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Sample records for marked bengal pink

  1. Chemical characterization of territorial marking fluid of male Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris.

    PubMed

    Burger, B V; Viviers, M Z; Bekker, J P I; le Roux, M; Fish, N; Fourie, W B; Weibchen, G

    2008-05-01

    The territorial marking fluid of the male Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris, consists of a mixture of urine and a small quantity of lipid material that may act as a controlled-release carrier for the volatile constituents of the fluid. Using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 98 volatile compounds and elemental sulfur were identified in the marking fluid. Another 16 volatiles were tentatively identified. The majority of these compounds were alkanols, alkanals, 2-alkanones, branched and unbranched alkanoic acids, dimethyl esters of dicarboxylic acids, gamma- and delta-lactones, and compounds containing nitrogen or sulfur. Several samples of the marking fluid contained pure (R)-3-methyl-2-octanone, (R)-3-methyl-2-nonanone, and (R)-3-methyl-2-decanone, but these ketones were partly or completely racemized in other samples. The gamma-lactone (S)-(+)-(Z)-6-dodecen-4-olide and the C(8) to C(16) saturated (R)-gamma-lactones and (S)-delta-lactones were present in high enantiomeric purities. The chiral carboxylic acids, 2-methylnonanoic acid, 2-methyldecanoic acid, 2-methylundecanoic acid, and 2-ethylhexanoic acid were racemates. Cadaverine, putrescine, and 2-acetylpyrroline, previously reported as constituents of tiger urine, were not detected. The dominant contribution of some ketones, fatty acids, and lactones to the composition of the headspace of the marking fluid suggests that these compounds may be important constituents of the pheromone. Although it constitutes only a small proportion, the lipid fraction of the fluid contained larger quantities of the volatile organic compounds than the aqueous fraction (urine). The lipid derives its role as controlled-release carrier of the chemical message left by the tiger, from its affinity for the volatiles of the marking fluid. Six proteins with masses ranging from 16 to 69 kDa, inter alia, the carboxylesterase-like urinary protein known as cauxin, previously identified in the urine of the domestic cat

  2. Chemical characterization of territorial marking fluid of male Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris.

    PubMed

    Burger, B V; Viviers, M Z; Bekker, J P I; le Roux, M; Fish, N; Fourie, W B; Weibchen, G

    2008-05-01

    The territorial marking fluid of the male Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris, consists of a mixture of urine and a small quantity of lipid material that may act as a controlled-release carrier for the volatile constituents of the fluid. Using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 98 volatile compounds and elemental sulfur were identified in the marking fluid. Another 16 volatiles were tentatively identified. The majority of these compounds were alkanols, alkanals, 2-alkanones, branched and unbranched alkanoic acids, dimethyl esters of dicarboxylic acids, gamma- and delta-lactones, and compounds containing nitrogen or sulfur. Several samples of the marking fluid contained pure (R)-3-methyl-2-octanone, (R)-3-methyl-2-nonanone, and (R)-3-methyl-2-decanone, but these ketones were partly or completely racemized in other samples. The gamma-lactone (S)-(+)-(Z)-6-dodecen-4-olide and the C(8) to C(16) saturated (R)-gamma-lactones and (S)-delta-lactones were present in high enantiomeric purities. The chiral carboxylic acids, 2-methylnonanoic acid, 2-methyldecanoic acid, 2-methylundecanoic acid, and 2-ethylhexanoic acid were racemates. Cadaverine, putrescine, and 2-acetylpyrroline, previously reported as constituents of tiger urine, were not detected. The dominant contribution of some ketones, fatty acids, and lactones to the composition of the headspace of the marking fluid suggests that these compounds may be important constituents of the pheromone. Although it constitutes only a small proportion, the lipid fraction of the fluid contained larger quantities of the volatile organic compounds than the aqueous fraction (urine). The lipid derives its role as controlled-release carrier of the chemical message left by the tiger, from its affinity for the volatiles of the marking fluid. Six proteins with masses ranging from 16 to 69 kDa, inter alia, the carboxylesterase-like urinary protein known as cauxin, previously identified in the urine of the domestic cat

  3. Pink urine.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

    2014-11-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

  4. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  5. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) ... can be very serious. Symptoms and Causes of Conjunctivitis in Newborns Newborns with conjunctivitis develop drainage from ...

  6. Moon's Pink Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2010 remote-sensing discovery of lunar regolith rich in Mg-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of impact craters and inner rings of basins on the Moon, researchers have been designing experiments to better understand the origin and formation history of spinel-rich rocks and what they mean for the construction of the lunar crust. The newly detected rock type is referred to as pink spinel anorthosite, or PSA, due to high plagioclase and low abundance (<5%) of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Two recent studies tested specific hypotheses of PSA production on the Moon. Juliane Gross (American Museum of Natural History and the Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI) and colleagues at the LPI, University of Hawaii, and NASA Johnson Space Center conducted experiments to model the crystallization of spinel in impact melts from impact events. Tabb Prissel (Brown University) and colleagues from Brown conducted experiments to model a plutonic formation of spinel from magma-wallrock interactions. In each study, comparisons of the remote sensing data with Apollo lunar samples or lunar meteorites were crucial for testing the PSA formation hypotheses with the experimental results. Definitive answers aren't in yet. PSA could form from impact melting of the right target rocks. Equally likely is PSA formation by reaction of basaltic magma and crust. One big unknown is the effect space weathering has in determining the amount of spinel in the PSA..

  7. Discovery of catalytically active orthologues of the Parkinson's disease kinase PINK1: analysis of substrate specificity and impact of mutations.

    PubMed

    Woodroof, Helen I; Pogson, Joe H; Begley, Mike; Cantley, Lewis C; Deak, Maria; Campbell, David G; van Aalten, Daan M F; Whitworth, Alexander J; Alessi, Dario R; Muqit, Miratul M K

    2011-11-01

    Missense mutations of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause autosomal-recessive Parkinson's disease. To date, little is known about the intrinsic catalytic properties of PINK1 since the human enzyme displays such low kinase activity in vitro. We have discovered that, in contrast to mammalian PINK1, insect orthologues of PINK1 we have investigated-namely Drosophila melanogaster (dPINK1), Tribolium castaneum (TcPINK1) and Pediculus humanus corporis (PhcPINK1)-are active as judged by their ability to phosphorylate the generic substrate myelin basic protein. We have exploited the most active orthologue, TcPINK1, to assess its substrate specificity and elaborated a peptide substrate (PINKtide, KKWIpYRRSPRRR) that can be employed to quantify PINK1 kinase activity. Analysis of PINKtide variants reveal that PINK1 phosphorylates serine or threonine, but not tyrosine, and we show that PINK1 exhibits a preference for a proline at the +1 position relative to the phosphorylation site. We have also, for the first time, been able to investigate the effect of Parkinson's disease-associated PINK1 missense mutations, and found that nearly all those located within the kinase domain, as well as the C-terminal non-catalytic region, markedly suppress kinase activity. This emphasizes the crucial importance of PINK1 kinase activity in preventing the development of Parkinson's disease. Our findings will aid future studies aimed at understanding how the activity of PINK1 is regulated and the identification of physiological substrates. PMID:22645651

  8. Phospho-ubiquitin: upending the PINK-Parkin-ubiquitin cascade.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria with decreased membrane potential are characterized by defects in protein import into the matrix and impairments in high-efficiency synthesis of ATP. These low-quality mitochondria are marked with ubiquitin for selective degradation. Key factors in this mechanism are PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1, a mitochondrial kinase) and Parkin (a ubiquitin ligase), disruption of which has been implicated in predisposition to Parkinson's disease. Previously, the clearance of damaged mitochondria had been thought to be the end result of a simple cascading reaction of PINK1-Parkin-ubiquitin. However, in the past year, several research groups including ours unexpectedly revealed that Parkin regulation is mediated by PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of ubiquitin. These results overturned the simple hierarchy that posited PINK1 and ubiquitin as the upstream and downstream factors of Parkin, respectively. Although ubiquitylation is well-known as a post-translational modification, it has recently become clear that ubiquitin itself can be modified, and that this modification unexpectedly converts ubiquitin to a factor that functions in retrograde signalling.

  9. PINK1 deficiency impairs mitochondrial homeostasis and promotes lung fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Marta; Lai, Yen-Chun; Romero, Yair; Brands, Judith; St. Croix, Claudette M.; Kamga, Christelle; Corey, Catherine; Herazo-Maya, Jose D.; Sembrat, John; Lee, Janet S.; Duncan, Steve R.; Rojas, Mauricio; Shiva, Sruti; Chu, Charleen T.; Mora, Ana L.

    2014-01-01

    Although aging is a known risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie the effects of advancing age remain largely unexplained. Some age-related neurodegenerative diseases have an etiology that is related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we found that alveolar type II cells (AECIIs) in the lungs of IPF patients exhibit marked accumulation of dysmorphic and dysfunctional mitochondria. These mitochondrial abnormalities in AECIIs of IPF lungs were associated with upregulation of ER stress markers and were recapitulated in normal mice with advancing age in response to stimulation of ER stress. We found that impaired mitochondria in IPF and aging lungs were associated with low expression of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Knockdown of PINK1 expression in lung epithelial cells resulted in mitochondria depolarization and expression of profibrotic factors. Moreover, young PINK1-deficient mice developed similarly dysmorphic, dysfunctional mitochondria in the AECIIs and were vulnerable to apoptosis and development of lung fibrosis. Our data indicate that PINK1 deficiency results in swollen, dysfunctional mitochondria and defective mitophagy, and promotes fibrosis in the aging lung. PMID:25562319

  10. Clueless, a protein required for mitochondrial function, interacts with the PINK1-Parkin complex in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sen, Aditya; Kalvakuri, Sreehari; Bodmer, Rolf; Cox, Rachel T

    2015-06-01

    Loss of mitochondrial function often leads to neurodegeneration and is thought to be one of the underlying causes of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the precise events linking mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death remain elusive. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin (Park), either of which, when mutated, are responsible for early-onset PD, mark individual mitochondria for destruction at the mitochondrial outer membrane. The specific molecular pathways that regulate signaling between the nucleus and mitochondria to sense mitochondrial dysfunction under normal physiological conditions are not well understood. Here, we show that Drosophila Clueless (Clu), a highly conserved protein required for normal mitochondrial function, can associate with Translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) 20, Porin and PINK1, and is thus located at the mitochondrial outer membrane. Previously, we found that clu genetically interacts with park in Drosophila female germ cells. Here, we show that clu also genetically interacts with PINK1, and our epistasis analysis places clu downstream of PINK1 and upstream of park. In addition, Clu forms a complex with PINK1 and Park, further supporting that Clu links mitochondrial function with the PINK1-Park pathway. Lack of Clu causes PINK1 and Park to interact with each other, and clu mutants have decreased mitochondrial protein levels, suggesting that Clu can act as a negative regulator of the PINK1-Park pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that Clu directly modulates mitochondrial function, and that Clu's function contributes to the PINK1-Park pathway of mitochondrial quality control.

  11. [PINK1 and the related diseases].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Mu, De-Zhi

    2016-08-01

    As a kind of mitochondrial membrane protein with protein kinase activity, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is involved in many biological metabolic processes. Since PINK1 had been found to be associated with Parkinson's disease, researchers have been exploring its biological function. PINK1 localizes in the outer mitochondrial membrane and regulates cell function through phosphorylating proteins. PINK1 is involved in mitochondrial function, mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial autophagy, but the regulatory pathway is not yet clear. PINK1 is expressed widely in many tissues with a variety of biological activity, especially in tissues with high energy consumption. It may therefore be involved in the development and regulation of many diseases. Mutations in PINK1 were originally discovered to cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Recently some research has revealed that PINK1 is related to the development of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, cancer, diabetes and other diseases. Studying and exploring the biological functions of PINK1 will facilitate the identification of the targets for therapeutic intervention for its related diseases. This review article mainly focuses on recent studies about the biological function and related diseases of PINK1. PMID:27530800

  12. What Does Daniel Pink Have to Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2007-01-01

    In Daniel Pink's vision of the near future, Americans value artists and creative thinkers as much as computer programmers, good design is a necessity, and empathy is essential to all products and services. In this article, the author discusses what Pink, author of "A Whole New Mind: Why Right-Brainers will Rule the Future," has to say on creative…

  13. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pink shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, Rosemarie

    1984-01-01

    Shrimp support the most valuable seafood industry in the United States (Roedel 1973; National Marine Fisheries Service 1983). The three most important commercial species are the white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus L.), brown shrimp (P. aztecus Ives), and pink shrimp (P. duorarum Burkenroad). Adult pink shdmp are caught "in commercial quantities throughout most of the geographic ranqe of the species (L indner 1957), and juveni les support a sizable bait shrimp industry along the Florida coast and throughout the Gulf of Mexico (Saloman 1965).

  17. An Efficient Composition for Bengal Lights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comet, M.; Schreyeck, L.; Fuzellier, H.

    2002-01-01

    Reports the discovery of an efficient base composition for making bengal lights that is obtained with potassium chlorate and thiourea. Combining this mixture with appropriate flame coloring can produce several impressive bengal lights. (DDR)

  18. Phosphoproteomic screening identifies Rab GTPases as novel downstream targets of PINK1.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Chiang; Kondapalli, Chandana; Lehneck, Ronny; Procter, James B; Dill, Brian D; Woodroof, Helen I; Gourlay, Robert; Peggie, Mark; Macartney, Thomas J; Corti, Olga; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Campbell, David G; Itzen, Aymelt; Trost, Matthias; Muqit, Miratul Mk

    2015-11-12

    Mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) are causative of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). We have previously reported that PINK1 is activated by mitochondrial depolarisation and phosphorylates serine 65 (Ser(65)) of the ubiquitin ligase Parkin and ubiquitin to stimulate Parkin E3 ligase activity. Here, we have employed quantitative phosphoproteomics to search for novel PINK1-dependent phosphorylation targets in HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293 cells stimulated by mitochondrial depolarisation. This led to the identification of 14,213 phosphosites from 4,499 gene products. Whilst most phosphosites were unaffected, we strikingly observed three members of a sub-family of Rab GTPases namely Rab8A, 8B and 13 that are all phosphorylated at the highly conserved residue of serine 111 (Ser(111)) in response to PINK1 activation. Using phospho-specific antibodies raised against Ser(111) of each of the Rabs, we demonstrate that Rab Ser(111) phosphorylation occurs specifically in response to PINK1 activation and is abolished in HeLa PINK1 knockout cells and mutant PINK1 PD patient-derived fibroblasts stimulated by mitochondrial depolarisation. We provide evidence that Rab8A GTPase Ser(111) phosphorylation is not directly regulated by PINK1 in vitro and demonstrate in cells the time course of Ser(111) phosphorylation of Rab8A, 8B and 13 is markedly delayed compared to phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser(65). We further show mechanistically that phosphorylation at Ser(111) significantly impairs Rab8A activation by its cognate guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Rabin8 (by using the Ser111Glu phosphorylation mimic). These findings provide the first evidence that PINK1 is able to regulate the phosphorylation of Rab GTPases and indicate that monitoring phosphorylation of Rab8A/8B/13 at Ser(111) may represent novel biomarkers of PINK1 activity in vivo. Our findings also suggest that disruption of Rab GTPase-mediated signalling may represent a major mechanism

  19. Phosphoproteomic screening identifies Rab GTPases as novel downstream targets of PINK1.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Chiang; Kondapalli, Chandana; Lehneck, Ronny; Procter, James B; Dill, Brian D; Woodroof, Helen I; Gourlay, Robert; Peggie, Mark; Macartney, Thomas J; Corti, Olga; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Campbell, David G; Itzen, Aymelt; Trost, Matthias; Muqit, Miratul Mk

    2015-11-12

    Mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) are causative of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). We have previously reported that PINK1 is activated by mitochondrial depolarisation and phosphorylates serine 65 (Ser(65)) of the ubiquitin ligase Parkin and ubiquitin to stimulate Parkin E3 ligase activity. Here, we have employed quantitative phosphoproteomics to search for novel PINK1-dependent phosphorylation targets in HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293 cells stimulated by mitochondrial depolarisation. This led to the identification of 14,213 phosphosites from 4,499 gene products. Whilst most phosphosites were unaffected, we strikingly observed three members of a sub-family of Rab GTPases namely Rab8A, 8B and 13 that are all phosphorylated at the highly conserved residue of serine 111 (Ser(111)) in response to PINK1 activation. Using phospho-specific antibodies raised against Ser(111) of each of the Rabs, we demonstrate that Rab Ser(111) phosphorylation occurs specifically in response to PINK1 activation and is abolished in HeLa PINK1 knockout cells and mutant PINK1 PD patient-derived fibroblasts stimulated by mitochondrial depolarisation. We provide evidence that Rab8A GTPase Ser(111) phosphorylation is not directly regulated by PINK1 in vitro and demonstrate in cells the time course of Ser(111) phosphorylation of Rab8A, 8B and 13 is markedly delayed compared to phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser(65). We further show mechanistically that phosphorylation at Ser(111) significantly impairs Rab8A activation by its cognate guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Rabin8 (by using the Ser111Glu phosphorylation mimic). These findings provide the first evidence that PINK1 is able to regulate the phosphorylation of Rab GTPases and indicate that monitoring phosphorylation of Rab8A/8B/13 at Ser(111) may represent novel biomarkers of PINK1 activity in vivo. Our findings also suggest that disruption of Rab GTPase-mediated signalling may represent a major mechanism

  20. Phenolphthalein—Pink Tornado Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-04-01

    The phenolphthalein-pink tornado demonstration utilizes the vortex generated by a spinning magnetic stirring bar in a 1 L graduated cylinder containing 0.01 M HCl to demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle as it applies to the phenolphthalein equilibrium in water H 2 In + 2H 2 O 2H 2 O + + In 2 - where H 2 In is phenophthalein. The addition of 3-4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution followed immediately by 3-4 drops of 50% (w/w) NaOH to the vortex of the HCl solution results in a shift to the right in the equilibrium owing to the reaction of OH - + H 3 O + to form water. This shift is accompanied by the vortex becoming visible by the appearance of a pinkish-red color caused by an increase in In 2- concentration within the localized region of the vortex. The demonstration also provides one an excellent opportunity to discuss the topics of limiting reagent and reagent in excess. Some insight regarding the extent to which uniform mixing is achieved when using a magnetic stirrer is also provided. Included is a note from the Feature Editor, Ed Vitz.

  1. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2009-01-16

    The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

  2. Pink Breast Milk: Serratia marcescens Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Cipatli Ayuzo del; Salinas, Emilio Treviño

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast milk can turn pink with Serratia marcescens colonization, this bacterium has been associated with several diseases and even death. It is seen most commonly in the intensive care settings. Discoloration of the breast milk can lead to premature termination of nursing. We describe two cases of pink-colored breast milk in which S. marsescens was isolated from both the expressed breast milk. Antimicrobial treatment was administered to the mothers. Return to breastfeeding was successful in both the cases. Conclusions Pink breast milk is caused by S. marsescens colonization. In such cases,early recognition and treatment before the development of infection is recommended to return to breastfeeding. PMID:25452881

  3. Field Performance of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Pink Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Gregory S.; McKemey, Andrew R.; Morrison, Neil I.; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S.; Phillips, Caroline E.; Miller, Ernie D.; Rose, Robert I.; Staten, Robert T.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) – mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts – has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field – ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area – were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

  4. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  5. Pink prehnite from Michigan: a mineral much confused.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, N.K.

    1983-01-01

    Both pink prehnite and thomsonite occur in amygdales in volcanic rocks of Keweenawan age in the Lake Superior region. Although the pink prehnite superficially resembles thomsonite, it does not develop the spectacular patterns with colour variations of gem quality thomsonite. The pink prehnite has long been misidentified and a history of this problem is presented. The pink colour of the prehnite is caused by internal reflections from very fine and evenly disseminated inclusions of native copper. (Preceding abstracts)-R.S.M.

  6. Sleep deepening effect of steady pink noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kawada, T.; Ogawa, M.; Aoki, S.

    1991-12-01

    Sleep under a steady pink noise was studied by a hypnogram of EEG. A young male subject slept all night under a steady pink noise of 40, 50 or 60 dB(A) for 4 to 5 nights, and for 10 nights under unexposed conditions with 35 dB(A). The hypnogram showed a significant decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2, at 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise exposure. The proportion of stage 3 increased significantly at 40 and 50 dB(A) as compared with 35 dB(A). The average depth of a night's sleep at 60 dB(A), calculated postulating stage W, 1, 2, 3 and 4 to be 0·0, 1·0, 2·0, 3·0 and 4·0, respectively, and REM to be 1·5, was significantly deeper than that at 35 and 40 dB(A). These findings are all sleep deepening effects of a steady noise. A second experiments was carried out with four other subjects exposed to a night of 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise and a paired quiet night. All four subjects also showed a decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2 at this exposure level. No significant change in subjective sleep was observed in either experiment. An inhibition pulse from the cortex may suppress the activation of reticular formation, which could make sleep under a steady noise deeper. However, the meaning of a depressed proportion of REM under steady pink noise is not clear.

  7. A case report of pink breast milk.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jenny; Crete, Joan; Neumeier, Robin

    2014-01-01

    A woman presented for her postpartum examination alarmed about pink stains on her breast pads and on her infant's burp pads and diapers. The stains were also found in her breast pump and the infant's bottles. Out of concern, she stopped breastfeeding. The diagnosis was colonization of mother and infant with Serratia marcescens. They were managed conservatively without antibiotics. The mother was guided to restart breastfeeding. The infant resumed nursing and continued to thrive.

  8. NRF2 Regulates PINK1 Expression under Oxidative Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Hitoshi; Takamatsu, Hitoshi; Liu, Sulai; Kataoka, Ken; Huh, Nam-ho; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson’s disease. Recent studies have revealed that PINK1 is an essential factor for controlling mitochondrial quality, and that it protects cells from oxidative stresses. Although there has been considerable progress in the elucidation of various aspects of PINK1 protein regulation such as activation, stability and degradation, the transcriptional regulation of PINK1 mRNA under stress conditions remains unclear. In this study, we found that nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2), an antioxidant transcription factor, regulates PINK1 expression under oxidative stress conditions. Damaged mitochondria arising from stress conditions induced NRF2-dependent transcription of the PINK1 gene through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Either an ROS scavenger or forced expression of KEAP1, a potent inhibitory partner to NRF2, restricted PINK1 expression induced by activated NRF2. Transcriptionally up-regulated PINK1 diminished oxidative stress-associated cell death. The results indicate that PINK1 expression is positively regulated by NRF2 and that the NRF2-PINK1 signaling axis is deeply involved in cell survival. PMID:26555609

  9. Dorsal hump morphology in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    PubMed

    Susuki, Kenta; Ichimura, Masaki; Koshino, Yosuke; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Takagi, Yasuaki; Adachi, Shinji; Kudo, Hideaki

    2014-05-01

    Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) develop a dorsal hump, as a secondary male sexual characteristic, during the spawning period. Previous gross anatomical studies have indicated that the dorsal humps of salmon are mainly composed of cartilaginous tissue (Davidson [1935] J Morphol 57:169-183.) However, the histological and biochemical characteristics of such humps are poorly understood. In this study, the detailed microstructures and components of the dorsal humps of pink salmon were analyzed using histochemical techniques and electrophoresis. In mature males, free interneural spines and neural spines were located in a line near to the median septum of the dorsal hump. No cartilaginous tissue was detected within the dorsal hump. Fibrous and mucous connective tissues were mainly found in three regions of the dorsal hump: i) the median septum, ii) the distal region, and iii) the crescent-shaped region. Both the median septum and distal region consisted of connective tissue with a high water content, which contained elastic fibers and hyaluronic acid. It was also demonstrated that the lipid content of the dorsal hump connective tissue was markedly decreased in the mature males compared with the immature and maturing males. Although, the crescent-shaped region of the hump consisted of connective tissue, it did not contain elastic fibers, hyaluronic acid, or lipids. In an ultrastructural examination, it was found that all of the connective tissues in the dorsal hump were composed of collagen fibers. Gel electrophoresis of collagen extracts from these tissues found that the collagen in the dorsal hump is composed of Type I collagen, as is the case in salmon skin. These results indicate that in male pink salmon the dorsal hump is formed as a result of an increase in the amount of connective tissue, rather than cartilage, and the growth of free interneural spines and neural spines.

  10. Antidote treatment for cyanide poisoning with hydroxocobalamin causes bright pink discolouration and chemical-analytical interferences.

    PubMed

    Brunel, C; Widmer, C; Augsburger, M; Dussy, F; Fracasso, T

    2012-11-30

    Here we report the case of a 70-year-old woman who committed suicide by cyanide poisoning. During resuscitation cares, she underwent an antidote treatment by hydroxocobalamin. Postmortem investigations showed marked bright pink discolouration of organs and fluids, and a lethal cyanide blood concentration of 43 mg/L was detected by toxicological investigation. Discolouration of hypostasis and organs has widely been studied in forensic literature. In our case, we interpreted the unusual pink coloration as the result of the presence of hydroxocobalamin. This substance is a known antidote against cyanide poisoning, indicated because of its efficiency and poor adverse effects. However, its main drawback is to interfere with measurements of many routine biochemical parameters. We have tested the potential influence of this molecule in some routine postmortem investigations. The results are discussed.

  11. On determinants of migration in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Roy, N C

    1987-10-01

    The migration flow to West Bengal from different parts of the Indian subcontinent is an old phenomenon which can be traced to the beginning of the 19th century when the process of industrialization began in the areas comprising the present West Bengal. As West Bengal gradually industrialized and urbanized, the migration flow which was an equiliberating process up to 1947 turned into a stagnating mechanism in the economic sphere. This paper attempts to treat the causative process generating migration flows into West Bengal. Some popular hypotheses are tested, and their inadequacies in the case of migration in West Bengal are shown. Then a variable incorporating the expected long-run socioeconomic condition of West Bengal vis-a-vis the states/countries belonging to the migration universe of West Bengal was constructed, and this expectational variable appears to have more explanatory power than the observed income differential. Barring the political factor which played the central role in the case of immigration from Bangladesh, the determinants can be ranked in order of importance as 1) linguistic distance, 2) expected socioeconomic condition, and 3) physical distance. The limitation of the framework used is the scaling of linguistic distance and the inability to treat the political variable in a causal matrix of migration.

  12. On determinants of migration in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Roy, N C

    1987-10-01

    The migration flow to West Bengal from different parts of the Indian subcontinent is an old phenomenon which can be traced to the beginning of the 19th century when the process of industrialization began in the areas comprising the present West Bengal. As West Bengal gradually industrialized and urbanized, the migration flow which was an equiliberating process up to 1947 turned into a stagnating mechanism in the economic sphere. This paper attempts to treat the causative process generating migration flows into West Bengal. Some popular hypotheses are tested, and their inadequacies in the case of migration in West Bengal are shown. Then a variable incorporating the expected long-run socioeconomic condition of West Bengal vis-a-vis the states/countries belonging to the migration universe of West Bengal was constructed, and this expectational variable appears to have more explanatory power than the observed income differential. Barring the political factor which played the central role in the case of immigration from Bangladesh, the determinants can be ranked in order of importance as 1) linguistic distance, 2) expected socioeconomic condition, and 3) physical distance. The limitation of the framework used is the scaling of linguistic distance and the inability to treat the political variable in a causal matrix of migration. PMID:12281036

  13. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue in South Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Arkendu; Joardar, Siddhartha N.; Isore, Devi Prasad; Samanta, Indranil; Parui, Panchanan; Banerjee, Dhriti; Lodh, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: With the aim of revealing the epidemiological intricacies of bluetongue (BT) in the southern part of West Bengal state, the present study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of BT along with identification of the vector of the disease, i.e., Culicoides midges available in the region in their breeding season with conducive environmental factors, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 1509 (sheep-504, goat-1005) samples were collected from three different agroclimatic zones of South Bengal viz. new alluvial, red laterite and coastal saline. To detect anti-BT antibodies in the collected serum samples, indirect-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) was performed. Culicoides midges were collected from those agro-climatic zones of South Bengal for species identification. The meteorological parameters, viz. temperature (maximum and minimum), rainfall and relative humidity of three agro-climatic zones of South Bengal were analyzed for the months of July to December during 2010-2013. Results: The overall seropositivity was 33.13% and 30.24% in sheep and goat, respectively as assessed by i-ELISA. In South Bengal, the predominant species of Culicoides found were Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides palpifer and Culicoides definitus. Conclusion: Since virus transmitting species of Culicoides midges could be detected in South Bengal, besides high seropositivity in ruminants, the possibility of circulating BT virus in South Bengal is quite imminent. PMID:27051176

  14. Use of a genetic marker to examine genetic interaction among subpopulations of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    PubMed

    Gharrett, A J; Lane, S; McGregor, A J; Taylor, S G

    2001-01-01

    In 1979 and 1981, a genetic marker was bred into one of the five identifiable subpopulations of pink salmon [Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum)] in the Auke Lake drainage in Southeast Alaska. As a result of the marking effort, the frequencies of two malate dehydrogenase (MDH-B1, 2*) alleles were changed in the marked subpopulation, but not in other subpopulations that spawn at different times or places. Between 1983 and 1989, the marker allele frequencies were monitored in many of these subpopulations and in early- and late-run pink salmon spawning in nearby Waydelich Creek, located approximately 1 km away. Changes in allele frequencies at MDH-B1, 2*, used to obtain direct estimates of average migration rates (m) from the marked to the unmarked subpopulations, revealed little or no introgression into early subpopulations or into nearby Waydelich Creek. Moreover, spatially distinct late-run Auke Creek subpopulations were not immediately overrun by the more abundant marked subpopulation. These observations suggest that genetic isolation exists between temporally distinct spawning runs and that small temporal and spatial (or ecological) differences contribute to population structure. These observations should be considered in taking actions that affect conservation and harvest management or extensive culture of salmonids.

