos difieren de los nominales en una fracción apreciable de segundo. En exposiciones de menos de 3 segundos, la iluminación no es pareja en todo el detector. En consecuencia, se recomiendan los pasos a seguir por los astrónomos tanto durante la observación como en la reducción de sus datos.

  4. A signal-on electrochemiluminescence biosensor for detecting Con A using phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride as signal probe.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xin; Tan, Xingrong; Liu, Xiaofang; Lu, Qiyi; Chen, Shihong; Wei, Shaping

    2015-08-15

    A novel signal-on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for detecting concanavalin A (Con A) was fabricated with phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride (DexP-g-C3N4) as signal probe. In this construction strategy, the nanocomposites of three-dimensional graphene and gold nanoparticles (3D-GR-AuNPs) were used as matrix for high loading of glucose oxidase (GOx), which served as recognition element for bounding Con A. Con A further interacted with DexP-g-C3N4 through a specific carbohydrate-Con A interaction to achieve a sandwiched scheme. With the increase of Con A incubated onto the electrode, the ECL signal resulted from DexP-g-C3N4 would enhance, thus achieving a signal-on ECL biosensor for Con A detection. Due to the integration of the virtues of 3D-GR-AuNPs and the excellent ECL performance of DexP-g-C3N4, the prepared biosensor exhibits a wide linear response range from 0.05 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 17 pg/mL (S/N=3).

  5. A Recovery-Oriented Care Approach: Weighing the Pros and Cons of a Newly Built Mental Health Facility.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Catherine Clark; Bieling, Peter; McKinnon, Margaret C; McNeely, Heather E; Langstaff, Karen

    2016-02-01

    The current study adopted a recovery-oriented care approach by emphasizing patients' perspectives and experiences regarding changes to a newly built mental health facility. The inpatient entrance, or "portal," intended to balance the aims of recovery-oriented care with minimizing risk. A mixed-methods study of the portal's pros and cons was conducted, according to four themes: (a) autonomy versus inconvenience; (b) safety and security versus stigma; (c) unit door versus portal operating costs; and (d) privacy versus community integration. Focus groups engaging with patients (N = 39) indicated that the design effectively supported recovery-oriented care. Patients did not find the portal to be stigmatizing or triggering and valued the safety and privacy it created, and visitors also generally had a positive experience. Survey responses (N = 101) from portal users were also positive about the new design. The study findings suggest that the pros outweighed the cons of the new design. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 39-48.].

  6. Actitudes Éticas de los estudiantes y egresados en carrera de medicina con metodologías activas

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Stepke, Fernando Lolas; Silveira, Carla Cristina Costa; Komatsu, Ricardo Shoiti; Trindade, Eliane Mendonça Vilar; Guiotti, Murilo Galvão

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por objeto desarrollar un diagnostico de la inserción integrada de la ética en la carrera de medicina brasileña con una metodología de aprendizaje basada en problemas y describir las percepciones de actitudes éticas de los estudiantes y egresados. El diseño metodológico es un estudio de caso, descriptivo y documental, con abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo. La muestra de esta investigación ha sido constituida por 120 estudiantes y 40 egresados de dos promociones del Curso de Medicina de la ESCS. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación - SES/DF. Los estudiantes y egresados de la ESCS demostraron un buen manejo en el abordaje de los conflictos éticos y respeto a los pacientes. Sin embargo, el análisis de sensibilidad ética mostró una fragilidad en las percepciones y aptitudes inapropiadas de los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina, identificada básicamente en los años iniciales, que necesitan más discusiones sistematizadas sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos integrados a las actividades prácticas para estimular y fortalecer la reflexión ética de los estudiantes. PMID:20981242

  7. Development of a novel DNA SynCon tetravalent dengue vaccine that elicits immune responses against four serotypes.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Mathura P; Kuo, Yuan-Chia; Selling, Bernard H; Li, Qianjun; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Kim, J Joseph; Weiner, David B

    2009-10-30

    The increased transmission and geographic spread of dengue fever (DF) and its most severe presentations, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), make it one of the most important mosquito-borne viral disease of humans. Four distinct serotypes of dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of the mosquitoes. Currently there is no vaccine or antiviral drug against DV infections. Cross-protection between dengue virus serotypes is limited and antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) contributes significantly to the severity of the disease. The major challenge is to induce a broad durable immune response against all four serotypes of dengue virus simultaneously while avoiding the possible exacerbation of risk of developing the severe forms of disease through incomplete or modified responses. In order to address this worldwide concern, we present a synthetic consensus (SynCon) human codon optimized DNA vaccine that elicits immunity against all four dengue serotypes. We cloned consensus DIII domain of E protein from all serotypes and expressed them as a single open reading frame in a mammalian expression vector, called pDV-U-DIII (dengue-vaccine universal). In mice, this dengue-universal construct elicits significant level of anti-DIII antibody that neutralizes all four dengue subtypes and prevents cell death induced by dengue infection. This is the first SynCon DNA vaccine that provides tetravalent immunity against all four serotypes of dengue virus.

  8. Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales en la UPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria

    Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, con el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas con los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas con los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada con los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a

  9. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  10. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  11. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA.

  12. Hepatic NK cell-mediated hypersensitivity to ConA-induced liver injury in mouse liver expressing hepatitis C virus polyprotein.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiuxia; Yan, Shaoduo; Wang, Licui; Duan, Xiangguo; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yue; Wu, Tao; Wang, Xiaohui; An, Jie; Zhang, Yulong; Zhou, Qianqian; Zhan, Linsheng

    2016-08-04

    The role of hepatic NK cells in the pathogenesis of HCV-associated hepatic failure is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of HCV on ConA-induced immunological hepatic injury and the influence of HCV on hepatic NK cell activation in the liver after ConA administration. An immunocompetent HCV mouse model that encodes the entire viral polyprotein in a liver-specific manner based on hydrodynamic injection and φC31o integrase was used to study the role of hepatic NK cells. Interestingly, the frequency of hepatic NK cells was reduced in HCV mice, whereas the levels of other intrahepatic lymphocytes remained unaltered. Next, we investigated whether the reduction in NK cells within HCV mouse livers might elicit an effect on immune-mediated liver injury. HCV mice were subjected to acute liver injury models upon ConA administration. We observed that HCV mice developed more severe ConA-induced immune-mediated hepatitis, which was dependent on the accumulated intrahepatic NK cells. Our results indicated that after the administration of ConA, NK cells not only mediated liver injury through the production of immunoregulatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and perforin) with direct antiviral activity, but they also killed target cells directly through the TRAIL/DR5 and NKG2D/NKG2D ligand signaling pathway in HCV mice. Our findings suggest a critical role for NK cells in oversensitive liver injury during chronic HCV infection.

  13. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments.

    PubMed

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people's attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments' polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture.

  14. Quercetin Protects Mice from ConA-Induced Hepatitis by Inhibiting HMGB1-TLR Expression and Down-Regulating the Nuclear Factor Kappa B Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Liu, Hong-chun; Yao, Qun-yan; Xu, Bei-li; Zhang, Shun-cai; Tu, Chuan-tao

    2016-02-01

    The dietary flavonoid quercetin has hepatoprotective effects. We analyzed the effects of quercetin on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis in mice and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action. Mice were administered quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min before intravenous administration of ConA. Quercetin pretreatment significantly reduced the ConA-induced elevations in plasma aminotransferase concentrations and liver necrosis, as well as reducing serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-4. Quercetin pretreatment also reduced expression of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in liver tissues. Quercetin pretreatment significantly inhibited degradation of inhibitory kappa B alpha and modulated ConA-induced nuclear translocation in the liver of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65. These results demonstrate that quercetin protects against ConA-mediated hepatitis in mice by attenuating the HMGB1-TLRs-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  15. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments

    PubMed Central

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people’s attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments’ polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture. PMID:26840219

  16. Probabilidad de colisión de cometas periódicos con partículas interplanetarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil Hutton, R.

    Se presentan resultados sobre la probabilidad de colisión de cometas de corto período con la población de partículas interplanetarias presentes en la región del cinturón de asteroides. Se encuentra que este proceso colisional afecta la evolución física de los cometas de manera no despreciable y puede ser el responsable de variaciones de brillo de tipo ``outburst". Se presentan resultados para algunos cometas en particular y se obtiene un límite inferior para el tamaño de los núcleos en función de la distribución de radios del cinturón de asteroides.

  17. In vitro evolution of chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers: Pros and cons, and comprehensive selection strategies.

    PubMed

    Lipi, Farhana; Chen, Suxiang; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Rakesh, Shilpa; Veedu, Rakesh N

    2016-12-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotide sequences that bind to a specific target molecule with high affinity and specificity through their ability to adopt 3-dimensional structure in solution. Aptamers have huge potential as targeted therapeutics, diagnostics, delivery agents and as biosensors. However, aptamers composed of natural nucleotide monomers are quickly degraded in vivo and show poor pharmacodynamic properties. To overcome this, chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers are developed by incorporating modified nucleotides after or during the selection process by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX). This review will discuss the development of chemically-modified aptamers and provide the pros and cons, and new insights on in vitro aptamer selection strategies by using chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries.

  18. In vitro evolution of chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers: Pros and cons, and comprehensive selection strategies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Suxiang; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Rakesh, Shilpa; Veedu, Rakesh N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotide sequences that bind to a specific target molecule with high affinity and specificity through their ability to adopt 3-dimensional structure in solution. Aptamers have huge potential as targeted therapeutics, diagnostics, delivery agents and as biosensors. However, aptamers composed of natural nucleotide monomers are quickly degraded in vivo and show poor pharmacodynamic properties. To overcome this, chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers are developed by incorporating modified nucleotides after or during the selection process by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX). This review will discuss the development of chemically-modified aptamers and provide the pros and cons, and new insights on in vitro aptamer selection strategies by using chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries. PMID:27715478

  19. ON EFFECT OF HAZARD MAP ON CONS CIOUSNESS OF FLOOD DISASTER PREVENSION OF RESIDENTS WHO EXPERIENCED FLOOD RECENTLY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Koji; Koga, Syota; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki

    In this paper, the effect of the flood hazard map distributed to the residents who experienced flood disasters recently and an effective method for improving consciousness of flood di saster prevention are discussed. The questionnaire surveys were conducted on the residents living in the middle basin of the Nishiki River, Iwakuni city, Yamaguchi Prefecture, before and after the distribution of the hazard map. It is found from this investigation that "knowledge", "att achment", and "crisis", are the main factors in the psychological process related to the flood prevention behavior. The effect of the distribution of the hazard map is judged from the probability of the flood prevention behavior. In addition, it is also found that "knowledge", "flood experiment of T0514", "crisis", "eff ectiveness", "load", and "easy reading of the hazard map", are keys to improve the cons ciousness of flood di saster prevention.

  20. Nitrogen oxides and carbon chain oxides formed after ion irradiation of CO:N2 ice mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia, D.; Ioppolo, S.; Vindigni, T.; Baratta, G. A.; Palumbo, M. E.

    2012-07-01

    Context. High CO depletion as well as depletion of N-bearing species is observed in dense pre-stellar cores. It is generally accepted that depleted species freeze out onto dust grains to form icy mantles and that these ices suffer energetic processing due to cosmic ion irradiation and ion-induced UV photons. Aims: The aim of this work is to study the chemical and structural effects induced by ion irradiation on different CO:N2 mixtures at low temperature (16 K) to simulate the effects of cosmic ion irradiation of icy mantles. Methods: Different CO:N2 mixtures and pure CO and pure N2 were irradiated with 200 keV H+ at 16 K. Infrared transmittance spectra of the samples were obtained in situ before and after irradiation. The samples were warmed up and spectra were taken at different temperatures. The residues left over on the substrate at room temperature were analysed ex situ by micro Raman spectroscopy. Results: Several new absorption features are present in the infrared spectra after irradiation, indicating that new species are formed. The most abundant are nitrogen oxides (such as NO, NO2 and N2O), carbon chain oxides (such as C2O, C3O and C3O2), carbon chains (such as C3 and C6), O3 and N3. A refractory residue is also formed after ion irradiation and is clearly detected by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions: We suggest that carbon chains and nitrogen oxides observed in the gas phase towards star-forming regions are formed in the solid phase after cosmic ion irradiation of icy grain mantles and are released into the gas phase after desorption of grain mantles. We expect that the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), thanks to its high sensitivity and resolution, will increase the number of nitrogen oxides and carbon chain oxides detected towards star-forming regions.

  1. Binding of NIR-conPK and NIR-6T to Astrocytomas and Microglial Cells: Evidence for a Protein Related to TSPO

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Michelle; Woodruff, Grace; Cudaback, Eiron; Kreitzer, Faith R.; Xu, Cong; Lin, Yi Hsing; Möller, Thomas; Bai, Mingfeng; Manning, H. Charles; Bornhop, Darryl; Stella, Nephi

    2009-01-01

    PK 11195 and DAA1106 bind with high-affinity to the translocator protein (TSPO, formerly known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor). TSPO expression in glial cells increases in response to cytokines and pathological stimuli. Accordingly, [11C]-PK 11195 and [11C]-DAA1106 are recognized molecular imaging (MI) agents capable of monitoring changes in TSPO expression occurring in vivo and in response to various neuropathologies. Here we tested the pharmacological characteristics and TSPO-monitoring potential of two novel MI agents: NIR-conPK and NIR-6T. NIR-conPK is an analogue of PK 11195 conjugated to the near-infrared (NIR) emitting fluorophore: IRDye 800CW. NIR-6T is a DAA1106 analogue also conjugated to IRDye 800CW. We found that NIR-6T competed for [3H]-PK 11195 binding in astrocytoma cell homogenates with nanomolar affinity, but did not exhibit specific binding in intact astrocytoma cells in culture, indicating that NIR-6T is unlikely to constitute a useful MI agent for monitoring TSPO expression in intact cells. Conversely, we found that NIR-conPK did not compete for [3H]-PK 11195 binding in astrocytoma cell homogenate, but exhibited specific binding in intact astrocytoma cells in culture with nanomolar affinity, suggesting that NIR-conPK binds to a protein distinct, but related to, TSPO. Accordingly, treating intact astrocytoma cells and microglia in culture with cytokines led to significant changes in the amount of NIR-conPK specific binding without corresponding change in TSPO expression. Remarkably, the cytokine-induced changes in the protein targeted by NIR-conPK in intact microglia were selective, since IFN-γ (but not TNFα and TGFβ) increased the amount of NIR-conPK specific binding in these cells. Together these results suggest that NIR-conPK binds to a protein that is related to TSPO, and expressed by astrocytomas and microglia. Our results also suggest that the expression of this protein is increased by specific cytokines, and thus allows for

  2. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la

  3. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  4. Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil.

    PubMed

    d'Azevedo, P A; Secchi, C; Antunes, A L S; Sales, T; Silva, F M; Tranchesi, R; Pignatari, A C C

    2008-10-01

    In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.

  5. Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program DivCon into the PHENIX refinement package.

    PubMed

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Plumley, Joshua A; Martin, Roger I; Merz, Kenneth M; Westerhoff, Lance M

    2014-05-01

    Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program DivCon with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/DivCon package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein-ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/DivCon does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/DivCon is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography.

