Science.gov

Sample records for marked ascaris suum

  1. Ascaris suum draft genome.

    PubMed

    Jex, Aaron R; Liu, Shiping; Li, Bo; Young, Neil D; Hall, Ross S; Li, Yingrui; Yang, Linfeng; Zeng, Na; Xu, Xun; Xiong, Zijun; Chen, Fangyuan; Wu, Xuan; Zhang, Guojie; Fang, Xiaodong; Kang, Yi; Anderson, Garry A; Harris, Todd W; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Vlaminck, Johnny; Wang, Tao; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Schwarz, Erich M; Ranganathan, Shoba; Geldhof, Peter; Nejsum, Peter; Sternberg, Paul W; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-10-26

    Parasitic diseases have a devastating, long-term impact on human health, welfare and food production worldwide. More than two billion people are infected with geohelminths, including the roundworms Ascaris (common roundworm), Necator and Ancylostoma (hookworms), and Trichuris (whipworm), mainly in developing or impoverished nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America. In humans, the diseases caused by these parasites result in about 135,000 deaths annually, with a global burden comparable with that of malaria or tuberculosis in disability-adjusted life years. Ascaris alone infects around 1.2 billion people and, in children, causes nutritional deficiency, impaired physical and cognitive development and, in severe cases, death. Ascaris also causes major production losses in pigs owing to reduced growth, failure to thrive and mortality. The Ascaris-swine model makes it possible to study the parasite, its relationship with the host, and ascariasis at the molecular level. To enable such molecular studies, we report the 273 megabase draft genome of Ascaris suum and compare it with other nematode genomes. This genome has low repeat content (4.4%) and encodes about 18,500 protein-coding genes. Notably, the A. suum secretome (about 750 molecules) is rich in peptidases linked to the penetration and degradation of host tissues, and an assemblage of molecules likely to modulate or evade host immune responses. This genome provides a comprehensive resource to the scientific community and underpins the development of new and urgently needed interventions (drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests) against ascariasis and other nematodiases.

  2. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2) Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3) Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4) Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides. PMID:22348306

  3. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    PubMed

    Leles, Daniela; Gardner, Scott L; Reinhard, Karl; Iñiguez, Alena; Araujo, Adauto

    2012-02-20

    Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2) Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3) Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4) Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.

  4. Opiate alkaloids in Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Pryor, S C; Putnam, Jennifer; Hoo, Nanyamka

    2004-01-01

    The parasitic worm Ascaris suum contains the opiate alkaloids morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide as determined by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The level of morphine in muscle tissue of female and male is 252 +/- 32.68, 1168 +/- 278 and 180 +/- 23.47 (ng/g of wet tissue), respectively. The level of M6G in muscle tissue of female and male is 167 +/- 28.37 and 92 +/- 11.45 (ng/g of wet tissue), respectively. Furthermore, Ascaris maintained for 5 days contained a significant amount of morphine, as did their medium, demonstrating their ability to synthesize the opiate alkaloid. The anatomic distribution of morphine was examined by indirect immunofluorescent staining and HPLC of various tissues dissected from male and female adult worms. Immunofluorescence revealed morphine in the subcuticle layers, in the animals' nerve chords and in the female reproductive organs. Morphine was found to be most prevalent in the muscle tissue and there is significantly more morphine in females than males, probably due to the large amounts in the female uterus. Morphine (10(-9) M) and morphine-6-glucuronide (10(-9) M) stimulated the release of NO from Ascaris muscle tissue. Naloxone (10(-7) M), and L-NAME (10(-6) M) blocked (P < 0.005) morphine-stimulated NO release from A. suum muscle. CTOP (10(-7) M) did not block morphine's NO release. However, naloxone could not block M6G stimulated NO release by muscle tissue, whereas CTOP (10(-7) M) blocked its release. These findings were in seeming contradiction to our inability to isolate a mu opiate receptor messenger RNA by RT-PCR using a human mu primer. This suggests that a novel mu opiate receptor was present and selective toward M6G.

  5. Reinfection of yearling calves with Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    McCraw, B M

    1973-01-01

    Naturally occuring outbreaks of Ascaris suum infection in calves have usually beeen found in animals nine to 12 months of age. The circumstances surrounding these outbreaks suggest that yearling calves are either particularly susceptible to a primary exposure to A. suum or react strongly to A. summ after sensitization early in life to this or some related ascarid. To determine the effect of reinfection with A. suum nine to 12 months after varying levels of exposure to this nematode, six calves were inoculated with 200,000 to 9,000,000 eggs. Neither death nor, in general, severe clinical signs resulted from reinfection. All calves were examined 15 days after reinfection with pathological changes noted only in the lungs and consisting of emphysema, alveolar wall thickening as well as accumulations of fibrin, eosinophils and hemorrhage in the lumina of alveoli. The findings suggested that exposure to A. suum early in life is not a factor in the development of disease in calves infected at one year of age. It was also found that the eosinophilia that develops following a primary infection with A. suum evidently persists for at least one year.

  6. Reinfection of Yearling Calves with Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    McCraw, B. M.

    1973-01-01

    Naturally occuring outbreaks of Ascaris suum infection in calves have usually beeen found in animals nine to 12 months of age. The circumstances surrounding these outbreaks suggest that yearling calves are either particularly susceptible to a primary exposure to A. suum or react strongly to A. summ after sensitization early in life to this or some related ascarid. To determine the effect of reinfection with A. suum nine to 12 months after varying levels of exposure to this nematode, six calves were inoculated with 200,000 to 9,000,000 eggs. Neither death nor, in general, severe clinical signs resulted from reinfection. All calves were examined 15 days after reinfection with pathological changes noted only in the lungs and consisting of emphysema, alveolar wall thickening as well as accumulations of fibrin, eosinophils and hemorrhage in the lumina of alveoli. The findings suggested that exposure to A. suum early in life is not a factor in the development of disease in calves infected at one year of age. It was also found that the eosinophilia that develops following a primary infection with A. suum evidently persists for at least one year. PMID:4265549

  7. Structure of the ascarosides from Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Bartley, J P; Bennett, E A; Darben, P A

    1996-10-01

    Six glycosides have been identified from the nematode Ascaris suum. The glycon part of all six glycosides is alpha L-3,6-dideoxymannose, previously known as ascarylose. The major components (4 and 5) and the minor components (8 and 9) have been shown by NMR and electrospray MS to involve a mixture of two homologous aglycons: the 2, omega-1 diols of hentriacontane and tritriacontane. Compounds 4 and 5 are glycosylated on only one of the hydroxy groups, while 8 and 9 are glycosylated on both. These compounds resemble ascarosides B and C previously isolated from Parascaris equorum. However, these aglycons are reported to be based on the 2,6-diol of hentriacontane. Compounds 6 and 7 are based on 2-hydroxy-nonacosane and 2-hydroxy-28-methylnonacosane glycosylated at C-2 with the same sugar. Although 6 and 7 are related to ascaroside A, previously isolated from P. equorum, these earlier reports suggest the chain in ascaroside A to be unbranched.

  8. [Comparative studies on the difference between Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum].

    PubMed

    Weng, Pei-lan; Peng, Wei-dong

    2006-04-30

    There has been continued controversy on the taxonomy of Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus, 1758 from humans and Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782 from pigs. This article reviews a range of comparative studies related to host susceptibility, morphology, karyotype, immunology and biochemistry, as well as molecular genetics in recent years.

  9. Ascaris suum enolase is a potential vaccine candidate against ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Xiang; Zhang, Yan-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Chao; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-05-14

    Ascariasis caused by Ascaris is the most common parasite problem in humans and pigs worldwide. No vaccines are available for the prevention of Ascaris infections. In the present study, the gene encoding Ascaris suum enolase (As-enol-1) was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Amino acid sequence alignment indicated that As-enol-1 was highly conserved between different nematodes and shared the highest identity (87%) with enolase from Anisakis simplex s.l. The recombinant pVAX-Enol was successfully expressed in Marc-145 cells. The ability of the pVAX-Enol for inducing immune protective responses against challenge infection with A. suum L3 was evaluated in Kunming mice. The immune response was evaluated by lymphoproliferative assay, cytokine and antibody measurements, and the reduction rate of recovery larvae. The results showed that the mice immunized with pVAX-Enol developed a high level of specific antibody responses against A. suum, a strong lymphoproliferative response, and significant levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 production, compared with the other groups immunized with empty plasmid or blank controls, respectively. There was a 61.13% reduction (P<0.05) in larvae recovery compared with that in the blank control group. Our data indicated that A. suum enolase is a potential vaccine candidate against A. suum infection.

  10. Inactivation of Ascaris suum by short-chain fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ascaris suum eggs were inactivated in distilled water and digested sludge by butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids. The fatty acids (FA) were only effective when protonated and at sufficient concentration. The conjugate bases were not effective at the concentrations evaluated. Predictions from an ...

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the inte...

  12. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely. PMID:26951988

  13. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely.

  14. Interaction between Ascaris suum and Pasteurella multocida in the lungs of mice.

    PubMed

    Tjørnehøj, K; Eriksen, L; Aalbaek, B; Nansen, P

    1992-01-01

    In an experiment including 8 groups of 15 mice, the effect of migrating Ascaris suum larvae in the lungs on the establishment and pathogenicity of aerosol exposure to Pasteurella multocida was investigated. Following aerosol exposure to P. multocida, mice with migrating A. suum in their lungs developed more severe pneumonia and septicaemia than did parasite-free mice. The parasite-induced effect on bacterial pathogenicity was more marked for a non-toxin-producing P. multocida as compared with a toxin-producing strain of P. multocida, possibly due to the higher spontaneous pathogenicity of the non-toxigenic strain of P. multocida. The present results should encourage controlled experiments on possible interactions between A. suum and various airborne microbial infections in pigs.

  15. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs.

  16. Ascaris suum Infection in Calves I. Clinical Signs

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, J. A.; McCraw, B. M.

    1970-01-01

    Clinical signs consistent with those of atypical interstitial pneumonia (AIP) were induced in calves sensitized with infective Ascaris suum eggs at seven to 20 weeks of age and challenged at three-week intervals one or more times. These signs usually appeared on the sixth or seventh day postinfection and reached maximum severity between the tenth and 13th days following infection. Prominent signs were: dyspnea, often with expiratory grunt, coughing, mouth breathing and emphysema as well as increased respiration and heart rates. In general, the intensity of signs was dependent upon dose size, although a single small dose resulted in acute signs and death in one calf. Intermittent coughing and vesicular sounds were induced in calves given A. suum eggs continually over prolonged periods. No respiratory abnormalities resulted from challenge with Toxocara canis after sensitization with A. suum. Antihistamine therapy did not alter the clinical signs in A. suum infected calves. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4394225

  17. Biological interactions between soil saprotrophic fungi and Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Blaszkowska, Joanna; Wojcik, Anna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Szwabe, Katarzyna

    2013-09-23

    The in vitro effect of saprotrophic soil fungi on the embryonic development of Ascaris suum was evaluated. The fungi tested were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium oxysporum and Trichothecium roseum, isolated from children's recreation areas in the city of Lodz (Poland). Each species was co-cultured with A. suum egg suspension (6 × 10(3)eggs/ml) at 25 ± 2°C for 60 days. Each day, 100 eggs were randomly collected and their developmental stage was classified macroscopically. Additionally, at days 4, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 60 of incubation, the viability and the percentage of eggs with morphological altered embryo/larva were determined in each sample. Microscopic examination revealed that exposure of eggs to the mycelium of examined fungi inhibited embryogenesis of A. suum. All control culture eggs reached L2 larval stage after 26 days of incubation, while the experimental cultures did so after 32-51 days, depending on the fungal species. Three species were found to exhibit very high inhibitory activity on A. suum egg development: A. terreus, P. expansum and F. oxysporum. Embryopathies and non-viable embryos/larvae were observed significantly more frequently in the eggs co-cultured with fungal species than in control cultures. The fungus-exposed eggs revealed morphological alternations in the early zygotic cleavage, blastula, gastrula and larval stages. After 60 days of incubation with mycelia of P. expansum, A. terreus and F. oxysporum, the mortality of the larvae reached 55.3-60.3%. P. expansum and F. oxysporum showed hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization of A. suum eggs.

  18. NADH→NAD⁺ Transhydrogenation in Adult Ascaris suum Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Holowiecki, Andrew; Fioravanti, Carmen F

    2015-06-01

    Although lacking an NADPH→NAD(+) transhydrogenase system, the essentially energetically anaerobic mitochondria of the adult intestinal nematode Ascaris suum display an inner membrane-associated NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenation reaction. This reaction is considered to be reflective of a mechanism(s) that acts in catalyzing a transmembrane translocation of reducing equivalents from NADH in the intermembrane space to matrix NAD(+), thereby forming matrix NADH that would serve in electron transport. Ascarid mitochondrial lipoamide dehydrogenase rather than an NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenase system has been viewed as the predominant source of inner membrane-associated NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenation activity. However, the present study made apparent yet another source of mitochondrial, inner membrane-associated NADH→NAD(+) activity in A. suum , viz., NADH dehydrogenase. This was made evident via comparisons of the A. suum mitochondrial NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenation, NADH dehydrogenase, and lipoamide dehydrogenase activities in terms of pH effects, thermal labilities, the involvement of NADH dehydrogenase in the activities of mitochondrial, membrane-associated rotenone-insensitive and rotenone-sensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductases, and mitochondrial membrane versus mitochondrial soluble localizations. Studies of the responses of the NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenation, rotenone-insensitive and rotenone-sensitive cytochrome c reductases, and lipoamide dehydrogenase activities to inhibition by copper and cadmium lent additional support to the catalysis of an NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenation activity by NADH dehydrogenase. Collectively, the data presented are consistent with an additional physiological catalysis of an NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenation in A. suum mitochondria by an inner membrane NADH dehydrogenase component of the rotenone-sensitive cytochrome c reductase system, i.e., the NADH dehydrogenase component of the electron transport system

  19. Effects of Some Pesticides on Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides. PMID:24623893

  20. Molecular genetic evidence for polyandry in Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunhua; Yuan, Keng; Tang, Xiaoli; Hu, Ningyan; Peng, Weidong

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether single Ascaris suum female could mate with multiple males. Seven sex-linked microsatellite markers were employed and paternal genetic analyses were conducted. Totally, 62 offspring individuals from three single females were screened, and the numbers of fathers in each family were determined using allele counting methods and the program GERUD, version 2.0. The seven sex-linked microsatellite loci showed high polymorphism and revealed that one out of three families (allele counts) and two out of three families (GERUD) of the sampled families had at least two sires (2-6), indicating that females of A. suum can mate with multiple males. These findings provide the first molecular genetic evidence for polyandry of female A. suum and lay a foundation for further studies on the impacts of polyandry on population genetic parameters, the parasite population's genetic diversity, the potential for infection of different host species, and for the rate of spread of drug resistance.

  1. Effects of some pesticides on development of Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Divergence among Meloidogyne incognita, Romanomermis culicivorax, Ascaris suum, and Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Powers, T. O.; Harris, T. S.; Hyman, B. C.

    1993-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences were obtained from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3), large rRNA, and cytochrome b genes from Meloidogyne incognita and Romanomermis culicivorax. Both species show considerable genetic distance within these same genes when compared with Caenorhabditis elegans or Ascaris suum, two species previously analyzed. Caenorhabditis, Ascaris, and Meloidogyne were selected as representatives of three subclasses in the nematode class Secernentea: Rhabditia, Spiruria, and Diplogasteria, respectively. Romanomermis served as a representative out-group of the class Adenophorea. The divergence between the phytoparasitic lineage (represented by Meloidogyne) and the three other species is so great that virtually every variable position in these genes appears to have accumulated multiple mutations, obscuring the phylogenetic information obtainable from these comparisons. The 39 and 42% amino acid similarity between the M. incognita and C. elegans ND3 and cytochrome b coding sequences, respectively, are approximately the same as those of C. elegans-mouse comparisons for the same genes (26 and 44%). This discovery calls into question the feasibility of employing cloned C. elegans probes as reagents to isolate phytoparasitic nematode genes. The genetic distance between the phytoparasitic nematode lineage and C. elegans markedly contrasts with the 79% amino acid similarity between C. elegans and A. suum for the same sequences. The molecular data suggest that Caenorhabditis and Ascaris belong to the same subclass. PMID:19279810

  3. Purification and characterization of polyamine oxidase from Ascaris suum.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, S; Walter, R D

    1992-01-01

    The interconversion of polyamines in the parasite nematode Ascaris suum by a novel type of polyamine oxidase was demonstrated. The nematode enzyme was clearly distinguishable from monoamine and diamine oxidases as well as from the mammalian polyamine oxidase, as shown by the use of the specific inhibitors pargyline, aminoguanidine and MDL 72527 respectively. All three inhibitors had no effect on the parasite polyamine oxidase, and the enzyme did not accept diamines such as putrescine, cadaverine or histamine as substrates. The parasite polyamine oxidase selectively oxidizes spermine and spermidine but not N-acetylated polyamines, whereas the mammalian tissue-type polyamine oxidase shows preference for the N-acetylated polyamines. These results suggest a regulatory function of the nematode polyamine oxidase in the degradation and interconversion of polyamines in parasite nematodes. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by gel filtration, preparative isoelectric focusing and subsequent affinity chromatography on spermine- and berenil-Sepharose 4B. With respect to reaction type, the prosthetic group FAD, the molecular mass (66 kDa) and the contents of thiol and carbonyl groups, the polyamine oxidase from A. suum is similar to the isofunctional enzyme of mammalian tissue. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1567380

  4. Phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from Ascaris suum

    SciTech Connect

    Thissen, J.; Komuniecki, R.

    1987-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) from body wall muscle of the porcine nematode, Ascaris suum, plays a pivotal role in anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism. As in mammalian mitochondria, PDC activity is inhibited by the phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha..PDH subunit, catalyzed by an associated PDH/sub a/ kinase. However, in contrast to PDC's isolated from all other eukaryotic sources, phosphorylation decreases the mobility of the ..cap alpha..PDH subunit on SDS-PAGE and permits the separation of the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH's. Phosphorylation and the inactivation of the Ascaris PDC correspond directly, and the additional phosphorylation that occurs after complete inactivation in mammalian PDC's is not observed. The purified ascarid PDC incorporates 10 nmoles /sup 32/P/mg P. Autoradiography of the radiolabeled PDC separated by SDS-PAGE yields a band which corresponds to the phosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH and a second, faint band which is present only during the first three minutes of PDC inactivation, intermediate between the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH subunit. Tryptic digests of the /sup 32/P-PDC yields one major phosphopeptide, when separated by HPLC, and its amino acid sequence currently is being determined.

  5. Comparative analyses of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum from humans and pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Wu, Chang-Yi; Song, Hui-Qun; Wei, Shu-Jun; Xu, Min-Jun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-15

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are parasitic nematodes living in the small intestine of humans and pigs, and can cause the disease ascariasis. For long, there has been controversy as to whether the two ascaridoid taxa represent the same species due to their significant resemblances in morphology. However, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been lacking for A. lumbricoides in spite of human and animal health significance and socio-economic impact globally of these parasites. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mt genomes of A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), which was 14,303 bp and 14,311 bp in size, respectively. The identity of the mt genomes was 98.1% between A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), and 98.5% between A. suum (China isolate) and A. suum (USA isolate). Both genomes are circular, and consist of 36 genes, including 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA and 22 genes for tRNA, which are consistent with that of all other species of ascaridoid studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T (71.7% for A. lumbricoides and 71.8% for A. suum). The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of A. lumbricoides and A. suum using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian analysis, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony) all clustered in a clade with high statistical support, indicating that A. lumbricoides and A. suum was very closely related. These mt genome data and the results provide some additional genetic evidence that A. lumbricoides and A. suum may represent the same species. The mt genome data presented in this study are also useful novel markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Ascaris.

  6. The cuticular biology in developmental stages of Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, R H; Hill, D E; Urban, J F

    1990-07-01

    The cuticles from distinct developmental stages of Ascaris suum were isolated by a combination of mechanical disruption and detergent treatment of larvae or by surgical removal of cuticle from adults. Proteins from the isolated cuticles were solubilized with SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) and analyzed by PAGE. Cuticular proteins from the third and fourth larval stages (L3 and L4) were comparable to adult, but differences in the number of bands were observed. The soluble proteins from the adult, L3 and L4 were readily degraded by bacterial collagenase, suggesting that these proteins are collagen-like structural elements of the cuticle. The soluble proteins from the L2 differed from the adult and other larval stages in both the number and molecular weight of protein bands and their lack of collagenase sensitivity. Antibodies made against the soluble cuticular proteins reacted with the medial and basal layers of the cuticle but not the external cortical or epicuticular regions. A significant amount of the cuticle was not solubilized by 2ME and was not digested by bacterial collagenase. These insoluble cuticular proteins were probably derived from the epicuticular and external cortical regions of the cuticle. Different developmental stages of A. suum were biotinylated and examined by electron microscopy. An organic soluble biotin reagent labeled all stages in a transcuticular pattern, while an aqueous soluble biotin labeled only the external cortical and epicuticular regions of the L4 and adult cuticle. These data indicate the presence of a hydrophobic barrier in the cuticle of later stages of the parasite.

  7. Immunizing pigs with Ascaris suum hemoglobin increases the inflammatory response in the liver but fails to induce a protective immunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine whether purified Ascaris suum hemoglobin (AsHb) is a suitable vaccine candidate for the control of Ascaris infections, pigs were 30 vaccinated with AsHb in combination with QuilA adjuvant and challenged with A. suum eggs. The number of liver lesions and worms in the intestine was assess...

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B Has Potent Anthelmintic Activity against Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melanie M.; Scheib, Ulrike; Yiu, Ying Y.; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestive tract and aberrant migration into the bile duct and peritoneum. Similar effects can be seen with A. suum infections in pigs related to poor feed efficiency and performance. New strategies to control Ascaris infections are needed largely due to reduced treatment efficacies of current anthelmintics in the field, the threat of resistance development, and the general lack of new drug development for intestinal soil-transmitted helminths for humans and animals. Here we demonstrate for the first time that A. suum expresses the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein and novel anthelmintic Cry5B, which has been previously shown to intoxicate hookworms and which belongs to a class of proteins considered non-toxic to vertebrates. Cry5B is able to intoxicate A. suum larvae and adults and triggers the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway similar to that observed with other nematodes. Most importantly, two moderate doses of 20 mg/kg body weight (143 nM/kg) of Cry5B resulted in a near complete cure of intestinal A. suum infections in pigs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the excellent potential of Cry5B to treat Ascaris infections in pigs and in humans and for Cry5B to work effectively in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23818995

  9. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Urban, Joseph F; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie M; Scheib, Ulrike; Yiu, Ying Y; Aroian, Raffi V

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestive tract and aberrant migration into the bile duct and peritoneum. Similar effects can be seen with A. suum infections in pigs related to poor feed efficiency and performance. New strategies to control Ascaris infections are needed largely due to reduced treatment efficacies of current anthelmintics in the field, the threat of resistance development, and the general lack of new drug development for intestinal soil-transmitted helminths for humans and animals. Here we demonstrate for the first time that A. suum expresses the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein and novel anthelmintic Cry5B, which has been previously shown to intoxicate hookworms and which belongs to a class of proteins considered non-toxic to vertebrates. Cry5B is able to intoxicate A. suum larvae and adults and triggers the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway similar to that observed with other nematodes. Most importantly, two moderate doses of 20 mg/kg body weight (143 nM/kg) of Cry5B resulted in a near complete cure of intestinal A. suum infections in pigs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the excellent potential of Cry5B to treat Ascaris infections in pigs and in humans and for Cry5B to work effectively in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Cross-reactions of sera from Toxascaris leonina and Ascaris suum infected mice with Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Ascaris suum antigens.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, C; Fenoy, S; Guillén, J L

    1995-06-01

    The ELISA method using larval ES products and homogenized Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Ascaris suum adult worms extract, was used to determine the possible cross-reactions in BALB/c and C57BL/10 mice inoculated with embryonated eggs or adult worms extract of T. leonina of T. leonina or A. suum in single and multiple doses. When we used sera of mice infected with embryonated eggs of T. leonina against different heterologous Ag, no cross-reactions against T. canis ES and A. suum ES Ag were observed using a single dose. Similarly, in multiple doses no response against T. canis ES Ag was observed. In mice inoculated with adult worms extract of T. leonina cross-reactions with T. canis ES and A. suum ES Ag did not occur. Sera from BALB/c mice infected with embryonated eggs of A. suum, was tested using ES Ag from both A. suum and T. canis and no reactions were observed. This fact confirmed the resistance of this murine strain to A. suum embryonated eggs. When we used sera of susceptible C57BL/10 mice infected against different heterologous Ag, we observed no cross-reactions against T. canis ES Ag. In the case of both BALB/c and C57BL/10 and C57BL/10 mice immunized with a single dose of A. suum adult crude extract no cross-reactions were seen against ES T. canis Ag and with sera from C57BL/10 mice against ES T. leonina. These facts confirmed the specificity of the ES T. canis Ag.

  11. Ascaris suum infection in calves. II. Circulating and marrow eosinophil responses.

    PubMed

    Greenway, J A; McCraw, B M

    1970-07-01

    An increment in the number of circulating eosinophils occurred between the 11th and 14th days after infection with Ascaris suum and this increase was generally greater after a challenge infection. Continual infection with small numbers of A. suum eggs over prolonged periods resulted in circulating eosinophil levels which fluctuated and were dose-dependent. The per cent marrow eosinophils always increased after a primary infection and a greater increase usually followed a challenge infection. The maximum increment of marrow eosinophils occurred between the tenth and 12th days and preceded the rise in circulating eosinophils by 36 hours. Antihistamine therapy did not alter eosinophil responses to A. suum. Circulating eosinophilia was not usually reflected by drastic changes in differential white cell counts. However, an increase in total white cell count often followed infection with A. suum and frequently parallelled changes in eosinophil counts. Hemoglobin and P.C.V. values remained within normal limits in A. summ infected calves.

  12. Ascaris suum Infection in Calves II. Circulating and Marrow Eosinophil Responses

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, J. A.; McCraw, B. M.

    1970-01-01

    An increment in the number of circulating eosinophils occurred between the 11th and 14th days after infection with Ascaris suum and this increase was generally greater after a challenge infection. Continual infection with small numbers of A. suum eggs over prolonged periods resulted in circulating eosinophil levels which fluctuated and were dose-dependent. The per cent marrow eosinophils always increased after a primary infection and a greater increase usually followed a challenge infection. The maximum increment of marrow eosinophils occurred between the tenth and 12th days and preceded the rise in circulating eosinophils by 36 hours. Antihistamine therapy did not alter eosinophil responses to A. suum. Circulating eosinophilia was not usually reflected by drastic changes in differential white cell counts. However, an increase in total white cell count often followed infection with A. suum and frequently parallelled changes in eosinophil counts. Hemoglobin and P.C.V. values remained within normal limits in A. summ infected calves. PMID:4394226

  13. Ascaris suum infection modulates inflammation: Implication of CD4(+) CD25(high) Foxp3(+) T cells and IL-10.

    PubMed

    Titz, T de O; de Araújo, C A A; Enobe, C S; Rigato, P O; Oshiro, T M; de Macedo-Soares, M F

    2017-09-01

    Helminth infections have the ability to modulate host's immune response through mechanisms that allow the chronic persistence of the worms in the host. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved on the suppressive effect of Ascaris suum infection using a murine experimental model of LPS-induced inflammation. We found that infection with A. suum markedly inhibited leucocyte influx induced by LPS into air pouches, suppressed secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) and induced high levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. Augmented frequency of CD4(+) CD25(high) Foxp3(+) T cells was observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes of infected mice. Adoptive transfer of purified CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells to recipient uninfected mice demonstrated that these cells were able to induce a suppressive effect in the LPS-induced inflammation in air pouch model. In addition, adoptive transfer of CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells derived from IL-10 knockout mice suggests that this suppressive effect of A. suum infection involves IL-10 cytokine. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that A. suum experimental infection was capable of suppressing LPS-induced inflammation by mechanisms, which seem to be dependent on responses of CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells and secretion of IL-10 cytokine. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Bacterial flora, a possible source of serotonin in the intestine of adult female Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Shahkolahi, A M; Donahue, M J

    1993-02-01

    The effect of intestinal bacteria on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) level and 5-HT turnover rates in Ascaris suum intestine are presented. Ascaris suum were incubated in media containing antibiotics for 24 hr, and the bacterial flora in the anterior regions of the intestine of A. suum was eliminated. The bacteria were significantly reduced (> 99%) but not eliminated in the middle and posterior segments of the worm. The 5-HT level decreased in the intestine after 24 hr incubation in antibiotics, whereas the 5-HT turnover rate increased (131 ng/mg protein/hr). Two possible sources of 5-HT from the intestine were examined: the intestinal tissue itself and the microflora inhabiting the intestine. The 5-HT level in the microflora was 30% higher (72.6 ng/g) than the intestinal tissue (43.3 ng/g) in control samples (0 hr, no antibiotics). These values decreased significantly after 24 hr incubation in A. suum saline. The 5-HT values decreased to 18.6 ng/g in the presence and 28.6 ng/g in the absence of antibiotics. The 5-HT turnover rate during this time period indicated that as the number of bacteria declined, the 5-HT turnover rate also declined in the microflora, but the 5-HT turnover rate in the intestinal tissues increased. Results from these studies suggest that bacterial 5-HT may be contributing to the 5-HT level in A. suum intestinal tissue.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of viability- and apoptosis-related genes in Ascaris suum eggs under different culture-temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Man; Cho, You-Hang; Youn, Young-Nam; Quan, Juan Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2012-09-01

    Ascaris suum eggs are inactivated by composting conditions; however, it is difficult to find functional changes in heat-treated A. suum eggs. Here, unembryonated A. suum eggs were incubated at 20°C, 50°C, and 70°C in vitro, and the gene expression levels related to viability, such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (IF4E), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1), and thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), and to apoptosis, such as apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1) and cell death protein 6 (CDP6), were evaluated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. No prominent morphological alterations were noted in the eggs at 20°C until day 10. In contrast, the eggs developed rapidly, and embryonated eggs and hatched larvae began to die, starting on day 2 at 50°C and day 1 at 70°C. At 20°C, IF4E, PFK1, and TRX1 mRNA expression was significantly increased from days 2-4; however, AIF1 and CDP6 mRNA expression was not changed significantly. IF4E, PFK1, and TRX1 mRNA expression was markedly decreased from day 2 at 50° and 70°C, whereas AIF1 and CDP6 mRNA expression was significantly increased. The expressions of HSP70 and HSP90 were detected for 9-10 days at 20°C, for 3-5 days at 50°C, and for 2 days at 70°C. Taken together, incremental heat increases were associated with the rapid development of A. suum eggs, decreased expression of genes related to viability, and earlier expression of apoptosis-related genes, and finally these changes of viability- and apoptosis-related genes of A. suum eggs were associated with survival of the eggs under temperature stress.

  16. Quantitative Evaluation of Viability- and Apoptosis-Related Genes in Ascaris suum Eggs under Different Culture-Temperature Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong-Man; Cho, You-Hang; Youn, Young-Nam; Quan, Juan Hua; Choi, In-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris suum eggs are inactivated by composting conditions; however, it is difficult to find functional changes in heat-treated A. suum eggs. Here, unembryonated A. suum eggs were incubated at 20℃, 50℃, and 70℃ in vitro, and the gene expression levels related to viability, such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (IF4E), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1), and thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), and to apoptosis, such as apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1) and cell death protein 6 (CDP6), were evaluated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. No prominent morphological alterations were noted in the eggs at 20℃ until day 10. In contrast, the eggs developed rapidly, and embryonated eggs and hatched larvae began to die, starting on day 2 at 50℃ and day 1 at 70℃. At 20℃, IF4E, PFK1, and TRX1 mRNA expression was significantly increased from days 2-4; however, AIF1 and CDP6 mRNA expression was not changed significantly. IF4E, PFK1, and TRX1 mRNA expression was markedly decreased from day 2 at 50℃ and 70℃, whereas AIF1 and CDP6 mRNA expression was significantly increased. The expressions of HSP70 and HSP90 were detected for 9-10 days at 20℃, for 3-5 days at 50℃, and for 2 days at 70℃. Taken together, incremental heat increases were associated with the rapid development of A. suum eggs, decreased expression of genes related to viability, and earlier expression of apoptosis-related genes, and finally these changes of viability- and apoptosis-related genes of A. suum eggs were associated with survival of the eggs under temperature stress. PMID:22949754

  17. The bacterial flora of the intestine of Ascaris suum and 5-hydroxytryptamine production.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S C; Johansson, K R; Donahue, M J

    1986-08-01

    Representative facultative anaerobes of the bacterial flora from the intestine of female Ascaris suum were isolated and identified. The number of bacteria in the intestine was approximately 4 X 10(9) per g wet weight of intestine. Seventeen of 19 of the isolated colonies were found to secrete 5-hydroxytryptamine in culture. Holding A. suum in an antibiotic-containing medium did not affect the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the worm, which were 231 +/- 14 ng/g in antibiotic-media as compared to 250 +/- 16 ng/g in control media. This implied that the bacteria may not be contributing to the level of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the tissues of A. suum.

  18. Phylogeography of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum from China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Hu, Ningyan; Peng, Weidong

    2011-08-01

    In order to obtain further understanding of genetic structure and evolutionary relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs, phylogeography study on 12 populations from six endemic regions in China was conducted using mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) and NAD1) and the software programs of DnaSP 5.0, Arlequin 3.0, MEGA 4.0, and NETWORK 4.5.1.6. Results showed that (a) genetic diversity of Ascaris varied with hosts and locations, but no distinct geographical distribution pattern was found, (b) a higher level of genetic diversity and differentiation was found in pig-derived populations in contrast to human-derived ones, and in populations of human-derived Ascaris from the southern regions in comparison to that from the middle and northern locations, but similar geographical difference was not observed within pig-derived populations, (c) historical population expanding was detected from a large part of human-derived Ascaris populations but not in pig-derived Ascaris, (d) a high level of gene flow was detected between human- and pig-derived Ascaris and also among human-derived populations, and (e) network analysis from haplotype of COX1 indicated an ancestral haplotype from human-derived Ascaris. In conclusion, the present study revealed new information on Ascaris on the aspects of genetic diversity, population differentiation and historical demographic patterns, gene flow, phylogenesis reconstruction, and haplotype network, discussed the results with historical demographic migration of humans and domestication of wild boar in China, and raised a different assumption about the evolutionary relationship of the two roundworms. This study should have certain enlightenment for the epidemiology and the evolutionary and taxonomy relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs.

  19. Effect of temperature on embryonation of Ascaris suum eggs in an environmental chamber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ki; Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Young-Sang; Park, Ki Hwan; Hwang, In Gyun; Chai, Jong-Yil; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2012-09-01

    The influence of temperature on the development and embryonation of Ascaris suum eggs was studied using coarse sand medium in an environmental chamber with 50% humidity. The time required for development and embryonation of eggs was examined under 3 different temperature conditions, 5°C, 25°C, and 35°C. A. suum eggs did not develop over 1 month at the temperature of 5°C. However, other temperature conditions, 25°C and 35°C, induced egg development to the 8-cell-stage at days 5-6 after incubation. All eggs examined developed to the 8-cell stage at day 6 after incubation in the sand medium at 25°C. The higher temperature, 35°C, slightly accelerated the A. suum egg development compared to 25°C, and the development to the 8-cell stage occurred within day 5 after incubation. The formation of larvae in A. suum eggs at temperatures of 35° and 25°C appeared at days 17 and 19 after incubation, respectively. These findings show that 35° condition shortens the time for the development of A. suum eggs to the 8-cell-stage in comparison to 25°C, and suggest the possibility of accelerated transmission of this parasite, resulting from global warming and ecosystem changes.

  20. Serological examination of fattening pigs reveals associations between Ascaris suum, lung pathogens and technical performance parameters.

    PubMed

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Düsseldorf, Simon; Heres, Lourens; Geldhof, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Diagnosing the presence of the highly prevalent and economically important pig parasite Ascaris suum on fattening farms has so far been challenging. Currently, only the number of livers affected at slaughter is routinely used to measure parasite exposure. However, recently, a new serological test was developed based on the detection of antibodies to the A. suum haemoglobin molecule. The test showed to be highly sensitive for the detection of exposure to A. suum in fattening pigs. In this study we first compared the performance of A. suum serology versus the percentage of affected livers at slaughter, subsequently we investigated potential associations between A. suum infection levels and exposure to important lung pathogens and finally we identified correlations between serological data and technical performance parameters (TPIs) from 20 Belgian and 20 German pig fattening farms. In both Belgian and German farms, a significant relationship was detected between elevated average Ascaris serology and percentages of affected livers (ρ=0.63 and ρ=0.75, respectively). On the Belgian farms, both Ascaris serology and the percentage of affected livers were negatively correlated with average daily gain (ADG) (ρ=-0.69 and ρ=-0.56, respectively). Using the German dataset, only a borderline negative association was detected between the percentage of affected livers and the ADG (ρ=-0.44, P=0.053). In contrast, only in the German farms, correlations between the percentage of affected lungs at slaughter and elevated presence of A. suum and several other airway pathogens were detected. To conclude, this study indicates that serological screening for A. suum on fattening farms is an attractive new diagnostic tool that can be used to indicate the presence of roundworm infection by measuring infection intensity. Furthermore the results of this study also add weight to the evidence that both roundworm infections as well as herd exposure to airway pathogens have a significant

  1. Comparative transcriptome sequencing of germline and somatic tissues of the Ascaris suum gonad

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ascaris suum (large roundworm of pigs) is a parasitic nematode that causes substantial losses to the meat industry. This nematode is suitable for biochemical studies because, unlike C. elegans, homogeneous tissue samples can be obtained by dissection. It has large sperm, produced in great numbers that permit biochemical studies of sperm motility. Widespread study of A. suum would be facilitated by more comprehensive genome resources and, to this end, we have produced a gonad transcriptome of A. suum. Results Two 454 pyrosequencing runs generated 572,982 and 588,651 reads for germline (TES) and somatic (VAS) tissues of the A. suum gonad, respectively. 86% of the high-quality (HQ) reads were assembled into 9,955 contigs and 69,791 HQ reads remained as singletons. 2.4 million bp of unique sequences were obtained with a coverage that reached 16.1-fold. 4,877 contigs and 14,339 singletons were annotated according to the C. elegans protein and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) protein databases. Comparison of TES and VAS transcriptomes demonstrated that genes participating in DNA replication, RNA transcription and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways are expressed at significantly higher levels in TES tissues than in VAS tissues. Comparison of the A. suum TES transcriptome with the C. elegans microarray dataset identified 165 A. suum germline-enriched genes (83% are spermatogenesis-enriched). Many of these genes encode serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases (KPs) as well as tyrosine KPs. Immunoblot analysis further suggested a critical role of phosphorylation in both testis development and spermatogenesis. A total of 2,681 A. suum genes were identified to have associated RNAi phenotypes in C. elegans, the majority of which display embryonic lethality, slow growth, larval arrest or sterility. Conclusions Using deep sequencing technology, this study has produced a gonad transcriptome of A. suum. By comparison with C. elegans datasets, we identified

  2. In vitro synthesis of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components of Ascaris suum mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, S.; Ruff, V.; DuBrul, E.F.; Komuniecki, R.W.

    1987-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) plays a pivotal role in the anaerobic metabolism of Ascaris suum mitochondria. They have initiated a series of studies on the in vitro synthesis and mitochondrial import of PDC. PDC has been purified from adult Ascaris body wall muscle, fully phosphorylated in vitro, and separated into its component subunits on SDS/PAGE. The individual components were electroeluted from the gels and used to immunize rabbits. IgG's to the individual subunits were prepared from antisera and their specificities were verified by immuno-blotting. Each IgG identified a single specific band at the appropriate location in extracts of adult Ascaris body wall muscle mitochondria. Poly A/sup +/-RNA was prepared from body wall muscle and translated in a reticylocyte lysate system using /sup 35/S-methionine. Translation products were immunoprecipitated with specific IgG's, electrophoresed, and fluorographed. Each immunoprecipitation gave rise to a single radioactive polypeptide that was slightly larger than the specific PDC subunit isolated from the adult mitochondria. This system has demonstrated its feasibility for the study of mitochondrial import of a multienzyme complex that is critical for the anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism of Ascaris suum.

  3. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of

  4. Direct Anthelmintic Effects of Condensed Tannins from Diverse Plant Sources against Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of

  5. Opiate alkaloids and nitric oxide production in the nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Pryor, Stephen C; Putnam, Jennifer; Cadet, Patrick; Stefano, George B

    2004-02-01

    The tissue distribution, course of secretion, and sex differences of morphine were delineated in Ascaris suum. Nitric oxide (NO) release in various tissues in response to morphine and its metabolite morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were also examined. Ascaris suum of both sexes along with their incubation fluid were analyzed for morphine concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 5-day period. Various tissues were also dissected for HPLC and NO analysis. Morphine was found to be most prevalent in the muscle tissue, and there is significantly more morphine in females than males, probably because of the large amounts present in the female uterus. Morphine (10(-9) M) and M6G (10(-9) M) stimulated the release of NO from muscles. Naloxone (10(-7) M) and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10(-6) M) blocked (P < 0.005) morphine-stimulated NO release from A. suum muscle tissue. D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Om-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP) (10(-7) M) did not block morphine's NO release. However, naloxone could not block M6G-stimulated NO release by muscles, whereas CTOP (10(-7) M) blocked its release. These findings were in seeming contradiction to our earlier inability to isolate a mu opiate receptor messenger RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a human mu primer. This suggests that a novel mu opiate receptor was possibly present and selective toward M6G.

  6. Biotin as a probe of the surface of Ascaris suum developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Hill, D E; Fetterer, R H; Urban, J F

    1990-06-01

    Sulfo-NHS-biotin (aqueous soluble) and NHS-biotin (organic soluble) labeled similar SDS-2ME (sodium dodecyl sulfate/beta-mercaptoethanol) soluble cuticular proteins of second stage larvae (L2) and third stage Ascaris suum larvae (L3). Comparable analysis of biotin-labeled fourth stage larvae (L4), young adults, and mature adult Ascaris suum revealed strong labeling of several SDS-2ME soluble cuticular proteins with NHS-biotin, while sulfo-NHS-biotin appeared to strongly label a single SDS-2ME soluble cuticular protein. Both biotin probes labeled only cuticular proteins, since no evidence of internal labeling was observed in any developmental stage examined by either electroblot analysis or by electron microscopy. Our data suggest a greater cuticular permeability to the organic soluble biotin reagent in the later developmental stages (greater than L3) of A. suum than to the aqueous soluble biotin reagent, and may indicate the presence of a hydrophobic barrier in the cuticle of the later stages of the parasite.

  7. Ovicidal activity of seven Pochonia chlamydosporia fungal isolates on Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sebastião R; Araújo, Jackson V; Braga, Fabio R; Araujo, Juliana M; Carvalho, Rogério O; Silva, André R; Frassy, Luiza N; Freitas, Leandro G

    2011-03-01

    The ovicidal effect of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia on eggs of Ascaris suum was tested under laboratory conditions. A. suum eggs were plated on 2% water-agar with seven fungal isolates (Isol. 5, Isol. 31, Isol. 1, VC1, Isol. 12, Isol. 22 and VC4) and control without fungus. After 5, 7, 10, 14, 15 and 21 days of incubation, approximately 100 eggs were removed from the plates and classified according to the following parameters: type 1, biochemical and physiological effect without morphological damage to the eggshell, type 2, lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo and type 3, lytic effect with morphological alteration of eggshell and embryo showing hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. The isolates effectively destroyed A. suum eggs and all types of effects were observed during the experiment. There was no variation in ovicidal capacity (type 3 effect) among the isolates (p>0.05) throughout the experiment. After 21 days, isolate 5 showed the highest percentages of type 3 effect (58.33%). The results indicated that P. chlamydosporia (Isol. 5, Isol. 31, Isol. 1, VC1, Isol. 12, Isol. 22 and VC4) can destroy A. suum eggs and is, therefore, a potential biological control agent of nematodes.

  8. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms.

    PubMed

    Katakam, Kiran K; Thamsborg, Stig M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Mejer, Helena

    2016-02-09

    Although Ascaris suum is the most common pig nematode, the on-farm transmission dynamics are not well described. We performed a 1-year field study on five organic pig farms, mapping egg contamination levels in pens and pasture soil as well as faecal egg counts in starter pigs, finisher pigs, dry and lactating sows. The uppermost bedding material was sampled from three pen areas (resting, intermediate and latrine) of shallow and deep litter pens. Ascaris suum was found on all farms. Averaged across farm and season, the prevalence of A. suum was 48, 64, 28 and 15% in starters, finishers, dry and lactating sows, respectively. For starters and finishers, the prevalence varied with season increasing towards the end of the year when 83-96% of finishing pigs from each farm had fresh liver white spots. Farrowing pastures were contaminated with a mean of 78-171 larvated eggs/kg dry soil depending on farm, while pastures for starter pigs contained 290-5397 larvated eggs/kg dry soil. The concentration of eggs in soil was highest in the autumn. Indoors, all pen areas were contaminated with A. suum eggs at comparable levels for shallow and deep litter. Overall there were 106, 445 and 1331 eggs/g dry straw in the resting, intermediate and latrine areas, respectively. However, more eggs were undergoing development in resting areas (44%) compared to intermediate (33%) and latrine areas (13%). Irrespective of area, more eggs were undergoing development in the autumn, but overall there were very few fully developed (i.e., infective) eggs in the bedding material. Laboratory embryonation of eggs from the bedding material nevertheless revealed that an overall mean of 79% of the eggs were viable. The organic pigs of all ages were continuously exposed to A. suum, but mainly younger animals were infected. Deep litter appeared to be a less important source of A. suum eggs than previously believed compared to shallow litter. Long-term pasture rotation to eliminate pasture contamination was

  9. Gene expression analysis distinguishes tissue specific and gender related functions among adult Ascaris suum tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengyuan; Gao, Xin; Martin, John; Yin, Yong; Abubucker, Sahar; Rash, Amy C.; Li, Ben-Wen; Nash, Bill; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-01-01

    Over a billion people are infected by Ascaris spp. intestinal parasites. To clarify functional differences among tissues of adult A. suum, we compared gene expression by various tissues of these worms by expression microarray methods.. The A. suum genome was sequenced and assembled to allow generation of microarray elements. Expression of over 40,000 60-mer elements was investigated in a variety of tissues from both male and female adult worms. Nearly 50 percent of the elements for which signal was detected exhibited differential expression among different tissues. The unique profile of transcripts identified for each tissue clarified functional distinctions among tissues, such as chitin binding in the ovary and peptidase activity in the intestines. Interestingly, hundreds of gender-specific elements were characterized in multiple non-reproductive tissues of female or male worms, with most prominence of gender differences in intestinal tissue. A. suum genes from the same family were frequently expressed differently among tissues. Transcript abundance for genes specific to A. suum, by comparison to Caenorhabditis elegans, varied to a greater extent among tissues than for genes conserved between A. suum and C. elegans. Analysis using C. elegans protein interaction data identified functional modules conserved between these two nematodes, resulting in identification of functional predictions of essential subnetworks of protein interactions and how these networks may vary among nematode tissues. A notable finding was very high module similarity between adult reproductive tissues and intestine. Our results provide the most comprehensive assessment of gene expression among tissues of a parasitic nematode to date. PMID:23572074

  10. Survival of model helminth eggs and larvae (Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum sp.) in the ensilaging process.

    PubMed

    Juris, P; Rataj, D; Ilavská, I; Ziláková, J; Knotek, S; Vasilková, Z

    1997-06-01

    Ascaris suum nonembryonated eggs remained viable for the most part even after 42 days of ensilaging. At the end of the anaerobic fermentation, mean of damaged eggs was 15.2 +/- 4.02 (min. 11, max. 21), 32.9%. Conversely, the viability of Oesophagostomum sp. nonembryonated eggs and infective L3 larvae was reduced-eggs: mean number 23.6 +/- 3.64 (min. 20. max. 28) specimens (93.3%), L3 larvae: mean number 24.2 +/- 4.38 (min. 19, max. 28) specimens (96.7%), during the period of study (42 days). Control group of the same helminth propagative stages, was kept under optimum aerobic conditions. After 42 days of exposition, 9.0 +/- 3.46 (min. 5, max. 11) nonembryonated Ascaris suum eggs (12.9%), 17.33 +/- 2.51 (min. 15, max. 20) Oesophagostomum sp. eggs (36.4%) and 3.66 +/- 1.15 (min. 3, max. 5) Oesophagostomum sp. larvae L3 (6.3%) were damaged on average. Helminth eggs, thick-walled and more resistant to the environment in particular, are able to survive the anaerobic process of ensilaging. To protect animals against parasitic diseases, it is necessary to consider the epidemiological hazard of silages and silage juices, which are potentially contaminated by helminth propagative stages. Silages and silage juices under certain conditions may become harmful to polygastric animals.

  11. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent ch...

  12. L3L4ES antigen and secretagogues induce histamine release from porcine peripheral blood basophils after Ascaris suum infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of porcine basophils in protective immunity. Experimental pigs were infected with 1,000 Ascaris suum eggs daily for 21 days. Control pigs were maintained helminth-free. Circulating porcine basophils were isolated from the anti-coagulated whole blood ...