  15. Potential roles of PINK1 for increased PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and their associations with Alzheimer disease and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joungil; Ravipati, Avinash; Nimmagadda, Vamshi; Schubert, Manfred; Castellani, Rudolph J; Russell, James W

    2014-09-01

    Down-regulation of PINK1 and PGC-1α proteins is implicated in both mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress potentially linking metabolic abnormality and neurodegeneration. Here, we report that PGC-1α and PINK1 expression is markedly decreased in Alzheimer disease (AD) and diabetic brains. We observed a significant down-regulation of PGC-1α and PINK1 protein expression in H2O2-treated cells but not in those cells treated with N-acetyl cysteine. The protein levels of two key enzymes of the mitochondrial β-oxidation machinery, acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, very long chain (ACADVL) and mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme subunit α are significantly decreased in AD and diabetic brains. Moreover, we observed a positive relationship between ACADVL and 64 kDa PINK1 protein levels in AD and diabetic brains. Overexpression of PGC-1α decreases lipid-droplet accumulation and increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation; down-regulation of PINK1 abolishes these effects. Together, these results provide new insights into potential cooperative roles of PINK1 and PGC-1α in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, suggesting possible regulatory roles for mitochondrial function in the pathogenesis of AD and diabetes.

  16. Killing effect of peppermint vapor against pink-slime forming microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Nozomi; Sakamoto, Jin; Yoshida, Munehiro; Tsuchido, Tetsuaki

    2015-01-01

    The killing effect of peppermint vapor (PMV) against pink-slime forming microorganisms, Methylobacterium mesophilicum as a bacterium and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa as a yeast, was investigated by the agar vapor assay. In this method, microbial cells were spread over the agar surface exposed to PMV in a petri dish, and then transferred into a recovery liquid. When 60μl of the peppermint liquid was added to a paper disc, a marked killing effect of PMV was observed after 48h against M. mesophilicum and after 168h against R. mucilaginosa. M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa were found to be more resistant to PMV than Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, used as reference microorganisms, respectively. With the addition of 0.03% sodium pyruvate as a hydrogen peroxide scavenger in agar, the killing effect of PMV against E. coli and C. albicans was decreased, whereas it was little changed against M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa. In fact, the properties of the killing effect of hydrogen peroxide solution at 0.2-1.0mM was in accord with those of PMV. M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa were more resistant to the oxidant than E. coli and C. albicans, respectively. Results obtained suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved in the killing action of PMV and therefore pink-slime formers are more resistant to PMV than non-pink-slime formers because of the presence of carotenoids as an antioxidant in cells. We also suggest that the use of PMV appeared to be a potential tool for the control of pink-slime forming microorganisms occurring in wet areas of houses such as the bathroom and washing room.

  17. Outbreeding depression in hybrids between odd-and even-broodyear pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gharrett, A.J.; Smoker, W.W.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Taylor, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    Fewer F2 hybrids between even- and odd-broodline pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), which are lines that are genetically isolated by their strict two-year life cycle, survived than did F2 controls, indicating outbreeding depression. Cryopreserved sperm of 40 broodyear 1990 males and of 40 broodyear 1991 males fertilized equal subsamples of eggs from 40 broodyear 1992 females. Return rates of F1 hybrids (1.73%) and controls (1.63%) in 1994 did not differ significantly (P=0.30). F2 hybrid and control crosses were made from 40 males and 40 females selected at random from each return group. Offspring were differentially marked and released. In 1996, returns differed significantly (P=0.011) between hybrids (n=34, 0.34%) and controls (n=44, 0.42%). The low rate of return of the control fish was similar to the measured return of a much larger group of tagged Auke Creek pink salmon, and probably not an artifact of the experiment. Although no increase in fluctuating asymmetry of paired meristic counts was observed in either F1or F2 hybrids, size and some meristic counts of hybrids exceed measurements of controls, suggesting heterosis for those traits. The observations of decreased survival in F2 hybrids confirm previous work [Gharrett, A.J., Smoker, W.W., 1991. Two generations of hybrids between even- and odd-year pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 48(9) 1744–1749]. Although genetic divergence between pink salmon broodlines is large and outbreeding depression might be expected in such unlikely hybrids, the results document the occurrence of outbreeding depression in salmon and signal caution in making management and aquacultural decisions that may create the possibility of outbreeding depression in self-sustaining or cultured populations.

  18. Killing effect of peppermint vapor against pink-slime forming microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Nozomi; Sakamoto, Jin; Yoshida, Munehiro; Tsuchido, Tetsuaki

    2015-01-01

    The killing effect of peppermint vapor (PMV) against pink-slime forming microorganisms, Methylobacterium mesophilicum as a bacterium and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa as a yeast, was investigated by the agar vapor assay. In this method, microbial cells were spread over the agar surface exposed to PMV in a petri dish, and then transferred into a recovery liquid. When 60μl of the peppermint liquid was added to a paper disc, a marked killing effect of PMV was observed after 48h against M. mesophilicum and after 168h against R. mucilaginosa. M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa were found to be more resistant to PMV than Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, used as reference microorganisms, respectively. With the addition of 0.03% sodium pyruvate as a hydrogen peroxide scavenger in agar, the killing effect of PMV against E. coli and C. albicans was decreased, whereas it was little changed against M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa. In fact, the properties of the killing effect of hydrogen peroxide solution at 0.2-1.0mM was in accord with those of PMV. M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa were more resistant to the oxidant than E. coli and C. albicans, respectively. Results obtained suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved in the killing action of PMV and therefore pink-slime formers are more resistant to PMV than non-pink-slime formers because of the presence of carotenoids as an antioxidant in cells. We also suggest that the use of PMV appeared to be a potential tool for the control of pink-slime forming microorganisms occurring in wet areas of houses such as the bathroom and washing room. PMID:26133506

  19. M81 Galaxy is Pretty in Pink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The perfectly picturesque spiral galaxy known as Messier 81, or M81, looks sharp in this new composite from NASA's Spitzer and Hubble space telescopes and NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. M81 is a 'grand design' spiral galaxy, which means its elegant arms curl all the way down into its center. It is located about 12 million light-years away in the Ursa Major constellation and is one of the brightest galaxies that can be seen from Earth through telescopes.

    The colors in this picture represent a trio of light wavelengths: blue is ultraviolet light captured by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer; yellowish white is visible light seen by Hubble; and red is infrared light detected by Spitzer. The blue areas show the hottest, youngest stars, while the reddish-pink denotes lanes of dust that line the spiral arms. The orange center is made up of older stars.

  20. Marking Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  1. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  2. Field Longevity of a Fluorescent Protein Marker in an Engineered Strain of the Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)

    PubMed Central

    Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Phillips, Caroline E.; Young, Robin; Zink, Richard T.; Alphey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The cotton pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)), is a significant pest in most cotton-growing areas around the world. In southwestern USA and northern Mexico, pink bollworm is the target of the sterile insect technique (SIT), which relies on the mass-release of sterile pink bollworm adults to over-flood the wild population and thereby reduce it over time. Sterile moths reared for release are currently marked with a dye provided in their larval diet. There are concerns, however, that this marker fails from time to time, leading to sterile moths being misidentified in monitoring traps as wild moths. This can lead to expensive reactionary releases of sterile moths. We have developed a genetically marked strain that is engineered to express a fluorescent protein, DsRed2, which is easily screened under a specialised microscope. In order to test this marker under field conditions, we placed wild-type and genetically marked moths on traps and placed them in field cages. The moths were then screened, in a double-blind fashion, for DsRed2 fluorescence at regular intervals to determine marker reliability over time. The marker was shown to be robust in very high temperatures and generally proved reliable for a week or longer. More importantly, genotyping of moths on traps by PCR screening of the moths was 100% correct. Our findings indicate that this strain - and fluorescent protein markers in general - could make a valuable contribution to SIT. PMID:22693645

  3. The kinase domain of mitochondrial PINK1 faces the cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chun; Huang, Yong; Shao, Yufang; May, Jessica; Prou, Delphine; Perier, Celine; Dauer, William; Schon, Eric A.; Przedborski, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are a cause of autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Efforts in deducing the PINK1 signaling pathway have been hindered by controversy around its subcellular and submitochondrial localization and the authenticity of its reported substrates. We show here that this mitochondrial protein exhibits a topology in which the kinase domain faces the cytoplasm and the N-terminal tail is inside the mitochondria. Although deletion of the transmembrane domain disrupts this topology, common PD-linked PINK1 mutations do not. These results are critical in rectifying the location and orientation of PINK1 in mitochondria, and they should help decipher its normal physiological function and potential pathogenic role in PD. PMID:18687899

  4. Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof truss, newer pratt truss, and longitudinal, truss for overhead traveling crane - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  5. Stretch Marks

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes that can go with bodybuilding. People who use steroid-containing skin creams or ointments (such as hydrocortisone) for more than a few weeks may also get stretch marks. So might people who have to ... surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual ...

  6. TRAP1 rescues PINK1 loss-of-function phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Karsten, Peter; Hamm, Sabine; Pogson, Joe H; Müller-Rischart, A Kathrin; Exner, Nicole; Haass, Christian; Whitworth, Alexander J; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Schulz, Jörg B; Voigt, Aaron

    2013-07-15

    PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that is localized to mitochondria. It protects cells from oxidative stress by suppressing mitochondrial cytochrome c release, thereby preventing cell death. Mutations in Pink1 cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Consistently, mitochondrial function is impaired in Pink1-linked PD patients and model systems. Previously, in vitro analysis implied that the protective effects of PINK1 depend on phosphorylation of the downstream factor, TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1). Furthermore, TRAP1 has been shown to mitigate α-Synuclein-induced toxicity, linking α-Synuclein directly to mitochondrial dysfunction. These data suggest that TRAP1 seems to mediate protective effects on mitochondrial function in pathways that are affected in PD. Here we investigated the potential of TRAP1 to rescue dysfunction induced by either PINK1 or Parkin deficiency in vivo and in vitro. We show that overexpression of human TRAP1 is able to mitigate Pink1 but not parkin loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila. In addition, detrimental effects observed after RNAi-mediated silencing of complex I subunits were rescued by TRAP1 in Drosophila. Moreover, TRAP1 was able to rescue mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction upon siRNA-induced silencing of Pink1 but not parkin in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Thus, our data suggest a functional role of TRAP1 in maintaining mitochondrial integrity downstream of PINK1 and complex I deficits but parallel to or upstream of Parkin.

  7. Origin of the pinking phenomenon of white wines.

    PubMed

    Andrea-Silva, Jenny; Cosme, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Luís Filipe; Moreira, Ana S P; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Coimbra, Manuel A; Domingues, M Rosário M; Nunes, Fernando M

    2014-06-18

    Pinking is the terminology used for the salmon-red blush color that may appear in white wines produced exclusively from white grape varieties. The isolation of pinking compounds and their analysis by RP-HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS(n) showed that the origin of the pinking phenomenon in white wines from Vitis vinifera L. of Sı́ria grape variety are the anthocyanins, mainly malvidin-3-O-glucoside. The analysis showed that the anthocyanins were located both in the pulp and in the skin. Wine pinking severity was negatively related with the increase of the average temperature of the first 10 days of October, the final period of grape maturation. The minimum amount of anthocyanins needed for the pink color visualization in wine was 0.3 mg/L. The appearance of pinking in white wines after bottling is due to the lowering of free sulfur dioxide, which leads to an increase of the relative amount of the anthocyanins red flavylium form and their polymerization, resulting in the formation of colored compounds resistant to pH changes and sulfur dioxide bleaching.

  8. Evidence for size-selective mortality after the first summer of ocean growth by pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Myers, K.W.; Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Pink salmon Onchorhynchus gorbuscha with identifiable thermal otolith marks from Prince William Sound hatchery release groups during 2001 were used to test the hypothesis that faster-growing fish during their first summer in the ocean had higher survival rates than slower-growing fish. Marked juvenile pink salmon were sampled monthly in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska, and adults that survived to maturity were recovered at hatchery release sites the following year. Surviving fish exhibited significantly wider circuli spacing on the region of the scale formed during early marine residence than did juveniles collected at sea during their first ocean summer, indicating that marine survival after the first growing season was related to increases in early marine growth. At the same circuli, a significantly larger average scale radius for returning adults than for juveniles from the same hatchery would suggest that larger, faster-growing juveniles had a higher survival rate and that significant size-selective mortality occurred after the juveniles were sampled. Growth patterns inferred from intercirculi spacing on scales varied among hatchery release groups, suggesting that density-dependent processes differed among release groups and occurred across Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska. These observations support other studies that have found that larger, faster-growing fish are more likely to survive until maturity. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  9. Binding to serine 65-phosphorylated ubiquitin primes Parkin for optimal PINK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Martínez-Torres, R Julio; Wilkie, Scott; Kumar, Atul; Peltier, Julien; Gonzalez, Alba; Johnson, Clare; Zhang, Jinwei; Hope, Anthony G; Peggie, Mark; Trost, Matthias; van Aalten, Daan M F; Alessi, Dario R; Prescott, Alan R; Knebel, Axel; Walden, Helen; Muqit, Miratul M K

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 are associated with autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We and other groups have reported that PINK1 activates Parkin E3 ligase activity both directly via phosphorylation of Parkin serine 65 (Ser(65))--which lies within its ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl)--and indirectly through phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser(65). How Ser(65)-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65)) contributes to Parkin activation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) binding to Parkin dramatically increases the rate and stoichiometry of Parkin phosphorylation at Ser(65) by PINK1 in vitro. Analysis of the Parkin structure, corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis, shows that the conserved His302 and Lys151 residues play a critical role in binding of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65), thereby promoting Parkin Ser(65) phosphorylation and activation of its E3 ligase activity in vitro. Mutation of His302 markedly inhibits Parkin Ser(65) phosphorylation at the mitochondria, which is associated with a marked reduction in its E3 ligase activity following mitochondrial depolarisation. We show that the binding of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) to Parkin disrupts the interaction between the Ubl domain and C-terminal region, thereby increasing the accessibility of Parkin Ser(65). Finally, purified Parkin maximally phosphorylated at Ser(65) in vitro cannot be further activated by the addition of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65). Our results thus suggest that a major role of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) is to promote PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser(65), leading to maximal activation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. His302 and Lys151 are likely to line a phospho-Ser(65)-binding pocket on the surface of Parkin that is critical for the ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) interaction. This study provides new mechanistic insights into Parkin activation by ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65), which could aid in the development of Parkin

  10. Binding to serine 65-phosphorylated ubiquitin primes Parkin for optimal PINK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Martínez-Torres, R Julio; Wilkie, Scott; Kumar, Atul; Peltier, Julien; Gonzalez, Alba; Johnson, Clare; Zhang, Jinwei; Hope, Anthony G; Peggie, Mark; Trost, Matthias; van Aalten, Daan MF; Alessi, Dario R; Prescott, Alan R; Knebel, Axel; Walden, Helen; Muqit, Miratul MK

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 are associated with autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We and other groups have reported that PINK1 activates Parkin E3 ligase activity both directly via phosphorylation of Parkin serine 65 (Ser65)—which lies within its ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl)—and indirectly through phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65. How Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65) contributes to Parkin activation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 binding to Parkin dramatically increases the rate and stoichiometry of Parkin phosphorylation at Ser65 by PINK1 in vitro. Analysis of the Parkin structure, corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis, shows that the conserved His302 and Lys151 residues play a critical role in binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, thereby promoting Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation and activation of its E3 ligase activity in vitro. Mutation of His302 markedly inhibits Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation at the mitochondria, which is associated with a marked reduction in its E3 ligase activity following mitochondrial depolarisation. We show that the binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 to Parkin disrupts the interaction between the Ubl domain and C-terminal region, thereby increasing the accessibility of Parkin Ser65. Finally, purified Parkin maximally phosphorylated at Ser65 in vitro cannot be further activated by the addition of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65. Our results thus suggest that a major role of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 is to promote PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65, leading to maximal activation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. His302 and Lys151 are likely to line a phospho-Ser65-binding pocket on the surface of Parkin that is critical for the ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 interaction. This study provides new mechanistic insights into Parkin activation by ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, which could aid in the development of Parkin activators that mimic the effect of

  11. Polar Markings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02155 Polar Markings

    These bright and dark markings occurred near the end of summer in the south polar region. The dark material is likely dust that has been freed of frost cover.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -76.3N, Longitude 84.9E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. PINK1 deficiency enhances autophagy and mitophagy induction

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M S; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Climent, Vicente; Martin-Cano, Francisco E; González-Soltero, María E; Tandon, Anurag; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with poorly understood etiology. Increasing evidence suggests that age-dependent compromise of the maintenance of mitochondrial function is a key risk factor. Several proteins encoded by PD-related genes are associated with mitochondria including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which was first identified as a gene that is upregulated by PTEN. Loss-of-function PINK1 mutations induce mitochondrial dysfunction and, ultimately, neuronal cell death. To mitigate the negative effects of altered cellular functions cells possess a degradation mechanism called autophagy for recycling damaged components; selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy is termed mitophagy. Our study indicates that autophagy and mitophagy are upregulated in PINK1-deficient cells, and is the first report to demonstrate efficient fluxes by one-step analysis. We propose that autophagy is induced to maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of non-regulated mitochondrial quality control. PMID:27308585

  13. IR-stimulated visible fluorescence in pink and brown diamond.

    PubMed

    Byrne, K S; Chapman, J G; Luiten, A N

    2014-03-19

    Irradiation of natural pink and brown diamond by middle-ultraviolet light (photon energy ϵ ≥ 4.1 eV ) is seen to induce anomalous fluorescence phenomena at N3 defect centres (structure N3-V). When diamonds primed in this fashion are subsequently exposed to infrared light (even with a delay of many hours), a transient burst of blue N3 fluorescence is observed. The dependence of this IR-triggered fluorescence on pump wavelength and intensity suggest that this fluorescence phenomena is intrinsically related to pink diamond photochromism. An energy transfer process between N3 defects and other defect species can account for both the UV-induced fluorescence intensity changes, and the apparent optical upconversion of IR light. From this standpoint, we consider the implications of this N3 fluorescence behaviour for the current understanding of pink diamond photochromism kinetics.

  14. PINK1 deficiency enhances autophagy and mitophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M S; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Climent, Vicente; Martin-Cano, Francisco E; González-Soltero, María E; Tandon, Anurag; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa A

    2016-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with poorly understood etiology. Increasing evidence suggests that age-dependent compromise of the maintenance of mitochondrial function is a key risk factor. Several proteins encoded by PD-related genes are associated with mitochondria including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which was first identified as a gene that is upregulated by PTEN. Loss-of-function PINK1 mutations induce mitochondrial dysfunction and, ultimately, neuronal cell death. To mitigate the negative effects of altered cellular functions cells possess a degradation mechanism called autophagy for recycling damaged components; selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy is termed mitophagy. Our study indicates that autophagy and mitophagy are upregulated in PINK1-deficient cells, and is the first report to demonstrate efficient fluxes by one-step analysis. We propose that autophagy is induced to maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of non-regulated mitochondrial quality control. PMID:27308585

  15. PINK1 deficiency enhances autophagy and mitophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M S; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Climent, Vicente; Martin-Cano, Francisco E; González-Soltero, María E; Tandon, Anurag; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa A

    2016-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with poorly understood etiology. Increasing evidence suggests that age-dependent compromise of the maintenance of mitochondrial function is a key risk factor. Several proteins encoded by PD-related genes are associated with mitochondria including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which was first identified as a gene that is upregulated by PTEN. Loss-of-function PINK1 mutations induce mitochondrial dysfunction and, ultimately, neuronal cell death. To mitigate the negative effects of altered cellular functions cells possess a degradation mechanism called autophagy for recycling damaged components; selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy is termed mitophagy. Our study indicates that autophagy and mitophagy are upregulated in PINK1-deficient cells, and is the first report to demonstrate efficient fluxes by one-step analysis. We propose that autophagy is induced to maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of non-regulated mitochondrial quality control.

  16. Pink noise of ionic conductance through single artificial nanopores revisited.

    PubMed

    Tasserit, C; Koutsioubas, A; Lairez, D; Zalczer, G; Clochard, M-C

    2010-12-31

    We report voltage-clamp measurements through single conical nanopore obtained by chemical etching of a single ion track in polyimide film. Special attention is paid to the pink noise of the ionic current (i.e., 1/f noise) measured with different filling liquids. The relative pink-noise amplitude is almost independent of concentration and pH for KCl solutions, but varies strongly using ionic liquids. In particular, we show that depending on the ionic liquid, the transport of charge carriers is strongly facilitated (low noise and higher conductivity than in the bulk) or jammed. These results show that the origin of the pink noise can be ascribed neither to fluctuations of the pore geometry nor to the pore wall charges, but rather to a cooperative effect on ions motion in confined geometry.

  17. Pink Noise of Ionic Conductance through Single Artificial Nanopores Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasserit, C.; Koutsioubas, A.; Lairez, D.; Zalczer, G.; Clochard, M.-C.

    2010-12-01

    We report voltage-clamp measurements through single conical nanopore obtained by chemical etching of a single ion track in polyimide film. Special attention is paid to the pink noise of the ionic current (i.e., 1/f noise) measured with different filling liquids. The relative pink-noise amplitude is almost independent of concentration and pH for KCl solutions, but varies strongly using ionic liquids. In particular, we show that depending on the ionic liquid, the transport of charge carriers is strongly facilitated (low noise and higher conductivity than in the bulk) or jammed. These results show that the origin of the pink noise can be ascribed neither to fluctuations of the pore geometry nor to the pore wall charges, but rather to a cooperative effect on ions motion in confined geometry.

  18. Pink hypopyon in a patient with Serratia marcescens corneal ulceration.

    PubMed

    Stefater, James A; Borkar, Durga S; Chodosh, James

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented to the emergency ward at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary with 2 days of redness, irritation, photophobia, and diminished vision in her left eye. She was found to have a large central corneal ulcer with a small hypopyon. On the following day, after initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics, the patient had improved symptoms but now had a 2-mm hypopyon that was distinctly pink in color. Cultures were positive for Serratia marcescens. A pink hypopyon, a rare occurrence, alerted the authors to a causative agent of Enterobacteriacae, either Klebsiella or Serratia. Immediate and intensive treatment was subsequently initiated.

  19. PINK1 protects against oxidative stress by phosphorylating mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease (PD). So far, no substrates of PINK1 have been reported, and the mechanism by which PINK1 mutations lead to neurodegeneration is unknown. Here we report the identification of tumor n...

  20. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  1. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  2. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  3. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  4. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  5. Stabilizing Oils from Smoked Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smoking of meats and fish is one of the earliest preservation technologies developed by humans. In this study, the smoking process was evaluated as a method for reducing oxidation of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) oils and also maintaining the quality of oil in aged fish prior to oil extractio...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface is considered as mixed color. (See Rule 16.)...

  7. Motivated to Learn: A Conversation with Daniel Pink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    The author has looked at four decades of scientific research on human motivation and found a mismatch between what science tells us and what organizations actually do. In this interview with "Educational Leadership," Pink shares his insights on how schools can create more optimal conditions for learning--and how they can dial up…

  8. Teaching Social Justice and Encountering Society: The Pink Triangle Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabow, Jerome; Stein, Jill M.; Conley, Terri D.

    1999-01-01

    Studied student reflections and responses when they took on a stigmatized role, wearing a pink triangle in support of gay rights. Many of the 103 college students advanced through stages of identity development and moved to more open and positive ways of thinking about others. (SLD)

  9. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface is considered as mixed color. (See Rule 16.)...

  10. Girls, Computers, and "Becoming": "The Pink Voice" Writing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Sarah Jane

    2011-01-01

    Through a feminist content analysis of young women's writing and reflections, this study gives evidence of how a school-based new literacy project shared knowledge in a public voice about the irreducible and complex world of "becoming" a girl. This project, called "The Pink Voice," was conducted in a large urban centre on the West Coast of Canada.…

  11. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  12. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats.

  13. Who’s behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat’s Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed

    PubMed Central

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-01-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (APbe) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  14. Convergent strabismus in a white Bengal tiger.

    PubMed

    Bernays, M E; Smith, R I

    1999-03-01

    A white Bengal tiger was noted to have a convergent strabismus with poor vision since a cub. The tiger and a littermate with normal colouring and apparently normal eyes were anaesthetised for comparative ocular examination. A fundus typical of colour-dilute cats and dogs was noted in the white tiger. Except for strabismus, no abnormalities were observed. Electroretinography showed similar retinal function in both tigers. Possible causes of strabismus considered were an adaptation to genetically determined abnormal visual pathways related to lack of pigment, abnormalities of the abducent nerves and mechanical restricting conditions of the medial rectus muscles.

  15. Convergent strabismus in a white Bengal tiger.

    PubMed

    Bernays, M E; Smith, R I

    1999-03-01

    A white Bengal tiger was noted to have a convergent strabismus with poor vision since a cub. The tiger and a littermate with normal colouring and apparently normal eyes were anaesthetised for comparative ocular examination. A fundus typical of colour-dilute cats and dogs was noted in the white tiger. Except for strabismus, no abnormalities were observed. Electroretinography showed similar retinal function in both tigers. Possible causes of strabismus considered were an adaptation to genetically determined abnormal visual pathways related to lack of pigment, abnormalities of the abducent nerves and mechanical restricting conditions of the medial rectus muscles. PMID:10197239

  16. Visual motion with pink noise induces predation behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Wataru; Watanabe, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Visual motion cues are one of the most important factors for eliciting animal behaviour, including predator-prey interactions in aquatic environments. To understand the elements of motion that cause such selective predation behaviour, we used a virtual plankton system where the predation behaviour in response to computer-generated prey was analysed. First, we performed motion analysis of zooplankton (Daphnia magna) to extract mathematical functions for biologically relevant motions of prey. Next, virtual prey models were programmed on a computer and presented to medaka (Oryzias latipes), which served as predatory fish. Medaka exhibited predation behaviour against several characteristic virtual plankton movements, particularly against a swimming pattern that could be characterised as pink noise motion. Analysing prey-predator interactions via pink noise motion will be an interesting research field in the future. PMID:22355733

  17. Tidal and seasonal effects on transport of pink shrimp postlarvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criales, Maria M.; Wang, Jingyuan; Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Transport simulations were conducted to investigate a large seasonal peak in postlarvae of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum that occurs every summer on the northwestern border of Florida Bay. Daily vertical migration, a known behavior in pink shrimp postlarvae, was assumed in all scenarios investigated. A Lagrangian trajectory model was developed using a current field derived from a 3 yr ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) time series. To fit the estimated planktonic development time of pink shrimp, the model simulated larvae traveling at night over a 30 d period. We investigated 2 types of effects: (1) the effect of mismatch periodicity between tidal constituents and daily migration, and (2) the effect of seasonal changes in night length. The maximum eastward displacement with the semidiurnal lunar tidal constituent (M2) was 4 km, with periods of enhanced transport in both summer and winter. In contrast, eastward displacement with the semidiurnal solar tidal constituent (S2) and the lunisolar diurnal K1 was 65 km and the period of maximum distance occurred in summer every year. Because the periods of S2 and K1 are so close to the 24 h vertical migration period, and the eastward current (flood) of these constituents matches the diel cycle over extended intervals, they can induce strong horizontal transport during summer. Thus, diel vertical migration can interact with the S2 and the K1 tidal constituents and with the annual cycle of night length to produce a distinct annual cycle that may enhance transport of pink shrimp and other coastal species during summer in shallow areas of the Gulf of Mexico. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  18. Pink1-deficiency in mice impairs gait, olfaction and serotonergic innervation of the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Glasl, Lisa; Kloos, Karina; Giesert, Florian; Roethig, Anne; Di Benedetto, Barbara; Kühn, Ralf; Zhang, Jingzhong; Hafen, Ulrich; Zerle, Julia; Hofmann, Andreas; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Hölter, Sabine M; Vogt Weisenhorn, Daniela M; Wurst, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Autosomal-recessive mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) account for 1-2% of the hereditary early-onset cases. To study the mechanisms underlying disease development, we generated Pink1-deficient mice. In analogy to other genetic loss-of-function mouse models, Pink1(-/-) mice did not show morphological alterations in the dopaminergic system. As a consequence, no gross motor dysfunctions were observed indicating that these mice do not develop the cardinal symptoms of PD. Nonetheless, symptoms which develop mainly before bradykinesia, rigidity and resting tremor were clearly evident in Pink1-deficient mice. These symptoms were gait alterations and olfactory dysfunctions. Remarkably in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb the density of serotonergic fibers was significantly reduced. Concerning mitochondrial morphology, neurons in Pink1(-/-) mice had less fragmented mitochondria. In contrast, upon acute knock-down of Pink1 increased mitochondrial fragmentation was observed in neuronal cultures. This fragmentation was, however, evened out within days. Taken together, we demonstrate that Pink1-deficient mice exhibit behavioral symptoms of early phases of PD and present systematic experimental evidence for compensation of Pink1-deficiency at the cellular level. Thus, Pink1-deficient mice represent a model for the early phases of PD in which compensation may still impede the onset of neurodegeneration. Consequently, these mice are a valuable tool for studying Pink1-related PD development, as well as for searching for reliable PD biomarkers.