  6. Studies on prevalence of biofilm associated genes and primary observation on sasX gene in clinical isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Soumya, Kandammuriyil Radhakrishnan; Mathew, Shiji; Sugathan, Sheela; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, Edayileveettil Krishnankutty

    2016-04-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are nosocomial pathogens that cause indwelling medical device associated infections due to its biofilm forming potential and multiple antibiotic resistance. The current study focused on species identification, antibiotic resistance profile and molecular basis of biofilm formation and attachment of CoNS isolated from clinical samples. Along with this, molecular screening for mecA and newly identified surface colonization protein encoded by sasX gene was also conducted. S. epidermidis (n = 19, 47%) was identified as the most prevalent CoNS species and very interestingly two biofilm forming, mecA positive S. epidermidis isolates were found to carry all the biofilm associated genes screened in this study, which indicates its potential to form the strong biofilm. Another novel observation of the study is the detection of sasX gene in one biofilm positive S. epidermidis isolate. The study also identified one doxycycline resistant mecA positive, multidrug resistant S. haemolyticus isolate. In conclusion, the study signifies the existence of multiple biofilm related genes, multidrug resistance and the presence of sasX gene among clinical isolates of CoNS.

  7. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): A potential NLO material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinakaran, Paul M.; Kalainathan, S.

    2013-07-01

    4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6 × 2 × 3 mm3) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).

  8. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material.

    PubMed

    Dinakaran, Paul M; Kalainathan, S

    2013-07-01

    4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6×2×3 mm(3)) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).

  9. Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program DivCon into the PHENIX refinement package

    PubMed Central

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Plumley, Joshua A.; Martin, Roger I.; Merz, Kenneth M.; Westerhoff, Lance M.

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program DivCon with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/DivCon package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein–ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/DivCon does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/DivCon is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography. PMID:24816093

  10. Fragilidad y su asociación con mortalidad, hospitalizaciones y dependencia funcional en mexicanos de 60 años o más

    PubMed Central

    de León González, Enrique Díaz; Pérez, Héctor Eloy Tamez; Hermosillo, Hugo Gutiérrez; Rodríguez, Javier Armando Cedillo; Torres, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento y objetivo Determinar la asociación entre fragilidad y mortalidad, dependencia funcional, caídas y hospitalizaciones en el Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM). Sujetos y métodos Estudio prospectivo poblacional en México en el que se seleccionaron sujetos de 60 años o más, que fueron evaluados en las variables de fragilidad durante la primera vuelta del estudio en el año 2001 y que incluyó: dificultad para levantarse de una silla después de haber estado sentado(a) durante largo tiempo, pérdida de peso de 5 kilogramos o más en los últimos dos años y falta de energía. Los sujetos fueron catalogados como robustos, prefrágiles y frágiles cuando tenían cero, una o dos de las características anteriores, respectivamente. La mortalidad, hospitalizaciones, caídas y dependencia funcional fueron evaluadas en la segunda vuelta del estudio en el año 2003. Se calculó el riesgo relativo para cada una de las complicaciones, así como análisis multivariado con regresión de Cox para el caso de mortalidad y regresión logística para el resto. Resultados Los estados de prefragilidad y fragilidad se asociaron independientemente con mortalidad, con índices de riesgo ajustados de 1,61 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC 95%] 1,01-2,55) y 1,94 (IC 95% 1,20-3,13), respectivamente. Sólo el estado de fragilidad se asoció independientemente con hospitalización y dependencia funcional, con una razón de momios ajustada de 1,53 (IC 95% 1,13-2,07) y 3,07 (IC 95% 1,76-5,34), respectivamente. No hubo asociación entre los estados de prefragilidad y fragilidad con caídas. Conclusión El estado de fragilidad se asocia independientemente con mortalidad, hospitalizaciones y disfuncionalidad en actividades básicas de la vida diaria en los siguientes dos años en población mexicana. PMID:21612803

  11. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  12. Intra-oral Mouth-Guard In Sport Related Oro-Facial Injuries: Prevention is Better Than Cure!

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Sneha S.; Mantri, Shivkumar P.; Deogade, Suryakant; Bhasin, Abhilasha S.

    2014-01-01

    India is rapidly assuming a more health-conscious posture. Olympic competition and professional sports have turned from mere dreams into goals. Many major professional sports leagues are expanding. Sports dentistry is a composite of skills for treatment, prevention, education and research in which dentistry and sports come together. Custom athletic mouth guards present additional health-care opportunities. They are designed to reduce the impact force of a direct blow to the jaw and create a gap between the condyle and skull thereby reducing the transference of the impact to the brain. The prevalence and severity of injuries to the teeth, jaws and intra-oral and peri-oral soft tissues, concussions and neck injuries are reduced when mouth guards are used. The dentist can play a proactive role in helping to deliver important expanded health care services. PMID:24596803

  13. Immunoreactivity for Thymosin Beta 4 and Thymosin Beta 10 in the Adult Rat Oro-Gastro-Intestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Nemolato, S; Ekstrom, J.; Cabras, T.; Gerosa, C.; Fanni, D.; Di Felice, E.; Locci, A.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.

    2013-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10) are two members of the β-thymosin family, involved in multiple cellular activities in different organs in multiple animal species. Here we report the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in rat tissues, in the gut and in annexed glands. The two peptide were differently expressed: Tβ4 was absent in salivary glands whereas Tβ10 was expressed in parotid and in submandibular glands. Tβ4 was mildly expressed in the tongue and in the esophagus, where Tβ10 was absent. A similar expression was found in the stomach, ileum and colon mucosa. In pancreas Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to the Langerhans islet cells; Tβ4 was also detected in the exocrine cells. Both peptide were not expressed in liver cells. When the rat expression pattern in rat organs was compared to reactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 in humans, marked differences were found. Our data clearly indicate a species-specific expression of Tβ4 and Tβ10, characterized by the actual unpredictability of the expression of these peptides in different cells and tissues. The common high expression of Tβ4 in mast cells, both in humans and in rats, represents one of the few similarities between these two species. PMID:23807296

  14. [Evaluation of oro-cecal transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with cereal products intolerance].

    PubMed

    Błońska, Aleksandra; Konrad, Paulina; Chojnacki, Jan; Chojnacki, Cezary

    2017-03-21

    The main symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) include abnormal frequency of bowel movements. On this basis, three main clinical types of the disease have been distinguished, i.e.: constipation (IBSC), diarrhea (IBS-D) and mixed-type (IBS-M) in accordance with the Rome III criteria. These disorders mainly affect the colon, but symptoms related to upper gastrointestinal tract are also often observed.

  15. [Early cancer detection in the oro-pharyngo-laryngeal area: analysis of a regional screening project (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Steiner, W; Bierl, F; Köstler, R; Jaumann, M P; Panis, R

    1976-11-01

    During a six months lasting screening project 6866 persons were examined free of cost. Inspection of the mouth, endoscopy of the naso-hypopharynx and larynx with the Wolf-endoscope after v. Stuckrad, and palpation of the neck were included. Every sixth person required further diagnosis or treatment. Precanceroses were found in almost 3%, and up to now malignomas were found in 0.3% of the screened persons. Among these 14 cases of cancer were 9 carcinomas of the larynx. This comparatively high percentage of precanceroses and cancer favors the endoscopic screening of patients with organ-related symptoms and of high risk groups.

  16. Exercise energy expenditure is not consciously detected due to oro-gastric, not metabolic, basis of hunger sensation.

    PubMed

    Borer, Katarina T; Wuorinen, Elizabeth; Chao, Cewin; Burant, Charles

    2005-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that exercise energy expenditure (EEE) will elicit reflex metabolic compensations but no increases in hunger. Exercise expended 800 kcal once when fasted and at another time in a post-prandial state. During fasting exercise, pre-meal ratings of hunger were unaffected by EEE, but plasma concentrations of ghrelin, growth hormone and free fatty acids were higher than in the absence of EEE. We propose that the perception of hunger is based on the vagal, lateral hypothalamic and cortical projections of oral and gastro-intestinal (GI) stimuli and that EEE triggers neuroendocrine compensations and influences hunger indirectly by affecting GI functions.

  17. An Atypical Case of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis: Predominant Parkinsonism and Persisting Micrographia without Oro-facial Dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Masato; Kadoya, Akiko; Onoue, Hiroyuki; Ikewaki, Katsunori; Kaida, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 46-year-old man with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis with prominent parkinsonism. The patient presented with psychiatric symptoms followed by epileptic seizure and parkinsonism including micrographia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed lesions in the bilateral medial temporal lobes and basal ganglia on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. His symptoms and MRI findings were ameliorated by immunotherapy but then relapsed. After retreatment, his parkinsonism gradually improved except for the micrographia. This is an atypical case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in that the patient showed prominent and refractory parkinsonism, thus indicating that the clinical diversity of anti-NMDAR encephalitis is greater than expected.

  18. 78 FR 32240 - Notice of Inent (NOI) To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Oro Verde Solar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... development of up to 450 Megawatts of renewable energy on Edwards Air Force Base (AFB). The Proposed Action... developer would construct a 230- kilovolt (kV) generation interconnection (Gen-tie) line connecting the OVSP to Southern California Edison's Windhub substation or to the Los Angeles Department of Power...

  19. Should a Preschool Child with Acute Episodic Wheeze be Treated with Oral Corticosteroids? A Pro/Con Debate.

    PubMed

    Beigelman, Avraham; Durrani, Sandy; Guilbert, Theresa W

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, preschool-aged children with an acute wheezing episode have been treated with oral corticosteroids (OCSs) based on the efficacy of OCSs in older children and adolescents. However, this practice has been recently challenged based on the results of recent studies. The argument supporting the use of OCSs underscores the observation that many children with recurrent preschool wheezing develop atopic disease in early life which predicts both an increased risk to develop asthma in later life and response to OCS therapy. Further, review of the literature demonstrates heterogeneity of study designs, OCS dosage, interventions, study medication adherence, and settings and overall lack of predefined preschool wheezing phenotypes. The heterogeneity of these studies does not allow a definitive recommendation discouraging OCS use. Advocates against the use of OCSs in this population argue that most of studies investigating the efficacy of OCSs in acute episodic wheeze in preschool-aged children have not demonstrated beneficial effects. Moreover, repeated OCS bursts may be associated with adverse effects. Finally, both sides can agree that there is a significant need to conduct efficacy trials evaluating OCS treatment in preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing targeted at phenotypes that would be expected to respond to OCSs. This article presents a summary of recent literature regarding the use of OCSs for acute episodic wheezing in preschool-aged children and a "pro" and "con" debate for such use.

  20. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry N.; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Tom; Callantine, Todd J.; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This document is an update to the operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) integrates three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to the Final Approach Fix. These arrival streams are Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and their implantation into an operational environment. The ATD-1 goals include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  1. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM.

  2. Evaluation of GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM and GOCO01S Geopotential Models in Venezuela and Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orihuela, N. D.; Garcia, A. D.; Tabare, T.; Scientific Team Of Venezuelan; Caribbean Crustal Study From Satellital Data

    2010-12-01

    This paper shows two maps of the magnitude of the surface gravity vector (MSGV) of Venezuela and Caribbean region at 1:500.000 scale in the geographic window between the 0-20 north latitude and 74-58 western longitude (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2), that were generated from GOCE gravity gradients data provided by the European Space Agency (ESA). The maps that are showed come from the combined global gravity field model GOCO01s [GOCO Consortium., 2010] and from the satellite-only global gravity field model GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM [Pail et al., 2010], both of 224 degree. The DEMs used for the evaluation of the MSGV are: Etopo2v2 [NGDC., 2006] and Etopo1 [Amante and Eakins, 2009] respectively. The data processing was done using: Shm2func [ICGEM., 2007]; Goce User Toolbox [ESA., 2009]; Gravsoft package [Tscherning et al., 1992] and Oasis Montaj (Geosoft). This research shows a review of observed gravity in the main geological provinces of the Venezuela and Caribbean region geography, revealing gravitational features important of the geological structures that are in Venezuelan and Caribbean subsurface.

  3. Laboratory simulation of Kuiper belt object volatile ices under ionizing radiation: CO-N2 ices as a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S; Zhang, F; Kaiser, R I

    2011-09-21

    The exposure of icy Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) by ionizing radiation was simulated in this case of exposing carbon monoxide-nitrogen (CO-N(2)) ices by energetic electrons. The radiation-induced chemical processing was monitored on-line and in situ via FTIR spectroscopy and quadrupole mass spectrometry. Besides the array of carbon oxides being reproduced as in neat irradiated carbon monoxide (CO) ices studied previously, the radiation exposure at 10 K resulted in the formation of nitrogen-bearing species of isocyanato radical (OCN), linear (l-NCN), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), plus diazirinone (N(2)CO). The infrared assignments of these species were further confirmed by isotopic shifts. The temporal evolution of individual species was found to fit in first-order reaction schemes, prepping up the underlying non-equilibrium chemistry on the formation of OCN, l-NCN, and NO radicals in particular. Also unique to the binary KBO model ices and viable for the future remote detection is diazirinone (N(2)CO) at 1860 cm(-1) (2ν(5)) formed at lower radiation exposure.

  4. Document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports based on an extension of the ConText algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Brian E; Lee, Sean; Kang, Hyunseok Peter; Chapman, Wendy W

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we describe an application called peFinder for document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports. peFinder is based on a generalized version of the ConText algorithm, a simple text processing algorithm for identifying features in clinical report documents. peFinder was used to answer questions about the disease state (pulmonary emboli present or absent), the certainty state of the diagnosis (uncertainty present or absent), the temporal state of an identified pulmonary embolus (acute or chronic), and the technical quality state of the exam (diagnostic or not diagnostic). Gold standard answers for each question were determined from the consensus classifications of three human annotators. peFinder results were compared to naive Bayes' classifiers using unigrams and bigrams. The sensitivities (and positive predictive values) for peFinder were 0.98(0.83), 0.86(0.96), 0.94(0.93), and 0.60(0.90) for disease state, quality state, certainty state, and temporal state respectively, compared to 0.68(0.77), 0.67(0.87), 0.62(0.82), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using unigrams, and 0.75(0.79), 0.52(0.69), 0.59(0.84), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using bigrams.

  5. Circulating microRNA Biomarkers as Liquid Biopsy for Cancer Patients: Pros and Cons of Current Assays.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shigeshi; Lam, Stella; Nagahara, Makoto; Hoon, Dave S B

    2015-10-23

    An increasing number of studies have focused on circulating microRNAs (cmiRNA) in cancer patients' blood for their potential as minimally-invasive biomarkers. Studies have reported the utility of assessing specific miRNAs in blood as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers; however, the methodologies are not validated or standardized across laboratories. Unfortunately, there is often minimum limited overlap in techniques between results reported even in similar type studies on the same cancer. This hampers interpretation and reliability of cmiRNA as potential cancer biomarkers. Blood collection and processing, cmiRNA extractions, quality and quantity control of assays, defined patient population assessment, reproducibility, and reference standards all affect the cmiRNA assay results. To date, there is no reported definitive method to assess cmiRNAs. Therefore, appropriate and reliable methodologies are highly necessary in order for cmiRNAs to be used in regulated clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this review, we summarize the developments made over the past decade towards cmiRNA detection and discuss the pros and cons of the assays.