  13. Peptidases Compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum Intestinal Lumen and Apical Intestinal Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM), and within the intestinal lumen (IL) of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA) was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16) of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine. PMID:25569475

  14. Inactivation of single-celled Ascaris suum eggs by low-pressure UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Sarah A; Nelson, Kara L

    2006-03-01

    Intact and decorticated single-celled Ascaris suum eggs were exposed to UV radiation from low-pressure, germicidal lamps at fluences (doses) ranging from 0 to 8,000 J/m2 for intact eggs and from 0 to 500 J/m2 for decorticated eggs. With a UV fluence of 500 J/m2, 0.44-+/-0.20-log inactivation (mean+/-95% confidence interval) (63.7%) of intact eggs was observed, while a fluence of 4,000 J/m2 resulted in 2.23-+/-0.49-log inactivation (99.4%). (The maximum quantifiable inactivation was 2.5 log units.) Thus, according to the methods used here, Ascaris eggs are the most UV-resistant water-related pathogen identified to date. For the range of fluences recommended for disinfecting drinking water and wastewater (200 to 2,000 J/m2), from 0- to 1.5-log inactivation can be expected, although at typical fluences (less than 1,000 J/m2), the inactivation may be less than 1 log. When the eggs were decorticated (the outer egg shell layers were removed with sodium hypochlorite, leaving only the lipoprotein ascaroside layer) before exposure to UV, 1.80-+/-0.32-log reduction (98.4%) was achieved with a fluence of 500 J/m2, suggesting that the outer eggshell layers protected A. suum eggs from inactivation by UV radiation. This protection may have been due to UV absorption by proteins in the outer layers of the 3- to 4-microm-thick eggshell. Stirring alone (without UV exposure) also inactivated some of the Ascaris eggs (approximately 20% after 75 min), which complicated determination of the inactivation caused by UV radiation alone.

  15. Inactivation of Single-Celled Ascaris suum Eggs by Low-Pressure UV Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Sarah A.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2006-01-01

    Intact and decorticated single-celled Ascaris suum eggs were exposed to UV radiation from low-pressure, germicidal lamps at fluences (doses) ranging from 0 to 8,000 J/m2 for intact eggs and from 0 to 500 J/m2 for decorticated eggs. With a UV fluence of 500 J/m2, 0.44- ± 0.20-log inactivation (mean ± 95% confidence interval) (63.7%) of intact eggs was observed, while a fluence of 4,000 J/m2 resulted in 2.23- ± 0.49-log inactivation (99.4%). (The maximum quantifiable inactivation was 2.5 log units.) Thus, according to the methods used here, Ascaris eggs are the most UV-resistant water-related pathogen identified to date. For the range of fluences recommended for disinfecting drinking water and wastewater (200 to 2,000 J/m2), from 0- to 1.5-log inactivation can be expected, although at typical fluences (less than 1,000 J/m2), the inactivation may be less than 1 log. When the eggs were decorticated (the outer egg shell layers were removed with sodium hypochlorite, leaving only the lipoprotein ascaroside layer) before exposure to UV, 1.80- ± 0.32-log reduction (98.4%) was achieved with a fluence of 500 J/m2, suggesting that the outer eggshell layers protected A. suum eggs from inactivation by UV radiation. This protection may have been due to UV absorption by proteins in the outer layers of the 3- to 4-μm-thick eggshell. Stirring alone (without UV exposure) also inactivated some of the Ascaris eggs (∼20% after 75 min), which complicated determination of the inactivation caused by UV radiation alone. PMID:16517669

  16. Purification and characterization of acid trehalase from muscle of Ascaris suum (Nematoda).

    PubMed

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Zółtowska, Krystyna

    2003-09-01

    Acid trehalase (EC 3.2.1.28) was isolated from muscle of Ascaris suum by fractionating with ammonium sulfate, acetone and column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and phenyl sepharose CL-4B. The purified homogeneous preparation of native acid trehalase exhibited a molecular mass of 76 kDa and of 38 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme has the optimum pH 4.9, pI 4.3, Km of 6.6 mM and Vmax=34.5 nM min(-1) x mg(-1). Besides trehalose, it hydrolyses sucrose, isomaltose and maltose and, to a lesser degree melezitose, and it does not act on cellobiose and lactose. Acid trehalase was activated by MgCl2, KNO3, NaCl, CaCl2, CH2ICOOH and p-chloromercuribenzoate and inhibited by EDTA, ZnSO4 and FeCl3.

  17. Galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal have potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, A; Williams, A R; Thamsborg, S M; Mueller-Harvey, I

    2016-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal were investigated by thiolytic degradation with benzyl mercaptan and the reaction products were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These PA were galloylated (≈40%), contained only B-type linkages and had a high proportion of prodelphinidins (>70%). The mean degree of polymerisation was 8 (i.e. average molecular size was 2384Da) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) was the major flavan-3-ol subunit in PA. Shea meal also proved to be a potentially valuable source for extracting free flavan-3-ol-O-gallates, especially EGCg (575mg/kg meal), which is known for its health and anti-parasitic benefits. Proanthocyanidins were isolated and tested for bioactivity against Ascaris suum, which is an important parasite of pigs. Migration and motility tests revealed that these PA have potent activity against this parasitic nematode.

  18. Development and survival of Ascaris suum eggs in deep litter of pigs.

    PubMed

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Mejer, Helena

    2014-07-14

    SUMMARY Indoor transmission of Ascaris suum partly depends on the physico-chemical conditions in bedding material. Temperature, pH, aqueous ammonia, moisture, occurrence and development of A. suum eggs were therefore compared in different areas (resting, intermediate and latrine) of two deep litter pens on an organic farm in four seasons. There was some variation, but mean ammonia levels were generally very low (1·0-2·6 mm) and pH levels were moderate (8·04-8·88) in all three areas. Relatively, resting areas were characterized by overall moderate moisture (36%) and moderately high temperature (35·7 °C) levels. The area contained few eggs (50 eggs g-1 DM) of which 17% were viable, and though only 4% were larvated and 0·7% appeared infective, it was more than in the other areas. Intermediate areas had moderate moisture (43%) and high temperature (43·6 °C) levels. There were many eggs (523 eggs g-1 DM), but overall viability was very low (5%) and few eggs were larvated (0·004%) or even infective (0·002%). Latrines typically had high moisture (79%) and moderate temperature (30 °C) levels. The concentration of eggs was very high (1444 egg g-1 DM) and though 32% were viable, none had developed larval stages. The large majority of A. suum eggs appear to die and only few become infective while in the deep litter. However, a large fraction of eggs may remain viable for some time and could thus contaminate agricultural land and develop to infectivity, if the manure is not composted appropriately.

  19. Effects of the muscarinic agonist, 5-methylfurmethiodide, on contraction and electrophysiology of Ascaris suum muscle

    PubMed Central

    Trailovic, Sasa M.; Verma, Saurabh; Clark, Cheryl L.; Robertson, Alan P.; Martin, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Contraction and electrophysiological effects of 5-methylfurmethiodide (MFI), a selective muscarinic agonist in mammals, were tested on Ascaris suum muscle strips. In a contraction assay, MFI produced weak contraction and was less potent than levamisole and acetylcholine. Atropine (3 µM) a non-selective muscarinic antagonist in mammalian preparations, did not affect contractions produced by MFI. Mecamylamine (3 µM) a nicotinic antagonist in A. suum preparations, blocked the MFI contractions indicating that MFI had weak nicotinic agonist actions. In two-micropipette current-clamp experiments MFI, at concentrations greater than 10 µM, produced concentration-dependent depolarizations and small increases in membrane conductance. The depolarizing effects were not abolished by perfusing the preparation in a calcium-free Ascaris Ringer solution to block synaptic transmission, suggesting that MFI effects were mediated by receptors on the muscle and were calcium-independent. A high concentration of mecamylamine, 30 µM, only reduced the depolarizing responses by 42%, indicating that MFI also had effects on non-nicotinic receptors. Three non-nicotinic effects in the presence of 30 µM mecamylamine were identified using voltage-clamp techniques: i) MFI produced opening of mecamylamine-resistant non-selective-cation channel currents; ii) MFI inhibited opening of voltage-activated potassium currents; and iii) MFI increased the threshold of voltage-activated calcium currents. We suggest that a drug that is more selective for voltage-activated potassium currents, without effects on other channels like MIF, may be exploited pharmacologically as a novel anthelmintic or as an agent to potentiate the action of levamisole. In a larval migration assay we demonstrated that 4-aminopyridine (4-AP: a potassium channel blocker) potentiated the effects of levamisole but MFI did not. PMID:18206155

  20. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  1. Immunoblot for the detection of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in patients with visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Renate; Obwaller, Andreas; Auer, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome caused by Toxocara canis larvae was first described in the 1950s. The role of other nematode larvae, i.e. the pig roundworm Ascaris suum as a causative agent of visceral larva migrans-associated symptoms like general malaise, cough, liver dysfunction, hypereosinophilia with hepatomegaly and/or pneumonia, was discussed controversially during the last decades. Recent serological screening studies for specific A. suum antibodies carried out in the Netherlands and Sweden yielded remarkable high seroprevalences, while a number of case reports from Japan report pulmonal, hepatic and cerebral symptoms caused by A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected raw meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We present here a sensitive and specific larval excretory-secretory (E/S) antigen-based immunoblot (As-IB) for the serodiagnosis of A. suum-infected patients suffering from symptoms associated to the VLM syndrome. In total, 34 sera from patients with hypereosinophilia and other clinical symptoms associated to the VLM syndrome tested negative for Toxocara sp. antibodies but positive in our newly established As-IB, 30 sera from healthy volunteers, 53 sera from patients with clinically and serologically confirmed toxocarosis and other helminthoses as well as 3 sera from patients with intestinal ascariosis due to Ascaris lumbricoides were included in the study. When evaluated with 30 sera from healthy volunteers and 53 sera from patients suffering from different helminthoses, the calculated specificity of our new As-IB is 95%. Problems hampering the establishment of simple serological screening tests for specific A. suum antibodies, like extensive antigenic similarities between the nematodes Ascaris and Toxocara or the absence of suitable experimental animals, are discussed. We assume that specific serological testing for antibodies of A. suum is very important for the treatment of individual patients on one hand and seroepidemiological

  2. Inactivation of Ascaris suum and poliovirus in biosolids under thermophilic anaerobic digestion conditions.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Michael D; Sobsey, Mark D; Blauth, Kimberly E; Shehee, Mina; Crunk, Phillip L; Walters, Glenn W

    2005-08-01

    There is considerable interest in the United States in production of Class A (low pathogen content) biosolids from the treatment of municipal wastewater sludge. Current requirements imposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency make it difficult for thermophilic anaerobic digestion, in its simplest process configurations, to achieve Class A status. In particular, the time-temperature requirements necessitate long batch treatment times at temperatures associated with thermophilic anaerobic digestion. The time-temperature requirements are meant to ensure extensive inactivation of helminth eggs and enteric viruses, considered to be the most heat-resistant of the relevant pathogen classes. However, data on inactivation kinetics of these pathogens at precisely controlled and well-characterized temperatures are scarce. We measured inactivation of vaccine-strain poliovirus and eggs from the helminth Ascaris suum at temperatures from 49 to 55 degrees C in a lab-scale batch reactor containing biosolids from a continuous-flow thermophilic anaerobic digester. Both microbes were inactivated rapidly, with Ascaris more resistant to inactivation than poliovirus, and the relationships between inactivation rate and temperature were steep. The Arrhenius correlation between inactivation rate and temperature over the range 49-53 degrees C is consistent with protein denaturation as the inactivation mechanism for both microbes. The least stringent of the EPA time-temperature equations for thermal processes requires batch treatment times more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than would be required for three-log reduction of Ascaris at the rates we measured, suggesting an overly conservative regulatory approach. Such a grossly conservative approach can hinder full-scale implementation of thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

  3. Incidence of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in Austrian patients with suspected larva migrans visceralis (VLM) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Renate; Auer, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The pig roundworm, Ascaris suum, is commonly found in domestic pigs all over the world. The transmission to humans takes place by ingestion of infective A. suum eggs present in soil because pig manure is widely used as fertilizer. The possible role of A. suum in the human visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome has been discussed controversially during past decades, even though various case reports, particularly from Japan document pulmonal, hepatic and even cerebral symptoms caused by migrating A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected row meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We examined 4481 sera by A. suum immunoblot (As-IB) and 5301 sera by Toxocara-ELISA from patients with symptoms associated with the VLM syndrome during three consecutive years (2012-2014). The incidence of A. suum-specific antibodies was 13.2 %, the incidence of T. canis specific antibodies 12.9 % and from a part of the As-IB positive sera (n = 417) additional Toxocara serology was performed to demonstrate the specificity of our tests. Only 56 out of the 417 (13.4 %) sera showed antibodies to both helminth species demonstrating that double infections exist. Interestingly the age distribution of the patients showed that 2.8 % of the Ascaris-positive patients were younger than 21 years, while in the Toxocara-positive group 13.4 % were <21 years. These results are in accordance with a Dutch study suspecting different ways of transmission as cause for this interesting age distribution. Due to the fact that large amounts of untreated pig manure are used as fertilizer and that the expulsion of adult A. suum worms causing intestinal ascariosis is extremely rare in Central European countries, the zoonotic potential of A. suum is considerably underestimated. We suggest that the performance of reliable immunoserological tests, in all industrialized countries where pigs are raised and their manure is used as fertilizer, could help to assess the actual potential of A. suum as causative agent of

  4. Effect of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic conditions on viability of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) in sanitization of municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Oropeza, Marcelo; Hernández-Uresti, Alejandro S; Ortega-Charleston, Luis S; Cabirol, Nathalie

    2017-09-01

    The present work aimed at evaluating the effect of four different mixtures of diverse volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the viability of helminth ova (Ascaris suum), under mesophilic (35°C) anaerobic conditions and at different incubation times, in order to reproduce the process of two-phase anaerobic digestion. The mixtures of VFAs contained acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, and isovaleric acids, used at concentrations normally found in acidogenic anaerobic digesters. The four treatments all showed a reduction in Ascaris suum ova viability, among which Treatment III (4.2 g-acetic acid L(-1) +  2.2 g-propionic acid L(-1) + 0.6 g-valeric acid L(-1) + 0.6 g-isovaleric acid L(-1)) resulted the most efficient. We found that the full effect of VFAs on the viability loss of Ascaris suum ova in mesophilic conditions requires a minimum incubation time of 3 days. The highest efficiency in the loss of viability was observed with Treatment III and 4-day incubation. Interestingly, the proportion of acetic acid was three times as much in this treatment than in the other ones and resulted in an effect in a minimum time of 3 days. The mesophilic condition, however, was not sufficient to induce a complete loss of viability.

  5. The Intestinal Expulsion of the Roundworm Ascaris suum Is Associated with Eosinophils, Intra-Epithelial T Cells and Decreased Intestinal Transit Time

    PubMed Central

    Masure, Dries; Wang, Tao; Vlaminck, Johnny; Claerhoudt, Sarah; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Saunders, Jimmy; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides remains the most common endoparasite in humans, yet there is still very little information available about the immunological principles of protection, especially those directed against larval stages. Due to the natural host-parasite relationship, pigs infected with A. suum make an excellent model to study the mechanisms of protection against this nematode. In pigs, a self-cure reaction eliminates most larvae from the small intestine between 14 and 21 days post infection. In this study, we investigated the mucosal immune response leading to the expulsion of A. suum and the contribution of the hepato-tracheal migration. Self-cure was independent of previous passage through the liver or lungs, as infection with lung stage larvae did not impair self-cure. When animals were infected with 14-day-old intestinal larvae, the larvae were being driven distally in the small intestine around 7 days post infection but by 18 days post infection they re-inhabited the proximal part of the small intestine, indicating that more developed larvae can counter the expulsion mechanism. Self-cure was consistently associated with eosinophilia and intra-epithelial T cells in the jejunum. Furthermore, we identified increased gut movement as a possible mechanism of self-cure as the small intestinal transit time was markedly decreased at the time of expulsion of the worms. Taken together, these results shed new light on the mechanisms of self-cure that occur during A. suum infections. PMID:24340121

  6. A Globin Domain in a Neuronal Transmembrane Receptor of Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Tilleman, Lesley; Germani, Francesca; De Henau, Sasha; Helbo, Signe; Desmet, Filip; Berghmans, Herald; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Hoogewijs, David; Schoofs, Liliane; Braeckman, Bart P.; Moens, Luc; Fago, Angela; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    We report the structural and biochemical characterization of GLB-33, a putative neuropeptide receptor that is exclusively expressed in the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This unique chimeric protein is composed of a 7-transmembrane domain (7TM), GLB-33 7TM, typical of a G-protein-coupled receptor, and of a globin domain (GD), GLB-33 GD. Comprehensive sequence similarity searches in the genome of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, revealed a chimeric protein that is similar to a Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide neuropeptide receptor. The three-dimensional structures of the separate domains of both species and of the full-length proteins were modeled. The 7TM domains of both proteins appeared very similar, but the globin domain of the A. suum receptor surprisingly seemed to lack several helices, suggesting a novel truncated globin fold. The globin domain of C. elegans GLB-33, however, was very similar to a genuine myoglobin-type molecule. Spectroscopic analysis of the recombinant GLB-33 GD showed that the heme is pentacoordinate when ferrous and in the hydroxide-ligated form when ferric, even at neutral pH. Flash-photolysis experiments showed overall fast biphasic CO rebinding kinetics. In its ferrous deoxy form, GLB-33 GD is capable of reversibly binding O2 with a very high affinity and of reducing nitrite to nitric oxide faster than other globins. Collectively, these properties suggest that the globin domain of GLB-33 may serve as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor and/or as a nitrite reductase. Both properties are potentially able to modulate the neuropeptide sensitivity of the neuronal transmembrane receptor. PMID:25666609

  7. Pharmacological profile of Ascaris suum ACR‐16, a new homomeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor widely distributed in Ascaris tissues

    PubMed Central

    Abongwa, Melanie; Buxton, Samuel K; Courtot, Elise; Charvet, Claude L; Neveu, Cédric; McCoy, Ciaran J; Verma, Saurabh; Robertson, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background and Purpose Control of nematode parasite infections relies largely on anthelmintic drugs, several of which act on nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs), and there are concerns about the development of resistance. There is an urgent need for development of new compounds to overcome resistance and novel anthelmintic drug targets. We describe the functional expression and pharmacological characterization of a homomeric nAChR, ACR‐16, from a nematode parasite. Experimental Approach Using RT‐PCR, molecular cloning and two‐electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology, we localized acr‐16 mRNA in Ascaris suum (Asu) and then cloned and expressed acr‐16 cRNA in Xenopus oocytes. Sensitivity of these receptors to cholinergic anthelmintics and a range of nicotinic agonists was tested. Key Results Amino acid sequence comparison with vertebrate nAChR subunits revealed ACR‐16 to be most closely related to α7 receptors, but with some striking distinctions. acr‐16 mRNA was recovered from Asu somatic muscle, pharynx, ovijector, head and intestine. In electrophysiological experiments, the existing cholinergic anthelmintic agonists (morantel, levamisole, methyridine, thenium, bephenium, tribendimidine and pyrantel) did not activate Asu‐ACR‐16 (except for a small response to oxantel). Other nAChR agonists: nicotine, ACh, cytisine, 3‐bromocytisine and epibatidine, produced robust current responses which desensitized at a rate varying with the agonists. Unlike α7, Asu‐ACR‐16 was insensitive to α‐bungarotoxin and did not respond to genistein or other α7 positive allosteric modulators. Asu‐ACR‐16 had lower calcium permeability than α7 receptors. Conclusions and Implications We suggest that ACR‐16 has diverse tissue‐dependent functions in nematode parasites and is a suitable drug target for development of novel anthelmintic compounds. PMID:27238203

  8. Effect of fenbendazole in water on pigs infected with Ascaris suum in finishing pigs under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Jukola, Elias; Laurila, Tapio; Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-03-06

    The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water for two consecutive days on A. suum infection 1 and 6 weeks after pigs arrived to fattening units. We hypothesised that the treatment would reduce the presence of A. suum-infections, improve the average daily weight gain of pigs, reduce the percentage of liver rejections in pens by 50% and increase the lean meat percentage at slaughter by 1%. The study included a placebo group (427 pigs) and a treatment group (420 pigs) spanning four different farms previously reporting ≥15% liver rejection. The treatment was given for 2 consecutive days 1 and 6 weeks after the pigs arrived to the fattening unit. Faecal samples were collected during weeks 1, 6 and 12 from all pigs and examined for A. suum eggs. Blood was collected during weeks 1 and 12 from a subgroup of the pigs and examined for anti-A. suum antibodies and clinical blood parameters. Data on liver rejection and lean meat percentage were collected post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain or lean meat percentage. Pigs with A. suum eggs in faeces at week 6 had a lower average daily weight gain of 61.8g/day compared with pigs without parasite eggs. Fenbendazole treatment may be a useful option for farms struggling with persistent A. suum problems and demonstrate a beneficial effect on the weight gain of the animals shedding eggs in faeces and result in fewer condemned livers at slaughter.

  9. Intestinal parasites in swine in the Nordic countries: multilevel modelling of Ascaris suum infections in relation to production factors.

    PubMed

    Roepstorff, A; Nilsson, O; O'Callaghan, C J; Oksanen, A; Gjerde, B; Richter, S H; Ortenberg, E O; Christensson, D; Nansen, P; Eriksen, L; Medley, G F

    1999-11-01

    In Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, 413 sow herds were randomly selected for sampling. Faeces from pigs of 7 age groups/categories were examined for helminth eggs (11,233 individual samples), and an accompanying questionnaire was completed at each visit. In total, 1138 pigs on 230 farms were found to be positive for Ascaris suum. Considerable differences in the occurrence of A. suum could be observed directly for several of 20 independent variables at the herd or category level. However, given that univariate analyses may be severely affected by confounding of covariates resulting in spurious inference, additional multivariate analyses were undertaken. An ordinary logistic regression on Ascaris positive/negative farms showed that Denmark had the highest frequency of infected herds, while Iceland and Finland had the lowest frequencies and that herds using 'late weaning' and 'Class 2' drugs (pyrantel, levamisole) were most often infected. Because many herds were found to be totally negative for A. suum, mixed hierarchical logistic-normal regression models (both the penalized quasi-likelihood and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods) were developed for both a full (all herds) and a reduced (the 230 infected herds) data set using either a cut-off of > 0 eggs per gram (epg) or > 200 epg to counter for false-positive egg counts. Estimates for identical models, but where the animal level variance was constrained to the binomial assumption, were also calculated. Significant covariates were robust to model development with 'Age group', 'Country', 'Weaning age', 'Water system' and simple interactions between the latter two and 'Age group' being significantly associated with the occurrence of A. suum, while all variables concerning anthelmintic drug, anthelmintic strategy, floor type, bedding, dung removal, washing and disinfection were not. These findings are discussed in the light of the complex relationship between A. suum and its pig host.

  10. Actions of cholinergic drugs in the nematode Ascaris suum. Complex pharmacology of muscle and motorneurons

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The cholinergic agonists acetylcholine (ACh), nicotine, and pilocarpine produced depolarizations and contractions of muscle of the nematode Ascaris suum. Dose-dependent depolarization and contraction by ACh were suppressed by about two orders of magnitude by 100 microM d- tubocurarine (dTC), a nicotinic antagonist, but only about fivefold by 100 microM N-methyl-scopolamine (NMS), a muscarinic antagonist. NMS itself depolarized both normal and synaptically isolated muscle cells. The muscle depolarizing action of pilocarpine was not consistently antagonized by either NMS or dTC. ACh receptors were detected on motorneuron classes DE1, DE2, DI, and VI as ACh-induced reductions in input resistance. These input resistance changes were reversed by washing in drug-free saline or by application of dTC. NMS applied alone lowered input resistance in DE1, but not in DE2, DI, or VI motorneurons. In contrast to the effect of ACh, the action of NMS in DE1 was not reversed by dTC, suggesting that NMS-sensitive sites may not respond to ACh. Excitatory synaptic responses in muscle evoked by depolarizing current injections into DE1 and DE2 motorneurons were antagonized by dTC; however, NMS antagonized the synaptic output of only the DE1 and DE3 classes of motorneurons, an effect that was more likely to have been produced by motorneuron conduction failure than by pharmacological blockade of receptor. The concentration of NMS required to produce these changes in muscle polarization and contraction, ACh antagonism, input resistance reduction, and synaptic antagonism was 100 microM, or more than five orders of magnitude higher than the binding affinity for [3H]NMS in larval Ascaris homogenates and adult Caenorhabditis elegans (Segerberg, M. A. 1989. Ph.D. thesis. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI). These results describe a nicotinic- like pharmacology, but muscle and motorneurons also have unusual responses to muscarinic agents. PMID:8455017

  11. Bioinformatic identification of cytochrome b5 homologues from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans highlights the crucial role of A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b₅ in parasitic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Mita, Toshihiro; Yokota, Takehiro; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ueno, Takashi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that adult Ascaris suum possesses NADH-metmyoglobin and NADH-methaemoglobin reductase systems that are located in the cells of the body wall and in the extracellular perienteric fluid, respectively, which helps them adapt to environmental hypoxia by recovering the differential functions of myoglobin and haemoglobin. A. suum cytochrome b5, an adult-specific secretory protein and an essential component of the NADH-metmyo (haemo) globin reductase system, has been extensively studied, and its unique nature has been determined. However, the relationship between A. suum cytochrome b5 and the canonical cytochrome b5 proteins, from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unclear. Here, we have characterised four cytochrome b5-like proteins from C. elegans (accession numbers: CAB01732, CCD68984, CAJ58492, and CAA98498) and three from A. suum (accession numbers: ADY48796, ADY46277, and ADY48338) and compared them with A. suum cytochrome b5 in silico. Bioinformatic and molecular analyses showed that CAA98498 from C. elegans is equivalent of A. suum cytochrome b5, which was not expressed as a mature mRNA. Further, the CAA98498 possessed no secretory signal peptide, which occurs in A. suum cytochrome b5 precursor. These results suggest that this free-living nematode does not need a haemoprotein such as the A. suum cytochrome b5 and highlight the crucial function of this A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b5 in parasitic adaptation.

  12. Succinate-dependent energy generation and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity in isolated Ascaris suum mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Body wall muscle from the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, contain unique anaerobic mitochondria that preferentially utilize fumarate and branched-chain enoyl CoA's as terminal electron acceptors instead of oxygen. While electron transport in these organelles is well characterized, the role of oxygen in succinate-dependent phosphorylation is still not clearly defined. Therefore, the present study was designed to more fully characterize succinate metabolism in these organelles as well as the in vitro regulation of a key mitochondrial enzyme, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). In the absence of added adenine nucleotides, incubations in succinate resulted in substantial elevations in intramitochrondrial ATP levels, but ATP/ADP ratios were considerably higher in incubations with malate. The stimulation of phosphorylation in aerobic incubations with succinate was rotenone sensitive and appears to be Site I dependent. Increase substrate level phosphorylation, coupled to propionate formation, or additional sites of electron-transport associated ATP synthesis were not significant. Under aerobic conditions, {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution from 1,4-({sup 14}C)succinate was stimulated and NADH/NAD{sup +} ratios were elevated, but the formation of {sup 14}C propionate was unchanged.

  13. Microevolutionary Patterns and Molecular Markers: The Genetics of Geographic Variation in Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, S. A.

    1996-01-01

    Molecular markers have been used only rarely to characterize the population genetic structure of nematodes. Published studies have suggested that different taxa may show distinct genetic architectures. Isoenzyme and RAPD markers have been used to investigate geographic variation of Ascaris suum at the level of infrapopulations (nematodes within individual hosts), within localities, and among geographic regions. Independent estimates of genetic differentiation among population samples based on isoenzyme and RAPD data showed similar patterns and substantial correlation. Heterozygote deficiencies within infrapopulations and large values for inbreeding coefficients among infrapopulations suggested that the composition of these populations was not consistent with a model of random recruitment from a large panmictic pool of life-cycle stages. Both isoenzyme and RAPD markers revealed moderate levels of genetic differentiation among samples representing infrapopulations and localities. Of total gene diversity, 9.4% (isoenzyme) and 9.2% (RAPD) was partitioned among infrapopulations. Geographic localities accounted for 7.8% (isoenzyme) and 6.2% (RAPD) of total diversity. Only infrapopulations from the same farm had low levels of differentiation. PMID:19277145

  14. TLR2- and 4-independent immunomodulatory effect of high molecular weight components from Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Favoretto, Bruna C; Silva, Sandriana R; Jacysyn, Jacqueline F; Câmara, Niels O S; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2014-03-01

    Components of high molecular-weight (PI) obtained from Ascaris suum extract down-regulate the Th1/Th2-related immune responses induced by ovalbumin (OVA)-immunization in mice. Furthermore, the PI down-modulates the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to activate T lymphocytes by an IL-10-mediated mechanism. Here, we evaluated the role of toll like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and 4) in the modulatory effect of PI on OVA-specific immune response and the PI interference on DC full activation. An inhibition of OVA-specific cellular and humoral responses were observed in wild type (WT) or in deficient in TLR2 (TLR2(-/-)) or 4 (TLR4(-/-)) mice immunized with OVA plus PI when compared with OVA-immunized mice. Low expression of class II MHC, CD40, CD80 and CD86 molecules was observed in lymph node (LN) cells from WT, TLR2(-/-) or TLR4(-/-) mice immunized with OVA plus PI compared with OVA-primed cells. We also verified that PI was able to modulate the activation of DCs derived from bone marrow of WT, TLR2(-/-) or TLR4(-/-) mice induced in vitro by agonists of TLRs, as observed by a decreased expression of class II MHC and costimulatory molecules and by low secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Its effect was accompanied by IL-10 synthesis. In this sense, the modulatory effect of PI on specific-immune response and DC activation is independent of TLR2 or TLR4.

  15. Effects of atmospheric ammonia on young pigs experimentally infected with Ascaris suum

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, J.G.; Curtis, S.E.; Simon, J.; Norton, H.W.

    1981-06-01

    Effects of atmospheric ammonia at 69.4 mg/m3 (100 ppm) on productive performance and respiratory tract health of young pigs (starting body weight averaged 7.5 kg) experimentally infected with Ascaris suum (50,000 embryonated ova administered by gavage when pigs were 5 weeks of age) were studied in 5 trials of 4 weeks each (when pigs were 5 to 9 weeks of age). Effects of atmospheric-ammonia exposure and ascarid infection on growth were additive. Compared with controls, percentage reductions in average daily gain were 32%, 28%, and 61% for ammonia-exposed, ascarid-infected, and combined ammonia plus ascarid groups, respectively. Ammonia exposure or ascarid infection alone depressed feed disappearance by 18%. Effects of the 2 factors were additive, resulting in a 35% reduction in feed disappearance. Pigs exposed to the combined factors had an average gain/feed ratio of 0.518, which was less than that of control pigs (0.546), but was greater than that of pigs exposed to atmospheric ammonia (0.489) or pigs infected with ascarids (0.501) alone. Liver scarring, due to larval migration, was not affected by ammonia exposure. Larval migration through the respiratory tract was not confirmed histopathologically in pigs killed 4 weeks after inoculation. A supplementary experiment was conducted which demonstrated that residual evidence of previous pulmonary larval migration was present 2 weeks after inoculation.

  16. Immunization of pigs against experimental Ascaris suum infection by feeding ultraviolet-attenuated eggs.

    PubMed

    Tromba, F G

    1978-08-01

    Pigs fed Ascaris suum eggs attenuated by short-wave ultraviolet radiation developed a resistance to challenge infections that varied according to the protocols used. Two doses of eggs irradiated at total exposures (ET) of 150 muW-min/cm2 resulted in a reduction of adult worm burden in 3 groups challenged with 50, 100, or 500 eggs by 45, 35, and 49%, respectively. However, these results were not statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). Three other groups were fed eggs as follows: Group 1, 3 doses irridated at ET's of 150, 150 and 150; Group 2, 3 doses irradiated at ET's of 150, 150, 100; and Group 3, 3 doses irradiated at ET's of 150, 100, and 75. All of these regimens provided significant protection: Group 1 (P less than 0.02), Group 2 (P less than 0.05), Group 3 (P less than 0.001). An analysis of the lengths of worms recovered showed that in controls fed varying doses of eggs, worm sizes were inversely related to the number of eggs in the challenge dose. Measurements of worms from vaccinated animals showed that 23 of 116 adult worms recovered were probably survivors of one or more of the vaccinating doses. A ratio of 18 female to 5 male worms indicated that males are more susceptible to ultraviolet radiation than females.

  17. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Steenhard, Nina R; Jungersen, Gregers; Kokotovic, Branko; Beshah, Ethiopia; Dawson, Harry D; Urban, Joseph F; Roepstorff, Allan; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2009-08-13

    Since their first introduction more than a century ago, vaccines have become one of the most cost-effective tools to prevent and manage infectious diseases in human and animal populations. It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent challenge infection. Four groups of pigs were either (1) untreated (group C), (2) vaccinated against Mh 3 weeks after the start of the study (group V), (3) given a trickle infection with A. suum throughout the study (group A), or (4) given a trickle infection with A. suum and vaccinated against Mh (group AV). All pigs were subsequently inoculated with live Mh bacteria 4 weeks after the Mh vaccination and necropsied after another 4 weeks. All pigs in group V sero-converted 3 weeks after vaccination (100%), as opposed to only 33% of group AV pigs that were Mh-vaccinated and given A. suum. At the end of the study, only 78% of pigs in group AV had sero-converted. Pigs in group AV had a higher mean percentage of lung pathology and the variation was significantly higher in these pigs compared to pigs in group V. The pattern of gene expression in the lungs and draining lymph nodes indicated a local Th2-skewed response induced by A. suum. Our study indicated that A. suum significantly compromised the effect of Mh vaccination. The impact of reduced vaccine efficacy caused by a common gastrointestinal helminth emphasises the importance of parasite control. More focus should be put into this area of research to outline the practical consequences of this interaction, and to be able to predict, prevent and correct negative interactions.

  18. Cross-reactions of sera from Toxocara canis-infected mice with Toxascaris leonina and Ascaris suum antigens.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, C; Fenoy, S; Guillén, J L

    1992-05-01

    The ELISA method using larval excretory-secretory (E/S) products and homogenized Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Ascaris suum adult worm extract were used to determine possible cross-reactions in BALB/c and C57BL/10 mice, inoculated with embryonated eggs or adult worm extract of T. canis in single and multiple doses. When we used sera of mice infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis against different heterologous antigens, we observed no cross-reactions in BALB/c mice against A. suum E/S and adult worm extract antigens with a single dose. In multiple doses this was absent too against T. leonina adult worm extract in BALB/c mice, and in both strains against A. suum E/S and adult worm extract. In BALB/c mice inoculated with adult worm extract of T. canis we did not observe cross-reactions with A. suum E/S antigen with both inoculation doses. In the remainder of the experiments, we observed cross-reactions of different intensities.

  19. An in vitro larval migration assay for assessing anthelmintic activity of different drug classes against Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianguo; Williams, Andrew R; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Thamsborg, Stig M; Cai, Jianping; Song, Shuaibao; Chen, Gang; Kang, Ming; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Liu, Qun; Han, Qian

    2017-03-18

    In vitro methods have been developed for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in a range of nematode species. However, the life cycle of Ascaris suum renders the commonly used egg hatch assay and larval development assay unusable. In this study we developed a combined multi-well culture and agar gel larval migration assay to test the effect of benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrimidin/imidazothiazole anthelmintics against nine isolates of A. suum collected from locations in China and Denmark. Drugs tested were thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel. The percentages of larvae that migrated to the surface of each treated and control well were used to calculate the drug concentration which inhibits 50% of the larvae migration (EC50). The values of EC50 of thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel against A. suum isolates ranged 74-150, 4.9-13.9, 2.3-4.3, 358-1150 and 1100-4000nM, respectively. This combined multi-well culture and agar gel larval migration assay was a sensitive bioassay for anthelmintic activity and could serve as an in vitro method to detect for lowered drug efficacy against A. suum or possibly to screen for anthelmintic drug candidates.

  20. Hybrid ascaris suum/lumbricoides (ascarididae) infestation in a pig farmer: a rare case of zoonotic ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Dutto, Moreno; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of the 42-year-old pig farmer from the province of Cuneo in Northwest Italy who was infected by the soil-transmitted nematode Ascaris sp. In November 2010 the patient found one worm in his stool, subsequently identified as female specimen of Ascaris sp. After a first anthelmintic treatment, another worm was found in his stool, that was later identified as male Ascaris sp. Blood tests prescribed by the patient's family physician, as suggested by a parasitologist, found nothing abnormal. A chest x-ray was negative for Loeffler's syndrome and an ultrasound of the abdomen was normal with no evidence of hepatic problems. The nematode collected from the patient was genetically characterized using the ribosomal nuclear marker ITS. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed a hybrid genotype, intermediate between A. suum/lumbricoides. It was subsequently ascertained that some pigs on the patient's farm had A. suum infection; no other family member was infected. A cross-infestation from the pigs as source was the likely way of transmission. This conclusion is further warranted by the fact, that the patient is a confirmed nail-biter, a habit which facilitates oral-fecal transmission of parasites and pathogens.

  1. Derquantel and Abamectin: Effects and interactions on isolated tissues of Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Puttachary, Sreekanth; Trailovic, Sasa M.; Robertson, Alan P.; Thompson, David P.; Woods, Debra J.; Martin, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    StartectR is a novel anthelmintic combination of derquantel and abamectin. It is hypothesized that derquantel and abamectin interact pharmacologically. We investigated the effects of derquantel, abamectin and their combination on somatic muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and pharyngeal muscle glutamate gated chloride receptor channels of Ascaris suum. We used muscle-strips to test the effects of abamectin, derquantel, and abamectin + derquantel together on the contraction responses to different concentrations of acetylcholine. We found that abamectin reduced the response to acetylcholine, as did derquantel. In combination (abamectin + derquantel), inhibition of the higher acetylcholine concentration responses was statistically greater than the predicted additive effect. A two-micropipette current-clamp technique was used to study electrophysiological effects of the anthelmintics on: 1) acetylcholine responses in somatic muscle and; 2) on L-glutamate responses in pharyngeal preparations. On somatic muscle, derquantel (0.1 - 30 μM) produced a potent (IC50 0.22, CI 0.18-0.28 μM) reversible antagonism of acetylcholine depolarizations. Abamectin (0.3 μM) produced a slow onset inhibition of acetylcholine depolarizations. We compared effects of abamectin and derquantel on muscle preparations pretreated for 30 minutes with these drugs. The effect of the combination was significantly greater than the predicted additive effect of both drugs at higher acetylcholine concentrations. On the pharynx, application of derquantel produced no significant effect by itself or on responses to abamectin and L-glutamate. Abamectin increased the input conductance of the pharynx (EC50 0.42, CI 0.13-1.36 μM). Our study demonstrates that abamectin and derquantel interact at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the somatic muscle and suggested synergism can occur. PMID:23523993

  2. Levamisole and ryanodine receptors (II): An electrophysiological study in Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Puttachary, Sreekanth; Robertson, Alan P.; Clark, Cheryl L.; Martin, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to antinematodal drugs like levamisole has increased and there is a need to understand what factors affect the responses to these anthelmintics. In our previous study, we examined the role of ryanodine receptors in muscle contraction pathways. Here we have examined interactions of levamisole receptors, ryanodine receptors (RyRs), the excitatory neuropeptide AF2, and coupling to electrophysiological responses. We examined the effects of a brief application of levamisole on Ascaris suum body muscle under current-clamp. The levamisole responses were characterized as an initial primary depolarization, followed by a slow secondary depolarizing response. We examined the effects of AF2 (KHEYLRFamide), 1 μM applied for 2 min. We found that AF2 potentiated the secondary response to levamisole and had no significant effect on the primary depolarization [1]. Further, the reversal potentials observed during the secondary response suggested that more than one ion was involved in producing this potential. AF2 potentiated the secondary response in the presence of 30 μM mecamylamine suggesting the effect was independent of levamisole sensitive acetylcholine receptors. The secondary response, potentiated by AF2, appeared to be dependent on cytoplasmic events triggered by the primary depolarization. Ion-substitution experiments showed that the AF2 potentiated secondary response was dependent on extracellular calcium and chloride suggesting a role for the calcium-activated anion channel. Caffeine mimicked the AF2 secondary response and 0.1 μM ryanodine inhibited it. 1.0 μM ryanodine increased spiking showing that it affected membrane excitability. A model is proposed showing ryanodine receptors mediating effects of AF2 on levamisole responses. PMID:20064567

  3. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  4. [Effect of Hydrochloric acid on invasion of Ascaris suum; enzyme activity in the digestive system and serum of newborn piglets].

    PubMed

    Jabłonowski, Z; Romaniuk, K; Piechocki, D; Zółtowska, K; Lukaszewicz-Babecka, J; Dziekońska-Rynko, I J

    1995-01-01

    The studies were carried out on twenty newborn piglets. They were divided into four groups. The groups no 3 and no 4 were given intragastric 0.18% HCl from the 3th day of experiment. The groups no 2 and no 4 were infected on the 7th day with 10,000 invasive eggs of Ascaris suum. The presence of A. suum larvae in the lungs and liver was examined after one week lasting invasion by Baermann method. The total acidity in the gastric content was measured. The activity of alpha-amylase, lipase and proteases was determined in the extracts from pancreas and in the contents of stomach, duodenum and jejunum. The level of pepsinogens and alpha-amylase in the animals serum was studied. The intensity of Ascaris invasion was slightly higher in the group which was given HCl than in the infected group without HCl. The activity of digestive enzymes in the both groups was similar. Only in the stomach content from the 4th group the activity of pepsin was higher (p < 0.05), and alpha-amylase and lipase were lower (p < 0.01) than in the 2nd and in the 3th group. The level of pepsinogens was always lower and alpha-amylase higher in the serum of infected animals than in uninfected groups.

  5. Diethylcarbamazine Increases Activation of Voltage-Activated Potassium (SLO-1) Currents in Ascaris suum and Potentiates Effects of Emodepside

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Samuel K.; Robertson, Alan P.; Martin, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Diethylcarbamazine is a drug that is used for the treatment of filariasis in humans and animals; it also has effects on intestinal nematodes, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Emodepside is a resistance-busting anthelmintic approved for treating intestinal parasitic nematodes in animals. The novel mode of action and resistance-breaking properties of emodepside has led to its use against intestinal nematodes of animals, and as a candidate drug for treating filarial parasites. We have previously demonstrated effects of emodepside on SLO-1 K+-like currents in Ascaris suum. Here, we demonstrate that diethylcarbamazine, which has been proposed to work through host mediated effects, has direct effects on a nematode parasite, Ascaris suum. It increases activation of SLO-1 K+ currents and potentiates effects of emodepside. Our results suggest consideration of the combination of emodepside and diethylcarbamazine for therapy, which is predicted to be synergistic. The mode of action of diethylcarbamazine may involve effects on parasite signaling pathways (including nitric oxide) as well as effects mediated by host inflammatory mediators. PMID:25411836

  6. Diethylcarbamazine increases activation of voltage-activated potassium (SLO-1) currents in Ascaris suum and potentiates effects of emodepside.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Samuel K; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Diethylcarbamazine is a drug that is used for the treatment of filariasis in humans and animals; it also has effects on intestinal nematodes, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Emodepside is a resistance-busting anthelmintic approved for treating intestinal parasitic nematodes in animals. The novel mode of action and resistance-breaking properties of emodepside has led to its use against intestinal nematodes of animals, and as a candidate drug for treating filarial parasites. We have previously demonstrated effects of emodepside on SLO-1 K+-like currents in Ascaris suum. Here, we demonstrate that diethylcarbamazine, which has been proposed to work through host mediated effects, has direct effects on a nematode parasite, Ascaris suum. It increases activation of SLO-1 K+ currents and potentiates effects of emodepside. Our results suggest consideration of the combination of emodepside and diethylcarbamazine for therapy, which is predicted to be synergistic. The mode of action of diethylcarbamazine may involve effects on parasite signaling pathways (including nitric oxide) as well as effects mediated by host inflammatory mediators.

  7. A TGF-B homologue identified from Ascaris suum 4th stage larvae (L4): Evidence for development-related transcription and incomplete gene splicing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ascaris species represent the most prevalent parasitic worm infecting humans and swine worldwide. During the infection process, A. suum L4 establish in the jejunum and develop into adults. However, a large percentage of L4 spontaneously cure to the ileum at 14 to 21 days after inoculation (dpi), and...

  8. Changes in cyclic nucleotides, locomotory behavior, and body length produced by novel endogenous neuropeptides in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Catharine A; Pleva, Anthony E; Stretton, Antony O W

    2011-11-01

    Recent technical advances have rapidly advanced the discovery of novel peptides, as well as the transcripts that encode them, in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Here we report that many of these novel peptides produce profound and varied effects on locomotory behavior and levels of cyclic nucleotides in A. suum. We investigated the effects of 31 endogenous neuropeptides encoded by transcripts afp-1, afp-2, afp-4, afp-6, afp-7, and afp-9-14 (afp: Ascaris FMRFamide-like Precursor protein) on cyclic nucleotide levels, body length and locomotory behavior. Worms were induced to generate anteriorly propagating waveforms, peptides were injected into the pseudocoelomic cavity, and changes in the specific activity (nmol/mg protein) of second messengers cAMP (3'5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate) and cGMP (3'5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate) were determined. Many of these neuropeptides changed the levels of cAMP (both increases and decreases were found), whereas few neuropeptides changed the level of cGMP. A subset of the peptides that lowered cAMP was investigated for effects on the locomotory waveform and on body length. Injection of AF19, or AF34 (afp-13), AF9 (afp-14), AF26 or AF41 (afp-11) caused immediate paralysis and cessation of propagating body waveforms. These neuropeptides also significantly increased body length. In contrast, injection of AF15 (afp-9) reduced the body length, and decreased the amplitude of waves in the body waveform. AF30 (afp-10) produced worms with tight ventral coils. Although injection of neuropeptides encoded by afp-1 (AF3, AF4, AF10 or AF13) produced an increased number of exaggerated body waves, there were no effects on either cAMP or cGMP. By injecting peptides into behaving A. suum, we have provided an initial screen of the effects of novel peptides on several behavioral and biochemical parameters.

  9. Transcriptional immune response in mesenteric lymph nodes in pigs with different levels of resistance to Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter; Cirera, Susanna; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Pipper, Christian B; Fredholm, Merete; Jørgensen, Claus B; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2017-03-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 4 (SNP TXNIP) has been reported to be associated with roundworm (Ascaris suum) burden in pigs. The objective of the present study was to analyse the immune response to A. suum mounted by pigs with genotype AA (n = 24) and AB (n = 23) at the TXNIP locus. The pigs were repeatedly infected with A. suum from eight weeks of age until necropsy eight weeks later. An uninfected control group (AA; n = 5 and AB; n = 5) was also included. At post mortem, we collected mesenteric lymph nodes and measured the expression of 28 selected immune-related genes. Recordings of worm burdens confirmed our previous results that pigs of the AA genotype were more resistant to infection than AB pigs. We estimated the genotype difference in relative expression levels in infected and uninfected animals. No significant change in expression levels between the two genotypes due to infection was observed for any of the genes, although IL-13 approached significance (P = 0.08; Punadjusted = 0.003). Furthermore, statistical analysis testing for the effect of infection separately in each genotype showed significant up-regulation of IL-13 (P<0.05) and CCL17 (P<0.05) following A. suum infection in the 'resistant' AA genotype and not in the 'susceptible' AB genotype. Pigs of genotype AB had higher expression of the high-affinity IgG receptor (FCGR1A) than AA pigs in both infected and non-infected animals (P = 1.85*10-11).

  10. Effects of SDPNFLRF-amide (PF1) on voltage-activated currents in Ascaris suum muscle

    PubMed Central

    Verma, S.; Robertson, A.P.; Martin, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Helminth infections are of significant concern in veterinary and human medicine. The drugs available for chemotherapy are limited in number and the extensive use of these drugs has led to the development of resistance in parasites of animals and humans (Geerts and Gryseels, 2000; Kaplan, 2004; Osei-Atweneboana et al., 2007). The cyclooctadepsipeptide, emodepside, belongs to a new class of anthelmintic that has been released for animal use in recent years. Emodepside has been proposed to mimic the effects of the neuropeptide PF1 on membrane hyperpolarization and membrane conductance (Willson et al., 2003). We investigated the effects of PF1 on voltage-activated currents in Ascaris suum muscle cells. The whole cell voltage-clamp technique was employed to study these currents. Here we report two types of voltage-activated inward calcium currents: transient peak (Ipeak) and a steady-state (Iss). We found that 1 μM PF1 inhibited the two calcium currents. The Ipeak decreased from −146 nA to −99 nA (P = 0.0007) and the Iss decreased from −45 nA to −12 nA (P = 0.002). We also found that PF1 in the presence of calcium increased the voltage-activated outward potassium current (from 521 nA to 628 nA (P = 0.004)). The effect on the potassium current was abolished when calcium was removed and replaced with cobalt; it was also reduced at a higher concentration of PF1 (10 μM). These studies demonstrate a mechanism by which PF1 decreases the excitability of the neuromuscular system by modulating calcium currents in nematodes. PF1 inhibits voltage-activated calcium currents and potentiates the voltage-activated calcium-dependent potassium current. The effect on a calcium-activated-potassium channel appears to be common to both PF1 and emodepside (Guest et al., 2007). It will be of interest to investigate the actions of emodepside on calcium currents to further elucidate the mechanism of action. PMID:18760280

  11. Effects of SDPNFLRF-amide (PF1) on voltage-activated currents in Ascaris suum muscle.

    PubMed

    Verma, S; Robertson, A P; Martin, R J

    2009-02-01

    Helminth infections are of significant concern in veterinary and human medicine. The drugs available for chemotherapy are limited in number and the extensive use of these drugs has led to the development of resistance in parasites of animals and humans (Geerts and Gryseels, 2000; Kaplan, 2004; Osei-Atweneboana et al., 2007). The cyclooctadepsipeptide, emodepside, belongs to a new class of anthelmintic that has been released for animal use in recent years. Emodepside has been proposed to mimic the effects of the neuropeptide PF1 on membrane hyperpolarization and membrane conductance (Willson et al., 2003). We investigated the effects of PF1 on voltage-activated currents in Ascaris suum muscle cells. The whole cell voltage-clamp technique was employed to study these currents. Here we report two types of voltage-activated inward calcium currents: transient peak (I(peak)) and a steady-state (I(ss)). We found that 1microM PF1 inhibited the two calcium currents. The I(peak) decreased from -146nA to -99nA (P=0.0007) and the I(ss) decreased from -45nA to -12nA (P=0.002). We also found that PF1 in the presence of calcium increased the voltage-activated outward potassium current (from 521nA to 628nA (P=0.004)). The effect on the potassium current was abolished when calcium was removed and replaced with cobalt; it was also reduced at a higher concentration of PF1 (10microM). These studies demonstrate a mechanism by which PF1 decreases the excitability of the neuromuscular system by modulating calcium currents in nematodes. PF1 inhibits voltage-activated calcium currents and potentiates the voltage-activated calcium-dependent potassium current. The effect on a calcium-activated-potassium channel appears to be common to both PF1 and emodepside (Guest et al., 2007). It will be of interest to investigate the actions of emodepside on calcium currents to further elucidate the mechanism of action.