  19. (Patho-)physiological relevance of PINK1-dependent ubiquitin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fiesel, Fabienne C; Ando, Maya; Hudec, Roman; Hill, Anneliese R; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Caulfield, Thomas R; Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L; Stankowski, Jeannette N; Bauer, Peter O; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Ferrer, Isidre; Arbelo, José M; Siuda, Joanna; Chen, Li; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Ross, Owen A; Dickson, Dennis W; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2015-09-01

    Mutations in PINK1 and PARKIN cause recessive, early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Together, these two proteins orchestrate a protective mitophagic response that ensures the safe disposal of damaged mitochondria. The kinase PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin (Ub) at the conserved residue S65, in addition to modifying the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin. The structural and functional consequences of Ub phosphorylation (pS65-Ub) have already been suggested from in vitro experiments, but its (patho-)physiological significance remains unknown. We have generated novel antibodies and assessed pS65-Ub signals in vitro and in cells, including primary neurons, under endogenous conditions. pS65-Ub is dependent on PINK1 kinase activity as confirmed in patient fibroblasts and postmortem brain samples harboring pathogenic mutations. We show that pS65-Ub is reversible and barely detectable under basal conditions, but rapidly induced upon mitochondrial stress in cells and amplified in the presence of functional Parkin. pS65-Ub accumulates in human brain during aging and disease in the form of cytoplasmic granules that partially overlap with mitochondrial, lysosomal, and total Ub markers. Additional studies are now warranted to further elucidate pS65-Ub functions and fully explore its potential for biomarker or therapeutic development.

  20. PINK1 disables the anti-fission machinery to segregate damaged mitochondria for mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heather L.; Chau, Kai-Yin; Schapira, Anthony H.V.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial fission is essential for the degradation of damaged mitochondria. It is currently unknown how the dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)–associated fission machinery is selectively targeted to segregate damaged mitochondria. We show that PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK1) serves as a pro-fission signal, independently of Parkin. Normally, the scaffold protein AKAP1 recruits protein kinase A (PKA) to the outer mitochondrial membrane to phospho-inhibit DRP1. We reveal that after damage, PINK1 triggers PKA displacement from A-kinase anchoring protein 1. By ejecting PKA, PINK1 ensures the requisite fission of damaged mitochondria for organelle degradation. We propose that PINK1 functions as a master mitophagy regulator by activating Parkin and DRP1 in response to damage. We confirm that PINK1 mutations causing Parkinson disease interfere with the orchestration of selective fission and mitophagy by PINK1. PMID:27091447

  1. PINK1 disables the anti-fission machinery to segregate damaged mitochondria for mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Pryde, Kenneth R; Smith, Heather L; Chau, Kai-Yin; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2016-04-25

    Mitochondrial fission is essential for the degradation of damaged mitochondria. It is currently unknown how the dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)-associated fission machinery is selectively targeted to segregate damaged mitochondria. We show that PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK1) serves as a pro-fission signal, independently of Parkin. Normally, the scaffold protein AKAP1 recruits protein kinase A (PKA) to the outer mitochondrial membrane to phospho-inhibit DRP1. We reveal that after damage, PINK1 triggers PKA displacement from A-kinase anchoring protein 1. By ejecting PKA, PINK1 ensures the requisite fission of damaged mitochondria for organelle degradation. We propose that PINK1 functions as a master mitophagy regulator by activating Parkin and DRP1 in response to damage. We confirm that PINK1 mutations causing Parkinson disease interfere with the orchestration of selective fission and mitophagy by PINK1. PMID:27091447

  2. Depletion of PINK1 affects mitochondrial metabolism, calcium homeostasis and energy maintenance.

    PubMed

    Heeman, Bavo; Van den Haute, Chris; Aelvoet, Sarah-Ann; Valsecchi, Federica; Rodenburg, Richard J; Reumers, Veerle; Debyser, Zeger; Callewaert, Geert; Koopman, Werner J H; Willems, Peter H G M; Baekelandt, Veerle

    2011-04-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the mitochondrial PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are a major cause of early-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have highlighted an important function for PINK1 in clearing depolarized mitochondria by mitophagy. However, the role of PINK1 in mitochondrial and cellular functioning in physiological conditions is still incompletely understood. Here, we investigate mitochondrial and cellular calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis in PINK1-knockdown and PINK1-knockout mouse cells, both in basal metabolic conditions and after physiological stimulation, using unbiased automated live single-cell imaging in combination with organelle-specific fluorescent probes. Our data reveal that depletion of PINK1 induces moderate fragmentation of the mitochondrial network, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and increased production of reactive oxygen species. This results in reduced uptake of Ca(2+) by mitochondria after physiological stimulation. As a consequence, cells with knockdown or knockout of PINK1 display impaired mitochondrial ATP synthesis, which is exacerbated under conditions of increased ATP demand, thereby affecting cytosolic Ca(2+) extrusion. The impairment in energy maintenance was confirmed in the brain of PINK1-knockout mice by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Our findings demonstrate a key role for PINK1 in the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis and energy metabolism under physiological conditions. PMID:21385841

  3. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, U K; Biswas, B K; Chowdhury, T R; Samanta, G; Mandal, B K; Basu, G C; Chanda, C R; Lodh, D; Saha, K C; Mukherjee, S K; Roy, S; Kabir, S; Quamruzzaman, Q; Chakraborti, D

    2000-05-01

    Nine districts in West Bengal, India, and 42 districts in Bangladesh have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization maximum permissible limit of 50 microg/L. The area and population of the 42 districts in Bangladesh and the 9 districts in West Bengal are 92,106 km(2) and 79.9 million and 38,865 km(2) and 42.7 million, respectively. In our preliminary study, we have identified 985 arsenic-affected villages in 69 police stations/blocks of nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. In Bangladesh, we have identified 492 affected villages in 141 police stations/blocks of 42 affected districts. To date, we have collected 10,991 water samples from 42 arsenic-affected districts in Bangladesh for analysis, 58,166 water samples from nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. Of the water samples that we analyzed, 59 and 34%, respectively, contained arsenic levels above 50 microg/L. Thousands of hair, nail, and urine samples from people living in arsenic-affected villages have been analyzed to date; Bangladesh and West Bengal, 93 and 77% samples, on an average, contained arsenic above the normal/toxic level. We surveyed 27 of 42 districts in Bangladesh for arsenic patients; we identified patients with arsenical skin lesions in 25 districts. In West Bengal, we identified patients with lesions in seven of nine districts. We examined people from the affected villages at random for arsenical dermatologic features (11,180 and 29,035 from Bangladesh and West Bengal, respectively); 24.47 and 15.02% of those examined, respectively, had skin lesions. After 10 years of study in West Bengal and 5 in Bangladesh, we feel that we have seen only the tip of iceberg.

  4. Inflammatory myopathy in a captive Bengal tiger.

    PubMed

    Duncan, I D; Stewart, J D; Carpenter, S

    1982-12-01

    A 9-year-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented with a history of progressive hindlimb weakness and muscle atrophy. Serum muscle enzyme activities were high, and electrophysiologic examination suggested an underlying myopathic process. Muscle biopsy revealed an inflammatory myopathy, with multifocal collections of inflammatory cells. There was severe muscle fiber necrosis with some evidence of regeneration. The cellular infiltrate consisted predominantly of macrophages, with a few lymphocytes and plasma cells. Evidence of parasitism or viral infection was not detected. Despite prolonged corticosteroid therapy, there was no clinical improvement or notable decrease in serum muscle enzymes activities. The tiger was euthanatized, and necropsy revealed generalized muscle inflammation, with no other pertinent findings.

  5. Inflammatory myopathy in a captive Bengal tiger.

    PubMed

    Duncan, I D; Stewart, J D; Carpenter, S

    1982-12-01

    A 9-year-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented with a history of progressive hindlimb weakness and muscle atrophy. Serum muscle enzyme activities were high, and electrophysiologic examination suggested an underlying myopathic process. Muscle biopsy revealed an inflammatory myopathy, with multifocal collections of inflammatory cells. There was severe muscle fiber necrosis with some evidence of regeneration. The cellular infiltrate consisted predominantly of macrophages, with a few lymphocytes and plasma cells. Evidence of parasitism or viral infection was not detected. Despite prolonged corticosteroid therapy, there was no clinical improvement or notable decrease in serum muscle enzymes activities. The tiger was euthanatized, and necropsy revealed generalized muscle inflammation, with no other pertinent findings. PMID:7174435

  6. BOBMEX: The Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, G. S.; Gadgil, S.; Hareesh Kumar, P. V.; Kalsi, S. R.; Madhusoodanan, P.; Murty, V. S. N.; Prasada Rao, C. V. K.; Babu, V. Ramesh; Rao, L. V. G.; Rao, R. R.; Ravichandran, M.; Reddy, K. G.; Sanjeeva Rao, P.; Sengupta, D.; Sikka, D. R.; Swain, J.; Vinayachandran, P. N.

    2001-10-01

    The first observational experiment under the Indian Climate Research Programme, called the Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX), was carried out during July-August 1999. BOBMEX was aimed at measurements of important variables of the atmosphere, ocean, and their interface to gain deeper insight into some of the processes that govern the variability of organized convection over the bay. Simultaneous time series observations were carried out in the northern and southern Bay of Bengal from ships and moored buoys. About 80 scientists from 15 different institutions in India collaborated during BOBMEX to make observations in most-hostile conditions of the raging monsoon. In this paper, the objectives and the design of BOBMEX are described and some initial results presented. During the BOBMEX field phase there were several active spells of convection over the bay, separated by weak spells. Observation with high-resolution radiosondes, launched for the first time over the northern bay, showed that the magnitudes of the convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the convective inhibition energy were comparable to those for the atmosphere over the west Pacific warm pool. CAPE decreased by 2-3 kJ kg-1 following convection, and recovered in a time period of 1-2 days. The surface wind speed was generally higher than 8 m s-1. The thermohaline structure as well as its time evolution during the BOBMEX field phase were found to be different in the northern bay than in the southern bay. Over both the regions, the SST decreased during rain events and increased in cloud-free conditions. Over the season as a whole, the upper-layer salinity decreased for the north bay and increased for the south bay. The variation in SST during 1999 was found to be of smaller amplitude than in 1998. Further analysis of the surface fluxes and currents is expected to give insight into the nature of coupling.

  7. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  8. Arsenic Mobilization from Source Sediments in an Aquifer System of West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Koenig, C. E. M.; Pal, T.; Mukherjee, P. K.; Beckie, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Geogenic As contamination of groundwater is an enormous public health problem in West Bengal and neighboring Bangladesh. The source of As and its release mechanisms are investigated at a field site in rural West Bengal where As concentrations up to 531 μg/L are measured in domestic wells. The shallow groundwater system is hosted by sediments deposited in a meandering fluvial environment, a typical setting in the Bengal Delta Plain. A numerical groundwater flow model is developed in order to establish the hydrogeological context for As contamination patterns. Reverse particle tracking is then used to map the flow path from each well screen back to its point of recharge. High-As groundwaters are found to be recharged in ponds marking an abandoned river channel; however, the source of As is located within the underlying channel-fill sediments. Analyses of environmental tracers reveal that As release within these sediments is accompanied by a concomitant release of Br and DOC indicating that these species may be decay products of natural organobromines co-deposited along with As. Mass transfer of As to the dissolved phase and its flushing from source sediments are described using a simplified reactive solute transport model. By fitting this model to observations, a characteristic reaction time for mass transfer is estimated at 6.7 years. With the advent of intensive irrigation pumping, bulk groundwater residence times in the source are estimated to have declined from 16.6 to 6.6 years. The ratio of residence and reaction times, a Damköhler number, has declined correspondingly from 2.49 to 0.99, indicating a shift from transport to reaction rate limited As mobilization. Greater insight into the As problem in Asia may be achieved by switching the focus of field investigations from plumes in aquifers to potential contamination sources in aquitards.

  9. Pink topaz from the Thomas Range, Juab County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Chirnside, W.; Lichte, F.E.; Briggs, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Thomas Range is world-famous for its production of topaz Al2SiO4(F,OH)2, occurring in lithophysal cavities in rhyolite. Topaz Valley, at the southern end of the range, is perhaps the single most famous locality. While fine-quality, sherry-orange crystals to 5 cm or more in length occur at various localities, pale to medium pink crystals were first reported from the Thomas Range in 1934. The cause of the unusual coloration, unknown for 60 years, is now believed to be substitution of Mn3+ ?? Fe3+ for Al3+. -Authors

  10. Laser removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Comesaña, R.; del Val, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Morelia is an important city sited in Mexico. Its historical center reflects most of their culture and history, especially of the colonial period; in fact, it was appointed World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Sadly, there is a serious problem with graffiti in Morelia and its historical center is the worst affected since its delicate charming is definitely damaged. Hitherto, the conventional methods employed to remove graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry (the most used building stone in Morelia) are quite aggressive to the appearance of the monuments, so actually, they are not a very good solution. In this work, we performed a study on the removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry by high power diode laser. We carried out an extensive experimental study looking for the optimal processing parameters, and compared a single-pass with a multi-pass method. Indeed, we achieved an effective cleaning without producing serious side effects in the stone. In conclusion, the multi-pass method emitting in continuous wave was revealed as the more effective operating modes to remove the graffiti.

  11. ENERGY SAVINGS IN FORMATION FLIGHT OF PINK-FOOTED GEESE

    PubMed

    Cutts; Speakman

    1994-04-01

    Fifty-four skeins of pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) were photographed from directly underneath to eliminate the effects of perspective distortion, and the wing-tip spacings (the distance between adjacent birds' wing tips perpendicular to the flight path at maximum wingspan) and depths (the distance between adjacent birds' body centres parallel to the flight path) were measured at the same time as local wind speeds. The photographs were used to test for savings in induced power from wing positioning relative to the predicted positions of vortices generated by other wings, using a theoretical model. The mean wing-tip spacing corresponded to a saving in induced power of 14 %, less than one-third of the maximum possible. The saving in total power might be as low as 2.4 %. The high variation in wing-tip spacing suggests that pink-footed geese found difficulty maintaining position and thus adopted a strategy of flying outboard of the optimal position that maximises savings. This may minimise the risk of straying into a zone where savings are negative. There was a significant correlation between depth and wing-tip spacing, supporting an alternative communication hypothesis, whereby the birds position themselves to obtain maximum information on their neighbour's position. In high winds, there was little change in wing-tip spacing variation but a decrease in depth variation, suggesting a shift towards more regularly spaced skeins.

  12. Hydroxocobalamin association during cell culture results in pink therapeutic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Kenneth M; Gillespie, Ronald; Lewis, Nathan; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; McCoy, Rebecca; Bach, Julia; Connell-Crowley, Lisa; Eakin, Catherine M

    2013-01-01

    Process control of protein therapeutic manufacturing is central to ensuring the product is both safe and efficacious for patients. In this work, we investigate the cause of pink color variability in development lots of monoclonal antibody (mAb) and Fc-fusion proteins. Results show pink-colored product generated during manufacturing is due to association of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl), a form of vitamin B12. OH-Cbl is not part of the product manufacturing process; however we found cyanocobalamin (CN-Cbl) in cell culture media converts to OH-Cbl in the presence of light. OH-Cbl can be released from mAb and Fc-fusion proteins by conversion with potassium cyanide to CN-Cbl, which does not bind. By exploiting the differential binding of CN-Cbl and OH-Cbl, we developed a rapid and specific assay to accurately measure B12 levels in purified protein. Analysis of multiple products and lots using this technique gives insight into color variability during manufacturing. PMID:23924851

  13. Responses of pink salmon to CO2-induced aquatic acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Michelle; Hamilton, Trevor J.; Eom, Junho; Lyall, Emily M.; Gallup, Joshua; Jiang, Amy; Lee, Jason; Close, David A.; Yun, Sang-Seon; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification negatively affects many marine species and is predicted to cause widespread changes to marine ecosystems. Similarly, freshwater ecosystems may potentially be affected by climate-change-related acidification; however, this has received far less attention. Freshwater fish represent 40% of all fishes, and salmon, which rear and spawn in freshwater, are of immense ecosystem, economical and cultural importance. In this study, we investigate the impacts of CO2-induced acidification during the development of pink salmon, in freshwater and following early seawater entry. At this critical and sensitive life stage, we show dose-dependent reductions in growth, yolk-to-tissue conversion and maximal O2 uptake capacity; as well as significant alterations in olfactory responses, anti-predator behaviour and anxiety under projected future increases in CO2 levels. These data indicate that future populations of pink salmon may be at risk without mitigation and highlight the need for further studies on the impact of CO2-induced acidification on freshwater systems.

  14. [CK2beta promotes Pink1/Parkin-mediated MIRO1 degradation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenliang; Qin, Siyue; Jiang, Chang'an

    2014-12-01

    PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a Parkinson's disease (PD)-related protein, has two isoforms, the mitochondria-localized full-length isoform PINK1FL and the cytoplasm-localized short isoform PINK1-cyto. Studies have suggested that PINK1FL can selectively accumulate at the surface of damaged mitochondria and cooperate with another Parkinson's Disease-related protein PARKIN to trigger the degradation of MIRO1, a mitochondria trafficking regulator. The functions of PINK1-cyto are, however, not yet clear. To investigate the functions of PINK1-cyto, we expressed different proteins in cultured HEK293 cells by transfecting it with different plasmids, and detected the protein levels by Western blot after expressing for 24 h. We found that in cultured HEK293 cells, PINK1-cyto could also cooperate with PARKIN degrade MIRO1 in the presence of CK23, and the regulatory subunit of Casein Kinase II. Interestingly, this function of CK2P was not dependent on CK2alpha, the catalytic subunit of Casein Kinase II. We also found that CK2P could promote the direct interaction between PINK1-cyto and MIRO1 by immunocoprecipitation analysis. This result suggested that in addition to CK2alpha, CK2beta could also form a kinase complex. PMID:25868250

  15. Shades of Pink: Preschoolers Make Meaning in a Reggio-Inspired Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Shades of Pink study describes how six preschoolers and their teacher engaged in a collaborative learning project through which they learned about the shades of a color--in this case, pink. As the children learned through experimenting and discussing their theories, they represented ideas using art as a tool for discovery and learning. The study…

  16. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  17. Loss of parkin or PINK1 function increases Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Lutz, A Kathrin; Exner, Nicole; Fett, Mareike E; Schlehe, Julia S; Kloos, Karina; Lämmermann, Kerstin; Brunner, Bettina; Kurz-Drexler, Annerose; Vogel, Frank; Reichert, Andreas S; Bouman, Lena; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela; Wurst, Wolfgang; Tatzelt, Jörg; Haass, Christian; Winklhofer, Konstanze F

    2009-08-21

    Loss-of-function mutations in the parkin gene (PARK2) and PINK1 gene (PARK6) are associated with autosomal recessive parkinsonism. PINK1 deficiency was recently linked to mitochondrial pathology in human cells and Drosophila melanogaster, which can be rescued by parkin, suggesting that both genes play a role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Here we demonstrate that an acute down-regulation of parkin in human SH-SY5Y cells severely affects mitochondrial morphology and function, a phenotype comparable with that induced by PINK1 deficiency. Alterations in both mitochondrial morphology and ATP production caused by either parkin or PINK1 loss of function could be rescued by the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn2 and OPA1 or by a dominant negative mutant of the fission protein Drp1. Both parkin and PINK1 were able to suppress mitochondrial fragmentation induced by Drp1. Moreover, in Drp1-deficient cells the parkin/PINK1 knockdown phenotype did not occur, indicating that mitochondrial alterations observed in parkin- or PINK1-deficient cells are associated with an increase in mitochondrial fission. Notably, mitochondrial fragmentation is an early phenomenon upon PINK1/parkin silencing that also occurs in primary mouse neurons and Drosophila S2 cells. We propose that the discrepant findings in adult flies can be explained by the time of phenotype analysis and suggest that in mammals different strategies may have evolved to cope with dysfunctional mitochondria.

  18. Loss of Parkin or PINK1 Function Increases Drp1-dependent Mitochondrial Fragmentation*

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, A. Kathrin; Exner, Nicole; Fett, Mareike E.; Schlehe, Julia S.; Kloos, Karina; Lämmermann, Kerstin; Brunner, Bettina; Kurz-Drexler, Annerose; Vogel, Frank; Reichert, Andreas S.; Bouman, Lena; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela; Wurst, Wolfgang; Tatzelt, Jörg; Haass, Christian; Winklhofer, Konstanze F.

    2009-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the parkin gene (PARK2) and PINK1 gene (PARK6) are associated with autosomal recessive parkinsonism. PINK1 deficiency was recently linked to mitochondrial pathology in human cells and Drosophila melanogaster, which can be rescued by parkin, suggesting that both genes play a role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Here we demonstrate that an acute down-regulation of parkin in human SH-SY5Y cells severely affects mitochondrial morphology and function, a phenotype comparable with that induced by PINK1 deficiency. Alterations in both mitochondrial morphology and ATP production caused by either parkin or PINK1 loss of function could be rescued by the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn2 and OPA1 or by a dominant negative mutant of the fission protein Drp1. Both parkin and PINK1 were able to suppress mitochondrial fragmentation induced by Drp1. Moreover, in Drp1-deficient cells the parkin/PINK1 knockdown phenotype did not occur, indicating that mitochondrial alterations observed in parkin- or PINK1-deficient cells are associated with an increase in mitochondrial fission. Notably, mitochondrial fragmentation is an early phenomenon upon PINK1/parkin silencing that also occurs in primary mouse neurons and Drosophila S2 cells. We propose that the discrepant findings in adult flies can be explained by the time of phenotype analysis and suggest that in mammals different strategies may have evolved to cope with dysfunctional mitochondria. PMID:19546216

  19. 75 FR 52367 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN. The human remains... sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the...

  20. Palaeosol Control of Arsenic Pollution: The Bengal Basin in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, U; Sikdar, P K; McArthur, J M

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in the Bengal Basin is badly polluted by arsenic (As) which adversely affects human health. To provide low-As groundwater for As mitigation, it was sought across 235 km(2) of central West Bengal, in the western part of the basin. By drilling 76 boreholes and chemical analysis of 535 water wells, groundwater with <10 µg/L As in shallow aquifers was found under one-third of a study area. The groundwater is in late Pleistocene palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of weathered brown sand that are capped by a palaeosol of red clay. The aquifers form two N-S trending lineaments that are bounded on the east by an As-polluted deep palaeo-channel aquifer and separated by a shallower palaeo-channel aquifer. The depth to the top of the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers is mostly between 35 and 38 m below ground level (mbgl). The palaeo-interfluvial aquifers are overlain by shallow palaeo-channel aquifers of gray sand in which groundwater is usually As-polluted. The palaeosol now protects the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers from downward migration of As-polluted groundwater in overlying shallow palaeo-channel aquifers. The depth to the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of 35 to 38 mbgl makes the cost of their exploitation affordable to most of the rural poor of West Bengal, who can install a well cheaply to depths up to 60 mbgl. The protection against pollution afforded by the palaeosol means that the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers will provide a long-term source of low-As groundwater to mitigate As pollution of groundwater in the shallower, heavily used, palaeo-channel aquifers. This option for mitigation is cheap to employ and instantly available.

  1. Expression and purification of the kinase domain of PINK1 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daichao; Qu, Lingzhi; Fu, Yang; Li, Jun; Jiang, Longying; Chen, Xiaojuan; Guo, Ming; Chen, Zhuchu; Chen, Lin; Chen, Yongheng

    2016-12-01

    PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) is a Ser/Thr kinase that specifically localizes on the mitochondrial membrane. It cooperates with Parkin to regulate mitochondrial quality control. Mutations in PINK1 protein which account for 8-15% of Parkinson's disease (PD), are the second most common cause of early-onset Autosomal Recessive Parkinson's disease (AR-PD). The lack of methods for PINK1 heterologous expression and purification has slowed progress in the AR-PD research field. To pave the way for direct structural study of this important protein, in this study, we developed an efficient expression system of recombinant PINK1 kinase domain (rPINK1) using Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris). Our results showed that rPINK1 is best expressed in P. pastoris at 25 °C induction. Additionally, we determined that the optimal induction time was 72 h and the optimal induction methanol concentration was 1% for the expression of rPINK1 in P. pastoris. Subsequent purification by Ni affinity chromatography (Ni-NTA) and cation-exchange chromatography (Mono S) produced the protein with purity higher than 95%. The pure rPINK1 was active to phosphorylate ubiquitin in a substrate phosphorylation assay. Overall, these studies provide the first effective method for heterologous expression and purification of the rPINK1 with a high purity. These findings can help contribute to further researches on the interactions study and biochemical characterization of PINK1. PMID:27546451

  2. Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression☆

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E.; Bravo-San Pedro, José M.; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M.; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H.V.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24 h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3 h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection. PMID:24184327

  3. Population control programme in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K V

    1996-01-01

    Population size doubled over the period 1947-81 and continues to grow. Such a rapid increase in population size has serious repercussions upon socioeconomic development. Population growth threatens to nullify efforts to improve the condition of the poor. Indeed, all gains in the field of agriculture, industry, and national income look marginal when measured in per capita terms. The family welfare program seeks to promote, on a voluntary basis, responsible and planned parenthood of a two-child norm devoid of any bias for or against the sex of a given child. Use of the mass media and interpersonal communication to explain various methods of contraception and remove sociocultural barriers has led to an increase in the number of family planning acceptors in recent years. However, despite the family welfare program being in operation for four decades, population continues to grow at an alarming rate. It is clear that program strategy and mode of implementation must be reviewed. The state government of West Bengal is determined to implement the family welfare program effectively through the motivation and education of married couples, while making various types of contraceptive services available to the people. PMID:12347749

  4. Population control programme in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K V

    1996-01-01

    Population size doubled over the period 1947-81 and continues to grow. Such a rapid increase in population size has serious repercussions upon socioeconomic development. Population growth threatens to nullify efforts to improve the condition of the poor. Indeed, all gains in the field of agriculture, industry, and national income look marginal when measured in per capita terms. The family welfare program seeks to promote, on a voluntary basis, responsible and planned parenthood of a two-child norm devoid of any bias for or against the sex of a given child. Use of the mass media and interpersonal communication to explain various methods of contraception and remove sociocultural barriers has led to an increase in the number of family planning acceptors in recent years. However, despite the family welfare program being in operation for four decades, population continues to grow at an alarming rate. It is clear that program strategy and mode of implementation must be reviewed. The state government of West Bengal is determined to implement the family welfare program effectively through the motivation and education of married couples, while making various types of contraceptive services available to the people.

  5. Chronic encephalomyelitis caused by canine distemper virus in a Bengal tiger.

    PubMed

    Blythe, L L; Schmitz, J A; Roelke, M; Skinner, S

    1983-12-01

    A chronic progressive neurologic disease was observed and monitored for 18 months in a young, tamed Bengal tiger. Clinical, serologic, and neuropathologic evidence of canine distemper virus infection was seen. Clinical signs included convulsions, myoclonus, and slowly progressive ataxia. Marked increases in neutralizing antibodies against canine distemper virus were seen in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Neuropathologic findings were nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, with perivascular cuffing, demyelination, and inclusion bodies typical of canine distemper virus. It was concluded that, in light of this case and an earlier report of canine distemper in lion cubs, vaccination of this subgroup of carnivores with a killed vaccine may be beneficial if exposure to other animals susceptible to canine distemper is anticipated.

  6. Chronic encephalomyelitis caused by canine distemper virus in a Bengal tiger.

    PubMed

    Blythe, L L; Schmitz, J A; Roelke, M; Skinner, S

    1983-12-01

    A chronic progressive neurologic disease was observed and monitored for 18 months in a young, tamed Bengal tiger. Clinical, serologic, and neuropathologic evidence of canine distemper virus infection was seen. Clinical signs included convulsions, myoclonus, and slowly progressive ataxia. Marked increases in neutralizing antibodies against canine distemper virus were seen in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Neuropathologic findings were nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, with perivascular cuffing, demyelination, and inclusion bodies typical of canine distemper virus. It was concluded that, in light of this case and an earlier report of canine distemper in lion cubs, vaccination of this subgroup of carnivores with a killed vaccine may be beneficial if exposure to other animals susceptible to canine distemper is anticipated. PMID:6685717

  7. Amines in the marking fluid and anal sac secretion of the tiger, Panthera tigris.

    PubMed

    Banks, G R; Buglass, A J; Waterhouse, J S

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the marking fluid of two tigers (one Bengal and one Sumatran) by GC using an amine-specific column and a nitrogen-specific detector has shown the presence of the following amines: ammonia, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, triethylamine, propylamine, and butane-1,4-diamine (putrescine). In contrast to previously published reports, we were unable to detect 2-phenylethylamine. The anal sac secretion was found to have a similar amine content.