  6. Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-04-01

    In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

  7. Monitoring chemical reactions by low-field benchtop NMR at 45 MHz: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Milburn, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring chemical reactions is the key to controlling chemical processes where NMR can provide support. High-field NMR gives detailed structural information on chemical compounds and reactions; however, it is expensive and complex to operate. Conversely, low-field NMR instruments are simple and relatively inexpensive alternatives. While low-field NMR does not provide the detailed information as the high-field instruments as a result of their smaller chemical shift dispersion and the complex secondary coupling, it remains of practical value as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and is complimentary to other established methods, such as ReactIR and Raman spectroscopy. We have tested a picoSpin-45 (currently under ThermoFisher Scientific) benchtop NMR instrument to monitor three types of reactions by 1D (1) H NMR: a Fischer esterification, a Suzuki cross-coupling, and the formation of an oxime. The Fischer esterification is a relatively simple reaction run at high concentration and served as proof of concept. The Suzuki coupling is an example of a more complex, commonly used reaction involving overlapping signals. Finally, the oxime formation involved a reaction in two phases that cannot be monitored by other PAT tools. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of monitoring these reactions at a low-field of 45 MHz by 1D (1) H NMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Use of Laser Microdissection in Forensic Sexual Assault Casework: Pros and Cons Compared to Standard Methods.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sergio; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Porto, Maria J; Cainé, Laura

    2017-01-30

    Sexual assault samples are among the most frequently analyzed in a forensic laboratory. These account for almost half of all samples processed routinely, and a large portion of these cases remain unsolved. These samples often pose problems to traditional analytic methods of identification because they consist most frequently of cell mixtures from at least two contributors: the victim (usually female) and the perpetrator (usually male). In this study, we propose the use of current preliminary testing for sperm detection in order to determine the chances of success when faced with samples which can be good candidates to undergo analysis with the laser microdissection technology. Also, we used laser microdissection technology to capture fluorescently stained cells of interest differentiated by gender. Collected materials were then used for DNA genotyping with commercially available amplification kits such as Minifiler, Identifiler Plus, NGM, and Y-Filer. Both the methodology and the quality of the results were evaluated to assess the pros and cons of laser microdissection compared with standard methods. Overall, the combination of fluorescent staining combined with the Minifiler amplification kit provided the best results for autosomal markers, whereas the Y-Filer kit returned the expected results regardless of the used method.

  9. Special funding schemes for innovative medical devices in French hospitals: the pros and cons of two different approaches.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Nicolas; van den Brink, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Financing innovative medical devices is an important challenge for national health policy makers, and a crucial issue for hospitals. However, when innovative medical devices are launched on the European market there is generally little clinical evidence regarding both efficacy and safety, both because of the flaws in the European system for regulating such devices, and because they are at an early stage of development. To manage the uncertainty surrounding the reimbursement of innovation, several European countries have set up temporary funding schemes to generate evidence about the effectiveness of devices. This article explores two different French approaches to funding innovative in-hospital devices and collecting supplementary data: the coverage with evidence development (CED) scheme introduced under Article L. 165-1-1 of the French Social Security Code; and national programs for hospital-based research. We discuss pros and cons of both approaches in the light of CED policies in Germany and the UK. The CED policies for devices share common limitations. Thus, transparency of CED processes should be enhanced and decisions need to be made in a timely way. Finally, we think that closer collaboration between manufacturers, health authorities and hospitals is essential to make CED policies more operational.

  10. Virgin Caenorhabditis remanei females are attracted to a coital pheromone released by con-specific copulating males

    PubMed Central

    Markert, Mathew; García, Luis René

    2013-01-01

    The gonochoristic soil nematode Caenorhabditis remanei strictly requires copulation for species propagation. Males of this species are sexually promiscuous with females of other species; therefore, we asked in this study whether virgin C. remanei females display evidence of mate choice. We digitally recorded and measured the locomotor behaviors of one or more virgin females in the presence of a single male on a 5 mm diameter mating lawn. We observed that initially only the male modifies his locomotor trajectory to another animal on the mating lawn; the virgin females showed no locomotor bias toward the mate-searching male. However, once a male started to copulate, females in the vicinity altered their movement trajectories toward the copulating couple. Newly inseminated females are refractive to the coital signal, but partially regain their attraction to copulating males after 24 h. We found only copulating males with an intact gonad can attract females, and that the coital signal can be broadcasted at least 1.5 mm through the air. Unlike males, which are also attracted to hetero-specific females, virgin C. remanei females will only crawl toward a copulating con-specific male. We suggest that Caenorhabditis females use the coital signal as a pheromone to identify a vigorous male of their own species. PMID:24058874

  11. Balancing the pros and cons of GMOs: socio-scientific argumentation in pre-service teacher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinici, Ayhan

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the role of the discursive process in the act of scientific knowledge building. Specifically, it links scientific knowledge building to risk perception of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). To this end, this study designed and implemented a three-stage argumentation programme giving pre-service teachers (PSTs) the opportunity to consider, discuss and construct shared decisions about GMOs. The study involved 101 third-year PSTs from two different classes, randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The study utilised both quantitative and qualitative methods. During the quantitative phase, researchers administered a pre- and post-intervention scale to measure both groups' risk perception of GMOs. During the qualitative phase, data were collected from the experimental group alone through individual and group reports and an open-ended questionnaire. T-test results showed a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups' risk perception of GMOs. Qualitative analysis also revealed differences, for example, in PSTs' weighing of the pros and cons of scientific research demonstrating positive results of GMOs. In addition, PSTs' acceptance of GMOs increased. Consequently, this study suggests that developing familiarity with scientific enterprise may play an effective role in adopting a scientific perspective as well as a more balanced risk perception of GMOs.

  12. Circulating microRNA Biomarkers as Liquid Biopsy for Cancer Patients: Pros and Cons of Current Assays

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Shigeshi; Lam, Stella; Nagahara, Makoto; Hoon, Dave S. B.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have focused on circulating microRNAs (cmiRNA) in cancer patients’ blood for their potential as minimally-invasive biomarkers. Studies have reported the utility of assessing specific miRNAs in blood as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers; however, the methodologies are not validated or standardized across laboratories. Unfortunately, there is often minimum limited overlap in techniques between results reported even in similar type studies on the same cancer. This hampers interpretation and reliability of cmiRNA as potential cancer biomarkers. Blood collection and processing, cmiRNA extractions, quality and quantity control of assays, defined patient population assessment, reproducibility, and reference standards all affect the cmiRNA assay results. To date, there is no reported definitive method to assess cmiRNAs. Therefore, appropriate and reliable methodologies are highly necessary in order for cmiRNAs to be used in regulated clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this review, we summarize the developments made over the past decade towards cmiRNA detection and discuss the pros and cons of the assays. PMID:26512704

  13. Conózcanos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Principal de la EPA: información sobre el Administrador o la Administradora, los altos directivos; ubicaciones y direcciones de las oficinas; presupuesto, la planificación y los resultados de rendimiento

  14. The Classics, Con Brio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James

    1978-01-01

    Sponsored by a consortium of 30 American universities, Rome's Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies offers a year of study to American undergraduate classics majors. Instructors are also American and normally stay only a year; teaching assistants are always ex-students of the center. Extensive field trips are an important part of the…

  15. Neo-Conned University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Andee

    2014-01-01

    Censorship, says Australian political theorist John Keane (1991), can "echo within us, take up residence within ourselves, spying on us, a private amanuensis who reminds us never to go too far... It makes us zip our lips, tremble and think twice" (p. 39). It can also make us sick. The author states that this is her argument here: that,…

  16. Fotodensitometro realizzato con microscopio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giovanni, G.

    1989-02-01

    This work describes the chracteristics and use of a microphotometer suitable for the measure of photographic density of photos of stars. The optics is a normal microscope which projects the small photographic image of a star on the plate of a photodiode. This high sensitivity instrument is easy to build up.

  17. [Weighing pros and cons].

    PubMed

    de Wit, W

    1992-03-15

    An adequate, high-quality animal health service is indispensable to animal production in the Netherlands. Modern intensive animal husbandry, with its high density of animals, needs a considerable input of knowledge, vaccines and drugs. The consumer expects healthy and especially safe products. These two goals are in seeming contradiction. Moreover, veterinary help, the necessary use of drugs, the supervision and control of AID (Agricultural Inspection Services) and RVV (Inspection Service for Meat and Meat Products) add to the already substantial costs of modern animal husbandry. From the point of view of integral quality control, the question is what changes are necessary to achieve a more effective health service. Goals for the future include: reducing the structural dependence on drugs and additives; substantially reducing the number of active substances used; increasing consumer confidence in animal products.

  18. Concepciones Alternativas de "Fotosintesis" en estudiantes Universitarios del curso basico de Biologia y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesus Roman, Sandra

    Concepciones Alternativas de Fotosíntesis en estudiantes Universitariosdel curso básico de Biología y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF El modelo educativo para la enseñanza de Fotosíntesis (MODEF) se implantó para trabajar el problema de las concepciones alternativas (CA) en un curso de Biología General. Se evaluaron los resultados en cuanto al logro del aprendizaje significativo. La pregunta central de la investigación fue: ¿Cómo aporta el modelo educativo en la didáctica y comprensión del tema de fotosíntesis? Se efectuó una investigación acción con una fase cuantitativa y una cualitativa. Para la fase cuantitativa se elaboró una prueba para determinar las concepciones alternativas, se validó y se sometió a los estudiantes que participaron en el estudio antes y después de ofrecer la unidad de metabolismo celular. Los participantes eran estudiantes de primer año de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en Bayamón (UPRB). Se llevó a cabo un análisis de consistencia interna de la prueba mediante el método Alfa de Cronbach. Se analizaron las contestaciones a cada pregunta mediante la prueba de Ji cuadrado de contingencia, se efectuó la prueba de t y el coeficiente r de Pearson. La fase cualitativa incluyó la observación participativa de la investigadora- profesora, las reflexiones de los estudiantes y la información de las entrevistas semi-estructuradas que se realizaron a tres estudiantes del curso. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el Modelo de Wolcott. Se trabajaron diez CA de las cuales siete fueron corregidas mediante el Modelo MODEF. Las actividades más importantes para el proceso de aprendizaje incluyeron el trabajo de investigación o búsqueda de información para hacer una presentación digital, la elaboración de tablas, los mapas de conceptos, el uso de visuales o videos y las analogías para explicar conceptos o procesos. En conclusión: se recomienda el uso del Modelo MODEF para la discusión del tema de

  19. Pros and Cons of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data.

    PubMed

    Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4-6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and cons to using the informed basis set with developmental data.

  20. Pros and Cons of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data

    PubMed Central

    Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4–6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and cons to using the informed basis set with developmental data. PMID:27471441

  1. Obtención de velocidades radiales de precisión con el espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Con el fin de ser empleados como espectros de referencia, han sido obtenidos recientemente 80 espectrogramas de estrellas candidatas a patrones de velocidad radial de todos los tipos espectrales desde B0 a M5, con una dispersión aproximada de 7 Å/mm. Se estudia la influencia de distintos factores (flexión, refracción atmosférica, etc.) en la determinación de velocidades radiales. Se analizan diferentes técnicas de reducción y medición de velocidades, su aplicación a estrellas de diferentes tipos espectrales y velocidades de rotación y se discute la precisión obtenible en cada caso.

  2. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis.

  3. Feasibility of aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product (salsa con queso) using a continuous flow microwave system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Coronel, P; Simunovic, J; Sandeep, K P

    2007-04-01

    Aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product using a continuous flow microwave heating system can combine the advantages of an aseptic process along with those of microwave heating. Dielectric properties of 2 different brands of 1 such product (salsa con queso) were measured under continuous flow conditions at a temperature range of 20 to 130 degrees C. At 915 MHz, the dielectric constant ranged from 58.7 at 20 degrees C to 41.3 at 130 degrees C with dielectric loss factor ranging from 41.0 at 20 degrees C to 145.5 at 130 degrees C. The loss tangent at 915 MHz ranged from 0.61 at 20 degrees C to 3.52 at 130 degrees C. The temperature profiles at the outlet during processing of salsa con queso in a 5-kW microwave unit showed a narrow temperature distribution between the center and the wall of the tube. The study showed the feasibility of aseptic processing of salsa con queso using a continuous flow microwave system.

  4. Distribución espacial de cúmulos y asociaciones estelares con diferentes edades en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, E.; Clariá, J. J.; Dottori, H.; Santos, J. F. C.; Piatti, A. E.

    Sobre la base de observaciones realizadas en Cerro Tololo y el Casleo, se presenta un catálogo con fotometría UBV integrada de 504 cúmulos y 120 asociaciones estelares en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes. Se determinan edades en términos de los tipos SWB y se identifican 38 cúmulos tipo VII, muchos de los cuales pueden ser cúmulos globulares clásicos. El tamaño de las distribuciones espaciales crece uniformemente con la edad (tipo SWB), en tanto que existe una diferencia en el cociente axial entre los grupos más jóvenes y más viejos que 30 millones de años, lo que implica una orientación aproximadamente de frente para los primeros y una posición inclinada ~ 45o para el segundo grupo. Las asimetrías en las distribuciones espaciales, juntamente con la falta de coincidencia de los centroides de los diferentes grupos de edad, sugiere que el disco de la Nube Mayor de Magallanes fue severamente perturbado en el pasado.

  5. Guided ion beam studies of the reactions of Con+ (n=1-18) with N2: Cobalt cluster mononitride and dinitride bond energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fuyi; Li, Ming; Tan, Lin; Armentrout, P. B.

    2008-05-01

    The reactions of Con+ (n=1-18) with N2 are measured as a function of kinetic energy over a range of 0-15eV in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. A variety of Com+, ComN+, and ComN2+ (m⩽n) product ions are observed, all in endothermic processes, with collision-induced dissociation dominating the products for all clusters. Bond dissociation energies for both cobalt cluster nitrides and dinitrides are derived from threshold analysis of the energy dependence of the endothermic reactions using several different approaches. These values show only a mild dependence on cluster size over the range studied, although the Co13+-N bond energy is relatively weak. The bond energies of Con+-N for larger clusters suggest that a reasonable value for the desorption energy of atomic nitrogen from bulk phase cobalt is 6.3±0.2eV, which is somewhat lower than the only available value in the literature, an estimate based on the enthalpy of formation of bulk cobalt nitride. The trends in the cobalt nitride thermochemistry are also compared to previously determined metal-metal bond energies, D0(Con+-Co), and to D0(Fen+-N). Implications for catalytic ammonia production using cobalt versus iron are discussed.

  6. Conséquences des nouvelles formes de commande sur les matériaux de l'isolation statorique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellomo, J. P.; Lebey, Th.; Peltier, Fr.; Oraison, J. M.