  12. Comparison of the effect of the chosen species of saprotrophic fungi on the development of Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz, Kinga; Jaborowska-Jarmoluk, Magdalena; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to compare the antagonistic interaction between saprotrophic soil fungi and embryonic development of geohelminths Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum. The experimental cultures were fertilized eggs of T.canis and A. suum incubated together with mycelium of strains: Fusarium culmorum, Metarhizium anisopliae,Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Trichoderma viride and Trichothecium roseum. In the control cultures the eggs of both nematode species were incubated without fungi. The experiment was conducted at temp. 26°C for 60 days. Compared with the control, all of the tested species of fungi significantly extended the embryonic development of both T. canis and A. suum. Most inhibitory effect on the rate of embryonic development of T. canis and A. suum had three fungal species: P. fumosoreus, M. anisopliae and T. viride. Compared with the control, on the 60th day of incubation in the presence of each of the tested fungal species, a larger percentage (p<0.05) of morphological abnormalities was stated in developing embryos of T. canis (49–69%) than in A. suum (15.1–67.7%). Among the examined fungal species, only incubation with P. fumosoroseus resulted in significantly greater (p<0.05) incidence of embryonic malformations(embryopathies) in T. canis, as compared with A. suum. Also the percentage of dead larvae of T. canis in the control and in cultures with fungi (12% and 100%, respectively) was significantly higher in comparison with A. suum (0.5% and 10.3–36%, respectively). The highest percentage of non-viable larvae of A. suum was found in the presence of P.fumosoroseus, and the lowest in the presence of M. anisopliae. Findings may indicate that T. canis eggs are more sensitive to antagonistic interaction of the examined fungal strains than A. suum eggs.

  13. Different Neuropeptides are Expressed in Different Functional Subsets of Cholinergic Excitatory Motorneurons in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides are known to have dramatic effects on neurons and synapses; however, despite extensive studies of the motorneurons in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, their peptide content had not yet been described. We determined the peptide content of single excitatory motorneurons by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. There are 2 subsets of ventral cord excitatory motorneurons, each with neuromuscular output either anterior or posterior to their cell body, mediating forward or backward locomotion, respectively. Strikingly, the two sets of neurons contain different neuropeptides, with AF9 and 6 novel peptides (As-NLP-21.1-6) in anterior projectors, and the 6 afp-1 peptides in addition to AF2 in posterior projectors. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of these peptides, validating the integrity of the dissection technique. This work identifies new components of the functional behavioral circuit, as well as potential targets for anti-parasitic drug development. PMID:25812635

  14. Different neuropeptides are expressed in different functional subsets of cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Konop, Christopher J; Knickelbine, Jennifer J; Sygulla, Molly S; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O W

    2015-06-17

    Neuropeptides are known to have dramatic effects on neurons and synapses; however, despite extensive studies of the motorneurons in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, their peptide content had not yet been described. We determined the peptide content of single excitatory motorneurons by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. There are two subsets of ventral cord excitatory motorneurons, each with neuromuscular output either anterior or posterior to their cell body, mediating forward or backward locomotion, respectively. Strikingly, the two sets of neurons contain different neuropeptides, with AF9 and six novel peptides (As-NLP-21.1-6) in anterior projectors, and the six afp-1 peptides in addition to AF2 in posterior projectors. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of these peptides, validating the integrity of the dissection technique. This work identifies new components of the functional behavioral circuit, as well as potential targets for antiparasitic drug development.

  15. Expression of Ascaris suum malic enzyme in a mutant Escherichia coli allows production of succinic acid from glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Stols, L.; Donnelly, M.I.; Kulkarni, G.; Harris, B.G.

    1997-12-31

    The malic enzyme gene of Ascaris suum was cloned into the vector pTRC99a in two forms encoding alternative amino-termini. The resulting plasmids, pMEA1 and pMEA2, were introduced into Escherichia coli NZN111, a strain that is unable to grow fermentatively because of inactivation of the genes encoding pyruvate dissimilation. Induction of pMEA1, which encodes the native animoterminus, gave better overexpression of malic enzyme, approx 12-fold compared to uninduced cells. Under the appropriate culture conditions, expression of malic enzyme allowed the fermentative dissimilation of glucose by NZN111. The major fermentation product formed in induced cultures was succinic acid.

  16. Effect of post-treatment conditions on the inactivation of helminth eggs (Ascaris suum) after the composting process.

    PubMed

    Darimani, Hamidatu S; Ito, Ryusei; Maiga, Ynoussa; Sou, Mariam; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Maiga, Amadou H

    2016-01-01

    Safe and appropriate disposal of human waste is a basic requirement for sanitation and protection of public health. For proper sanitation and nutrient recovery, it is necessary to ensure effective treatment methods to complete pathogen destruction in excreta prior to reuse. Composting toilets convert faeces to a reusable resource such as fertilizer or humus for organic agriculture. A composting toilet for rural Burkina Faso was created by modifying a commercial model available in Japan to improve hygiene and increase food production. The toilet has shown to result in a degraded final product, but its effectiveness for pathogen destruction was unclear due to low temperatures generated from the toilet. This study aimed to sanitize compost withdrawn from the composting toilet for food production by setting post-treatment conditions. The inactivation kinetics of Ascaris suum eggs, selected as an indicator for helminth eggs, was determined during post-treatment at different temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C) with varying moisture contents (MC) (50%, 60% and 70%). The treatment of compost in a possible additional post-treatment after the composting process was tried in the laboratory test. Inactivation of A. suum eggs was fast with greater than two log reductions achieved within 2 h for temperature 50°C and 50% MC and greater than three log reductions for temperature 60°C and 50% MC within 3 h. Statistical analysis showed the significant impact of temperature and moisture on the inactivation rates of A. suum eggs. The post-treatment can efficiently increase helminth eggs destruction prior to reuse.

  17. Identification of surface proteins and antigens from larval stages of Ascaris suum by two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kasuga-Aoki, H; Tsuji, N; Suzuki, K; Isobe, T; Yoshihara, S

    2000-12-01

    An understanding of the biology of the cuticle in the larval stages of Ascariodea is of importance since the cuticle molecules not only possess a variety of functions related to survival but also have a potential role as a target for immunoprophylaxis. Thus, we made a preliminary characterization of surface proteins and antigens from 3rd-stage larvae (L3) and lung-stage larvae of Ascaris suum using two biotin-derivatives and two-dimen sional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The proteins labelled with biotin comprised a total of 37 and 32 spots, with molecular weights (Air) ranging from 15 to 101 kDa and isoelectric points (pI) from 3.8 to 7.6, in L3 and lung-stage larvae, respectively. The profiles revealed that the individual spots bound to one or both biotin derivatives. In addition, stage-common and stage-specific spots were found in L3 and lung-stage larvae. 2D-PAGE/immunoblotting analysis was performed with antisera from rabbits repeatedly inoculated with A. suum L3. Nineteen spots were recognized as surface antigens, with Mr ranging from 32 to 66 kDa and pI from 4.9 to 7.6, from L3 and lung-stage larvae after alignment of the immunoblots with the profile of the surface proteins. These spots were found to include stage-common and stage-specific antigens. Identification of surface proteins by biotin labelling combined with 2D-PAGE allows a substantial shortening of sample preparation time for the target proteins, and will be a viable method for protein analysis of surface proteins and antigens of A. suum L3 and lung-stage larvae.

  18. Proteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products from larval stages of Ascaris suum reveals high abundance of glycosyl hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Van Steendam, Katleen; Dhaenens, Maarten; Vlaminck, Johnny; Deforce, Dieter; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are socioeconomically important and widespread parasites of humans and pigs, respectively. The excretory-secretory (ES) molecules produced and presented at the parasite-host interface during the different phases of tissue invasion and migration are likely to play critical roles in the induction and development of protective immune and other host responses. The aim of this study was to identify the ES proteins of the different larval stages (L3-egg, L3-lung and L4) by LC-MS/MS. In total, 106 different proteins were identified, 20 in L3-egg, 45 in L3-lung stage and 58 in L4. Although most of the proteins identified were stage-specific, 15 were identified in the ES products of at least two stages. Two proteins, i.e. a 14-3-3-like protein and a serpin-like protein, were present in the ES products from the three different larval stages investigated. Interestingly, a comparison of ES products from L4 with those of L3-egg and L3-lung showed an abundance of metabolic enzymes, particularly glycosyl hydrolases. Further study indicated that most of these glycolytic enzymes were transcriptionally upregulated from L4 onwards, with a peak in the adult stage, particularly in intestinal tissue. This was also confirmed by enzymatic assays, showing the highest glycosidase activity in protein extracts from adult worms gut. The present proteomic analysis provides important information on the host-parasite interaction and the biology of the migratory stages of A. suum. In particular, the high transcriptional upregulation of glycosyl hydrolases from the L4 stage onwards reveals that the degradation of complex carbohydrates forms an essential part of the energy metabolism of this parasite once it establishes in the small intestine.

  19. National monitoring of Ascaris suum related liver pathologies in English abattoirs: a time-series analysis, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J; Nielen, Mirjam; Gunn, George J; Lewis, Fraser I

    2012-02-28

    Ascaris suum is the most important internal parasite in farmed pigs world-wide. In England, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS) monitors the prevalence of ascariosis in slaughtered finished pigs by identifying milk spots - the healing lesions caused by A. suum larvae migration through the liver. This study investigates the trend of milk spot lesions from July 2005 to December 2010 to identify the progress made by the industry in controlling this parasitic disease. For visual explorations, the monthly prevalence for milk spots was modelled using "STL", a seasonal-trend decomposition method based on locally weighted regression. Random effects binomial modelling accounting for clustering at batch level was used to test the significance of the trend and seasonality. Additionally, the differences in the milk spot prevalence trends for BPHS members (those that joined the scheme) and non-members were investigated and tested. A mean of 12,442 pigs was assessed per month (in 290 batches) across 12 pig abattoirs over the study period, from which a monthly mean of 7102 pigs (159 batches) came from BPHS members. A mild overall decrease in prevalence of milk spots over the monitored period was identified as well as a seasonal variation which showed peaks in summer and at the beginning of autumn. BPHS members maintained a lower prevalence than non-members. The results from this work illustrate ascariosis as a persistent problem in current farm production.

  20. Voltage-activated currents in somatic muscle of the nematode parasite Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Martin, R J; Thorn, P; Gration, K A; Harrow, I D

    1992-12-01

    1. Voltage-activated currents in cell bodies of the somatic muscle cells of Ascaris suum were studied using a two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Cells recorded from had resting membrane potentials around -35 mV and had input conductances in the range 1-10 microS. 2. In cells bathed in artificial perienteric fluid, depolarizing steps from a holding potential of -35 mV elicited outward currents at a threshold of -15 mV. These currents had inwardly directed inflections on the rising phase, suggesting the presence of more than one current. Hyperpolarizing steps did not activate current. 3. Tetraethylammonium (TEA+, 69 mmol l-1) blocked the outward currents and allowed a voltage-dependent inactivating Ca2+ current to be observed. The peak current-voltage relationship was U-shaped with a threshold around -15 mV and peak at +5 mV. The reversal potential of the Ca2+ current was estimated by extrapolation to be +45 mV. 4. The permeability of the voltage-activated outward currents was studied by examining reversal potentials of tail currents. The reversal potentials were linearly dependent on the logarithm of the extracellular potassium concentration if extracellular [K+] was greater than 10 mmol l-1. The Na+/K+ permeability ratio of the currents was 0.04. 5. Inactivation, seen as a decline following the peak of the K+ current, was produced by maintained depolarization. The recovery from inactivation was complex and could be described by the sum of two exponentials with time constants of 0.67 s and 20.1 s. Steady-state inactivation of the K+ currents was observed at a range of holding potentials. Only a proportion (34%) of the total K+ current was inactivated by holding potentials more positive than -20 mV. 6. Extracellular application of 5 mmol l-1 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) selectively abolished an early fast component of the K+ current (the peak). The 4-AP-sensitive current decayed quickly with a time constant of around 10 ms; a Boltzmann fit to its activation curve

  1. Antiparasitic efficacy of a novel plant-based functional food using an Ascaris suum model in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, R M; Storey, B E; Vidyashankar, A N; Bissinger, B W; Mitchell, S M; Howell, S B; Mason, M E; Lee, M D; Pedroso, A A; Akashe, A; Skrypec, D J

    2014-11-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection of human beings worldwide. Chemotherapy with synthetic anthelmintics such as albendazole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate is the current method of treatment; however, the emergence of anthelmintic resistance could substantially decrease the efficacy of such treatments and the sustainability of STH control programs. Additionally, benzimidazoles are not recommended for pregnant women or children under age one. A blinded, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two microencapsulated, plant-based essential oil blends, TTN1013 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol octanoate) and TTN1014 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol acetate) as functional foods against Ascaris suum infection in pigs, an important pathogen that closely resembles human infections with A. lumbricoides. Four groups of 16 female, 21-24 day old, Yorkshire-cross pigs were treated daily with 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg TTN1013, 1.0mg/kg TTN1014, or 1.0mg/kg equivalent of empty capsules, delivered inside a cream-filled sandwich cookie for 14 weeks. Three days after the initiation of daily treatments, pigs were inoculated daily with A. suum eggs for four weeks. Pigs were weighed weekly and fecal egg counts (FEC) were conducted weekly starting five weeks after initial inoculation with A. suum eggs. Fourteen weeks after first infection with eggs, pigs were necropsied and worms were recovered, counted and separated according to sex. TTN1013 administered daily at a dose of 1.0mg/kg yielded a statistically significant reduction in total worm counts (76.8%), female worm counts (75.5%), FEC (68.6%), and worm volume (62.9%) when compared to control group. Reduction of total and female worm numbers and FEC were not significant for TTN1014 or at the 0.5mg/kg dose of TTN1013. All treatments were well-tolerated by all pigs and did not cause any adverse reactions. All pigs remained clinically normal

  2. An electrophysiological preparation of Ascaris suum pharyngeal muscle reveals a glutamate-gated chloride channel sensitive to the avermectin analogue, milbemycin D.

    PubMed

    Martin, R J

    1996-02-01

    An electrophysiological preparation of Ascaris suum pharyngeal muscle suitable for recording changes of input conductance using a 2-microelectrode current clamp and pharmacological study is described. The preparation is shown to contain a glutamate-gated Cl (ion sensitive) channel sensitive to the avermectin analogue, milbemycin D. The application of glutamate produces a dose-dependent increase in Cl conductance and the effect of glutamate is potentiated by milbemycin D. Milbemycin D also produced a dose-dependent increase in input conductance.

  3. A globin domain in a neuronal transmembrane receptor of Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum: molecular modeling and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Tilleman, Lesley; Germani, Francesca; De Henau, Sasha; Helbo, Signe; Desmet, Filip; Berghmans, Herald; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Hoogewijs, David; Schoofs, Liliane; Braeckman, Bart P; Moens, Luc; Fago, Angela; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2015-04-17

    We report the structural and biochemical characterization of GLB-33, a putative neuropeptide receptor that is exclusively expressed in the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This unique chimeric protein is composed of a 7-transmembrane domain (7TM), GLB-33 7TM, typical of a G-protein-coupled receptor, and of a globin domain (GD), GLB-33 GD. Comprehensive sequence similarity searches in the genome of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, revealed a chimeric protein that is similar to a Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide neuropeptide receptor. The three-dimensional structures of the separate domains of both species and of the full-length proteins were modeled. The 7TM domains of both proteins appeared very similar, but the globin domain of the A. suum receptor surprisingly seemed to lack several helices, suggesting a novel truncated globin fold. The globin domain of C. elegans GLB-33, however, was very similar to a genuine myoglobin-type molecule. Spectroscopic analysis of the recombinant GLB-33 GD showed that the heme is pentacoordinate when ferrous and in the hydroxide-ligated form when ferric, even at neutral pH. Flash-photolysis experiments showed overall fast biphasic CO rebinding kinetics. In its ferrous deoxy form, GLB-33 GD is capable of reversibly binding O2 with a very high affinity and of reducing nitrite to nitric oxide faster than other globins. Collectively, these properties suggest that the globin domain of GLB-33 may serve as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor and/or as a nitrite reductase. Both properties are potentially able to modulate the neuropeptide sensitivity of the neuronal transmembrane receptor. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Intestinal Transcriptomes of Nematodes: Comparison of the Parasites Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus with the Free-living Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yong; Martin, John; Abubucker, Sahar; Scott, Alan L.; McCarter, James P.; Wilson, Richard K.; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2008-01-01

    Background The nematode intestine is a major organ responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption; it is also involved in many other processes, such as reproduction, innate immunity, stress responses, and aging. The importance of the intestine as a target for the control of parasitic nematodes has been demonstrated. However, the lack of detailed knowledge on the molecular and cellular functions of the intestine and the level of its conservation across nematodes has impeded breakthroughs in this application. Methods and Findings As part of an extensive effort to investigate various transcribed genomes from Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus, we generated a large collection of intestinal sequences from parasitic nematodes by identifying 3,121 A. suum and 1,755 H. contortus genes expressed in the adult intestine through the generation of expressed sequence tags. Cross-species comparisons to the intestine of the free-living C. elegans revealed substantial diversification in the adult intestinal transcriptomes among these species, suggesting lineage- or species-specific adaptations during nematode evolution. In contrast, significant conservation of the intestinal gene repertories was also evident, despite the evolutionary distance of ∼350 million years separating them. A group of 241 intestinal protein families (IntFam-241), each containing members from all three species, was identified based on sequence similarities. These conserved proteins accounted for ∼20% of the sampled intestinal transcriptomes from the three nematodes and are proposed to represent conserved core functions in the nematode intestine. Functional characterizations of the IntFam-241 suggested important roles in molecular functions such as protein kinases and proteases, and biological pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and translation. Conservation in the core protein families was further explored by extrapolating observable RNA interference phenotypes in C. elegans to

  5. Localization and differential expression of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Cowden, C; Sithigorngul, P; Brackley, P; Guastella, J; Stretton, A O

    1993-07-15

    By immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical methods, FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity (FLI) was localized to many neurons and processes in the Ascaris nervous system, including the head, tail, and lateral lines. Some of these cells were identified; they included sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. FLI was also present in the pharyngeal neurons and in their varicosities near the surface of the pharynx. By HPLC analysis of extracts, only a subset of the FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) expressed in Ascaris heads, and heads from which the pharynx had been removed, were expressed in the pharynx. Furthermore, FLPs appeared to be differentially expressed in female heads and tails and male heads and tails. Acetone and acid methanol differentially extracted subforms of FLI from Ascaris heads and from C. elegans.

  6. Genomic-Bioinformatic Analysis of Transcripts Enriched in the Third-Stage Larva of the Parasitic Nematode Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cui-Qin; Gasser, Robin B.; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Zhong, Weiwei; Sternberg, Paul W.; Loukas, Alex; Mulvenna, Jason; Lin, Rui-Qing; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2008-01-01

    Differential transcription in Ascaris suum was investigated using a genomic-bioinformatic approach. A cDNA archive enriched for molecules in the infective third-stage larva (L3) of A. suum was constructed by suppressive-subtractive hybridization (SSH), and a subset of cDNAs from 3075 clones subjected to microarray analysis using cDNA probes derived from RNA from different developmental stages of A. suum. The cDNAs (n = 498) shown by microarray analysis to be enriched in the L3 were sequenced and subjected to bioinformatic analyses using a semi-automated pipeline (ESTExplorer). Using gene ontology (GO), 235 of these molecules were assigned to ‘biological process’ (n = 68), ‘cellular component’ (n = 50), or ‘molecular function’ (n = 117). Of the 91 clusters assembled, 56 molecules (61.5%) had homologues/orthologues in the free-living nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae and/or other organisms, whereas 35 (38.5%) had no significant similarity to any sequences available in current gene databases. Transcripts encoding protein kinases, protein phosphatases (and their precursors), and enolases were abundantly represented in the L3 of A. suum, as were molecules involved in cellular processes, such as ubiquitination and proteasome function, gene transcription, protein–protein interactions, and function. In silico analyses inferred the C. elegans orthologues/homologues (n = 50) to be involved in apoptosis and insulin signaling (2%), ATP synthesis (2%), carbon metabolism (6%), fatty acid biosynthesis (2%), gap junction (2%), glucose metabolism (6%), or porphyrin metabolism (2%), although 34 (68%) of them could not be mapped to a specific metabolic pathway. Small numbers of these 50 molecules were predicted to be secreted (10%), anchored (2%), and/or transmembrane (12%) proteins. Functionally, 17 (34%) of them were predicted to be associated with (non-wild-type) RNAi phenotypes in C. elegans, the majority being embryonic lethality

  7. Possible mode of action of toltrazuril: studies on two Eimeria species and mammalian and Ascaris suum enzymes.

    PubMed

    Harder, A; Haberkorn, A

    1989-01-01

    The anticoccidial properties of toltrazuril in Eimeria falciformis-infected mice were potentiated by the simultaneous application of pyrimethamine, trimethoprim, or sulfadimidine. The same drugs potentiate the effect of toltrazuril by killing E. tenella schizonts in chicken kidney-cell cultures. Activities of some enzymes of the respiratory chain, such as succinate-cytochrome C reductase and NADH oxidase and succinate oxidase from mouse liver, were reduced in the presence of toltrazuril. The same effects could be observed when the activities of NADH oxidase and fumarate reductase from the nematode Ascaris suum were determined in the presence of the drug. Vertebrate enzymes involved in pyrimidine synthesis, e.g., dihydrofolate reductase from chicken liver, were also affected by toltrazuril; however, this effect was 500 times weaker than that shown by pyrimethamine. Toltrazuril also showed an inhibitory effect on the dihydroorotate-cytochrome C reductase from mouse liver. Our results suggest that toltrazuril primarily affects the respiratory chain and secondarily, two enzymes involved in pyrimidine synthesis.

  8. Modification of the ATP inhibitory site of the Ascaris suum phosphofructokinase results in the stabilization of an inactive T state

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, G.S.J.; Cook, P.F.; Harris, B.G. )

    1991-10-15

    Treatment of the Ascaris suum phosphofructokinase (PFK) with 2{prime},3{prime}-dialdehyde ATP (oATP) results in an enzyme form that is inactive. The conformational integrity of the active site, however, is preserved, suggesting that oATP modification locks the PFK into an inactive T state that cannot be activated. A rapid, irreversible first-order inactivation of the PFK is observed in the presence of oATP. The rate of inactivation is saturable and gives a K{sub oATP} of 1.07 {plus minus} 0.27 mM. Complete protection against inactivation is afforded by high concentrations of ATP. This desensitized enzyme incorporates only 0.2-0.3 mol of ({sup 3}H)oATP/subunit, suggesting that in te native enzyme inactivation perhaps results from the modification of the ATP inhibitory site rather than the catalytic site. Modification of an active-site thiol by 4,4{prime}-dithiodipyridine is prevented yb ATP before and after oATP treatment. Finally, gel filtration HPLC studies show that the oATP-modified enzyme retains its tetrameric state and neither the tryptophan fluorescence nor the circular dichroic spectra of the modified enzyme are affected by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, suggesting that the enzyme is locked into a tetrameric inactive T state.

  9. Yeast-expressed recombinant As16 protects mice against Ascaris suum infection through induction of a Th2-skewed immune response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhuyun; Keegan, Brian; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Fujiwara, Ricardo T.; Briggs, Neima; Jones, Kathryn M.; Strych, Ulrich; Beaumier, Coreen M.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Zhan, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Background Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood. Methodology/Principal findings As16 and As14 were highly expressed as soluble recombinant proteins (rAs16 and rAs14) in Pichia pastoris. The yeast-expressed rAs16 was highly recognized by immune sera from mice infected with A. suum eggs and elicited 99.6% protection against A. suum re-infection. Mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with ISA720 displayed significant larva reduction (36.7%) and stunted larval development against A. suum eggs challenge. The protective immunity was associated with a predominant Th2-type response characterized by high titers of serological IgG1 (IgG1/IgG2a > 2000) and high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 produced by restimulated splenocytes. A similar level of protection was observed in mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with alum (Alhydrogel), known to induce mainly a Th2-type immune response, whereas mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with MPLA or AddaVax, both known to induce a Th1-type biased response, were not significantly protected against A. suum infection. The rAs14 protein was not recognized by A. suum infected mouse sera and mice immunized with rAs14 formulated with ISA720 did not show significant protection against challenge infection, possibly due to the protein’s inaccessibility to the host immune system or a Th1-type response was induced which would counter a protective Th2-type response. Conclusions/Significance Yeast-expressed rAs16 formulated with ISA720 or alum induced significant protection in mice against A. suum

  10. Yeast-expressed recombinant As16 protects mice against Ascaris suum infection through induction of a Th2-skewed immune response.

    PubMed

    Wei, Junfei; Versteeg, Leroy; Liu, Zhuyun; Keegan, Brian; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Fujiwara, Ricardo T; Briggs, Neima; Jones, Kathryn M; Strych, Ulrich; Beaumier, Coreen M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Zhan, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood. As16 and As14 were highly expressed as soluble recombinant proteins (rAs16 and rAs14) in Pichia pastoris. The yeast-expressed rAs16 was highly recognized by immune sera from mice infected with A. suum eggs and elicited 99.6% protection against A. suum re-infection. Mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with ISA720 displayed significant larva reduction (36.7%) and stunted larval development against A. suum eggs challenge. The protective immunity was associated with a predominant Th2-type response characterized by high titers of serological IgG1 (IgG1/IgG2a > 2000) and high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 produced by restimulated splenocytes. A similar level of protection was observed in mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with alum (Alhydrogel), known to induce mainly a Th2-type immune response, whereas mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with MPLA or AddaVax, both known to induce a Th1-type biased response, were not significantly protected against A. suum infection. The rAs14 protein was not recognized by A. suum infected mouse sera and mice immunized with rAs14 formulated with ISA720 did not show significant protection against challenge infection, possibly due to the protein's inaccessibility to the host immune system or a Th1-type response was induced which would counter a protective Th2-type response. Yeast-expressed rAs16 formulated with ISA720 or alum induced significant protection in mice against A. suum egg challenge that associates with a Th2-skewed immune response

  11. In vitro evaluation of the effect of the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium sinense, and Pochonia chlamydosporia on Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Araújo, J V; Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Araujo, J M; Tavela, A O

    2008-03-01

    The in vitro effect of four isolates of the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC 001), Monacrosporium sinense (SF 53), and Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC 1 and VC 4) on eggs of Ascaris suum was evaluated. One hundred thousand A. suum eggs were plated on 2% water-agar with the grown isolates and control without fungus. After 7, 14, and 21 days, 100 eggs were removed and classified according to the following parameters: type 1, lytic effect without morphological damage to eggshell; type 2, lytic effect with morphological alteration of embryo and eggshell; and type 3, lytic effect with morphological alteration of embryo and eggshell, besides hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. P. chlamydosporia showed ovicidal activity (p < 0.01), mainly of the type 3 effect, on A. suum eggs in the studied intervals of 13.3% (isolate VC 1) and 17.3% (isolate VC 4), 13.9% (VC 1) and 17.7% (VC 4), and 19% (VC 1) and 20% (VC4), respectively, at 7, 14, and 21 days. The other fungi showed no type 3 effect. P. chlamydosporia is a potential biological control agent of A. suum eggs.

  12. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production.

  13. Parasites of the respiratory tract of Sus scrofa scrofa (wild boar) from commercial breeder in southern Brazil and its relationship with Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Diego; Müller, Gertrud

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the species of helminths infecting the respiratory tract of Sus scrofa scrofa from commercial breeding and check the existence of a possible antagonistic relationship of these species with Ascaris suum. Forty wild boars were analyzed, and the genus Metastrongylus was recorded in the bronchi and bronchioles of 60 % of these, with the occurrence of the species Metastrongylus apri, Metastrongylus salmi, and Metastrongylus pudendotectus. The highest prevalence found was in M. apri (52.5 %), followed by M. salmi (20 %), and M. pudendotectus (7.5 %), registering the highest prevalence of Metastrongylus in wild boars from commercial breeding so far. M. apri was first reported parasitizing wild boars bred in captivity. There was no observed significant influence of A. suum in the mean intensity of Metastrongylus.

  14. Unique structure of Ascaris suum b5-type cytochrome: an additional α-helix and positively charged residues on the surface domain interact with redox partners

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Takehiro; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Takamiya, Shinzaburo

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome b5 of the body wall of adult Ascaris suum, a porcine parasitic nematode, is a soluble protein that lacks a C-terminal membrane-anchoring domain, but possesses an N-terminal pre-sequence of 30 amino acids. During the maturation of cytochrome b5, the N-terminal pre-sequence is proteolytically cleaved to form the mature protein of 82 amino acid residues. A. suum cytochrome b5 is a basic protein containing more lysine residues and exhibiting a higher midpoint redox potential than its mammalian counterparts. We developed an expression system for the production of the recombinant nematode cytochrome b5, which is chemically and functionally identical with the native protein. Using this recombinant protein, we have determined the X-ray crystal structure of A. suum cytochrome b5 at 1.8 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution, and we have shown that this protein is involved in the reduction of nematode body-wall metmyoglobin. The crystal structure of A. suum cytochrome b5 consists of six α-helices and five β-strands. It differs from its mammalian counterparts by having a head-to-tail disulphide bridge, as well as a four-residue insertion in the vicinity of the sixth ligating histidine, which forms an additional α-helix, α4A, between helices α4 and α5. A. suum cytochrome b5 exists predominantly as a haem-orientation B isomer. Furthermore, the haem plane is rotated approx. 80° relative to the axis formed by haem-Fe and Nϵ atoms of the two histidine residues that are ligated to haem-Fe. The charge distribution around the haem crevice of A. suum cytochrome b5 is remarkably different from that of mammalian cytochrome b5 in that the nematode protein bears positively charged lysine residues surrounding the haem crevice. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that A. suum cytochrome b5 is present in the nematode hypodermis. Based on this histochemical and structural information, the physiological function of A. suum cytochrome b5 and its interaction with nematode

  15. Fate of the pathogen indicators phage ΦX174 and Ascaris suum eggs during the production of struvite fertilizer from source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Decrey, Loïc; Udert, Kai M; Tilley, Elizabeth; Pecson, Brian M; Kohn, Tamar

    2011-10-15

    Human urine has the potential to be a sustainable, locally and continuously available source of nutrients for agriculture. Phosphate can be efficiently recovered from human urine in the form of the mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O). However, struvite formation may be coupled with the precipitation of other constituents present in urine including pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals. To determine if struvite fertilizer presents a microbiological health risk to producers and end users, we characterized the fate of a human virus surrogate (phage ΦX174) and the eggs of the helminth Ascaris suum during a low-cost struvite recovery process. While the concentration of phages was similar in both the struvite and the urine, Ascaris eggs accumulated within the solid during the precipitation and filtration process. Subsequent air-drying of the struvite filter cake partially inactivated both microorganisms; however, viable Ascaris eggs and infective phages were still detected after several days of drying. The infectivity of both viruses and eggs was affected by the specific struvite drying conditions: higher inactivation generally occurred with increased air temperature and decreased relative humidity. On a log-log scale, phage inactivation increased linearly with decreasing moisture content of the struvite, while Ascaris inactivation occurred only after achieving a minimum moisture threshold. Sunlight exposure did not directly affect the infectivity of phages or Ascaris eggs in struvite cakes, though the resultant rise in temperature accelerated the drying of the struvite cake, which contributed to inactivation.

  16. Contribution of trans-splicing, 5' -leader length, cap-poly(A) synergism, and initiation factors to nematode translation in an Ascaris suum embryo cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Lall, Sabbi; Friedman, Cassandra C; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Davis, Richard E

    2004-10-29

    Trans-splicing introduces a common 5' 22-nucleotide sequence with an N-2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap (m (2,2,7)(3)GpppG or TMG-cap) to more than 70% of transcripts in the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum. Using an Ascaris embryo cell-free translation system, we found that the TMG-cap and spliced leader sequence synergistically collaborate to promote efficient translation, whereas addition of either a TMG-cap or spliced leader sequence alone decreased reporter activity. We cloned an A. suum embryo eIF4E homolog and demonstrate that this recombinant protein can bind m(7)G- and TMG-capped mRNAs in cross-linking assays and that binding is enhanced by eIF4G. Both the cap structure and the spliced leader (SL) sequence affect levels of A. suum eIF4E cross-linking to mRNA. Furthermore, the differential binding of eIF4E to a TMG-cap and to trans-spliced and non-trans-spliced RNAs is commensurate with the translational activity of reporter RNAs observed in the cell-free extract. Together, these binding data and translation assays with competitor cap analogs suggest that A. suum eIF4E-3 activity may be sufficient to mediate translation of both trans-spliced and non-trans-spliced mRNAs. Bioinformatic analyses demonstrate the SL sequence tends to trans-splice close to the start codon in a diversity of nematodes. This evolutionary conservation is functionally reflected in the optimal SL to AUG distance for reporter mRNA translation in the cell-free system. Therefore, trans-splicing of the SL1 leader sequence may serve at least two functions in nematodes, generation of an optimal 5'-untranslated region length and a specific sequence context (SL1) for optimal translation of trimethylguanosine capped transcripts.

  17. A Specific Antibody to Neuropeptide AF1 (KNEFIRFamide) Recognizes a Small Subset of Neurons in Ascaris suum: Differences from Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Jarecki, Jessica L.; Stretton, Antony O.W.

    2016-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, AF1-003, highly specific to the Ascaris suum neuropeptide AF1 (KNEFIRFamide), was generated. This antibody binds strongly to AF1 and extremely weakly to other peptides with C-terminal FIR-Famide: AF5 (SGKPTFIRFamide), AF6 (FIRFamide), and AF7 (AGPRFIRFamide). It does not recognize 35 other AF (A. suum FMRFamide-like) peptides at the highest concentration tested, nor does it recognize FMRFamide. When crude peptide extracts of A. suum are fractionated by two-step HPLC, the only fractions recognized by AF1-003 are those comigrating with synthetic AF1. By immunocytochemistry, antibody AF1-003 recognizes a small subset of the 298 neurons of A. suum: these include the paired URX and RIP neurons, two pairs of lateral ganglion neurons in the head, and the unpaired PQR and PDA or -B tail neurons that send processes to the head along the dorsal and ventral nerve cords, respectively. AF1 immunoreactivity is also seen in three pairs of pharyngeal neurons. Mass spectroscopy (MS) shows the presence of AF1 in the head, pharynx, and dorsal and ventral nerve cords. In A. suum, the neurons that contain AF1 show little overlap with neurons that express green fluorescent protein constructs targeting the flp-8 gene, which encodes AF1 in Caenorhabditis elegans (Kim and Li [2004] J. Comp. Neurol. 475:540– 550); the URX neurons express AF1 in both species, but, in C. elegans, flp-8 expression was not detected in RIP, PQR, and PDA or -B or in the pharynx. Other, less specific monoclonal antibodies recognize AF1, as well as other peptides to differing degrees; these antibodies are useful reagents for determination of neuronal morphology. PMID:21452223

  18. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P.; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W.; Martin, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization. PMID:27054065

  19. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W; Martin, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization.

  20. Cloning and characterization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 subunits from Ascaris suum - a parasitic nematode highly adapted to changes of oxygen conditions during its life cycle.

    PubMed

    Goto, Miho; Amino, Hisako; Nakajima, Mikage; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2013-03-01

    The parasitic nematode Ascaris suum successfully adapts to a significant decrease in oxygen availability during its life cycle by altering its metabolic system dramatically. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of adaptation to hypoxic environments in A. suum. In multicellular organisms, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits, is a master regulator of genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia. In the present study, cDNAs encoding HIF-1α and HIF-1β were cloned from A. suum and characterized. The full-length A. suum hif-1α and hif-1β cDNAs contain open reading frames encoding proteins with 832 and 436 amino acids, respectively. In the deduced amino acid sequences of A. suum HIF-1α and HIF-1β, functional domains essential for DNA-binding, dimerization, and oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylation were conserved. The interaction between A. suum HIF-1α and HIF-1β was confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid assay. Both A. suum hif-1α and hif-1β mRNAs were expressed at all stages examined (fertilized eggs, third-stage larvae, lung-stage larvae, young adult worms, and adult muscle tissue), and most abundantly in the aerobic free-living third-stage larvae, followed by a gradual decrease after infection of the host. hif-1 mRNA transcription was not sensitive to the oxygen environment in either third-stage larvae or adult worms (muscle tissue), and was regulated in a stage-specific manner. High expression of hif-1 mRNAs in third-stage larvae suggests its contribution to pre-adaptation to a hypoxic environment after infection of their host. Sequence analysis of 5'-upstream regions of mitochondrial complex II (succinate-ubiquinone reductase/quinol-fumarate reductase) genes, which show stage-specific expression and play an important role in oxygen adaptation during the life cycle, revealed that all subunits except for the adult-type flavoprotein subunit (Fp) possess putative hypoxia

  1. Embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from worms expelled by pigs treated with albendazole , pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Boes, J; Eriksen, L; Nansen, P

    1998-02-28

    The effect of anthelmintic treatment of pigs on the embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from expelled worms was investigated. Four groups of two naturally infected pigs were dosed with albendazole, pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride, respectively. Following worm expulsion, the eggs were removed from the uteri of female worms and embryonated in sulphuric acid. The infectivity of the embryonated eggs was tested through mouse inoculation. Egg development appeared normal in cultures from worms of the piperazine. pyrantel and ivermectin treated groups. In the albendazole cultures, egg development was largely arrested at the one-cell stage (81%). Where development occurred, irregular cell division was observed and only 7% of the eggs in the culture developed into fullgrown larvae. Following mouse inoculation with 2500 embryonated eggs, significantly lower lung larval counts on day 8 post inoculation (p.i.) were observed for mice in the piperazine and pyrantel treated groups (P < 0.01) compared to untreated controls. The larvae that developed in the eggs from ivermectin and albendazole treated groups appeared fully infective for mice. It was concluded that ovicidal activity of albendazole in vivo inhibits subsequent A. suum egg development in vitro; albendazole is, therefore, not suitable to obtain worms for egg embryonation to produce experimental inoculums. The anthelmintic treatment of pigs with ivermectin had only a limited effect on both embryonation and infectivity of A. suum eggs isolated from expelled worms.

  2. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: formation of two distinct drug targets by varying the relative expression levels of two subunits.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sally M; Robertson, Alan P; Brown, Laurence; Williams, Tracey; Woods, Debra J; Martin, Richard J; Sattelle, David B; Wolstenholme, Adrian J

    2009-07-01

    Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect approximately 1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are essential to control nematode parasites, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on nerve and muscle are the targets of cholinergic anthelmintics such as levamisole and pyrantel. Previous genetic analyses of nematode nAChRs have been confined to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is phylogenetically distinct from Ascaris spp. and many other important parasites. Here we report the cloning and expression of two nAChR subunit cDNAs from A. suum. The subunits are very similar in sequence to C. elegans UNC-29 and UNC-38, are expressed on muscle cells and can be expressed robustly in Xenopus oocytes to form acetylcholine-, nicotine-, levamisole- and pyrantel-sensitive channels. We also demonstrate that changing the stoichiometry of the receptor by injecting different ratios of the subunit cRNAs can reproduce two of the three pharmacological subtypes of nAChR present in A. suum muscle cells. When the ratio was 5:1 (Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29), nicotine was a full agonist and levamisole was a partial agonist, and oocytes responded to oxantel, but not pyrantel. At the reverse ratio (1:5 Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29), levamisole was a full agonist and nicotine was a partial agonist, and the oocytes responded to pyrantel, but not oxantel. These results represent the first in vitro expression of any parasitic nicotinic receptor and show that their properties are substantially different from those of C. elegans. The results also show that changing the expression level of a single receptor subunit dramatically altered the efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs. In vitro expression of these subunits may permit the development of

  3. The effects of the peptide KPNFIRFamide (PF4) on the somatic muscle cells of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Holden-Dye, L; Brownlee, D J A; Walker, R J

    1997-01-01

    Commonly used anthelmintic agents act on the muscle cells of parasitic nematodes to cause paralysis of the parasite and its expulsion from the host.The motonervous system of nematodes contains neuropeptides, many of which are myoactive and elicit prolonged worm paralysis. Here we describe the actions of a novel peptide, KPNFIRFamide (Lys-Pro-Asn-Phe-Ileu-Arg-Phe-amide; PF4), which mediates relaxation of the somatic muscle of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Its mechanism of action is compared to that of the inhibitory neuromuscular junction transmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which gates a chloride channel on Ascaris muscle.Both PF4 and GABA hyperpolarized the muscle cells (EC50 values 98 nM and 59 μM, respectively; n=6) and this was accompanied by an increase in input conductance.The increase in input conductance elicited by PF4 and a supramaximal concentration of GABA were additive (10 μM PF4, 7.78±1.88 μS; 10 mM GABA, 4.68±1.39 μS; 10 mM GABA and 10 μM PF4 12.05±2.6 μS, n=6, P<0.02 with respect to PF4 alone; P<0.01 with respect to GABA alone).The membrane potential response to 10 μM PF4 initially consisted of a fast hyperpolarization that occurred within 1 min of PF4 application. The reversal potential for this early response to PF4 (PF4-early) was determined at different extracellular chloride concentrations. Linear regression analysis of the natural logarithm of the extracellular chloride concentration against the reversal potential for PF4-early yielded a straight line with a slope of −29.6±2.4 (−34.4 to −24.9, 95% confidence limits; r2=0.82). This is close to the slope of −26.5 for a chloride-dependent event, as predicted by the Nernst equation. There was a significant correlation between the reversal potential for this event and the reversal potential for GABA (r=0.94; P<0.001; n=12).The late response to PF4 (PF4-late) appeared after 1 min and consisted of a slow reduction in the hyperpolarization to a

  4. In vitro evaluation of the ovistatic and ovicidal effect of the cosmopolitan filamentous fungi isolated from soil on Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Blaszkowska, Joanna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wojcik, Anna; Goralska, Katarzyna; Szwabe, Katarzyna

    2014-01-31

    The ovicidal activity of seven fungal strains: Acremonium alabamense, Alternaria chlamydospora, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium solani, Paecilomyces variotii, Paecilomyces viridis and Penicillium verruculosum isolated from urban soil samples from Poland was determined in vitro. The fungal mycelium was co-cultured with Ascaris suum eggs on plates with 2% water-agar for 28 days. Eggs exposed and unexposed (control) to fungal mycelium were observed weekly by light microscopy and the percentage of malformed eggs were determined. The eggs were classified according to following parameters: type 1 - biochemical and physiological effect without morphological damage to the eggshell; type 2 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo; type 3 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of eggshell and embryo with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. All examined species of fungi extended embryogenesis, but the retardation of embryonic development was varied and depended on the species. A. alabamense, A. chlamydospora and P. verruculosum exhibited very high inhibitory activity on A. suum egg development. The fungus-exposed eggs revealed morphological alternations in all stages of embryogenesis. Isolates of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis showed hyphal penetration and internal colonization of A. suum eggs (type 3 effect). No appressoria were produced and simple hyphal penetrations were most commonly observed. A. alabamense and P. verruculosum demonstrated morphological destruction, with eggshell destruction. The remaining fungi showed type 1 effect. The results demonstrated that examined strains of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis may be considered to be potential limiting factors of parasitic geohelminth populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-Wide Tissue-Specific Gene Expression, Co-expression and Regulation of Co-expressed Genes in Adult Nematode Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Bruce A.; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2014-01-01

    Background Caenorhabditis elegans has traditionally been used as a model for studying nematode biology, but its small size limits the ability for researchers to perform some experiments such as high-throughput tissue-specific gene expression studies. However, the dissection of individual tissues is possible in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum due to its relatively large size. Here, we take advantage of the recent genome sequencing of Ascaris suum and the ability to physically dissect its separate tissues to produce a wide-scale tissue-specific nematode RNA-seq datasets, including data on three non-reproductive tissues (head, pharynx, and intestine) in both male and female worms, as well as four reproductive tissues (testis, seminal vesicle, ovary, and uterus). We obtained fundamental information about the biology of diverse cell types and potential interactions among tissues within this multicellular organism. Methodology/Principal Findings Overexpression and functional enrichment analyses identified many putative biological functions enriched in each tissue studied, including functions which have not been previously studied in detail in nematodes. Putative tissue-specific transcriptional factors and corresponding binding motifs that regulate expression in each tissue were identified, including the intestine-enriched ELT-2 motif/transcription factor previously described in nematode intestines. Constitutively expressed and novel genes were also characterized, with the largest number of novel genes found to be overexpressed in the testis. Finally, a putative acetylcholine-mediated transcriptional network connecting biological activity in the head to the male reproductive system is described using co-expression networks, along with a similar ecdysone-mediated system in the female. Conclusions/Significance The expression profiles, co-expression networks and co-expression regulation of the 10 tissues studied and the tissue-specific analysis presented here are a

  6. A catalytic triad is responsible for acid-base chemistry in the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Karsten, William E; Liu, Dali; Rao, G S Jagannatha; Harris, Ben G; Cook, Paul F

    2005-03-08

    The pH dependence of kinetic parameters of several active site mutants of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme was investigated to determine the role of amino acid residues likely involved in catalysis on the basis of three-dimensional structures of malic enzyme. Lysine 199 is positioned to act as the general base that accepts a proton from the 2-hydroxyl of malate during the hydride transfer step. The pH dependence of V/K(malate) for the K199R mutant enzyme reveals a pK of 5.3 for an enzymatic group required to be unprotonated for activity and a second pK of 6.3 that leads to a 10-fold loss in activity above the pK of 6.3 to a new constant value up to pH 10. The V profile for K199R is pH independent from pH 5.5 to pH 10 and decreases below a pK of 4.9. Tyrosine 126 is positioned to act as the general acid that donates a proton to the enolpyruvate intermediate to form pyruvate. The pH dependence of V/K(malate) for the Y126F mutant is qualitatively similar to K199R, with a requirement for a group to be unprotonated for activity with a pK of 5.6 and a partial activity loss of about 3-fold above a pK of 6.7 to a new constant value. The Y126F mutant enzyme is about 60000-fold less active than the wild-type enzyme. In contrast to K199R, the V rate profile for Y126F also shows a partial activity loss above pH 6.6. The wild-type pH profiles were reinvestigated in light of the discovery of the partial activity change for the mutant enzymes. The wild-type V/K(malate) pH-rate profile exhibits the requirement for a group to be unprotonated for catalysis with a pK of 5.6 and also shows the partial activity loss above a pK of 6.4. The wild-type V pH-rate profile decreases below a pK of 5.2 and is pH independent from pH 5.5 to pH 10. Aspartate 294 is within hydrogen-bonding distance to K199 in the open and closed forms of malic enzyme. D294A is about 13000-fold less active than the wild-type enzyme, and the pH-rate profile for V/K(malate) indicates the mutant is only active above p

  7. Studies on immune responses to parasite antigens in mice. I. Ascaris suum larvae numbers and antiphosphorylcholine responses in infected mice of various strains and in hypothymic nu/nu mice.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G F; Hogarth-Scott, R S; Edwards, R D; Lewers, H M; Cousins, G; Moore, T

    1976-01-01

    In terms of day 7 lung larvae numbers, mice vary markedly in their suscepibility to a first infection with the nematode worms, Ascaris suum, and the highly susceptible strain, C57Bl, is resistant to second infection. Time course studies suggested that the period of residence in the liver or migration to, or into, the lungs are stages of the life cycle in which natural or acquired resistance of the host is expressed. The traits, susceptibility and resistance to first infection, were under polygenic control and no linkage of susceptibility to the major histocompatibility complex of C57Bl mice (H-2b) was observed. Acquired resistance (to second infection) has not been dissected because of our inability to show adoptive transfer of resistance to naive recipeints. Studies in hypothymic BALB/c. nu/nu mice indicate that natural resistance (to first infection) is not affected by a lack of T cells. The T cell dependence of acquired resistance in C57Bl mice remains in doubt although in the relatively resistant strain BALB/c, hypothymic nu/nu mice after second infection contain as many larvae in their lungs and liver as are present after first infection. An eosinophilia is observed in infected intact mice but not in infected T cell-deficient mice. Partially T cell-dependent serum antibodies and plaque-forming cells to phosphorylcholine (PC) were present in mice infected with A. suum but no evidence was obtained that this anti-PC antibody response was in any way protective for the host. The cell membrane-acitive properties of PC and related molecules suggest that PC-containing parasite antigens may be tolerogens for certain of the B cells with specificity for parasite antigens. A state of partial tolerance involving high affinity antibody production may be one means whereby parasites survive in natural or unnatural hosts.

  8. Mass Spectrometry of Single GABAergic Somatic Motorneurons Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Peptide, As-NLP-22, in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Wruck, Colin D.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2015-12-01

    Neuromodulators have become an increasingly important component of functional circuits, dramatically changing the properties of both neurons and synapses to affect behavior. To explore the role of neuropeptides in Ascaris suum behavior, we devised an improved method for cleanly dissecting single motorneuronal cell bodies from the many other cell processes and hypodermal tissue in the ventral nerve cord. We determined their peptide content using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The reduced complexity of the peptide mixture greatly aided the detection of peptides; peptide levels were sufficient to permit sequencing by tandem MS from single cells. Inhibitory motorneurons, known to be GABAergic, contain a novel neuropeptide, As-NLP-22 (SLASGRWGLRPamide). From this sequence and information from the A. suum expressed sequence tag (EST) database, we cloned the transcript ( As-nlp-22) and synthesized a riboprobe for in situ hybridization, which labeled the inhibitory motorneurons; this validates the integrity of the dissection method, showing that the peptides detected originate from the cells themselves and not from adhering processes from other cells (e.g., synaptic terminals). Synthetic As-NLP-22 has potent inhibitory activity on acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction as well as on basal muscle tone. Both of these effects are dose-dependent: the inhibitory effect on ACh contraction has an IC50 of 8.3 × 10-9 M. When injected into whole worms, As-NLP-22 produces a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotory movements and, at higher levels, complete paralysis. These experiments demonstrate the utility of MALDI TOF/TOF MS in identifying novel neuromodulators at the single-cell level.