  8. Amines in the marking fluid and anal sac secretion of the tiger, Panthera tigris.

    PubMed

    Banks, G R; Buglass, A J; Waterhouse, J S

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the marking fluid of two tigers (one Bengal and one Sumatran) by GC using an amine-specific column and a nitrogen-specific detector has shown the presence of the following amines: ammonia, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, triethylamine, propylamine, and butane-1,4-diamine (putrescine). In contrast to previously published reports, we were unable to detect 2-phenylethylamine. The anal sac secretion was found to have a similar amine content. PMID:1388518

  9. Pink esthetics in periodontics - Gingival depigmentation: A case series.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, Arthiie; Elavarasu, Sugumari; Jayapalan, Piranitha

    2012-08-01

    Smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection, and courtesy, and reveals self-confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of "black gums" are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line. Thus, perio-esthetic treatment modalities strive to achieve a harmonious inter-relationship of the pink with white, which is imperative of all treatment procedures. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. In the present case series, scraping, electrosurgery, and diode laser have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective, and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction.

  10. Pink esthetics in periodontics – Gingival depigmentation: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Thangavelu, Arthiie; Elavarasu, Sugumari; Jayapalan, Piranitha

    2012-01-01

    Smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection, and courtesy, and reveals self-confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of “black gums” are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line. Thus, perio-esthetic treatment modalities strive to achieve a harmonious inter-relationship of the pink with white, which is imperative of all treatment procedures. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. In the present case series, scraping, electrosurgery, and diode laser have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective, and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. PMID:23066249

  11. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink cotton bollworm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is attempting to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used in crop identification. The status of each field is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground surveys taken at the time of each ERTS-1 overflight. Correlation has been to date 100%. A computer analysis will be performed to compare field status with the crop calendar in order to identify crops. Correlation is expected to be 80 to 90%. Cotton fields, because of their state regulated season which is exactly coincident with no other crop, are expected to be easily identified.

  12. You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".

    PubMed

    Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases.

  13. Marking nut anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Fok, Jie Shen; Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-07-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  14. Marking nut anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Fok, Jie Shen; Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-07-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut.

  15. Marking nut anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-01-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  16. Mastering Marking Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brooke

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are smart people, so why does marking reduce them to stressed and soulless messes? Because in their hearts they know that students do not learn from it, and that drives them nuts. Researchers like Lorna Earl and Dylan Wiliam have looked closely at marking systems and have proven what teachers already know deep down: marking student work…

  17. PINK1 and its familial Parkinson's disease-associated mutation regulate brain vascular endothelial inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yunfu, Wang; Guangjian, Liu; Ping, Zhong; Yanpeng, Sun; Xiaoxia, Fang; Wei, Hu; Jiang, Yuan; Jingquan, Hu; Songlin, Wang; Hongyan, Zhang; Yong, Liu; Shi, Chen

    2014-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating disorder that affects movement. Inflammation-mediated endothelial dysfunction has been found to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases, including PD. More than 40 PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) mutations have been found in PD patients. The effects of PINK1 in vascular inflammation are as yet unknown. In this study, our findings revealed that PINK1 can be increased by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). We found that wild-type PINK1 prevents expression of the adhesion molecule vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), thus inhibiting the attachment of monocytes to brain endothelial cells. However, PINK1G309D, the loss-of-function mutation associated with early-onset familial PD, promotes expression of VCAM-1 and exacerbates attachment of monocytes to brain endothelial cells. Mechanism studies revealed that overexpression of wild-type PINK1 inhibits the VCAM-1 promoter by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1). However, PINK1G309D promotes the VCAM-1 promoter by increasing the transcriptional activity of IRF-1. PMID:24385196

  18. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) of pink teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, N.; Watanabe, G.; Harada, A.; Suzuki, T.

    1988-11-01

    Samples of postmortem pink teeth were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Fracture surfaces of the dentin in pink teeth were noticeably rough and revealed many more smaller dentinal tubules than those of the control white teeth. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis showed that the pink teeth contained iron which seemed to be derived from blood hemoglobin. The present study confirms that under the same circumstance red coloration of teeth may occur more easily in the teeth in which the dentin is less compact and contains more dentinal tubules.

  19. Sedimentology and arsenic pollution in the Bengal Basin: insight into arsenic occurrence and subsurface geology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, Andrew; McArthur, John

    2014-05-01

    The Bengal delta system is a geologically recent feature overlying a deeply incised palaeo-surface formed during the Last Glacial Maximum. This surface is a series of terraces and valleys created by river incision (Goodbred & Kuehl 2003). The terraces were weathered, forming a thin, indurated laterite deposit (Goodbred & Kuehl 2000) at depths greater than 50 m. McArthur et al. (2008) define this as a palaeosol and have identified it at depths greater than 30 m though out Bangladesh and West Bengal. It has been observed that arsenic concentrations at these sites are lower than the rest of the delta. It has been assumed that the surface morphology at sites where there is a palaeosol are similar and can therefore be characterised by remote sensing, in the form of Google Earth images. Sites were selected in Bangladesh and West Bengal, from work by McArthur et al. (2011); Hoque et al. (2012), where groundwater chemistry and sedimentology data are available making it possible to determine if the subsurface is a palaeo-channel or palaeo-interfluve. Arsenic concentration data have been inputted into Google Earth and the palaeo-channels marked where the arsenic concentration is greater than 10 µg/L, and palaeo-interfluves where arsenic concentration is less than 10 µg/L. The surface morphologies in these domains have been examined for similarities, and it was shown that avulsion scars and abandoned river channels are found where arsenic concentrations are greater than 10 µg/L. Conversely the surrounding areas that are devoid of channel scars have arsenic concentrations less than 10 µg/L. Using the correlation between avulsion features being representative of palaeo-channels and high arsenic concentrations, sites were selected that had a similar surface morphology to the type localities. A comparison of these images and arsenic concentrations showed that the postulate is valid for over 80 percent of cases. Where this is not valid, this could indicate that the subsurface

  20. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  1. Insights into the genetics and molecular mechanisms of pink bollworm resistance to Cry toxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) toxins target key insect pests in cotton and corn cropping systems. The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is currently the target of an area-wide eradication progra...

  2. Nasopharyngeal myxosarcoma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Shilton, Catherine M; Thompson, Margret S; Meisner, René; Lock, Brad; Lindsay, William A

    2002-12-01

    An 18- to 25-yr-old intact female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) was diagnosed antemortem and postmortem with nasopharyngeal myxosarcoma metastatic to the lung, chronic lymphoplasmacytic otitis media, and lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic stomatitis. Myxosarcomas are rare in domestic animals and seldom metastasize; this tumor has not been previously reported in an exotic felid. Computed tomography of the skull was used during the diagnoses.

  3. A thymic carcinoid in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Powe, Joshua; Castleman, William; Fiorello, Christine

    2005-09-01

    An 18-yr-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with acute onset hind limb paresis. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging revealed a caudal abdominal aortic thrombus and a cranial mediastinal mass. Necropsy confirmed aortic thrombosis. Necrotizing enteritis and multifocal renal thrombosis were also noted. The cranial mediastinum contained a bilobed mass that histologically and ultrastructurally was consistent with a carcinoid.

  4. A thymic carcinoid in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Powe, Joshua; Castleman, William; Fiorello, Christine

    2005-09-01

    An 18-yr-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with acute onset hind limb paresis. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging revealed a caudal abdominal aortic thrombus and a cranial mediastinal mass. Necropsy confirmed aortic thrombosis. Necrotizing enteritis and multifocal renal thrombosis were also noted. The cranial mediastinum contained a bilobed mass that histologically and ultrastructurally was consistent with a carcinoid. PMID:17312779

  5. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Malick, Michael J; Cox, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  6. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Malick, Michael J.; Cox, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  7. Field accumulation of aflatoxin in cottonseed as influenced by irrigation termination dates and pink bollworm infestation.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, T E; Watson, T F; Ryan, G F

    1976-01-01

    Aflatoxin accumulation in Deltapine 16 cottonseed, grown in Yuma, Ariz., in a 3-year study, was significantly influenced by the timing of irrigation terminations and by level of pink bollworm infestations. In 1971 and 1972, termination of irrigations by early August resulted in significantly less aflatoxin than in plots where two additional irrigations were applied. Significantly less aflatoxin also was found in the 1971 and 1973 plots where low levels of pink bollworm infestations were maintained. PMID:818957

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Reysenbach, A.L.; Wickham, G.S.; Pace, N.R.

    1994-06-01

    This study uses a molecular phylogenetic approach to characterize the pink filament community at the outflow of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature range of the spring is from 84 to 88 C. The authors show that the pink filaments are most closely related to the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus and a close relative Hydrogenobacter thermophilus. 38 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. PINK1 Is a Negative Regulator of Growth and the Warburg Effect in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Sameer; Golbourn, Brian; Huang, Xi; Remke, Marc; Younger, Susan; Cairns, Rob A; Chalil, Alan; Smith, Christian A; Krumholtz, Stacey-Lynn; Mackenzie, Danielle; Rakopoulos, Patricia; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taccone, Michael S; Mischel, Paul S; Fuller, Gregory N; Hawkins, Cynthia; Stanford, William L; Taylor, Michael D; Zadeh, Gelareh; Rutka, James T

    2016-08-15

    Proliferating cancer cells are characterized by high rates of glycolysis, lactate production, and altered mitochondrial metabolism. This metabolic reprogramming provides important metabolites for proliferation of tumor cells, including glioblastoma. These biological processes, however, generate oxidative stress that must be balanced through detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using an unbiased retroviral loss-of-function screen in nontransformed human astrocytes, we demonstrate that mitochondrial PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a regulator of the Warburg effect and negative regulator of glioblastoma growth. We report that loss of PINK1 contributes to the Warburg effect through ROS-dependent stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1A and reduced pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 activity, both key regulators of aerobic glycolysis. Mechanistically, PINK1 suppresses ROS and tumor growth through FOXO3a, a master regulator of oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase 2. These findings highlight the importance of PINK1 and ROS balance in normal and tumor cells. PINK1 loss was observed in a significant number of human brain tumors including glioblastoma (n > 900) and correlated with poor patient survival. PINK1 overexpression attenuates in vivo glioblastoma growth in orthotopic mouse xenograft models and a transgenic glioblastoma model in Drosophila Cancer Res; 76(16); 4708-19. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27325644

  10. Sustained susceptibility of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Morin, Shai; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Yelich, Alex J; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Harpold, Virginia S; Sisterson, Mark S; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dennehy, Timothy J; Antilla, Larry; Liesner, Leighton; Whitlow, Mike; Staten, Robert T; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the benefits of transgenic crops that produce toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect control. One of the world's most important cotton pests, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), has been targeted for control by transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac in several countries for more than a decade. In China, the frequency of resistance to Cry1Ac has increased, but control failures have not been reported. In western India, pink bollworm resistance to Cry1Ac has caused widespread control failures of Bt cotton. By contrast, in the state of Arizona in the southwestern United States, monitoring data from bioassays and DNA screening demonstrate sustained susceptibility to Cry1Ac for 16 y. From 1996-2005, the main factors that delayed resistance in Arizona appear to be abundant refuges of non-Bt cotton, recessive inheritance of resistance, fitness costs associated with resistance and incomplete resistance. From 2006-2011, refuge abundance was greatly reduced in Arizona, while mass releases of sterile pink bollworm moths were made to delay resistance as part of a multi-tactic eradication program. Sustained susceptibility of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in Arizona has provided a cornerstone for the pink bollworm eradication program and for integrated pest management in cotton. Reduced insecticide use against pink bollworm and other cotton pests has yielded economic benefits for growers, as well as broad environmental and health benefits. We encourage increased efforts to combine Bt crops with other tactics in integrated pest management programs.

  11. In Vitro Comparison of the Activity Requirements and Substrate Specificity of Human and Triboleum castaneum PINK1 Orthologues

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Liesbeth; Craessaerts, Katleen; De Strooper, Bart; Morais, Vanessa A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 cause early-onset familial Parkinson’s disease. To understand the biological function of PINK1 and its role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease, it is useful to study its kinase activity towards substrates both in vivo and in vitro. For in vitro kinase assays, a purified Triboleum castaneum PINK1 insect orthologue is often employed, because it displays higher levels of activity when compared to human PINK1. We show, however, that the activity requirements, and more importantly the substrate specificity, differ between both orthologues. While Triboleum castaneum PINK1 readily phosphorylates the PINKtide peptide and Histone H1 in vitro, neither of these non-physiological substrates is phosphorylated by human PINK1. Nonetheless, both Tc and human PINK1 phosphorylate Parkin and Ubiquitin, two physiological substrates of PINK1. Our results show that the substrate selectivity differs among PINK1 orthologues, an important consideration that should be taken into account when extrapolating findings back to human PINK1. PMID:26784449

  12. Marking as Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  13. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  14. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Roger B.; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B.; Soliman, Mayra C.; Souza, Fernanda G.; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V.; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S.; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D.; Spilki, Fernando R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  16. Red, Purple and Pink: The Colors of Diffusion on Pinterest

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work—e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

  17. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  18. Red, purple and pink: the colors of diffusion on pinterest.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work-e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

  19. Aesthetic laser marking assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, T. W.; Yeo, S. C.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, the CIE color difference formula was applied to evaluate four types of material surfaces; anodized aluminium, stainless steel, poly-butylene tetra-phthalate (PBT), and phenol formaldehyde, marked using a Nd:YAG laser, and viewed under three common modes of illumination; tungsten, fluorescent and daylight. The color difference values were based on the spectral reflectance readings obtained from a spectrophotometer. Each material exhibited different color difference trends in relation to marking speed for the different modes of illumination. Nevertheless, general comparisons could be made in terms of operational marking speeds and the maximal color difference values for each material.

  20. Rediscovery of the 8th Natural Wonder of the World: The Pink and White Terraces' survival of the 1886 Tarawera Rift eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ronde, C. E.; Fornari, D. J.; Ferrini, V.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Walker, S. L.; Scott, B. J.; Leybourne, M. I.; Pittari, A.; Keam, R. F.; Lupton, J. E.; Mazot, A.; Kukulya, A.; Littlefield, R.; Immenga, D.; Stagpoole, V.; Timm, C.; Berthelsen, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    On June 10, 1886, Mt. Tarawera in the rhyolitic Okataina Volcanic Centre of the central North Island, New Zealand, erupted in spectacular fashion. Basaltic eruptions at Tarawera produced tall eruption columns, while hydrothermal and phreatomagmatic eruptions at Rotomahana excavated the pre-1886 Lake Rotomahana site, which later filled to form a new lake up to 125 m deep and ~5 x larger than its predecessor. The Pink and White Terraces, which were the world's largest silica aprons and buttresses, had formed as a result of discharging thermal waters and deposition of silica on the margins of the pre-1886 lake, and were believed destroyed during the 1886 eruption. The post-eruption landscape was scarred by eruption craters with the largest marking the foci of the phreatomagmatic eruption, which blanketed the area with 10s of m of mud. A combined ~250 line km survey of Lake Rotomahana was conducted using two REMUS 100 AUVs simultaneously mapping with multibeam and sidescan sonar. Also fitted were a magnetometer, minature plume recorders (LSS, Eh, temperature, depth) and pH sensors. Surface vessels conducted magnetic surveys (110 line km), CO2 flux measurements (420 sites), deployed a CTD and Niksin bottles for water properties and sampling (14 stations), and a camera over sites (12) of known venting and/or where the sidescan showed evidence for the terraces. New bathymetric data clearly shows the en-echelon rift of 1886 in the center of the lake and identifies some pre-1886 shoreline. When combined with sidescan sonar images, several of the basal layers of the Pink Terraces were found very near their original, pre-eruption locations. Underwater photographs reveal buttresses of several tiers. Magnetic data show a pronounced positive anomaly in the southern part of the lake, associated with older lavas, and a distinct negative anomaly associated with the Pink Terraces, marking the boundaries of the pre-1886 geothermal field. Bubble plumes recorded during the magnetic

  1. Reexamination of Bengal Fan model for turbidites of frontal Ouachitas

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, M.B.

    1985-02-01

    The lower member of the Pennsylvanian Atoka Formation outcrops within the frontal Ouachitas of Arkansas. Strata are comprised of turbidites and related deep-marine deposits, which locally exceed 5.5 km (18,000 ft) in structural thickness. Several previous workers have drawn analogies between Ouachita turbidites (or flysch) and the present-day Bengal Fan, located in the eastern Indian Ocean. As a first-order approximation, this model is basically correct, especially in terms of overall tectonic setting. Yet, when examined in detail, there are striking dissimilarities between the frontal Ouachitas and the Bengal Fan. The dimensions of the Bengal Fan are staggering, it measured roughly 1000 km (620 mi) by 3000 km (1860 mi). The main feeder channel is 13 km (8 mi) across and 850 m (2790 ft) deep. Channels within the mid-fan region are up to 2-3 km (1.2-1.9 mi) in width and 100 m (330 ft) in depth, and some channels maintain continuity for well over 2000 (1240 mi). Rates of vertical sediment accumulation are no more than 75 m/m.y., with isopach data showing only 3.5 km (11,500 ft) of post-Eocene accumulation. Limited sampling also shows rather low sand-mud ratios over much of the fan. Lithofacies data and depositional cycles within the lower Atoka Formation are suggestive of middle-fan, outer-fan, and basin-plain environments. If Atoka channels were as large as those of the Bengal Fan, they certainly remain unrecognized in the rock record. instead, the entire length of the outcrop belt in Arkansas is less than 250 km (155 mi), and facies changs define a clear east-to-west transition from middle fan to basin plain. Significantly, Atoka sedimentation rates were approximately 10 times higher than Bengal rates. It is evident that the Atoka fan system was much more confined than the Bengal Fan; it probably formed within a narrow, rapidly filling, remnant ocean basin rather than on an unrestricted abyssal floor.

  2. Migratory routes and at-sea threats to Pink-footed Shearwaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Hodum, Peter; Colodro, Valentina; Carle, Ryan; López, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    The Pink-footed Shearwater (Ardenna creatopus) is a seabird with a breeding range restricted to three islands in Chile and an estimated world population of approximately 56,000 breeding individuals (Muñoz 2011, Oikonos unpublished data). Due to multiple threats on breeding colonies and at-sea, Pink-footed Shearwaters are listed as Endangered by the government of Chile (Reglamento de Clasificación de Especies, 2011), Threatened by the government of Canada (Environment Canada 2008), and are listed under Appendix 1 of the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP 2013). A principal conservation concern for the species is mortality from fisheries bycatch during the breeding and non-breeding seasons; thus, identification of areas of overlap between at-sea use by Pink-footed Shearwaters and fisheries is a high priority conservation objective (Hinojosa Sáez and Hodum 1997, Mangel et al. 2013, ACAP 2013). During the non-breeding period, Pink-footed Shearwaters range as far north as Canada, although little was known until recently about migration routes and important wintering areas where fisheries bycatch could be a risk. Additionally, Pink-footed Shearwaters face at-sea threats during the non-breeding season off the west coast of North America. Recently, areas used by wintering Pink-footed Shearwaters have been identified as areas of interest for developing alternative energy offshore in North America (e.g., floating wind generators; Trident Winds 2016). The goal of our study was to track Pink-footed Shearwater post-breeding movements with satellite tags to identify timing and routes of migration, locate important non-breeding foraging habitats, and determine population distribution among different wintering regions.

  3. Ames Fellows Award - Mark

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Hans Mark is a leading expert in the fields of aerospace design and national defense policy. From 1969 to 1977, he served as Director of the NASA Ames Research Center. During his tenure, Ames b...

  4. Mark IVA microprocessor support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burford, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The requirements and plans for the maintenance support of microprocessor-based controllers in the Deep Space Network Mark IVA System are discussed. Additional new interfaces and 16-bit processors have introduced problems not present in the Mark III System. The need for continuous training of maintenance personnel to maintain a level of expertise consistent with the sophistication of the required tools is also emphasized.

  5. [Analysis of bite marks].

    PubMed

    Spiessens, Marc; Van der Velden, Bram; Willems, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Precise photographs, supplemented by impressions are used to research and compare bite marks. Different materials for impressions are available to the forensic odontologist. Subsequently, the acquired information of the bite mark will be compared with the dentition of a suspect through photographs, intra- and extra oral examination and impressions. The overlay, which can be created using a variety of methods, allows the comparison between the bite mark and the dentition of the suspect. Among the most commonly used are hand-tracing of study models, wax bites or photocopies, or the radio-opaque wax bite method. Thanks to modern technology and the use of computers, analyses of bite marks have gradually become more accurate. Current research carried out at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven will demonstrate whether the computer program ForensicIQ is able to offer an even more precise comparison between a given bite mark and the dentition of a suspect. By no means should bite mark analysis alone be allowed to lead to a guilty verdict, but it will offer the opportunity to exclude a suspect from a crime when the data do not correspond. PMID:16370436

  6. Meningioma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Akin, Erin Y; Baumgartner, Wes A; Lee, Jung Keun; Beasley, Michaela J

    2013-09-01

    A 17-yr-old female ovariectomized Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented dead on arrival to the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine. The tiger was a resident of a sanctuary for big cats and had a history of juvenile-onset blindness of unknown cause. The tiger suffered two seizures the morning of presentation and expired shortly after resolution of the second seizure. Gross necropsy findings included a meningioma attached to the left frontal bone and associated with the left frontal lobe. Histologically, the mass was composed of meningothelial cells arising from the meninges, forming whorls and streams. Cells often formed syncytia and psammoma bodies were present. Neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically positive for vimentin, S100, and cytokeratin, but negative for GFAP. All findings were consistent with a meningioma. This is the first documentation of a meningioma in a Bengal tiger.

  7. Meningioma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Akin, Erin Y; Baumgartner, Wes A; Lee, Jung Keun; Beasley, Michaela J

    2013-09-01

    A 17-yr-old female ovariectomized Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented dead on arrival to the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine. The tiger was a resident of a sanctuary for big cats and had a history of juvenile-onset blindness of unknown cause. The tiger suffered two seizures the morning of presentation and expired shortly after resolution of the second seizure. Gross necropsy findings included a meningioma attached to the left frontal bone and associated with the left frontal lobe. Histologically, the mass was composed of meningothelial cells arising from the meninges, forming whorls and streams. Cells often formed syncytia and psammoma bodies were present. Neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically positive for vimentin, S100, and cytokeratin, but negative for GFAP. All findings were consistent with a meningioma. This is the first documentation of a meningioma in a Bengal tiger. PMID:24063109

  8. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of rose bengal: Effect of operational parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Japinder; Singhal, Sonal

    2014-10-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of rose bengal dye has been investigated using ZnO nanoparticles as photocatalyst. ZnO nanoparticles were found to be efficient catalyst for the degradation of dye and 98% degradation was observed in 90 min. Effect of various operational parameters such as amount of catalyst (0.25-2.00 g/L), concentration of dye (0.01-0.05 mM) and pH (3-11) of dye solution on the rate of dye degradation was studied. The most favorable results for the degradation of rose bengal were observed at pH 5 at a catalyst loading of 1 g/L. Moreover, hydroxyl radicals have been detected in the photocatalytic reaction mixture by using terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing technique. The reusability of the catalyst has also been studied and catalyst was found to be active even after being used for 5 times.

  9. Chronic arsenic toxicity: studies in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Guha Mazumder, Debendranath; Dasgupta, U B

    2011-09-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis) as a result of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world, including India. A lot of research on health effects, including genotoxic effect of chronic arsenic toxicity in humans, have been carried out in West Bengal during the last 2 decades. A review of literature including information available from West Bengal has been made to characterize the problem. Scientific journals, monographs, and proceedings of conferences with regard to human health effects, including genotoxicity, of chronic arsenic toxicity have been reviewed. Pigmentation and keratosis are the specific skin diseases characteristic of chronic arsenic toxicity. However, in West Bengal, it was found to produce various systemic manifestations, such as chronic lung disease, characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive and/or restrictive pulmonary disease, and bronchiectasis; liver diseases, such as non cirrhotic portal fibrosis; polyneuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension; nonpitting edema of feet/hands; conjunctival congestion; weakness; and anemia. High concentrations of arsenic, greater than or equal to 200 μg/L, during pregnancy were found to be associated with a sixfold increased risk for stillbirth. Cancers of skin, lung, and urinary bladder are the important cancers associated with this toxicity. Of the various genotoxic effects of arsenic in humans, chromosomal aberration and increased frequency of micronuclei in different cell types have been found to be significant. Various probable mechanisms have been incriminated to cause DNA damage because of chronic arsenic toxicity. The results of the study in West Bengal suggest that deficiency in DNA repair capacity, perturbation of methylation of promoter region of p53 and p16 genes, and genomic methylation alteration may be involved in arsenic-induced disease manifestation in humans. P53 polymorphism has been found to be

  10. Disseminated histoplasmosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Keller, Dominique L; Steinberg, Howard; Sladky, Kurt K

    2011-12-01

    Disseminated infection with Histoplasma capsulatum was diagnosed in a 7-yr-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Clinical signs were nonspecific with the exception of brief periods of tachypnea for 5 days prior to death. H. capsulatum organisms were found in the lungs, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and liver. Diagnosis was confirmed by tracheal wash, urine H. capsulatum enzyme immunoassay, and necropsy results. This report represents the first published account of disseminated histoplasmosis in a tiger.

  11. Pericardial mesothelioma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Ellen B; Isaza, Ramiro; Lindsay, William A; Case, Allison L; Decker, Joshua; Roberts, John

    2008-03-01

    A 17-year-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with dyspnea and tachypnea. Radiographs revealed severe pleural and pericardial effusion, but no obvious mass. During attempts to remove the fluid under anesthesia, the cat developed cardiac tamponade and died. At necropsy, a nodular mass was found at the heart base and was identified as a pericardial mesothelioma. This is the first report of this tumor in any large cat.

  12. Nasopharyngeal myxosarcoma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Shilton, Catherine M; Thompson, Margret S; Meisner, René; Lock, Brad; Lindsay, William A

    2002-12-01

    An 18- to 25-yr-old intact female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) was diagnosed antemortem and postmortem with nasopharyngeal myxosarcoma metastatic to the lung, chronic lymphoplasmacytic otitis media, and lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic stomatitis. Myxosarcomas are rare in domestic animals and seldom metastasize; this tumor has not been previously reported in an exotic felid. Computed tomography of the skull was used during the diagnoses. PMID:12564536

  13. Pericardial mesothelioma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Ellen B; Isaza, Ramiro; Lindsay, William A; Case, Allison L; Decker, Joshua; Roberts, John

    2008-03-01

    A 17-year-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with dyspnea and tachypnea. Radiographs revealed severe pleural and pericardial effusion, but no obvious mass. During attempts to remove the fluid under anesthesia, the cat developed cardiac tamponade and died. At necropsy, a nodular mass was found at the heart base and was identified as a pericardial mesothelioma. This is the first report of this tumor in any large cat. PMID:18432108

  14. Disseminated histoplasmosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Keller, Dominique L; Steinberg, Howard; Sladky, Kurt K

    2011-12-01

    Disseminated infection with Histoplasma capsulatum was diagnosed in a 7-yr-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Clinical signs were nonspecific with the exception of brief periods of tachypnea for 5 days prior to death. H. capsulatum organisms were found in the lungs, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and liver. Diagnosis was confirmed by tracheal wash, urine H. capsulatum enzyme immunoassay, and necropsy results. This report represents the first published account of disseminated histoplasmosis in a tiger. PMID:22204071

  15. Development of a novel pink-eyed dilution mouse model showing progressive darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Akira; Sugiyama, Makoto; Hondo, Eiichi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Yamagishi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Oca2(p-cas) (oculocutaneous albinism II; pink-eyed dilution castaneus) is a coat color mutant gene on mouse chromosome 7 that arose spontaneously in wild Mus musculus castaneus mice. Mice homozygous for Oca2(p-cas) usually exhibit pink eyes and gray coat hair on the non-agouti genetic background, and this ordinary phenotype remains unchanged throughout life. During breeding of a mixed strain carrying this gene on the C57BL/6J background, we discovered a novel spontaneous mutation that causes darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging. In this study, we developed a novel mouse model showing this unique phenotype. Gross observations revealed that the pink eyes and gray coat hair of the novel mutant young mice became progressively darker in color by approximately 3 months after birth. Light and transmission-electron microscopic observations revealed a marked increase in melanin pigmentation of coat hair shafts and choroid of the eye in the novel mice compared to that in the ordinary mice. Sequence analysis of Oca2(p-cas) revealed a 4.1-kb deletion involving exons 15 and 16 of its wild-type gene. However, there was no sequence difference between the two types of mutant mice. Mating experiments suggested that the novel mutant phenotype was not inherited in a simple fashion, due to incomplete penetrance. The novel spontaneous mutant mouse is the first example of progressive hair darkening animals and is an essential animal model for understanding of the regulation mechanisms of melanin biosynthesis with aging.