    1997-05-01

    Use of inverter drive for rotating machines speed control leads to the application of new stress on stator insulation materials. The integrity of these materials under such stresses has therefore to be studied. Thanks to specially equipped motor, the different voltage shapes have been identified. Very short rise time fronts, large overvoltages and high oscillation frequencies are obtained. These voltages are then reproduced on laboratory samples (Polyethylene Terephtalate). The main result is the existence of trapped surface charges related both to the rise front value and to the existence of polar mechanisms in the material bulk. The consequences of this surface charge existence on the reliability of a real system are then discussed. L'utilisation de nouvelles formes de commande pour les machines à courant alternatif se traduit par l'apparition d'un nouveau type de contraintes sur les matériaux de l'isolation statorique. L'étude de leur comportement sous l'action de ce type de contraintes revêt un intérêt tout particulier pour la validation et la stabilité de ces systèmes dans le temps. Nous présentons, tout d'abord, ces différentes formes de tension identifiées à l'aide d'un moteur spécialement instrumenté. L'existence de fronts de tension très élevés, de surtensions importantes (jusqu'à 500V) et d'oscillations hautes fréquences (2MHz), est mise en évidence. La reproduction de ces contraintes en laboratoire sur des échantillons de polyesters (PolyÉthylène Térephthalate) permet alors de déterminer l'influence des formes de tension carrées sur les propriétés intrinsèques du matériau. Elle se traduit par l'existence d'une charge piégée en surface du diélectrique. Cette charge superficielle est associée, d'une part à l'existence de phénomènes de relaxation dans les matériaux étudiés et d'autre part à la valeur des fronts de tension appliqués. Pour finir, les conséquences possibles de l'existence de ces charges superficielles

  7. A methodological approach to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages: socio-economic and technical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagno, Eleonora; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Petrucci, Olga; Forciniti, Pinuccia R.

    2014-05-01

    Cavallerizzo have been analysed within the frame of a PhD thesis by one of the authors. The present study focuses on the Cavallerizzo case study to discuss a methodological approach useful to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages, aiming at properly considering socio-economic effects in addition to technical issues.

  8. Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in The Foodweb in The Lower Columbia River: USGS ConHab Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, E. B.; Alvarez, D.; Counihan, T.; Elias, E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hardiman, J.; Jenkins, J.; Mesa, M.; Morace, J.; Patino, R.; Torres, L.; Waite, I.; Zaugg, S.

    2012-12-01

    An interdisciplinary study, USGS Columbia River Contaminants and Habitat Characterization (ConHab) project, investigates transport pathways, chemical fate, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were co-deployed at each of 10 sites in 2008 to provide a measure of the dissolved concentrations of select PBDEs, chlorinated pesticides, and other EDCs. PBDE-47 was the most prevalent of the PBDEs detected. Numerous organochlorine pesticides, both banned and current-use, including hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and the endosulfan degradation products, were measured at each site. EDCs commonly detected included a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (galaxolide), pesticides (chlorpyrifos and atrazine), plasticizers (phthalates), and flame retardants (phosphates). The downstream sites tended to have the highest concentrations of contaminants in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010 passive samplers were deployed and resident largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and surface bed sediments were collected at three of the original sites representing a gradient of exposure based on 2008 results. Brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues were analyzed. Chemical concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and, lastly, fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples ranged from <1 to 400 ng g-1 wet tissue. PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides, DDT and its degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at all sites in nearly all organs tested. PBDE congeners most frequently detected and at the highest concentrations were PBDE-47 > PBDE-100 > PBDE-154

  9. The pros and cons of ecological risk assessment based on data from different levels of biological organization.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Jason R; Salice, Christopher J; Nisbet, Roger M

    2016-10-01

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is the process used to evaluate the safety of manufactured chemicals to the environment. Here we review the pros and cons of ERA across levels of biological organization, including suborganismal (e.g., biomarkers), individual, population, community, ecosystem and landscapes levels. Our review revealed that level of biological organization is often related negatively with ease at assessing cause-effect relationships, ease of high-throughput screening of large numbers of chemicals (it is especially easier for suborganismal endpoints), and uncertainty of the ERA because low levels of biological organization tend to have a large distance between their measurement (what is quantified) and assessment endpoints (what is to be protected). In contrast, level of biological organization is often related positively with sensitivity to important negative and positive feedbacks and context dependencies within biological systems, and ease at capturing recovery from adverse contaminant effects. Some endpoints did not show obvious trends across levels of biological organization, such as the use of vertebrate animals in chemical testing and ease at screening large numbers of species, and other factors lacked sufficient data across levels of biological organization, such as repeatability, variability, cost per study and cost per species of effects assessment, the latter of which might be a more defensible way to compare costs of ERAs than cost per study. To compensate for weaknesses of ERA at any particular level of biological organization, we also review mathematical modeling approaches commonly used to extrapolate effects across levels of organization. Finally, we provide recommendations for next generation ERA, submitting that if there is an ideal level of biological organization to conduct ERA, it will only emerge if ERA is approached simultaneously from the bottom of biological organization up as well as from the top down, all while employing

  10. Relación Entre el Tamaño Condilar y la Asimetría Facial Transversal en Individuos con Hiperplasia Condilar

    PubMed Central

    Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Alister, Juan Pablo; Uribe, Francisca; Navarro, Pablo; Olate, Gabriela; de Moraes, Márcio

    2016-01-01

    La asimetría facial es una patología de compromiso funcional y estético que puede estar generado por hiperplasia condilar; el objetivo de esta investigación es determinar la influencia del tamaño condilar en la asimetría facial. Doce sujetos fueron estudiados mediante el análisis de tomografía computadorizada cone beam; todos los pacientes presentaron cintigrama óseo que determino la presencia de hiperplasia condilar activa; el análisis se realizo en un software del sistema de captura modelo Pax Zenith, marca Vatech (Korea 2011), utilizando 90 kV y 120 mA; se obtuvo mediciones de la distancia antero-posterior, superior-inferior y medio-lateral de la cabeza del cóndilo, relacionándose con la posición del cóndilo con la línea mediana facial y la posición de puntos faciales entre incisivos centrales superior e inferior así como con el mentón. Los resultados mostraron un promedio de desvío de mentón de 6,5 mm considerando un cóndilo hiperplásico con un tamaño de 2,7 mm mas que los cóndilos normales. El desvío de incisivo central inferior determinó que por cada 1 mm de desvío dentario existe 2,2 mm de desvío de mentón. El cóndilo hiperplásico fue de mayor tamaño y se posiciono casi 2 mm mas hacia lateral que los cóndilos no hiperplásicos. Es posible concluir que el cóndilo hiperplásico presenta clara influencia en la asimetría facial transversa y es posible estimar una relación de tamaño condilar con grado de asimetría facial. PMID:28066127

  11. Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-based Operations (STBO): Results of Piloted Simulations and Implications for Concepts of Operation (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.; Bakowski, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    The results offour piloted medium-fidelity simulations investigating flight deck surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) will be reviewed. In these flight deck STBO simulations, commercial transport pilots were given taxi clearances with time and/or speed components and required to taxi to the departing runway or an intermediate traffic intersection. Under a variety of concept of operations (ConOps) and flight deck information conditions, pilots' ability to taxi in compliance with the required time of arrival (RTA) at the designated airport location was measured. ConOps and flight deck information conditions explored included: Availability of taxi clearance speed and elapsed time information; Intermediate RTAs at intermediate time constraint points (e.g., intersection traffic flow points); STBO taxi clearances via ATC voice speed commands or datal ink; and, Availability of flight deck display algorithms to reduce STBO RTA error. Flight Deck Implications. Pilot RTA conformance for STBO clearances, in the form of ATC taxi clearances with associated speed requirements, was found to be relatively poor, unless the pilot is required to follow a precise speed and acceleration/deceleration profile. However, following such a precise speed profile results in inordinate head-down tracking of current ground speed, leading to potentially unsafe operations. Mitigating these results, and providing good taxi RTA performance without the associated safety issues, is a flight deck avionics or electronic flight bag (EFB) solution. Such a solution enables pilots to meet the taxi route RTA without moment-by-moment tracking of ground speed. An avionics or EFB "error-nulling" algorithm allows the pilot to view the STBO information when the pilot determines it is necessary and when workload alloys, thus enabling the pilot to spread his/her attention appropriately and strategically on aircraft separation airport navigation, and the many other flight deck tasks concurrently required

  12. Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

  13. [A SIMPLE AND RELIABLE TOOL FOR DETECTION OF NUTRITIONAL RISK IN HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Padilla-Romo, Martha; Martinez-Cordero, Erika; Martinez-Cordero, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: la desnutrición hospitalaria se asocia con retraso en la curación, mayor tiempo de hospitalización y gasto económico. Los hospitales requieren un instrumento sencillo para detectar un posible riesgo nutricional. Objetivo: evaluar la concordancia entre un formato de tamizaje utilizado en un hospital de tercer nivel y los instrumentos validados MUST y SGA para diagnosticar el riesgo nutricional. Métodos: pacientes con periodo de hospitalización menor a 36 horas fueron valorados con los tres tamizajes nutricionales. Utilizamos valor kappa para medir la concordancia entre las herramientas de tamizaje; el instrumento SGA fue el estándar de oro. Resultados: el estudio incluyó 100 pacientes (F = 49, M = 51) con una edad media de 49 años. MUST presentó buena concordancia con el SGA (kappa = 0,55). Conclusiones: MUST presentó mayor concordancia con el estándar de oro; por lo tanto, el MUST debería utilizarse para el tamizaje nutricional de los pacientes que ingresan en hospitales debido a su sencillez, fiabilidad y reproducibilidad.

  14. ConBr, A Lectin Purified from the Seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis, Protects Against Ischemia in Organotypic Culture of Rat Hippocampus: Potential Implication of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Rieger, D K; Navarro, E; Buendia, I; Parada, E; González-Lafuente, L; Leon, R; Costa, A P; Heinrich, I A; Nascimento, K S; Cavada, B S; Lopez, M G; Egea, J; Leal, R B

    2017-02-01

    Lectins are proteins that bind cellular glycans and can modulate various neuronal functions. We have evaluated the neuroprotective effect of ConBr, a lectin purified from the seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis in a model of rat organotypic hippocampal cultures (OHCs) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD for 15 min followed by 24 h re-oxygenation significantly increased cell death, caused mitochondrial depolarization and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CA1 region of OHCs. ConBr (0.1 μg/mL) added during the re-oxygenation period counteracted cell death, mitochondrial depolarization and overproduction of ROS induced by OGD. Moreover, ConBr restored the levels of Akt and ERK1 phosphorylation that were reduced by OGD. Modulation of intracellular Ca(2+) by ConBr was evaluated in isolated hippocampal neurons loaded with the fluorescent calcium dye Fluo-4/AM. ConBr (0.1 and 1 µg/mL) reduced by 25-30 % the Ca(2+) increment induced by 70 mM K(+). A sub effective concentration of ConBr (0.01 µg/mL) together with a sub effective concentration of the L-type calcium channel antagonist nifedipine (0.3 µM) conferred a synergic neuroprotective effect in OHCs subjected to OGD. In conclusion, ConBr provides OHCs neuroprotection against OGD. The mechanism was not fully addressed but it may involve modulation of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels by ConBr.

  15. Engaging Community With Promotores de Salud to Support Infant Nutrition and Breastfeeding Among Latinas Residing in Los Angeles County: Salud con Hyland's.

    PubMed

    Rios-Ellis, Britt; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena T; Espinoza, Lilia; Galvez, Gino; Garcia-Vega, Melawhy

    2015-01-01

    The Salud con Hyland's Project: Comienzo Saludable, Familia Sana [Health With Hyland's Project: Healthy Start, Healthy Family],was developed to provide education and support to Latina mothers regarding healthy infant feeding practices and maternal health. The promotora-delivered intervention was comprised of two charlas (educational sessions) and a supplemental, culturally and linguistically relevant infant feeding and care rolling calendar. Results indicate that the intervention increased intention to breastfeed exclusively, as well as to delay infant initiation of solids by 5 to 6 months. Qualitative feedback identified barriers to maternal and child health education as well as highlighted several benefits of the intervention.

  16. [Modello di Management (Mo.Ma) del paziente affetto da schizofrenia: controllo della crisi, mantenimento, prevenzione delle ricadute e recovery con gli antipsicotici LAI].

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. La schizofrenia colpisce circa l'1% della popolazione e rappresenta un grave disturbo mentale con un notevole impatto anche sul funzionamento sociale, lavorativo e sulle attività della vita quotidiana. Le persone con schizofrenia hanno un tasso di mortalità superiore di 2-2,5 rispetto a quello della popolazione generale. La non aderenza ai farmaci antipsicotici è uno dei più importanti fattori di rischio per le ricadute e le ospedalizzazioni, sia nei pazienti con disturbo cronico sia al primo episodio, e conseguentemente contribuisce all'aumento dei costi sanitari. Gli antipsicotici atipici LAI possono migliorare l'aderenza al trattamento contribuendo a diminuire i tassi di ricaduta nei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia fin dall'esordio. Gli obiettivi primari nella gestione dei pazienti schizofrenici sono diretti, non solo alla riduzione dei sintomi nel breve termine, ma anche al mantenimento fisico e della funzionalità mentale, migliorando la qualità della vita e promuovendo il recupero del paziente. Scopo. Proporre un modello integrato, basato sulle evidenze, che fornisca un algoritmo efficace per il recupero del paziente schizofrenico e indagare l'efficacia e la sicurezza degli antipsicotici LAI nel trattamento, nel mantenimento, nella prevenzione delle ricadute e nella recovery dei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia. Metodi. Dopo un'accurata analisi di letteratura abbiamo identificato, raccolto e analizzato gli elementi qualificanti per un'ottimale gestione del paziente schizofrenico, definendo un modello di gestione e selezione delle alternative terapeutiche. Conclusioni. Il modello di gestione della schizofrenia proposto potrebbe consentire un migliore recupero funzionale del paziente grazie alla scelta di iniziare il percorso terapeutico, fin dalle prime fasi del disturbo soprattutto se in giovane età e al primo episodio, con un farmaco atipico LAI. All'interno dei farmaci antipsicotici atipici la formulazione LAI rappresenta una scelta

  17. FACTORES SOCIO-ESTRUCTURALES Y EL ESTIGMA HACIA EL VIH/SIDA: EXPERIENCIAS DE PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS CON VIH/SIDA AL ACCEDER SERVICIOS DE SALUD

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA-DIAZ, MARINILDA; VARAS-DIAZ, NELSON; REYES-ESTRADA, MARCOS; SURO, BEATRIZ; CORIANO, DORALIS

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN El estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA continúa afectando la prestación de servicios de salud y el bienestar físico y mental de las personas con VIH/SIDA (PVS). Recientemente la literatura científica ha señalado la importancia de comprender las manifestaciones de estigma más allá de las interacciones individuales. Por tal razón, investigaciones recientes en y fuera de Puerto Rico enfatizan la importancia de entender cómo factores socio-estructurales (FSE) influyen en los procesos de estigmatización social. Con el propósito de examinar los FSE que influyen en las manifestaciones de estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA, realizamos y analizamos nueve grupos focales compuestos por hombres y mujeres en tratamiento para el VIH/SIDA que habían tenido experiencias estigmatizantes. Los participantes identificaron FSE relacionados a las manifestaciones de estigma, tales como el uso de viviendas especializadas, descentralización de los servicios de salud y el desarrollo de protocolos administrativos excluyentes en los servicios de salud. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de considerar los FSE en el desarrollo e implementación de intervenciones dirigidas a la población. PMID:24639599

  18. Potential pros and cons of external healthcare performance evaluation systems: real-life perspectives on Iranian hospital evaluation and accreditation program

    PubMed Central

    Jaafaripooyan, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Performance evaluation is essential to quality improvement in healthcare. The current study has identified the potential pros and cons of external healthcare evaluation programs, utilizing them subsequently to look into the merits of a similar case in a developing country. Methods: A mixed method study employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis techniques was adopted to achieve the study end. Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) and professionals were approached for two-stage process of data collection. Results: Potential advantages included greater attractiveness of high accreditation rank healthcare organizations to their customers/purchasers and boosted morale of their personnel. Downsides, as such, comprised the programs’ over-reliance on value judgment of surveyors, routinization and incurring undue cost on the organizations. In addition, the improved, standardized care processes as well as the judgmental nature of program survey were associated, as pros and cons, to the program investigated by the professionals. Conclusion: Besides rendering a tentative assessment of Iranian hospital evaluation program, the study provides those running external performance evaluations with a lens to scrutinize the virtues of their own evaluation systems through identifying the potential advantages and drawbacks of such programs. Moreover, the approach followed could be utilized for performance assessment of similar evaluation programs. PMID:25279381

  19. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis. PMID:27035150

  20. On the role of localized surface plasmon resonance in UV-Vis light irradiated Au/TiO₂ photocatalysis systems: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhongjin; Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Jun; Tian, Zunyi; Dai, Loucheng; He, Beibei; Han, Chao; Wu, Yigui; Zeng, Zhigang; Hu, Zhiyu

    2015-03-07

    The role of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in UV-Vis light irradiated Au/TiO2 photocatalysis systems has been investigated, and it is demonstrated experimentally for the first time that both pros and cons of LSPR exist simultaneously for this photocatalytic reaction. We have proved that when operating under mixed UV and green light irradiation, the LSPR injected hot electrons (from the Au nanoparticles to TiO2 under green light irradiation) may surmount the Schottky barrier (SB) formed between the Au nanoparticles and TiO2, and flow back into the TiO2. As a result, these electrons may compensate for and even surpass those transferred from TiO2 to the Au nanoparticles, thus accelerating the recombination of UV excited electron-hole pairs in TiO2. This is the negative effect of LSPR. On the other hand, more hot electrons existing on the surface of the Au nanoparticles due to LSPR would favor the photocatalytic reaction, which accompanied by the negative effect dominates the overall photocatalytic performance. The presented results reveal the multi-faceted essence of LSPR in Au/TiO2 structures, and is instructive for the application of metal-semiconductor composites in photocatalysis. Moreover, it is confirmed that the extent to which the above pros and cons of LSPR dominate the overall photocatalytic reaction depends on the intensity ratio of visible to UV light.