  9. The PCome of Ascaris suum as a model system for intestinal nematodes: identification of phosphorylcholine-substituted proteins and first characterization of the PC-epitope structures.

    PubMed

    Timm, Thomas; Grabitzki, Julia; Severcan, Cinar; Muratoglu, Suzan; Ewald, Lisa; Yilmaz, Yavuz; Lochnit, Guenter

    2016-03-01

    In multicellular parasites (e.g., nematodes and protozoa), proteins and glycolipids have been found to be decorated with phosphorylcholine (PC). PC can provoke various effects on immune cells leading to an immunomodulation of the host's immune system. This immunomodulation allows long-term persistence but also prevents severe pathology due to downregulation of cellular immune responses. PC-containing antigens have been found to interfere with key proliferative signaling pathways in B and T cells, development of dendritic cells and macrophages, and mast cell degranulation. These effects contribute to the observed modulated cytokine levels and impairment of lymphocyte proliferation. In contrast to glycosphingolipids, little is known about the PC-epitopes of proteins. So far, only a limited number of PC-modified proteins from nematodes have been identified. In this project, PC-substituted proteins and glycolipids in Ascaris suum have been localized by immunohistochemistry in specific tissues of the body wall, intestine, and reproductive tract. Subsequently, we investigated the PCome of A. suum by 2D gel-based proteomics and detection by Western blotting using the PC-specific antibody TEPC-15. By peptide-mass-fingerprint matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), we could identify 59 PC-substituted proteins, which are in involved multiple cellular processes. In addition to membrane proteins like vitellogenin-6, we found proteins with structural (e.g., tubulins) and metabolic (e.g., pyruvate dehydrogenase) functions or which can act in the defense against the host's immune response (e.g., serpins). Initial characterization of the PC-epitopes revealed a predominant linkage of PC to the proteins via N-glycans. Our data form the basis for more detailed investigations of the PC-epitope structures as a prerequisite for comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of immunomodulation.

  10. Mass Spectrometry of Single GABAergic Somatic Motorneurons Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Peptide, As-NLP-22, in the Nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Konop, Christopher J; Knickelbine, Jennifer J; Sygulla, Molly S; Wruck, Colin D; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O W

    2015-12-01

    Neuromodulators have become an increasingly important component of functional circuits, dramatically changing the properties of both neurons and synapses to affect behavior. To explore the role of neuropeptides in Ascaris suum behavior, we devised an improved method for cleanly dissecting single motorneuronal cell bodies from the many other cell processes and hypodermal tissue in the ventral nerve cord. We determined their peptide content using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The reduced complexity of the peptide mixture greatly aided the detection of peptides; peptide levels were sufficient to permit sequencing by tandem MS from single cells. Inhibitory motorneurons, known to be GABAergic, contain a novel neuropeptide, As-NLP-22 (SLASGRWGLRPamide). From this sequence and information from the A. suum expressed sequence tag (EST) database, we cloned the transcript (As-nlp-22) and synthesized a riboprobe for in situ hybridization, which labeled the inhibitory motorneurons; this validates the integrity of the dissection method, showing that the peptides detected originate from the cells themselves and not from adhering processes from other cells (e.g., synaptic terminals). Synthetic As-NLP-22 has potent inhibitory activity on acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction as well as on basal muscle tone. Both of these effects are dose-dependent: the inhibitory effect on ACh contraction has an IC50 of 8.3 × 10(-9) M. When injected into whole worms, As-NLP-22 produces a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotory movements and, at higher levels, complete paralysis. These experiments demonstrate the utility of MALDI TOF/TOF MS in identifying novel neuromodulators at the single-cell level. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Interaction of carvacrol with the Ascaris suum nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, potential mechanism of antinematodal action.

    PubMed

    Trailović, Saša M; Marjanović, Djordje S; Nedeljković Trailović, Jelena; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    Essential plant oils (or their active principles) are safe to use and a potentially attractive alternative to current antiparasitic drugs. In the present study, we tested the effects of carvacrol on the isolated tissues of Ascaris suum and investigated potential interactions with other antiparasitic drugs. We used somatic muscle flaps for contraction assays, as well as for electrophysiological investigations. Carvacrol 300 μM highly significantly inhibited contractions caused by 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 μM of ACh (p = 0.0023, p = 0.0002, p = 0.0002, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0001). The control EC50 for acetylcholine was 8.87 μM (log EC50 = 0.95 ± 0.26), while R max was 2.53 ± 0.24 g. The EC50 of acetylcholine in the presence of 300 μM of carvacrol was 27.71 μM (log EC50 = 1.44 ± 0.28) and the R max decreased to 1.63 ± 0.32 g. Furthermore, carvacrol highly significant potentiates inhibitory effect of GABA and piperazine on the contractions induced by ACh. However, carvacrol (100 and 300 μM), did not produce any changes in the membrane potential or conductance of the A. suum muscle cell. While, 300 μM of carvacrol showed a significant inhibitory effect on ACh-induced depolarization response. The mean control depolarization was 13.58 ± 0.66 mV and decreased in presence of carvacrol to 4.50 ± 1.02 mV (p < 0.0001). Mean control Δg was 0.168 ± 0.017 μS, while in the presence of 300 μM of carvacrol, Δg significantly decreased to 0.060 ± 0.018 ΔS (p = 0.0017). The inhibitory effect on contractions may be the explanation of the antinematodal potential of carvacrol. Moreover, inhibition of depolarizations caused by ACh and reduction of conductance changes directly points to an interaction with the nAChR in A. suum.

  12. Localization of serotoni (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) with partial purification and characterization of a serotonin binding protein in the intestinal tissue of the nematode Ascaris suum

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    An intracellular 5-HT binding protein (SBP) from intestinal tissue was partially purified and characterized. Binding of ({sup 3}H) 5-HT to the protein appeared to be Fe{sup +2}-sensitive and maximal (20.8pmol/mg protein) at 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}M Fe{sup +2} and 10{sup {minus}7}M ({sup 3}H) 5-HT. There were two 5-HT binding sites present at optimum Fe{sup +2} concentrations. The Bmax values of these sites were more sensitive to Fe{sup +2} than Kd values. Sulfhydryl reducing agents, cation chelators, Fe{sup +3}, Ca{sup +2} and antagonists of 5-HT uptake and storage inhibited binding of 5-HT to SBP. Gel exclusion chromatography indicated the presence of a 45Kda SBP that in 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}M Fe{sup +2} may form aggregates ranging in size from approximately 80 to >1000Kda. The data indicate these in vitro aggregates may correspond to the electron-opaque patches observed in situ. Ascaris suum may provide a model system to further elucidate the physiological role of analogous serotonin binding proteins that have been identified in mammalian systems.

  13. High molecular weight components containing N-linked oligosaccharides of Ascaris suum extract inhibit the dendritic cells activation through DC-SIGN and MR.

    PubMed

    Favoretto, Bruna C; Casabuono, Adriana A C; Portes-Junior, José A; Jacysyn, Jacqueline F; Couto, Alicia S; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2017-04-09

    Helminths, as well as their secretory/excretory products, induce a tolerogenic immune microenvironment. High molecular weight components (PI) from Ascaris suum extract down-modulate the immune response against ovalbumin (OVA). The PI exerts direct effect on dendritic cells (DCs) independent of TLR 2, 4 and MyD88 molecule and, thus, decreases the T lymphocytes response. Here, we studied the glycoconjugates in PI and the role of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), DC-SIGN and MR, in the modulation of DCs activity. Our data showed the presence of glycoconjugates with high mannose- and complex-type N-linked oligosaccharide chains and phosphorylcholine residues on PI. In addition, these N-linked glycoconjugates inhibited the DCs maturation induced by LPS. The binding and internalization of PI-Alexa were decreased on DCs previously incubated with mannan, anti-DC-SIGN and/or anti-MR antibodies. In agreement with this, the incubation of DCs with mannan, anti-DC-SIGN and/or anti-MR antibodies abolished the down-modulatory effect of PI on these cells. It was also observed that the blockage of CLRs, DC-SIGN and MR on DCs reverted the inhibitory effect of PI in in vitro T cells proliferation. Therefore, our data show the involvement of DC-SIGN and MR in the recognition and consequent modulatory effect of N-glycosylated components of PI on DCs.

  14. The role of Intelectin-2 in resistance to Ascaris suum lung larval burdens in susceptible and resistant mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Dold, Christina; Pemberton, Alan D; Stafford, Peter; Holland, Celia V; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2011-04-01

    The underlying mechanism of predisposition to Ascaris infection is not yet understood but host genetics are thought to play a fundamental role. We investigated the association between the Intelectin-2 gene and resistance in F2 mice derived from mouse strains known to be susceptible and resistant to infection. Ascaris larvae were isolated from murine lungs and the number of copies of the Intelectin-2 gene was determined in F2 mice. Intelectin-2 gene copy number was not significantly linked to larval burden. In a pilot experiment, the response to infection in parental mice of both sexes was observed in order to address the suitability of female F2 mice. No overall significant sex effect was detected. However, a divergence in resistance/susceptibility status was observed between male and, female hybrid offspring. The responsiveness to Ascaris in mice is likely to be controlled by multiple genes and, despite a unique absence from the susceptible C57BL/6j strain, the Intelectin-2 gene does not play a significant role in resistance. The observed intra-strain variation in larval burden requires further investigation but we hypothesize that it stems from social/dominance hierarchies created by the presence of female mice and possibly subsequent hormonal perturbations that modify the intensity of the immune response.

  15. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Denise Silva; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris.

  16. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host’s homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris. PMID:26814713

  17. Ascaris and ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Dold, Christina; Holland, Celia V

    2011-07-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are widespread parasitic nematodes of humans and pigs respectively. Recent prevalence data suggests that approximately 1.2 billion people are infected. Adult worms exhibit an overdispersed frequency distribution in their hosts and individuals harbouring heavy burdens display associated morbidity. In this review, we describe the parasite, its distribution and measures undertaken to control infection.

  18. Functional response to inhaled salbutamol and/or ipratropium bromide in Ascaris suum-sensitised cats with allergen-induced bronchospasms.

    PubMed

    Leemans, Jérôme; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Clercx, Cécile; Cambier, Carole; Gustin, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    Knowledge about the use of inhaled bronchodilators in cats with so-called 'feline asthma' is limited and relies on the experience of clinicians treating these patients. A randomised controlled four-way crossover study was therefore designed to compare the effects of salbutamol (SAL, 100 μg), ipratropium bromide (IB, 20 μg) and a combination of both (SAL/IB, 100 μg/20 μg), delivered through a pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) connected to a spacing chamber, on allergen-induced bronchospasms in five Ascaris suum (AS)-sensitised cats. Four AS bronchial provocation challenges were carried out at 1 week intervals, followed by one of four treatment protocols: SAL, IB, SAL/IB or control (untreated). Enhanced pause (Penh), an estimator of airflow limitation measured by barometric whole-body plethysmography, was repeatedly assessed within 120 min following the administration of each treatment protocol. Responses to inhaled medications were evaluated by calculating the area under the time-response curves (AUC) from 0 to 60 or 120 min after drug administration (AUC(0-60), AUC(0-120)), as well as the times required for half-recovery (T(50%)) or for returning to nearly basal conditions (T(20%)). No significant differences were found among the four study groups, with reference to the mean AUC(0-60), T(20%) and T(50%) values of Penh (P>0.05). Mean AUC(0-120) values of Penh were similar between the bronchodilators tested, but were significantly lower than those in the untreated group. It was concluded that inhalation of SAL, IB and SAL/IB via pMDI failed to improve most Penh-derived parameters, which suggested that these bronchodilators were of limited efficacy in reversing allergen-induced bronchospasm in cats. However, further studies using a larger number of animals are warranted to investigate if different drugs or delivery devices or higher dosages may be more effective.

  19. Protonation mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-malic enzyme reaction from isotope effects and pH studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kiick, D.M.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1986-01-14

    The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters and the primary deuterium isotope effects with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and also thionicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) as the nucleotide substrates were determined in order to obtain information about the chemical mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme reaction. The maximum velocity with thio-NAD as the nucleotide is pH-independent from pH 4.2 to 9.6, while with NAD, V decreases below a pK of 4.8. V/K for both nucleotides decreases below a pK of 5.6 and above a pK of 8.9. Both the tartronate pKi and V/Kmalate decrease below a pK of 4.8 and above a pK of 8.9. Oxalate is competitive vs. malate above pH 7 and noncompetitive below pH 7 with NAD as the nucleotide. The oxalate Kis increases from a constant value above a pK of 4.9 to another constant value above a pK of 6.7. The oxalate Kii also increases above a pK of 4.9, and this inhibition is enhanced by NADH. In the presence of thio-NAD the inhibition by oxalate is competitive vs. malate below pH 7. For thio-NAD, both DV and D(V/K) are pH-independent and equal to 1.7. With NAD as the nucleotide, DV decreases to 1.0 below a pK of 4.9, while D(V/KNAD) and D(V/Kmalate) are pH-independent. Above pH 7 the isotope effects on V and the V/K values for NAD and malate are equal to 1.45, the pH-independent value of DV above pH 7. Results indicate that substrates bind to only the correctly protonated form of the enzyme. Two enzyme groups are necessary for binding of substrates and catalysis. Both NAD and malate are released from the Michaelis complex at equal rates which are equal to the rate of NADH release from E-NADH above pH 7. Below pH 7 NADH release becomes more rate-determining as the pH decreases until at pH 4.0 it completely limits the overall rate of the reaction.

  20. Three Independent Techniques Localize Expression of Transcript afp-11 and Its Bioactive Peptide Products to the Paired AVK Neurons in Ascaris suum: In Situ Hybridization, Immunocytochemistry, and Single Cell Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We utilized three independent techniques, immunocytochemistry (ICC), single cell mass spectrometry (MS), and in situ hybridization (ISH), to localize neuropeptides and their transcripts in the nervous system of the nematode Ascaris suum. AF11 (SDIGISEPNFLRFa) is an endogenous peptide with potent paralytic effects on A. suum locomotory behavior. A highly specific antibody to AF11 showed robust immunostaining for AF11 in the paired AVK neurons in the ventral ganglion. We traced the processes from the AVK neurons into the ventral nerve cord and identified them as ventral cord interneurons. MS and MS/MS of single dissected AVKs detected AF11, two previously characterized peptides (AF25 and AF26), seven novel sequence-related peptides, including several sharing a PNFLRFamide C-terminus, and peptide NY, a peptide with an unrelated sequence. Also present in a subset of AVKs was AF2, a peptide encoded by the afp-4 transcript. By sequencing the afp-11 transcript, we discovered that it encodes AF11, all the AF11-related peptides detected by MS in AVK, and peptide NY. ISH detected the afp-11 transcript in AVK neurons, consistent with other techniques. ISH did not detect afp-11 in the ALA neuron, although both ICC and MS found AF11 in ca. 30% of ALAs. All 10 AF11-related peptides reduced acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction, but they differed in their rate of reversal of inhibition after removal of the peptide. PMID:23509978

  1. The In Vitro Effect of Ivermectin on the Activity of Trehalose Synthesis Pathway Enzymes and Their mRNA Expression in the Muscle of Adult Female Ascaris suum (Nematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Zaobidna, Ewa Anna

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro effect of ivermectin lethal dose on the activity of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and phosphatase (TPP) and the expression of their mRNA (tps1, tps2, and tpp genes) in the muscle of adult female Ascaris suum was investigated. The presence of ivermectin in the medium caused a decrease in TPS and TPP activities during the experiment compared with the start and control groups. The exception was the group of worms grown for 8 hours in a IVM solution, in which there was a little higher TPS activity than in the control. Real-time qPCR analysis showed reduced expression of tps1 and tps2, and unchanged tpp expression after 20 hours of incubation relative to the expression at time zero. Relative to the appropriate control groups, the expression of tps2 gene was slight increased but the other two genes were reduced after 8-hours of IVM-treatment. Then the expression of all three genes was lower at the end of cultivation. The level of gene expression was positively correlated with the activity of specific enzymes. In the case of tpp gene there was only a weak correlation. Prolonged exposure to ivermectin was effective in lowering TPS and TPP activity and their mRNA expression. However, the drug did not block the pathway. PMID:25405239

  2. Modification of a thiol at the active site of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme results in changes in the rate-determining steps for oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate

    SciTech Connect

    Gavva, S.R.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F. ); Weiss, P.M. )

    1991-06-11

    A thiol group at the malate-binding site of the NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum has been modified to thiocyanate. The modified enzyme generally exhibits slight increases in K{sub NAD} and K{sub i metal} and decreases in V{sub max} as the metal size increases from Mg{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} to Cd{sup 2+}, indicative of crowding in the site. The K{sub malate} value increases 10- to 30-fold, suggesting that malate does not bind optimally to the modified enzyme. Deuterium isotope effects on V and V/K{sub malate} increase with all three metal ions compared to the native enzyme concomitant with a decrease in the {sup 13}C isotope effect, suggesting a switch in the rate limitation of the hydride transfer and decarboxylation steps with hydride transfer becoming more rate limiting. The {sup 13}C effect decreases only slightly when obtained with deuterated malate, suggestive of the presence of a secondary {sup 13}C effect in the hydride transfer step, similar to data obtained with non-nicotinamide-containing dinucleotide substrates for the native enzyme (see the preceding paper in this issue). The native enzyme is inactivated in a time-dependent manner by Cd{sup 2+}. This inactivation occurs whether the enzyme alone is present or whether the enzyme is turning over with Cd{sup 2+} as the divalent metal activator. Upon inactivation, only Cd{sup 2+} ions are bound at high stoichiometry to the enzyme, which eventually becomes denatured. Conversion of the active-site thiol to thiocyanate makes it more difficult to inactivate the enzyme by treatment with Cd{sup 2+}.

  3. Ascariasis in Japan: is pig-derived Ascaris infecting humans?

    PubMed

    Arizono, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yuta; Tohzaka, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Onishi, Kotaro; Uchikawa, Ryuichi

    2010-11-01

    Human ascariasis is caused by infection with the common roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, although the pig roundworm Ascaris suum has also been reported to infect humans and develop into the adult stage. To elucidate whether pig-derived Ascaris infects humans in Japan, 9 Ascaris isolates obtained from Japanese patients and a further 9 Ascaris isolates of pig origin were analyzed to determine their internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences. Six of the 9 clinical isolates showed the Ascaris genotype which predominantly infects humans in endemic countries, while the other 3 clinical isolates and 9 pig-derived isolates showed the genotype predominant in pigs worldwide. These results suggest that at least some cases of human ascariasis in Japan are a result of infection with pig-derived Ascaris.

  4. Feeding Probiotic Bacteria To Swine Enhances Immunity To Ascaris Suum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Probiotic bacterial species are included in the diet to promote health. Probiotics purportedly protect the intestine against pathogenic microorganisms and can reduce inflammation; however, quantitative measurement of probiotic growth and related effects on intestinal function are often lacking. Asca...

  5. Ascaris phylogeny based on multiple whole mtDNA genomes.

    PubMed

    Nejsum, Peter; Hawash, Mohamed B F; Betson, Martha; Stothard, J Russell; Gasser, Robin B; Andersen, Lee O

    2017-03-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are two parasitic nematodes infecting humans and pigs, respectively. There has been considerable debate as to whether Ascaris in the two hosts should be considered a single or two separate species. Previous studies identified at least three major clusters (A, B and C) of human and pig Ascaris based on partial cox1 sequences. In the present study, we selected major haplotypes from these different clusters to characterize their whole mitochondrial genomes for phylogenetic analysis. We also undertook coalescent simulations to investigate the evolutionary history of the different Ascaris haplotypes. The topology of the phylogenetic tree based on complete mitochondrial genomic sequences was found to be similar to partial cox1 sequencing, but the support at internal nodes was higher in the former. Coalescent simulations suggested the presence of at least two divergence events: the first one occurring early in the Neolithic period which resulted in a differentiated population of Ascaris in pigs (cluster C), the second occurring more recently (~900 generations ago), resulting in clusters A and B which might have been spread worldwide by human activities.

  6. Toxocara and Ascaris seropositivity among patients suspected of visceral and ocular larva migrans in the Netherlands: trends from 1998 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, E; Herremans, T; Harms, M G; Hoek, D; Kortbeek, L M

    2011-07-01

    Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Ascaris suum are roundworms of dogs, cats and pigs, respectively, that can also infect humans. These zoonotic helminths have a worldwide distribution and are also endemic in the Netherlands. Infection with Toxocara sp. may result in visceral larva migrans (VLM) or ocular larva migrans (OLM) caused by the migrating larvae. Although A. suum has been reported to occasionally mature to the adult stage in humans, clinical cases of VLM suspected to be caused by A. suum have been described. Diagnosis of these helminth infections relies mainly on serology. Here we analyse the results from the Toxocara and Ascaris IgG-ELISA from a total of 2,838 serum samples from VLM and OLM suspected patients that were sent to our institution from 1998 to 2009. Results indicate that for each year the Ascaris seropositivity is significantly higher compared to the Toxocara seropositivity. Furthermore, while Toxocara seropositivity has decreased over time, the Ascaris seropositivity has not significantly changed for the past 12 years. The Ascaris and Toxocara seropositivity was also shown to increases with age and, while gender has no influence on the Ascaris seropositivity, males showed higher Toxocara seropositivity.

  7. Seroepidemiology of human Toxocara and Ascaris infections in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Harms, Margriet; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Pinelli, Elena; Kortbeek, Titia

    2016-10-01

    Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Ascaris suum are worldwide-distributed zoonotic roundworms of dogs, cats and pigs, respectively. The epidemiology of these parasites in developed countries is largely unclear. Two countrywide cross-sectional serosurveys were therefore conducted in the Netherlands in 1995/1996 and 2006/2007 to investigate the prevalence, trends and risk factors for human Toxocara and Ascaris infections in the general population. The Netherlands is characterized by high pig production, freedom from stray dogs and virtual absence of autochthonous infections with the human-adapted roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Over the 10 years between the two serosurveys, Toxocara seroprevalence decreased significantly from 10.7 % (n = 1159) to 8.0 % (n = 3683), whereas Ascaris seroprevalence increased significantly from 30.4 % (n = 1159) to 41.6 % (n = 3675), possibly reflecting concomitant improvements in pet hygiene management and increased exposure to pig manure-contaminated soil. Increased anti-Toxocara IgGs were associated with increasing age, male gender, contact with soil, ownership of cats, cattle or pigs, hay fever, low education, high income and non-Western ethnic origin. Increased anti-Ascaris IgGs were associated with increasing age, owning pigs, low education, childhood geophagia and non-Dutch ethnic origin. Besides identifying specific groups at highest risk of Toxocara and Ascaris infections, our results suggest that these infections mainly occur through environmental, rather than foodborne, routes, with direct contact with soil or cat and pig ownership being potentially modifiable exposures.

  8. Mark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Matthew; Smith, Theresa L., Ed.

    Mark is the central character in this story designed to help adolescents formulate a philosophy of values. The story is well suited for use in high school social studies courses and/or in philosophy or guidance units. Mark's thoughts and actions are reported as he interacts with his family, friends, acquaintances, and individuals of authority…

  9. Phylogeographical Studies of Ascaris spp. Based on Ribosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Cavallero, Serena; Snabel, Viliam; Pacella, Francesca; Perrone, Vitantonio; D'Amelio, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Background The taxonomic distinctiveness of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum, two of the world's most significant nematodes, still represents a much-debated scientific issue. Previous studies have described two different scenarios in transmission patterns, explained by two hypotheses: (1) separated host-specific transmission cycles in highly endemic regions, (2) a single pool of infection shared by humans and pigs in non-endemic regions. Recently, A. suum has been suggested as an important cause of human ascariasis in endemic areas such as China, where cross-infections and hybridization have also been reported. The main aims of the present study were to investigate the molecular epidemiology of human and pig Ascaris from non-endemic regions and, with reference to existing data, to infer the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships among the samples. Methodology 151 Ascaris worms from pigs and humans were characterized using PCR-RFLP on nuclear ITS rDNA. Representative geographical sub-samples were also analysed by sequencing a portion of the mitochondrial cox1 gene, to infer the extent of variability at population level. Sequence data were compared to GenBank sequences from endemic and non-endemic regions. Principal Findings No fixed differences between human and pig Ascaris were evident, with the exception of the Slovak population, which displays significant genetic differentiation. The RFLP analysis confirmed pig as a source of human infection in non-endemic regions and as a corridor for the promulgation of hybrid genotypes. Epidemiology and host-affiliation seem not to be relevant in shaping molecular variance. Phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses described a complex scenario, involving multiple hosts, sporadic contact between forms and an ancestral taxon referable to A. suum. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest the existence of homogenizing gene flow between the two taxa, which appear to be variants of a single polytypic species. This

  10. Nucleotide sequence of satellite DNA contained in the eliminated genome of Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, F; Walker, P; Aeby, P; Neuhaus, H; Felder, H; Back, E; Tobler, H

    1982-01-01

    Several restriction endonuclease fragments isolated from highly repetitive satellite DNA of the chromatin eliminating nematode Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum have been cloned. Each type of restriction fragment corresponds to a different variant of the same related ancestral sequence. These variants differ by small deletions, insertions and single base substitutions. Restriction and DBM blot analyses show that members of the same variant class are tandemly linked and therefore are physically separated from other variant classes. A comparison of all the determined sequences establishes a 121 bp long and AT rich consensus sequence. There is evidence for an internal short range periodicity of 11 bp length, indicating that the Ascaris satellite initially may have evolved from an ancestral undecamer sequence. The satellite DNA sequences are mostly but not entirely eliminated from the presumptive somatic cells during chromatin diminution. We have no evidence for transcriptional activity of satellite DNA at any stage or tissue analyzed. Images PMID:6296780

  11. Comparison of methodologies for enumerating and detecting the viability of Ascaris eggs in sewage sludge by standard incubation-microscopy, the BacLight Live/Dead viability assay and other vital dyes.

    PubMed

    Karkashan, Alaa; Khallaf, Basma; Morris, Jacqueline; Thurbon, Nerida; Rouch, Duncan; Smith, Stephen R; Deighton, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Live/Dead BacLight viability kit as a method for enumerating viable eggs of Ascaris suum in sewage sludge as a surrogate for the human roundworm. The number and viability status of eggs of A. suum were accurately measured directly in sewage sludge samples by the BacLight method, compared to the conventional incubation-microscopy procedure. BacLight stains were not toxic to A. suum eggs, in contrast to some conventional vital dyes which disrupted viable eggs. The method was effective for the direct examination of eggs in heavily contaminated samples or seeded sludge containing ∼200 eggs/g DS in sludge with 5% DS content. However, a recovery method would be necessary to examine samples with small numbers of eggs, for instance in sludge from regions where the prevalence of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides is low. The BacLight technique may therefore be an effective alternative to conventional incubation-microscopy for enumerating Ascaris eggs in contaminated field samples or to validate sludge treatment processes by examining decay rates of inoculated A. suum eggs in laboratory simulations. Most field samples would require recovery from an appropriate number of composite samples prior to vital staining.

  12. Morphological changes of Ascaris spp. eggs during their development outside the host.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ligia M; Allanson, Michael; Kwa, Boo; Azizan, Azliyati; Izurieta, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Information on the infective stage of Ascaris lumbricoides and the pathology caused by the parasite is widely available in the literature. However, information about early embryonic development of A. lumbricoides and its life cycle outside the host is limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphological changes within the developing embryo during incubation in vitro at 28 C, as well as to explore differences in egg viability during incubation. Ascaris suum eggs (4,000 eggs/ml), used as a model for A. lumbricoides , were placed for incubation in 0.1N H(2)SO(4) at 28 C in the dark for 21 days. Every day, sub-samples of approximately 100 A. suum eggs were taken from the incubation solution for microscopic evaluation. Development, morphological changes, and viability of the first 40 eggs were observed and documented with photos. During this study, 12 stages were identified in the developing embryo by standard microscopy, 2 of which had not been previously reported. By the end of the first wk, most developing embryos observed were in the late-morula stage (72.5%). On day 14 of incubation, 90% had developed to larva-1 stage, and by day 21, 100% had developed to larva-2 stage. No significant differences were found in the viability recorded in a continuum from day 5 to day 21 of incubation (chi-square, P > 0.05). The result of this study complements and expands the stages of development of Ascaris spp. outside the host previously reported in the literature. It also suggests the potential use of early stages of development of the nematode to determine viability and safety of sewage sludge, wastewater, or compost after treatment recommended by USEPA.

  13. Inactivation of Viable Ascaris Eggs by Reagents during Enumeration

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kara L.; Darby, Jeannie L.

    2001-01-01

    Various reagents commonly used to enumerate viable helminth eggs from wastewater and sludge were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Ascaris eggs under typical laboratory conditions. Two methods were used to enumerate indigenous Ascaris eggs from sludge samples. All steps in the methods were the same except that in method I a phase extraction step with acid-alcohol (35% ethanol in 0.1 N H2SO4) and diethyl ether was used whereas in method II the extraction step was avoided by pouring the sample through a 38-μm-mesh stainless steel sieve that retained the eggs. The concentration of eggs and their viability were lower in the samples processed by method I than in the samples processed by method II by an average of 48 and 70%, respectively. A second set of experiments was performed using pure solutions of Ascaris suum eggs to elucidate the effect of the individual reagents and relevant combination of reagents on the eggs. The percentages of viable eggs in samples treated with acid-alcohol alone and in combination with diethyl ether or ethyl acetate were 52, 27, and 4%, respectively, whereas in the rest of the samples the viability was about 80%. Neither the acid nor the diethyl ether alone caused any decrease in egg viability. Thus, the observed inactivation was attributed primarily to the 35% ethanol content of the acid-alcohol solution. Inactivation of the eggs was prevented by limiting the direct exposure to the extraction reagents to 30 min and diluting the residual concentration of acid-alcohol in the sample by a factor of 100 before incubation. Also, the viability of the eggs was maintained if the acid-alcohol solution was replaced with an acetoacetic buffer. None of the reagents used for the flotation step of the sample cleaning procedure (ZnSO4, MgSO4, and NaCl) or during incubation (0.1 N H2SO4 and 0.5% formalin) inactivated the Ascaris eggs under the conditions studied. PMID:11722892

  14. Deep small RNA sequencing from the nematode Ascaris reveals conservation, functional diversification, and novel developmental profiles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianbin; Czech, Benjamin; Crunk, Amanda; Wallace, Adam; Mitreva, Makedonka; Hannon, Gregory J; Davis, Richard E

    2011-09-01

    Eukaryotic cells express several classes of small RNAs that regulate gene expression and ensure genome maintenance. Endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) mainly control gene and transposon expression in the germline, while microRNAs (miRNAs) generally function in post-transcriptional gene silencing in both somatic and germline cells. To provide an evolutionary and developmental perspective on small RNA pathways in nematodes, we identified and characterized known and novel small RNA classes through gametogenesis and embryo development in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and compared them with known small RNAs of Caenorhabditis elegans. piRNAs, Piwi-clade Argonautes, and other proteins associated with the piRNA pathway have been lost in Ascaris. miRNAs are synthesized immediately after fertilization in utero, before pronuclear fusion, and before the first cleavage of the zygote. This is the earliest expression of small RNAs ever described at a developmental stage long thought to be transcriptionally quiescent. A comparison of the two classes of Ascaris endo-siRNAs, 22G-RNAs and 26G-RNAs, to those in C. elegans, suggests great diversification and plasticity in the use of small RNA pathways during spermatogenesis in different nematodes. Our data reveal conserved characteristics of nematode small RNAs as well as features unique to Ascaris that illustrate significant flexibility in the use of small RNAs pathways, some of which are likely an adaptation to Ascaris' life cycle and parasitism. The transcriptome assembly has been submitted to NCBI Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly Sequence Database(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/TSA.html) under accession numbers JI163767–JI182837 and JI210738–JI257410.

  15. Modeling the die-off of E. coli and Ascaris in wastewater-irrigated vegetables: implications for microbial health risk reduction associated with irrigation cessation.

    PubMed

    Seidu, Razak; Sjølander, Ingrid; Abubakari, Amina; Amoah, Dennis; Larbi, John A; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the die-off of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Ascaris suum on lettuce (Great Lakes 118) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata) in wastewater-irrigated fields using comparative mathematical die-off models. The study revealed that none of the survival curves of E. coli and A. suum was best fitted with the log-linear model, indicating that the classical first-order kinetic approach is inadequate in many cases. The biphasic die-off model best described the die-off of E. coli on lettuce (kmax1 = 2.62 day(-1) and kmax2 = 0.22 day(-1)) and cabbage (kmax1 = 1.06 day(-1) and kmax2 = 0.53 day(-1)). The die-off of A. suum on lettuce was best described by the biphasic model (kmax1 = 0.48 day(-1) and kmax2 = 0.01 day(-1)) and best described by log linear + tail (kmax = 0.44) on cabbage. A comparative health risk assessment associated with the consumption of lettuce showed significant underestimation of the number of days of irrigation cessation required to achieve E. coli O157:H7 and Ascaris tolerable annual infection risk when using biphasic die-off rates compared with other die-off rates. The study stresses the need to test different die-off models as inputs for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) particularly for interventions associated with health risk reduction.

  16. Penetration of ovicidal fungi through altered egg-shells of Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Chalupová, V; Solcová, D

    1985-01-01

    Ovicidal activity was studied in microscopic fungi penetrating into and destroying eggs of geohelminths surviving in the soil. The character of penetration was compared in eggs obtained mechanically with those obtained by means of a chemical process. A total of 13 strains of ovicidal fungi of 4 species were studied. The shells of eggs obtained by the chemical process were so altered that under the same conditions they were attacked and penetrated by the fungi much more than the eggs obtained by a mechanical way. The advantages and disadvantages of these two methods of eggs isolation are discussed.

  17. Advances in the diagnosis of Ascaris suum infections in pigs and their possible applications in humans.

    PubMed

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Levecke, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Ascariasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in both humans and pigs. It has been shown to cause growth deficits in both species and to impair cognitive development in children. Notwithstanding its substantial impact on pig economy and public health, diagnosis of ascariasis has mostly relied on the detection of eggs in stool and further development of novel, more sensitive methods has been limited or non-existent. Here, we discuss the currently available techniques for the diagnosis of ascariasis in pigs, their caveats, and the implications of a new serological detection technique for the evaluation of both pig and human ascariasis.

  18. Some aspects of the neuromuscular system of Ascaris.

    PubMed

    del Castillo, J; Rivera, A; Solórzano, S; Serrato, J

    1989-12-01

    1. The structure and physiological properties of the somatic neuromuscular system of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum are discussed taking into account early work from this laboratory, the results of other workers, and experiments in progress. 2. Anatomically, the central feature of the somatic musculature is the presence of a specialized muscular, but not contractile, structure: the syncytium or sarcopile, formed by the terminal processes of the muscle cell arms that contact the nerve cord. In this region, they are electrically coupled to one another and form chemical synapses with the nerve fibres. 3. The syncytium serves, primarily, as a nerve-muscle manifold, or device which allows the neural control of the muscle fields with great economy in the amount of nervous tissue, numbers of chemical junctions and quantities of synaptic transmitters. 4. The structure of the syncytium is being studied with the scanning electron microscope. The results reveal the convergence of the arms on discrete sites as they approach the cords, as well as a longitudinal arrangement of the terminal processes as they course over the cords, at least in the posterior region of the animal. 5. The characteristics of the electrical coupling between the muscle cells are being investigated. A pattern has been observed that is dependent on the position of the cell pairs with respect to the longitudinal axis of the animal. 6. A study of signal propagation in the arms has revealed that the morphology of the muscle cells contributes to the extent and preferential direction of propagation.

  19. Respiratory arrest from Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Kevin; Warner, Petra

    2010-09-01

    We report here the successful treatment of a 9-year-old boy who suffered a high-voltage electrical injury and a hospital course complicated by unexpected airway obstruction from Ascaris lumbricoides. Review of the literature revealed 4 previous reports of this complication. We also discuss options for prevention and treatment of this rare complication of a common infestation.

  20. Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Chimpanzee- and Gibbon-Derived Ascaris Isolated from a Zoological Garden in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yue; Niu, Lili; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Nong, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    Roundworms (Ascaridida: Nematoda), one of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), can cause ascariasis in various hosts worldwide, ranging from wild to domestic animals and humans. Despite the veterinary and health importance of the Ascaridida species, little or no attention has been paid to roundworms infecting wild animals including non-human primates due to the current taxon sampling and survey bias in this order. Importantly, there has been considerable controversy over the years as to whether Ascaris species infecting non-human primates are the same as or distinct from Ascaris lumbricoides infecting humans. Herein, we first characterized the complete mitochondrial genomes of two representative Ascaris isolates derived from two non-human primates, namely, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gibbons (Hylobates hoolock), in a zoological garden of southwest China and compared them with those of A. lumbricoides and the congeneric Ascaris suum as well as other related species in the same order, and then used comparative mitogenomics, genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity analysis, and phylogeny to determine whether the parasites from chimpanzees and gibbons represent a single species and share genetic similarity with A. lumbricoides. Taken together, our results yielded strong statistical support for the hypothesis that the chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris represent a single species that is genetically similar to A. lumbricoides, consistent with the results of previous morphological and molecular studies. Our finding should enhance public alertness to roundworms originating from chimpanzees and gibbons and the mtDNA data presented here also serves to enrich the resource of markers that can be used in molecular diagnostic, systematic, population genetic, and evolutionary biological studies of parasitic nematodes from either wild or domestic hosts. PMID:24358225

  1. Complete mitochondrial genomes of chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris isolated from a zoological garden in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yue; Niu, Lili; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Nong, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    Roundworms (Ascaridida: Nematoda), one of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), can cause ascariasis in various hosts worldwide, ranging from wild to domestic animals and humans. Despite the veterinary and health importance of the Ascaridida species, little or no attention has been paid to roundworms infecting wild animals including non-human primates due to the current taxon sampling and survey bias in this order. Importantly, there has been considerable controversy over the years as to whether Ascaris species infecting non-human primates are the same as or distinct from Ascaris lumbricoides infecting humans. Herein, we first characterized the complete mitochondrial genomes of two representative Ascaris isolates derived from two non-human primates, namely, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gibbons (Hylobates hoolock), in a zoological garden of southwest China and compared them with those of A. lumbricoides and the congeneric Ascaris suum as well as other related species in the same order, and then used comparative mitogenomics, genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity analysis, and phylogeny to determine whether the parasites from chimpanzees and gibbons represent a single species and share genetic similarity with A. lumbricoides. Taken together, our results yielded strong statistical support for the hypothesis that the chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris represent a single species that is genetically similar to A. lumbricoides, consistent with the results of previous morphological and molecular studies. Our finding should enhance public alertness to roundworms originating from chimpanzees and gibbons and the mtDNA data presented here also serves to enrich the resource of markers that can be used in molecular diagnostic, systematic, population genetic, and evolutionary biological studies of parasitic nematodes from either wild or domestic hosts.

  2. Chronic intussusception in children caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Harry; Palčevski, Goran; Saina, Giordano; Peršić, Mladen

    2011-05-01

    Chronic intussusception (CI) is defined as an intussusception lasting for 14 days or more. Because the clinical manifestations are non-specific, the diagnosis is usually delayed. Symptoms include intermittent abdominal pain, sometimes an abdominal mass is palpable and there is a marked weight loss. Diagnosis is based on typical features revealed by ultrasound or barium enema and CT investigations. Therapy is surgical with obligatory exclusion of possible underlying lesions. We report a case of a 3.5-year-old girl with chronic intussusception. Laboratory blood findings revealed sideropenic anemia and stools positive for Ascaris lumbricoides. Anti-parasitic therapy with mebendazole was repeatedly administered with early improvements but soon after symptoms relapsed. During surgery an ileocolic chronic intussusception extending to hepatic flexure was found. Postoperative control examinations proved complete healing. We suspected that Ascaris lumbricoides infestation was an etiologic factor for the development of chronic intussusception in the child.

  3. Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on the cutaneous allergic inflammatory response in Ascaris hypersensitive Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, Santiago; Brazis, Pilar; Della Valle, Maria Federica; Miolo, Alda; Petrosino, Stefania; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Puigdemont, Anna

    2012-03-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator with anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic properties. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PEA on the cutaneous allergic inflammatory reaction induced by different immunological and non-immunological stimuli in hypersensitive dogs. Six spontaneously Ascaris hypersensitive Beagle dogs were challenged with intradermal injections of Ascaris suum extract, substance P and anti-canine IgE, before and after a single oral administration of PEA at doses of 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg. A significant reduction in wheal area induced by both antigen and anti-canine IgE challenge was observed after PEA administration. No significant differences were observed between the two higher doses studied, suggesting that the 10 mg/kg dose had exerted the maximum inhibitory effect. When blood levels of PEA were compared with the effects at different times, an evident correlation was obtained. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of PEA were more long-lasting than their plasma concentrations. The intradermal injection of substance P did not reveal any skin reaction (wheal or erythema formation) at any of the concentrations tested. In conclusion, PEA might constitute a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of allergic inflammatory skin diseases in companion animals.

  4. Role of posttranslational modifications in C. elegans and ascaris spermatogenesis and sperm function.

    PubMed

    Miao, Long; L'Hernault, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Generally, spermatogenesis and sperm function involve widespread posttranslational modification of regulatory proteins in many different species. Nematode spermatogenesis has been studied in detail, mostly by genetic/molecular genetic techniques in the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans and by biochemistry/cell biology in the pig parasite Ascaris suum. Like other nematodes, both of these species produce sperm that use a form of amoeboid motility termed crawling, and many aspects of spermatogenesis are likely to be similar in both species. Consequently, work in these two nematode species has been largely complementary. Work in C. elegans has identified a number of spermatogenesis-defective genes and, so far, 12 encode enzymes that are implicated as catalysts of posttranslational protein modification. Crawling motility involves extension of a single pseudopod and this process is powered by a unique cytoskeleton composed of Major Sperm Protein (MSP) and accessory proteins, instead of the more widely observed actin. In Ascaris, pseudopod extension and crawling motility can be reconstituted in vitro, and biochemical studies have begun to reveal how posttranslational protein modifications, including phosphorylation, dephosphorylation and proteolysis, participate in these processes.

  5. Characterization of ascaris from ecuador and zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Sparks, A M; Betson, M; Oviedo, G; Sandoval, C; Cooper, P J; Stothard, J R

    2015-07-01

    To shed light on the epidemiology of ascariasis in Ecuador and Zanzibar, 177 adult worms retrieved by chemo-expulsion from either people or pigs were collected, measured and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Upon double digestion with RsaI and HaeIII, PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of A. lumbricoides in people and A. suum in pigs in Ecuador. In contrast, while there are no pigs on Zanzibar, of the 56 worms obtained from people, one was genotyped as A. suum. No additional genetic variation was detected upon further PCR-RFLP analysis with several other restriction enzymes. Upon measurement, worm mass and length differed by location and by species, A. suum being lighter and longer. While there is no evidence to suggest zoonotic transmission in Ecuador, an enduring historical signature of previous zoonotic transmission remains on Zanzibar.

  6. Community Rates of IgG4 Antibodies to Ascaris Haemoglobin Reflect Changes in Community Egg Loads Following Mass Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Supali, Taniawati; Geldhof, Peter; Hokke, Cornelis H; Fischer, Peter U; Weil, Gary J

    2016-03-01

    Conventional diagnostic methods for human ascariasis are based on the detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in stool samples. However, studies of ascariasis in pigs have shown that the prevalence and the number of eggs detected in the stool do not correlate well with exposure of the herd to the parasite. On the other hand, an ELISA test measuring antibodies to Ascaris suum haemoglobin (AsHb) has been shown to be useful for estimating transmission intensity on pig farms. In this study, we further characterized the AsHb antigen and screened samples from a population-based study conducted in an area that is endemic for Ascaris lumbricoides in Indonesia to assess changes in AsHb antibody rates and levels in humans following mass drug administration (MDA). We developed and evaluated an ELISA to detect human IgG4 antibodies to AsHb. We tested 1066 plasma samples collected at different times from 599 subjects who lived in a village in rural Indonesia that was highly endemic for ascariasis. The community received 6 rounds of MDA for lymphatic filariasis with albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine between 2002 and 2007. While the AsHb antibody assay was not sensitive for detecting all individuals with Ascaris eggs in their stools, the percentage of seropositive individuals decreased rapidly following MDA. Reductions in antibody rates reflected decreased mean egg output per person both at the community level and in different age groups. Two years after the last round of MDA the community egg output and antibody prevalence rate were reduced by 81.6% and 78.9% respectively compared to baseline levels. IgG4 antibody levels to AsHb appear to reflect recent exposure to Ascaris. The antibody prevalence rate may be a useful indicator for Ascaris transmission intensity in communities that can be used to assess the impact of control measures on the force of transmission.

  7. Community Rates of IgG4 Antibodies to Ascaris Haemoglobin Reflect Changes in Community Egg Loads Following Mass Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Supali, Taniawati; Geldhof, Peter; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Fischer, Peter U.; Weil, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional diagnostic methods for human ascariasis are based on the detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in stool samples. However, studies of ascariasis in pigs have shown that the prevalence and the number of eggs detected in the stool do not correlate well with exposure of the herd to the parasite. On the other hand, an ELISA test measuring antibodies to Ascaris suum haemoglobin (AsHb) has been shown to be useful for estimating transmission intensity on pig farms. In this study, we further characterized the AsHb antigen and screened samples from a population-based study conducted in an area that is endemic for Ascaris lumbricoides in Indonesia to assess changes in AsHb antibody rates and levels in humans following mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology/Principal findings We developed and evaluated an ELISA to detect human IgG4 antibodies to AsHb. We tested 1066 plasma samples collected at different times from 599 subjects who lived in a village in rural Indonesia that was highly endemic for ascariasis. The community received 6 rounds of MDA for lymphatic filariasis with albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine between 2002 and 2007. While the AsHb antibody assay was not sensitive for detecting all individuals with Ascaris eggs in their stools, the percentage of seropositive individuals decreased rapidly following MDA. Reductions in antibody rates reflected decreased mean egg output per person both at the community level and in different age groups. Two years after the last round of MDA the community egg output and antibody prevalence rate were reduced by 81.6% and 78.9% respectively compared to baseline levels. Conclusion/Significance IgG4 antibody levels to AsHb appear to reflect recent exposure to Ascaris. The antibody prevalence rate may be a useful indicator for Ascaris transmission intensity in communities that can be used to assess the impact of control measures on the force of transmission. PMID:26991326

  8. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background For centuries farmers in Vietnam have fertilized their fields with human excreta collected directly from their household latrines. Contrary to the official guideline of six-month storage, the households usually only store human excreta for three to four months before use, since this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. Methods By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum into heaps of human excreta, a die-off experiment was conducted under conditions similar to those commonly used in Vietnamese latrines. Half a ton of human excreta was divided into five heaps containing increasing concentrations of lime from 0% to 11%. Results Regardless of the starting pH, which varied from 9.4 to 11.6, a >99% die-off of eggs was obtained after 105 to 117 days of storage for all lime concentrations and 97% of eggs were non-viable after 88 days of storage. The most critical parameter found to determine the die-off process was the amount of ammonia (urine) in the excreta which indicates that longer storage periods are needed for parasite egg die-off if urine is separated from the excreta. Conclusion By inactivating >99% of all A. suum eggs in human excreta during a storage period of only three months the commonly used Double Vault Composting (DVC) latrine, in which urine is not separated, could therefore potentially provide a hygienic acceptable fertilizer. PMID:20003550

  9. Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in water using sequential solar driven photo-Fenton and free chlorine.

    PubMed

    Bandala, Erick R; González, Liliana; Sanchez-Salas, Jose Luis; Castillo, Jordana H

    2012-03-01

    Sequential helminth egg inactivation using a solar driven advanced oxidation process (AOP) followed by chlorine was achieved. The photo-assisted Fenton process was tested alone under different H(2)O(2) and/or Fe(II) concentrations to assess its ability to inactivate Ascaris suum eggs. The effect of free chlorine alone was also tested. The lowest egg inactivation results were found using Fe(II) or H(2)O(2) separately (5 and 140 mmol L(-1), respectively) in dark conditions, which showed about 28% inactivation of helminth eggs. By combining Fe(II) and H(2)O(2) at the same concentrations described earlier, 55% of helminth egg inactivation was achieved. By increasing the reagent's concentration two-fold, 83% egg inactivation was achieved after 120 min of reaction time. Process efficiency was enhanced by solar excitation. Using solar disinfection only, the A. suum eggs inactivation reached was the lowest observed (58% egg inactivation after 120 min (120 kJ L(-1))), compared with tests using the photo-Fenton process. The use of the photo-Fenton reaction enhanced the process up to over 99% of egg inactivation after 120 kJ L(-1) when the highest Fe(II) and H(2)O(2) concentration was tested. Practically no effect on the helminth eggs was observed with free chlorine alone after 550 mg min L(-1) was used. Egg inactivation in the range of 25-30% was obtained for sequential processes (AOP then chlorine) using about 150 mg min L(-1).

  10. 21 CFR 558.205 - Dichlorvos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... roundworm (Ascaris suum) and the thick stomach worm (Ascarops strongylina) of the gastrointestinal tract.... ), large roundworm (Ascaris suum), and the thick stomach worm (Ascarops strongylina) of the... (Oesophagostomum supp. ) large roundworm (Ascaris suum), and the thick stomach worm (Ascarops...

  11. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris: Heritabilities and associations with parasitological findings.