  16. Development of a novel pink-eyed dilution mouse model showing progressive darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Akira; Sugiyama, Makoto; Hondo, Eiichi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Yamagishi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Oca2(p-cas) (oculocutaneous albinism II; pink-eyed dilution castaneus) is a coat color mutant gene on mouse chromosome 7 that arose spontaneously in wild Mus musculus castaneus mice. Mice homozygous for Oca2(p-cas) usually exhibit pink eyes and gray coat hair on the non-agouti genetic background, and this ordinary phenotype remains unchanged throughout life. During breeding of a mixed strain carrying this gene on the C57BL/6J background, we discovered a novel spontaneous mutation that causes darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging. In this study, we developed a novel mouse model showing this unique phenotype. Gross observations revealed that the pink eyes and gray coat hair of the novel mutant young mice became progressively darker in color by approximately 3 months after birth. Light and transmission-electron microscopic observations revealed a marked increase in melanin pigmentation of coat hair shafts and choroid of the eye in the novel mice compared to that in the ordinary mice. Sequence analysis of Oca2(p-cas) revealed a 4.1-kb deletion involving exons 15 and 16 of its wild-type gene. However, there was no sequence difference between the two types of mutant mice. Mating experiments suggested that the novel mutant phenotype was not inherited in a simple fashion, due to incomplete penetrance. The novel spontaneous mutant mouse is the first example of progressive hair darkening animals and is an essential animal model for understanding of the regulation mechanisms of melanin biosynthesis with aging. PMID:25739360

  17. Florivores prefer white versus pink petal color morphs in wild radish, Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    McCall, Andrew C; Murphy, Stephen J; Venner, Colin; Brown, Monique

    2013-05-01

    Many hypotheses suggest that pollinators act to maintain or change floral color morph frequencies in nature, although pollinator preferences do not always match color morph frequencies in the field. Therefore, non-pollinating agents may also be responsible for color morph frequencies. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether Raphanus sativus plants with white flowers received different amounts of florivory than plants with pink flowers, and whether florivores preferred one floral color over the other. We found that white-flowered plants received significantly more floral damage than pink-flowered plants in eight populations over 4 years in northern California. Both generalists and specialists on Brassicaceae preferred white petals in choice and short-term no choice tests. In performance tests, generalists gained more weight on white versus pink petals whereas specialists gained similar amounts of weight on pink and white morphs. Because our results suggest that florivores prefer and perform better on white versus pink flowers, these insects may have the opportunity to affect the frequency of color morphs in the field.

  18. PKA Regulates PINK1 Stability and Parkin Recruitment to Damaged Mitochondria through Phosphorylation of MIC60.

    PubMed

    Akabane, Shiori; Uno, Midori; Tani, Naoki; Shimazaki, Shunta; Ebara, Natsumi; Kato, Hiroki; Kosako, Hidetaka; Oka, Toshihiko

    2016-05-01

    A mitochondrial kinase, PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), selectively recruits the ubiquitin ligase Parkin to damaged mitochondria, which modifies mitochondria by polyubiquitination, leading to mitochondrial autophagy. Here, we report that treatment with an adenylate cyclase agonist or expression of protein kinase A (PKA) impairs Parkin recruitment to damaged mitochondria and decreases PINK1 protein levels. We identified a mitochondrial membrane protein, MIC60 (also known as mitofilin), as a PKA substrate. Mutational and mass spectrometric analyses revealed that the Ser528 residue of MIC60 undergoes PKA-dependent phosphorylation. MIC60 transiently interacts with PINK1, and MIC60 downregulation leads to a reduction in PINK1 and mislocalization of Parkin. Phosphorylation-mimic mutants of MIC60 fail to restore the defect in Parkin recruitment in MIC60-knocked down cells, whereas a phosphorylation-deficient MIC60 mutant facilitates the mitochondrial localization of Parkin. Our findings indicate that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of MIC60 negatively regulates mitochondrial clearance that is initiated by PINK1 and Parkin. PMID:27153535

  19. ATM mediates spermidine-induced mitophagy via PINK1 and Parkin regulation in human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yongmei; Qiu, Qian; Gu, Xueyan; Tian, Yihong; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-01-01

    The ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) protein has recently been proposed to play critical roles in the response to mitochondrial dysfunction by initiating mitophagy. Here, we have used ATM-proficient GM00637 cells and ATM-deficient GM05849 cells to investigate the mitophagic effect of spermidine and to elucidate the role of ATM in spermdine-induced mitophagy. Our results indicate that spermidine induces mitophagy by eliciting mitochondrial depolarization, which triggers the formation of mitophagosomes and mitolysosomes, thereby promoting the accumulation of PINK1 and translocation of Parkin to damaged mitochondria, finally leading to the decreased mitochondrial mass in GM00637 cells. However, in GM05849 cells or GM00637 cells pretreated with the ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933, the expression of full-length PINK1 and the translocation of Parkin are blocked, and the colocalization of Parkin with either LC3 or PINK1 is disrupted. These results suggest that ATM drives the initiation of the mitophagic cascade. Our study demonstrates that spermidine induces mitophagy through ATM-dependent activation of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. These findings underscore the importance of a mitophagy regulatory network of ATM and PINK1/Parkin and elucidate a novel mechanism by which ATM influences spermidine-induced mitophagy. PMID:27089984

  20. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pink salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bonar, S.A.; Pauley, G.B.; Thomas, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The pink salmon, often called humpback salmon or humpy, is easily identified by its extremely small scales (150 to 205) on the lateral line. They are the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species and spawn in North American and Asian streams bordering the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. They have a very simple two-year life cycle, which is so invariable that fish running in odd-numbered years are isolated from fish running in even-numbered years so that no gene flow occurs between them. Adults spawn in the fall and the young fry emerge in the spring. The pink salmon is less desirable in commercial and sport catches than most other salmon because of its small size and its soft pale flesh. The Puget Sound region of Washington State is the southern geographic limit of streams supporting major pink salmon runs in the eastern North Pacific. Pink salmon runs are presently only in odd-numbered years in this region. Optimum water temperatures for spawning range from 7.2 to 12.8/degree/C. Productive pink salmon streams have less than 5.0% by volume of fine sediments (less than or equal to0.8 mm). 87 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The power of pink: cause-related marketing and the impact on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jennifer A; Strahilevitz, Michal A

    2009-01-01

    The pink ribbon is one of the most widely recognized symbols in the United States. It can symbolize strength, hope, responsibility, empathy, and permission to discuss breast cancer, though not all associations are uniformly positive. Cause-related marketing is an agreement between nonprofit and for-profit organizations to promote a product that provides benefit for the cause through increasing awareness and financial contributions from sales. For-profit organizations benefit through the association of the positive ideology of the pink ribbon. The relationship between the organizations should be mutually beneficial; the percentage of funds donated should be reasonable, and the organizations that benefit should be respected institutions. Many breast cancer organizations have obtained significant benefit from corporate partnerships in cause-related marketing. Certainly, breast cancer awareness is much stronger now than 15 years ago. However, not all products are appropriate for promotion, particularly products that may increase the risk for breast cancer, such as alcohol. No corporation is licensed to have exclusive use of the pink ribbon symbol, leaving it open to potential abuse. Backlash by consumers has raised awareness of the misuse of the pink ribbon and cause-related marketing. As marketing becomes more global, the impact of the pink ribbon in the third world may spur open dialogue and reduce the taboo associated with breast cancer observed in some cultures.

  2. Examining features of enhanced phytoplankton biomass in the Bay of Bengal using a coupled physical-biological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Helga do Rosário; deRada, Sergio; Goes, Joaquim I.; Chai, Fei

    2016-07-01

    A coupled bio-physical ocean model is used to describe areas of enhanced phytoplankton biomass, seen in remotely sensed observations, in the otherwise oligotrophic environment of the Bay of Bengal. The model is based on the Naval Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), which is one-way coupled to the 13-component Carbon, Silicate, and Nitrogen Ecosystem (CoSiNE) model and configured for the Indian Ocean. Model results are compared and evaluated against a set of in situ shipboard observations as well as ocean color data acquired from several remote sensing platforms. The model is shown to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of phytoplankton, the markedly contrasting scenarios of phytoplankton distribution in the north versus the south Bay of Bengal, and the biological impact from the 1997/1998 Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) event. The model simulation provides us with vertical cross sections of phytoplankton biomass from summer and winter blooms in the southwest of the bay, information not found in remotely sensed data. It also successfully reproduces the timing of the onset of the blooms and their spatial extent, thereby providing a measure of its potential for augmenting in situ and remotely sensed observations to improve understanding of the dynamics of primary producers and carbon cycling in one of the most poorly sampled regions of the world's oceans.

  3. Meetings with Mark Vishik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikinskaya, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    Mark Iosifovich Vishik was my husband Vladimir Chepyzhov's advisor during his years as a student in the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics at Moscow State University, and afterwards they worked together for almost 30 years. This is why I knew him personally while not being a mathematician myself: we sometimes talked on the phone, and met during common trips and a few holidays. In his last years, after the death of his devoted wife who was also his best friend, my husband and I decided to visit Mark regularly in order to comfort him in his loneliness, and many other of his friends did the same. I can say without exaggeration that Mark loved to talk with me about everyday matters, to reminisce about his wife Asya Moiseevna, their friends and relatives, to tell stories of his youth and the wonderful encounters that had so enriched his life. We had the idea to write down our conversations and publish them as a book. Unfortunately, few such conversations lay ahead. The last one took place in January 2010. We did not write a book, but we did write an article [1], which was published in English in the form of an interview with Mark. The present article is based on our conversations with Mark. Here I will try to recount his memories about people who played an important role in his life.

  4. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  5. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  6. Marked ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, ghost imaging has been widely applied in various areas, such as optical security. Here, we report how an object and multiple hidden marks can be simultaneously recovered by using only one rebuilt reference intensity sequence in ghost imaging. The reconstructed object can be clearly observed during the decoding, and multiple marks can be effectively hidden. This unique characteristic is established for ghost imaging system due to random selections of pixels from each reference intensity pattern, which also guarantees high security. This finding may open up a different research perspective for ghost-imaging-based security system.

  7. Sedimentary Controls on Foraminifera Distribution in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz-Endres, T.; Fox, L. R.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.; Dekens, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 354 drilled sites in the Bay of Bengal to improve our understanding of the links between tectonics, monsoon strength, and oceanographic conditions. The Bengal Fan contains complex depositional environments, which vary from thick sequences of turbidites and levee sediments that reflects channel activity, to intervals of hemipelagic calcareous clay. Foraminifera are commonly used to reconstruct past oceanographic conditions, but the complex depositional environments raises the possibility that foraminifera in the cores were transported from the northern Bay of Bengal through turbidity currents, rather than settling out from the overlying water column. The goal of the project is to determine if foraminifera in the modern sediments at IODP Exp 354 sites record the overlying water column conditions or water conditions of the northern Bay of Bengal. Today sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) has a larger seasonal range in the northern bay (3.0 psu and 5ᵒC, respectively) compared to Exp 354 core sites at 8ᵒN (0.7 psu and 1.4ᵒC, respectively). We present Mg/Ca and d18O data of individual Globigerinoides ruber or sacculifer in the mud-line samples of site U1454 (8.4ᵒN, 85.5ᵒE, 3721 m water depth), which is near the modern active channel, and site U1449 (8.4ᵒN, 88.7ᵒE, 3653 m water depth), which is farthest from the active channel. Because foraminifera live ~2-4 weeks, each analysis reflects a short period of time. Taken together, the distribution of 75 to 100 data points will reflect the seasonal SST and SSS range where the foraminifera calcified. Given the spatial variability of seasonality in the Bay of Bengal, a broader distribution of the data would reflect the larger SSS and SST range of the northern bay, while a narrower data distribution would reflect the much smaller SSS and SST range at the Exp 354 location. If foraminifera at both sites reflect local surface water conditions we can be more confident in applying

  8. Parkinson's Disease-Related Proteins PINK1 and Parkin Repress Mitochondrial Antigen Presentation.

    PubMed

    Matheoud, Diana; Sugiura, Ayumu; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angélique; Laplante, Annie; Rondeau, Christiane; Chemali, Magali; Fazel, Ali; Bergeron, John J; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Burelle, Yan; Gagnon, Etienne; McBride, Heidi M; Desjardins, Michel

    2016-07-14

    Antigen presentation is essential for establishing immune tolerance and for immune responses against infectious disease and cancer. Although antigen presentation can be mediated by autophagy, here we demonstrate a pathway for mitochondrial antigen presentation (MitAP) that relies on the generation and trafficking of mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) rather than on autophagy/mitophagy. We find that PINK1 and Parkin, two mitochondrial proteins linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), actively inhibit MDV formation and MitAP. In absence of PINK1 or Parkin, inflammatory conditions trigger MitAP in immune cells, both in vitro and in vivo. MitAP and the formation of MDVs require Rab9 and Sorting nexin 9, whose recruitment to mitochondria is inhibited by Parkin. The identification of PINK1 and Parkin as suppressors of an immune-response-eliciting pathway provoked by inflammation suggests new insights into PD pathology. PMID:27345367

  9. Prevention of cataracts in pink-eyed RCS rats by dark rearing.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, T L; Hess, H H; Zigler, J S; Kuwabara, T; Knapka, J J

    1990-11-01

    Royal College of Surgeons rats have hereditary retinal degeneration and associated posterior subcapsular opacities (PSO) of the lens, detectable by slitlamp at 7-8 postnatal weeks in both pink- and black-eyed rats. The retinal degeneration is intensified by light, especially in pink-eyed rats. A fourth of pink-eyed rats developed mature cataracts by 9-12 months of age, but black-eyed rats whose retinas are protected from light by pigmented irises and pigment epithelium rarely have mature cataracts (3% or less), indicating light may be a factor in cataractogenesis. Prior work had shown that dark rearing reduced the rate of retinal degeneration in pink- but not black-eyed rats, but cataracts were not studied. In the present work, pregnant pink-eyed females were placed in a darkroom 1 week before parturition. Pups were removed over intervals at 20-85 postnatal days for: (a) microscopic study of fresh lenses and of fixed, stained retina and lens, and (b) counts of cells mm-2 of the web-like vitreous cortex after it had been dissected free. The macrophage-like cells are a quantitative index of immune reaction to retinal damage. At 50-53 postnatal days, in pink-eyed cyclic light reared RCS, the mean number of macrophages was 4.6-fold that in congenic controls, but in those that were dark reared it was only 1.4-fold. This was less than the increase in cyclic light reared black-eyed RCS (2.3-fold that in congenic black-eyed controls). Total absence of light reduced retinal degeneration and the number of macrophages, and prevented PSO detectable microscopically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Prevention of cataracts in pink-eyed RCS rats by dark rearing.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, T L; Hess, H H; Zigler, J S; Kuwabara, T; Knapka, J J

    1990-11-01

    Royal College of Surgeons rats have hereditary retinal degeneration and associated posterior subcapsular opacities (PSO) of the lens, detectable by slitlamp at 7-8 postnatal weeks in both pink- and black-eyed rats. The retinal degeneration is intensified by light, especially in pink-eyed rats. A fourth of pink-eyed rats developed mature cataracts by 9-12 months of age, but black-eyed rats whose retinas are protected from light by pigmented irises and pigment epithelium rarely have mature cataracts (3% or less), indicating light may be a factor in cataractogenesis. Prior work had shown that dark rearing reduced the rate of retinal degeneration in pink- but not black-eyed rats, but cataracts were not studied. In the present work, pregnant pink-eyed females were placed in a darkroom 1 week before parturition. Pups were removed over intervals at 20-85 postnatal days for: (a) microscopic study of fresh lenses and of fixed, stained retina and lens, and (b) counts of cells mm-2 of the web-like vitreous cortex after it had been dissected free. The macrophage-like cells are a quantitative index of immune reaction to retinal damage. At 50-53 postnatal days, in pink-eyed cyclic light reared RCS, the mean number of macrophages was 4.6-fold that in congenic controls, but in those that were dark reared it was only 1.4-fold. This was less than the increase in cyclic light reared black-eyed RCS (2.3-fold that in congenic black-eyed controls). Total absence of light reduced retinal degeneration and the number of macrophages, and prevented PSO detectable microscopically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2249726

  11. Fitness and behavioral correlates of pre-stress and stress-induced plasma cortisol titers in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) upon arrival at spawning grounds.

    PubMed

    Cook, K V; McConnachie, S H; Gilmour, K M; Hinch, S G; Cooke, S J

    2011-11-01

    Semelparous Pacific salmon (Onchorynchus spp.) serve as an excellent model for examining the relationships between life history, behavior and individual variation in glucocorticoid (GC) stress hormone levels because reproductive behaviors are highly variable between individuals and failure to reproduce results in zero fitness. Pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) were intercepted upon arrival at the spawning grounds across three time periods. Pre-stress and stress-induced plasma cortisol concentrations were assessed in relation to behavior, longevity and reproductive success. Results revealed differences between sexes and with arrival time. The study period marked a year of high reproductive success and only nine females (12% of sample) failed to spawn. Female pre-spawn mortalities were characterized by significantly elevated stress-induced cortisol concentrations and decreased longevity as well as pre-stress cortisol above the normal range in pink salmon from the study area. Interestingly, reproductive behaviors were only associated with pre-stress cortisol levels. For females, aggression and mate interaction time were reduced in individuals with elevated pre-stress cortisol concentrations. In males, a similar negative relationship between pre-stress cortisol concentration and mate interaction time was detected. The observed behavioral correlations are likely a factor of social status where dominant individuals, known to have higher reproductive success, are characterized by lower cortisol levels relative to subordinate conspecifics. Findings show both elevated pre-stress and stress-induced cortisol concentrations at arrival to the spawning grounds to be associated with reduced survival.

  12. Digitally Marking RSA Moduli

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.M.

    2000-10-09

    The moduli used in RSA (see [5]) can be generated by many different sources. The generator of that modulus (assuming a single entity generates the modulus) knows its factorization. They would have the ability to forge signatures or break any system based on this moduli. If a moduli and the RSA parameters associated with it were generated by a reputable source, the system would have higher value than if the parameters were generated by an unknown entity. So for tracking, security, confidence and financial reasons it would be beneficial to know who the generator of the RSA modulus was. This is where digital marking comes in. An RSA modulus ia digitally marked, or digitally trade marked, if the generator and other identifying features of the modulus (such as its intended user, the version number, etc.) can be identified and possibly verified by the modulus itself. The basic concept of digitally marking an RSA modulus would be to fix the upper bits of the modulus to this tag. Thus anyone who sees the public modulus can tell who generated the modulus and who the generator believes the intended user/owner of the modulus is.

  13. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  14. Mark 22 Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.R.

    2001-07-02

    Calculations for reactivity held in control rods have underpredicted the observed Mark 22 reactivity. Reactivity predictions by charge designers have accounted for this by including large biases which change with exposure and reactor region. The purpose of this study was to thoroughly investigate the methods and data used in the reactivity calculations. The goal was to identify errors and improvements and make necessary corrections.

  15. Teaching with Mark Dion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  16. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  17. Rose Bengal plate agglutination and counterimmunoelectrophoresis tests on spinal fluid in the diagnosis of Brucella meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, R; Maraví-Poma, E; Delgado, G; Rivero, A

    1978-01-01

    Rose Bengal and counterimmunoelectrophoresis, two tests that detect antibodies against different structural antigens, when carried out on spinal fluid permitted rapid diagnosis of human Brucella meningitis. The Rose Bengal test was positive in five out of five patients studied, and counterimmunoelectrophoresis was positive in all but one. The Brucella meningitis was characterized by an increase of immunoglobulin G in the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:632350

  18. Bengal arsenic, an archive of Himalaya orogeny and paleohydrology.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Stephane; Charlet, Laurent

    2007-10-01

    Holocene groundwater in many districts of the West Bengal and parts of Bangladesh are enriched in arsenic enhancing poisoning effect on humans. One of the main problems to depict the source of arsenic is that this element is very mobile and can be easily removed and recombined from the source during alteration processes, transport and mobilization in sediments. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system mainly contributed to the buildup of the Bengal fan, which is considered one of the largest modern deltas of the world, then the possible source of the As has probably to be search within the Himalayan belt. We propose that the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone dominated by arc-related rocks and more particularly by large volume of serpentinites enriched in arsenic could be one of the primary source of arsenic. The fact that, the present day arsenic concentration in the main Himalayan river, and particularly the Siang-Brahmaputra river system is not so high as expected can be explained by strong aridic conditions present day prevailing in the Indus-Suture zone and do not favored the weathering of serpentinites into As rich-smectite and Fe-hydroxydes. For the Ganga basin, the original source of arsenic has to be search in the weathering of arc related rocks in the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone followed by its intermediate storage into the sediments of the Siwalik foreland basin, playing the role of arsenic reservoir from Miocene to Pleistocene. Intense tectonic activity in the front of the Himalayan belt associated with high rainfall conditions during the Holocene allowed the arsenic to be remobilized and transported toward the Bay of Bengal.

  19. Bengal arsenic, an archive of Himalaya orogeny and paleohydrology.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Stephane; Charlet, Laurent

    2007-10-01

    Holocene groundwater in many districts of the West Bengal and parts of Bangladesh are enriched in arsenic enhancing poisoning effect on humans. One of the main problems to depict the source of arsenic is that this element is very mobile and can be easily removed and recombined from the source during alteration processes, transport and mobilization in sediments. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system mainly contributed to the buildup of the Bengal fan, which is considered one of the largest modern deltas of the world, then the possible source of the As has probably to be search within the Himalayan belt. We propose that the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone dominated by arc-related rocks and more particularly by large volume of serpentinites enriched in arsenic could be one of the primary source of arsenic. The fact that, the present day arsenic concentration in the main Himalayan river, and particularly the Siang-Brahmaputra river system is not so high as expected can be explained by strong aridic conditions present day prevailing in the Indus-Suture zone and do not favored the weathering of serpentinites into As rich-smectite and Fe-hydroxydes. For the Ganga basin, the original source of arsenic has to be search in the weathering of arc related rocks in the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone followed by its intermediate storage into the sediments of the Siwalik foreland basin, playing the role of arsenic reservoir from Miocene to Pleistocene. Intense tectonic activity in the front of the Himalayan belt associated with high rainfall conditions during the Holocene allowed the arsenic to be remobilized and transported toward the Bay of Bengal. PMID:17952779

  20. Pink bollworm trapping in the Southern Plains of Texas and New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study identified several cotton fields in southern Midland County, TX on which large numbers of pink bollworm (PBW) moths were caught. No other large concentrations of PBW were found in the region. Winds with the capability of moving moths long distances occurred during the 2010 study. Wind ...

  1. Pink Tea to Proactive: CCET's Transition Years, 1961-1982, as I Remember Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Alvin H.

    2015-01-01

    Alvin Thompson, former president of the California Council on the Education of Teachers (CCET), describes how he became involved with the CCET, and how the cultural environment of the CCET shifted from a "Pink Tea" society to one of political action focused on the real needs of the schools for which teachers are prepared. Thompson…

  2. 78 FR 26308 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle that was published in the Federal Register on October 2, 2012 (77 FR... (77 FR 60208), which is available online at http://www.regulations.gov (at Docket No. FWS-R6-ES-2012... species and its habitat (77 FR 60208). Table 1 summarizes the coextensive economic impacts of the...

  3. The Coming Right-Brain Economy: Daniel H. Pink Says the MFA Is the New MBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a recent "Harvard Business Review" piece by author Daniel H. Pink, MBA graduates are, in many ways, becoming this century's blue-collar workers--people who entered a workforce that was full of promise only to see their jobs move overseas. At the same time, businesses are realizing that the only way to differentiate their goods and…

  4. The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Adriana Régia Marques; Arthur, Valter; Nogueira, Danielle Pires

    2012-08-01

    Pink peppers, also known as "pimenta-rosa" and "poivre rose", are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (p<0.05) among the studied doses. The color of the pink peppers were affected by the irradiation: the parameters a* and b* were the most affected by the intermediate doses (0.2 and 0.8 kGy), which induced their elevation, enhancing the reddish and yellowish colors. Based on the presented data, irradiation is as an alternative preservation process for pink peppers.

  5. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-10-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  6. The pink eye syndrome does not impair tuber fresh cut wound-related responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato tuber pink eye (PE) syndrome is a costly physiological disorder that results in corruption of the native periderm, susceptibility to infection, water vapor loss and associated shrinkage, roughened and cracked tuber surfaces, and various related blemishes and defects. PE results in aberra...

  7. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  8. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  9. 78 FR 69002 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... hotline numbers described at 50 CFR 300.97(b)(1) and in 77 FR 25915 (May 2, 2012). The inseason orders are... numbers as specified at 50 CFR 300.97(b)(1) and in 78 FR 25865 (May 3, 2013); those dates and times are... Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  10. 76 FR 70062 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... telephone hotline numbers described at 50 CFR 300.97(b)(1) and in 76 FR 25246 (May 4, 2011). The inseason... telephone hotline numbers as specified at 50 CFR 300.97(b)(1) and in 76 FR 25246 (May 4, 2011); those dates... Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  11. Bacterial Antagonists, Zoospore Inoculum Retention Time, and Potato Cultivar Influence Pink Rot Disease Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink rot of potato, primarily incited by Phytophthora erythroseptica, is a disease of importance in many potato growing regions of the world including North America. The principal mode of entry by the pathogen into tubers in storage is via wounds or eyes; surfaces that theoretically could be protec...

  12. Validation of two pheromonal compounds for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (Macconelicoccus hirsutus (Green)) was detected, in 2004, in Valle de Banderas, at municipalities Bahía de Banderas, Nayarit, and Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, affecting fruit trees, native and ornamental plants. This pest insect is native to Asia and Australia, and has ...

  13. Lagerstroemia speciosa ‘Big Pink’, an improved pink flowered queen’s crape myrtle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers., commonly called Pride-of-India, queen’s or giant crape myrtle, is a large shrub or small tree widely used as a tropical ornamental, with landscape utility limited to USDA Hardiness Zones 10-11. This paper describes a pink-flowered seedling selec...

  14. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in eight mollusc species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Veerasingam, S; Venkatachalapathy, R; Sudhakar, S; Raja, P; Rajeswari, V

    2011-01-01

    Eight mollusc species and sediment samples collected from three different stations along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India were analysed for the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons to elucidate the status of the petroleum residues in mollusc meant for human consumption. The concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments along Tamilnadu coast varied from 5.04-25.5 microg/g dw (dry weight). High concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediment of Uppanar estuary (25.5 +/- 1.45 microg/g dw) was perhaps land and marine based anthropogenic sources of this region. The petroleum hydrocarbon residues in eight mollusc species collected from Uppanar, Vellar and Coleroon estuaries varied between 2.44-6.04 microg/g ww (wet weight). Although the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment of the Uppanar region was markedly higher than the background, the petroleum hydrocarbon residues in mollusc collected from Uppanar estuary did not suggest bioaccumulation. The results signified that industrial growth has affected the aquatic environments and regular monitoring will help to adopt stringent pollution control measures for better management of the aquatic region.

  15. Abdominal pythiosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Buergelt, Claus; Powe, Joshua; White, Tamara

    2006-06-01

    An adult Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) housed in an outdoor sanctuary in Florida exhibited vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. A clinical workup did not reveal the source of the clinical signs and antibiotic therapy was unrewarding. Radiographs revealed the presence of an abdominal mass. The tiger died during an immobilization for a follow-up clinical examination. A necropsy was performed and tissue samples of intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted for histopathologic diagnosis. A pyogranulomatous panenteritis and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae led to a presumptive etiologic diagnosis of intestinal/abdominal pythiosis. The diagnosis of pythiosis was confirmed by serology and immunoblotting.