  1. The International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen): An Initiative by the NIMH and IGSLI to Study the Genetic Basis of Response to Lithium Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Thomas G.; Alda, Martin; Adli, Mazda; Akula, Nirmala; Ardau, Raffaella; Bui, Elise T.; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Czerski, Piotr; Del Zompo, Maria; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Grof, Paul; Gruber, Oliver; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Joanna; Hoban, Rebecca; Iwata, Nakao; Kassem, Layla; Kato, Tadafumi; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Kelsoe, John R.; Kusumi, Ichiro; Laje, Gonzalo; Leckband, Susan G.; Manchia, Mirko; MacQueen, Glenda; Masui, Takuya; Ozaki, Norio; Perlis, Roy H.; Pfennig, Andrea; Piccardi, Paola; Richardson, Sara; Rouleau, Guy; Reif, Andreas; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Sasse, Johanna; Schumacher, Johannes; Severino, Giovanni; Smoller, Jordan W.; Squassina, Alessio; Turecki, Gustavo; Young, L. Trevor; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Bauer, Michael; McMahon, Francis J.

    2010-01-01

    For more than half a decade, lithium has been successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. Worldwide, it is considered the first-line mood stabilizer. Apart from its proven antimanic and prophylactic effects, considerable evidence also suggests an antisuicidal effect in affective disorders. Lithium is also effectively used to augment antidepressant drugs in the treatment of refractory major depressive episodes and prevent relapses in recurrent unipolar depression. In contrast to many psychiatric drugs, lithium has outlasted various pharmacotherapeutic ‘fashions’, and remains an indispensable element in contemporary psychopharmacology. Nevertheless, data from pharmacogenetic studies of lithium are comparatively sparse, and these studies are generally characterized by small sample sizes and varying definitions of response. Here, we present an international effort to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of lithium response in bipolar disorder. Following an initiative by the International Group for the Study of Lithium-Treated Patients (www.IGSLI.org) and the Unit on the Genetic Basis of Mood and Anxiety Disorders at the National Institute of Mental Health, lithium researchers from around the world have formed the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (www.ConLiGen.org) to establish the largest sample to date for genome-wide studies of lithium response in bipolar disorder, currently comprising more than 1,200 patients characterized for response to lithium treatment. A stringent phenotype definition of response is one of the hallmarks of this collaboration. ConLiGen invites all lithium researchers to join its efforts. PMID:20453537

  2. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  3. Con A-binding protein Zn-α2-glycoprotein on human sperm membrane is related to acrosome reaction and sperm fertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Qu, F; Cao, X; Chen, G; Guo, Q; Ying, X; Guo, W; Lu, L; Ding, Z

    2012-04-01

    Fertilization, the recognition and fusion between spermatozoa and oocyte, involves various molecules on the spermatozoa and oocyte membranes. Concanavalin A (ConA)-binding proteins may be one of the molecules involved in mammal spermatozoa fertilization; however, their structure and function remain largely unknown. Here, we initially identified a ConA-binding protein, Zn-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), involved in regulating the acrosome reaction (AR) of human spermatozoa. ZAG is localized on the pre-equatorial region covering the acrosome, neck and tail (some parts of middle piece and principal piece respectively) regions of the acrosome intact human spermatozoa, and disappears in the acrosomal region of the acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Polyclonal antibodies against human recombinant ZAG significantly reduced the AR and sperm capability binding to human zona pellucida or penetration into zona-free hamster oocytes. Furthermore, assessment of the signaling pathways regulated by ZAG revealed that ZAG affects sperm AR through both the cAMP/PKA and PKC pathways. These results indicate that ZAG, which is present on the human sperm membrane, plays a critical role in the AR and subsequently, may be involved in sperm fertility.

  4. Food for thought: a pilot study of the pros and cons of changing eating patterns within cognitive-behavioural therapy for the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Evans, Jane; Pugh, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders has an early focus on behavioural changes around food intake. However, patients' anxiety around such change might account for why they often seem unmotivated in treatment. In order to determine the impact of changing intake, this pilot study of patients with bulimic disorders (N = 19) or anorexia nervosa (N = 9) used a mixed quantitative and qualitative design to retrospectively examine their perspectives of the short- and long-term pros and cons of such change. As expected, change was seen negatively in the short-term (with particularly high numbers reporting anxiety), but there were few reports of long-term negative outcomes. In contrast, there were both short- and long-term benefits of changing eating. The patients described what was helpful in making changes and what they had learned as a result. In both cases, their descriptions mapped closely onto the content and process of evidence-based CBT for the eating disorders. Although there is a need for more extensive research, these findings suggest that patients (and therapists) might benefit from being aware of the contrast between the short- and the long-term pros and cons of changing eating within CBT for the eating disorders.

  5. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  6. Errores sistemáticos del Catálogo Fundamental FK5, deducidos de las observaciones con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII, en el Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.; González, A.; Gómez, G.

    Se dan los resultados obtenidos de los Errores Sistemáticos del Catálogo Fundamental FK5, Δ α δ, Δ α α, Δ δ α y Δ δ δ, derivados de las observaciones estelares con el Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing instalado en el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'' de San Juan, de acuerdo al Proyecto de Colaboración entre los observatorios de San Juan, Beijing y La Plata. Se han usado los residuos seleccionados de 11000 estrellas aproximadamente, derivados de más de 400000 pasajes estelares en 1550 días, desde Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. La precisión media de los residuos es de 0,"043.

  7. Dinámica y frecuencias características de una protuberancia solar observada con los instrumentos SUMER y CDS/SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M.; Costa, A.; Bocchialini, K.

    La estructura de la protuberancia estudiada puede dividirse en cuatro regiones. A partir del análisis de las imágenes del CDS y los espectros del SUMER utilizando técnicas de multiresolución con Wavelets se obtuvieron las frecuencias y velocidades relativas de cada una de las regiones. Se observan frecuencias características del orden de los 5 min y otras de largo período. Se obtuvo una fuerte anticorrelación entre las intensidades y las velocidades Doppler. La presencia de las oscilaciones de 5 min en todas las regiones sugieren el acoplamiento entre la estructura cromosférica y la protuberancia.

  8. Experience in managing a large-scale rescreening of Papanicolaou smears and the pros and cons of measuring proficiency with visual and written examinations.

    PubMed

    Rube, I F

    1989-01-01

    Experiences in a large-scale interlaboratory rescreening of Papanicolaou smears are detailed, and the pros and cons of measuring proficiency in cytology are discussed. Despite the additional work of the rescreening project and some psychological and technical problems, it proved to be a useful measure of the laboratory's performance as a whole. One problem to be avoided in future similar studies is the creation of too many diagnostic categories. Individual testing and certification have been shown to be accurate predictors of proficiency. For cytology, such tests require a strong visual component to test interpretation and judgment skills, such as by the use of glass slides or photomicrographs. The potential of interactive videodisc technology for facilitating cytopathologic teaching and assessment is discussed.

  9. Broadening, shifting, and line asymmetries in the 2<--0 band of CO and CO-N2: Experimental results and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Bouanich, J. P.; Benner, D. Chris; May, A. D.; Drummond, J. R.

    2000-07-01

    We have measured the room temperature, widths, pressure shifts, and line asymmetry coefficients for many transitions of the first overtone band of CO and CO perturbed by N2. The broadening coefficients were obtained with an accuracy of about 1%. The pure CO profiles have been fitted by a Voigt profile while the CO-N2 spectral profiles have been fitted with a Lorentz and an empirical line shape model (HCv) that blends together a hard collision model and a speed-dependent Lorentz profile. In addition to the Voigt, Lorentz, and HCv models, we have added a dispersion profile to account for weak line mixing. The line broadening and shift coefficients are compared to semiclassical calculations employing a variety of intermolecular interactions. The line asymmetry results are compared to line mixing calculations based on the energy corrected sudden (ECS) model. The results indicate that effects other than line mixing also contribute to the measured line asymmetry.

  10. Pros and Cons of Physical/Empirical SAR Altimetry Retracking in Seasonally Ice-Covered Waters in Preparation for Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Maulik; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars

    2015-12-01

    An investigation is performed into the retrieval of sea surface heights in the Arctic Ocean to evaluate the determination of seasonal sea level in the Arctic Ocean from satellite altimetry. Physical retrackers assume a uniform probability density function for the wave height within the footprint which is frequently compromised in the Arctic Ocean due to the presence of seasonal sea ice and the period of initial freezing of the ocean. Preliminary investigations highlight the pros of the empirical retrackers for seasonal sea ice covered regions as it does not assume anything about physical properties and the pros of a physical retracker for either permanent near fully ice covered or open ocean. Comparison with tide gauge data is performed in this study to highlight the pros and cons of physical and empirical retracking in the Arctic Ocean.

  11. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  12. Linking innovative measurement technologies (ConMon and Dataflow© systems) for high-resolution temporal and spatial dissolved oxygen criteria assessment.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, C A; Perry, E; Bayard, A; Wainger, L; Boynton, W R

    2015-10-01

    One consequence of nutrient-induced eutrophication in shallow estuarine waters is the occurrence of hypoxia and anoxia that has serious impacts on biota, habitats, and biogeochemical cycles of important elements. Because of the important role of dissolved oxygen (DO) on these ecosystem features, a variety of DO criteria have been established as indicators of system condition. However, DO dynamics are complex and vary on time scales ranging from diel to decadal and spatial scales from meters to multiple kilometers. Because of these complexities, determining DO criteria attainment or failure remains difficult. We propose a method for linking two common measurement technologies for shallow water DO criteria assessment using a Chesapeake Bay tributary as a test case. Dataflow© is a spatially intensive (30-60-m collection intervals) system used to map surface water conditions at the whole estuary scale, and ConMon is a high-frequency (15-min collection intervals) fixed station approach. The former technology is effective with spatial descriptions but poor regarding temporal resolution, while the latter provides excellent temporal but very limited spatial resolution. Our methodology for combining the strengths of these measurement technologies involved a sequence of steps. First, a statistical model of surface water DO dynamics, based on temporally intense ConMon data, was developed. The results of this model were used to calculate daily DO minimum concentrations. Second, this model was then inserted into Dataflow©-generated spatial maps of DO conditions and used to adjust measured DO concentrations to daily minimum concentrations. This information was used to assess DO criteria compliance at the full tributary scale. Model results indicated that it is vital to consider the short-term time scale DO criteria across both space and time concurrently. Large fluctuations in DO occurred within a 24-h time period, and DO dynamics varied across the length and width of the

  13. Detailed magnetic studies on Co(N3)2(4-acetylpyridine)2: a weak-ferromagnet with a very big canting angle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Yi; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2008-07-07

    The magnetic properties of Co(N 3) 2(4acpy) 2 have been thoroughly reexamined on both powder and well-oriented single crystal samples. This azido-bridged cobalt compound of (4, 4) layer shows a weak-ferromagnetic state below T C = 11.2 K. The magnetic axes were determined to be along the crystallographic a*, b, and c axes for the monoclinic space group P2 1/c. The easy axis lies along the b-axis, the canting is along the a*-axis, and the hard axis is along the c-axis. Strong anisotropy due to the oriented moments in the ordered state and/or the single-ion anisotropy of Co (2+) exists in the whole temperature range from 2 to 300 K. Below T C, very big spontaneous magnetization was observed and was attributed to the very big canting angle (15 degrees at 2 K). A possible spin configuration was then proposed to explain the experimental results. The origin of the big spin canting was discussed, and a weak-ferromagnetic approach toward molecular magnets with big spontaneous magnetization was proposed accordingly.

  14. A novel mammalian myosin I from rat with an SH3 domain localizes to Con A-inducible, F-actin-rich structures at cell-cell contacts

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    In an effort to determine diversity and function of mammalian myosin I molecules, we report here the cloning and characterization of myr 3 (third unconventional myosin from rat), a novel mammalian myosin I from rat tissues that is related to myosin I molecules from protozoa. Like the protozoan myosin I molecules, myr 3 consists of a myosin head domain, a single light chain binding motif, and a tail region that includes a COOH-terminal SH3 domain. However, myr 3 lacks the regulatory phosphorylation site present in the head domain of protozoan myosin I molecules. Evidence was obtained that the COOH terminus of the tail domain is involved in regulating F-actin binding activity of the NH2-terminal head domain. The light chain of myr 3 was identified as the Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin. Northern blot and immunoblot analyses revealed that myr 3 is expressed in many tissues and cell lines. Immunofluorescence studies with anti-myr 3 antibodies in NRK cells demonstrated that myr 3 is localized in the cytoplasm and in elongated structures at regions of cell-cell contact. These elongated structures contained F-actin and alpha-actinin but were devoid of vinculin. Incubation of NRK cells with Con A stimulated the formation of myr 3-containing structures along cell-cell contacts. These results suggest for myr 3 a function mediated by cell-cell contact. PMID:7730414

  15. Surface and volume non-invasive methods for the structural monitoring of the bass-relief 'Madonna con Bambino' (Gorizia, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Alberghina, Maria Francesca; Macchia, Andrea; Capizzi, Patrizia; Schiavone, Salvatore; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Comite, Valeria; Barberio, Marianna; La Russa, Mauro Francesco

    2016-11-23

    Structural analysis of marble statues, carried out by non-invasive and in situ methods, is crucial to define the state of conservation of the artworks and to identify the deterioration phenomena that can affect them. In this work, we combined in situ non-destructive techniques, ultrasonic tomography (US), ultraviolet-induced visible fluorescence (UV-IF) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to study the bass-relief 'Madonna con Bambino' (Gorizia, Italy). The US revealed the presence of some metallic pivots, associated with areas of high sound velocity; moreover, a more degraded area has been identified in the lower part of the bass-relief. The acquired UV-IF image confirmed the presence of surface degradation, allowing a preliminary evaluation of the extension of a fracture, from surface to bulk. In addition, the different materials (both original and/or integrations) that compose the studied surface have been identified. The XRF has contributed to define the nature of the inorganic materials applied during undocumented previous restoration works on the surface as filler for lacunae.