    PubMed

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Göring, Harald Heinz Herbert; Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-07-30

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens or egg excretion with specific antibody levels. We set out to investigate the association between worm load and T. suis and A. suum specific serum antibody levels (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) against excretory-secretory products of adults and third stage larvae, respectively, measured at 0, 7 and 14 weeks p.i. in a trickle-infected F1-resource-population of crossbred pigs (n=195). Furthermore, we wanted to determine the heritability of these antibody isotypes during the course of infection. Most pigs remained infected with A. suum throughout the experiment while they expelled T. suis between 7 and 14 weeks post infection (p.i.). Parasite specific IgG1 and IgA were significantly (P<0.001) elevated after 7 and 14 weeks of infection, whereas parasite specific IgG2 levels only changed slightly at 14 weeks p.i.. However, the observed association between specific antibody isotype levels and faecal egg counts and macroscopic worm load was weak. The relative heritabilities of the different parasite specific isotypes were assessed and resulted in significant heritability estimates for parasite specific IgG1 and IgA. The highest heritabilities were found for A. suum specific IgG1 (h(2)=0.41 and 0.46 at 7 and 14 weeks p.i., respectively). Thus, the present study demonstrates that host genetic factors influence the IgG1 and IgA antibody isotype responses specific to two of the most common gastrointestinal nematodes of swine whereas specific antibody levels were poorly associated with egg excretion and the presence of macroscopic worms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Distribution of 3H-GABA uptake sites in the nematode Ascaris

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.; Stretton, A.O. )

    1991-05-22

    The distribution of uptake sites for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nematode Ascaris suum was examined by autoradiography of 3H-GABA uptake. Single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords were labeled with 3H-GABA. Serial section analysis identified the cells of origin of these processes as the RMEV-like and RMED-like neurons. These cells belong to a set of four neurons in the nerve ring, all of which are labeled by 3H-GABA. 3H-GABA labeling of at least two other sets of cephalic neurons was seen. One of these pairs consists of medium-sized lateral ganglia neurons, located at the level of the amphid commissure bundle. A second pair is located in the lateral ganglia at the level of the deirid commissure bundle. The position and size of these lateral ganglia cells suggest that they are the GABA-immunoreactive lateral ganglia cells frequently seen in whole-mount immunocytochemical preparations. Four neuronal cell bodies located in the retrovesicular ganglion were also labeled with 3H-GABA. These cells, which are probably cholinergic excitatory motor neurons, do not contain detectable GABA-like immunoreactivity. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed. The ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motor neurons, which are known to contain GABA-like immunoreactivity, were not labeled above background with 3H-GABA. Together with the experiments reported previously, these results define three classes of GABA-associated neurons in Ascaris: (1) neurons that contain endogenous GABA and possess a GABA uptake system; (2) neurons that contain endogenous GABA, but that either lack a GABA uptake system or possess a GABA uptake system of low activity; (3) neurons that possess a GABA uptake system, but that lack endogenous GABA.

  13. Destruction of Ascaris ova by accelerated electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capizzi, S.; Chevallier, A.; Schwartzbrod, J.

    1999-11-01

    We investigated the efficiency of radiation treatment to destroy Ascaris ova viability and found that no ova were viable after exposure to 0.75 kGy (D 90 at 0.39 kGy). Although the outer coat of the Ascaris ovum had a protective effect at low doses (0.20 kGy) no difference in ova viability was observed at 0.30 kGy. As the doses commonly used for sanitary treatment of wastewater are much higher, Ascaris ova should be effectively eliminated from sludge by the 10 kGy dose required by EPA regulations ( U.S. EPA, 1993 Federal Register 58, 9248-9415).

  14. Morphological and morphometric studies of the airways of sheep with acute airway hypersensitivity to inhaled Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Alley, M R; Manktelow, B W

    1991-10-01

    The airways of 12 sheep with naturally-occurring allergic airway hypersensitivity, six of which had changes in both airway resistance and dynamic lung compliance (Group A) and six of which had changes in only dynamic lung compliance (Group B), were compared quantitatively with six non-reacting sheep (Group C) in order to examine the relation between airway hypersensitivity and various morphological features thought to be related to airway hypersensitivity. Compared to the non-reacting sheep (Group C), the hypersensitive sheep (Groups A and B) had a thinner epithelium in medium bronchi and bronchioles, fewer goblet cells in bronchioles, and greater gland area at most airway levels. The differences of the gland dimensions and the types of mucosubstance between hypersensitive and non-reacting animals were more variable. No significant differences between the three groups were noted with regard to luminal occlusion or epithelial sloughing and squamous metaplasia. Although there was a positive association between epithelial thickness and goblet cell density in the small airways, the development of allergic airway hypersensitivity in sheep may occur in the absence of major morphological changes in the airway epithelium.

  15. Isotope partitioning for NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum confirms a steady-state random kinetic mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.Y.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1988-01-12

    Isotope partitioning studies beginning with E-(/sup 14/C)NAD, E-(/sup 14/C) malate, E-(/sup 14/C) NAD-Mg/sup 2 +/, and E-Mg-(/sup 14/C)malate suggest a steady-state random mechanism for the NAD-malic enzyme. Isotope trapping beginning with E-(/sup 14/C)NAD and with varying concentrations of Mg/sup 2 +/ and malate in the chase solution indicates that Mg/sup 2 +/ is added in rapid equilibrium and must be added prior to malate for productive ternary complex formation. Equal percentage trapping from E-(/sup 14/C)NAD-Mg and E-Mg-(/sup 14/C) malate indicates the mechanism is steady-state random with equal off-rates for NAD and malate from E-NAD-Mg-malate. The off-rates for both do not change significantly in the ternary E-Mg-malate and E-NAD-Mg complexes, nor does the off-rate change for NAD from E-NAD. No trapping of malate was obtained from E-(/sup 14/C) malate, suggesting that this complex is nonproductive. A quantitative analysis of the data allows an estimation of values for a number of the rate constants along the reaction pathway.

  16. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm Ascaris suum larvae: a new tool for anthelmenthic research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is a key component of discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’) that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiologic...

  17. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J; Cooper, Andrew J R; Holland, Celia V; Carolan, James C

    2016-08-01

    strains had increased abundances in proteins associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, as well as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with respect to their controls, indicating a general stress response to Ascaris infection. Despite the early stage of infection, some immune-associated proteins were identified to be differentially abundant, providing a novel insight into the host response to Ascaris. In general, the susceptible C57BL/6J mice displayed higher abundances in immune-associated proteins, most likely signifying a more active nematode cohort with respect to their CBA/Ca counterparts. The complement component C8a and S100 proteins, S100a8 and S100a9, were highly differentially abundant in both infected strains, signifying a potential innate immune response and the importance of the complement pathway in defence against macroparasite infection. In addition, the signatures of an early adaptive immune response were observed through the presence of proteins, such as plastin-2 and dipeptidyl peptidase 1. A marked decrease in proteins associated with translation was also observed in both C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice under infection, indicative of either a general response to Ascaris or a modulatory effect by the nematode itself. Our research provides novel insights into the in vivo host-Ascaris relationship on the molecular level and provides new research perspectives in the development of Ascaris control and treatment strategies.

  18. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J.; Cooper, Andrew J. R.; Holland, Celia V.; Carolan, James C.

    2016-01-01

    strains had increased abundances in proteins associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, as well as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with respect to their controls, indicating a general stress response to Ascaris infection. Despite the early stage of infection, some immune-associated proteins were identified to be differentially abundant, providing a novel insight into the host response to Ascaris. In general, the susceptible C57BL/6J mice displayed higher abundances in immune-associated proteins, most likely signifying a more active nematode cohort with respect to their CBA/Ca counterparts. The complement component C8a and S100 proteins, S100a8 and S100a9, were highly differentially abundant in both infected strains, signifying a potential innate immune response and the importance of the complement pathway in defence against macroparasite infection. In addition, the signatures of an early adaptive immune response were observed through the presence of proteins, such as plastin-2 and dipeptidyl peptidase 1. A marked decrease in proteins associated with translation was also observed in both C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice under infection, indicative of either a general response to Ascaris or a modulatory effect by the nematode itself. Our research provides novel insights into the in vivo host-Ascaris relationship on the molecular level and provides new research perspectives in the development of Ascaris control and treatment strategies. PMID:27490109

  19. A Phosphorylcholine-Containing Glycolipid-like Antigen Present on the Surface of Infective Stage Larvae of Ascaris spp. Is a Major Antibody Target in Infected Pigs and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Masure, Dries; Wang, Tao; Nejsum, Peter; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Geldhof, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrating larvae. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize parasite antigens targeted by this local immune response that may be crucial for parasite invasion and establishment and to evaluate their protective and diagnostic potential. Methodology/Principal Findings Pigs were immunized by trickle infection for 30 weeks, challenged with 2,000 eggs at week 32 and euthanized two weeks after challenge. At necropsy, there was a 100% reduction in worms recovered from the intestine and a 97.2% reduction in liver white spots in comparison with challenged non-immune control animals. Antibodies purified from the intestinal mucus or from the supernatant of cultured antibody secreting cells from mesenteric lymph nodes of immune pigs were used to probe L3 extracts to identify antibody targets. This resulted in the recognition of a 12kDa antigen (As12) that is actively shed from infective Ascaris L3. As12 was characterized as a phosphorylcholine-containing glycolipid-like antigen that is highly resistant to different enzymatic and chemical treatments. Vaccinating pigs with an As12 fraction did not induce protective immunity to challenge infection. However, serological analysis using sera or plasma from experimentally infected pigs or naturally infected humans demonstrated that the As12 ELISA was able to detect long-term exposure to Ascaris with a high diagnostic sensitivity (98.4% and 92%, respectively) and specificity (95.5% and 90.0%) in pigs and humans, respectively. Conclusions/Significance These findings show the presence of a highly stage specific, glycolipid-like component (As12) that is actively secreted by infectious Ascaris larvae and which acts as a major antibody

  20. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia; Griffin, Claire; Atuhaire, Aaron; Arinaitwe, Moses; Adriko, Moses; Ruggiana, Andrew; Turyakira, Grace; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Stothard, J Russell

    2012-02-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere and Musezero, was carried out. Adult Ascaris worms were collected from infected individuals by chemo-expulsion using pyrantel pamoate treatment. Genetic diversity within these worms was assessed by inspection of DNA sequence variation in a mitochondrial marker and length polymorphism at microsatellite loci. Overall prevalence of ascariasis was 42.5% in mothers and 30.4% in their children and a total of 98 worms was examined from 18 hosts. Sequence analysis of a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene revealed 19 different haplotypes, 13 of which had not been previously encountered. Microsatellite analysis using eight loci provided evidence for high gene flow between worm populations from the two villages but comparing these worms with others obtained in a prior study on Unguja, Zanzibar, confirmed little genetic exchange and mixing of worm populations between the two areas. By adding to our understanding of the genetic diversity of Ascaris in Africa, this study provides useful information for monitoring changes in parasite population structure in the face of ongoing and future control.

  1. Characterisation of a new, highly effective method for detecting nematode eggs (Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp., Trichuris spp.) in sewage sludge containing flocculants.

    PubMed

    Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Różycki, Mirosław; Bilska-Zając, Ewa; Kłapeć, Teresa; Cencek, Tomasz

    2016-11-01

    Because traditional methods used for sewage sludge parasitological examinations have low sensitivity, a new, highly effective method (own method - OM) was devised. The principle of this method is to eliminate the flocculent effect on the structure of sewage sludge by mechanically damaging floccules in the presence of surfactants and to increase the effectiveness of egg isolation processes in large volumes of liquids. The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of the OM in detecting nematode eggs in sewage sludge samples containing flocculants. In the first stage, the effectiveness of the OM was compared to 4 other methods routinely used in parasitological examinations of dehydrated sewage sludge. Next, method standardisation was performed using sewage sludge samples supplemented with eggs from 3 parasite species (Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis). The study demonstrated that OM efficiency was 6-65 times greater than other methods, depending on the method and type of detected eggs. Limit of detection (LOD) calculations for the OM were performed on samples supplemented with a known number of parasite eggs resulting in 10, 5 and 3 eggs/50 g of sample for A. suum, T. vulpis and T. canis eggs, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of the OM were established as 200 eggs/50 g of sample for A. suum and T. vulpis eggs and 50 eggs/50 g of sample for T. canis eggs. The rectilinear regression functions, which determined the relationship between the number of eggs detected in OM measurements and the number of eggs contained in the samples, were characterised by high and statistically significant coefficients of determination (r(2)). The slopes of the trend lines were 0.3188, 0.3821 and 0.3276, and the intercepts were -11.223, -9.0261 and -23.15 for A. suum, T. canis and T. vulpis eggs, respectively. Method sensitivity, calculated as the slope coefficient of the regression function and expressed as a percentage, ranged

  2. Ascaris: development of selected genotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weidong; Yuan, Keng; Peng, Guohua; Qiu, Lin; Dai, Zhifang; Yuan, Fang; Hu, Yinying; Hu, Ningyan

    2012-05-01

    Using nucleotide variation in the first internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA, five different genotypes (designated G1-G5) have been identified and the preponderance of genotype G1 in humans and of genotype G3 in pigs led to the proposal that parasites bearing the two genotypes have an affinity for a particular host species. A subsequent study using eggs of genotype G1 from humans and G3 from pigs to infect pigs and mice indicated that there is a significant difference in the ability to infect and establish as larvae in mice and as adults in pigs between the two genotypes. Extending previous investigations, the present study investigated whether there are differences in development as designated by egg hatching, larvae migration and distribution in the mice between the Ascaris strains with known genotypes. Ascaris eggs of genotypes G1 (predominating in human-derived worms) and G3 (predominating in pig-derived worms) were used to infect C57BL/6 mice orally. Eggs/larvae were examined from the small and large intestines, thoracic and abdominal cavities, peripheral blood, livers and lungs at intervals of 2h until 12h post-infection, then periodically until 34 days of infection. Results showed distinct differences in egg hatching (the timing and location of hatching, and the numbers hatched), and in larvae migration and distribution (the means and constituent ratios, the time of peak recovery, and larvae reappearing in intestines) between the two strains. The results can explain the findings of significantly higher larval recovery of genotype G1 than G3 in the mice, and may shed some enlightenment to understand the difference in host affiliation of Ascaris of different genotypes.

  3. Pig Ascaris: an important source of human ascariasis in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Deng, Shoulong; Peng, Weidong

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to detect the frequency and distribution of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris in China. Twenty high polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected to screen 258 Ascaris worms from humans and pigs from six provinces in China. The software programs Structure, Baps and Newhybrids were used to determine the case of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris. Results showed that cross infection was detected in all sampled locations and of the total 20 cross infection cases, 19 were indentified as human infections by pure-bred pig type Ascaris in contrast to only one case of pig infection by pure-bred human type Ascaris. Similar to the findings in cross infection, hybrid Ascaris was also detected in all locations and both host species and most of hybrids (95%) were detected from human host. The distribution of cross infection and hybrids showed significant difference between the two host species and among three categories of genotype in terms of G1, G2 and G3, and also between the south and north regions (for hybrids only). The results strongly suggest pig Ascaris as an important source of human ascariasis in endemic area where both human and pig Ascaris exist. In consideration of current control measures for human ascariasis targeting only infected people, it is urgently needed to revise current control measures by adding a simultaneous treatment to infected pigs in the sympatric endemics. The knowledge on cross transmission and hybridization between human and pig Ascaris is important not only for public health, but also for the understanding of genetic evolution, taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Ascaris.

  4. ZYGOTE FORMATION IN ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES (NEMATODA)

    PubMed Central

    Foor, W. Eugene

    1968-01-01

    Ultrastructural observations of the in utero sperm of Ascaris lumbricoides reveal that it consists of a relatively clear, ameboid anterior region and a conical posterior region containing numerous surface membrane specializations, dense mitochondria, a lipid-like refringent body of variable size, and a dense nucleus which lacks an apparent nuclear envelope. No acrosomal complex was observed. Pseudopods emanating from the anterior cytoplasm make first contact with the primary oocytes and appear to be responsible for the localized removal of the extraneous coat covering the oolemma. Subsequently the gamete membranes interdigitate and finally fuse. Because this pseudopodial action appears similar to that reported for the acrosomal filaments in flagellated sperm, the anterior region of the Ascaris sperm is thought to serve an acrosomal function. Following gamete-membrane fusion, the sperm nucleus acquires a particulate appearance and becomes disorganized. Once inside the oocyte, the sperm cytoplasm consists of dense mitochondria, ribosomes, and vesicles derived from the surface membrane specializations. The refringent body, whose contents possibly contribute to the synthesis of ribosomes, is usually absent by the time the sperm cytoplasm attains a central position in the egg. PMID:5678444

  5. Wandering Ascaris Coming Out Through the Abdominal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A.; Parray, Fazl Q.; Ahangar, Abdul G.; Bijli, Akram H.; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S.

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12th postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here. PMID:23930192

  6. Wandering ascaris coming out through the abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A; Parray, Fazl Q; Ahangar, Abdul G; Bijli, Akram H; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S

    2013-06-01

    A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12(th) postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here.

  7. Laryngeal spasm after general anaesthesia due to Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Finsnes, K D

    2013-08-01

    Postoperative upper airway obstruction during recovery from general anaesthesia may have several causes. This is a report of a young girl who developed laryngeal spasm as a result of an ectopic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

  8. The Dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections.

    PubMed

    Fowler, A C; Déirdre Hollingsworth, T

    2016-04-01

    The Anderson-May model of human parasite infections and specifically that for the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides is reconsidered, with a view to deriving the observed characteristic negative binomial distribution which is frequently found in human communities. The means to obtaining this result lies in reformulating the continuous Anderson-May model as a stochastic process involving two essential populations, the density of mature worms in the gut, and the density of mature eggs in the environment. The resulting partial differential equation for the generating function of the joint probability distribution of eggs and worms can be partially solved in the appropriate limit where the worm lifetime is much greater than that of the mature eggs in the environment. Allowing for a mean field nonlinearity, and for egg immigration from neighbouring communities, a negative binomial worm distribution can be predicted, whose parameters are determined by those in the continuous Anderson-May model; this result assumes no variability in predisposition to the infection.

  9. The public health importance of Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    O'Lorcain, P; Holland, C V

    2000-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that anthelminthic treatment can be effective in improving growth rates when given to malnourished children with ascariasis. Recent investigations have also indicated that Ascaris infections can affect mental processing in some school children. Poor socio-economic conditions are among the key factors linked with higher prevalences of ascariasis, as are defaecation practices, geophagia, cultural differences relating to personal and food hygiene, occupational necessity, agricultural factors, housing style, social class and gender. Chemotherapy is currently the major tool used for the strategic control of ascariasis as a short-term goal. In the long term, improvements in hygiene and sanitation are thought to aid long-term control considerably. Targeted treatment, especially when aimed at schoolchildren, has been a major focus of recent control efforts in some areas. Universal treatment reaches more people and thus decreases further aggregate morbidity, especially in nutritionally vulnerable preschool-age children. Selective treatment requires technical effort to identify heavily infected individuals; acceptance by the community may vary in less educated populations when some individuals receive treatment and others do not. Child-targeted treatment may be more cost-effective than population treatment in reducing the number of disease cases and, in high transmission areas, expanding coverage of a population can be a more cost-effective strategy than increasing the frequency of treatment.

  10. [Geostatistical modeling of Ascaris lumbricoides infection].

    PubMed

    Fortes, Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond; Ortiz Valencia, Luis Iván; Ribeiro, Simone do Vale; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2004-01-01

    The following study intends to model the spatial distribution of ascariasis, through the use of geoprocessing and geostatistic analysis. The database used in the study was taken from the PAISQUA project, including a coproparasitologic and domiciliary survey, conducted in 19 selected census tracts of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, randomly selecting a group of 1,550 children aged 1 to 9 years old plotting them in their respective domicile's centroids. Risk maps of Ascaris lumbricoides were generated by indicator kriging. The estimated and observed values from the cross-validation were compared using a ROC curve. An isotropic spherical semivariogram model with a range of 30m and nugget effect of 50% was employed in ordinary indicator kriging to create a map of probability of A. lumbricoides infection. The area under the ROC curve indicated a significant global accuracy. The occurrence of disease could be estimated in the study area, and a risk map was elaborated through the use ordinary kriging. The spatial statistics analysis has proven itself adequate for predicting the occurrence of ascariasis, unrestricted to the regions political boundaries.

  11. GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.

    1988-01-01

    A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and ({sup 3}H)-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. ({sup 3}H)-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up ({sup 3}H)-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed.

  12. Induction of dominant lethal mutations by Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in male mice.

    PubMed

    Blaszkowska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Trypsin inhibitor (ATI) isolated from Ascaris suum, a gastrointestinal nematode parasite, was tested for the induction of dominant lethal mutations in male mice. Dominant lethal effects of ATI for the main stages of germ cell development were analyzed by mating at specific time points after dosing. Three groups of adult BALB/c males received 50, 100 or 250mg/kg body weight (bw) single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of ATI in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The control group received concurrent injection of PBS. After the administration of ATI or PBS, each male was mated with two untreated females. For fractionated examination with regard to successive germ cell stages (spermatozoa, spermatids, spermatocytes, and spermatogonia), every second week two other untreated virgin females were placed with each male for mating. The uteri of the females were inspected on the 15th day of gestation, and preimplantation loss and postimplantation loss determined from dominant lethal parameters. Exposure of mice germ cells to ATI did not impair mating activity of males. Pregnancy rates were reduced ( approximately 5-10%) by treatment of males with higher doses of ATI, but differences between treatment and control groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In the females bred to ATI-treated males, significant increase in preimplantation loss was observed at post-injection week 1 (reflecting exposure to spermatozoa) and 3 (reflecting exposure to mid and early spermatids) for higher doses of the inhibitor (P<0.05 or P<0.01). During mating days 15-21 a statistically significant increase in postimplantation loss and dominant lethal effects were observed for all doses of ATI. At higher doses, dominant lethal effects were restricted to spermatozoa (P<0.01). These data suggest that ATI induces dominant lethal mutations at postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis, but spermatids are the most sensitive cell stage to the effect of ATI. These preliminary findings show that ATI

  13. Organization and dynamics of satellite and telomere DNAs in Ascaris: implications for formation and programmed breakdown of compound chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Niedermaier, J; Moritz, K B

    2000-11-01

    In the nematode genus Ascaris the germline genome contains considerable amounts of extra DNA, which is discarded from the somatic founder blastomeres during early cleavage. In Parascaris univalens the haploid germline genome is contained in one large compound chromosome, which consists of a euchromatic region containing the somatic genome flanked by large blocks of heterochromatin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of fractions of the germline-limited satellite DNA revealed two highly repeated sequence families establishing the entire heterochromatin (HET blocks). The repeats, a pentanucleotide, TTGCA, and a decanucleotide, TTTGTGCGTG, constitute separate segments of the HET blocks. The blocks are polymorphic in length and, hence, in copy number of the repeats, and the arrangement of the segments. The numerous sequence variants of both repeats display a disperse distribution. The type and rate of base substitutions within both repeat units depend on position. Prior to the elimination process in presomatic cells, termed chromatin diminution, the chromosomes undergo differential mitotic condensation. Interstitial 'chromatin linkers' flanking the prospective numerous somatic chromosomes remain entirely decondensed. The somatic chromosomes are released from the plurivalent chromosomes via excision of the linkers at onset of anaphase, followed by exclusion of the akinetic linker chromatin and HET blocks from the daughter nuclei. In Ascaris suum, the germline-limited satellite, which consists of one 123 bp repeat, is scattered throughout the numerous chromosomes in small heterochromatic knobs of variable sizes, residing at chromosomal ends and/or intercalary positions. The programmed breakage, which appears to proceed in a similar manner to that in P. univalens, results in the loss of all heterochromatic knobs, accompanied by an increase in chromosome number. In both species, all germline chromosomes are capped by tracts of TTAGGC repeats. In P. univalens, such

  14. Concurrent puerperal hysterectomy with Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: coincidence or consequence?

    PubMed

    Zapardiel, Ignacio; Peiretti, Michele; Godoy-Tundidor, Sonia

    2010-04-01

    The most common etiology of postpartum hemorrhage is uterine atony, although hematologic disorders may be present. A 36-year-old nulliparous woman underwent puerperal hysterectomy caused by uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage. One day after discharge, she vomited in the emergency room a 24-cm long Ascaris lumbricoides. Infestation during gestation may cause hematologic disorders that could complicate pregnancy outcome.

  15. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying

    2012-04-07

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient fasted, and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate. Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb. The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis. The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus. Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient's clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up. Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus, emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of human parasitic roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Park, Yung Chul; Kim, Won; Park, Joong-Ki

    2011-08-01

    The genome length of the Ascaris lumbricoides, human parasitic roundworm, is 14,281 bp with a nucleotide composition of 22.1% A, 49.8% T, 7.8% C, and 20.3% G. The genome consists of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region.

  17. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient fasted, and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate. Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb. The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis. The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus. Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient’s clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up. Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus, emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms. PMID:22509089

  18. Stretch Marks

    MedlinePlus

    ... like during puberty), that person may get fine lines on the body called stretch marks. Stretch marks happen when the skin is pulled by rapid growth or stretching. Although the skin is usually fairly elastic, when it's overstretched, the normal production of collagen (the major protein that makes up ...

  19. Marking Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  20. Marking Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  1. A Quantitative Assessment Method for Ascaris Eggs on Hands

    PubMed Central

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Sengupta, Mita E.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate]) and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique and FLOTAC). A modified concentration McMaster technique showed the highest egg recovery rate from bags. Two of the four diluted detergents (benzethonium chloride 0.1% and 7X 1%) also showed a higher egg recovery rate and were then compared with de-ionized water for recovery of helminth eggs from hands. The highest recovery rate (95.6%) was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands with de-ionized water resulted in an egg recovery rate of 82.7%. This washing method performed with a low concentration of detergent offers potential for quantitative investigation of contamination of hands with Ascaris eggs and of their role in human infection. Follow-up studies are needed that validate the hand washing method under field conditions, e.g. including people of different age, lower levels of contamination and various levels of hand cleanliness. PMID:24802859

  2. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands.

    PubMed

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Thamsborg, Stig M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Sengupta, Mita E

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate]) and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique and FLOTAC). A modified concentration McMaster technique showed the highest egg recovery rate from bags. Two of the four diluted detergents (benzethonium chloride 0.1% and 7X 1%) also showed a higher egg recovery rate and were then compared with de-ionized water for recovery of helminth eggs from hands. The highest recovery rate (95.6%) was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands with de-ionized water resulted in an egg recovery rate of 82.7%. This washing method performed with a low concentration of detergent offers potential for quantitative investigation of contamination of hands with Ascaris eggs and of their role in human infection. Follow-up studies are needed that validate the hand washing method under field conditions, e.g. including people of different age, lower levels of contamination and various levels of hand cleanliness.

  3. Acute airway obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in a 14-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Gohil, Rohit; Belfield, Katherine; Davies, Patrick; Daniel, Matija

    2014-10-01

    We describe the case of a 14-month-old child with airway obstruction caused by a mature Ascaris lumbricoides worm. The child had been admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit due to overwhelming sepsis, and during the course of his illness developed acute airway obstruction that resolved once the worm was removed from the airway. The Ascaris life-cycle is detailed, and a literature review of patients with airway obstruction due to Ascaris worms is presented.

  4. Uneasy marks.

    PubMed

    Rublee, D

    1998-05-05

    Germany earned a reputation as a European nirvana, marked by a booming job market and generous health and social programs. Now, thanks to the high costs of rebuilding the former East Germany and other factors, national health programs face cutbacks. But just about everyone has a stake in guarding the status quo.

  5. Mammalian metallopeptidase inhibition at the defense barrier of Ascaris parasite

    PubMed Central

    Sanglas, Laura; Aviles, Francesc X.; Huber, Robert; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Arolas, Joan L.

    2009-01-01

    Roundworms of the genus Ascaris are common parasites of the human gastrointestinal tract. A battery of selective inhibitors protects them from host enzymes and the immune system. Here, a metallocarboxypeptidase (MCP) inhibitor, ACI, was identified in protein extracts from Ascaris by intensity-fading MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The 67-residue amino acid sequence of ACI showed no significant homology with any known protein. Heterologous overexpression and purification of ACI rendered a functional molecule with nanomolar equilibrium dissociation constants against MCPs, which denoted a preference for digestive and mast cell A/B-type MCPs. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry located ACI in the body wall, intestine, female reproductive tract, and fertilized eggs of Ascaris, in accordance with its target specificity. The crystal structure of the complex of ACI with human carboxypeptidase A1, one of its potential targets in vivo, revealed a protein with a fold consisting of two tandem homologous domains, each containing a β-ribbon and two disulfide bonds. These domains are connected by an α-helical segment and a fifth disulfide bond. Binding and inhibition are exerted by the C-terminal tail, which enters the funnel-like active-site cavity of the enzyme and approaches the catalytic zinc ion. The findings reported provide a basis for the biological function of ACI, which may be essential for parasitic survival during infection. PMID:19179285

  6. Mammalian metallopeptidase inhibition at the defense barrier of Ascaris parasite.

    PubMed

    Sanglas, Laura; Aviles, Francesc X; Huber, Robert; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Arolas, Joan L

    2009-02-10

    Roundworms of the genus Ascaris are common parasites of the human gastrointestinal tract. A battery of selective inhibitors protects them from host enzymes and the immune system. Here, a metallocarboxypeptidase (MCP) inhibitor, ACI, was identified in protein extracts from Ascaris by intensity-fading MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The 67-residue amino acid sequence of ACI showed no significant homology with any known protein. Heterologous overexpression and purification of ACI rendered a functional molecule with nanomolar equilibrium dissociation constants against MCPs, which denoted a preference for digestive and mast cell A/B-type MCPs. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry located ACI in the body wall, intestine, female reproductive tract, and fertilized eggs of Ascaris, in accordance with its target specificity. The crystal structure of the complex of ACI with human carboxypeptidase A1, one of its potential targets in vivo, revealed a protein with a fold consisting of two tandem homologous domains, each containing a beta-ribbon and two disulfide bonds. These domains are connected by an alpha-helical segment and a fifth disulfide bond. Binding and inhibition are exerted by the C-terminal tail, which enters the funnel-like active-site cavity of the enzyme and approaches the catalytic zinc ion. The findings reported provide a basis for the biological function of ACI, which may be essential for parasitic survival during infection.

  7. Ancient mitochondrial DNA analyses of ascaris eggs discovered in coprolites from joseon tomb.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Seok; Seo, Min; Hong, Jong Ha; Chai, Jong-Yil; Oh, Seung Whan; Park, Jun Bum; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted from Ascaris is very important for understanding the phylogenetic lineage of the parasite species. When aDNAs obtained from a Joseon tomb (SN2-19-1) coprolite in which Ascaris eggs were identified were amplified with primers for cytochrome b (cyt b) and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene, the outcome exhibited Ascaris specific amplicon bands. By cloning, sequencing, and analysis of the amplified DNA, we obtained information valuable for comprehending genetic lineage of Ascaris prevalent among pre-modern Joseon peoples.

  8. Recent insights into the epidemiology and genetics of Ascaris in China using molecular tools.

    PubMed

    Peng, W; Yuan, K; Hu, M; Gasser, R B

    2007-03-01

    Ascaris is a large parasitic roundworm (nematode) of the small intestine of humans and pigs, which causes the socio-economically important disease, ascariasis. To better understand the relationship of Ascaris between the 2 host species, recent studies in China have focused on investigating the genetics and epidemiology of Ascaris from humans and pigs using a mutation scanning-based approach. Findings provided support for a low level of gene flow between the human and porcine Ascaris populations. Extending the studies of genotypic variability within Ascaris from humans and pigs, experimental infections of mice and pigs with selected genotypes of Ascaris were carried out. Initial results indicate that there is a significant difference in the ability of Ascaris eggs of genotype G1 (derived from human) and G3 (derived from pig) to infect and establish as adults in pigs, supporting the difference in the frequencies of these genotypes in natural Ascaris populations between pigs and humans in China. Taken together, current information supports that there is limited cross-infection of Ascaris between humans and pigs in endemic regions and that pigs are not a significant reservoir of human infection with the adult nematode in such areas.

  9. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications.

  10. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  11. Studies on the induction of permeability in Ascaris lumbricoides eggs.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J

    1976-08-01

    The initial process in the hatching mechanism of Ascaris eggs is the sudden onset of permeability in the previously impermeable ascaroside membrane. During this change the ascaroside membrane remains intact and no chemical changes can be detected. Using the molecular probe 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulphonic acid no conformational changes were detected in the ascaroside membrane during the induction of permeability. It is suggested that either the permeability change is due to a very localized chemical or conformational change, not detectable by conventional analytical techniques, or the change is due to mechanical damage of the ascaroside membrane, brought about by the activity of the infective larva.

  12. Mast Cell Hyperplasia and Eosinophilia Induced by Ascaris Body Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Archer, G. T.; Binet, J.-L.

    1971-01-01

    Daily i.p. injections of dilute Ascaris body fluid into rats induced peritoneal eosinophilia and the formation of pin-point follicles in the omentum. The follicles comprised plasma cells, macrophages and fibroblasts together with large numbers of eosinophils and mast cells. Electron microscopy of eosinophils in the follicles revealed loss of cytoplasmic granules and numerous vesicular and tubular structures in the cytoplasm. The mast cells showed clear areas round the granules, suggesting dissolution of granule components. ImagesFigs. 4-6Figs. 7-8Figs. 13-14Figs. 9-10Figs. 1-3Figs. 11-12 PMID:5135540

  13. Ascaris-Trichuris association and malnutrition in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Saldiva, S R; Silveira, A S; Philippi, S T; Torres, D M; Mangini, A C; Dias, R M; da Silva, R M; Buratini, M N; Massad, E

    1999-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate the role of intestinal parasites on nutritional status in three rural areas of Brazil. A total of 520 children aged 1-12 years were studied through a questionnaire concerning housing, socio-economic conditions and a 24-h food intake recall. Measurements of weight and height were also performed, and three stool samples were collected on consecutive days for parasitological analysis. Scores of the standard deviation (z-scores) for the weight-for-height and height-for-age were used to characterise the growth profile. A high prevalence of intestinal parasites was detected, with Giardia lamblia (44%), Endolimax nana (43%), Ascaris lumbricoides (41%) and Trichuris trichiura (40%) being the most prevalent. Eleven per cent of the children were classified as showing stunting. Inadequate daily caloric intake was observed in 78% of the population and the proportion of those with inadequate protein intake was 34%. Logistic regression analysis was employed for the multivariate study. Stunting was significantly associated with estimators of low economic income, inadequate protein intake and polyparasitism, especially the association between Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura.

  14. Endoscopic diagnosis in Ascaris lumbricoides case with pyloric obstruction.

    PubMed

    Peker, Kemal; Kılıç, Kemal

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest and most prevalent helminth seen in the human body. Ascariasis having high morbidity and mortality causes a unique type of intestinal obstruction with specific problems. This is probably due to reduced intestinal absorption and luminal obstruction, which can lead to anorexia and blockage of the absorbing surface. It affects humans especially in developing countries. This essay presented a 78-year-old female case had severe abdominal pain, nausea and constipation for seven days and the pylorus was obstructed by A. lumbricoides and diagnosis was obtained by endoscopy. During endoscopy in the treatment, the ascariasis that could be removed was. Afterwards, 100 mg mebendazole was given for 3 days once in two months.The purpose of the presentation of this case is that it is seen in advanced ages and it sets us thinking of stomach tumor due to its obstruction and anemia clinic.

  15. [Larval stages of Ascaris lumbricoides: hyaluronan-binding capacity].

    PubMed

    Ponce-León, Patricia; Foresto, Patricia; Valverde, Juana

    2009-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid has important functions in inflammatory and tissue reparation processes. Owing to the varied strategies of the parasites to evade the host's immune response, as well as the multiple functions and physiological importance of hyaluronic acid, the aim was to study the hyaluronan binding capacity by Ascaris lumbricoides larval stages. Larval concentrates were prepared by hatching A. lumbricoides eggs. The larvae were collected by the Baermann method. The test of serum soluble CD44 detection by Agregation Inhibition was modified. All the larval concentrates presented hyaluronan binding capacity. The obtained results allow to suppose the existence of an hyaluronic acid specific receptor in A. lumbricoides. This receptor eventually might compete with the usual receptors of the host. The parasite might use this mechanism to evade the immune response.

  16. Detection and quantification of viable Ascaris sp. and other helminth eggs in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Veridiana Karmann; Cutolo, Silvana Audra; Doria, Maria do Carmo Oliveira; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Some epidemiologic studies conducted in developing countries demonstrated a high incidence of enteroparasites, Ascaris sp. being the most prevalent. Therefore, the use of sewage sludge in agriculture may pose risks to human health. In order to protect public health, a Brazilian regulation has established standards regarding its use in rural areas. The objective of this study was to quantify Ascaris sp. and other helminth eggs in sewage sludge from five wastewater treatment plants from a dense metropolitan region, and also to check compliance with the law. The analysis was carried according to USEPA 2003 . A rich parasitological fauna was found, with a prevalence of the eggs of Ascaris sp. (9.55%). The samples analyzed presented a large variety of helminth eggs, and Ascaris sp. proved to be the most prevalent which put in evidence that its application poses public health concerns.

  17. Ascaris Lumbricoides infestation and intestinal MZBCL: a surgical and radiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Assenza, M; Casciani, E; Romeo, V; Valesini, L; Centonze, L; Bartolucci, P; Ciccarone, F; Gualdi, G; Modini, C

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris Lumbricoides is the most common worm found in human beings and it is the largest of the intestinal nematodes parasitizing humanity. The most common complication of Ascariasis is mechanical bowel obstruction caused by a large number of worms. Bowel obstruction can also be caused by various toxins released by the worms. A large worm bolus can also cause volvulus or intussusception. We report a case of Intestinal Obstruction due to an Ileal MZBCL in an Ascaris. Lumbricoides infestation setting.

  18. SjAPI, the first functionally characterized Ascaris-type protease inhibitor from animal venoms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zongyun; Wang, Bin; Hu, Jun; Yang, Weishan; Cao, Zhijian; Zhuo, Renxi; Li, Wenxin; Wu, Yingliang

    2013-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI), Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2), Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI), and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI). The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues "AAV" and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for human diseases that target

  19. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity.

  20. [Antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides among the children population in the Ustí Region].

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Stiborová, I; Pohorská, J; Dobiásová, L; Král, V

    2005-11-01

    A group of 156 children aged between 10 and 12 years were screened for IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides. The study subjects were 64 children of Romany origin and 92 children from the majority population. IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides were detected in 112 (71.8%) children. No difference in the prevalence of IgG antibodies was found between Romany children and those from the majority population. As many as 34.1% of the study subjects had IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides, again with no difference between the two ethnic groups. Children with IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides had significantly higher total IgE levels compared to those who had tested IgG negative. To demonstrate induction of a non-specific IgE response was one of the study objectives. The high prevalence rates of IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides are suggestive of a high frequency of cross- and non-specific reactions. Possible effect of cross-reactivity to other antigens on the specific IgG and IgE antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides is discussed.

  1. Molecular paleoparasitological diagnosis of Ascaris sp. from coprolites: new scenery of ascariasis in pre-Colombian South America times.

    PubMed

    Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2008-02-01

    Paleoparasitological studies using microscopy showed that Ascarisand Trichuris trichiura are the human intestinal parasites most found in archaeological sites. However, in pre-Columbian South American archaeological sites, Ascaris is rare. In this work we standardized a molecular methodology for Ascaris diagnosis directly from ancient DNA retrieved from coprolites. Using cythochrome b gene (142 bp) target, ancient DNA sequences were retrieved from South American samples, negative by microscopy. Moreover, the methodology applied was sensitive enough to detect ancient DNA extracted from 30 Ascaris eggs from an European coprolite. These results revealed a new scenery for the paleodistribution of Ascaris in South America.

  2. Ascaris lumbricoides: To Expect the Unexpected during a Routine Colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kanneganti, Kalyan; Makker, Jasbir S; Remy, Prospere

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a common nematode infecting humans worldwide with increased prevalence in tropical and subtropical areas of less developed countries. Recently, it has been estimated that over one billion individuals are infected with ascariasis worldwide with 7% in USA. Although most of these cases are due to increasing immigration and travel outside America it is worth recognizing that prevalence of ascariasis is high in southeastern parts of USA due to their temperate climate. Infections of A. lumbricoides are largely asymptomatic, and hence a large population of people carrying this worm remains undetected for years until they develop some symptoms. Due to a large group of asymptomatic individuals with intestinal ascariasis, these worms are occasionally and unexpectedly identified during routine endoscopic procedures. Here, we present a case of an intestinal ascariasis found during routine colonoscopy in an African-American man from the Bronx with perianal itching. He denied any history of travel outside USA but reported frequent visits to South Carolina. This case illustrates the fact that ascariasis should be suspected even if immigration or travel outside USA is not involved. It should be suspected even in cases of travel within USA to the south east where endemic cases are reported.

  3. Ascaris lumbricoides: To Expect the Unexpected during a Routine Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Makker, Jasbir S.; Remy, Prospere

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a common nematode infecting humans worldwide with increased prevalence in tropical and subtropical areas of less developed countries. Recently, it has been estimated that over one billion individuals are infected with ascariasis worldwide with 7% in USA. Although most of these cases are due to increasing immigration and travel outside America it is worth recognizing that prevalence of ascariasis is high in southeastern parts of USA due to their temperate climate. Infections of A. lumbricoides are largely asymptomatic, and hence a large population of people carrying this worm remains undetected for years until they develop some symptoms. Due to a large group of asymptomatic individuals with intestinal ascariasis, these worms are occasionally and unexpectedly identified during routine endoscopic procedures. Here, we present a case of an intestinal ascariasis found during routine colonoscopy in an African-American man from the Bronx with perianal itching. He denied any history of travel outside USA but reported frequent visits to South Carolina. This case illustrates the fact that ascariasis should be suspected even if immigration or travel outside USA is not involved. It should be suspected even in cases of travel within USA to the south east where endemic cases are reported. PMID:23853608

  4. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana

    2013-04-16

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world's population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumbricoides infection, potentially leading to even more serious consequences such as small bowel perforation and peritonitis. Diagnosis is based primarily on stool samples and the patient's history. Early diagnosis, aided in part by knowledge of the local prevalence, can result in early treatment, thereby preventing surgical complications associated with intestinal obstruction. Further, delay in diagnosis may have fatal consequences. Capsule endoscopy can serve as a crucial, non-invasive diagnostic tool for A. lumbricoides infection, especially when other diagnostic methods have failed to detect the parasite. We report a case of A. lumbricoides infection that resulted in intestinal obstruction at the level of the ileum. Both stool sample examination and open surgery failed to indicate the presence of A. lumbricoides, and the cause of the obstruction was only revealed by capsule endoscopy. The patient was treated with anthelmintics.

  5. Incidence of intestinal obstruction in children infected with Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, D S; Schultz, M G

    1975-09-01

    The most serious consequences of infection with the large roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, are complications requiring surgical intervention, particularly intestinal obstruction caused by a bolus of worms. A study was conducted to estimate the incidence of this complication among infected children in an area of the southeastern United States where ascariasis is endemic. A chart review at three rural Louisiana public hospitals revealed that 21 patients had been hospitalized with intestinal obstruction secondary to ascariasis over a 3-year period. The prevalence of ascariasis in three parishes (counties) served by these hospitals was calculated from the results of 2,360 stool examinations performed by the State Health Department and one hospital laboratory. The prevalence of ascariasis in 1- to 5-year-old children was similar to that in 6- to 12-year-olds and ranged from 8% to 28% in the three parishes. Prevalence rates were three times higher for blacks than for whites. It was found that most cases of intestinal obstruction occur in children in the 1- to 5-year age group and that this incidence approximates two such complications per 1,000 infected children per year.

  6. Electronic structures of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haoping

    2003-11-01

    The electronic structures of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in solution are obtained by the first-principles, all-electron, ab initio calculation using the self-consistent cluster-embedding (SCCE) method. The inhibitor, made up of 62 amino acid residues with 912 atoms, has two three-dimensional solution structures: 1ata and 1atb. The calculated ground-state energy of structure 1atb is lower than that of structure 1ata by 6.12 eV. The active sites are determined and explained: only structure 1atb has a N terminal at residue ARG+31. This shows that the structure 1atb is the stable and active form of the inhibitor, which is in agreement with the experimental results. The calculation reveals that some parts of the inhibitor can be easily changed while the inhibitor’s biological activity may be kept. This kind of information may be helpful in fighting viruses such as AIDS, SARS, and flu, since these viruses have higher variability. The calculation offers an independent theoretical estimate of the precision of structure determination.

  7. Genetic characterisation and molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. from humans and pigs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Alena M; Leles, Daniela; Jaeger, Lauren H; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Araújo, Adauto

    2012-10-01

    The molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. of human and pig origin has been studied as a means to assess the potential of pigs as reservoirs for human ascariasis. In this study, human (H) and pig (P) Ascaris spp. haplotypes from two Brazilian regions were characterised based on two mitochondrial genes, nad1 and cox1. The results show six haplotypes of the cox1 gene, with two haplotypes (H9P9 and P3) corresponding to haplotypes previously characterised in China. Because P3 was found in humans in this study, it was designated as H14P3. Furthermore, five new Ascaris spp. nad1 haplotypes from humans (H12-H16) and five from pigs (P16-P20) were observed, with one being highly frequent and present in both hosts, here designated as H12P17. Phylogenetic and network analysis demonstrated that the molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. in Brazil is driven by the globally distributed haplotypes cox1 H14P3 and nad1 H12P17. In conclusion, in this study genetic characterisation of Ascaris spp. showed that humans and pigs share common haplotypes that are also present in two widely separated geographical regions of Brazil.

  8. Liming as an advanced treatment for sludge sanitisation: helminth eggs elimination--Ascaris eggs as model.

    PubMed

    Capizzi-Banas, S; Deloge, M; Remy, M; Schwartzbrod, J

    2004-01-01

    The presence of helminth eggs (Ascaris eggs) in sewage sludge may constitute a sanitary risk when used as agricultural fertiliser. Sanitisation of sewage sludge can be achieved by treatment with quick lime, a process that destroys sludge pathogens in two ways: pH increase and temperature rise. Among the pathogens of epidemiological relevance, Ascaris eggs are the most resistant to liming, and, hence, may serve as indicators of hygienic quality of biosolids. This research aims at defining, between 50 degrees C and 60 degrees C, the time required in the case of limed sludge to obtain a product with a negligible level of viable Ascaris eggs. To achieve this objective, investigations on inactivation kinetics of Ascaris eggs were conducted in the following products: contaminated milk of lime; naturally contaminated sludge treated with slaked lime and heat; naturally contaminated sludge treated with quick lime; and sludge treated at full scale with quick lime. For the inactivation kinetics where a negligible level of Ascaris eggs was reached, the inactivation threshold was determined. Depending on the experimental situation, the inactivation threshold period was found to fluctuate between 5 and 75 min at 55 degrees C and between 1 and 8 min at 60 degrees C.

  9. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population.

    PubMed

    Das, Koushik; Chowdhury, Punam; Ganguly, Sandipan

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic differentiation among morphologically identical Ascaris species is a debatable scientific issue in the context of Ascariasis epidemiology. To explain the disease epidemiology and also the taxonomic position of different Ascaris species, genome information of infecting strains from endemic areas throughout the world is certainly crucial. Ascaris population from human has been genetically characterized based on the widely used genetic marker, internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1). Along with previously reported and prevalent genotype G1, 8 new sequence variants of ITS1 have been identified. Genotype G1 was significantly present among female patients aged between 10 to 15 years. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis at target locus within our study population has identified an incomplete LD value with potential recombination events. A separate cluster of Indian isolates with high bootstrap value indicate their distinct phylogenetic position in comparison to the global Ascaris population. Genetic shuffling through recombination could be a possible reason for high population diversity and frequent emergence of new sequence variants, identified in present and other previous studies. This study explores the genetic organization of Indian Ascaris population for the first time which certainly includes some fundamental information on the molecular epidemiology of Ascariasis.

  10. Parasitic co-infections: does Ascaris lumbricoides protect against Plasmodium falciparum infection?

    PubMed

    Brutus, Laurent; Watier, Laurence; Briand, Valérie; Hanitrasoamampionona, Virginie; Razanatsoarilala, Hélène; Cot, Michel

    2006-08-01

    A controlled randomized trial of antihelminthic treatment was undertaken in 1996-1997 in a rural area of Madagascar where populations were simultaneously infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Plasmodium falciparum. Levamisole was administered bimonthly to 164 subjects, randomized on a family basis, whereas 186 were controls. While levamisole proved to be highly effective in reducing Ascaris egg loads in the treated group (P < 10(-3) at all bimonthly visits), subjects more than 5 years of age, treated with levamisole had a significant increase in their P. falciparum densities compared with controls (P = 0.02), whereas there was no effect of anti-helminthic treatment on children 6 months to 4 years of age. The demonstration of a clear negative interaction between Ascaris infection and malaria parasite density has important implications. Single community therapy programs to deliver treatments against several parasitic infections could avoid an increase of malaria attacks after mass treatment of ascariasis.

  11. Isolation and enumeration of Giardia cysts, cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs from fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2000-06-01

    Published techniques for recovering parasites from fruit and vegetables are generally inadequate, with low and variable recovery efficiencies. Here we describe an improved methodology for analyzing fruit and vegetables for Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs. The method includes washing procedures, sonication, and, for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, immunomagnetic separation. Identification is by immunofluorescence (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) or brightfield microscopy (Ascaris). Recovery efficiencies from lettuce, Chinese leaves, and strawberries were found to be approximately 67% for Giardia, 42% for Cryptosporidium, and 72% for Ascaris. Recovery efficiencies from bean sprouts tended to be more variable and lower. This could be due to material removed with the parasites during the washing procedures, which, in turn, appeared related to the age of the bean sprouts. It is therefore recommended that fruit and vegetables should be as fresh as possible when analyzed for parasites.

  12. Molecular diagnosis of ascariasis from human feces and description of a new Ascaris sp. genotype in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2009-07-07

    It is estimated that 120 million people are infected by Ascaris lumbricoides in Latin America, but few genomic studies have been conducted. We tested protocols for DNA extraction to obtain an Ascaris sp. molecular diagnosis from human feces, with the emphasis on PCR specificity and sensitivity. Ascaris sp. was detected in 100% of positive fecal samples using physico-chemical DNA extraction and the cytb gene and ITS1 as molecular targets. The method was sufficiently sensitive to detect Ascaris sp. from one isolated egg or four eggs in a fecal sample. Regarding the PCR specificity, there was no cross-reactivity when applied to Trichuris trichiura-positive fecal samples or in Ascaris sp. samples also positive to T. trichiura or Enterobius vermicularis. The ITS1 sequence analysis revealed two genotypes among the sample: the G1 genotype, the most prevalent in humans, and a new genotype, G6, described for the first time in Brazilian samples.