  16. Abdominal pythiosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Buergelt, Claus; Powe, Joshua; White, Tamara

    2006-06-01

    An adult Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) housed in an outdoor sanctuary in Florida exhibited vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. A clinical workup did not reveal the source of the clinical signs and antibiotic therapy was unrewarding. Radiographs revealed the presence of an abdominal mass. The tiger died during an immobilization for a follow-up clinical examination. A necropsy was performed and tissue samples of intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted for histopathologic diagnosis. A pyogranulomatous panenteritis and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae led to a presumptive etiologic diagnosis of intestinal/abdominal pythiosis. The diagnosis of pythiosis was confirmed by serology and immunoblotting. PMID:17312799

  17. Case Marking Strategies in Kope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John

    Case marking strategies in Kope, a Papuan language of Papua New Guinea, are analyzed in light of previous claims that most Papuan languages have one strategy for marking core relations and another for marking peripheral relations. A brief grammatical overview illustrates how core and peripheral relations are marked in Kope, including nominal case…

  18. Effects of pink bollworm resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis on phenoloxidase activity and susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, Aaron J; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Sisterson, Mark S; Hannon, Eugene R; Stock, S Patricia; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2009-06-01

    Widespread planting of crops genetically engineered to produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) imposes selection on many key agricultural pests to evolve resistance to Bt. Fitness costs can slow the evolution of Bt resistance. We examined effects of entomopathogenic nematodes on fitness costs of Bt resistance in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a major pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the southwestern United States that is currently controlled by transgenic cotton that produces Bt toxin Cry1Ac. We tested whether the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar, and Raulston (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) affected fitness costs of resistance to Cry1Ac in two laboratory-selected hybrid strains of pink bollworm reared on non-Bt cotton bolls. The nematode S. riobrave imposed a recessive fitness cost for one strain, and H. bacteriophora imposed a fitness cost affecting heterozygous resistant individuals for the other strain. Activity of phenoloxidase, an important component of insects' immune response, did not differ between Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible families. This suggests phenoloxidase does not affect susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes in Bt-resistant pink bollworm. Additionally, phenoloxidase activity does not contribute to Bt resistance, as has been found in some species. We conclude that other mechanisms cause higher nematode-imposed mortality for pink bollworm with Bt resistance genes. Incorporation of nematode-imposed fitness costs into a spatially explicit simulation model suggests that entomopathogenic nematodes in non-Bt refuges could delay resistance by pink bollworm to Bt cotton.

  19. Carbon Monoxide, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrogen Dioxide Levels in Gas Ovens Related to Surface Pinking of Cooked Beef and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cornforth; Rabovitser; Ahuja; Wagner; Hanson; Cummings; Chudnovsky

    1998-01-19

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and total nitrogen oxide (NO(x)()) levels were monitored during meat cookery with a standard Ovenpak and a new ultralow-NO(x)() (ULN) cyclonic gas burner. With the standard burner, CO varied from 103 to 152 ppm, NO(x)() was 1.3-10.7 ppm, and surface pinking was observed on both beef and turkey. The ULN burner at optimal efficiency produced only 6.7 ppm of CO and 1 ppm of NO(x)(), insufficient to cause surface pinking. To determine the relative contribution of CO and NO(x)() to pinking, trials were also conducted in an electric oven with various pure gases. Pinking was not observed with up to 149 ppm of CO or 5 ppm of NO. However, as little as 0.4 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) caused pinking of turkey rolls. Beef roasts were pink at >2.5 ppm of NO(2). Thus, pinking previously attributed to CO and NO in gas ovens is instead due to NO(2), which has much greater reactivity than NO with moisture at meat surfaces. PMID:10554228

  20. PINK1 alleviates palmitate induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells by suppressing ROS mediated MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Cang, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Pingli; Wu, Xue; Yan, Jin; Chen, Jinfeng; Wu, Gang; Jin, Yan; Xu, Feng; Su, Jianbin; Wan, Chunhua; Wang, Xueqin

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is an important pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Studies have shown that knockdown of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) causes oxidative stress and mitophagy. In db/db mice, PINK1 protein level is down-regulated. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which PINK1 modulates IR in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced stress. In our study, PINK1 expression decreased during palmitate (PA) induced IR in HepG2 cells and the hepatic tissues of high fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Additionally, free fatty acids (FFAs) could increase ROS and suppress insulin signaling pathway, which was indicated by reduced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). In addition, insulin induced glucose uptake decreased and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), two key gluconeogenic enzymes, was up-regulated after PA treatment. Intriguingly, PINK1 overexpression could lead to opposite results. Moreover, PA induced hepatic IR through C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, which were rescued by PINK1 overexpression. In summary, our results demonstrate that PINK1 promoted hepatic IR via JNK and ERK pathway in PA treated HepG2 cells, implying a novel molecular target for the therapy of diabetes. PMID:27423393

  1. PINK1 alleviates palmitate induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells by suppressing ROS mediated MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Cang, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Pingli; Wu, Xue; Yan, Jin; Chen, Jinfeng; Wu, Gang; Jin, Yan; Xu, Feng; Su, Jianbin; Wan, Chunhua; Wang, Xueqin

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is an important pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Studies have shown that knockdown of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) causes oxidative stress and mitophagy. In db/db mice, PINK1 protein level is down-regulated. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which PINK1 modulates IR in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced stress. In our study, PINK1 expression decreased during palmitate (PA) induced IR in HepG2 cells and the hepatic tissues of high fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Additionally, free fatty acids (FFAs) could increase ROS and suppress insulin signaling pathway, which was indicated by reduced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). In addition, insulin induced glucose uptake decreased and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), two key gluconeogenic enzymes, was up-regulated after PA treatment. Intriguingly, PINK1 overexpression could lead to opposite results. Moreover, PA induced hepatic IR through C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, which were rescued by PINK1 overexpression. In summary, our results demonstrate that PINK1 promoted hepatic IR via JNK and ERK pathway in PA treated HepG2 cells, implying a novel molecular target for the therapy of diabetes.

  2. Rescue of PINK1 Protein Null-specific Mitochondrial Complex IV Deficits by Ginsenoside Re Activation of Nitric Oxide Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Song, Karen; Yoon, Seung-Hee; Shehzad, Omer; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Son, Jin H.

    2012-01-01

    PINK1, linked to familial Parkinson's disease, is known to affect mitochondrial function. Here we identified a novel regulatory role of PINK1 in the maintenance of complex IV activity and characterized a novel mechanism by which NO signaling restored complex IV deficiency in PINK1 null dopaminergic neuronal cells. In PINK1 null cells, levels of specific chaperones, including Hsp60, leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat-containing (LRPPRC), and Hsp90, were severely decreased. LRPPRC and Hsp90 were found to act upstream of Hsp60 to regulate complex IV activity. Specifically, knockdown of Hsp60 resulted in a decrease in complex IV activity, whereas antagonistic inhibition of Hsp90 by 17-(allylamino) geldanamycin decreased both Hsp60 and complex IV activity. In contrast, overexpression of the PINK1-interacting factor LRPPRC augmented complex IV activity by up-regulating Hsp60. A similar recovery of complex IV activity was also induced by coexpression of Hsp90 and Hsp60. Drug screening identified ginsenoside Re as a compound capable of reversing the deficit in complex IV activity in PINK1 null cells through specific increases of LRPPRC, Hsp90, and Hsp60 levels. The pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Re could be reversed by treatment of the pan-NOS inhibitor l-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (l-NAME) and could also be reproduced by low-level NO treatment. These results suggest that PINK1 regulates complex IV activity via interactions with upstream regulators of Hsp60, such as LRPPRC and Hsp90. Furthermore, they demonstrate that treatment with ginsenoside Re enhances functioning of the defective PINK1-Hsp90/LRPPRC-Hsp60-complex IV signaling axis in PINK1 null neurons by restoring NO levels, providing potential for new therapeutics targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23144451

  3. Rescue of PINK1 protein null-specific mitochondrial complex IV deficits by ginsenoside Re activation of nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Song, Karen; Yoon, Seung-Hee; Shehzad, Omer; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Son, Jin H

    2012-12-28

    PINK1, linked to familial Parkinson's disease, is known to affect mitochondrial function. Here we identified a novel regulatory role of PINK1 in the maintenance of complex IV activity and characterized a novel mechanism by which NO signaling restored complex IV deficiency in PINK1 null dopaminergic neuronal cells. In PINK1 null cells, levels of specific chaperones, including Hsp60, leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat-containing (LRPPRC), and Hsp90, were severely decreased. LRPPRC and Hsp90 were found to act upstream of Hsp60 to regulate complex IV activity. Specifically, knockdown of Hsp60 resulted in a decrease in complex IV activity, whereas antagonistic inhibition of Hsp90 by 17-(allylamino) geldanamycin decreased both Hsp60 and complex IV activity. In contrast, overexpression of the PINK1-interacting factor LRPPRC augmented complex IV activity by up-regulating Hsp60. A similar recovery of complex IV activity was also induced by coexpression of Hsp90 and Hsp60. Drug screening identified ginsenoside Re as a compound capable of reversing the deficit in complex IV activity in PINK1 null cells through specific increases of LRPPRC, Hsp90, and Hsp60 levels. The pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Re could be reversed by treatment of the pan-NOS inhibitor L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) and could also be reproduced by low-level NO treatment. These results suggest that PINK1 regulates complex IV activity via interactions with upstream regulators of Hsp60, such as LRPPRC and Hsp90. Furthermore, they demonstrate that treatment with ginsenoside Re enhances functioning of the defective PINK1-Hsp90/LRPPRC-Hsp60-complex IV signaling axis in PINK1 null neurons by restoring NO levels, providing potential for new therapeutics targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23144451

  4. Hydroclimatic mechanisms of cholera transmission in the Bengal Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-07-01

    Cholera, a deadly waterborne disease, remains a major threat in many areas of the world, including the Bengal Delta region. In this region, cholera outbreaks have two annual peaks; the first occurs during the dry season in the spring, and the second occurs in the fall following the wet season. However, the large-scale hydroclimatic processes underlying the propagation of the disease have not been well understood. Akanda et al. show that cholera outbreaks in the Bengal Delta region propagate from the coast to inland and from spring to fall following two distinct transmission cycles. The first outbreak begins in the spring near the coast when northward movement of plankton-rich seawater and increasing salinity promote the growth of cholera-causing bacteria in rivers, which are used for irrigation, sanitation, and consumption. The second outbreak begins in the fall, after summer floods and monsoons affect sanitation conditions that aid in bacterial transmission by contaminating waters over much of Bangladesh. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/ 2010WR009914, 2011)

  5. Issues of livelihood, sustainable development, and governance: Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Samarakoon, Jayampathy

    2004-02-01

    This article is based on the findings of the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) Subregion 53, Bay of Bengal. It introduces the Subregion. The wide disparity in development indicators in the Bay of Bengal Subregion (BOBSR) is presented. The large population of poor people living in South Asia is presented as a factor that needs special attention. The article focuses on the 3 geographic sites selected for detailed analysis: i) the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river systems; ii) the Merbok Estuary mangroves, Malaysia; and iii) the Sunderbans mangroves, Bangladesh. Integrated water management based upon regional cooperation among Bangladesh, India and Nepal holds opportunities for mutual benefit. Policy options are proposed. For mangrove ecosystems, the impacts of urbanization in Malaysia and the unmanaged expansion of shrimp farming in Bangladesh are analyzed. Improved governance was seen to hold promise for enhancing economic benefits from shrimp farming while safeguarding the natural ecological system. However, these measures need to be a part of national efforts to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals.

  6. Hubble's Famous Plate of 1923: A Story of Pink Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, D. R.

    2012-06-01

    On October 6, 1923 Edwin Hubble used the Mount Wilson 100-inch telescope to take a 45-minute exposure of a field in the Andromeda galaxy. This is the now-famous plate marked with his “VAR!” notation. I will discuss this plate and that notation. I will also tell the story of flying copies of that plate on the deployment mission for HST in 1990 as a Hubble memento and then locating those copies afterwards, and how copies were flown on Servicing Mission 4 on 2009 as well. This has led to an effort in which AAVSO members joined to identify and reobserve that noted star, arguably the most important object in the history of cosmology, but largely ignored since Hubble’s time.

  7. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

    2012-06-19

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations.

  8. The Mark 3 Haploscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, T. A.; Williams, R. E.; Kuether, C. L.; Logar, N. D.; Wyman-Cornsweet, D.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-operated binocular vision testing device was developed as one part of a system designed for NASA to evaluate the visual function of astronauts during spaceflight. This particular device, called the Mark 3 Haploscope, employs semi-automated psychophysical test procedures to measure visual acuity, stereopsis, phoria, fixation disparity, refractive state and accommodation/convergence relationships. Test procedures are self-administered and can be used repeatedly without subject memorization. The Haploscope was designed as one module of the complete NASA Vision Testing System. However, it is capable of stand-alone operation. Moreover, the compactness and portability of the Haploscope make possible its use in a broad variety of testing environments.

  9. 422 A Rare Case of Food-induced Anaphylaxis to Pink Peppercorns

    PubMed Central

    Kim, John; Minikes, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and prevalence of food allergies appear to be on the rise over the past 20 years. The most common foods to produce an IgE mediated hypersensitivity reaction in adults include peanut, tree nuts, and seafood. The increased use of spices in the U.S. has resulted in a growing number of patients presenting with hypersensitivity reactions. Methods We report a case of a 26 year-old-female who developed anaphylaxis after ingesting pink peppercorn seasoning. The patient was diagnosed with a tree nut allergy at 18 years of age when she developed hives, vomiting and throat closure after ingesting cashews. More recently, she had 3 similar anaphylactic episodes requiring epinephrine and emergency room care when she unknowingly consumed tree nuts contained in foods while dining out (veggie burger, pesto sauce, almonds in Indian food). She again had similar symptoms while eating a home prepared meal in which tree nuts were not included. Intramuscular epinephrine was administered and she was subsequently treated with oral steroids and antihistamines. It was later determined that a new peppercorn medley with pink peppercorns was used for seasoning. The reaction did not occur when she ate the same meal without pink peppercorn seasoning. Food specific IgE testing revealed an elevated IgE for cashews (2.52 kUA/L) and pistachios (2.85 kUA/L). Results Pink peppercorn is not a true pepper, but dried roasted berries derived from Schinus terebinthifolius, a flowering plant in the family Anacardiaceae, native to South America. Common names include Brazilian Pepper, Rose Pepper and Christmasberry. Pink peppercorns are used as a spice to add a mild pepper-like taste to foods. It may potentially cause an irritating skin effect and has been associated with atopic dermatitis in canines. Interestingly, S. terebinthifolius is a member of the family Anacardiaceae, which include plants in the genus Anacardium (cashew nut) and Pistacia (pistachio). No allergens from this

  10. Extreme Erosion of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis Traced by Isotopic Compositions of River and Bengal Fan Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France-Lanord, C.; Galy, V.; Pik, R.; Singh, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    Sediments of the Brahmaputra basin were collected in Assam and Bangladesh including the Siang-Tsangpo that drains the Namche Barwa syntaxis. Chemistry, and Sr and Nd isotopic compositions trace sediment provenance and erosion distribution in eastern Himalaya. Overall sediments display a large range of 87Sr/86Sr (0.705 to 0.825) and ɛNd (-20.5 to -6.9) (Singh et al. 2001). Nevertheless, sediments of the Siang and along course of the Brahmaputra show almost constant isotopic signatures. Mass balance calculations based on these data along with data available for the Tsangpo in Tibet and in Namche Barwa region show that the basin is marked with differential erosion. About half of the sediments is derived from the syntaxis, which is only 20% of the mountainous area. Zircon-He ages from the Brahmaputra in Bangladesh range from 0.4 to 77 Ma. 40% of the zircon have ages between 0.4 and 1 Ma defining a distribution peak centred at 0.5 Ma. These young ages correspond to extreme denudation rates of 5 to 7 mm/yr. Dispersed ages from 12 to 77 Ma do not define any disctinct group and the remaining 40% of the zircons have ages between 2.5 and 7 Ma, which correspond to the pool of ages recorded by on other Himalayan rivers. The Namche Barwa syntaxis shows the same type of very young zircon ages as observed in the Siang (Stewart et al., 2004). The intense erosion of the eastern syntaxis is likely sustained by the high incision potential of the Tsangpo river due to its very high water discharge prior to the Syntaxis. Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the Brahmaputra are different from those of the Himalayan tributaries and of the Ganga due to the contribution of the Calc-alkaline formations of the Transhimalaya. This contribution is also traced on modern sediments of the delta as well as in upper Bengal fan aged between 30 and 20 000 years and suggest a rather steady erosion regime since the LGM. On a longer time scale, Mio-Pliocene sediments from the middle Bengal Fan (DSDP Site 218

  11. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    PubMed Central

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  12. Increase in the Intensity of Postmonsoon Bay of Bengal Tropical Cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Balaguru, Karthik; Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Foltz, Gregory R.

    2014-05-28

    The post-monsoon (October-November) tropical cyclone (TC) season in the Bay of Bengal has spawned many of the deadliest storms in recorded history. Here it is shown that the intensity of post-monsoon Bay of Bengal TCs, and the contribution of major TCs to total TC power, increased during 1981-2010. It is found that changes in environmental parameters are responsible for the observed increases in TC intensity. Increases in sea surface temperature and upper ocean heat content made the ocean more conducive to TC development, while enhanced convective instability made the atmosphere more favorable for the growth of TCs. The largest changes in the atmosphere and ocean occurred in the eastern Bay of Bengal, where nearly all major TCs form. These changes are part of positive linear trends, suggesting that the intensity of post-monsoon Bay of Bengal TCs may continue to increase in the future.

  13. Hydrogeochemical contrast between brown and grey sand aquifers in shallow depth of Bengal Basin: consequences for sustainable drinking water supply.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit K; Mandal, Ujjal; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chatterjee, Debashis; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Jacks, Gunnar

    2012-08-01

    Delineation of safe aquifer(s) that can be targeted by cheap drilling technology for tubewell (TW) installation becomes highly imperative to ensure access to safe and sustainable drinking water sources for the arsenic (As) affected population in Bengal Basin. This study investigates the potentiality of brown sand aquifers (BSA) as a safe drinking water source by characterizing its hydrogeochemical contrast to grey sand aquifers (GSA) within shallow depth (<70 m) over an area of 100 km(2) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. The results indicate that despite close similarity in major ion composition, the redox condition is markedly different in groundwater of the two studied aquifers. The redox condition in the BSA is delineated to be Mn oxy-hydroxide reducing, not sufficiently lowered for As mobilization into groundwater. In contrast, the enrichments of NH(4)(+), PO(4)(3-), Fe and As along with lower Eh in groundwater of GSA reflect reductive dissolution of Fe oxy-hydroxide coupled to microbially mediated oxidation of organic matter as the prevailing redox process causing As mobilization into groundwater of this aquifer type. In some portions of GSA the redox status even has reached to the stage of SO(4)(2-) reduction, which to some extent might sequester dissolved As from groundwater by co-precipitation with authigenic pyrite. Despite having low concentration of As in groundwater of the BSA the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines, which warrants rigorous assessment of attendant health risk for Mn prior to considering mass scale exploitation of the BSA for possible sustainable drinking water supply.

  14. Biotransformation of pink water TNT on the surface of a low-cost adsorbent pine bark.

    PubMed

    Chusova, O; Nõlvak, H; Odlare, M; Truu, J; Truu, M; Oopkaup, K; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-09-01

    This two-week anaerobic batch study evaluated 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) removal efficiency from industrial pink water by (1) adsorption on low-cost adsorbent pine bark, and (2) adsorption coupled with TNT biotransformation by specialised microbial communities. Samples of the supernatant and acetonitrile extracts of pine bark were analysed by HPLC, while the composition of the bacterial community of the experimental batches, inocula and pine bark were profiled by high-throughput sequencing the V6 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Integrated adsorption and biotransformation proved to be the most efficient method for TNT removal from pink water. The type of applied inoculum had a profound effect on TNT removal efficiencies and microbial community structures, which were dominated by phylotypes belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The analysis of acetonitrile extracts of pine bark supported the hypothesis that the microbial community indigenous to pine bark has the ability to degrade TNT. PMID:26142875

  15. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  16. Cloning and expression of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Pichia Pink.

    PubMed

    Babavalian, H; Latifi, A M; Shokrgozar, M A; Bonakdar, S; Tebyanian, H; Shakeri, F

    2016-01-01

    The PDGF-BB plays a key role in several pathogenesis diseases and it is believed to be an important mediator for wound healing. The recombinant human PDGF-BB is safe and effective to stimulate the healing of chronic, full thickness and lower extremity diabetic neurotrophic ulcers. In the present study, we attempted to produce a PDGF-BB growth factor and also, evaluate its functionality in cell proliferation in yeast host Pichia pink. Pichia pink yeast was used as a host for evaluation of the rhPDGF-BB expression. The coding sequence of PDGF-BB protein was synthesized after optimization and packed into the pGEM. Recombinant proteins were produced and purified. The construct of pPinkα-HC-pdgf was confirmed by sequence, the PDGF-BB protein was expressed and purified with using a nickel affinity chromatography column and then characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The biological activity of PDGF-BB was estimated with using human fibroblast cell line. The measurement of protein concentration was determined by Bradford and human PDGF-BB ELISA kit. Purified rhPDGF-BB showed similar biological activity (as the standard PDGF-BB) and suggested that the recombinant protein has a successful protein expression (as well as considerable biological activity in P. pink host). The exact amount of recombinant PDGF-BB concentrations were measured by specific ELISA test which it was about 30 μg/ml. Our study suggested that efficiency of biological activity of PDGF-BB protein may be related to its conformational similarity with standard type and also, it practically may be important in wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:27545214

  17. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.; Lewis, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    The use of satellite data from the ERTS-1 satellite for mapping the cotton acreage in the southern deserts of California is discussed. The differences between a growing, a defoliated, and a plowed down field can be identified using an optical color combiner. The specific application of the land use maps is to control the spread of the pink bollworms by establishing planting and plowdown dates.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. PMID:27313289

  19. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, Robert F.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and instream flow suitability curves for the pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. PMID:27313289

  2. Instantaneous radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold kit therefor

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Jr., Harold A.; Hupf, Homer B.; Wanek, Philip M.

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to the radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. A purified rose bengal tablet is stirred into acidified ethanol at or near room temperature, until a suspension forms. Reductant-free .sup.125 I.sup.- is added and the resulting mixture stands until the exchange label reaction occurs at room temperature. A solution of sterile isotonic phosphate buffer and sodium hydroxide is added and the final resulting mixture is sterilized by filtration.

  3. Cloud distributions in a Bay of Bengal monsoon depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, C.; Grumm, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Much of the volume of a monsoon depression studied over the Bay of Bengal on July 7, 1979 featured thin, fragmentary layers of stratus, implying an absence of strong vertical motion. Coverage by cumulus updrafts was about 20 times less than coverage by inert cumulus remnants, and a great number density of humilis was found moistening the central area, following subsidence and drying. Detailed observations were made of a cloud line growing out of the southwesterly flow south of the center of the depression, which propagated faster than the low level winds. Aircraft altimetry showed an abrupt height drop from 6097 to 6090 m at 483 hPa, over a distance of 50 km from southeast to northwest through the line. Southwesterly momentum was lifted from 900 to 600 hPa and from southeast to northwest through the line. Other colocated singularities in convection and wind fields were found.

  4. I-131 rose bengal excretion test is not dead

    SciTech Connect

    Antico, V.F.; Denhartog, P.; Ash, J.M.; Gilday, D.L.; Houle, S.

    1985-03-01

    One hundred and thirty I-131 Rose Bengal Excretion Studies (RBI) were performed on 84 patients over nine years. In 90% (56/60) of cases with biliary atresia, the 72-hour RBI was less than or equal to 7%. In only 12.5% (3/24) of cases with neonatal hepatitis was the 72-hour RBI less than or equal to 7%. The accuracy of the test was 91% with a specificity of 88%. Thirty patients later were studied following a Kasai procedure. The RBI test reliably predicted the patency of the anastomosis. The authors conclude that the 72-hour RBI is a reliable test in the diagnosis of biliary atresia and in the documentation of biliary patency following surgery, provided adequate care is taken in stool collection and measurement.

  5. Raman tomography of Himalayan-derived muds (Bengal Shelf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borromeo, Laura; Andò, Sergio; Aliatis, Irene; France-Lanord, Christian; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Raman mineral analysis (RaMAn) is an innovative, efficient and user-friendly technique representing the ideal tool to perform provenance analysis of silt-sized sediments, which represent most of the sediment flux in river systems and the predominant grain size in large deltas and submarine fans (Andò et al., 2011). RaMAn allows in fact the reliable recognition of detrital grains down to 5 μm in size. The Ganga-Brahmaputra estuary in Bangladesh represents the largest single entry point of detritus in the world oceans. Between 1 and 2 billion tons of sediment each year has been reaching the Bengal Sea during most of the Neogene, feeding the world largest submarine fan (Goodbred and Kuehl, 2000; Galy and France-Lanord 2001). In order to detect the compositional differences between the fluvial environment (Garzanti et al., 2010; 2011) and the deep sea (Thompson, 1974; Yokohama et al., 1990) as well as the mineralogical variability associated with hydrodynamic sorting in the delta plain and proximal shelf, we have determined the mineralogical composition of largely Himalayan-derived muds deposited on the Bengal Shelf. Mineralogical analyses were carried out separately for four grain-size classes of 4 samples: (5-10 μm, 10-15 μm, 15-32 μm, >32 μm). Each class was separated into low-density (<2.90 g/cm3) and high-density fraction (>2.90 g/cm3) by centrifuging in sodium polytungstate and recovered by partial freezing with liquid nitrogen. Accurate quantitative mineralogical data were obtained by identifying at least 100 grains on each slide. RaMAn resulted to be essential for confident mineral identification, and helped us to reveal the nature of altered and opaque grains that cannot be identified under the optical microscope. Andò S.,Vignola P., Garzanti E., (2011). Raman counting: a new method to determine provenance of silt. Rendiconti Lincei, 22, Issue 4, pp 327-347; Galy A., France-Lanord C., (2001), Higher erosion rates in the Himalaya geochemical constraints

  6. Common variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes do not confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Chen; Yi, Zhenghui; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Gong, Wei; Tang, Jinsong; Wang, Dong; Lu, Weihong; Chen, Xiaogang; Fang, Yiru; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2015-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with a complex etiology. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been frequently reported in schizophrenia. Phosphatase and tension homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protease (PARL) are mitochondrial proteins, and genetic variants of these two genes may confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia by influencing mitochondrial function. In this study, we conducted a two-stage genetic association study to test this hypothesis. We genotyped 4 PINK1 and 5 PARL genetic variants and evaluated the potential association of the 9 SNPs with schizophrenia in two independent case-control cohorts of 2510 Han Chinese individuals. No positive association of common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes with schizophrenia was identified in our samples after Bonferroni correction. Re-analysis of the newly updated Psychiatric Genetics Consortium (PGC) data sets confirmed our negative result. Intriguingly, one PINK1 SNP (rs10916832), which showed a marginally significant association in only Hunan samples (P = 0.032), is associated with the expression of a schizophrenia susceptible gene KIF17 according to the expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. Our study indicated that common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes are unlikely to be involved in schizophrenia. Further studies are essential to characterize the role of the PINK1 and PARL genes in schizophrenia.