  16. Obtención de perfiles teóricos de elementos metálicos con velocidades macroscópicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Costa, A.; Rovira, M.

    El propósito de este trabajo es poder establecer -a partir de la modelización de perfiles de distintas especies- patrones de comparación observacional que permitan caracterizar los fenómenos físicos que están presentes en las estructuras que se observan. Para ello se resuelven las ecuaciones de equilibrio de ionización para un determinado átomo y una atmósfera de parámetros determinados. A partir de ello se definen las poblaciones para los distintos grados de ionización. Considerando distintas configuraciones e intensidades de flujos de masa se deducen la función fuente, el espesor óptico y se calculan los perfiles de las distintas líneas. Se obtuvieron perfiles teóricos de líneas del CII, CIV y del OIV para flujos entrante, saliente y pasante. La forma del perfil, las intensidades relativas entre los distintos flujos y el corrimiento Doppler da cuenta de una caracterización teórica a partir de la cual se comparará con observaciones.

  17. Distribución espacial de órbitas con diferentes grados de caoticidad en modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Mosquera, M.

    En trabajos anteriores (Carpintero et al., Cel. Mech. Dynam. Astron. 85, 247, 2003), mostramos que las órbitas caóticas son muy importantes en los satélites galácticos. Sin embargo, los únicos modelos autoconsistentes de los que se disponía para ellos eran los de Heggie-Ramamani, cuya función de distribución depende sólo de la energía por lo que no mostraban diferencias entre las distribuciones de sus órbitas regulares y caóticas. Ahora, mediante una aproximación cuadrupolar, hemos logrado construir modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos con distribuciones de velocidades anisotrópicas (lo que indica que sus funciones de distribución no dependen sólo de la energía) y hemos logrado revelar las diferencias entre las estructuras espaciales de las órbitas de distinta caoticidad.

  18. Pros, cons, and current indications of open craniotomy versus gamma knife in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and the role of endovascular embolization.

    PubMed

    Surdell, Daniel L; Bhattacharjee, Sumon; Loftus, Christopher M

    2002-06-01

    The successful treatment of an intracranial arteriovenous malformation poses both technical and conceptual problems to the neurosurgeon. Treatment decisions are made in light of current understanding of the natural history of these lesions. It is important to understand the pros, cons and current indication of open craniotomy vs. gamma knife in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and the role of endovascular embolization. Surgical removal of an arteriovenous malformation is indicated when the operative risk is less than the morbidity and mortality associated with its natural history. The treatment goal of complete angiographic obliteration of arteriovenous malformations is achieved most effectively by microneurosurgery in low-grade lesions. Large lesions frequently require a combination of embolization and microsurgery. Although recent advances in technology and medical management have allowed previously inoperable arteriovenous malformations to be surgically excised, there is still a small group of arteriovenous malformations that cannot be excised safely due to their size and location. Stereotactic radiosurgery is clearly an important adjunct in the multimodality treatment approach for large arteriovenous malformations. Endovascular embolization can potentially increase safety and efficacy in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations when applied to selective cases with well-defined treatment goals.

  19. Separation and quantitation of hepatoma-associated gamma-glutamyltransferase by affinity chromatography with Affi-Gel blue and Con A-Sepharose.

    PubMed

    Izumi, M; Taketa, K

    1983-01-01

    Isozymes of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other liver diseases were separated into two groups by double-affinity column chromatography with Affi-Gel blue and Con A-Sepharose, one recovered in the unbound fraction and the other in the bound fraction. Upon electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gradient gel slabs, the unbound fraction gave a GGTI1 band and a faint II1 band and the bound fraction gave a GGT I band and faint bands of GGT I", II' and X, when the original serum contained hepatoma-associated GGT (I1, I" and II') and high-molecular-weight lipid-protein complex, GGT(X). GGT I was present in all cases as a common isozyme. Other lipoprotein-associated GGT isozymes, III-IX, were removed by passing through Affi-Gel blue. GGT activities of unbound fraction in patients with HCC were generally higher than those in patients with non-HCC liver diseases, although the difference was not significant. When the percent of GGT activity of unbound (unbound + bound) was taken, 54% of patients with HCC had a ratio greater than 22%, whereas none of the healthy subjects or patients with other liver diseases gave values greater than this. The present technique may prove to be a useful clinical test for the diagnosis of HCC.

  20. FloCon 2006 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    SNORT: KICKASS_PORN DRAGON: PORN HARDCORE SOURCEDEST SOURCE SOURCE SOURCE DEST DEST DEST DEST Stepping stone 51.251.22.183 Username password Sept...While packet counts do only show a minor increase in distance before and af- ter the Blaster outbreak, the other three metrics indicate a more drastic...consists of approximately 40 user assigned hosts, although the actual number of hosts is subject to minor fluctuations over time. Approximately an

  1. FloCon 2011 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    0. 08 0. 10 Nonzero Mobility Score P ro ba bi lit y 1e−09 1e−07 1e−05 0.001 0.1 10 1000 1e+05 Graph |I | |H| %a` RN RE G 667033 172283 1.00 3.87 4.56...COT 10127Q010 12:36 COT 100 80 -:::. 60 ~ -40 .c (’Ill .c 0 20 ... Q. 0 m. t echnologies High quality anomalies can be found without...l , , Tvoes ’ :0 ~ ~ , : : : , , , Date co cor m. t echnologies Customer Example 3: Malware Outbreak • R•pon R•suln m ~· AIIdr

  2. Crossing the Rubric-Con

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This essay engages the prospect and peril of employing rubrics in America. It discusses how institutional independence affects the enterprise, and addresses whether rubrics will be received as salvation or subservience by educational agents. It asks how rubrics can benefit stakeholders while examining their unintended consequences. It concludes by…

  3. FloCon 2004 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    dataset gives us a large enough record of traffic to test hypotheses in network security. Ø Given this, we select and evaluate various security...they detect a spoof Further Work Ø Exploiting our DoS attack traffic records further • We know how the network ...DoS and Internet worms, syslog/SSH • DNS performance and anomalies • Visualization • P2P traffic detection and modelling 2 University California

  4. FloCon 2005 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    c, e5 = b which we will write as e1:5 = aabcb for convenience. Possible state sequences that match this sequence of ob- served events could be AABCB...applicability. The application programmer sim- ply connects the input event streams and then focuses on writing process models. Models can be...Pharming • Writing to media • paper • drives • etc Increased outbound data Normal activity Scanning Infection Data Access Low Likelihood of Malicious

  5. [Utility of recruitment maneuvers (con)].

    PubMed

    Ochagavia, A; Blanch, L; Lopez-Aguilar, J

    2009-04-01

    A reduction in both total lung volume and in lung parenchyma useful for gas exchange has been observed in ARDS patients. Applying an appropriate ventilatory pattern that includes PEEP can open up collapsed areas of the lung to aeration, thus ensuring a more homogeneous distribution of air in the lung. However, the heterogeneous patterns observed in patients with ARDS vary widely in their response to ventilation with PEEP. Recruitment maneuvers (RM) have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation to re-expand collapsed lung tissue in ARDS. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether RM are useful when patients are ventilated with high PEEP or when they have fibrosis, stiff chest wall, or hypovolemia, among other conditions. Likewise, decisions about RM must take into account not only their short- and long-term efficacy and reversibility, but also possible adverse effects derived from the high pressures reached during RM, including barotrauma, hemodynamic alterations, reduced systolic volume and aortic flow, and difficulties in venous return, as well as the possibility of bacterial translocation to the bloodstream or other organs. This article review the effects of RM as adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation in ARDS patients and discuss its efficacy and potential benefits as well as the different interactions that RM can have with the diverse conditions that can be associated to ARDS.

  6. Videoimaging: the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sarver, D M

    1993-01-01

    I have tried to make some thoughtful points based on a fair amount of experience in the use of videoimaging, both in research and clinical application. The technical development of computerized videoimaging has progressed greatly in the past several years, in response to the profession's interest in it. While many orthodontists have become interested in this technology because of its potential in communication and marketing, I feel its greatest potential lies in the area of diagnosis and treatment planning. The use of integrated and facial images has allowed me to visualize the face (primarily in profile, although the frontal view can be useful when evaluated and manipulated properly) and recognize particular aspects and patterns of treatment options I had not recognized before (Figures 4-6). Obviously, a great deal of research must be done in the future before we can completely integrate this technology into our treatment of patients. These studies are just beginning. I feel confident that computerized videoimaging will help expand our vision as we strive to deliver the best care possible; nevertheless, we must evaluate this technology rationally and define its strengths and weaknesses just as clearly as we have for our cephalometric tools.

  7. Cabergoline treatment in acromegaly: cons.

    PubMed

    Kasuki, Leandro; Vieira Neto, Leonardo; Gadelha, Mônica R

    2014-06-01

    Many options are available for the treatment of acromegaly, including surgery, radiotherapy, and medical treatment. Cabergoline (CAB), a dopamine agonist with high affinity for dopamine receptor type 2, has been used both in monotherapy and in conjunction with somatostatin analogs (SSAs). Although it is administered orally and has a relatively lower-cost in comparison with SSAs, few studies have demonstrated its usefulness, there is a lack of randomized-controlled trials and other drugs (SSAs and pegvisomant) with more data in the literature are available; these issues are the main drawbacks of adopting CAB for the treatment of acromegaly.

  8. FloCon 2008 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    anomalous traffic of the node ÷ total anomalous traffic – Make parent nodes by merging child node information. prefix/length coverage/collateral...A T A U P L O A D F L O W S E N S O R 5. DATA DOWNLOAD FLOW SENSOR 1. RECON SNORT: KICKASS_PORN DRAGON: PORN HARDCORE SOURCEDEST SOURCE SOURCE...traffic • Make parent nodes by merging child node information. prefix/length coverage/collateral 0.0.0.0/0 100/100 depth=0 non divided 0.0.0.0/1 50/30

  9. Entrenamiento con el traje espacial

    NASA Video Gallery

    Después de 10 paseos espaciales, el astronauta de la NASA Michael López- Alegría sabe bastante de trajes espaciales. En este video, López Alegría comparte su experiencia acerca del uso y el entrena...

  10. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin--phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of

  11. [Alternate method for closure of oro-antral fistulas. Plastic covering of jaw opening with lyophilized Dura and alcoholic solution of Prolamin].

    PubMed

    Kinner, U; Frenkel, G

    1990-11-01

    The operative closure of an oroantral fistula due to tooth extractions by the method of Rehrmann consists of various disadvantages, e.g. postoperative pain, swelling, flattening of the vestibulum and scar-tissue. Two alternative methods to close fresh oroantral fistulas without surgical intervention are described. By the use of prolamin occlusion gel or lyophilized dura these disadvantages can be avoided. Both techniques were successfully attempted on patients. The rate of failure is on both counts under 4%. Some indications limits must be strictly regarded. Both methods are really a good alternative to the usual operative procedure of Rehrmann and can easily be applied even on patients of great risk.

  12. Neurotrophin 3 genotype and emotional adverse effects of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Son, Jung-Woo; Shin, Yun-Mi; Chung, Un-Sun; Han, Doug-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Neurotrophin 3 (NTF3) has been studied in relation to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mood disorders as well as psychostimulant action. We hypothesized that the risk of an emotional side effect to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment may be associated with NTF3 genotypes. Ninety-six medication-naïve children with ADHD (mean age 8.70, standard deviation 1.41 years, 79 males) were genotyped and treated with MPH. At baseline, which was prior to MPH treatment, and after two weeks of medication, investigators asked children and their parents or caregivers about adverse events using a symptom rating scale. ADHD subjects with the A/A genotype at the NTF3 rs6332 polymorphism showed the highest 'Emotionality' and 'Over-focus/euphoria' factor scores, followed by those with the G/A genotype and those with the G/G genotype (p=0.042 and p=0.045, respectively). ADHD subjects with the A/A genotype at the NTF3 rs6332 polymorphism showed the highest 'Proneness to crying' and 'Nail biting' item scores, followed by those with the G/A genotype and those with the G/G genotype (p=0.047 and p=0.017, respectively). These data provide preliminary evidence that genetic variation in the NTF3 gene is related to susceptibility to emotional side effects in response to MPH treatment in Korean children with ADHD.

  13. The role of RNA editing of the serotonin 2C receptor in a rat model of oro-facial neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Aya; Nakai, Kunihiro; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Hagihira, Saotoshi; Shibata, Masahiko; Ueda, Koichi; Masimo, Takashi

    2008-05-01

    We examined whether infraorbital nerve injury affected the RNA editing efficiency of the serotonin (5HT) 2C receptor in the cervical spinal cord, in association with increased pain thresholds, and whether a 5HT reuptake inhibitor (fluvoxamine; Depromel, Meiji Seika, Tokyo, Japan) altered this editing. Accordingly, we injured rats with an infraorbital nerve loose ligation and examined the pain thresholds, mRNA and mRNA editing of the 5HT2C receptor. We evaluated changes in mRNA editing and 5HT2C mRNA expression using cloning along with sequence analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to compare samples taken at post-injury day 28 from spinal cord sites, including the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, in naive, sham and injured rats (groups of each type had also received fluvoxamine). 5HT2C receptor expression was maintained post-injury. The RNA editing efficiency was statistically significantly lower at molecular sites A and B in ipsilateral spinal cord samples from injured rats than in bilateral samples from naive and sham rats, and in contralateral samples from injured rats. After injury, the proportional presence of two receptor isoforms changed, i.e. statistically significantly less VNV and significantly more INV and ISV. The proportions reverted after fluvoxamine administration. The post-injury change might be evidence of a functional adaptation mechanism that increases the expression of 5HT2C mRNA isoforms that encode receptors that are more sensitive to 5HT. This would activate the brainstem-spinal descending 5HT systems and, in effect, suppress nociceptive signals from primary afferent neurons to the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis.

  14. Evaluation of a Gentex (registered trademark) ORO-NASAL Oxygen Mask for Integration with the Aqualung (registered trademark) Personal Helicopter Oxygen Delivery System (PHODS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-13

    13 8b. Onyx II® Digital Pulse Oximeter...was backed up with an Onyx II pulse oximeter (figure 8b) (Yamaya et al., 2002). Additionally, color vision testing using the Ishihara pseudo...Figure 8b. Onyx II® Digital Pulse Oximeter. 14 Figure 8c. Blue

  15. Funcion del "Vulgo" en la Preception Dramatica de la Edad de Oro (The Function of the "Masses" in the Didactic Drama of the [Spanish] Golden Age).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porqueras Mayo, A.; Sanchez Escribano, F.