  13. [Studies on the intradermal reactions with the fractions of Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Wook

    1967-06-01

    INTRODUCTION : The studies on allergic reaction with the substances of Ascaris lumbricoides have long been studied by various worers; Conventry(1929), Campbell(1936), Sakei(1949), Miyakawa(1950), Ikeda(1952), Matsumoto and Imawari(1952), Morishita and Kobayashi(1953, 1954), Komiyayama(1954) and Yammoto(1956). Campbell(1936) and some other workers reported that the polysaccharides from ascaris produced the stronger intrademal reactions than protein fraction, though Yamamoto(1954) and others found the reverse results. On the other hand, Hosotani(1954) reported that the crude antigen or mixed antigen with polysaccharide and protein fraction of the ascaris produced the strongest skin reaction than with the other single fraction. As are shown in above reports, the intensity of the allergic reaction with the substances from ascaris is still remained under dipute. The reason might be due to the difference of the method of preparation, technique and evaluation. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the intensity of allergic reactivity fo protein and polysaccharide fration and mixed substance of two fractions and crude antigen of Ascaris lumbricoides. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A Intrdermal Test 1. Human Experiment. The intradermal test was performed on several groups of people. A: Ascaris lumbricoides egg positive cases among adult ages. B: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases but who bad doubtful symptom. C: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases but who had past history of ascaris infection. D: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases and aged 3-8 months old. 2. Animal Experiment: Same breeds of 6 dogs were raised i cages of laboratory for 6 months, During the period, special attention was paid to keep them in parasite free conditon. The body weight was 10kg in average. B. Antigens. The adults worms of Ascaris lumbricoides, which were obtained during laparotomy, were first washed with sterilized saline solution. Each ascaris was placed in 50ml of saline solution

  14. Gangrene intestine caused by Ascaris lumbricoides; report of 5 cases in children.

    PubMed

    Kawatra, Vibha; Arora, Prerna; Lakshmikantha, Akhila; Varma, Deepali; Khurana, Nita

    2010-05-15

    Ascaris infestation in the gastrointestinal tract is well known in Asian countries. It can be asymptomatic or can present with symptoms of acute abdomen. Perforation and torsion with gangrene are its very rare fatal complications but an important cause of mortality in children. Although ascariasis is very rare in developed countries, clinicians should consider this potentially dangerous, yet treatable, infection in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. We herein report a series of five cases of intestinal gangrene secondary to extensive infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides in children aged 1-4 years.

  15. Design and testing of fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in Ie Suum, Aceh Besar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to increase the value of fish produced by the community in Krueng Raya Sub-district, it has been designed and tested a fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in IeSuum Village, Krueng Raya Sub-district, Aceh Besar District. The geothermal energy is in the form of hot water with the temperature range is between 86 and 86.4 °C. Based on the design consideration, it is used a terraced rack type drier system. The drier system consists of a heat exchanger, drying chamber, and a blower to blow the air. Hot water from the geothermal source is passed into the heat exchanger to increase the air temperature outside it. The air is then blown into the drying chamber. Based on the design analysis is obtained that to dry 200 kg of fish in 24 hour, it is required a drying chamber with 1m long, 1 m width and 0.4 m high, the temperature of hot water entering the exchanger is 80 °C and the temperature of the air entering the drying chamber is maintained at 60°C. The average time required to dry fish till 10% of water level is 18-20 jam. The research is then continued by developing and testing the drying system with three layer rack to put in the fish. From the experimental result is obtained that the average water temperature flows out of the chamber is in the range of 76-78 °C and the temperature in the chamber is in the range of 57-62 °C. In addition, the weight of the fish, which initially is 20 kg, becomes12 kg in average after 18 hours drying process.

  16. Microsatellite markers for the human nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides: development and assessment of utility.

    PubMed

    Criscione, Charles D; Anderson, Joel D; Raby, Kyle; Sudimack, Dan; Subedi, Janardan; Rai, Dev R; Upadhayay, Ram P; Jha, Bharat; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Anderson, Timothy J C

    2007-06-01

    We describe 35 microsatellite markers from the human parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides. We found 7 sex-linked markers and demonstrate that 26 autosomal loci can be scored reliably. These markers have high genetic variability and provide the tools to address multiple questions concerning the epidemiology, fine-scale genetic structure, host specificity, and mating systems of this parasite.

  17. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides in Fecal Samples

    PubMed Central

    Eric, Agola L.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Maina, Geoffrey M.; Kinuthia, Joseph M.; Mutuku, Martin W.; Mugambi, Robert M.; Mwandi, Jackson M.; Mkoji, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a nematode parasite that causes the common tropical infection ascariasis in humans. It is also considered among the neglected tropical diseases. Diagnosis relies mainly on microscopy-based methods which are laborious, are limited by low sensitivity, and require high expertise. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosis of ascariasis in fecal samples, based on the first internal transcribed (ITS-1) spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. We used Primer Explorer V4 software to design primers. Ascaris adult and ova were obtained from naturally infected school children, whose parents/guardians gave consent for their participation in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted using alkaline lysis method and amplified by LAMP at 63°C for 45 minutes. LAMP products were visualized by naked eyes after adding SYBR Green dye and also on agarose gel. LAMP successfully and reliably detected Ascaris DNA from a single egg and in fecal samples. The assay specifically detected Ascaris DNA without amplifying DNA from ova of other parasites which commonly coexist with A. lumbricoides in feces. The developed LAMP assay has great potential for use in ascariasis diagnosis at the point of care and in low infection intensity situation that characterize control and elimination campaigns. PMID:27882242

  18. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2013-06-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  19. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides in Fecal Samples.

    PubMed

    Shiraho, Esther A; Eric, Agola L; Mwangi, Ibrahim N; Maina, Geoffrey M; Kinuthia, Joseph M; Mutuku, Martin W; Mugambi, Robert M; Mwandi, Jackson M; Mkoji, Gerald M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a nematode parasite that causes the common tropical infection ascariasis in humans. It is also considered among the neglected tropical diseases. Diagnosis relies mainly on microscopy-based methods which are laborious, are limited by low sensitivity, and require high expertise. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosis of ascariasis in fecal samples, based on the first internal transcribed (ITS-1) spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. We used Primer Explorer V4 software to design primers. Ascaris adult and ova were obtained from naturally infected school children, whose parents/guardians gave consent for their participation in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted using alkaline lysis method and amplified by LAMP at 63°C for 45 minutes. LAMP products were visualized by naked eyes after adding SYBR Green dye and also on agarose gel. LAMP successfully and reliably detected Ascaris DNA from a single egg and in fecal samples. The assay specifically detected Ascaris DNA without amplifying DNA from ova of other parasites which commonly coexist with A. lumbricoides in feces. The developed LAMP assay has great potential for use in ascariasis diagnosis at the point of care and in low infection intensity situation that characterize control and elimination campaigns.

  20. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  1. Association of geophagia with Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Young, Sera L.; Goodman, Dave; Farag, Tamer H.; Ali, Said M.; Khatib, Mzee R.; Khalfan, Sabra S.; Tielsch, James M.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Geophagia may be harmful as a method for the transmission of geohelminths. In this study, we pose two questions in a representative sample of 970 pregnant women from Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Can consumed earth be a vector for geohelminth infection? And do geophagists have differential parasitic infection? The parasitological content of 59 non-food substance samples was analysed. Cross-sectional data regarding pica behaviour were collected through interviews conducted by local researchers. Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm status was ascertained through Kato–Katz smears. The prevalence of geophagia at baseline was 5.6% and the overall prevalence of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infection was 5.6%, 33.2% and 32.9%, respectively. No consumed soil samples contained infectious parasitic stages, and only one of the consumed pica substances (charcoal) contained parasites of potential risk to human health. Neither the prevalence nor the intensity of infection with Ascaris, Trichuris or hookworm differed significantly by geophagia status. Furthermore, in multivariate models, geophagia was not a significant predictor of helminth infection status. We conclude that geophagia is not a source of Trichuris or hookworm infection among pregnant women in Pemba (insufficient power to evaluate the effect of Ascaris), which is in contrast to existing findings of helminth infection and geophagia. PMID:17568644

  2. In vivo and in vitro studies on the sonographical detection of Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, H; Kawooya, M; Esterre, P; Ravaoalimalala, V E; Roth, J; Thomas, A K; Roux, J; Seitz, H M; Doehring, E

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal ultrasound, a frequently applied diagnostic tool in industrialized nations, has recently also been introduced in tropical regions. This study attempts to describe the anatomical and sonographical features of Ascaris lumbricoides in the human intestine. In the course of a schistosomiasis morbidity study in Madagascar, 581 inhabitants of a rice-farming village on the high plateau of the island had their stools examined by means of a modified Kato-Katz thick smear technique (four slides per sample); 53% had eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in their stools. Twenty-two individuals underwent intestinal ultrasound examination and, in six cases, Ascaris lumbricoides was visualized. All six patients showed eggs upon stool examination. At ultrasound, the parasite was seen as a large, curved echogenic strip (4-6 mm in diameter) with an inner, anechoic, longitudinal canal. The image resembled a winding highway, the central structure representing the pseudocoel of the parasite. Patients were treated with mebendazole. The excreted worms of one patient were scanned under water, showing the same characteristics as in vivo. We conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides has a characteristic sonographical appearance and should not be a confounding factor in studies using intestinal ultrasound.

  3. [Morphologic characteristics of the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in coprological findings in humans].

    PubMed

    Straka, S; Dubinský, P; Skraciková, J; Konvit, I; Michal, L; Szilágyiová, M

    1989-10-01

    On microphotographs the morphological peculiarities of the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides are demonstrated. Diagnostic problems caused by these anomalies are discussed. Study of the variations of this parasite can contribute to a better understanding of the morphology, ecology and biology of intestinal parasites.

  4. ITS1 intra-individual variability of Ascaris isolates from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2010-03-01

    The zoonotic potential of Ascaris infecting pigs has stimulated studies of molecular epidemiology with internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) as the target. The aim of this study was to determine the value of Ascaris ITS1 as a molecular marker through assessing the intra-individual genetic diversity of Ascaris isolates from two geographical areas of Brazil. DNA was extracted from single isolated eggs, ITS1 PCR was performed, and the PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Clone analysis showed high ITS1 intra-individual variability revealed by 2-4 ITS1 genotypes/haplotypes per sample (egg). Two genotypes, G1 and G6, and 13 new haplotypes were detected and characterized. The most prevalent in humans, G1 and/or the Brazilian G6, were detected in all samples. Except for genotype G1, no relationship was observed between Brazilian ITS1 genotypes/haplotypes and those previously described in China, Bangladesh, Japan, United Kingdom, Australia, and Denmark, with respect to geographic origin or host affiliation. However, an association between the two geographically separated Brazilian ITS1 isolates was observed. The ITS1 intra-individual variability revealed in this study indicated that the use of this genetic region to discriminate human and pig Ascaris genotypes should be reconsidered.

  5. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  6. [Monitoring and SWOT analysis of Ascaris eggs pollution in soil of rural China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui-hui; Zhou, Chang-hai; Zang, Wei; Zhang, Xue-qiang; Chen, Ying-dan

    2014-06-01

    To understand the status of Ascaris eggs pollution in soil at national monitoring spots of soil-transmitted nematodiasis, so as to provide the evidence for making countermeasures and evaluating the control effect. Ten households were selected from each of the 22 national monitoring spots annually according to the National Surveillance Program of Soil-Transmitted Nematodiasis (Trial), and the soil samples from vegetable gardens, toilet periphery, courtyards and kitchens were collected and examined by using the modified floatation test with saturated sodium nitrate. Fertilized or unfertilized eggs as well as live or dead fertilized eggs were discriminated and identified. In addition, a SWOT analysis of monitoring of Ascaris eggs pollution in the soil of rural China was carried out. A total of 1 090 households were monitored in 22 monitoring spots from 2006 to 2010. The total detection rate of Ascaris eggs in the soil was 30.73%, and the detection rates of fertilized, unfertilized and live fertilized eggs were 13.21%, 26.42% and 20.28%, respectively. The total detection rates of Ascaris eggs in the vegetable garden, toilet periphery, courtyard and kitchen were 16.51%, 13.49%, 14.22% and 10.73% respectively. The SWOT analysis demonstrated that the monitoring work had both advantages and disadvantages, and was faced with opportunities as well as threats. The pollution status of Ascaris eggs in the soil is still quite severe at some national monitoring spots, and the counter-measures such as implementing hazard-free treatment of stool, improving water supply and sanitation and reforming environment should be taken to protect people from being infected.

  7. Ascaris, atopy, and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in rural and urban South African children

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, James; Burney, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Populations with endemic parasitosis have high levels of IgE but low levels of allergic disease. We investigated the association between infection with the parasite Ascaris allergic sensitization, and exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Objective We sought to investigate the effect of Ascaris infection on bronchial hyperreactivity, skin testing, and specific IgE levels. Methods A cross-sectional prevalence survey was conducted in urban and rural South African children to measure levels of EIB. A sample of children was enrolled in a nested case-control study for further investigation based on response to exercise. Analyses used weighted logistic regression. Results Geometric mean total IgE levels were higher in Ascaris–infected subjects (infected subjects: 451 IU (95% CI, 356-572) vs uninfected subjects: 344 IU (95% CI, 271-437), P 5.04), and high levels of total IgE were positively associated with detection of specific IgE to the aeroallergens tested, but there was no significant association between Ascaris infection and titers of specific IgE. Ascaris infection was associated with a decreased risk of a positive skin test response (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42–0.94; P 5 .03) but an increased risk of EIB (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.23-2.11; P 5 .001). Conclusion In areas of high parasite endemicity, Ascaris might induce an inflammatory response in the lungs independent of its effect on IgE production. This could explain some of the contradictory findings seen in studies examining the association between geohelminth infection, atopy, and asthma. PMID:19962746

  8. Parasitological and immunological aspects of early Ascaris spp. infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Silva, Flaviane Nunes; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Dhom-Lemos, Lucas de Carvalho; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Passos, Lívia Silva Araújo; Gaze, Soraya; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Studies related to the immunobiological aspects of an Ascaris spp. infection are still scarce, especially those that aim to elucidate the early events of the immune response. In this study, we demonstrated a novel standardized method for early experimental Ascaris infection, providing additional information about the infectivity of eggs embryonated in vitro as well as the influence of host age on development of the infection. Finally, we characterised the immunopathology of early infection, focusing on the tissue and systemic cytokine profiles and the histopathology of infection in the lungs of BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that the highest egg infectivity occurred on the 100th and 200th days of in vitro embryonation and that 8 week-old BALB/c mice were more susceptible to infection than 16 week-old mice. Ascaris-infected mice showed an early, significant level of IL-5 production in the lungs 4 days p.i., followed by an increase in the level of neutrophils in the inflammatory infiltrate at 8 days p.i, which was correlated with the peak of larval migration in the tissue and a significant level of IL-6 production. The inflammatory infiltrate in the lungs was gradually replaced by mononuclear cells and eosinophils on the 10th and 12th days p.i., respectively, and an increase in TNF levels was observed. The downmodulation of systemic TCD4(+) cell numbers might suggest that T cell hyporesponsiveness was induced by the Ascaris spp. larvae, contributing to safeguarding parasite survival during larval migration. Taken together, the novel aspects of Ascaris infection presented here enabled a better understanding of the immunopathological events during larval migration, providing insight for further studies focused on immunisation and immunoprophylatic assays.

  9. Marking nut anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-01-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  10. Mastering Marking Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brooke

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are smart people, so why does marking reduce them to stressed and soulless messes? Because in their hearts they know that students do not learn from it, and that drives them nuts. Researchers like Lorna Earl and Dylan Wiliam have looked closely at marking systems and have proven what teachers already know deep down: marking student work…

  11. Estimation of Ascaris infection risks in children under 15 from the consumption of wastewater-irrigated carrots.

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan; Sleigh, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, the large human roundworm, infects approximately 1,200 million people, with children under the age of 15 being particularly at risk. Monte Carlo quantitative microbial risk analyses were undertaken to estimate median Ascaris infection risks in children under 15 from eating raw carrots irrigated with wastewater. For a tolerable additional disease burden of 10(-5) DALY (disability-adjusted life year) loss per person per year (pppy), the tolerable Ascaris infection risk is approximately 10(-3) pppy, which can be achieved in hyperendemic areas by a 4-log unit Ascaris reduction. This reduction can be easily achieved by wastewater treatment in a 1-day anaerobic pond and 5-day facultative pond (2 log units) and peeling prior to consumption (2 log units).

  12. 21 CFR 558.315 - Levamisole hydrochloride (equivalent).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Treatment of the following gastrointestinal worms and lung worm infections; stomach worms (Haemonchus.... Treatment of the following nematode infections: large roundworms (Ascaris suum), nodular...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1192 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), hairworms (adult) (Trichostrongylus axei), large mouth stomach worms (adult) (Habronema muscae), neck... larvae) (large roundworm, Ascaris suum; red stomach worm, Hyostrongylus rubidus; nodular worm...

  14. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  15. On denture marking.

    PubMed

    Borrman, H I; DiZinno, J A; Wasén, J; René, N

    1999-06-01

    During the last decades in Sweden dentures have been permanently marked with a stainless steel metal band incorporated into the acrylic and containing the patient's birth date, a special number, and "S" for Sweden. The last recommendation issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare states that "the patients shall always be offered denture marking and be informed about the benefit thereof. Denture marking is not permitted if the patient refuses it". Requirements for denture markers have been that they should be biologically inert (when incorporated into the denture), not be expensive, be easy to inscribe, be possible to retrieve after an accident, and survive elevated temperatures for a reasonable time under normal circumstances. Although the frequency of edentulousness has decreased in recent years due to the improvement in oral health there remains a need to address the issue of marking of complete dentures, because there is a large variation in the oral status of populations in different countries. Given that only one marked denture can reveal the identity of a deceased person when all other methods fail to do so, makes it worthwhile. Furthermore, denture marking is important in long-term care facilities. We have investigated the issue of denture marking in Europe and in the United States. The results from the European survey show that denture marking is, to our knowledge regulated by law only in Sweden and Iceland. In the US denture marking is so far mandatory in 21 states while New York State requires dentures to be marked if the patient requests it and several other states impose the obligation to mark dentures on long-term care facilities. Since there is no international consensus regarding the issue of denture marking it is important to address it. A survey from the Nordic countries has shown that if denture marking was in general use, the contribution to the establishment of identity by forensic odontology in cases of fire would increase by about 10

  16. [Volvulus of the small bowel due to ascaris lumbricoides package: about a case].

    PubMed

    Diouf, Cheikh; Kane, Ahmed; Ndoye, Ndeye Aby; Ndour, Oumar; Faye-Fall, Aimé Lakh; Fall, Mbaye; Alumeti, Désiré Munyali; Ngom, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We report an exceptional case of a 7 year-old patient with necrotic small bowel volvulus due to adult ascaris lumbricoides. At the admission, the child had intestinal obstruction evolving since two days with alteration of general state. Abdominal radiography without preparation showed small bowel air-fluid levels and tiger-stripe appearance evoking the diagnosis of acute intestinal obstruction associated with abdominal mass. After resuscitation, the surgical treatment consisted of laparotomy which showed necrotic volvulus of the terminal ileum containing adult ascaris lumbricoides. The patient underwent small bowel resection, approximately one meter of affected section was removed and then an ileostomy was performed. The evolution was favorable. The patient underwent ileorectal anastomosis four weeks later. After a 2 year follow-up period the child had no symptoms.

  17. Marking as Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  18. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae "inside the eggs" were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  19. In situ characterisation of a microorganism surface by Raman microspectroscopy: the shell of Ascaris eggs.

    PubMed

    Quilès, Fabienne; Balandier, Jean-Yves; Capizzi-Banas, Sandrine

    2006-09-01

    Intestinal nematodes are very common human parasites and a single species, Ascaris lumbricoïdes, is estimated to infect a quarter of the world's population. A sticky external layer covers their eggs. This work shows that Raman vibrational confocal spectroscopy is able to give information on the biochemical composition of the shell of Ascaris eggs. The biochemical localised characterisation of Ascaris eggs was performed directly on the eggs in their aqueous environment. The studied parasites came from two origins: dissections of adult females and extractions from biosolid sludges. The presence of mucopolysaccharides, proteins and chitin in the shell was demonstrated. The presence of ascaroside compounds was shown particularly via the narrow and intense bands from the organised long CH2 chains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the latter have been observed in Raman vibrational spectra of microorganisms. Hydration of the shell was different depending on the intensity of the colour of the sludge eggs. Knowledge of the biochemical structural properties of egg surfaces would be useful to understand the egg adhesion phenomena on vegetables contaminated by reused wastewater.

  20. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in Japanese school children.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Carmen Miwa; Ito, Takehiko; Takaki, Jiro; Wang, Bin-Ling; Wang, Da-Hong; Takigawa, Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki

    2008-10-01

    In the present study, we examined the dynamic of school-health-based parasite control and the related socio-economic influences. This is an ecological study based on data from 46 prefectures in Japan. The exponential decay of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was calculated by iterative least-squares method. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression model analysis were performed to assess the associations between the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in Japanese school children and socio-economic variables such as the prefecture income per capita, the percentage of primary industry, the population density per 1 km2, the diffusion rate of population under water supply, and the percentage of upper secondary school enrollment. The results indicated that the parasite carrier rate was higher in younger students. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was approximately 3 years with significant variation among prefectures. Multiple regression analyses showed that the decrease of infection in elementary and lower secondary school children had a significant positive association with primary industry and a significant negative association with prefecture income per capita. The school-health-based parasite intervention differs by prefecture and has changed over time according to the respective prefectural stage of economic development.

  1. Relationships between pyruvate decarboxylation and branched-chain volatile acid synthesis in Ascaris mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Komuniecki, R; Komuniecki, P R; Saz, H J

    1981-10-01

    The rate of 14CO2 evolution from 1-[14C]pyruvate by intact Ascaris mitochondria was very slow, but increased with increasing concentrations of pyruvate. At all concentrations of pyruvate, in an aerobic environment, pyruvate decarboxylation was stimulated greatly by the addition of fumarate, malate, or succinate. However, under anaerobic conditions, only malate and fumarate stimulated pyruvate decarboxylation; succinate had no effect. This implies that the aerobic metabolism of succinate, presumably to other dicarboxylic acids, may be required for the stimulation. Incubation of sonicated mitochondria with pyruvate plus fumarate, under rate-limiting concentrations of NAD+, resulted in approximately equal quantities of pyruvate utilized and succinate formed, suggesting that pyruvate oxidation and fumarate reduction may be linked. Branched-chain, volatile fatty acids were not formed during incubations with either malate or succinate, or succinate plus acetate. However, incubations of intact Ascaris mitochondria with pyruvate plus succinate yielded 2-methylbutyrate and 2-methylvalerate, whereas incubations with pyruvate plus propionate yielded almost exclusively 2-methylvalerate. Oxygen dramatically inhibited the synthesis of the branched-chain acids from succinate plus pyruvate, attesting to the apparent anaerobic nature of Ascaris mitochondrial metabolism. Significantly, the addition of glucose plus ADP stimulated the formation of all volatile fatty acids. Therefore, the synthesis of branched-chain acids may be related directly to increased energy generation. Alternatively, they may function in the regulatory role of maintaining the mitochondrial redox balance.

  2. Modeling the inactivation of ascaris eggs as a function of ammonia concentration and temperature.

    PubMed

    Fidjeland, J; Nordin, A; Pecson, B M; Nelson, K L; Vinnerås, B

    2015-10-15

    Ammonia sanitization is a promising technology for sanitizing human excreta intended for use as a fertilizer in agriculture. Ascaris eggs are the most persistent pathogens regarding ammonia inactivation and are commonly present in fecal sludge in low- and middle-income countries. In this study, a model for predicting ammonia inactivation of ascaris eggs was developed. Data from four previous studies were compiled and analyzed statistically, and a mathematical model for the treatment time required for inactivation was created. The inactivation rate increased with NH3 activity to the power of 0.7. The required treatment time was found to decrease 10-fold for each 16 °C temperature increase. Dry matter (DM) content and pH had no direct effect on inactivation, but had an indirect effect due to their impact on NH3 activity, which was estimated using the Pitzer approach. An additional model giving an approximation of Pitzer NH3 activity but based on the Emerson approach, DM content and total ammonia (NHTot) was also developed. The treatment time required for different log10 reductions of ascaris egg viability can thus easily be estimated by the model as a function of NH3 activity and temperature. The impact on treatment time by different treatment options can then be theoretically evaluated, promoting improvements of the treatment e.g. by adding urea or alkaline agents, or increasing the temperature by solar heating.

  3. Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Berendes, David; Levy, Karen; Knee, Jackie; Handzel, Thomas; Hill, Vincent R

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0-12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli concentration, and Ascaris spp. viability. Center temperatures in compost bins were all above 58 °C, while corner temperatures were 10 - 20 °C lower. Moisture content was 67 ± 10% in all except the oldest compost. A 4-log reduction in E. coli was observed over the first sixteen weeks of composting at both locations and depths, after which E. coli was undetectable (LOD: 142 MPN g(-1) dry weight). In new compost, 10.4% and 8.3% of Ascaris eggs were viable and fully embryonated, respectively. Percent viability dropped to zero in samples older than six weeks. These findings indicate that the Haitian EcoSan composting process was effective in inactivating E. coli and Ascaris spp. in latrine waste within sixteen weeks. This study is one of the first to document efficacy of an ecological sanitation system under field conditions and provides insight into composting methods and monitoring for other international settings.

  4. Effects of acetic acid on the viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

    PubMed Central

    Beyhan, Yunus E.; Yilmaz, Hasan; Hokelek, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of acetic acid on durable Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs to determine the effective concentration of vinegar and the implementation period to render the consumption of raw vegetables more reliable. Methods: This experimental study was performed in May 2015 in the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. The A. lumbricoides eggs were divided into 2 groups. Eggs in the study group were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 10% acetic acid concentrations, and eggs in the control group were treated with Eosin. The eggs’ viability was observed at the following points in time during the experiment: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Results: The 1% acetic acid was determined insufficient on the viability of Ascaris eggs. At the 30th minute, 3% acetic acid demonstrated 95% effectiveness, and at 5% concentration, all eggs lost their viability. Treatment of acetic acid at the ratio of 4.8% in 30 minutes, or a ratio of 4.3% in 60 minutes is required for full success of tretment. Conclusion: Since Ascaris eggs have 3 layers and are very resistant, the acetic acid concentration, which can be effective on these eggs are thought to be effective also on many other parasitic agents. In order to attain an active protection, after washing the vegetables, direct treatment with a vinegar containing 5% acetic acid for 30 minutes is essential. PMID:26905351

  5. Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Berendes, David; Levy, Karen; Knee, Jackie; Handzel, Thomas; Hill, Vincent R.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0 – 12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli concentration, and Ascaris spp. viability. Center temperatures in compost bins were all above 58 °C, while corner temperatures were 10 – 20 °C lower. Moisture content was 67 ± 10% in all except the oldest compost. A 4-log reduction in E. coli was observed over the first sixteen weeks of composting at both locations and depths, after which E. coli was undetectable (LOD: 142 MPN g-1 dry weight). In new compost, 10.4% and 8.3% of Ascaris eggs were viable and fully embryonated, respectively. Percent viability dropped to zero in samples older than six weeks. These findings indicate that the Haitian EcoSan composting process was effective in inactivating E. coli and Ascaris spp. in latrine waste within sixteen weeks. This study is one of the first to document efficacy of an ecological sanitation system under field conditions and provides insight into composting methods and monitoring for other international settings. PMID:25932948

  6. Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio improves specificity for the diagnosis of Anisakis simplex sensitization in travellers and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, N; Rodríguez-Mahillo, A I; Puente, S; Gutiérrez, M T; Moneo, I; González-Muñoz, M

    2014-10-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite responsible for human infection and is able to induce IgE-mediated reactions with several clinical manifestations. Laboratory diagnosis of Anisakis allergy is based on the detection of specific IgE using parasite whole antigen. Unfortunately, these diagnostic tools detect cross-reactivities with other nematodes and micro-organisms leading to low specificity of the diagnostic tests. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the diagnostic value of specific IgE to Anisakis for diagnosis of A. simplex-sensitization in native Spanish residents (IMM, n=766) and subjects coming from tropical and sub-tropical geographic areas (TRO, n=233). Since Ascaris is the human parasite most closely related to Anisakis, specific IgE to Ascaris was also determined to assess Anisakis cross-reaction with other nematodes and the diagnostic value of Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio for Anisakis allergy was examined. IMM and TRO groups showed similar specific IgE to Anisakis levels, while TRO had higher levels of specific IgE to Ascaris than IMM group (p=0.001). ROC curve analysis determined that an Anisakis specific IgE threshold of 0.71 kU/L yielded 93% and 82% specificities in IMM and TRO groups, respectively. A cut-off value ≥4.4 for Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio increased specificity to 95% for samples having IgE to Ascaris ≥0.35. In conclusion, the ratio of specific IgE to Anisakis and Ascaris improved remarkably the specificity and this parameter easily obtained from the commercially available system could be useful in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to A. simplex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Marking: A Critical Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Having pupils critique their own work is an alternative to marking that is worthy of consideration. Pupil critique fosters in students a willingness to take responsibility for the quality of their work products. (RM)

  8. Ames Fellows Award - Mark

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Dr. Hans Mark is a leading expert in the fields of aerospace design and national defense policy. From 1969 to 1977, he served as Director of the NASA Ames Research Center. During his tenure, Ames b...

  9. Mark IVA microprocessor support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burford, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The requirements and plans for the maintenance support of microprocessor-based controllers in the Deep Space Network Mark IVA System are discussed. Additional new interfaces and 16-bit processors have introduced problems not present in the Mark III System. The need for continuous training of maintenance personnel to maintain a level of expertise consistent with the sophistication of the required tools is also emphasized.

  10. Ascaris co-infection does not alter malaria-induced anaemia in a cohort of Nigerian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Abanyie, Francisca A; McCracken, Courtney; Kirwan, Patrick; Molloy, Síle F; Asaolu, Samuel O; Holland, Celia V; Gutman, Julie; Lamb, Tracey J

    2013-01-02

    Co-infection with malaria and intestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides is common. Malaria parasites induce a pro-inflammatory immune response that contributes to the pathogenic sequelae, such as malarial anaemia, that occur in malaria infection. Ascaris is known to create an anti-inflammatory immune environment which could, in theory, counteract the anti-malarial inflammatory immune response, minimizing the severity of malarial anaemia. This study examined whether Ascaris co-infection can minimize the severity of malarial anaemia. Data from a randomized controlled trial on the effect of antihelminthic treatment in Nigerian preschool-aged (6-59 months) children conducted in 2006-2007 were analysed to examine the effect of malaria and Ascaris co-infection on anaemia severity. Children were enrolled and tested for malaria, helminths and anaemia at baseline, four, and eight months. Six hundred and ninety subjects were analysed in this study. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess the relationship between infection status and Ascaris and Plasmodium parasite intensity on severity of anaemia, defined as a haemoglobin less than 11 g/dL. Malaria prevalence ranged from 35-78% over the course of this study. Of the malaria-infected children, 55% were co-infected with Ascaris at baseline, 60% were co-infected four months later and 48% were co-infected eight months later, underlining the persistent prevalence of malaria-nematode co-infections in this population. Over the course of the study the percentage of anaemic subjects in the population ranged between 84% at baseline and 77% at the eight-month time point. The odds of being anaemic were four to five times higher in children infected with malaria compared to those without malaria. Ascaris infection alone did not increase the odds of being anaemic, indicating that malaria was the main cause of anaemia in this population. There was no significant difference in the severity of anaemia between children

  11. Immunization of rabbits with nematode Ascaris lumbricoides antigens induces antibodies cross-reactive to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae antigens.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Takuya; Khan, Al Fazal; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Takai, Toshiro; Zaman, Khalequz; Yunus, Md; Takeuchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There are controversial reports on the relationship between helminthic infection and allergic diseases. Although IgE cross-reactivity between nematode Ascaris antigens and house dust-mite allergens in allergic patients have been reported, whether Ascaris or the mite is the primary sensitizer remains unknown. Here we found that immunization of naïve animals with Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) antigens induced production of antibodies cross-reactive to mite antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Sera from Bangladeshi children showed IgE reactivity to Ascaris and mite extracts. IgG from rabbits immunized with Al extract exhibited reactivity to Df antigens. Treatment of the anti-Al antibody with Df antigen-coupled beads eliminated the reactivity to Df antigens. In immunoblot analysis, an approximately 100-kDa Df band was the most reactive to anti-Al IgG. The present study is the first step towards the establishment of animal models to study the relationship between Ascaris infection and mite-induced allergic diseases.

  12. Meetings with Mark Vishik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikinskaya, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    Mark Iosifovich Vishik was my husband Vladimir Chepyzhov's advisor during his years as a student in the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics at Moscow State University, and afterwards they worked together for almost 30 years. This is why I knew him personally while not being a mathematician myself: we sometimes talked on the phone, and met during common trips and a few holidays. In his last years, after the death of his devoted wife who was also his best friend, my husband and I decided to visit Mark regularly in order to comfort him in his loneliness, and many other of his friends did the same. I can say without exaggeration that Mark loved to talk with me about everyday matters, to reminisce about his wife Asya Moiseevna, their friends and relatives, to tell stories of his youth and the wonderful encounters that had so enriched his life. We had the idea to write down our conversations and publish them as a book. Unfortunately, few such conversations lay ahead. The last one took place in January 2010. We did not write a book, but we did write an article [1], which was published in English in the form of an interview with Mark. The present article is based on our conversations with Mark. Here I will try to recount his memories about people who played an important role in his life.

  13. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  14. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  15. Confirmation of the protective effect of Ascaris lumbricoides on Plasmodium falciparum infection: results of a randomized trial in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Brutus, Laurent; Watier, Laurence; Hanitrasoamampionona, Virginie; Razanatsoarilala, Hélène; Cot, Michel

    2007-12-01

    A controlled randomized trial of anti-helminthic treatment was undertaken in 1996-1997 in a rural area of Madagascar where populations were simultaneously infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, Plasmodium falciparum, and Schistosoma mansoni. Levamisole was administered bimonthly to 107 subjects, whereas 105 were controls. Levamisole was highly effective in reducing Ascaris egg loads in the treated group (P < 10(-3) at all visits), whereas it had no effect on schistosomiasis. Subjects 5-14 years of age, treated with levamisole, had a significant increase of their P. falciparum densities compared with controls (P = 0.003). There was no effect of the treatment on children 6 months to 4 years of age, nor on adults > 15 years of age. This study confirms the results of a randomized trial, which showed a negative interaction in those > 5 years of age between Ascaris and malaria parasite density in another Malagasy population, submitted to a higher malaria transmission.

  16. [Ascaris lumbricoides in the nasogastric tube after operation on a patient with the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia: case report].

    PubMed

    Çiçek, Ayşegül Çopur; Gündoğdu, Deniz; Direkel, Sahin; Öztürk, Çinar

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a comman intestinal helminths in humans. It is a parasite which commonly affects society with a low socioeconomic status, especially in tropical and rural areas. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation can lead to serious complications because of the mobility of the worms. The parasite can cause a variety of complications like intestinal obstruction, perforation, biliary obstruction, pancreatitis, peritonitis, liver abscess, cholangiohepatitis, volvulus, and gangrene, etc. A 59-year-old female patient hospitalized with the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia was operated on for jejunal resection. On the 6th postoperative day, a worm was noticed emerging through the nasogastric tube. Ascaris lumbricoides was determined as a result of the examination microbiology laboratory. The patient was treated successfully with one dose of albendazole 200 mg 1x2. Our case describes a clinical situation of ascariasis observed after jejunal resection and emphasizes the importance of remaining aware of this rare complication of ascariasis.

  17. Larva migrans syndrome caused by Toxocara and Ascaris roundworm infections in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, A; Hombu, A; Wang, Z; Maruyama, H

    2016-09-01

    Larva migrans syndrome (LMS) caused by Toxocara and Ascaris roundworms is generally believed to be more common in children, while a report from Japan suggests that it is more common in adults. We conducted a large-scale retrospective study to confirm these findings and to clarify what caused the difference between Japan and other countries, to reveal overlooked aspects of this disease. The clinical information of 911 cases which we diagnosed as Toxocara or Ascaris LMS during 2001 and 2015 was analysed. Information used included age, sex, address (city or county), chief complaint, present history, dietary history, overseas travelling history, medical imaging findings and laboratory data (white blood cell count, peripheral blood eosinophil number and total IgE). The sex ratio of the disease was 2.37 (male/female = 641/270). The number of patients not younger than 20 years old were 97.8 and 95.1 % among males and females, respectively. Major disease types were visceral, ocular, neural and asymptomatic. The visceral type was more prevalent in older patients, while younger patients were more vulnerable to ocular symptoms. More than two-thirds of the patients whose dietary habits were recorded had a history of ingesting raw or undercooked animal meat. LMS caused by Toxocara or Ascaris is primarily a disease of adult males in Japan, who probably acquired infections by eating raw or undercooked animal meat/liver. Healthcare specialists should draw public attention to the risk of raw or undercooked animal meat in Europe as well.

  18. Ammonia inactivation of Ascaris ova in ecological compost by using urine and ash.

    PubMed

    McKinley, James W; Parzen, Rebecca E; Mercado Guzmán, Álvaro

    2012-08-01

    Viable ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, an indicator organism for pathogens, are frequently found in feces-derived compost produced from ecological toilets, demonstrating that threshold levels of time, temperature, pH, and moisture content for pathogen inactivation are not routinely met. Previous studies have determined that NH(3) has ovicidal properties for pathogens, including Ascaris ova. This research attempted to achieve Ascaris inactivation via NH(3) under environmental conditions commonly found in ecological toilets and using materials universally available in an ecological sanitation setting, including compost (feces and sawdust), urine, and ash. Compost mixed with stored urine and ash produced the most rapid inactivation, with significant inactivation observed after 2 weeks and with a time to 99% ovum inactivation (T(99)) of 8 weeks. Compost mixed with fresh urine and ash achieved a T(99) of 15 weeks, after a 4-week lag phase. Both matrices had relatively high total-ammonia concentrations and pH values of >9.24 (pK(a) of ammonia). In compost mixed with ash only, and in compost mixed with fresh urine only, inactivation was observed after an 11-week lag phase. These matrices contained NH(3) concentrations of 164 to 173 and 102 to 277 mg/liter, respectively, when inactivation occurred, which was below the previously hypothesized threshold for inactivation (280 mg/liter), suggesting that a lower threshold NH(3) concentration may be possible with a longer contact time. Other significant results include the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia between pH values of 10.4 and 11.6, above the literature threshold pH of 10.

  19. Ammonia Inactivation of Ascaris Ova in Ecological Compost by Using Urine and Ash

    PubMed Central

    Parzen, Rebecca E.; Mercado Guzmán, Álvaro

    2012-01-01

    Viable ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, an indicator organism for pathogens, are frequently found in feces-derived compost produced from ecological toilets, demonstrating that threshold levels of time, temperature, pH, and moisture content for pathogen inactivation are not routinely met. Previous studies have determined that NH3 has ovicidal properties for pathogens, including Ascaris ova. This research attempted to achieve Ascaris inactivation via NH3 under environmental conditions commonly found in ecological toilets and using materials universally available in an ecological sanitation setting, including compost (feces and sawdust), urine, and ash. Compost mixed with stored urine and ash produced the most rapid inactivation, with significant inactivation observed after 2 weeks and with a time to 99% ovum inactivation (T99) of 8 weeks. Compost mixed with fresh urine and ash achieved a T99 of 15 weeks, after a 4-week lag phase. Both matrices had relatively high total-ammonia concentrations and pH values of >9.24 (pKa of ammonia). In compost mixed with ash only, and in compost mixed with fresh urine only, inactivation was observed after an 11-week lag phase. These matrices contained NH3 concentrations of 164 to 173 and 102 to 277 mg/liter, respectively, when inactivation occurred, which was below the previously hypothesized threshold for inactivation (280 mg/liter), suggesting that a lower threshold NH3 concentration may be possible with a longer contact time. Other significant results include the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia between pH values of 10.4 and 11.6, above the literature threshold pH of 10. PMID:22582051

  20. Teaching with Mark Dion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  1. Double Marking Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) published the report of an independent panel of experts into maintaining standards at Advanced Level (A-Level). One of its recommendations was for: limited experimental double marking of scripts in subjects such as English to determine whether the strategy would significantly reduce errors…

  2. Airbag bounce marks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Looking east from the lander, the last few bounce marks as Pathfinder rolled to a stop on July 4 are visible in the soil in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The two most distant marks, identified by pointers in the image, consist of dark patches of disturbed soil. The three closest marks are clearly visible in the foreground, with one easily identifiable behind the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast, is at right. The most distant positively identified bounce mark, indicated by the pointer at right, is approximately 11.3 meters (37 feet) from the lander.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  3. Teaching with Mark Dion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  4. Digitally Marking RSA Moduli

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.M.

    2000-10-09

    The moduli used in RSA (see [5]) can be generated by many different sources. The generator of that modulus (assuming a single entity generates the modulus) knows its factorization. They would have the ability to forge signatures or break any system based on this moduli. If a moduli and the RSA parameters associated with it were generated by a reputable source, the system would have higher value than if the parameters were generated by an unknown entity. So for tracking, security, confidence and financial reasons it would be beneficial to know who the generator of the RSA modulus was. This is where digital marking comes in. An RSA modulus ia digitally marked, or digitally trade marked, if the generator and other identifying features of the modulus (such as its intended user, the version number, etc.) can be identified and possibly verified by the modulus itself. The basic concept of digitally marking an RSA modulus would be to fix the upper bits of the modulus to this tag. Thus anyone who sees the public modulus can tell who generated the modulus and who the generator believes the intended user/owner of the modulus is.

  5. Little Jiffy, Mark IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Rice, John

    1974-01-01

    In this paper three changes and one new development for the method of exploratory factor analysis (a second generation Little Jiffy) developed by Kaiser are described. Following this short description a step-by-step computer algorithm of the revised method, dubbed Little Jiffy, Mark IV is presented. (MP)

  6. Marking Advanced Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Michael

    1978-01-01

    A list of points to aid essay writers is suggested as the basis of a marking system for the teacher of English as a foreign language. The checklist, obtained from a book on higher education by Ruth Beard, can be adapted to the English as a foreign language situation. (SW)

  7. Fathoming Mark Twain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggar, Joanna

    1988-01-01

    Relates the efforts of completing two collections of the works and papers of Mark Twain. Describes the combined efforts of the University of Iowa and the University of California to publish both a scholarly edition and a reader's edition devoted to Twain. (KO)

  8. Curiosity Leaves Its Mark

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-29

    This image shows a close-up of track marks from the first test drive of NASA Curiosity rover. The rover arm is visible in the foreground. A close inspection of the tracks reveals a unique, repeating pattern: Morse code for JPL.

  9. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  10. Rehab Mark. Trainer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed; And Others

    This manual is written for trainers working in the RehabMark system of employer development in vocational rehabilitation services. Videotapes are available to accompany lectures and other training activities, and materials for transparencies are provided in an appendix. After an introductory chapter, the first half of the manual contains training…

  11. Rehab Mark. Participant's Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed; And Others

    This manual is the employer-focused component workbook of a vocational rehabilitation program. Goals of the RehabMark approach include increased exposure of the rehabilitation agency in the local community, expanded contributions by the agency to community members, and services benefiting numerous clients simultaneously. The first half of the…

  12. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  13. Screening of indigenous plants for anthelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides: Part--II.

    PubMed

    Raj, R K

    1975-01-01

    Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, rind of Citrus decumana, Desmodium triflorum, seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana, rhizomes of Kaempfaria galanga, Lippia nodiflora, tender leaves of Morinda citrifolia, rhizomes of Pollia serzogonian, Tephrosia purpuria and rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbeth showed good in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. While, the alcoholic extracts of the bark of Alibzzia lebbek, the bulb of Allium sativum, rhizomes of Alpinia calcaratta, rind of Citrus acida, rind of Citrus aromatium, rind of Citrus medica, rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica and rind of Punica granatum showed moderate invitro activity.

  14. Point-of-care sonographic detection of intestinal ascaris lumbricoides in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Kessler, David O; Gurwitz, Avrahom; Tsung, James W

    2010-08-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound use is rapidly growing in acute-care settings such as pediatric emergency departments, and new applications are continually being explored. This is especially true in the developing world where the World Health Organization estimates that 75% of people have no access to any imaging or availability of more costly imaging technology may be limited (Essential Health Technologies Strategy 2004-2007). We report a case of intestinal roundworm infection in a 3-year-old boy and describe the ultrasound findings of Ascaris lumbricoides.

  15. [Intestinal obstruction due to Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a geriatric patient].

    PubMed

    Chiappe, Alfredo; Arteaga, Kovy; Resurrección, Cristhian; Ñavincopa, Marcos; Ticona, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is considered the largest intestinal nematode with a higher incidence in the childhood, representing a truly medical and public health problem, principally in undeveloped countries. We present the case of an 83 year old man, born and coming from the amazon region, without any relevant previous history of disease, admitted in the emergency department of our hospital for presenting intestinal obstruction and also presumptive biliary obstruction due to multiple balls of parasites, requiring immediate surgical intervention. We emphasize the need of consider this etiologic possibility in the differential diagnosis, that in this particular case, wasn't suspected in the first place.

  16. Relationship between specific serum IgE to Ascaris lumbricoides and onset of respiratory symptoms in Bangladesh immigrants.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, G; Pacor, M L; Mansueto, P; Esposito-Pellitteri, M; Scichilone, N; Ditta, V; Lo Bianco, C; Leto-Barone, M S; Di Fede, G; Corrocher, R; Mansueto, S; Rini, G B

    2006-01-01

    The role of helminths in asthma and/or rhinitis and in allergic sensitization is still unclear. We assessed the relationship between Ascaris-specific IgE, respiratory symptoms and allergic sensitization in Bangladesh immigrants. 246 individuals were examined from 1996 to 2001. Serum total IgE, Ascaris IgE, specific IgE to inhalant allergens, skin prick tests (SPT) and parasitological evaluation of the stool were performed. Total serum IgE were significantly higher in Ascaris-IgE positive (> 0.35 kU/L) individuals (806.5 [409.0-1436.0] kU/L vs. 207.0 [127.0-332.5] kU/L; P < 0.0001) and in subjects with respiratory symptoms (413.0 [239.0-1096.0] kU/L vs. 259.5 [147.0-387.0] kU/L), (P < 0.0001), but not in SPT positive subjects (413.0 [179.0-894.0] kU/L vs. 404.6 [305.0-1201.0] kU/L (P = 0.5). Ascaris-specific IgE were detected in 48 subjects with respiratory symptoms (40.0%) and in 46 subjects without respiratory symptoms (36.5%) (P = 0.5). The SPT positivity was similar between Ascaris-IgE seropositive (38.2%) and Ascaris-IgE seronegative (38.1%) subjects (P = 0.9). Total IgE and length of stay in Italy correlated with SPT positivity (OR 5.6 [CI 95% 1.5-19.8], P = 0.007, and OR 1.5 [CI 95% 1.3-1.7], P< 0.0001), and with respiratory symptoms (OR 13.7 [CI 95% 3.0-62.4];, P = 0.0007, and OR 2.4 [CI 95% 1.9-3.0], P < 0.0001). Ascaris-IgE were negatively associated with SPT positivity (OR 0.3 [CI 95% 0.1-0.8], P = 0.02) and with respiratory symptoms (OR 0.1 [CI 95% 0.04-0.7], P = 0.01). Our findings favour the role of environmental factors in the development of respiratory symptoms in immigrants, irrespective of Ascaris-IgE.

  17. Mark Twain on phrenology.

    PubMed

    Stone, James L

    2003-12-01

    Mark Twain was a noted 19th century American writer and humorist. He often elaborated upon the personalities of his characters, and his observational skills reflected a strong interest in psychology. Similarly, he found an interest in phrenology, a pseudoscience that purported to characterize personality traits according to elevations or depressions on the head. Twain's style is clearly reflected in the interesting essay he wrote regarding his personal experience with phrenology.

  18. Obstruction Marking and Lighting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-09-01

    Overhead Wires. Markers displayed on overhead wires should be spherical in shape with a diameter of not less than 20 incites, or may be of another shape...150 feet, or fraction thereof, of the overall length of the overhead line. These markers should be placed at equal intervals not more than 150 feet...obstructions by "colors." The distance between mark- ers on overhead wires located more than 15,000 feet from the refer- ence point of any landing area

  19. Disinfection of domestic effluents by gamma radiation: effects on the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Gloria S M B; Rodrigues, Ludmila A; de Oliveira, Warllem J; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Guimarães, Marcos P; Massara, Cristiano L; Grossi, Pablo A

    2011-11-01

    This work investigated the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in domestic effluents by gamma radiation from a (60)Co source. Domestic wastewater was treated in a compact demo-scale system consisting of a UASB reactor and a trickling filter; treatment was carried out at the Center for Research and Training on Sanitation (CePTS), Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte-MG, Brazil. One-liter of treated wastewater samples was artificially contaminated with an average of 1000 non-embryonated Ascaris lumbricoides eggs from human feces; samples were then irradiated in a multiple-purpose irradiator at different doses (0.5-5 kGy). Eggs were recovered from the wastewater and the viability of these irradiated eggs was evaluated; the description of the egg developmental phases with each dose of gamma radiation was recorded. Radiation doses of 3.5 kGy effectively disinfected effluents with lower concentrations of A. lumbricoides eggs; higher radiation doses of 5 kGy were necessary to disinfect effluents with higher eggs concentrations.

  20. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2015-04-01

    Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10 cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far.