  7. Microscale sulfur cycling in the phototrophic pink berry consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Jaekel, Ulrike; Salman, Verena; Humphrey, Parris T; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H; Druschel, Gregory K; Fike, David A; Orphan, Victoria J

    2014-01-01

    Microbial metabolism is the engine that drives global biogeochemical cycles, yet many key transformations are carried out by microbial consortia over short spatiotemporal scales that elude detection by traditional analytical approaches. We investigate syntrophic sulfur cycling in the ‘pink berry’ consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh through an integrative study at the microbial scale. The pink berries are macroscopic, photosynthetic microbial aggregates composed primarily of two closely associated species: sulfide-oxidizing purple sulfur bacteria (PB-PSB1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (PB-SRB1). Using metagenomic sequencing and 34S-enriched sulfate stable isotope probing coupled with nanoSIMS, we demonstrate interspecies transfer of reduced sulfur metabolites from PB-SRB1 to PB-PSB1. The pink berries catalyse net sulfide oxidation and maintain internal sulfide concentrations of 0–500 μm. Sulfide within the berries, captured on silver wires and analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometer, increased in abundance towards the berry interior, while δ34S-sulfide decreased from 6‰ to −31‰ from the exterior to interior of the berry. These values correspond to sulfate–sulfide isotopic fractionations (15–53‰) consistent with either sulfate reduction or a mixture of reductive and oxidative metabolisms. Together this combined metagenomic and high-resolution isotopic analysis demonstrates active sulfur cycling at the microscale within well-structured macroscopic consortia consisting of sulfide-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs and sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:24428801

  8. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-11-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P < 0.05) during storage. The surface redness (a* value) increased (P < 0.05) with the incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp. Furthermore, metmyoglobin formation and lipid oxidation were lower (P < 0.05) in tomato- and guava-treated emulsions than in control. Overall, incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp improved the visual colour and odour scores of raw pork emulsion. These results indicated that tomato products and guava pulp can be utilized as sources of natural antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration. PMID:26396313

  9. Toxicity of weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to pink salmon embryos.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Collins, Keya M; Brown, John S; Neff, Jerry M; Parker, Keith R; Stubblefield, William A

    2006-04-01

    Research was conducted at the University of Idaho (Moscow, ID, USA) on the toxicity of weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to embryos of pink salmon from 2001 to 2003 for the purpose of comparing these data with those from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Laboratory at Auke Bay (AK, USA). Mortality reported at Auke Bay for embryos chronically exposed to very low concentrations of aqueous solutions of weathered oil, measured as dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), was inconsistent with that in other published research. Using the Auke Bay experimental design, we found that toxicity is not evident in pink salmon embryos until chronic exposure to laboratory weathered and naturally weathered oil concentrations exceeding 1,500 and 2,250 ppm, respectively, representing a total PAH tissue burden in excess of 7,100 ppb. Effluent hydrocarbons also drop well below concentrations sufficient to cause harm over the time frame of a few weeks, regardless of oiling level. Resolution of differences with Auke Bay involved the source of contributing hydrocarbons. The experimental design did not exclude dispersed oil droplets from the aqueous solution; thus, toxicity was not limited to the dissolved hydrocarbon fraction. The implications of the present results are discussed regarding the toxic risk of weathered oil to pink salmon embryos in streams of Prince William Sound (AK, USA). PMID:16629135

  10. Risk of weathered residual Exxon Valdez oil to pink salmon embryos in Prince William Sound.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Collins, Keya M; Cronin, Mathew A; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R; Wilson, William

    2007-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that pink salmon eggs incubating in intertidal streams transecting Prince William Sound (PWS) beaches oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill were exposed to lethal doses of dissolved hydrocarbons. Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in the incubation gravel were too low to cause mortality, the allegation is that dissolved high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (HPAH) leaching from oil deposits on the beach adjacent to the streams were the source of toxicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we placed pink salmon eggs in PWS beach sediments containing residual oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and in control areas without oil. We quantified the hydrocarbon concentrations in the eggs after three weeks of incubation. Tissue PAH concentrations of eggs in oiled sediments were generally < 100 ppb and similar to background levels on nonoiled beaches. Even eggs in direct contact with oil in the sediment resulted in tissue PAH loads well below the lethal threshold concentrations established in laboratory bioassays, and very low concentrations of HPAH compounds were present. These results indicate that petroleum hydrocarbons dissolved from oil deposits on intertidal beaches are not at concentrations that pose toxic risk to incubating pink salmon eggs. The evidence does not support the hypothesis that interstitial pore water in previously oiled beaches is highly toxic. PMID:17447564

  11. Risk of weathered residual Exxon Valdez oil to pink salmon embryos in Prince William Sound.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Collins, Keya M; Cronin, Mathew A; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R; Wilson, William

    2007-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that pink salmon eggs incubating in intertidal streams transecting Prince William Sound (PWS) beaches oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill were exposed to lethal doses of dissolved hydrocarbons. Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in the incubation gravel were too low to cause mortality, the allegation is that dissolved high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (HPAH) leaching from oil deposits on the beach adjacent to the streams were the source of toxicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we placed pink salmon eggs in PWS beach sediments containing residual oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and in control areas without oil. We quantified the hydrocarbon concentrations in the eggs after three weeks of incubation. Tissue PAH concentrations of eggs in oiled sediments were generally < 100 ppb and similar to background levels on nonoiled beaches. Even eggs in direct contact with oil in the sediment resulted in tissue PAH loads well below the lethal threshold concentrations established in laboratory bioassays, and very low concentrations of HPAH compounds were present. These results indicate that petroleum hydrocarbons dissolved from oil deposits on intertidal beaches are not at concentrations that pose toxic risk to incubating pink salmon eggs. The evidence does not support the hypothesis that interstitial pore water in previously oiled beaches is highly toxic.

  12. Laboratory evidence for short and long-term damage to pink salmon incubating in oiled gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Heintz, R.; Rice, S.; Wiedmer, M.

    1995-12-31

    Pink salmon, incubating in gravel contaminated with crude oil, demonstrated immediate and delayed responses in the laboratory at doses consistent with the concentrations observed in oiled streams in Prince William Sound. The authors incubated pink salmon embryos in a simulated intertidal environment with gravel contaminated by oil from the Exxon Valdez. During the incubation and emergence periods the authors quantified dose-response curves for characters affected directly by the oil. After emergence, fish were coded wire tagged and released, or cultured in netpens. Delayed responses have been observed among the cultured fish, and further observations will be made when coded wire tagged fish return in September 1995. The experiments have demonstrated that eggs need not contact oiled gravel to experience increased mortality, and doses as low as 17 ppb tPAH in water can have delayed effects on growth. A comparison of sediment tPAH concentrations from streams in Prince William Sound with these laboratory data suggests that many 1989 brood pink salmon were exposed to deleterious quantities of oil.

  13. Assessment of Rose Bengal vs. Riboflavin Photodynamic Therapy for Inhibition of Fungal Keratitis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Arboleda, Alejandro; Miller, Darlene; Cabot, Florence; Taneja, Mukesh; Aguilar, Mariela C.; Alawa, Karam; Amescua, Guillermo; Yoo, Sonia H.; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the in vitro effect of rose bengal and riboflavin as photosensitizing agents for photodynamic therapy (PDT) on fungal isolates that are common causes of fungal keratitis Design Experimental study Methods Three isolates (Fusarium solani, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans) recovered from patients with confirmed fungal keratitis were used in the experiments. Isolates were grown on Sabouraud-Dextrose agar, swabbed and prepared in suspension, and one milliliter aliquots were inoculated onto test plates in triplicate. Test plates were separated into 5 groups: Group 1 - no treatment, Group 2 - 0.1% rose bengal alone, Group 3 - 518 nm irradiation alone, Group 4 - riboflavin PDT (riboflavin + 375 nm irradiation), and Group 5 - rose bengal PDT (rose bengal + 518 nm irradiation). Irradiation was performed over a circular area using either a green LED array (peak wavelength: 518 nm) or a UV-A LED array (peak wavelength: 375 nm). Test plates were irradiated with an energy density of 5.4 J/cm2. Later, plates were placed in a 30° C incubator and observed for growth. Results Rose bengal-mediated PDT successfully inhibited the growth of all three fungal isolates in the irradiated area. All other groups exhibited unrestricted growth throughout the plate. Conclusions Rose bengal-mediated PDT successfully inhibited the growth of three types of fungi. No other experimental groups, including riboflavin-mediated PDT, had any inhibitory effect on the isolates. The results might be useful for the treatment of patients suffering from corneal infection. PMID:24792103

  14. Refining the Bengal Fan stratigraphy - A first correlation of IODP Expedition 354 results and seismic data from the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenk, Tilmann; Spiess, Volkhard; Bergmann, Fenna; France-Lanord, Christian; Klaus, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The Bengal Fan covers the floor of the entire Bay of Bengal from the continental margins of India and Bangladesh to the sediment-filled Sunda Trench off Myanmar and the Andaman Islands, and along the west side of the Ninetyeast Ridge. The deposition and progradation of the Bengal Fan started in the Eocene after the collision of India with Asia resulting in the build-up of the Himalaya and the formation of a large proto-Bay of Bengal. Continued convergence of the Indian and Australian plates with the Southeast Asian plate reduced the size of the bay and focused the source of turbidites finally into the present Bengal Basin, Bangladesh shelf, and the shelf canyon "Swatch of no Ground". Today, the Bengal Fan is mainly fed by the sediment load of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, which drain the Himalayas at its southern and northern slope, respectively, and deliver their load to the delta in the Bengal Basin, to the Bengal Shelf and to the deep sea fan. Thus the Bengal Fan is a suitable recorder to study interactions among the growth of the Himalaya and Tibet, the development of the Asian monsoon, and processes affecting the carbon cycle and global climate. Because sedimentation in the Bengal Fan responds to both, climate and tectonic processes, its terrigenous sediment records the past evolution of both the Himalaya and regional climate. This evolution is also expressed in the stratigraphy of the fan in terms of unconformities and key horizons, average sedimentation rates as a function of distance from the basement ridges at 85°E and 90°E and the presence or absence of channel-levee systems. The histories of the Himalaya/Tibetan system and the Asian monsoon require sampling different periods of time with different levels of precision. Therefore IODP Expedition 354 drilled in February-March 2015 a seven site, 320 km-long transect across the Bengal Fan at 8°N. This strategy has been chosen because sediment transport took place by turbidity currents following

  15. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  16. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  17. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  18. Improving Marking Quality through a Taxonomy of Mark Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    At the heart of most assessments lies a set of questions, and those who write them must achieve "two" things. Not only must they ensure that each question elicits the kind of performance that shows how "good" pupils are at the subject, but they must also ensure that each mark scheme gives more marks to those who are "better" at it. We outline a…

  19. Evidence for a common biological pathway linking three Parkinson's disease-causing genes: parkin, PINK1 and DJ-1.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Celia; Jalali Sefid Dashti, Zahra; Christoffels, Alan; Loos, Ben; Bardien, Soraya

    2015-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Autosomal recessive, early-onset cases of PD are predominantly caused by mutations in the parkin, PINK1 and DJ-1 genes. Animal and cellular models have verified a direct link between parkin and PINK1, whereby PINK1 phosphorylates and activates parkin at the outer mitochondrial membrane, resulting in removal of dysfunctional mitochondria via mitophagy. Despite the overwhelming evidence for this interaction, few studies have been able to identify a link for DJ-1 with parkin or PINK1. The aim of this review is to summarise the functions of these three proteins, and to analyse the existing evidence for direct and indirect interactions between them. DJ-1 is able to rescue the phenotype of PINK1-knockout Drosophila models, but not of parkin-knockouts, suggesting that DJ-1 may act in a parallel pathway to that of the PINK1/parkin pathway. To further elucidate a commonality between these three proteins, bioinformatics analysis established that Miro (RHOT1) interacts with parkin and PINK1, and HSPA4 interacts with all three proteins. Furthermore, 30 transcription factors were found to be common amongst all three proteins, with many of them being involved in transcriptional regulation. Interestingly, expression of these proteins and their associated transcription factors are found to be significantly down-regulated in PD patients compared to healthy controls. In summary, this review provides insight into common pathways linking three PD-causing genes and highlights some key questions, the answers to which may provide critical insight into the disease process.

  20. Evidence for the existence of Persian Gulf Water and Red Sea Water in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vineet; Shankar, D.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Kankonkar, A.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Amol, P.; Almeida, A. M.; Michael, G. S.; Mukherjee, A.; Chatterjee, Meenakshi; Fernandes, R.; Luis, R.; Kamble, Amol; Hegde, A. K.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Das, Umasankar; Neema, C. P.

    2016-07-01

    The high-salinity water masses that originate in the North Indian Ocean are Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW). Among them, only ASHSW has been shown to exist in the Bay of Bengal. We use CTD data from recent cruises to show that PGW and RSW also exist in the bay. The presence of RSW is marked by a deviation of the salinity vertical profile from a fitted curve at depths ranging from 500 to 1000 m; this deviation, though small (of the order of ~0.005 psu and therefore comparable to the CTD accuracy of 0.003 psu), is an order of magnitude larger than the ~0.0003 psu fluctuations associated with the background turbulence or instrument noise in this depth regime, allowing us to infer the existence of RSW throughout the bay. PGW is marked by the presence of a salinity maximum at 200-450 m; in the southwestern bay, PGW can be distinguished from the salinity maximum due to ASHSW because of the intervening Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum. This salinity minimum and the maximum associated with ASHSW disappear east and north of the south-central bay (85°E, 8°N) owing to mixing between the fresher surface waters that are native to the bay (Bay of Bengal Water or BBW) with the high-salinity ASHSW. Hence, ASHSW is not seen as a distinct water mass in the northern and eastern bay and the maximum salinity over most of the bay is associated with PGW. The surface water over most of the bay is therefore a mixture of ASHSW and the low-salinity BBW. As a corollary, we can also infer that the weak oxygen peak seen within the oxygen-minimum zone in the bay at a depth of 250-400 m is associated with PGW. The hydrographic data also show that these three high-salinity water masses are advected into the bay by the Summer Monsoon Current, which is seen to be a deep current extending to 1000 m. These deep currents extend into the northern bay as well, providing a mechanism for spreading ASHSW, PGW, and RSW throughout the bay.

  1. Swash mark and grain flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.

    1981-01-01

    Swash marks composed entirely of coarse sand are commonly found on coarse-sand beaches. These swash marks are 10 to 30 centimeters in width and a few millimeters to one centimeter in height. Previous observations, mostly on finer-sand beaches, indicate swash marks are seldom over a few millimeters in height and are commonly composed of material readily floated by surface tension (e.g., mica flakes and shell fragments). Swash marks composed of coarse sand have both fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size. Apparently, the leading margin of a wave upwash drives a highly concentrated flow of grains in which both grain size and grain velocity decrease with depth. Therefore, large grains are transported at greater velocities than are smaller grains. Thus, at the maximum advance of an upwash, a swash mark is deposited which has the observed fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size.

  2. Downregulation of Pink1 influences mitochondrial fusion-fission machinery and sensitizes to neurotoxins in dopaminergic cells.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Charry, Liliana; Cookson, Mark R; Niño, Andrea; Arboleda, Humberto; Arboleda, Gonzalo

    2014-09-01

    It is now well established that mitochondria are organelles that, far from being static, are subject to a constant process of change. This process, which has been called mitochondrial dynamics, includes processes of both fusion and fission. Loss of Pink1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) function is associated with early onset recessive Parkinson's disease and it has been proposed that mitochondrial dynamics might be affected by loss of the mitochondrial kinase. Here, we report the effects of silencing Pink1 on mitochondrial fusion and fission events in dopaminergic neuron cell lines. Cells lacking Pink1 were more sensitive to cell death induced by C2-Ceramide, which inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. In the same cell lines, mitochondrial morphology was fragmented and this was enhanced by application of forskolin, which stimulates the cAMP pathway that phosphorylates Drp1 and thereby inactivates it. Cells lacking Pink1 had lower Drp1 and Mfn2 expression. Based on these data, we propose that Pink1 may exert a neuroprotective role in part by limiting mitochondrial fission.

  3. Downregulation of Pink1 influences mitochondrial fusion–fission machinery and sensitizes to neurotoxins in dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Charry, Liliana; Cookson, Mark R.; Niño, Andrea; Arboleda, Humberto; Arboleda, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that mitochondria are organelles that, far from being static, are subject to a constant process of change. This process, which has been called mitochondrial dynamics, includes processes of both fusion and fission. Loss of Pink1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) function is associated with early onset recessive Parkinson’s disease and it has been proposed that mitochondrial dynamics might be affected by loss of the mitochondrial kinase. Here, we report the effects of silencing Pink1 on mitochondrial fusion and fission events in dopaminergic neuron cell lines. Cells lacking Pink1 were more sensitive to cell death induced by C2-Ceramide, which inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. In the same cell lines, mitochondrial morphology was fragmented and this was enhanced by application of forskolin, which stimulates the cAMP pathway that phosphorylates Drp1 and thereby inactivates it. Cells lacking Pink1 had lower Drp1 and Mfn2 expression. Based on these data, we propose that Pink1 may exert a neuroprotective role in part by limiting mitochondrial fission. PMID:24792327

  4. Downregulation of Pink1 influences mitochondrial fusion-fission machinery and sensitizes to neurotoxins in dopaminergic cells.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Charry, Liliana; Cookson, Mark R; Niño, Andrea; Arboleda, Humberto; Arboleda, Gonzalo

    2014-09-01

    It is now well established that mitochondria are organelles that, far from being static, are subject to a constant process of change. This process, which has been called mitochondrial dynamics, includes processes of both fusion and fission. Loss of Pink1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) function is associated with early onset recessive Parkinson's disease and it has been proposed that mitochondrial dynamics might be affected by loss of the mitochondrial kinase. Here, we report the effects of silencing Pink1 on mitochondrial fusion and fission events in dopaminergic neuron cell lines. Cells lacking Pink1 were more sensitive to cell death induced by C2-Ceramide, which inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. In the same cell lines, mitochondrial morphology was fragmented and this was enhanced by application of forskolin, which stimulates the cAMP pathway that phosphorylates Drp1 and thereby inactivates it. Cells lacking Pink1 had lower Drp1 and Mfn2 expression. Based on these data, we propose that Pink1 may exert a neuroprotective role in part by limiting mitochondrial fission. PMID:24792327

  5. Modulation of SST, SSS over northern Bay of Bengal on ISO time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Suryachandra A.; Saha, Subodh K.; Pokhrel, Samir; Sundar, Damodaran; Dhakate, Ashish R.; Mahapatra, Somnath; Ali, Sabeer; Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Shreeram, P.; Vasimalla, Suneel; Srikanth, A. S.; Suresh, R. R. V.

    2011-09-01

    High resolution observations of atmospheric and oceanic variables are carried out at northern Bay of Bengal from 22nd July to 6th August 2009 on-board ORV Sagar kanya under the Continental Tropical Convergence Zone research/observational programme. Freshening of surface layer by more than 4 psu within 24 hours is observed, which is followed by warming in the surface layer temperature. The heat and salt budget analysis primarily indicates dominant role of advection processes on the evolution of temperature and salinity. The amount of rainfall received at observation site could not explain the observed freshening, thus an extensive analysis using wavelet coherence is done to find out the source of advected fresh water to the observed location. It is found that surface salinity in the northern Bay of Bengal (at 15° N) varies coherently with the rainfall over Ganga-Brahmaputra catchment area on intraseasonal time scale and with lag of about 60 days. Based on above observations, this study hypothesize that the intraseasonal rainfall variation modulates the amount of river discharge, which in turn modulates the salinity over northern Bay of Bengal on intraseasonal time scale. Since surface warming always follows the surface freshening, the time delay between the rainfall over catchment area and freshening at northern Bay of Bengal may explain the post monsoon warming. Importance of atmosphere-ocean coupling in driving the dynamics of the northern bay of Bengal has been clearly brought out in this study.

  6. Human exposures to arsenic from consumption of well water in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K S; Kosnett, M J

    1998-01-01

    The authors visited the State of West Bengal, India, in August 1996, as consultants to the World Health Organization (WHO). The general mandate of the mission was to formulate recommendations to the Government of India regarding its efforts to assist the Government of West Bengal in remedying health problems arising from the presence of arsenic in groundwater in excess of the WHO guideline limit of 0.05 mg/L in eight districts of the State. The authors held discussions with Government of India and Government of West Bengal officials, as well as scientists, engineers, and physicians studying the analytic, medical, engineering, and hydrogeologic facets of the problem. They conducted field visits to arsenic-affected villages; inspected health centers, including the laboratories conducting the analytic and clinical studies; and interviewed and examined local lay people, including many arsenic-poisoned patients. This overview of the arsenic contamination problem in West Bengal is based upon a review of the scientific literature and government reports and the authors direct, firsthand assessment. The authors hope that their recommendations will assist in the development of a comprehensive infrastructure and plan of action, which are necessary to control the epidemic of chronic arsenic poisoning now afflicting West Bengal. PMID:9876630

  7. Human exposures to arsenic from consumption of well water in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K S; Kosnett, M J

    1998-01-01

    The authors visited the State of West Bengal, India, in August 1996, as consultants to the World Health Organization (WHO). The general mandate of the mission was to formulate recommendations to the Government of India regarding its efforts to assist the Government of West Bengal in remedying health problems arising from the presence of arsenic in groundwater in excess of the WHO guideline limit of 0.05 mg/L in eight districts of the State. The authors held discussions with Government of India and Government of West Bengal officials, as well as scientists, engineers, and physicians studying the analytic, medical, engineering, and hydrogeologic facets of the problem. They conducted field visits to arsenic-affected villages; inspected health centers, including the laboratories conducting the analytic and clinical studies; and interviewed and examined local lay people, including many arsenic-poisoned patients. This overview of the arsenic contamination problem in West Bengal is based upon a review of the scientific literature and government reports and the authors direct, firsthand assessment. The authors hope that their recommendations will assist in the development of a comprehensive infrastructure and plan of action, which are necessary to control the epidemic of chronic arsenic poisoning now afflicting West Bengal.

  8. Rapid spread of chikungunya virus following its resurgence during 2006 in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Taraphdar, Debjani; Sarkar, Arindam; Mukhopadhyay, Bansi B; Chakrabarti, Shekhar; Chatterjee, Shyamalendu

    2012-03-01

    Re-emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Bengal was detected after almost 40 years when an outbreak of fever occurred in Baduria village (West Bengal, India) in October 2006. The symptoms of CHIKV infection are similar to those of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Serum samples were tested for detection of IgM antibody to CHIKV and DENV and the aetiological agent was detected as CHIKV. RT-PCR was carried out for confirmation of CHIKV infection. By 2009, CHIKV had spread rapidly within ten districts of West Bengal. Middle-aged women (age group 31-40 years) were predominantly affected. Here we report the analysis of 2134 serum samples collected during 2006-2009 from the different districts of West Bengal, among which IgM antibody to CHIKV and DENV was detected in 403 and 199 samples, respectively. This report highlights the gradual dominating activity of CHIKV with dengue-like clinical features in dengue-endemic regions such as West Bengal.

  9. Total mercury and its distribution in blue crab and deep water pink shrimp from Alexandria coast.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, E K; Moharram, Y G; el-Sokkary, I; Telb, A I

    1987-01-01

    Total mercury content and its distribution in muscles and viscera of male and female blue crab (Callinectes sapidus Rothbum) and deep water pink shrimp (Parapenacus longirostris) collected from the 3 main fishing grounds near the Alexandria coast in the Mediterranean sea was estimated. The results indicate that the mercury content in the muscles of both species differ according to fishing areas, size, sex, and species. More than 75% of total mercury were accumulated in the viscera of both species which indicates that the mercury entered in these organisms via the feed chain.

  10. Spatial and temporal variability of chlorophyll in Bay of Bengal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutla, A.; Akanda, S.; Islam, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Bay of Bengal (BoB) receives approximately 628 km3/ year of freshwater discharge from the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Freshwater discharge from rivers increases the nutrient load and thereby enhances phytoplankton production in the BoB. Cholera, an infectious water-borne disease caused by bacterium Vibrio cholerae, remains endemic in the BoB region. Phytoplankton provides favorable environment for survival of cholera bacteria. Therefore, for development of any predictive model for cholera, it is important to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton in the BoB. Satellite remote sensing is the most effective way to quantify this variability over a range of space and time scales. Using ten years (1998-2007) of daily, weekly and monthly SeaWiFs chlorophyll, a surrogate variable for measuring phytoplankton, imagery we explore the spatial pattern and dominant temporal variability of chlorophyll over the BoB region. We find that chlorophyll in the coastal waters has more variability, both in temporal and spatial scales, than the offshore waters. Mechanism of production and space-time variability of coastal chlorophyll is different from those of offshore chlorophyll. While coastal chlorophyll is dominated by influx of terrestrial nutrients through river discharge, chlorophyll in the offshore region is primarily controlled by oceanic processes. We will also explore issues related to dominant space and time scales of chlorophyll variations in the entire bay.

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL STRAIN AMONG WOMEN POTATO CULTIVATORS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amitava; De, Sujaya; Sengupta, Piyali; Maity, Payel; Mahata, Hiranmoy; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Dhara, Prakash C

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate physiological strain among women cultivators engaged in potato cultivation. The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 150 women participants in different districts of West Bengal State, India. The physiological strain was evaluated by working heart rate, blood lactate and oxygen consumption. The average working heart rate was 109.97 ± 9.94 beats/min when all tasks were considered together. According to the working heart rate, oxygen consumption and energy cost, the potato cultivation job was categorized as a moderate work category. Whereas, according to cardiovascular stress index (CSI), all tasks of potato cultivation were categorized into a stressful category. The more experienced workers were more productive than their less experienced counterparts, and this increased productivity appeared to be a combination of greater efficiency and greater physical exertion. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed that work pace and work experience had significant association with all the indices of physiological strain. Work pace had strongest significant impact on these indices even after controlling the effect of age, work experience and efficiency. It was concluded that during performing potato cultivation tasks the workers had a great extent of physiological strain. PMID:27501538

  12. Assessment of Rose Bengal test in diagnosing Egyptian human brucellosis.

    PubMed

    El-Fekhfakh, Effat Abdel-Monaem; Hassanain, Nawal Abdel-Hafiz; El-Folly, Runia Fouad; El-Hariri, Hazem

    2011-08-01

    A total of 30 patients suffering from brucellosis were suspected based on history taking, clinical manifestations and positive serum tube agglutination test (at titer > or = 1/160). The followings were done for all cases; complete blood picture (differential leucocytic count) and liver function tests, serodiagnosis of Brucella (serum tube agglutination test (STAT) as well as Rose Bengal test (RBT) and PCR. The study aimed to analyze the diagnostic value of RBT as compared to STAT and PCR for human brucellosis, and to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, the cost and the time consuming of RBT as compared to STAT and PCR. There was a significant difference between diagnosis by RBT and both STAT > or = 1/640, & STAT > or = 1/1280. Also, there was a significant difference between PCR and both STAT > or = 1/640, and STAT > or = 1/1280. No significant difference was detected between RBT in diagnosing acute and chronic infection. STAT > or = 1/320 proved to be better than STAT at other titers and RBT in diagnosis of brucellosis. RBT proved to be suitable as screening test regarding time (faster) and cost. But, STAT > or = 1/320 from a practical and economic point of views proved to be the best one in diagnosing human brucellosis.

  13. Arsenic incorporation into authigenic pyrite, Bengal Basin sediment, Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowers, H.A.; Breit, G.N.; Foster, A.L.; Whitney, J.; Yount, J.; Uddin, Md. N.; Muneem, Ad. A.

    2007-01-01

    Sediment from two deep boreholes (???400 m) approximately 90 km apart in southern Bangladesh was analyzed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), total chemical analyses, chemical extractions, and electron probe microanalysis to establish the importance of authigenic pyrite as a sink for arsenic in the Bengal Basin. Authigenic framboidal and massive pyrite (median values 1500 and 3200 ppm As, respectively), is the principal arsenic residence in sediment from both boreholes. Although pyrite is dominant, ferric oxyhydroxides and secondary iron phases contain a large fraction of the sediment-bound arsenic between approximately 20 and 100 m, which is the depth range of wells containing the greatest amount of dissolved arsenic. The lack of pyrite in this interval is attributed to rapid sediment deposition and a low sulfur flux from riverine and atmospheric sources. The ability of deeper aquifers (>150 m) to produce ground water with low dissolved arsenic in southern Bangladesh reflects adequate sulfur supplies and sufficient time to redistribute the arsenic into pyrite during diagenesis.

  14. Electro-chemical arsenic remediation: field trials in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Amrose, Susan E; Bandaru, Siva R S; Delaire, Caroline; van Genuchten, Case M; Dutta, Amit; DebSarkar, Anupam; Orr, Christopher; Roy, Joyashree; Das, Abhijit; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2014-08-01

    Millions of people in rural South Asia are exposed to high levels of arsenic through groundwater used for drinking. Many deployed arsenic remediation technologies quickly fail because they are not maintained, repaired, accepted, or affordable. It is therefore imperative that arsenic remediation technologies be evaluated for their ability to perform within a sustainable and scalable business model that addresses these challenges. We present field trial results of a 600 L Electro-Chemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) reactor operating over 3.5 months in West Bengal. These results are evaluated through the lens of a community scale micro-utility business model as a potential sustainable and scalable safe water solution for rural communities in South Asia. We demonstrate ECAR's ability to consistently reduce arsenic concentrations of ~266 μg/L to <5 μg/L in real groundwater, simultaneously meeting the international standards for iron and aluminum in drinking water. ECAR operating costs (amortized capital plus consumables) are estimated as $0.83-$1.04/m(3) under realistic conditions. We discuss the implications of these results against the constraints of a sustainable and scalable business model to argue that ECAR is a promising technology to help provide a clean water solution in arsenic-affected areas of South Asia.

  15. Codeposition of organic carbon and arsenic in Bengal Delta aquifers.

    PubMed

    Meharg, Andrew A; Scrimgeour, Charlie; Hossain, Shahid A; Fuller, Kenneth; Cruickshank, Kenneth; Williams, Paul N; Kinniburgh, David G

    2006-08-15

    We present data showing that arsenic (As) was codeposited with organic carbon (OC) in Bengal Delta sediments as As and OC concentrations are highly (p < 0.001) positively correlated in core profiles collected from widely dispersed geographical sites with different sedimentary depositional histories. Analysis of modern day depositional environments revealed that the As-OC correlations observed in cores are due to As retention and high OC inputs in vegetated zones of the deltaic environment. We hypothesize that elevated concentrations of As occur in vegetated wetland sediments due to concentration and retention of arsenate in aerated root zones and animal burrows where copious iron(III) oxides are deposited. On burial of the sediment, degradation of organic carbon from plant and animal biomass detritus provides the reducing conditions to dissolve iron(III) oxides and release arsenite into the porewater. As tubewell abstracted aquifer water is an invaluable resource on which much of Southeast Asia is now dependent, this increased understanding of the processes responsible for As buildup and release will identify, through knowledge of the palaeosedimentary environment, which sediments are at most risk of having high arsenic concentrations in porewater. Our data allow the development of a new unifying hypothesis of how As is mobilized into groundwaters in river flood plains and deltas of Southeast Asia, namely that in these highly biologically productive environments, As and OC are codeposited, and the codeposited OC drives As release from the sediments.