    1967-01-01

    A concept of the masses, or populace, conveyed a positive connotation in both Biblical and Renaissance literature. During Spain's Golden Age (seventeenth century) writers, especially didactic dramatists, tended to register negative and prejudiced attitudes toward the common folk and to regard them as "masa inculta" or uncultured masses. Primarily,…

  16. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial of oros-methylphenidate (CONCERTA®) and generic novo-methylphenidate ER-C (NOVO-generic)

    PubMed Central

    Fallu, Angelo; Dabouz, Farida; Furtado, Melissa; Anand, Leena; Katzman, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with onset during childhood. Multiple aspects of a child’s development are hindered, in both home and school settings, with negative impacts on social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. If left untreated, ADHD is commonly associated with poor academic achievement and low occupational status, as well as increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult ADHD subject reported outcomes when switched from a stable dose of CONCERTA® to the same dose of generic Novo-methylphenidate ER-C®. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial consisted of two phases in which participants with a primary diagnosis of ADHD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 3 weeks of treatment with CONCERTA or generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. Following 3 weeks of treatment, participants were crossed-over to receive the other treatment for an additional 3 weeks. Primary efficacy was assessed through the use of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, Version II (TSQM-II). Results: Participants with ADHD treated with CONCERTA were more satisfied in terms of efficacy and side effects compared to those receiving an equivalent dose of generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. All participants chose to continue with CONCERTA treatment at the conclusion of the study. Conclusion: Although CONCERTA and generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C have been deemed bioequivalent, however the present findings demonstrate clinically and statistically significant differences between generic and branded CONCERTA. Further investigation of these differences is warranted. PMID:27536342

  17. Application of the New Propulsion Theory to the Design of Propellers. Comparison with the Lifting Line Theory (Aplicacion de la Nueva Teoria de la Impulsion al Diseno de Propulsores. Comparacion con la Teoria de las Lineas Sustentadoras),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-07

    Results and Improvement Thereon," Ingenieria Naval, May 1978. 11. Perez Gomez, G., "Fundamentos teoricos de los modernos procedimientos de proyecto de...TRANSLATED BY: 9198 SOJRCE: INGENIERIA NAVAL, JULY 1983, PP. 267-278; SPANISH DTICSELECTE DEC 9 I983 ~D MWS TRANSLATION No 72D DATE 7 NOVEMBER 1903 [-M...Impulsion al Diseno de Propulsores. Comparacion con la Teoria de las Lineas Sustentadoras.; Ingenieria Naval, July 1983; pp. 267-278] *Department of Ship

  18. HPLC-ESI-MS and MS/MS structural characterization of multifucosylated N-glycoforms of the basic proline-rich protein IB-8a CON1+ in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Cabras, Tiziana; Boi, Roberto; Pisano, Elisabetta; Iavarone, Federica; Fanali, Chiara; Nemolato, Sonia; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2012-05-01

    This study describes the characterization of the glycan moieties and the peptide backbone of six glycoforms of IB-8a CON1(+), a basic proline-rich protein present in human saliva. MS analyses on the intact glycoproteins before and after N-deglycosylation with PNGase F and high-resolution MS/MS sequencing by LTQ Orbitrap XL of peptides and glycopeptides from tryptic digests allowed the structural characterization of the glycan moieties and the polypeptide backbone, as well as to establish the glycosylation site at the asparagine residue at 98th position. Five of the glycoforms carry a biantennary N-linked glycan fucosylated in the innermost N-acetylglucosamine of the core and showing from zero to four additional fucoses in the antennal region. The sixth glycoform carries a monoantennary monofucosylated oligosaccharide. The glycoform cluster was detected on 28 of 71 adult saliva specimens. Level of fucosylation showed interindividual variability with the major relative abundance for the trifucosylated glycoform. Nonglycosylated IB-8a CON1(+) and the variant IB-8a CON1(-), lacking of the glycosylation site, have been also detected in human saliva.

  19. Structural evolution of the Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic complex: Implications on the development of the Red River Shear Zone, Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Lee, Tung-Yi; Lo, Ching-Hua; Chung, Sun-Lin; Lan, Ching-Ying; Anh, Tran Tuan

    2008-12-01

    The Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic complex in North Vietnam is the southernmost high-grade metamorphic zone along the NW-SE trending Red River Shear Zone (RRSZ) in Indochina. The RRSZ was considered as a classical large-scale continental strike-slip fault that had played a significant role in the continental extrusion of Southeast Asia since the collision of India and Eurasia. Earlier ideas determined the RRSZ as a steep shear zone that penetrated the entire lithosphere. Both metamorphism and structures within rocks along the DNCV metamorphic complex have been previously thought to be formed syn-tectonically by left-lateral shearing of the RRSZ during the Oligocene-Miocene continental escape tectonics. However, our meso- and microstructural re-examination of this region shows that these metamorphic rocks were formed during earlier tectonic episodes unrelated to strike-slip shearing. High angle to near orthogonal overprinting fabrics indicated that this region recorded three episodes of ductile deformation followed by brittle faulting events with different intensity spanning from the Triassic to the Tertiary. D 1 is preserved as NW-SE striking upright folds under garnet grade regional metamorphism during the Triassic Indosinian orogeny as South China block amalgamated with the Indochina block. The large-scale horizontal D 2 folds with a dominant top to N-NW bottom to S-SW sense of shear, and sub-horizontal fold axial planes suggest that the DNCV metamorphic complex remained at midcrustal depths since the Indosinian orogeny. The youngest ductile deformation event, D 3, refolded D 2 recumbent folds into a dome, and uplifted the DNCV as lower-temperature fabrics, S 3, indicated. Steep mylonite zones with left-lateral kinematic indicators and brittle faulting were developed on both limbs of the dome along the steep Song Hong and Song Chay faults during left-lateral movement of the RRSZ. Our new spatial, temporal and kinematic correlations of metamorphic fabrics

  20. Total and subtypes of dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study.

    PubMed

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Portoles, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; Hu, Frank B; Forga, Lluís; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    Background: The associations between dietary fat and cardiovascular disease have been evaluated in several studies, but less is known about their influence on the risk of diabetes.Objective: We examined the associations between total fat, subtypes of dietary fat, and food sources rich in saturated fatty acids and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Design: A prospective cohort analysis of 3349 individuals who were free of diabetes at baseline but were at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study was conducted. Detailed dietary information was assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate T2D HRs and 95% CIs according to baseline and yearly updated fat intake.Results: We documented 266 incident cases during 4.3 y of follow-up. Baseline saturated and animal fat intake was not associated with the risk of T2D. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of updated intake of saturated and animal fat had a higher risk of diabetes than the lowest quartile (HR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.73; and P-trend = 0.01 compared with HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.29, 3.09; and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). In both the Mediterranean diet and control groups, participants in the highest quartile of updated animal fat intake had an ∼2-fold higher risk of T2D than their counterparts in the lowest quartile. The consumption of 1 serving of butter and cheese was associated with a higher risk of diabetes, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk.Conclusions: In a Mediterranean trial focused on dietary fat interventions, baseline intake of saturated and animal fat was not associated with T2D incidence, but the yearly updated intake of saturated and animal fat was associated with a higher risk of T2D. Cheese and butter intake was associated with a higher risk of T2D, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake

  1. Study on the Strategies for the Soil and Water Resource Con-servation of Slopeland in Taiwan in Response to the Extreme Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Global climate change results in extreme weather, especially ex-treme precipitation in Taiwan. Though the total amount of precipi-tation remains unchanged, the frequency of rainfall return period increases which affects slopeland and causes sediment disaster. In Taiwan, slopeland occupies about 73% of national territory. Under harsh environmental stress, soil and water conservation of slope-land becomes more important. In response to the trends of global-ization impacts of climate change, long term strategic planning be-comes more necessary. This study reviewed international practices and decision making process about soil and water conservation of slopeland; and conducted the compilation and analysis of water and soil conservation related research projects in Taiwan within the past five years. It is necessary for Taiwan to design timely adaptive strategies about conducting the all-inclusive conservation of na-tional territory, management and business operation of watershed based on the existing regulation with the effects of extreme weather induced by climate change and the changes of social-economic en-vironments. In order to realize the policy vision of "Under the premise of multiple uses, operating the sustainable business and management of the water and soil resources in the watershed through territorial planning in response to the climate and so-cial-economic environment change". This study concluded the future tasks for soil and water con-servation: 1.Design and timely amend strategies for soil and wand water conservation in response to extreme weather. 2. Strengthen the planning and operating of the land management and integrated conservation of the water and soil resources of key watershed. 3. Manage and operate the prevention of debris flow disaster and large-scale landslide. 4. Formulate polices, related regulations and assessment indicators of soil and water conservation. 5. Maintain the biodiversity of the slopeland and reduce the ecological footprint

  2. Increases in Plasma Tryptophan Are Inversely Associated with Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Edward; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Zheng, Yan; Toledo, Estefania; Clish, Clary B; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Liang, Liming; Wang, Dong D; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Cofán, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Romaguera, Dora; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Sorlí, Jose V; Hu, Frank B; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2017-03-01

    Background: During development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), interferon-γ-mediated inflammation accelerates degradation of tryptophan into downstream metabolites. A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consisting of a high intake of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), nuts, fruits, vegetables, and cereals has been demonstrated to lower the risk of CVD. The longitudinal relation between tryptophan and its downstream metabolites and CVD in the context of a MedDiet is unstudied.Objective: We sought to investigate the relation between metabolites in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and CVD in the context of a MedDiet pattern.Methods: We used a case-cohort design nested in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea randomized controlled trial. There were 231 CVD cases (stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death) among 985 participants over a median of 4.7 y of follow-up [mean ± SD age: 67.6 ± 6.1 y; 53.7% women; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 29.7 ± 3.7]. We assessed plasma tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and quinolinic acid concentrations at baseline and after 1 y of intervention with a MedDiet. We combined these metabolites in a kynurenine risk score (KRS) by weighting each metabolite by the adjusted coefficient of its associations with CVD. Cox models were used in the primary analysis.Results: Increases in tryptophan after 1 y were associated with a lower risk of composite CVD (HR per SD: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.98). The baseline kynurenic acid concentration was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease death but not stroke. A higher KRS was more strongly associated with CVD in the control group than in the 2 intervention groups (P-interaction = 0.003). Adjustment for changes in plasma tryptophan attenuated the inverse association between MedDiet+EVOO and CVD.Conclusions: An increase in the plasma tryptophan concentration was significantly associated with a decreased risk of CVD. A

  3. [Serum lactate as a biomarker of severe sepsis in children with cancer, neutropenia and fever].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Rosas, Daniel Octavio; Huelgas-Plaza, Ana Celia; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la neutropenia es una complicación frecuente secundaria a la quimioterapia en los pacientes con cáncer, en quienes la prevalencia de sepsis es de 12.9 a 17.4 % y la letalidad es de 16 %. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la utilidad del lactato como biomarcador de sepsis grave en niños con cáncer, fiebre y neutropenia. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de prueba diagnóstica fase II. Se midieron los niveles del lactato al ingreso. Los episodios de neutropenia se clasificaron en tres grupos: I, con sepsis II, sin sepsis; III, pacientes neutropénicos sin fiebre (controles). Se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos positivo y negativo e índices de verosimilitud. El estándar de oro fue el diagnóstico clínico de sepsis grave.

  4. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  5. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin.

  6. Sequential bonding of CO molecules to a titanium dimer: A photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopic and theoretical study of Ti2(CO)n- (n = 1-9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jinghan; Xie, Hua; Dai, Dongxu; Tang, Zichao; Jiang, Ling

    2016-11-01

    Binuclear titanium carbonyl cluster anions, Ti2(CO)n- (n = 4-6), are produced via a laser vaporization supersonic cluster source and characterized by mass-selected photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations are carried out for Ti2(CO)n- (n = 1-9) to explore the trend of sequential bonding of CO molecules to a titanium dimer. It has been found that the CO molecules bind to Ti2 in a side-on fashion and form a stable Ti2[η2(μ2-C, O)]3 structure at n = 3, the motif of which retains up to n = 5. Starting at n = 6, a new building block of two CO groups side-on-bonded to Ti2 is favored, the structure of which persists up to n = 9. In the larger clusters (n = 6-9), the side-on-bonded CO molecule can be stabilized via the removal of two electrons from an anionic titanium carbonyl, which is different from the effect of charge on CO binding in rhodium carbonyls where bridge-bonded CO molecules are selectively destabilized by the removal of an electron from a neutral rhodium carbonyl. The present study provides a stepwise picture for molecular-level understanding of CO bonding on transition-metal clusters, which is directly relevant to the elementary processes of CO at metal catalysts.

  7. Sequential bonding of CO molecules to a titanium dimer: A photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopic and theoretical study of Ti2(CO)n(-) (n = 1-9).

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinghan; Xie, Hua; Dai, Dongxu; Tang, Zichao; Jiang, Ling

    2016-11-14

    Binuclear titanium carbonyl cluster anions, Ti2(CO)n(-) (n = 4-6), are produced via a laser vaporization supersonic cluster source and characterized by mass-selected photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations are carried out for Ti2(CO)n(-) (n = 1-9) to explore the trend of sequential bonding of CO molecules to a titanium dimer. It has been found that the CO molecules bind to Ti2 in a side-on fashion and form a stable Ti2[η(2)(μ2-C, O)]3 structure at n = 3, the motif of which retains up to n = 5. Starting at n = 6, a new building block of two CO groups side-on-bonded to Ti2 is favored, the structure of which persists up to n = 9. In the larger clusters (n = 6-9), the side-on-bonded CO molecule can be stabilized via the removal of two electrons from an anionic titanium carbonyl, which is different from the effect of charge on CO binding in rhodium carbonyls where bridge-bonded CO molecules are selectively destabilized by the removal of an electron from a neutral rhodium carbonyl. The present study provides a stepwise picture for molecular-level understanding of CO bonding on transition-metal clusters, which is directly relevant to the elementary processes of CO at metal catalysts.

  8. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  9. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  10. Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Pacheco, Andres

    El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el

  11. Has allogeneic stem cell cryopreservation been given the 'cold shoulder'? An analysis of the pros and cons of using frozen versus fresh stem cell products in allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Frey, N V; Lazarus, H M; Goldstein, S C

    2006-09-01

    Donor stem cells for allogeneic transplant traditionally are collected and transfused 'fresh' into the recipient on the day of transplant; alternatively such cells can be collected in advance and cryopreserved until needed. Most centers favor the former approach based on theoretical concerns that cryopreservation and thawing may worsen clinical outcomes. Limited published data from single institution retrospective studies show no significant impairment of engraftment or reduced day 100 survival for cryopreserved bone marrow recipients. There are no reported outcomes for recipients of cryopreserved peripheral blood allografts. Use of cryopreserved stem cells is associated with a higher incidence of adverse events (transfusion reactions, bacterial graft contamination and collection of grafts which are not utilized). Conversely, use of cryopreserved grafts introduces a greater flexibility into a stressed healthcare system and results in a more streamlined experience for the donor. Some data suggest that transplantation with a cryopreserved product may lower the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease. We compare the pros and cons of using 'fresh' versus cryopreserved stem cell products for allogeneic transplantation and suggest that the current standard of using 'fresh' products may not be warranted. We also suggest future areas of exploration to better elucidate this issue.