  1. Volvulus du grêle sur paquet d’ascaris: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Cheikh; Kane, Ahmed; Ndoye, Ndeye Aby; Ndour, Oumar; Faye-Fall, Aimé Lakh; Fall, Mbaye; Alumeti, Désiré Munyali; Ngom, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons un cas exceptionnel de volvulus nécrosé de l'intestin grêle dû à des ascaris adultes chez un enfant de 7 ans. A l'admission, l'enfant présentait le tableau d'occlusion intestinale qui évoluait depuis deux jours avec altération de l'état général. La radiographie de l'abdomen sans préparation retrouvait des niveaux hydroaériques de type grêlique et un aspect tigré évoquant le diagnostic d'une occlusion intestinale haute sur masse abdominale. Après la réanimation, le traitement chirurgical consistait en une laparotomie qui avait retrouvé un volvulus nécrosé de l'iléon terminale contenant des ascaris adultes. Une résection du grêle sur environ un mètre emportant le segment nécrosé suivie d'une iléostomie était réalisée. L'évolution a été favorable, l'anastomose iléo-colique fut réalisée quatre semaines plus tard. Au recul de deux ans l'enfant est indemne de tout symptôme. PMID:27795803

  2. Genetic structure of Ascaris roundworm in Japan and patterns of its geographical variation.

    PubMed

    Snábel, Viliam; Taira, Kensuke; Cavallero, Serena; D'Amelio, Stefano; Rudohradská, Petra; Saitoh, Yasuhide

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris roundworm isolates from Japan and central Europe were examined by sequencing analyses to better understand geographically induced nucleotide variation and genotype distribution according to host. Three well-supported clusters (denoted as A, B, C) were identified by generating cox1 sequences of mtDNA from these regions. Among 5 pig isolates collected in eastern Honshu, Japan, in 2010, 3 carried DNA characteristics for cluster A and 2 corresponded with the characteristics of cluster B. The sequence of the human isolate JH1 from north-central Honshu, fixed in formalin since 1972, conformed to the characteristics of cluster A. Differential analysis of ribosomal ITS1 region revealed the JH1 isolate sequence profile of Ascaris lumbricoides. Cluster C, which was the most distinguish cluster, was formed by reference Slovak isolates and has been so far found almost exclusively in European pigs. A fluctuating prevailing distribution of A and B lineages in human and pig hosts in different territories of the world and the global distribution of several haplotypes indicate their establishment before secondary differentiation in a given region due to host affiliation. The protocol established for DNA isolation from formalin-fixed specimens using the modified procedure with the Qiagen extraction set can be used as a tool for retrospective studies in ascarid helminths when only archival specimens are available.

  3. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids.

  4. Allergy in the tropics: the impact of cross-reactivity between mites and ascaris.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Luis; Acevedo, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Allergic diseases and nematode infections such as ascariasis are important health problems in underdeveloped tropical countries. The co-exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides and the domestic mites Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus induces a strong Th2 and immunomodulatory responses that can modify the natural history of both diseases. An associate phenomenon of these particular environmental conditions is cross reactivity between mite and Ascaris allergens. We demonstrated a high IgE cross reactivity between the allergenic extracts from both sources and that several already known allergens like tropomyosin and glutathione-s-tranferases are involved. Although this cross reactive antibody response has not been completely analyzed, there are clinical and experimental evidences suggesting that it could be an important component of the complex interactions between ascariasis and mite allergy. For example, it may affect the specificity of serological IgE tests for diagnosing both ascariasis and allergic diseases and, in consequence, the results of epidemiological surveys evaluating the predisposing or protecting role of ascariasis on allergy. In this review we discuss the potential role of cross reactivity on several aspects of allergy in the tropics that have been the matter of a number of investigations, some of them with controversial results.

  5. Mark 3 system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    The Mark 3 very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) system, comprising a complete end to end VLBI system optimized for both high accuracy geodesy and radio astronomy, is described. The data flow, the data base handler system, and the field station component and configurations are briefly discussed. The use of mobile and transportable stations allows measurements to be taken from a large number of sites with relatively few sets of equipment. Fixed stations form a long term reference network for tying together the measurements with the mobile and transportable stations.

  6. The effect of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in the Ascaris-sensitive monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Eady, R. P.; Greenwood, B.; Jackson, D. M.; Orr, T. S.; Wells, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium inhibited the bronchoconstriction caused by antigen challenge in Ascaris-sensitive monkeys and in addition it prevented the release of histamine from mast cells lavaged from sensitive monkeys. Sodium cromoglycate was relatively inactive in both these systems. It is suggested that nedocromil sodium can stabilize both mucosal and connective tissue mast cells and may represent a new type of drug. PMID:2992657

  7. Ascaris as a leading point for small-bowel intussusception in an adult: a rare cause of intussusception.

    PubMed

    Karatepe, Oğuzhan; Tükenmez, Mustafa; Hünerli, Kemal; Citlak, Gamze; Salmaslioglu, Artur; Battal, Muharrem; Erbil, Yeşim

    2008-03-01

    Adult intussusception represents 1% of patients with bowel obstructions and requires a surgical approach. Malignancy is associated with 31% of small bowel intussusception and 70% of large bowel intussusception. Intestinal intussusception caused by ascaris, however, is very uncommon. This report describes our experience of this rare cause of intussusception and its clinical findings.

  8. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  9. Case Marking Strategies in Kope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John

    Case marking strategies in Kope, a Papuan language of Papua New Guinea, are analyzed in light of previous claims that most Papuan languages have one strategy for marking core relations and another for marking peripheral relations. A brief grammatical overview illustrates how core and peripheral relations are marked in Kope, including nominal case…

  10. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  11. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G.; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments. PMID:24223794

  12. The Mark 3 Haploscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, T. A.; Williams, R. E.; Kuether, C. L.; Logar, N. D.; Wyman-Cornsweet, D.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-operated binocular vision testing device was developed as one part of a system designed for NASA to evaluate the visual function of astronauts during spaceflight. This particular device, called the Mark 3 Haploscope, employs semi-automated psychophysical test procedures to measure visual acuity, stereopsis, phoria, fixation disparity, refractive state and accommodation/convergence relationships. Test procedures are self-administered and can be used repeatedly without subject memorization. The Haploscope was designed as one module of the complete NASA Vision Testing System. However, it is capable of stand-alone operation. Moreover, the compactness and portability of the Haploscope make possible its use in a broad variety of testing environments.

  13. Changes in plasma cytokines after treatment of ascaris lumbricoides infection in individuals with HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Blish, Catherine A; Sangaré, Laura; Herrin, Bradley R; Richardson, Barbra A; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L

    2010-06-15

    Albendazole treatment of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Ascaris lumbricoides co-infection has led to significantly improved CD4(+) cell counts and a trend for lower plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in a previous randomized placebo-controlled trial. To define mechanisms by which deworming contributed to changes in markers of HIV-1 disease progression, plasma cytokine levels were evaluated. Albendazole treatment, compared with placebo, was associated with significantly decreased plasma interleukin (IL) 10 levels (P = .01)ot associated with significant changes in levels of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-13, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Treatment of A. lumbricoides co-infection may delay HIV-1 disease progression by reducing helminth-induced, IL-10-mediated immunosuppression.

  14. Early developmental stages of Ascaris lumbricoides featured by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Melo, Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues; Esteves, Cibele Zanardi; de Oliveira, Rosimeire Nunes; Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Lima, Estela de Oliveira; Miné, Júlio César; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-11-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is responsible for a highly disseminated helminth parasitic disease, ascariosis, a relevant parasitosis that responds for great financial burden on the public health system of developing countries. In this work, metabolic fingerprinting using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was employed to identify marker molecules from A. lumbricoides in different development stages. We have identified nine biomarkers, such as pheromones and steroidal prohormones in early stages, among other molecules in late development stages, making up four molecules for fertilized eggs, four marker molecules for first larvae (L1) and one marker molecule for third larvae (L3). Therefore, our findings indicate that this approach is suitable for biochemical characterization of A. lumbricoides development stages. Moreover, the straightforward analytical method employed, with almost no sample preparation from a complex matrix (feces) using high-resolution mass spectrometry, suggests that it is possible to seek for an easier and faster way to study animal molding processes.

  15. Structural basis for the immunomodulatory function of cysteine protease inhibitor from human roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Mei, Guoqiang; Dong, Jianmei; Li, Zhaotao; Liu, Sanling; Liu, Yunfeng; Sun, Mingze; Liu, Guiyun; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppression associated with infections of nematode parasites has been documented. Cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) released by the nematode parasites is identified as one of the major modulators of host immune response. In this report, we demonstrated that the recombinant CPI protein of Ascaris lumbricoides (Al-CPI) strongly inhibited the activities of cathepsin L, C, S, and showed weaker effect to cathepsin B. Crystal structure of Al-CPI was determined to 2.1 Å resolution. Two segments of Al-CPI, loop 1 and loop 2, were proposed as the key structure motifs responsible for Al-CPI binding with proteases and its inhibitory activity. Mutations at loop 1 and loop 2 abrogated the protease inhibition activity to various extents. These results provide the molecular insight into the interaction between the nematode parasite and its host and will facilitate the development of anthelmintic agents or design of anti-autoimmune disease drugs.

  16. Evidence for in utero sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides in newborns of mothers with ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe, Irene; Mitre, Edward; Benitez, Susana; Chico, Martha E; Nutman, Thomas B; Cooper, Philip J

    2009-06-15

    Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans may have important effects on the development of allergy and on susceptibility to infectious diseases that start during early life. To investigate whether sensitization to A. lumbricoides occurs in utero, we measured interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 responses in A. lumbricoides antigen-stimulated cord blood from newborns of infected and noninfected mothers by flow cytometry. There was evidence of higher frequencies of IFN-gamma-expressing and IL-4-expressing CD4+ T cells in newborns of infected mothers than in newborns of noninfected mothers. Our data provide evidence of in utero sensitization to A. lumbricoides and raise the possibility that the immunological effects of infection start in the fetus.

  17. Epidemiology of human hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infestations in rural Gambia.

    PubMed

    Palmer, D R; Bundy, D A

    1995-08-01

    In a cross-sectional study of helminth infections in a rural village in The Gambia, West Africa, hookworm, probably Necator americanus and Ascaris lumbricoides were found to be the most prevalent helminths present at prevalence levels of 30% and 25% respectively. Other parasites present were Trichuris trichiura (2.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni (1.5%). The mean egg counts of N. americanus and A. lumbricoides in all age groups and in the total population were low. Egg counts between age and sex groups were not statistically significant. The frequency distributions of both N. americanus and A. lumbricoides were overdispersed with the majority of the sample population producing none or few eggs, and a small minority producing relatively large amounts of eggs. Large variance: mean ratios within age groups and the total study population suggested a high degree of aggregation of the parasites in this community.

  18. Measurement of Ascaris lumbricoides infection intensity and the dynamics of expulsion following treatment with mebendazole.

    PubMed

    Forrester, J E; Scott, M E

    1990-04-01

    Intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides infection was measured in terms of egg counts and worm burden in children 2-10 years of age. The expulsion of A. lumbricoides with a 3-day treatment of mebendazole occurred over 8 days, beginning on the second day of treatment. Ninety-seven percent of the worms were expelled between the second and seventh days. A rapid means of estimating eggs per gram (epg) by the Kato Katz technique correlated well with the method described by Martin & Beaver (1968). In spite of apparent density dependence in egg production, A. lumbricoides egg counts correlated well with worm burdens. It is concluded that, within the context of community surveys, epg is a reasonable means of identifying heavily infected individuals and that epg can be estimated rapidly by a slight modification to the standard Kato Katz technique.

  19. [Ecoepidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides in an endemic area and its relation with blood groups].

    PubMed

    Morales, G A; Pino, L A; Chourio-Lozano, G

    1994-01-01

    185 children 1 to 14 years old living in the suburb of San Rafael (Zulia State, Venezuela) were selected for this study with the following results: Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in the stool samples before administration of a drug to the children and the worms recovered after drug, induced expulsion, showed a high aggregation (K = 0.115 and K = 0.122, respectively); the aggregation of the recovered worms was more intense in girls (K = 0.083), than in boys (K = 0.220); among the blood groups, A. lumbricoides resulted highly prevalent (100%) and less overdispersed in group "AB" (K = 1.26; n = 5), while in the other blood groups the spatial aggregation pattern was strongly overdispersed (A = 0.159; B = 0.133 and O = 0.210); individuals of the blood group "B", make the greatest contribution to environmental contamination, because they presented the greatest values for the abundance and a more intense overdispersion.

  20. [Effects of detergents and disinfectants on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs].

    PubMed

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; de Andrade, Luiz Dias; Guerra, Henrique Leonardo; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection is acquired via ingestion of embryonated eggs of the parasite, thus justifying the search for ovicidal compounds. We studied the effect of 16 household and laboratory detergents and disinfectants on the embryogenesis of this helminth. Children carrying this infection were treated with levamisole. Eliminated female worms were collected and dissected to obtain eggs from the uteri. The eggs were placed in contact with various products at different dilutions and for various periods of time. After washing, eggs were incubated at 28 grades C for 20 days, for viability tests and to determine the embryonation rate. Only one product completely inhibited the embryonation of eggs at every dilution and for every time period tested. Five products inhibited more than 50% of embryonation, while six inhibited less than 50%. Three products showed no effect on embryonation, while for one the percentage of embryonated eggs was higher than in the control tubes.

  1. Ascaris spp. and Capillaria caudinflata infections in captive-bred crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Qiao, Ji Ying; Wu, Xiao Min; Ma, Qing Yi; Hu, Han; Wang, Jing; Che, Li Feng

    2015-01-01

    Crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), an endan gered native bird, was called the "precious stone" of oriental birds. N. nippon was considered a critically endangered species in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and a first-class national protected animal in China. The Chinese government had exerted considerable effort to protect the N. nippon population. An effective approach to increase the number of these birds was captive breeding. However, several pathogens, including parasites, could jeopardize the health of this species. The present study used the fecal flotation method to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites in fresh stool samples by wet mount smearing and iodine staining. Samples were obtained from 63 randomly selected crested ibis bred in Shaanxi Rare Wildlife Rescuing and Breeding Research Center in Zhouzhi County, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, China. In the 63 captive individuals, 38 were found positive for intestinal parasites (60.3%, 38/63). Of positive birds, high prevalence of Ascaris spp. (84.2%, 32/38) and Capillaria caudinflata (50.0%, 19/38) were detected. Coccidea (7.8%, 3/38), Fasciolidae (23.7%, 9/38), Blastocystis spp. (15.8%, 6/38), and Entamoeba histolytica (7.8%, 3/38) showed relatively low prevalence rates. This study focuses on the morphological identification of Ascaris spp. and C. caudinflata and their transmission in the N. nippon population. We introduce strategies to improve the breeding management of the birds, enhance their health, and stimulate population productivity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Research pilot Mark Pestana

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-16

    Mark Pestana is a research pilot and project manager at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. He is a pilot for the Beech B200 King Air, the T-34C and the Predator B. He flies the F-18 Hornet as a co-pilot and flight test engineer. Pestana has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of military and civilian flight experience. He was also a flight engineer on the NASA DC-8 flying laboratory. Pestana was the project manager and pilot for the Hi–rate Wireless Airborne Network Demonstration flown on the NASA B200 research aircraft. He flew B200 research missions for the X-38 Space Integrated Inertial Navigation Global Positioning System experiment. Pestana also participated in several deployments of the DC-8, including Earth science expeditions ranging from hurricane research over the Caribbean Sea to ozone studies over the North Pole, atmospheric chemistry over the South Pacific, rain forest health in Central America, Rocky Mountain ice pack assessment, and volcanic and tectonic activity around the Pacific Rim. He came to Dryden as a DC-8 mission manager in June 1998 from NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, where he served as the Earth and Space Science discipline manager for the International Space Station Program at Johnson. Pestana also served as a flight crew operations engineer in the Astronaut Office, developing the controls, displays, tools, crew accommodations and procedures for on-orbit assembly, test, and checkout of the International Space Station. He led the analysis and technical negotiations for modification of the Russian Soyuz spacecraft as an emergency crew return vehicle for space station crews. He joined the U.S. Air Force Reserve in 1991 and held various positions as a research and development engineer, intelligence analyst, and Delta II launch vehicle systems engineer. He retired from the U.S. Air Force Reserve with the rank of colonel in 2005. Prior to 1990, Pestana was on active duty with the U.S. Air Force as the director of mi

  3. Improvement of the merthiolate-iodine-formalin (MIF) fecal technique for hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs.

    PubMed

    Bawden, M P

    1994-06-01

    The merthiolate-iodine-formalin (MIF) technique to detect human intestinal parasites in feces was inefficient for the detection of hookworm and Trichuris trichiura eggs. Addition of a saturated-brine flotation step increased recovery of hookworm eggs by 77% and Trichuris trichiura eggs by 87%. Recovery of Ascaris lumbricoides also was increased by 71%. This was a significant improvement in the sensitivity of the MIF technique for these 3 kinds of human parasite.

  4. [Elimination of juvenile stages of Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758) by mouth. Report of a case and some epidemiological considerations].

    PubMed

    Neira O, Patricia; Pino Q, Gloria; Muñoz S, Nelson; Tobar C, Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Ascariosis is a parasitic disease caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, a large geohelmint endemic in our country. At present, ascariosis is a rare infection in Chile. We present a case of an adult, resident of the Villa Alemana municipality, Valparaiso Region, who spontaneously expelled two juvenile nematodes by mouth. We review the manifestations produced by the larval and adult stages of this parasite including their diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiological considerations.

  5. Ascaris lumbricoides causing infarction of the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal gangrene in a child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bhutia, Kincho Lhasong; Dey, Subhajeet; Singh, Varun; Gupta, Amlan

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or round worm infestation is quite common in the developing world. It affects all age groups but is more common in children. Most of the cases remain asymptomatic. The usual presentation is an intestinal obstruction. The physicians should be aware of this condition and consider it in the differential diagnosis when faced with such a case. The rare fatal complications include bleeding, perforation and gangrene.

  6. A molecular epidemiological investigation of Ascaris on Unguja, Zanzibar using isoenyzme analysis, DNA barcoding and microsatellite DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Betson, Martha; Halstead, Fenella D; Nejsum, Peter; Imison, Emma; Khamis, I Simba; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J Russell

    2011-07-01

    Ascariasis is of public health importance on the islands of Zanzibar (Unguja and Pemba). To shed light on the molecular epidemiology of this parasite, 68 Ascaris worms, obtained from 14 individuals in four Ungujan villages, were examined by isoenzyme analysis (ISA), DNA barcoding and microsatellite DNA profiling. ISA revealed genetic variation, which was confirmed by DNA barcoding. Nineteen worms recovered from individuals in Uganda were included for comparison. Sixteen unique DNA barcodes were identified, 15 on Unguja and three in Uganda with two shared between. These two barcodes were found in all four Ungujan villages. Worms from Tumbatu-Jongowe, an isolated village on an islet off Unguja, seemed particularly diverse. Within our barcodes, three exact matches were found with Chinese Ascaris retrieved from pigs, which is perhaps surprising given the present rarity of these animals on Unguja. Microsatellite profiling and population genetic analysis revealed further genetic diversity within our samples although population sub-structuring within Unguja was minor in comparison to that between Unguja and Uganda. As African Ascaris has not been subjected to detailed molecular scrutiny, this new diversity represents an important piece in its evolutionary jigsaw and such population markers are informative in monitoring worm dynamics during ongoing control.

  7. Effects of acetic acid on the viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. Is vinegar reliable enough to clean the vegetables?

    PubMed

    Beyhan, Yunus E; Yilmaz, Hasan; Hokelek, Murat

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of acetic acid on durable Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs to determine the effective concentration of vinegar and the implementation period to render the consumption of raw vegetables more reliable. This experimental study was performed in May 2015 in the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. The A. lumbricoides eggs were divided into 2 groups. Eggs in the study group were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 10% acetic acid concentrations, and eggs in the control group were treated with Eosin. The eggs' viability was observed at the following points in time during the experiment: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. The 1% acetic acid was determined insufficient on the viability of Ascaris eggs. At the 30th minute, 3% acetic acid demonstrated 95% effectiveness, and at 5% concentration, all eggs lost their viability. Treatment of acetic acid at the ratio of 4.8% in 30 minutes, or a ratio of 4.3% in 60 minutes is required for full success of tretment. Since Ascaris eggs have 3 layers and are very resistant, the acetic acid concentration, which can be effective on these eggs are thought to be effective also on many other parasitic agents. In order to attain an active protection, after washing the vegetables, direct treatment with a vinegar containing 5% acetic acid for 30 minutes is essential.

  8. The Mark III VLBI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Levine, J. I.; Nesman, E. F.; Webber, J. C.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1988-01-01

    Geodetic measurements have errors in centimeter range. Collection of three reports describes both equipment and results of some measurements taken with Mark III very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) system. Has demonstrated high accuracy over short baselines, where phase-delay measurements used. Advanced hardware, called Mark III A, developed to improve system performance and efficiency. Original Mark III hardware and III A subsystem upgrades developed as part of NASA Crustal Dynamics Project at Haystack Observatory.

  9. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  10. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  11. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  12. An Approach to Mark Arthropods for Mark Capture Type Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of studies were conducted to validate methods for marking a wide variety of arthropods with inexpensive proteins for mark-capture dispersal research. The markers tested included egg albumin protein in chicken egg whites and casein protein in bovine milk. The first study qualified the effec...

  13. Improving Marking Quality through a Taxonomy of Mark Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    At the heart of most assessments lies a set of questions, and those who write them must achieve "two" things. Not only must they ensure that each question elicits the kind of performance that shows how "good" pupils are at the subject, but they must also ensure that each mark scheme gives more marks to those who are…

  14. Improving Marking Quality through a Taxonomy of Mark Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    At the heart of most assessments lies a set of questions, and those who write them must achieve "two" things. Not only must they ensure that each question elicits the kind of performance that shows how "good" pupils are at the subject, but they must also ensure that each mark scheme gives more marks to those who are…

  15. NotaMark industrial laser marking system: a new security marking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Vincent G.

    2004-06-01

    Up until now, the only variable alphanumeric data which could be added to banknotes was the number, applied by means of impact typographical numbering boxes. As an additional process or an alternative to this mechanical method, a non-contact laser marking process can be used offering high quality and greater levels of flexibility. For this purpose KBA-GIORI propose an exclusive laser marking solution called NotaMark. The laser marking process NotaMark is the ideal solution for applying variable data and personalizing banknotes (or any other security documents) with a very high resolution, for extremely large production volumes. A completely integrated solution has been developed comprised of laser light sources, marking head units, and covers and extraction systems. NotaMark allows the marking of variable data by removing locally and selectively, specific printed materials leaving the substrate itself untouched. A wide range of materials has already been tested extensively. NotaMark is a new security feature which is easy to identify and difficult to counterfeit, and which complies with the standard mechanical and chemical resistance tests in the security printing industry as well as with other major soiling tests. The laser marking process opens up a whole new range of design possibilities and can be used to create a primary security feature such as numbering, or to enhance the value of existing features.

  16. Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in soil by microwave treatment compared to UV and ozone treatment.

    PubMed

    Mun, Sungmin; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek; Yoon, Jeyong

    2009-09-01

    This study reports on the effect of microwave radiation for inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in 25 g of soil compared to ultraviolet irradiation and ozone expose. Microwave radiation at 700 W with 14% water content (w/w) achieved approximately 2.5 log inactivation of eggs in soil within 60s. On the other hand, UV irradiation at 3 mW cm(-2) with and without shaking soil for 3600 s achieved approximately 0.32 and 0.01 log inactivation of eggs, respectively. In ozone treatment, 0.13 log inactivation of eggs was achieved with 5.8+/-0.7 mg L(-1) of dissolved ozone dose for 30 min in a continuous diffusion reactor. In addition, the inactivation of eggs by three disinfection techniques was conducted in water in order to compare the inactivation efficiency of eggs in soil. The inactivation efficiency of microwave radiation was found to be no significant difference between in soil and water. However, the inactivation efficiency of UV irradiation was significantly increased in water while in ozone expose there was no significant difference between in soil and water. Microwave treatment thus proved to be the most efficient method in controlling A. lumbricoides eggs in soil.

  17. Quantitative PCR and Digital PCR for Detection of Ascaris lumbricoides Eggs in Reclaimed Water.

    PubMed

    Acosta Soto, Lucrecia; Santísima-Trinidad, Ana Belén; Bornay-Llinares, Fernando Jorge; Martín González, Marcos; Pascual Valero, José Antonio; Ros Muñoz, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    The reuse of reclaimed water from wastewater depuration is a widespread and necessary practice in many areas around the world and must be accompanied by adequate and continuous quality control. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH) with risk for humans due to its high infectivity and an important determinant of transmission is the inadequacy of water supplies and sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a limit equal to or lower than one parasitic helminth egg per liter, to reuse reclaimed water for unrestricted irrigation. We present two new protocols of DNA extraction from large volumes of reclaimed water. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) were able to detect low amounts of A. lumbricoides eggs. By using the first extraction protocol, which processes 500 mL of reclaimed water, qPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as one A. lumbricoides egg equivalent, while dPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as five A. lumbricoides egg equivalents. By using the second protocol, which processes 10 L of reclaimed water, qPCR was able to detect DNA concentrations equivalent to 20 A. lumbricoides eggs. This fact indicated the importance of developing new methodologies to detect helminth eggs with higher sensitivity and precision avoiding possible human infection risks.

  18. The role of dogs in transmission of Ascaris lumbricoides for humans.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, H A; Abdel-Shafy, S; Derbala, A A

    2010-04-01

    The dog's role as a definitive host for a number of zoonotic parasites has been widely studied and recognized as being a significant public health problem worldwide. This study aimed to report, for the first time, our investigation into the role of dogs as a biological transmitter for Ascaris lumbricoides, via necropsy of a sample of rural stray dogs in a developing community in Giza governorate, Egypt, where promiscuous defecation by human was common, and examination for A. lumbricoides worms as well as other ascaridiod nematodes of dogs. The recovered worms were identified in the laboratory after observing cephalic alae and egg morphology under a microscope, as well as scanning electron microscopy of their anterior ends. Of the 25 dogs examined, 14 were infected with Toxocara canis (56.0%), two with Toxascaris leonina (8.0%), and two with A. lumbricoides (8.0%). One dog was co-infected with T. canis and T. leonina. A. lumbricoides eggs were shown to be viable and 75-80% of eggs embryonated following 3 weeks of incubation at 28 degrees C. The present study suggested that dogs could act as reservoir hosts of A. lumbricoides and environmental contaminators that increase risk of infection in humans.

  19. A recombinant cystatin from Ascaris lumbricoides attenuates inflammation of DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Coronado, S; Barrios, L; Zakzuk, J; Regino, R; Ahumada, V; Franco, L; Ocampo, Y; Caraballo, L

    2017-03-10

    Helminthiasis may ameliorate inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. Information about immunomodulators from Ascaris lumbricoides is scarce, but could be important considering the co-evolutionary relationships between helminths and humans. We evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of a recombinant cystatin from A. lumbricoides on an acute model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. From an A. lumbricoides cDNA library, we obtained a recombinant cystatin (rAl-CPI). Protease activity inhibition was demonstrated on cathepsin B and papain. Immunomodulatory effects were evaluated at two intraperitoneal doses (0.5 and 0.25 μg/G) on mice with DSS-induced colitis. Body weight, colon length, Disease Activity Index (DAI), histological inflammation score, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, gene expression of cytokines and cytokines levels in colon tissue were analysed. Treatment with rAl-CPI significantly reduced DAI, MPO activity and inflammation score without toxic effects. Also, IL-10 and TGF-B gene overexpression was observed in rAl-CPI-treated group compared to DSS-exposed control and healthy mice. Furthermore, a reduction in IL-6 and TNF-A expression was found, and this was confirmed by the levels of these cytokines in colonic tissue. In conclusion, rAl-CPI reduces inflammation in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, probably by increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and reducing pro-inflammatory ones.

  20. The effect of iron and multi-micronutrient supplementation on Ascaris lumbricoides reinfection among Zambian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Nchito, Mbiko; Geissler, P Wenzel; Mubila, Likezo; Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Annette

    2009-03-01

    A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted among schoolchildren in Chawama, Lusaka, Zambia, to determine the effect of iron and multi-micronutrients on reinfection with Ascaris lumbricoides. Supplementation was given on every school day for 10 months. Baseline A. lumbricoides prevalence and geometric mean intensity among positives were 43.4% and 2526 eggs per gram (epg) faeces, respectively. Serum ferritin <12microg/l was associated with higher egg counts than serum ferritin >or=12microg/l (4728 vs. 2036epg, P=0.033). Of 406 children recruited, 378 (93.1%) were examined at baseline and all infected children were treated and cure ascertained. The mean number of tablets taken per week was 2.5, giving 50% compliance. At six months 283 (74.9%) children complied, and reinfection intensities in those receiving iron were lower than in those receiving placebo (1600 vs. 3085epg, P=0.056). This effect disappeared at 10 months, where 215 (56.9%) complied. Iron had no effect on A. lumbricoides reinfection rates and multi-micronutrients had no effect on reinfection rates or intensities. Iron appears to affect reinfection intensity with A. lumbricoides, but further investigations are required to confirm this effect and elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  1. Comparative prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections and the prospects for combined control.

    PubMed

    Booth, M; Bundy, D A

    1992-08-01

    Programmes to control Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections have often been targeted at each infection separately, but the advent of benign and broad-spectrum anthelmintics suggests that combined control may be feasible. The extent to which the infections co-occur in communities will determine the need for, and potential benefits of, such a combined approach. This paper examines the comparative distribution of the three geohelminths in different geographical areas and shows that A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura have closely related distributions, while hookworm infection is largely independent of the other two. These results indicate that many communities are at risk of disease from infection by more than one species of helminth. The similar distributions and epidemiological characteristics of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura suggest that simultaneous control of these two parasites by the same strategy would be feasible and highly beneficial to communities. Multiple species control strategies which aim to control hookworm infection may require a more complicated protocol with more precise locality targeting.

  2. Slow active potentials in ventral inhibitory motor neurons of the nematode Ascaris.

    PubMed

    Angstadt, J D; Stretton, A O

    1989-12-01

    The ability of ventral inhibitory motor neurons of the nematode Ascaris to generate slow depolarizing potentials was investigated using intracellular recording and current injection. In quiescent cells, regenerative depolarizations with peak amplitudes of approximately 20 mV and durations of several 100 ms were evoked in response to brief depolarizing current pulses. Repetitive slow potentials were produced in response to sustained depolarizing currents in a threshold-dependent manner. Repetitive slow potentials also occurred spontaneously, exhibiting cycle periods of about 700 ms. The ability of inhibitory motor neurons to generate slow potentials was blocked by addition of Co++, Cd++, or other Ca-channel blockers to the saline but not by TTX or substitution of Na+ with Tris. The amplitude and duration of slow potentials were increased in the presence of Ba++, Sr++, and TEA. Spontaneous slow potentials exhibited characteristics expected of intrinsically generated oscillations, including frequency modulation by injection of prolonged offset currents, phase resetting by brief current pulses, and suppression by strong hyperpolarization. Slow potentials appear to be generated in the ventral nerve cord processes and/or cell body of the motor neuron, and they produce rhythmic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in ventral muscle cells. Slow potentials may therefore contribute to locomotory or other motor behaviors of the animal.

  3. The epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm in children in the Ranomafana rainforest, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Kightlinger, L K; Seed, J R; Kightlinger, M B

    1995-04-01

    An epidemiological study of intestinal nematodes was conducted with 1,292 children, ranging from birth through 11 yr old, living in the Ranomafana rainforest of southeast Madagascar. Fecal examinations revealed prevalences of 78% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 38% for Trichuris trichiura, 16% for hookworm, and 0.4% for Schistosoma mansoni. Infection intensity was measured indirectly by fecal egg counts and directly by A. lumbricoides expulsion following treatment with pyrantel pamoate. The mean A. lumbricoides worm burden for children, 5-11 yr old, was 19.2 (SD 20.4) worms per child, with a median of 13 worms (n = 428). The distributions were overdispersed for all 3 nematodes. The age profiles showed a rapid acquisition of A. lumbricoides during infancy, increasing to 100% prevalence by age 10. After mebendazole anthelmintic treatment and a 12-mo reinfection period, the nematodes had rebounded to pretreatment prevalence and intensity levels. There was evidence for age-dependent predisposition of the children to infection intensity for each of the 3 nematodes. Dual species intensity correlation was consistently strong for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. The significantly higher prevalence and intensity of ascariasis in girls were thought to be related to exposure.

  4. Epidemiology and population dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infection in the same community.

    PubMed

    Bundy, D A; Cooper, E S; Thompson, D E; Didier, J M; Simmons, I

    1987-01-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth infection status of an age-stratified sample from a single Caribbean community was assessed using anthelmintic expulsion techniques. The same sample was re-assessed in a similar manner after a 17 month period of re-infection. The age-prevalence profile of Ascaris lumbricoides was convex while that of Trichuris trichiura was asymptotic. The age-intensity profiles of both species were convex. These differing patterns are attributed to differences in the absolute worm burdens of the 2 species. The frequency distributions of infection intensity were similar for both species, and largely independent of host age. The basic reproductive rate of A. lumbricoides (Ro = 1-1.8) was similar to that recorded elsewhere and much lower than that of T. trichiura (Ro = 4-6), implying that the latter is intrinsically more resistant to control. Individual hosts were predisposed to high (or low) intensity infection with either species, although predisposition to both species simultaneously was not conclusively demonstrated. Further studies are required to determine the cause of these observations.

  5. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72 hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day. Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment. PMID:25906092

  6. Nitazoxanide in the treatment of Ascaris lumbricoides in a rural zone of Colima, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Galvan-Ramirez, M L; Rivera, N; Loeza, M E; Avila, X; Acero, J; Troyo, R; Bernal, R

    2007-09-01

    Intestinal parasites in Mexico are an endemic problem. A study was conducted in children, teenagers and adults in a rural community in Colima, Mexico to examine the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to evaluate the parasitological and clinical efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ). Two hundred and eighty children, teenagers and adults participated in this study. Parasitological diagnosis from faeces was confirmed by three consecutive stool samples using the floatation concentration Faust method. Egg counts were performed as described by the Kato-Katz technique before and after treatment. A questionnaire was systematically applied to obtain information about socio-economic status and hygienic habits. One hundred and six participants (38%) were diagnosed as harbouring intestinal parasites, and 86 of them (81%) were infected with A. lumbricoides. All patients with ascariasis infections underwent a complete physical examination before and after NTZ treatment. NTZ resolved 88% of the ascariasis cases, with a 89% clinical efficacy, and there was a 97.5% reduction in the levels of morbidity. The most intense infections for A. lumbricoides were found in housewives, and statistically significant associations were found between ascariasis and the absence of drainage and living in houses with dirt floors.

  7. Quantitative PCR and Digital PCR for Detection of Ascaris lumbricoides Eggs in Reclaimed Water

    PubMed Central

    Santísima-Trinidad, Ana Belén; Bornay-Llinares, Fernando Jorge; Martín González, Marcos; Pascual Valero, José Antonio; Ros Muñoz, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    The reuse of reclaimed water from wastewater depuration is a widespread and necessary practice in many areas around the world and must be accompanied by adequate and continuous quality control. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH) with risk for humans due to its high infectivity and an important determinant of transmission is the inadequacy of water supplies and sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a limit equal to or lower than one parasitic helminth egg per liter, to reuse reclaimed water for unrestricted irrigation. We present two new protocols of DNA extraction from large volumes of reclaimed water. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) were able to detect low amounts of A. lumbricoides eggs. By using the first extraction protocol, which processes 500 mL of reclaimed water, qPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as one A. lumbricoides egg equivalent, while dPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as five A. lumbricoides egg equivalents. By using the second protocol, which processes 10 L of reclaimed water, qPCR was able to detect DNA concentrations equivalent to 20 A. lumbricoides eggs. This fact indicated the importance of developing new methodologies to detect helminth eggs with higher sensitivity and precision avoiding possible human infection risks. PMID:28377928

  8. Swash mark and grain flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.

    1981-01-01

    Swash marks composed entirely of coarse sand are commonly found on coarse-sand beaches. These swash marks are 10 to 30 centimeters in width and a few millimeters to one centimeter in height. Previous observations, mostly on finer-sand beaches, indicate swash marks are seldom over a few millimeters in height and are commonly composed of material readily floated by surface tension (e.g., mica flakes and shell fragments). Swash marks composed of coarse sand have both fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size. Apparently, the leading margin of a wave upwash drives a highly concentrated flow of grains in which both grain size and grain velocity decrease with depth. Therefore, large grains are transported at greater velocities than are smaller grains. Thus, at the maximum advance of an upwash, a swash mark is deposited which has the observed fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size.

  9. The strength of the antibody response to the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides inversely correlates with levels of B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) is a cytokine regulating antibody production. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding BAFF were associated with the antibody response to Ascaris but not to mite allergens. In the present study we evaluated the relationship between BAFF and specific antibodies against Ascaris and mites in 448 controls and 448 asthmatics. Soluble BAFF was measured by ELISA and BAFF mRNA by qPCR. Surface expression of BAFF and its receptor (BAFF-R) was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Individuals with specific IgE levels to Ascaris >75th percentile had lower levels of soluble BAFF; those with specific IgG levels to Ascaris >75th percentile had reduced BAFF mRNA. Total IgE and specific IgE to mites were not related to BAFF levels. There were no differences in soluble BAFF or mRNA levels between asthmatics and controls. There was an inverse relationship between the cell-surface expression of BAFF-R on CD19+ B cells and BAFF levels at the transcriptional and protein level. Conclusions These findings suggest that differences in BAFF levels are related to the strength of the antibody response to Ascaris. PMID:24906685

  10. Mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks.

    PubMed

    Juraska, Michal; Gilbert, Peter B

    2016-10-01

    An objective of randomized placebo-controlled preventive HIV vaccine efficacy (VE) trials is to assess the relationship between vaccine effects to prevent HIV acquisition and continuous genetic distances of the exposing HIVs to multiple HIV strains represented in the vaccine. The set of genetic distances, only observed in failures, is collectively termed the 'mark.' The objective has motivated a recent study of a multivariate mark-specific hazard ratio model in the competing risks failure time analysis framework. Marks of interest, however, are commonly subject to substantial missingness, largely due to rapid post-acquisition viral evolution. In this article, we investigate the mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks and develop two inferential procedures based on (i) inverse probability weighting (IPW) of the complete cases, and (ii) augmentation of the IPW estimating functions by leveraging auxiliary data predictive of the mark. Asymptotic properties and finite-sample performance of the inferential procedures are presented. This research also provides general inferential methods for semiparametric density ratio/biased sampling models with missing data. We apply the developed procedures to data from the HVTN 502 'Step' HIV VE trial.

  11. CE Marking - the Essential Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playle, Mervyn

    The European Union (EU) harmonisation project introduced the CE marking of products to enable the free, unhindered movement of goods throughout the European market. The CE mark replaced the EC mark in the mid 1990s and is fundamental to the New Approach Directives. When a product falls within the scope of a New Approach Directive the manufacturer must comply with the 'goal setting' essential requirements of the directive, to follow one of the conformity assessment procedures provided for, and to draw up the technical documentation specified. Although not mandatory, a manufacturer can choose to satisfy the essential requirements through the application of European harmonised standards.

  12. 19 CFR 134.21 - Special marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Marking of Containers or Holders § 134.21 Special marking. This subpart includes only country of origin marking requirements and exceptions under section 304(b), Tariff Act of 1930,...

  13. 46 CFR 160.064-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manufacturer or distributor). (Lot No.). (b) Durability of marking. Marking shall be of a type which will be... instructions for use. (b) Durability of marking. Marking must be of a type which will be durable and legible...

  14. Inflectional marking in Hungarian aphasics.

    PubMed

    MacWhinney, B; Osmán-Sági, J

    1991-08-01

    How do aphasics deal with the rich inflectional marking available in agglutinative languages like Hungarian? For the Hungarian noun alone, aphasics have to deal with over 15 basic case markings and dozens of possible combinations of these basic markings. Using the picture description task of MacWhinney and Bates (1978), this study examined the use of inflectional markings in nine Broca's and five Wernicke's aphasic speakers of Hungarian. The analysis focused on subject, direct object, indirect object, and locative nominal arguments. Compared to normals, both groups had a much higher rate of omission of all argument types. Subject ellipsis was particularly strong, as it is in normal Hungarian. There was a tendency for Broca's to omit the indirect object and for Wernicke's to omit the direct object. Across argument types, Wernicke's had a much higher level of pronoun usage than did Broca's. Broca's also showed a very high level of article omission. Compared to similar data reported by Slobin (this issue) for Turkish, the Hungarian aphasics showed an elevated level of omission of case markings. Addition errors were quite rare, but there were 14 substitutions of one case marking for another. These errors all involved the substitution of some close semantic competitor. There were no errors in the basic rules for vowel harmony or morpheme order. Overall the results paint a picture of a group of individuals whose grammatical abilities are damaged and noisy, but still largely functional. Neither the view of Broca's as agrammatic nor the view of Wernicke's as paragrammatic was strongly supported.

  15. Immunolocalization of arginine kinase (AK) in Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Kulathunga, D G R S; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Rajapakse, R P V J; Yatawara, Lalani; Jayaweera, W R; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2012-08-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a member of the phosphagen kinase family. AK plays a major role in cellular energy metabolism in invertebrates including nematodes. In the present study, we performed the direct immunofluorescence test to determine the immunolocalization of AK in different stages of the life cycle (eggs, larvae, and adult worms) of Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. Our results indicated variable levels of expression of AK in different stages. Moreover, strong fluorescence was observed in cleaving eggs than in dormant eggs. The highest activity of the enzyme was observed in the fully developed eggs. This may be due to high expression of AK in embryonic development, which is associated with increased energy demand due to cleavage and cellular differentiation. Surprisingly, expression of AK is significantly higher in the middle part and posterior end compared to anterior end of the larvae. In addition, AK is highly concentrated in cellular and metabolically active parts of the body such as hypodermis, muscle, intestine, ovaries, oviducts, and uterus, while it is absent in noncellular areas like cuticle. The present study revealed the presence of AK in T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum and that it plays a major role in energy metabolism of these nematodes. Interestingly, antiserum was prepared against the recombinant T. canis AK and reacts with the native AKs of T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum. AK levels could vary in relation to maximum potential rates of ATP turnover, oxidative capacity, and energy output. Further studies on subcellular localization of AK in these important helminths provide new information for researchers to develop effective anthelmintics against the parasites of veterinary and of public health importance.

  16. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Naglaa M; Shalaby, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (P<0.01) between A. lumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5.

  17. Rapid Genotyping of β-tubulin Polymorphisms in Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Rashwan, Nour; Scott, Marilyn; Prichard, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Background The benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics, albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) are the most common drugs used for treatment of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Their intensive use increases the possibility that BZ resistance may develop. In veterinary nematodes, BZ resistance is caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene at codon position 200, 167 or 198, and these SNPs have also been correlated with poor response of human Trichuris trichiura to BZ treatment. It is important to be able to investigate the presence of resistance-associated SNPs in STHs before resistance becomes clinically established. Methods The objective of this study was to develop new genotyping assays to screen for the presence of β-tubulin SNPs in T. trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides. Rapid, simple and accurate genotyping assays were developed based on the SmartAmp2 method. Primer sets were optimized and selected to distinguish the SNP-variant genotypes. After initial optimization on control plasmids, the feasibility of the assay was assessed in field samples from Haiti and Panama. Finally, spiked fecal samples were assessed to determine the tolerance of Aac polymerase to fecal inhibitors. Findings Rapid SNP genotyping assays were developed to target β-tubulin polymorphisms in T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides. The assays showed high sensitivity and specificity in field samples and also demonstrated high tolerance to PCR inhibitors in fecal samples. Conclusion These assays proved to be robust and efficient with the potential to be used as field tools for monitoring SNPs that could be associated with BZ resistance. However, further work is needed to validate the assays on large numbers of field samples before and after treatment. PMID:28081124

  18. Individual Predisposition, Household Clustering and Risk Factors for Human Infection with Ascaris lumbricoides: New Epidemiological Insights

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Background Much of our current understanding of the epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans has been acquired by analyzing worm count data. These data are collected by treating infected individuals with anthelmintics so that worms are expelled intact from the gastrointestinal tract. Analysis of such data established that individuals are predisposed to infection with few or many worms and members of the same household tend to harbor similar numbers of worms. These effects, known respectively as individual predisposition and household clustering, are considered characteristic of the epidemiology of ascariasis. The mechanisms behind these phenomena, however, remain unclear. In particular, the impact of heterogeneous individual exposures to infectious stages has not been thoroughly explored. Methodology/Principal Findings Bayesian methods were used to fit a three-level hierarchical statistical model to A. lumbricoides worm counts derived from a three-round chemo-expulsion study carried out in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The effects of individual predisposition, household clustering and household covariates of the numbers of worms per host (worm burden) were considered simultaneously. Individual predisposition was found to be of limited epidemiological significance once household clustering had been accounted for. The degree of intra-household variability among worm burdens was found to be reduced by approximately 58% when household covariates were included in the model. Covariates relating to decreased affluence and quality of housing construction were associated with a statistically significant increase in worm burden. Conclusions/Significance Heterogeneities in the exposure of individuals to infectious eggs have an important role in the epidemiology of A. lumbricoides infection. The household covariates identified as being associated with worm burden provide valuable insights into the source of these heterogeneities although above all emphasize and reiterate

  19. Rapid Genotyping of β-tubulin Polymorphisms in Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Rashwan, Nour; Scott, Marilyn; Prichard, Roger

    2017-01-01

    The benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics, albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) are the most common drugs used for treatment of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Their intensive use increases the possibility that BZ resistance may develop. In veterinary nematodes, BZ resistance is caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene at codon position 200, 167 or 198, and these SNPs have also been correlated with poor response of human Trichuris trichiura to BZ treatment. It is important to be able to investigate the presence of resistance-associated SNPs in STHs before resistance becomes clinically established. The objective of this study was to develop new genotyping assays to screen for the presence of β-tubulin SNPs in T. trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides. Rapid, simple and accurate genotyping assays were developed based on the SmartAmp2 method. Primer sets were optimized and selected to distinguish the SNP-variant genotypes. After initial optimization on control plasmids, the feasibility of the assay was assessed in field samples from Haiti and Panama. Finally, spiked fecal samples were assessed to determine the tolerance of Aac polymerase to fecal inhibitors. Rapid SNP genotyping assays were developed to target β-tubulin polymorphisms in T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides. The assays showed high sensitivity and specificity in field samples and also demonstrated high tolerance to PCR inhibitors in fecal samples. These assays proved to be robust and efficient with the potential to be used as field tools for monitoring SNPs that could be associated with BZ resistance. However, further work is needed to validate the assays on large numbers of field samples before and after treatment.

  20. Atopy, asthma, and antibodies to Ascaris among rural and urban children in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Perzanowski, Matthew S; Ng'ang'a, Lucy W; Carter, Melody C; Odhiambo, Joseph; Ngari, Peter; Vaughan, John W; Chapman, Martin D; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in the relationship between asthma and immune responses to allergens in children living in rural and urban areas of Kenya. Children (mean age, 11 years) from Kabati (n = 136), a rural village, and Thika (n = 129), a small town, were studied by skin testing and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody measurement. Asthma was evaluated by symptoms, as well as spirometry before and after vigorous exercise to test for exercised-induced bronchospasm (EIB). School children from a study performed in Atlanta, Georgia, were used for comparison of anthropometric and immunologic results. Compared with the urban area of Kenya, children living in the rural area had a lower percentage of body fat, smaller and fewer skin test responses to allergens, a higher prevalence of IgE antibodies to Ascaris (67% vs 26%) and 10-fold higher total IgE. In the urban area of Kenya, there was a strong correlation between EIB and atopy determined both by IgE antibodies (P =.02) and skin tests (P =.002). By contrast, in the rural area, none of the 13 children with EIB were skin-test positive (vs 13/109 of children without EIB). Among the rural children, there was no association between immune responses to allergens and airway-related symptoms or reactivity. The association between asthma and atopy seen in the town of Thika may represent an important step in the increase in asthma seen both in urban Africa and in the West.

  1. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Naglaa M; Shalaby, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (P<0.01) between A. lumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5. PMID:27022269

  2. The effects of temperature, pH, and ammonia concentration on the inactivation of Ascaris eggs in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Pecson, Brian M; Barrios, José Antonio; Jiménez, Blanca Elena; Nelson, Kara L

    2007-07-01

    The reported inactivation of Ascaris eggs during alkaline sludge stabilization is highly variable. The objective of our research was to better understand the sources of this variability by quantifying the effects of temperature, pH, and ammonia concentration on the inactivation of indigenous Ascaris eggs in wastewater sludge. Primary sludge was supplemented with ammonia (0, 1000, and 5000 mg/l NH(3)-N) and Ca(OH)(2) and incubated in sealed bottles across the range of temperatures (20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees C) and pH (7 and 12) that may be encountered during treatment. Changes in egg viability over time were fit to a two-parameter kinetic model (shoulder and first-order region); to compare treatment conditions, the time for 99% inactivation (t(99)) was also calculated. Each 10 degrees C increase in temperature caused a significant decrease in t(99) at every pH and ammonia concentration tested. At 50 degrees C, the effect of temperature was dominant, such that no effect of pH or ammonia was observed. At 30 and 40 degrees C, raising the pH from 7 to 12 decreased t(99), but at 20 degrees C no pH effect was seen over 80 d (very little inactivation occurred). At 20, 30, and 40 degrees C, the addition of ammonia dramatically decreased t(99). The effect of pH could not be completely separated from that of ammonia, as the unamended sludge samples contained 100-200mg/l indigenous ammonia. Because temperature, pH, and ammonia all contributed to Ascaris egg inactivation, it is essential that these parameters are measured and accounted for when assessing the effectiveness of alkaline stabilization. Furthermore, inactivation by ammonia could be exploited to improve the effectiveness of alkaline sludge stabilization.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sanling; Dong, Jianmei; Mei, Guoqiang; Liu, Guiyun; Xu, Wei; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-02-01

    The cysteine protease inhibitor from Ascaris lumbricoides, a roundworm that lives in the human intestine, may be involved in the suppression of human immune responses. Here, the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of the cysteine protease inhibitor from A. lumbricoides are reported. The rod-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.40, b = 37.52, c = 62.92 Å, β = 118.26°. The crystal diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  4. Management of Accidental Finding of Ascaris Lumbricoides During Emergent Abdominal Surgery: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Esfehani, Maryam Hassan; Jahanshahi, Abdolhadi; Karimi, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is the most common soil-transmitted helminth worldwide and most often is asymptomatic, although it can present with abdominal pain, malabsorption and growth failure, complete or partial obstraction in small bowel and biliary system and etc. Accidental encounters with ascaris during emergent abdominal surgeries are very rare and have been reported in less than a handful of papers. In this report, we describe this rare event from a country with low prevalence of this infection, and then review the literatures and clarify the possible challenges for surgeons during operation and postoperative follow-up.