  12. Multi-analytical approach applied to the provenance study of marbles used as covering slabs in the archaeological submerged site of Baia (Naples, Italy): The case of the "Villa con ingresso a protiro"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Michela; Belfiore, Cristina Maria; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Barca, Donatella; De Buergo, Monica Alvarez; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; La Russa, Mauro Francesco

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on archaeometric investigations of white marbles taken from the submerged archaeological site of Baia (Naples). The marine area includes the ruins of this ancient Roman city, whose structures range from luxurious maritime villas and imperial buildings with private thermae and tabernae, to more simple and modest houses. Analyses were carried out on fifty marble fragments of covering slabs, belonging to several pavements of the monumental villa, called the Villa con ingresso a protiro, in order to ascertain their provenance. The most distinctive properties of marbles are their variety of textural property especially regarding grain size (MGS), associated with the Mn content and the variation of stable isotopes. These features, supported by the contribution of other variables and studies, establish the basis for the correct identification of the marbles. For this purpose, minero-petrographic and geochemical techniques were used. Results were compared with literature data of white marbles commonly used in antiquity, especially in the Mediterranean basin and showed that a variety of precious marbles from Carrara, Docimium (Afyon), Thasos-D, Aphrodisias, Proconnesos (Marmara), Paros and Pentelicon were used in the ancient roman city of Baia, confirming the importance of the submerged archaeological site and also allowing researchers to broaden the existing database.

  13. Implantation des sites de soins communautaires en République Démocratique du Congo: consécration d'un double standard dans l'accès aux soins

    PubMed Central

    Dunia, Gisèle Mawazo Binti

    2013-01-01

    Depuis 2005, la République Démocratique du Congo a amorcé l'implantation des sites de soins communautaires. Cette stratégie a pour objectif de rapprocher les services de santé des populations éloignées. Bien que cela parte d'une bonne intention, elle résulte, à notre sens, en une consécration d'un système de santé à deux vitesses. En effet, les populations vivant en ville ont accès à des soins prestés par des agents de santé formés alors que celles vivant en milieu rural reculé ont pour prestataires de soins des relais communautaires. Cette situation marginalise encore plus des populations dont la situation géographique est déjà préoccupante. Pourtant, la population est prête à parcourir des kilomètres en échange d'un service qu'elle estime de qualité. PMID:23785563

  14. Vacuum assist: angel or demon CON.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Timothy W

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) to enhance venous return during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was described as early as 1958 but was not widely used until the late 1990s. VAVD was initially used to facilitate the use of smaller cannulas with ministernotomy but was increasingly used to allow reduction in CPB circuit size while maintaining CPB flow rates. This innovation was made without planned consideration to CPB circuit design, most critically that of the venous reservoir. Clinical reports of prime reduction facilitated by VAVD in both adult and pediatric CPB were associated with reduced nadir hematocrit and rates of transfusion that encouraged the proliferation of VAVD in CPB. Concomitantly, investigators have reported both in vitro and in vivo significantly increased arterial emboli associated with the use of VAVD, mostly related to accelerated venous air entrainment. In vitro studies continue to confirm this association and likely underestimate the resulting embolic load as a result of flawed study design. While the evidence for VAVD is equivocal, our understanding of the clinical impact of gaseous microemboli in CPB is similarly limited, most likely confined to blood-brain barrier disruption. It is only after two decades that CPB component design is receiving serious attention in terms of air handling. The ethics of innovation in the field of CPB warrant careful consideration. The application of VAVD is not without consequence.

  15. Deep discharge reconditioning: Pros and cons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Deep-discharge reconditioning (DDR) can be of great benefit to battery performance, especially in geosynchronous orbit, if performed properly and regularly, and can be essential to operation of batteries at the high depths of discharge (DOD) required to minimize weight. The procedure should be tailored to fit the nature of the degradation occuring during regular cycling. DDR is not without its drawbacks, however, and these differ depending on the normal DOD to be sustained and/or whether the discharge is done at the battery or the cell level. Battery-level discharge carries the minimum weight penalty but raises questions of the effects of low-rate cell reversal that as yet have no firm answers. Cell level discharge avoids cell reversal but carries significant penalties of weight and complexity. Thus no universal procedure or method of implementation of deep-discharge reconditioning is now available and thus the various approaches must be evaluated for each application.

  16. The pros and cons of code validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, Percy J.

    1988-01-01

    Computational and wind tunnel error sources are examined and quantified using specific calculations of experimental data, and a substantial comparison of theoretical and experimental results, or a code validation, is discussed. Wind tunnel error sources considered include wall interference, sting effects, Reynolds number effects, flow quality and transition, and instrumentation such as strain gage balances, electronically scanned pressure systems, hot film gages, hot wire anemometers, and laser velocimeters. Computational error sources include math model equation sets, the solution algorithm, artificial viscosity/dissipation, boundary conditions, the uniqueness of solutions, grid resolution, turbulence modeling, and Reynolds number effects. It is concluded that, although improvements in theory are being made more quickly than in experiments, wind tunnel research has the advantage of the more realistic transition process of a right turbulence model in a free-transition test.

  17. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or ‘pragmatic’ designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications. PMID:26681747

  18. Pros and cons of immunological methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International regulatory agencies Codex Alimentarius, European Commission Regulation and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have set 20 mg/kg (ppm) as the maximum limit of gluten allowed in foods labeled as “gluten-free”. Immunological approaches appear to be, so far, the most suitable method...

  19. Vacuum Assist: Angel or Demon CON

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) to enhance venous return during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was described as early as 1958 but was not widely used until the late 1990s. VAVD was initially used to facilitate the use of smaller cannulas with ministernotomy but was increasingly used to allow reduction in CPB circuit size while maintaining CPB flow rates. This innovation was made without planned consideration to CPB circuit design, most critically that of the venous reservoir. Clinical reports of prime reduction facilitated by VAVD in both adult and pediatric CPB were associated with reduced nadir hematocrit and rates of transfusion that encouraged the proliferation of VAVD in CPB. Concomitantly, investigators have reported both in vitro and in vivo significantly increased arterial emboli associated with the use of VAVD, mostly related to accelerated venous air entrainment. In vitro studies continue to confirm this association and likely underestimate the resulting embolic load as a result of flawed study design. While the evidence for VAVD is equivocal, our understanding of the clinical impact of gaseous microemboli in CPB is similarly limited, most likely confined to blood–brain barrier disruption. It is only after two decades that CPB component design is receiving serious attention in terms of air handling. The ethics of innovation in the field of CPB warrant careful consideration. The application of VAVD is not without consequence. PMID:23930383

  20. The Pros and Cons of Petroleum Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Charles J.

    1980-01-01

    A mineral agreements expert discusses the options open to tribes, from the most standard lease form to arrangements as yet untried by Indian Nations. Discussion covers 18 basic provisions for inclusion in agreements, tax considerations, and basic forms of petroleum agreements (leases, joint ventures, production sharing, and service contracts).…

  1. Cost–effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cost–effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost–effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost–effectiveness thresholds allow cost–effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization’s Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost–effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country’s per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this – in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost–effectiveness ratios – can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost–effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations – e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations – in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost–effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair. PMID:27994285

  2. Preventive therapies: weighing the pros and cons.

    PubMed Central

    Laupacis, A

    1996-01-01

    The author comments on three issues raised by Dr. Kenneth G. Marshall in his series on the benefits and harms of preventive therapies, which begins in this issue on page 1493. First, because the method by which the results of clinical trials are presented markedly affects the perception of those results some measure of absolute benefit and harm must be used when the results of clinical trials are presented. Second, there is increasing interest in decision aids as a means of helping patients to understand evidence and make therapeutic choices. It is important that these aids undergo rigorous testing before they are adopted for common use. Third, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are a welcome resource for busy clinicians. However, physicians and patients should bear in mind that interpretations of the available evidence can vary, leading to different conclusions about the appropriateness of preventive therapies. PMID:8625001

  3. Distance Education: Pros, Cons, and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongmei

    This paper reviews recent publications on distance education and explores its promise and potential from the student's perspective, the faculty's perspective and the administrator's perspective. Findings indicate that only the self-motivated and self-disciplined students are most likely to succeed in distance education. Although the majority of…

  4. [Pros and cons of cancer screenings].

    PubMed

    Malila, Nea

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screenings aim to detect latent or oligosymptomatic cancers in the early stage when treatment of the disease can be curative and cancer death may in many cases be prevented. Improved quality of life is a characteristic feature of good screening. Screenings may also lessen human suffering, for instance. For the society, early-stage cancer treatment saves money. Drawbacks of screenings are both false positive and false negative screening results leading to unnecessary further investigations. A latent cancer may also remain undetected due to a false test result.

  5. Experimentar con un cohete de plasma

    NASA Video Gallery

    El Dr. Franklin Chang-Díaz, el primer astronauta hispano de la NASA, es actualmente el presidente y CEO de Ad Astra Rocket Company, la empresa que desarrolla el nuevo cohete de plasma VASIMR. Apren...

  6. Women in Combat Pros and Cons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    secondary to domestic duties. Combat is directly oppossed to a women’s nuturing role and is wrong because of both values and perceived deficient...opportunities should be equal, including the right and duty to defend your country. Discrimination for employment should be based upon objective and...bonding excludes sexual relationships of either a heterosexual or homosexual nature . Some believe that. this bonding would degenerate into sexual

  7. Open Admissions: The Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barzun, Jacques; And Others

    The Council for Basic Education sponsored an all-day symposium on open admissions in 1971. This booklet contains the full text of the addresses given on that occasion, as well as the major part of the discussion among the panelists and answers to questions from the audience. The aim of the symposium was not only to provide information about…

  8. The Big Con: China's Historical Sabotage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrence Cheng

    2009-01-01

    On June 4, 1989, the Chinese military, under orders from the highest levels of government, violently crushed peaceful civilian demonstrations in Beijing, most symbolically in and around Tiananmen Square. In the end, the Chinese government claimed that the death toll was approximately 200, but the Chinese Red Cross reported 2,000 to 3,000 deaths.…

  9. Technical pro & cons of the laparoscopic lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Riccardo; Giannone Codiglione, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopy has been introduced in treatment of gastric cancer to reduce surgical trauma and to improve post-operative functional recovery. Most of international guidelines allow the use of this minimally invasive approach in general surgical practice only in clinical stage I. One of the most important concerns in fact is the feasibility of D2 lymphadenectomy through laparoscopy. Reduced numbers of harvested lymph nodes have been reported, particularly in stations with a more difficult access. Nevertheless subsequent papers reported adequate numbers of total number of nodes retrieved, even with D2 dissection and even in complex stations but results from randomized controlled trials still lack. Laparoscopic approach has been proven safe and effective also in extremely complex maneuvers as spleen-preserving retropancreatic lymphadenectomy. The minimally invasive approach in D2 lymphadenectomy seems to be associated to comparable incidence of specific complications as compared to open surgery. The use of laparoscopy has extended the operating time but has reduced the blood loss. Because of high complexity of this kind surgery, laparoscopic gastric surgery for cancer should be done only in referral centers. PMID:28138658

  10. Roofing with Urethane: Pro and Con.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Michael; Scott, Gerald P.E.

    1981-01-01

    Gerald Scott's favorable evaluation of the foamed polyurethane roofing system is based on experiences with 55 buildings at Texas A & M. Michael Kinzer, an architect at Colorado State University, disagrees and claims that the system is difficult to install and maintain, and the cost prohibitive. (MLF)

  11. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors.

  12. The pros and cons of phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Jefferson, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant derived compounds found in a wide variety of foods, most notably soy. A litany of health benefits including a lowered risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, breast cancer, and menopausal symptoms, are frequently attributed to phytoestrogens but many are also considered endocrine disruptors, indicating that they have the potential to cause adverse health effects as well. Consequently, the question of whether or not phytoestrogens are beneficial or harmful to human health remains unresolved. The answer is likely complex and may depend on age, health status, and even the presence or absence of specific gut microflora. Clarity on this issue is needed because global consumption is rapidly increasing. Phytoestrogens are present in numerous dietary supplements and widely marketed as a natural alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. Soy infant formula now constitutes up to a third of the US market, and soy protein is now added to many processed foods. As weak estrogen agonists/antagonists with molecular and cellular properties similar to synthetic endocrine disruptors such as Bisphenol A (BPA), the phytoestrogens provide a useful model to comprehensively investigate the biological impact of endocrine disruptors in general. This review weighs the evidence for and against the purported health benefits and adverse effects of phytoestrogens. PMID:20347861

  13. Pros and cons of hydraulic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic drilling are discussed. The low maintenance, energy efficiency, drilling speeds, and operating costs are the main advantages of the hydraulic drills. The economics and maintenance of air drills are also compared.

  14. Cost-effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Melanie Y; Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost-effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost-effectiveness thresholds allow cost-effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost-effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country's per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this - in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost-effectiveness ratios - can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost-effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations - e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations - in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost-effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair.

  15. Communicating genetic risk: pros, cons, and counsel.

    PubMed

    Penson, R T; Seiden, M V; Shannon, K M; Lubratovich, M L; Roche, M; Chabner, B A; Lynch, T J

    2000-01-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. This case is of a woman with a personal, and a strong family history of breast cancer, who considered genetic testing for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The details of the case have been altered to protect the patient's anonymity. The patient was very anxious and there was disagreement between her healthcare providers about the potential benefits of genetic testing. The discussion of the case focused on several controversial issues, particularly the ownership of genetic information, and who is responsible for disseminating information to the family members at risk. The difficulties in communicating risk, providing emotional support and coping with the continuing uncertainties about screening and intervention are reviewed with an overview of the molecular biology, inheritance, and epidemiology of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.

  16. Home Birth: Know the Pros and Cons

    MedlinePlus

    ... America. British Medical Journal. 2005;330:1. Boucher D, et al. Staying home to give birth: Why women in the United States choose home birth. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2009;54:119. Davis-Floyd R. Home birth emergencies in the U.S. and Mexico: ...

  17. Con: Licensure unnecessary in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Garon, Jack E

    2006-01-31

    Those who argue in favor of licensure for clinical laboratory scientists have their priorities in order, but fail to recognize the realities that would ensue were national licensure to be instituted. Higher health-care costs, elimination of rural facilities, and licensure board fraud are all unintended, yet dangerous, consequences that could occur. In his argument against national licensure, laboratory director Jack Garon summarizes some of the most salient research done regarding licensure and presents his case why it is unnecessary in the clinical laboratory.

  18. Weighing the Pros and Cons of TAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieczura, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Headlines offer a plethora of opinions and arguments both for and against proposed and newly implemented teacher evaluation systems all over the United States. Hardly anyone balks at the idea of evaluating teachers, but many question whether these new evaluation systems really improve teaching and learning. The author's experience with the new…

  19. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Atypical Pros and Cons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that affect several mammalian species including human beings. Four animal TSE agents have been reported: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink encephalopath...

  20. Vencemos Con Libros Y La Lengua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Daniel Flores, Comp.

    The city of Richmond, California has many residents who read and speak only Spanish, and many other Chicanos and Latin Americans who are interested in their heritage. The Service Center Branch of the public library has a collection of books, magazines, and records in Spanish and in English on the problems, history and culture of these people. This…