  5. Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): in vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Peña-Espinoza, Miguel A; Boas, Ulrik; Simonsen, Henrik T; Enemark, Heidi L; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2016-05-01

    Chicory is a perennial crop that has been investigated as a forage source for outdoor-reared ruminants and pigs, and has been reported to have anthelmintic properties. Here, we investigated in vitro anthelmintic effects of forage chicory-extracts against the highly prevalent swine parasites Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. Methanol extracts were prepared and purified from two different cultivars of chicory (Spadona and Puna II). Marked differences were observed between the anthelmintic activity of extracts from the two cultivars. Spadona extracts had potent activity against A. suum third (L3) and fourth (L4) - stage larvae, as well as O. dentatum L4 and adults, whereas Puna II extracts had less activity against A. suum and no activity towards O. dentatum L4. Transmission-electron microscopy of A. suum L4 exposed to Spadona extracts revealed only subtle changes, perhaps indicative of a specific anthelmintic effect rather than generalized toxicity. Ultra-high liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the purified extracts were rich in sesquiterpene lactones (SL), and that the SL profile differed significantly between cultivars. This is the first report of anthelmintic activity of forage chicory towards swine nematodes. Our results indicate a significant anthelmintic effect, which may possibly be related to SL composition.

  6. [Case report: Löffler's syndrome due to Ascaris lumbricoides mimicking acute bacterial community--acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Acar, Ali; Oncül, Oral; Cavuşlu, Saban; Okutan, Oğuzhan; Kartaloğlu, Zafer

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present a patient with Loeffler's syndrome caused by Ascaris lumbricoides who presented with the clinical findings of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Our patient, who was twenty-five years old, and who had had symptoms such as coughing, expectorating, dyspnea and fever for approximately ten days, was hospitalized. We auscultated polyphonic rhonchuses at the both hemithoraxes. A chest X-ray revealed bilateral lower zone patch consolidation. Acute bacterial community acquired pneumonia (CAP) was diagnosed due to these findings and empirical antibiotic treatment was begun. Repeated sputum Gram stains were negative, and both sputum and blood cultures were sterile. A sputum smear was negative for acid-fast bacilli. The patient's fever and respiratory complaint did not respond to the empirical antibiotics therapy. During the course of advanced investigations, we measured peripheric eosinophilia, and high levels of total Eo and total IgE, and observed Ascaris lumbricoides eggs during stool examination. The patient was given a diagnosis of Loeffler's syndrome. Thereupon the patient was treated successfully with one dose of albendazol 400 mg. In conclusion, we suggest that Loeffler's syndrome must be considered early in the differential diagnosis for CAP when peripheric eosinophilia is seen in patients if they live in an endemic area for parasitic disease.

  7. Better marking means cheaper pruning.

    Treesearch

    Kenneth R. Eversole

    1953-01-01

    Careful selection of trees to be pruned can make the difference between profit and loss on the pruning investment, especially in stands where no thinning is contemplated. Expert marking is required to make sure that the pruned trees will grow rapidly. The most important variable influencing the cost of clear wood produced by pruning is growth rate. For example, at 3...

  8. Early-Modern "Speech" Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Nick

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

  9. Reference Point Marking in Emai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Ronald P.

    Semantic noun classes in Emai, an Edoid language of Nigeria, are examined with respect to a process of Reference Point Marking (RPM) in order to explore the relationship between discourse and lexical semantics. Across pre- and post-verbal positions subcategorized by verbs like "rere" ("to be far"), these classes are shown to…

  10. Early-Modern "Speech" Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Nick

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

  11. EP Profiles Inventor Mark Sherron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Mark Jerome Sherron, inventor of the ALLIES Line of electronic sensors for blind and visually-impaired people. Featuring the American Liquid Level Indicator electronic sensor (ALLI), Sherron's ALLIES product line also includes the Light Intensity Level Indicator (LILI), a multi-function electronic light sensor for electronic…

  12. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  13. Spear-Marked Black Moth

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Werner; Bruce H. Baker

    1977-01-01

    The spear-marked black moth, Rheumaptera hastata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a serious defoliator of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) in interior Alaska. Epidemic populations have occurred at 15- to 17- year intervals, persisted for 2 years, and then collapsed. Recorded outbreaks occurred in 1941, acreage unknown; from 1957 to 1958, 5 million acres (2...

  14. EP Profiles Inventor Mark Sherron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Mark Jerome Sherron, inventor of the ALLIES Line of electronic sensors for blind and visually-impaired people. Featuring the American Liquid Level Indicator electronic sensor (ALLI), Sherron's ALLIES product line also includes the Light Intensity Level Indicator (LILI), a multi-function electronic light sensor for electronic…

  15. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

  16. The effect of waste water reuse in irrigation on the contamination level of food crops by Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs.

    PubMed

    Amahmid, O; Asmama, S; Bouhoum, K

    1999-08-01

    In Marrakech, raw sewage has been used for farming purposes for several decades for many types of crops. This study aimed to determine the contamination level of Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs for crops designated for human consumption. Collected crops in irrigated fields were turnip, marrow, squash, potatoes, pepper and eggplant. Field trials were also carried out on four crops, coriander, carrots, mint and radish, using three water types for irrigation, i.e. raw waste water, treated waste water (sedimentation and 16 days retention) and fresh water. Giardia cysts were detected at a level of 5.1 cysts/kg in potatoes, while Ascaris eggs were observed in numbers varying between 0.18 eggs/kg in potatoes and 0.27 eggs/kg in turnip. Field trials confirmed that irrigation of crops by raw waste water leads to contamination. Giardia and Ascaris were isolated in coriander at concentrations of 254 cysts/kg and 2.7 eggs/kg, respectively; mint was also highly contaminated with numbers reaching 96 cysts/kg and 4.63 eggs/kg. Carrots and radish were contaminated and respective numbers observed for Giardia were 155 and 59.1 cysts/kg; Ascaris was discovered in numbers of 0.7 and 1.64 eggs/kg, respectively. However, cultures irrigated with treated waste water and fresh water were free from contamination. Cysts and eggs on coriander persisted for a maximum of 8 days.

  17. 15 CFR 272.3 - Approved markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAKING OF TOY, LOOK-ALIKE, AND IMITATION FIREARMS MARKING OF TOY, LOOK-ALIKE AND IMITATION FIREARMS § 272.3 Approved markings. The following markings are...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1242f - Levamisole hydrochloride gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... effective against the following nematode infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia), intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum), and lungworms... with the following nematodes: Large roundworms (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1242f - Levamisole hydrochloride gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... effective against the following nematode infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia), intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum), and lungworms... with the following nematodes: Large roundworms (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1192 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... roundworms (adult) (Parascaris equorum), hairworms (adult) (Trichostrongylus axei), large mouth stomach worms... gastrointestinal roundworms (adults and fourth-stage larvae) (large roundworm, Ascaris suum; red stomach worm, Hyostrongylus rubidus; nodular worm, Oesophagostomum spp.; threadworm, Strongyloides ransomi (adults only...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1242f - Levamisole hydrochloride gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... effective against the following nematode infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia), intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum), and lungworms... with the following nematodes: Large roundworms (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1192 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... roundworms (adult) (Parascaris equorum), hairworms (adult) (Trichostrongylus axei), large mouth stomach worms... gastrointestinal roundworms (adults and fourth-stage larvae) (large roundworm, Ascaris suum; red stomach worm, Hyostrongylus rubidus; nodular worm, Oesophagostomum spp.; threadworm, Strongyloides ransomi (adults only...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1242f - Levamisole hydrochloride gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... effective against the following nematode infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia), intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum), and lungworms... with the following nematodes: Large roundworms (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp...

  4. 21 CFR 522.1192 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... roundworms (adult) (Parascaris equorum), hairworms (adult) (Trichostrongylus axei), large mouth stomach worms... gastrointestinal roundworms (adults and fourth-stage larvae) (large roundworm, Ascaris suum; red stomach worm, Hyostrongylus rubidus; nodular worm, Oesophagostomum spp.; threadworm, Strongyloides ransomi (adults only...

  5. Laser marking of component parts

    SciTech Connect

    Gress, A.V. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Permanent identification of components and subassemblies for traceability and historical purposes is essential for assemblies subject to long term storage. Marketing requirements run the gamut from simple functional alphanumerics for terminal or wire numbers to complex component identification involving program nomenclature, part number, manufacturer's code, serial number, data code, and lot or batch number. The wide range of opaque materials marked includes both ferrous and nonferrous materials, plastics, composites, and ceramics.

  6. A Real-Time PCR Method for Quantifying Viable Ascaris Eggs Using the First Internally Transcribed Spacer Region of Ribosomal DNA▿

    PubMed Central

    Pecson, Brian M.; Barrios, José Antonio; Johnson, David R.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide, 1.4 billion people are infected with the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides. As a result, Ascaris eggs are commonly found in wastewater and sludges. The current microscopy method for detecting viable Ascaris eggs is time- and labor-intensive. The goal of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to determine the levels of total and viable Ascaris eggs in laboratory solutions using the first internally transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rRNA. ITS-1 rDNA levels were proportional to Ascaris egg cell numbers, increasing as eggs developed from single cells to mature larvae and ultimately reaching a constant level per egg. Treatments causing >99% inactivation (high heat, moderate heat, ammonia, and UV) eliminated this increase in ITS-1 rDNA levels and caused decreases that were dependent on the treatment type. By taking advantage of this difference in ITS-1 rDNA level between viable, larvated eggs and inactivated, single-celled eggs, qPCR results were used to develop inactivation profiles for the different treatments. No statistical difference from the standard microscopy method was found in 75% of the samples (12 of 16). ITS-1 rRNA was detected only in samples containing viable eggs, but the levels were more variable than rDNA levels and ITS-1 rRNA could not be used for quantification. The detection limit of the rDNA-based method was approximately one larvated egg or 90 single-celled eggs; the detection limit for the rRNA-based method was several orders of magnitude higher. The rDNA qPCR method is promising for both research and regulatory applications. PMID:17056687

  7. Viability of Ascaris and other helminth genera non larval eggs in different conditions of temperature, lime (pH) and humidity.

    PubMed

    Maya, C; Ortiz, M; Jiménez, B

    2010-01-01

    Helminth eggs are the pathogens most resistant to inactivation during sludge and wastewater treatment. For this reason, in several regulations and the WHO guidelines for wastewater and excreta reuse for agriculture and aquaculture they are considered as indicators of the performance of the treatment process. Conditions required to inactivate helminth eggs, notably Ascaris lumbricoides, are recommended in the literature, but in practice these have not always proven effective, not only for Ascaris but also other genera of helminth eggs. The objective of this research was to study the inactivation of a high total content of non larval Ascaris and other genera of helminth eggs of medical importance to developing countries under controlled conditions of (a) temperature (30 °C to 80 °C) and humidity (80, 90 and 95%) and (b) lime doses (15 and 20% of CaO w/w dry basis) and humidity (90 and 80%), using different contact times in both cases. The inactivation data obtained for different genera of non larval helminth eggs is presented. Results showed that there is a combination of conditions (temperature, pH and humidity) that is optimal for inactivation. To completely inactivate any genera of non larval helminth eggs: (a) a temperature above 70 °C and 80% humidity for a duration of 120 min; and, (b) a 20% CaO dose (pH 12.5) and a humidity level of 80% for a duration of 8 months are needed. With regard to the resistance of different genera of helminth eggs, Ascaris, Toxocara and Taenia, in that order, were the most resistant, while the most sensitive were Trichuris and Hymenolepis. For most of the conditions tested Ascaris showed the highest resistance, probably due to the chemical arrangement of its membrane.

  8. Marked Initial Pitch in Questions Signals Marked Communicative Function.

    PubMed

    Sicoli, Mark A; Stivers, Tanya; Enfield, N J; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    In conversation, the initial pitch of an utterance can provide an early phonetic cue of the communicative function, the speech act, or the social action being implemented. We conducted quantitative acoustic measurements and statistical analyses of pitch in over 10,000 utterances, including 2512 questions, their responses, and about 5000 other utterances by 180 total speakers from a corpus of 70 natural conversations in 10 languages. We measured pitch at first prominence in a speaker's utterance and discriminated utterances by language, speaker, gender, question form, and what social action is achieved by the speaker's turn. Through applying multivariate logistic regression we found that initial pitch that significantly deviated from the speaker's median pitch level was predictive of the social action of the question. In questions designed to solicit agreement with an evaluation rather than information, pitch was divergent from a speaker's median predictably in the top 10% of a speakers range. This latter finding reveals a kind of iconicity in the relationship between prosody and social action in which a marked pitch correlates with a marked social action. Thus, we argue that speakers rely on pitch to provide an early signal for recipients that the question is not to be interpreted through its literal semantics but rather through an inference.

  9. Laser therapy of stretch marks.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, David H

    2002-01-01

    Striae distensae, better known as stretch marks, are a common disfiguring skin disorder of significant cosmetic concern. Many sources have reported the use of lasers to diminish the appearance of striae. Controlled clinical studies of the various treatment modalities available for striae are relatively uncommon, and much of the clinical data are anecdotal. The use of lasers alone or in combination with other therapeutic modalities can provide a safe and effective reduction in the appearance of both red and white striae distensae. Many of these therapies require special measures for darker skin phototypes. This article reviews the historical use of laser therapy for this disorder and discusses current therapeutic options.

  10. Recent results for Mark III

    SciTech Connect

    Brient, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-..pi../sup 0/'s D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to K..pi pi.. is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  11. A unique solar marking construct.

    PubMed

    Sofaer, A; Zinser, V; Sinclair, R M

    1979-10-19

    An assembly of stone slabs on an isolated butte in New Mexico collimates sunlight onto spiral petroglyphs carved on a cliff face. The light illuminates the spirals in a changing pattern throughout the year and marks the solstices and equinoxes with particular images. The assembly can also be used to observe lunar phenomena. It is unique in archeoastronomy in utilizing the changing height of the midday sun throughout the year rather than its rising and setting points. The construct appears to be the result of deliberate work of the Anasazi Indians, the builders of the great pueblos in the area.

  12. 49 CFR 1520.13 - Marking SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.13 Marking SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must mark the record by placing the protective marking conspicuously on the.... 552 and 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520. (d) Other types of records. In the case of non-paper records that...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 23.1555 Section 23.1555... Markings and Placards § 23.1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and simple push button type starter switches, must be plainly marked as to its function and method...

  14. 46 CFR 160.176-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... from a distance of three feet. (b) Prominence. Each marking required in paragraph (d) of this section, except vital care and use instructions, if any, must be less prominent and in smaller print than markings... smaller than required markings. The marking “ADULT” must be in at least 18 mm (3/4 inch) high bold capital...

  15. 46 CFR 160.176-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... from a distance of three feet. (b) Prominence. Each marking required in paragraph (d) of this section, except vital care and use instructions, if any, must be less prominent and in smaller print than markings... smaller than required markings. The marking “ADULT” must be in at least 18 mm (3/4 inch) high bold capital...

  16. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67...

  17. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  18. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  19. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate for...

  20. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  1. Reading Skill, Textbook Marking, and Course Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Kenneth E.; Limber, John E.

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed students enrolled in Introductory Psychology courses about their text marking preferences and analyzed the marking in their textbooks. Low-skill readers report more reliance on highlighting strategies and actually mark their texts more than better readers. In addition, low-skilled readers prefer to buy used, previously marked texts…

  2. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007).

  3. Methods to Mark Termites with Protein for Mark-Release-Recapture and Mark-Capture Type Studies.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of marking the southwestern desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder), with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein for mark-release-recapture (MRR) and mark-capture type studies. Qualitative laboratory studies were conducted to de...

  4. The research of laser marking control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong

    2009-08-01

    In the area of Laser marking, the general control method is insert control card to computer's mother board, it can not support hot swap, it is difficult to assemble or it. Moreover, the one marking system must to equip one computer. In the system marking, the computer can not to do the other things except to transmit marking digital information. Otherwise it can affect marking precision. Based on traditional control methods existed some problems, introduced marking graphic editing and digital processing by the computer finish, high-speed digital signal processor (DSP) control marking the whole process. The laser marking controller is mainly contain DSP2812, digital memorizer, DAC (digital analog converting) transform unit circuit, USB interface control circuit, man-machine interface circuit, and other logic control circuit. Download the marking information which is processed by computer to U disk, DSP read the information by USB interface on time, then processing it, adopt the DSP inter timer control the marking time sequence, output the scanner control signal by D/A parts. Apply the technology can realize marking offline, thereby reduce the product cost, increase the product efficiency. The system have good effect in actual unit markings, the marking speed is more quickly than PCI control card to 20 percent. It has application value in practicality.

  5. Assessment of viability of the nematode eggs (Ascaris, Toxocara, Trichuris) in sewage sludge with the use of LIVE/DEAD Bacterial Viability Kit.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Joanna; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Cencek, Tomasz; Kłapeć, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludges from wastewater treatment plants may contain live parasite eggs, which can be a source of humans and animals infection. According to the current rules, parasitological examination includes detection of the Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp. and Toxocara spp. eggs and estimation of their viability. The viability assessment based only on the incubation and observation of isolated egg is long and imprecise. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and less labour-intensive methods for assessing viability of Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp. and Trichuris spp. eggs in sewage sludge. For this purpose, LIVE/DEAD Kit was used. Firstly, the possibility of distinguishing between live and dead eggs in water was assessed. Secondly, an appropriate amount of dyeing mixture needed to distinguish the live and dead eggs in the sewage sludge was determined using experimentally enriched samples and naturally contaminated samples of sludge. Eggs were isolated from the samples by own method which was a combination of flotation and sedimentation, preceded by a long mixing. After the last stage of the procedure, sediment containing the eggs of parasites was stained by LIVE/DEAD kit according to the manufacturer instructions, but with the use of different variants of dyes mixture concentration. The investigation showed that live and dead eggs of these three parasites could be differed by this method with the use of proper concentration of dyes. Live eggs were stained in green (Ascaris and Trichuris) and green-blue (Toxocara). However, all types of dead eggs were red coloured. The study demonstrated that after some modifications (resulted from the nature of the samples) the LIVE/DEAD kit is useful for assessing the viability of Toxocara, Ascaris and Trichuris eggs occurring in the sludge.

  6. The importance of host age and sex to patterns of reinfection with Ascaris lumbricoides following mass anthelmintic treatment in a South Indian fishing community.

    PubMed

    Elkins, D B; Haswell-Elkins, M; Anderson, R M

    1988-02-01

    Analysis of egg and worm counts of Ascaris recorded at various intervals following a mass anthelmintic treatment programme in a South Indian fishing community is presented. Three indices of infection in the community are compared, namely the prevalence and intensity of egg output (at 2, 6 and 11 months following treatment) and the number of worms expelled following an 11 month period of reinfection. Detailed examination of these measurements revealed significant associations with patient sex and age. The age-prevalence profile of Ascaris infection changed little over time (except immediately following treatment) with the peak prevalence found in the 5-9 year age group. Although 85% of both males and females harboured Ascaris initially, the prevalence following 11 months reinfection was decreased, due to a significantly lower proportion of males being reinfected. By the 11th month of reinfection, the age-intensity profiles of egg output were similar to those observed at initial treatment in the older age groups (10 years and above) and in male children (less than 10 years). However, a dramatic increase in the egg output of female children, greatly exceeding the initial mean, was observed within a 6 month period of reinfection. The intensity of egg output did not accurately reflect the abundance of Ascaris recovered via drug-induced expulsion following an 11 month period of reinfection. Although the egg output attained preintervention levels, the average worm intensity reached only half the initial value. The trends in the sex- and age-intensity profiles were consistent at the two sampling dates and showed similar patterns to the egg output curves. The relevance of the results to helminth control and the monitoring of reinfection is discussed.

  7. Readers of histone methylarginine marks.

    PubMed

    Gayatri, Sitaram; Bedford, Mark T

    2014-08-01

    Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) that alters roughly 0.5% of all arginine residues in the cells. There are three types of arginine methylation: monomethylarginine (MMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). These three PTMs are enriched on RNA-binding proteins and on histones, and also impact signal transduction cascades. To date, over thirty arginine methylation sites have been cataloged on the different core histones. These modifications alter protein structure, impact interactions with DNA, and also generate docking sites for effector molecules. The primary "readers" of methylarginine marks are Tudor domain-containing proteins. The complete family of thirty-six Tudor domain-containing proteins has yet to be fully characterized, but at least ten bind methyllysine motifs and eight bind methylarginine motifs. In this review, we will highlight the biological roles of the Tudor domains that interact with arginine methylated motifs, and also address other types of interactions that are regulated by these particular PTMs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mark III results from SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Toki, W.

    1983-11-01

    First results from the MARK III detector at SPEAR are presented based on 2.7 million J/psi decays. The eta/sub c/ is observed in three modes, J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..eta/sub c/, (eta/sub c/ ..-->.. rho anti rho, eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/, and phi phi). Using the phi phi mode, the eta/sub c/ spin-parity is determined to be 0/sup -/. The known radiative J/psi decays J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..f(f ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/), ..gamma..eta'(eta' ..-->.. ..gamma..rho/sup 0/, eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/), ..gamma..f'(f' ..-->.. kappa/sup +/kappa/sup -/), ..gamma..theta(theta ..-->.. kappa anti kappa), and ..gamma..iota(iota ..-->.. ..pi..kappa anti kappa) are observed and their branching ratios found to be in agreement with previous measurements. In the J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..kappa/sup +/kappa/sup -/ mode a new state is observed at 2.22 GeV and in the J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma gamma..rho/sup 0/ and ..gamma..eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ modes evidence for new structures near 1.4 GeV is presented. 29 references.

  9. [Marked hemosiderosis in myelodysplastic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Klinz, C

    1999-01-29

    A 68-year-old man was admitted because of symptoms of lumbar pain. He was known to have chronic anemia with ring sideroblasts and diabetes melitus and to be in heart failure. Three months before he had been given 7 units of red cell concentrate. On admission the outstanding features were brown discoloration of the skin, absent body hair, tachycardia, hepatomegaly and small testicles. He had a normocytic anemia, hyperglycemia and raised transaminases, hypogonadism and vitamin D3 deficiency. The serum levels of iron, transferrin saturation and feritin were markedly elevated. Liver iron content/g dried liver was 4.2 g (by biomagnetometer). Radiology of the lumbar vertebrae showed osteoporosis and sonography confirmed hepatomegaly. The known myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) had fed to secondary hemosiderosis with heart failure, liver involvement, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism and osteoporosis. Symptomatic treatment was unsuccessfully complemented by desferoxamine (up to 4 g/12 h) to release iron. But very good iron excretion was then achieved with deferiprone (3 x 1 g/d). The patient later died of the sequelae of hemosiderosis. Even when they have not required transfusions, patients with long-standing MDS should be examined regularly for the possible development of secondary hemosiderosis so that iron-chelating agents can be administered as needed.

  10. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 29... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector valve control must be marked to indicate the...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 29... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector valve control must be marked to indicate the...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 29... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector valve control must be marked to indicate the...

  13. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have been...

  14. 46 CFR 160.002-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Kapok, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 3 and 5 § 160.002-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in waterproof...

  15. 46 CFR 160.005-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Fibrous Glass, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 52 and 56 § 160.005-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in...

  16. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.29 Approval marking. (a) Approved brattice cloth shall be legibly and permanently marked with the assigned...

  17. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.29 Approval marking. (a) Approved brattice cloth shall be legibly and permanently marked with the assigned...

  18. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.29 Approval marking. (a) Approved brattice cloth shall be legibly and permanently marked with the assigned...

  19. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.29 Approval marking. (a) Approved brattice cloth shall be legibly and permanently marked with the assigned...

  20. 46 CFR 160.026-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (b) Other marking. In addition to any other marking placed on the smallest packing carton or box in which emergency drinking water containers are placed prior to shipment, each carton or box shall be...

  1. Comparison of the structures of natural and re-established populations of Ascaris in humans in a rural community of Jiangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, W; Cui, X; Zhou, X

    2002-06-01

    To compare the structures of natural and re-established populations of Ascaris in humans, universal (mass) chemotherapy was carried out at the beginning and the end of the study year using pyrantel pamoate. Worms expelled within 48 h of treatment were collected, their sex determined, and measurements made of length, width and weight. Length was used as the criterion for estimating the developmental stage of the worms. In comparison with the natural population, the reestablished population displayed similar sex ratio as well as distribution patterns among individuals and age groups of the host. However, the mean worm burden of the re-established population was significantly decreased, with a reduction of burdens in children aged 5-9 years. Also, the re-established population showed significant changes in population structure and worm measurements in that it comprised more immature and less fertile males, less fertile and more senile females, smaller and lighter males, larger (but not heavier) females than the natural population. The results suggested that the reestablished Ascaris population did not restore to its original status in relation to mean density, composition and fecundity. Therefore, universal treatment once a year should decrease the transmission of Ascaris in humans. Combined with previous results for the same study sites, the present findings also indicated that caution is warranted to avoid misleading conclusions when using prevalence and faecal egg counts as parameters for evaluating the success of control programmes.

  2. Occurrence and fate of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in biosolids in Victoria, Australia: a human health risk assessment of biosolids storage periods.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Nicholas A; Surapaneni, Aravind; Smith, David; Stevens, Daryl

    2017-09-01

    Reuse of sewage biosolids in Victoria, Australia, typically involves mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by air-drying and long-term storage to ensure removal of ova of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) such as Ascaris lumbricoides. Long-term storage degrades the biosolids' agronomic quality due to the loss of key plant nutrients and takes up large areas of storage space. The impact of varying biosolids holding times and other processes on STH using Ascaris as the reference STH pathogen was examined in this study using a quantitative risk analysis approach. Risk modelling of the potential human health impacts from the presence of Ascaris ova in biosolids was undertaken for discrete holding periods of 1, 2 and 3 years. Modelling showed that to meet the WHO 1 μDALY·person(-1)·year(-1) disease burdens guideline for limiting exposure category, a biosolids storage period of 1.24 years or 2.1 years would be required, depending on the data source of ova shedding rates per worm (Bangladesh or Nigeria, respectively). The soil exposure and salad/root vegetable consumption models included a number of variables with moderate to high degrees of uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the effect of uncertainty in model input variables and to assist in highlighting areas for further research.

  3. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall be... and commuter trains in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section shall be lighted under...

  4. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall be... and commuter trains in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section shall be lighted under...

  5. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall be... and commuter trains in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section shall be lighted under...

  6. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall be... and commuter trains in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section shall be lighted under...

  7. Degradation Modeling of Polyurea Pavement Markings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    DEGRADATION MODELING OF POLYUREA PAVEMENT MARKINGS THESIS Jonathan D. Needham, Captain, USAF AFIT/GEM/ENV/11-M05 DEPARTMENT OF THE...DEGRADATION MODELING OF POLYUREA PAVEMENT MARKINGS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Management Graduates School of...DEGRADATION MODELING OF POLYUREA PAVEMENT MARKINGS Jonathan D. Needham, BS Captain, USAF Approved

  8. The Text Marking Patterns of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; Kirby, Katie

    1989-01-01

    Examines patterns in college students' text markings using texts from three content areas: history, political science, and sociology. Indicates little differential marking between various text-types. Concludes that students seem to have little idea how to mark text efficiently. (MG)

  9. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking devices. 221.14 Section 221.14 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking...

  10. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  11. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  12. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  13. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  14. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  15. 49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must mark the record by placing the protective marking conspicuously on the top, and the distribution... types of records. In the case of non-paper records that contain SSI, including motion picture films...

  16. 46 CFR 160.174-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-23 Marking. (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words “Thermal Protective Aid,” the name of the manufacturer, the... the Coast Guard approval number. (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words “Thermal...

  17. 46 CFR 160.174-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-23 Marking. (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words “Thermal Protective Aid,” the name of the manufacturer, the... the Coast Guard approval number. (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words “Thermal...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 25.1555 Section 25.1555....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§ 25.677 and 25.699. (c) For powerplant fuel...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control markings. 27.1555 Section 27.1555... Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose function... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector control must be marked to indicate the position...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control markings. 25.1555 Section 25.1555....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§ 25.677 and 25.699. (c) For powerplant fuel...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control markings. 23.1555 Section 23.1555... Markings and Placards § 23.1555 Control markings. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75763, December 2, 2011. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and simple push button type starter...

  2. 40 CFR 262.32 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.32 Marking. (a) Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must mark each package of... transportation off-site, a generator must mark each container of 119 gallons or less used in such transportation...

  3. 40 CFR 262.32 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.32 Marking. (a) Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must mark each package of... transportation off-site, a generator must mark each container of 119 gallons or less used in such transportation...

  4. 40 CFR 262.32 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.32 Marking. (a) Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must mark each package of... transportation off-site, a generator must mark each container of 119 gallons or less used in such transportation...

  5. 40 CFR 262.32 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.32 Marking. (a) Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must mark each package of... transportation off-site, a generator must mark each container of 119 gallons or less used in such transportation...

  6. 40 CFR 262.32 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.32 Marking. (a) Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must mark each package of... transportation off-site, a generator must mark each container of 119 gallons or less used in such transportation...

  7. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-5 Marking. (a) Each motor must have a marking or nameplate that meets either Section 430...

  8. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-5 Marking. (a) Each motor must have a marking or nameplate that meets either Section...

  9. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-5 Marking. (a) Each motor must have a marking or nameplate that meets either Section...

  10. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-5 Marking. (a) Each motor must have a marking or nameplate that meets either Section...

  11. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-5 Marking. (a) Each motor must have a marking or nameplate that meets either Section...

  12. 48 CFR 752.7009 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 752.7009 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of USAID Contract Clauses 752.7009 Marking. The following clause is for use in all USAID contracts performed in whole or in part overseas. Marking (JAN 1993)...

  13. 48 CFR 752.7009 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 752.7009 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of USAID Contract Clauses 752.7009 Marking. The following clause is for use in all USAID contracts performed in whole or in part overseas. Marking (JAN 1993)...

  14. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  15. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  16. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  17. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  18. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  19. Classroom Mark-Recapture with Crickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Andrew R.; Woolfe, Jennifer; Kennedy, Kathleen; Oberbillig, David; Brewer, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques are commonly used by ecologists to estimate abundance of naturally occurring animals and are an important component of ecology curricula. This investigation teaches a mark-recapture technique using store-bought crickets in 10-gallon aquaria and provides an inexpensive way to teach students about mark-recapture in a real…

  20. Classroom Mark-Recapture with Crickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Andrew R.; Woolfe, Jennifer; Kennedy, Kathleen; Oberbillig, David; Brewer, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques are commonly used by ecologists to estimate abundance of naturally occurring animals and are an important component of ecology curricula. This investigation teaches a mark-recapture technique using store-bought crickets in 10-gallon aquaria and provides an inexpensive way to teach students about mark-recapture in a real…

  1. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this chapter...

  2. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or for...

  3. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on...

  4. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk... “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head of each container before removal for...

  5. Marking Student Programs Using Graph Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Kevin A.; Greyling, Jean H.; Vogts, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the automated marking of student programming assignments. Our technique quantifies the structural similarity between unmarked student submissions and marked solutions, and is the basis by which we assign marks. This is accomplished through an efficient novel graph similarity measure ("AssignSim"). Our experiments…

  6. 49 CFR 178.318-3 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 178.318-3 Section 178.318-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.318-3 Marking. Each container must be marked as...

  7. 49 CFR 178.318-3 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 178.318-3 Section 178.318-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.318-3 Marking. Each container must be marked as...

  8. 49 CFR 178.318-3 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marking. 178.318-3 Section 178.318-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.318-3 Marking. Each container must be marked as...

  9. 49 CFR 178.318-3 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking. 178.318-3 Section 178.318-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.318-3 Marking. Each container must be marked as...

  10. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of...

  11. The Text Marking Patterns of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; Kirby, Katie

    1989-01-01

    Examines patterns in college students' text markings using texts from three content areas: history, political science, and sociology. Indicates little differential marking between various text-types. Concludes that students seem to have little idea how to mark text efficiently. (MG)

  12. Studies on CO 2 laser marking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Saitoh, Yoshikazu; Hachisuka, Hideki; Ishigaki, Hiroyuki; Gokoh, Yukihiro; Mantani, Hiroshi

    The nature of CO 2 laser marking was studied with a view to putting these lasers to practical use in the semiconductor industry. The marking is found to be due to surface spattering rather than burning, which is the main factor in YAG laser marking. The visibility greatly increases by the application of a surface treatment such as marker ink, varnish or poster color. The CO 2 laser may therefore be used in place of the YAG laser, now widely used for marking, with some merits: CO 2 laser marking is cheaper and faster, and in addition there is no danger of injury from irradiating laser light.

  13. Standards and practices for bite mark photography.

    PubMed

    Golden, G S

    2011-12-01

    In most crimes where bite marks are discovered, photographic accuracy is crucial to the investigative process since in many instances the bite mark(s) may be the only evidence linking a particular suspect to the crime. Therefore, the rationale for employing superior photographic principles is mandatory for the investigation team. This paper will discuss current standards, best practice, and armamentaria for digital photography of bite mark injuries on skin. Full spectrum protocols will be described including Alternate Light Imaging, Reflective Ultra-violet, and Infrared techniques for photo-documentation of images of bite marks and other bruise patterns that have been inflicted on human skin.

  14. Ascaris lumbricoides-induced suppression of total and specific IgE responses in atopic subjects is interleukin 10-independent and associated with an increase of CD25(+) cells.

    PubMed

    Matera, Giovanni; Giancotti, Aida; Scalise, Sonia; Pulicari, Maria Concetta; Maselli, Rosario; Piizzi, Chiara; Pelaia, Girolamo; Tancrè, Valentina; Muto, Valentina; Doldo, Patrizia; Cosco, Vincenzo; Cosimo, Paola; Capicotto, Renata; Quirino, Angela; Scalzo, Rosaria; Liberto, Maria Carla; Parlato, Giuseppe; Focà, Alfredo

    2008-11-01

    Ascaris presence in humans has been associated with high levels of blood eosinophils and serum IgE. This study was designed to address the influence of Ascaris infection on allergic and inflammatory parameters of atopic subjects. A cross-sectional design was used, and atopic individuals to be assessed were divided into 3 groups including Ascaris-infected, anti-Ascaris IgG-positive (seropositive), and control subjects. All subjects enrolled had positive skin test reactivity to at least 1 perennial or seasonal allergen; however, levels of C-reactive protein, C3, and C4 were within normal range values. Eosinophil percentage was not significantly different among the groups studied. Total IgE and specific anti-Ascaris IgE levels in the seropositive group were significantly higher than concentrations found in both control and infected groups. Interleukin (IL)-4 release in Ascaris-infected patients was significantly increased versus seropositives, who were able to produce more IL-4 than controls. The levels of IL-10 were lower in the seropositives as well as infected subjects in comparison with controls. CD25(+) lymphocyte populations were significantly increased in the infected group versus the seropositives as well as the controls. Lung function tests of some selected seropositive subjects were significantly impaired. The same parameters of a representative infected patient were not different from controls. Our data on T helper type 2 cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg) features, as well as CD25(+) lymphocyte increase, suggest an Ascaris-induced mechanism leading to parasite survival. Moreover, the stable control of both T helper type 1 cells (Th1) and Th2 immunity cascades, paralleled by the absence of overwhelming inflammatory systemic reactions and lack of allergic syndromes, may result in a favorable host condition.

  15. The Mark 5C VLBI Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan; Ruszczyk, Chester; Romney, Jon; Owens, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The Mark 5C disk-based VLBI data system is being developed as the third-generation Mark 5 disk-based system, increasing the sustained data-recording rate capability to 4 Gbps. It is built on the same basic platform as the Mark 5A, Mark 5B and Mark 5B+ systems and will use the same 8-disk modules as earlier Mark 5 systems, although two 8-disk modules will be necessary to support the 4 Gbps rate. Unlike its earlier brethren, which use proprietary data interfaces, the Mark 5C will accept data from a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection and be compatible with the emerging VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) standard. Data sources for the Mark 5C system will be based on new digital backends now being developed, specifically the RDBE in the U.S. and the dBBC in Europe, as well as others. The Mark 5C system is being planned for use with the VLBI2010 system and will also be used by NRAO as part of the VLBA sensitivity upgrade program; it will also be available to the global VLBI community from Conduant. Mark 5C system specification and development is supported by Haystack Observatory, NRAO, and Conduant Corporation. Prototype Mark 5C systems are expected in early 2010.

  16. New excimer laser marking method using MMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntze, Thomas H.; Panzner, Michael; Klotzbach, Udo; Beyer, Eckhard

    2003-11-01

    Higher and higher through-puts in marking industry are todays requirements. Mainly packaging industry or cable marking companies ask for part-by-part varying markings like serial numbers, weight, date or barcodes. That gives a need to develop a flexible, high-speed on-the-fly marking technique. Current laser marking techniques like direct writing using a scanned laser beam or excimer laser fixed mask projection offer proven quality and either flexibility or detailism. Their drawbacks are limited speed (direct writing) and invariability (fixed mask projection). The Fraunhofer IWS developed a marking system using excimer laser mask projection with a micro mirror device (MMD) as computer-controlled 'flexible mask.' The idea is to generate complex markings within one laser pulse so the marking speed is only limited by the laser repetition rate. The IWS used a 308nm excimer laser and a reflective phase-shifting mask from Fh IMS to demonstrate the marking capabilities. It was possible to generate free-programmable, high-contrast markings on common materials like paper and plastic. Furthermore, it could be shown that the technique is also usable to generate 3D structures in PI. Result of the studies is the development of a very fast marking technique using MMDs in combination with short wavelength and short pulse lasers. It also has high potential in 3D laser micromachining.

  17. IgE cross-reactivity between Ascaris lumbricoides and mite allergens: possible influences on allergic sensitization and asthma.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, N; Caraballo, L

    2011-06-01

    Nematode infections such as Ascariasis are important health problems in underdeveloped countries, most of them located in the tropics where environmental conditions also promote the perennial co-exposure to high concentrations of domestic mite allergens. Allergic diseases are common, and most of patients with asthma exhibit a predominant and strong IgE sensitization to mites. It is unknown whether co-exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides and the domestic mites Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus potentiates Th2 responses and IgE sensitization, thereby modifying the natural history of allergy. Recently, we obtained experimental evidence of a high cross-reactivity between the allergenic extracts of these invertebrates, involving well-known allergens such as tropomyosin and glutathione transferases. There is indirect evidence suggesting that the clinical impact of these findings may be important. In this review, we discuss the potential role of this cross-reactivity on several aspects of allergy in the tropics that have been a focus of a number of investigations, some of them with controversial results.

  18. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis.We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72  hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day.Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment.

  19. Comparison and validation of two mathematical models for the impact of mass drug administration on Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Coffeng, Luc E; Truscott, James E; Farrell, Sam H; Turner, Hugo C; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kang, Gagandeep; de Vlas, Sake J; Anderson, Roy M

    2017-03-01

    The predictions of two mathematical models of the transmission dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection and the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) are compared, using data from India. One model has an age structured partial differential equation (PDE) deterministic framework for the distribution of parasite numbers per host and sexual mating. The second model is an individual-based stochastic model. Baseline data acquired prior to treatment are used to estimate key transmission parameters, and forward projections are made, given the known MDA population coverage. Predictions are compared with observed post-treatment epidemiological patterns. The two models could equally well predict the short-term impact of deworming on A. lumbricoides and hookworm infection levels, despite being fitted to different subsets and/or summary statistics of the data. As such, the outcomes give confidence in their use as aids to policy formulation for the use of PCT to control A. lumbricoides and hookworm infection. The models further largely agree in a qualitative sense on the added benefit of semi-annual vs. annual deworming and targeting of the entire population vs. only children, as well as the potential for interruption of transmission. Further, this study also illustrates that long-term predictions are sensitive to modelling assumptions about which age groups contribute most to transmission, which depends on human demography and age-patterns in exposure and contribution to the environmental reservoir of infection, the latter being notoriously difficult to empirically quantify.

  20. Ascaris lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid induces a partially activated dendritic cell phenotype with Th2 promoting ability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dowling, David J; Noone, Cariosa M; Adams, Paul N; Vukman, Krisztina V; Molloy, Sile F; Forde, Jessica; Asaolu, Samuel; O'Neill, Sandra M

    2011-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) matured with helminth-derived molecules that promote Th2 immune responses do not follow conventional definitions of DC maturation processes. While a number of models of DC maturation by Th2 stimuli are postulated, further studies are required if we are to clearly define DC maturation processes that lead to Th2 immune responses. In this study, we examine the interaction of Th2-inducing molecules from the parasitic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides with the maturation processes and function of DCs. Here we show that murine bone marrow-derived DCs are partially matured by A. lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid (ABF) as characterised by the production of IL-6, IL-12p40 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) but no enhanced expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)-14, T-cell co-stimulatory markers CD80, CD86, CD40, OX40L and major histocompatibility complex class II was observed. Despite these phenotypic characteristics, ABF-stimulated DCs displayed the functional hallmarks of fully matured cells, enhancing DC phagocytosis and promoting Th2-type responses in skin-draining lymph node cells in vivo. ABF activated Th2-associated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and nuclear factor-kB intracellular signalling pathways independently of toll-like receptor 4. Taken together, we believe this is the first paper to demonstrate A. lumbricoides murine DC-Th cell-driven responses shedding further light on DC maturation processes by helminth antigens.

  1. Ascaris lumbricoides egg die-off in an experimental excreta storage system and public health implication in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu-Van, Tu; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Winkler, Mirko S; Zurbrügg, Christian; Zinsstag, Jakob; Le Thi Thanh, Huong; Bich, Tran Huu; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2017-02-01

    We studied the influence of different additive materials (lime, and rice husk) and aeration conditions on Ascaris lumbricoides egg die-off in 24 vaults of an experimental excreta storage unit. Excreta samples were collected once every two weeks over a 181-day period. Temperature, pH, and moisture content were recorded. A. lumbricoides eggs were quantitatively analyzed by the Romanenko method, which identified and counted live and dead eggs. From the first sampling (0 storage day) to the final sampling (181 storage days) the average percentage of viable A. lumbricoides eggs decreased gradually from 76.72 ± 11.23% (mean ± SD) to 8.26 ± 5.20%. The storage time and the high pH value significantly increased the die-off of helminth eggs. Over 181 storage days, all vaults option effectively reduced A. lumbricoides eggs die-off. The best vault option, with aeration and 10% lime per total weight, met the WHO standard for excreta treatment on the 111th storage day.

  2. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Uribe, R. M.; Gregory, Roger; Gangoda, Mahinda; Nickelsen, Mike G.; Loar, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50-70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application.

  3. Ascaris lumbricoides aggregation in relation to child growth status, delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity, and plant anthelmintic use in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Kightlinger, L K; Seed, J R; Kightlinger, M B

    1996-02-01

    The relationships between Ascaris lumbricoides worm burden, growth status, general delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity (DCH) response, and plant anthelmintic use were investigated in a 12-mo prospective survey of 663 children, 4-10 yr old, living in the Ranomafana rainforest, Madagascar. Initial fecal examinations revealed prevalences of 93% for A. lumbricoides, 55% for Trichuris trichuria, and 27% for hookworm. After anthelmintic treatment and a 12-mo reinfection period, 428 of the children participated in worm expulsion studies using pyrantel pamoate, revealing an overdispersed A. lumbricoides worm population, mean = 19.2 (SD = 20.4). Malnutrition was common with 72% of the children growth stunted, 61% underweight, and 6% wasted. The children were also skin tested to recall antigens for DCH, with 94% reacting. The DCH immune response was significantly decreased in the malnourished children; however, DCH was not reduced in relation to increasing worm intensity. Growth status, growth velocity, and triceps skinfold did not vary significantly in relation to A. lumbricoides worm burden. Traditional plant anthelmintic treatment was effective in significantly reducing worm intensity. This study indicates that, in human communities where the children are predominately stunted, A. lumbricoides does not aggregate in the most malnourished or immunodepressed children.

  4. RGB marking facilitates multicolor clonal cell tracking.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristoffer; Thomaschewski, Michael; Warlich, Michael; Volz, Tassilo; Cornils, Kerstin; Niebuhr, Birte; Täger, Maike; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Pollok, Jörg-Matthias; Stocking, Carol; Dandri, Maura; Benten, Daniel; Fehse, Boris

    2011-04-01

    We simultaneously transduced cells with three lentiviral gene ontology (LeGO) vectors encoding red, green or blue fluorescent proteins. Individual cells were thereby marked by different combinations of inserted vectors, resulting in the generation of numerous mixed colors, a principle we named red-green-blue (RGB) marking. We show that lentiviral vector-mediated RGB marking remained stable after cell division, thus facilitating the analysis of clonal cell fates in vitro and in vivo. Particularly, we provide evidence that RGB marking allows assessment of clonality after regeneration of injured livers by transplanted primary hepatocytes. We also used RGB vectors to mark hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that generated colored spleen colonies. Finally, based on limiting-dilution and serial transplantation assays with tumor cells, we found that clonal tumor cells retained their specific color-code over extensive periods of time. We conclude that RGB marking represents a useful tool for cell clonality studies in tissue regeneration and pathology.

  5. Pavement-marking materials: New York's experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryden, J. E.; Gurney, G. F.

    1984-04-01

    A wide range of stripping materials is available for pavement-marking programs. The four basic systems; traffic paint, thermoplastic, preformed tape, and field-reacted materials are described, as well as the various materials used in each system, including cost, durability, methods of installation and mantenance, visibility, and handling safety. New York State's pavement marking policies are described. Information on stripping costs, material usage, and results of durability studies is provided, based on New York's experience with most currently available marking materials.

  6. Maintenance Operations Degradation of Airfield Pavement Markings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    the amount of light, which after emitted from a headlight is reflected from the pavement marker back to the driver (ASTM, 2005). Pavement markings...The geometry is based on the driver sitting 1.3 meters above the ground seeing the pavement marking 30 meters in front of the headlight . Figure 1...is the measure of how much light from a headlight reflects off of the marking and is directed back to the driver’s eye (ASTM 2005). Roadway

  7. Laser soft marking on silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoong, L. E.; Lam, Y. C.; Zheng, H. Y.; Chen, X.

    2010-03-01

    A laser soft marking technique is developed for laser markings on a silicon wafer. Due to negligible surface modification, the laser soft wafer markings are invisible by naked eyes under room condition and are undetectable using sophisticated instruments. However, these laser markings are found to be visible to naked eyes through a differential condensation of water droplets on the laser-marked and unmarked silicon surfaces. To understand this phenomenon, a model is established to study the condensation of water droplets on laser-marked and unmarked silicon surfaces. Experimental observations and simulation results indicate that the laser soft marking could have modified the silicon surface with a thin polycrystalline silicon layer which has a much lower conductivity than the crystalline silicon. In addition, this thin layer exhibits a thermal conductivity which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than that of its equivalent bulk material. As a result, heat transfer on the laser-marked silicon surface is much lower than the crystalline silicon and thus makes these laser soft markings easily visible visually under condensation.

  8. An analysis of hospital brand mark clusters.

    PubMed

    Vollmers, Stacy M; Miller, Darryl W; Kilic, Ozcan

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzed brand mark clusters (i.e., various types of brand marks displayed in combination) used by hospitals in the United States. The brand marks were assessed against several normative criteria for creating brand marks that are memorable and that elicit positive affect. Overall, results show a reasonably high level of adherence to many of these normative criteria. Many of the clusters exhibited pictorial elements that reflected benefits and that were conceptually consistent with the verbal content of the cluster. Also, many clusters featured icons that were balanced and moderately complex. However, only a few contained interactive imagery or taglines communicating benefits.

  9. Causes of urine marking in cats and effects of environmental management on frequency of marking.

    PubMed

    Pryor, P A; Hart, B L; Bain, M J; Cliff, K D

    2001-12-15

    To evaluate effects of environmental management alone on marking frequency in cats with urine marking and to obtain demographic data on cats with urine marking and data on owner-perceived factors that contributed to urine marking behavior. Single-intervention study. 40 neutered male and 7 spayed female cats. During a 2-week baseline phase, owners maintained a daily record of the number of urine marks. This phase was followed by a 2-week environmental management phase during which owners cleaned recently deposited urine marks daily, scooped waste from the litter box daily, and changed the litter and cleaned the litter box weekly while continuing to record urine marks. Male cats and cats from multicat households were significantly overrepresented, compared with the general pet cat population in California. The most commonly mentioned causative factors for urine marking were agonistic interactions with other cats outside or inside the home. Environmental management procedures resulted in an overall reduction in urine marking frequency. Among cats that marked > or = 6 times during the baseline phase, females were significantly more likely to respond to treatment (> or = 50% reduction in marking frequency) than were males. Results suggest that male cats and cats from multicat households are more likely to exhibit urine marking behavior than females and cats from single-cat households. Results also suggest that attention to environmental and litter box hygiene can reduce marking frequency in cats, regardless of sex or household status of the cats, and may come close to resolving the marking problem in some cats.

  10. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  11. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  12. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  13. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  14. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 160.053-5 Section 160.053-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-5 Marking. (a...

  15. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held Rocket...

  16. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held Rocket...

  17. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held Rocket...

  18. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held Rocket...

  19. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held Rocket...

  20. 10 CFR 1045.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking requirements. 1045.40 Section 1045.40 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.40 Marking...