  16. CE Marking - the Essential Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playle, Mervyn

    The European Union (EU) harmonisation project introduced the CE marking of products to enable the free, unhindered movement of goods throughout the European market. The CE mark replaced the EC mark in the mid 1990s and is fundamental to the New Approach Directives. When a product falls within the scope of a New Approach Directive the manufacturer must comply with the 'goal setting' essential requirements of the directive, to follow one of the conformity assessment procedures provided for, and to draw up the technical documentation specified. Although not mandatory, a manufacturer can choose to satisfy the essential requirements through the application of European harmonised standards.

  17. Comparison of serum and plasma taurine values in Bengal tigers with values in taurine-sufficient and -deficient domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Pickett, J P; Chesney, R W; Beehler, B; Moore, C P; Lippincott, S; Sturman, J; Ketring, K L

    1990-01-15

    A white Bengal tiger was determined to have a central retinal lesion and a central visual defect. Because of the known association between feline central retinal degeneration (CRD) and taurine deficiency in domestic cats, plasma concentrations of taurine were measured in this tiger. Serum concentrations of taurine, methionine, and cystine also were measured in white Bengal tigers, orange Bengal tigers, taurine-sufficient domestic cats, and taurine-deprived and tissue-taurine-depleted visually impaired cats with CRD. Hepatic and brain enzymes responsible for taurine synthesis were identified in tissue specimens from an orange Bengal tiger. Serum taurine concentrations were lower in white vs orange tigers, but were not as low as those in cats with CRD. Thus, we concluded that taurine depletion did not account for the central retinal lesion in the white Bengal tiger.

  18. Comparison of serum and plasma taurine values in Bengal tigers with values in taurine-sufficient and -deficient domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Pickett, J P; Chesney, R W; Beehler, B; Moore, C P; Lippincott, S; Sturman, J; Ketring, K L

    1990-01-15

    A white Bengal tiger was determined to have a central retinal lesion and a central visual defect. Because of the known association between feline central retinal degeneration (CRD) and taurine deficiency in domestic cats, plasma concentrations of taurine were measured in this tiger. Serum concentrations of taurine, methionine, and cystine also were measured in white Bengal tigers, orange Bengal tigers, taurine-sufficient domestic cats, and taurine-deprived and tissue-taurine-depleted visually impaired cats with CRD. Hepatic and brain enzymes responsible for taurine synthesis were identified in tissue specimens from an orange Bengal tiger. Serum taurine concentrations were lower in white vs orange tigers, but were not as low as those in cats with CRD. Thus, we concluded that taurine depletion did not account for the central retinal lesion in the white Bengal tiger. PMID:2298663

  19. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams. PMID:16487548

  20. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams.

  1. 19 CFR 134.21 - Special marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Marking of Containers or Holders § 134.21 Special marking. This subpart includes only country of origin marking requirements and exceptions under section 304(b), Tariff Act of 1930,...

  2. Population vulnerability to biannual cholera outbreaks and associated macro-scale drivers in the Bengal Delta.

    PubMed

    Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Jutla, Antarpreet S; Gute, David M; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Islam, Shafiqul

    2013-11-01

    The highly populated floodplains of the Bengal Delta have a long history of endemic and epidemic cholera outbreaks, both coastal and inland. Previous studies have not addressed the spatio-temporal dynamics of population vulnerability related to the influence of underlying large-scale processes. We analyzed spatial and temporal variability of cholera incidence across six surveillance sites in the Bengal Delta and their association with regional hydroclimatic and environmental drivers. More specifically, we use salinity and flood inundation modeling across the vulnerable districts of Bangladesh to test earlier proposed hypotheses on the role of these environmental variables. Our results show strong influence of seasonal and interannual variability in estuarine salinity on spring outbreaks and inland flooding on fall outbreaks. A large segment of the population in the Bengal Delta floodplains remain vulnerable to these biannual cholera transmission mechanisms that provide ecologic and environmental conditions for outbreaks over large geographic regions. PMID:24019441

  3. Population Vulnerability to Biannual Cholera Outbreaks and Associated Macro-Scale Drivers in the Bengal Delta

    PubMed Central

    Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Jutla, Antarpreet S.; Gute, David M.; Sack, R. Bradley; Alam, Munirul; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.; Islam, Shafiqul

    2013-01-01

    The highly populated floodplains of the Bengal Delta have a long history of endemic and epidemic cholera outbreaks, both coastal and inland. Previous studies have not addressed the spatio-temporal dynamics of population vulnerability related to the influence of underlying large-scale processes. We analyzed spatial and temporal variability of cholera incidence across six surveillance sites in the Bengal Delta and their association with regional hydroclimatic and environmental drivers. More specifically, we use salinity and flood inundation modeling across the vulnerable districts of Bangladesh to test earlier proposed hypotheses on the role of these environmental variables. Our results show strong influence of seasonal and interannual variability in estuarine salinity on spring outbreaks and inland flooding on fall outbreaks. A large segment of the population in the Bengal Delta floodplains remain vulnerable to these biannual cholera transmission mechanisms that provide ecologic and environmental conditions for outbreaks over large geographic regions. PMID:24019441

  4. Sea lice infestations on juvenile chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, Canada, from 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Krkosek, Martin; Jones, Simon R M; Revie, Crawford W

    2013-07-22

    Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta were sampled by beach or purse seine to assess levels of sea lice infestation in the Knight Inlet and Broughton Archipelago regions of coastal British Columbia, Canada, during the months of March to July from 2003 to 2012. Beach seine data were analyzed for sea lice infestation that was described in terms of prevalence, abundance, intensity, and intensity per unit length. The median annual prevalence for chum was 30%, ranging from 14% (in 2008 and 2009) to 73% (in 2004), while for pink salmon, the median was 27% and ranged from 10% (in 2011) to 68% (in 2004). Annual abundance varied from 0.2 to 5 sea lice per fish with a median of 0.47 for chum and from 0.1 to 3 lice (median 0.42) for pink salmon. Annual infestation followed broadly similar trends for both chum and pink salmon. However, the abundance and intensity of Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi, the 2 main sea lice species of interest, were significantly greater on chum than on pink salmon in around half of the years studied. Logistic regression with random effect was used to model prevalence of sea lice infestation for the combined beach and purse seine data. The model suggested inter-annual variation as well as a spatial clustering effect on the prevalence of sea lice infestation in both chum and pink salmon. Fish length had an effect on prevalence, although the nature of this effect differed according to host species.

  5. Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

  6. Surgical skin-marking techniques.

    PubMed

    Granick, M S; Heckler, F R; Jones, E W

    1987-04-01

    Surgical skin-marking inks and dyes are in everyday use for designing and planning incisions in plastic and reconstructive surgery. We have traced the historical development of surgical skin-marking techniques from ancient times to the present. The biochemical characteristics of the commonly used marking agents are discussed. A three-part experiment utilizing a pig model was carried out to test the tissue inflammatory response to the various dyes and inks when used intradermally as tattoos, the persistence of such tattoos, and the ease of skin erasure for each of eight stains. Methylene blue and gentian violet are recommended as the best all-purpose marking agents. The use of proprietary inks is discouraged.

  7. Surgical skin-marking techniques.

    PubMed

    Granick, M S; Heckler, F R; Jones, E W

    1987-04-01

    Surgical skin-marking inks and dyes are in everyday use for designing and planning incisions in plastic and reconstructive surgery. We have traced the historical development of surgical skin-marking techniques from ancient times to the present. The biochemical characteristics of the commonly used marking agents are discussed. A three-part experiment utilizing a pig model was carried out to test the tissue inflammatory response to the various dyes and inks when used intradermally as tattoos, the persistence of such tattoos, and the ease of skin erasure for each of eight stains. Methylene blue and gentian violet are recommended as the best all-purpose marking agents. The use of proprietary inks is discouraged. PMID:2434965

  8. Regional hydrostratigraphy and groundwater flow modeling in the arsenic-affected areas of the western Bengal basin, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E.; Howell, Paul D.

    2007-11-01

    The first documented interpretation of the regional-scale hydrostratigraphy and groundwater flow is presented for a ˜21,000-km2 area of the arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal [Murshidabad, Nadia, North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas (including Calcutta)], India. A hydrostratigraphic model demonstrates the presence of a continuous, semi-confined sand aquifer underlain by a thick clay aquitard. The aquifer thickens toward the east and south. In the south, discontinuous clay layers locally divide the near-surface aquifer into several deeper, laterally connected, confined aquifers. Eight 22-layer model scenarios of regional groundwater flow were developed based on the observed topography, seasonal conditions, and inferred hydrostratigraphy. The models suggest the existence of seasonally variable, regional, north-south flow across the basin prior to the onset of extensive pumping in the 1970s. Pumping has severely distorted the flow pattern, inducing high vertical hydraulic gradients across wide cones of depression. Pumping has also increased total recharge (including irrigational return flow), inflow from rivers, and sea water intrusion. Consequently, downward flow of arsenic contaminated shallow groundwater appears to have resulted in contamination of previously safe aquifers by a combination of mechanical mixing and changes in chemical equilibrium.

  9. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal Basin: The example of Rajarhat and adjoining areas, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, P. K.; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2016-02-01

    Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal Basin along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.

  10. Syntaxin-17 delivers PINK1/parkin-dependent mitochondrial vesicles to the endolysosomal system.

    PubMed

    McLelland, Gian-Luca; Lee, Sydney A; McBride, Heidi M; Fon, Edward A

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are considered autonomous organelles, physically separated from endocytic and biosynthetic pathways. However, recent work uncovered a PINK1/parkin-dependent vesicle transport pathway wherein oxidized or damaged mitochondrial content are selectively delivered to the late endosome/lysosome for degradation, providing evidence that mitochondria are indeed integrated within the endomembrane system. Given that mitochondria have not been shown to use canonical soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) machinery for fusion, the mechanism by which mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) are targeted to the endosomal compartment has remained unclear. In this study, we identify syntaxin-17 as a core mitochondrial SNARE required for the delivery of stress-induced PINK1/parkin-dependent MDVs to the late endosome/lysosome. Syntaxin-17 remains associated with mature MDVs and forms a ternary SNARE complex with SNAP29 and VAMP7 to mediate MDV-endolysosome fusion in a manner dependent on the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) tethering complex. Syntaxin-17 can be traced to the last eukaryotic common ancestor, hinting that the removal of damaged mitochondrial content may represent one of the earliest vesicle transport routes in the cell. PMID:27458136

  11. Fitness Cost of Resistance to Bt Cotton Linked with Increased Gossypol Content in Pink Bollworm Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jennifer L.; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orth, Robert G.; Gassmann, Aaron J.; Head, Graham; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops occur in the absence of Bt toxins, when individuals with resistance alleles are less fit than individuals without resistance alleles. As costs of Bt resistance are common, refuges of non-Bt host plants can delay resistance not only by providing susceptible individuals to mate with resistant individuals, but also by selecting against resistance. Because costs typically vary across host plants, refuges with host plants that magnify costs or make them less recessive could enhance resistance management. Limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms causing fitness costs, however, hampers attempts to increase costs. In several major cotton pests including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), resistance to Cry1Ac cotton is associated with mutations altering cadherin proteins that bind this toxin in susceptible larvae. Here we report that the concentration of gossypol, a cotton defensive chemical, was higher in pink bollworm larvae with cadherin resistance alleles than in larvae lacking such alleles. Adding gossypol to the larval diet decreased larval weight and survival, and increased the fitness cost affecting larval growth, but not survival. Across cadherin genotypes, the cost affecting larval growth increased as the gossypol concentration of larvae increased. These results suggest that increased accumulation of plant defensive chemicals may contribute to fitness costs associated with resistance to Bt toxins. PMID:21738799

  12. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould.

    PubMed

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar 'Fagerlin' based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould.

  13. Pink-eyed Dilution Protein Modulates Arsenic Sensitivity and Intracellular Glutathione Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Staleva, Liliana; Manga, Prashiela; Orlow, Seth J.

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in the mouse p (pink-eyed dilution) and human P genes lead to melanosomal defects and ocular developmental abnormalities. Despite the critical role played by the p gene product in controlling tyrosinase processing and melanosome biogenesis, its precise biological function is still not defined. We have expressed p heterologously in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study its function in greater detail. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that p reaches the yeast vacuolar membrane via the prevacuolar compartment. Yeast cells expressing p exhibited increased sensitivity to a number of toxic compounds, including arsenicals. Similarly, cultured murine melanocytes expressing a functional p gene were also found to be more sensitive to arsenical compounds compared with p-null cell lines. Intracellular glutathione, known to play a role in detoxification of arsenicals, was diminished by 50% in p-expressing yeast. By using the glutathione-conjugating dye monochlorobimane, in combination with acivicin, an inhibitor of vacuolar gamma-glutamyl cysteine transpeptidase, involved in the breakdown of glutathione, we found that p facilitates the vacuolar accumulation of glutathione. Our data demonstrate that the pink-eyed dilution protein increases cellular sensitivity to arsenicals and other metalloids and can modulate intracellular glutathione metabolism. PMID:12475946

  14. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould

    PubMed Central

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar ‘Fagerlin’ based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould. PMID:27346054

  15. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould.

    PubMed

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar 'Fagerlin' based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould. PMID:27346054

  16. Pink-beam focusing with a one-dimensional compound refractive lens.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, Eric M; Dunford, Robert W; Kanter, Elliot P; Gao, Yuan; Moon, Seoksu; Walko, Donald A; Zhang, Xusheng

    2016-09-01

    The performance of a cooled Be compound refractive lens (CRL) has been tested at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to enable vertical focusing of the pink beam and permit the X-ray beam to spatially overlap with an 80 µm-high low-density plasma that simulates astrophysical environments. Focusing the fundamental harmonics of an insertion device white beam increases the APS power density; here, a power density as high as 500 W mm(-2) was calculated. A CRL is chromatic so it does not efficiently focus X-rays whose energies are above the fundamental. Only the fundamental of the undulator focuses at the experiment. A two-chopper system reduces the power density on the imaging system and lens by four orders of magnitude, enabling imaging of the focal plane without any X-ray filter. A method to measure such high power density as well as the performance of the lens in focusing the pink beam is reported. PMID:27577759

  17. Effect of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol on the pink heelsplitter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, T.D.; Rach, J.J.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is used to selectively kill sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus ) in the tributaries of the Great Lakes. Over the years, TFM was tested most often on nontarget fishes and only occasionally on invertebrates, including freshwater mussels. We exposed pink heelsplitters (Potamilus alatus ) to TFM concentrations and exposure times similar to those in lampricide treatments. Tests were conducted in water similar in quality to the Poultney River, New York, a stream that contains pink heelsplitters and is scheduled for lampricide treatment in 1991. Mussels were exposed to TFM for either 12 or 24 h and observed daily in well water for 14 days. Ninety percent of the mussels exposed to 3.5 mg/L of TFM for 12 h survived, however, only 50% of the mussels exposed to that concentration for 24 h survived. TFM seems to narcotize or anesthetize mussels. Mortality of mussels exposed to 3.5 mg/L TFM for 12 h seemed to be 60% immediately after treatment, but the actual mortality was only 10% after a 14-day recovery period.

  18. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation.

  19. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. PMID:26332056

  20. Quantitative expression proteomics and phosphoproteomics profile of brain from PINK1 knockout mice: insights into mechanisms of familial Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Judy C; Zhang, Zhaoshu; Sultana, Rukhsana; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Büeler, Hansruedi; Butterfield, David Allan

    2015-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related, neurodegenerative motor disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and presence of α-synuclein-containing protein aggregates. Mutations in the mitochondrial Ser/Thr kinase PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) are associated with an autosomal recessive familial form of early-onset PD. Recent studies have suggested that PINK1 plays important neuroprotective roles against mitochondrial dysfunction by phosphorylating and recruiting Parkin, a cytosolic E3 ubiquitin ligase, to facilitate elimination of damaged mitochondria via autophagy-lysosomal pathways. Loss of PINK1 in cells and animals leads to various mitochondrial impairments and oxidative stress, culminating in dopaminergic neuronal death in humans. Using a 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis proteomics approach, the differences in expressed brain proteome and phosphoproteome between 6-month-old PINK1-deficient mice and wild-type mice were identified. The observed changes in the brain proteome and phosphoproteome of mice lacking PINK1 suggest that defects in signaling networks, energy metabolism, cellular proteostasis, and neuronal structure and plasticity are involved in the pathogenesis of familial PD. Mutations in PINK1 are associated with an early-onset form of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study examines changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome of the PINK1 knockout mouse brain. Alterations were noted in several key proteins associated with: increased oxidative stress, aberrant cellular signaling, altered neuronal structure, decreased synaptic plasticity, reduced neurotransmission, diminished proteostasis networks, and altered metabolism. 14-3-3ε, 14-3-3 protein epsilon; 3-PGDH, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase; ALDOA, aldolase A; APT1, acyl-protein thioesterase 1; CaM, calmodulin; CBR3, carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 3; ENO2, gamma-enolase; HPRT, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase; HSP70

  1. PINK1 protects against cell death induced by mitochondrial depolarization, by phosphorylating Bcl-xL and impairing its pro-apoptotic cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Arena, G; Gelmetti, V; Torosantucci, L; Vignone, D; Lamorte, G; De Rosa, P; Cilia, E; Jonas, E A; Valente, E M

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the PINK1 gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 encodes a mitochondrial kinase with neuroprotective activity, implicated in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and function. In concurrence with Parkin, PINK1 regulates mitochondrial trafficking and degradation of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy. Moreover, PINK1 can activate autophagy by interacting with the pro-autophagic protein Beclin-1. Here, we report that, upon mitochondrial depolarization, PINK1 interacts with and phosphorylates Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic protein also known to inhibit autophagy through its binding to Beclin-1. PINK1–Bcl-xL interaction does not interfere either with Beclin-1 release from Bcl-xL or the mitophagy pathway; rather it protects against cell death by hindering the pro-apoptotic cleavage of Bcl-xL. Our data provide a functional link between PINK1, Bcl-xL and apoptosis, suggesting a novel mechanism through which PINK1 regulates cell survival. This pathway could be relevant for the pathogenesis of PD as well as other diseases including cancer. PMID:23519076

  2. Composition of the essential oil of pink chablis bluebeard (Caryopteris x clandonensis 'Durio') and its biological activity against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caryopteris ×clandonensis A. Simmonds ex C. H. Curtis 'Durio' Pink Chablis™, (Lamiaceae) a pink-flowered cultivar distinctive among the typically blue-flowered cultivars of bluebeard, is valued as a small, deciduous shrub in the landscape for its mounded growth habit, showy flower display in summer,...

  3. Tetralogy of Fallot and atrial septal defect in a white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pazzi, Paolo; Lim, Chee K; Steyl, Johan

    2014-03-04

    A 3-week-old female white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with acute onset tachypnoea, cyanosis and hypothermia. The cub was severely hypoxaemic with a mixed acid-base disturbance. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. Additionally, an atrial septal defect was found on necropsy, resulting in the final diagnosis of Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect (a subclass of Pentalogy of Fallot). This report is the first to encompass arterial blood gas analysis, thoracic radiographs, echocardiography and necropsy findings in a white Bengal Tiger cub diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect.

  4. Prevalence of Thinness among Rural Bengalee Pre-school Children in Chapra, Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S; Bose, K; Bisai, S; Chakraborty, R

    2009-09-01

    This-cross sectional study investigated the age and sex variations in thinness among 2016 (930 boys and 1086 girls) 3-5 years old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity. The children were randomly recruited from 66 Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The area is remote and mostly inhabited by Bengalee Muslims. All preschool children (3-5 years old) living in Chapra Block are enrolled at these centres. Anthropometric measures taken included height and weight using standard techniques and then body mass index (BMI) was computed. Age and sex specific cut-off values of body mass index (BMI) were utilised to identify thinness. Overall prevalence of thinness was 49.68% and 51.57% among boys and girls, respectively. There were significant (p< 0.05) sex differences in height, weight and BMI. In general, the frequency of thinness increased with increasing age in both sexes. The rates of Grade-III and Grade-II thinness were higher among girls (Grade-III = 7.46%, Grade-II = 13.44%) compared with boys (Grade-III = 5.48%, Grade-II = 11.72%). In contrast, Grade-I thinness was higher among boys. The results from this study indicate that the nutritional status of rural Bengalee pre-school children is unsatisfactory. These children are experiencing marked nutritional stress. There is scope for much improvement in the form of enhanced supplementary nutrition.

  5. Formation of the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Umasankar; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Behara, Ambica

    2016-09-01

    A pool of relatively cooler water, called here as the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool, exists around Sri Lanka and southern tip of India during the summer monsoon. This cold pool is enveloped by the larger Indian Ocean warm pool and is believed to affect the intraseasonal variations of summer monsoon rainfall. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the cold pool using a combination of both satellite data sets and a general circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Sea surface temperature (SST) within the cold pool, after the steady increase during the February-April period, decreases first during a pre-monsoon spell in April and then with the monsoon onset during May. The onset cooling is stronger (~1.8°C) than the pre-monsoon cooling (~0.8°C) and culminates in the formation of the cold pool. Analysis of the model temperature equation shows that SST decrease during both events is primarily due to a decrease in incoming solar radiation and an increase in latent heat loss. These changes in the net heat flux are brought about by the arrival of cloud bands above the cold pool during both periods. During the pre-monsoon period, a cloud band originates in the western equatorial Indian Ocean and subsequently arrives above the cold pool. Similarly, during the monsoon onset, a band of clouds originating in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean comes over the cold pool region. A lead-lag correlation calculation between daily SST and rainfall anomalies suggest that cooling in SST occurs in response to rainfall events with a lag of 5 days. These sequence of events occur every year with certain amount of interannual variability.

  6. Space Radar Image of Calcutta, West Bengal, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Calcutta, India, illustrates different urban land use patterns. Calcutta, the largest city in India, is located on the banks of the Hugli River, shown as the thick, dark line in the upper portion of the image. The surrounding area is a flat swampy region with a subtropical climate. As a result of this marshy environment, Calcutta is a compact city, concentrated along the fringes of the river. The average elevation is approximately 9 meters (30 feet) above sea level. Calcutta is located 154 kilometers (96 miles) upstream from the Bay of Bengal. Central Calcutta is the light blue and orange area below the river in the center of the image. The bridge spanning the river at the city center is the Howrah Bridge which links central Calcutta to Howrah. The dark region just below the river and to the left of the city center is Maidan, a large city park housing numerous cultural and recreational facilities. The international airport is in the lower right of the image. The bridge in the upper right is the Bally Bridge which links the suburbs of Bally and Baranagar. This image is 30 kilometers by 10 kilometers (19 miles by 6 miles)and is centered at 22.3 degrees north latitude, 88.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 5, 1994, onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  7. Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Samanta, G; Mandal, B K; Roy Chowdhury, T; Chanda, C R; Chowdhury, P P; Basu, G K; Chakraborti, D

    1996-03-01

    Arsenic in groundwater above the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg l(-1) has been found in six districts of West Bengal covering an area of 34 000 km(2) with a population of 30 million. At present, 37 administrative blocks by the side of the River Ganga and adjoining areas are affected. Areas affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater are all located in the upper delta plain, and are mostly in the abandoned meander belt. More than 800 000 people from 312 villages/wards are drinking arsenic contaminated water and amongst them at least 175 000 people show arsenical skin lesions. Thousands of tube-well water in these six districts have been analysed for arsenic species. Hair, nails, scales, urine, liver tissue analyses show elevated concentrations of arsenic in people drinking arsenic-contaminated water for a longer period. The source of the arsenic is geological. Bore-hole sediment analyses show high arsenic concentrations in only few soil layers which is found to be associated with iron-pyrites. Various social problems arise due to arsenical skin lesions in these districts. Malnutrition, poor socio-economic conditions, illiteracy, food habits and intake of arsenic-contaminated water for many years have aggravated the arsenic toxicity. In all these districts, major water demands are met from groundwater and the geochemical reaction, caused by high withdrawal of water may be the cause of arsenic leaching from the source. If alternative water resources are not utilised, a good percentage of the 30 million people of these six districts may suffer from arsenic toxicity in the near future. PMID:24194364

  8. Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Samanta, G; Mandal, B K; Roy Chowdhury, T; Chanda, C R; Chowdhury, P P; Basu, G K; Chakraborti, D

    1996-03-01

    Arsenic in groundwater above the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg l(-1) has been found in six districts of West Bengal covering an area of 34 000 km(2) with a population of 30 million. At present, 37 administrative blocks by the side of the River Ganga and adjoining areas are affected. Areas affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater are all located in the upper delta plain, and are mostly in the abandoned meander belt. More than 800 000 people from 312 villages/wards are drinking arsenic contaminated water and amongst them at least 175 000 people show arsenical skin lesions. Thousands of tube-well water in these six districts have been analysed for arsenic species. Hair, nails, scales, urine, liver tissue analyses show elevated concentrations of arsenic in people drinking arsenic-contaminated water for a longer period. The source of the arsenic is geological. Bore-hole sediment analyses show high arsenic concentrations in only few soil layers which is found to be associated with iron-pyrites. Various social problems arise due to arsenical skin lesions in these districts. Malnutrition, poor socio-economic conditions, illiteracy, food habits and intake of arsenic-contaminated water for many years have aggravated the arsenic toxicity. In all these districts, major water demands are met from groundwater and the geochemical reaction, caused by high withdrawal of water may be the cause of arsenic leaching from the source. If alternative water resources are not utilised, a good percentage of the 30 million people of these six districts may suffer from arsenic toxicity in the near future.

  9. Assessment of coastal water quality at Bakkhali, West Bengal (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiv; Bhadurfi, Bhaskar; Banerjee, Prasanta Kumar; Datta, Siddhartha

    2012-04-01

    Spatial variations of some physico-chemical water quality of the coastal water of a segment of Bakkhali (Bay of Bengal) were studied between the months of November 2009 and February 2010 before 12:00 a.m. The studies were carried out at three coastal sites of Bakkhali Beach (south extreme point, middle point and far north point, about 1.2 km along the shore) which is influenced by anthropogenic input from land-based sources. The site receives domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes. The water is being used for fishing, transportation of goods and by people for several purposes. The banks of the estuarine channels have traditionally been preferred locations for human settlement. Considering the various uses of this coastal segment, between Bakkhali to Haldia, the studies related to water quality monitoring were carried out. The pH, temperature, turbidity, salinity, TDS and conductivity vary in range of 8.24 - 8.65, 27.5 degrees C-31.5 degrees C, 480 NTU - 808 NTU, 21.6 PSU-30.0 PSU, 676 mg/L -934 mg/L and 1.72 mS/cm -1.97 mS/ cm respectively. Dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations at different sites vary within a narrow range 6.05 mg/L - 8.1 mg/L and 1.05 mg/L - 3.0 mg/L respectively. Chemical oxygen demand concentrations vary in a wide range of 170 mg/L - 812 mg/L. The bacterial count at the sampling site varied from 76-150 CFU. PMID:24749373

  10. IODP Expedition 354 to the Bengal Fan: a Neogene record of Himalayan erosion. Implications on the carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France-Lanord, Christian; Spiess, Volkard; Galy, Albert; Galy, Valier; Huyghe, Pascale; Klaus, Adam; IODP Expedition 354 Scientists

    2016-04-01

    Bengal Fan Expedition 354 drilled an E-W transect in the middle fan at 8°N to investigate interactions between the growth of the Himalaya, the development of the Indian monsoon, and processes affecting the carbon cycle. A comprehensive record of turbiditic deposition between the Late Oligocene and Holocene was drilled over a seven sites E-W transect at 8°N. Shipboard results reveal that the chemical and mineralogical compositions of turbiditic sediments cored across the transect are relatively stable throughout the Neogene. By comparison to modern river sediment compositions (Lupker et al. ref), they reveal a weak intensity of chemical weathering without marked variation through time. Clay assemblages are dominated by illite and chlorite with minor proportions of newly formed clays. This differs from the distal fan record (Leg 116) where the Late Miocene and Pliocene turbidites show high weathering signatures and smectite rich clay assemblage. This difference im plies that the distal fan record does not reflect to an evolution of the source erosion. Rather it is controlled by a change in sediment transport within the fan. Shipboard estimates of organic carbon loading and behaviour resemble observations made in the modern Ganga-Brahmaputra river sediments, suggesting efficient terrestrial organic carbon burial in the Bengal Fan [1]. Preliminary observations support the idea that Himalayan erosion has consumed atmospheric CO2 through the burial of organic carbon, more than by silicate weathering. The main evolution observed in Expedition 354 record is the content of detrital carbonate that is persistent through the Neogene but appears to show a consistent decreasing trend from 8-10% during the Miocene to 3-6% during the Pleistocene and Pliocene. Also, a prominent feature of Miocene silt and sand beds is the higher abundance of plant fragments compared to younger sediments. Together these observations reveal changes in the sediment sources and erosion conditions of

  11. δ18O and Mg/Ca Analysis on Mid-Pleistocene Foraminifera from the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, J.; Williams, K. M.; Dekens, P. S.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) (0.7-1.2 Ma) marks a change in the Earth's climate system response to orbital forcing from the 40 kyr obliquity cycle to the 100 kyr eccentricity cycle. Although many records of the MPT exist, particularly at high latitudes, our understanding of how this transition affected the tropics, and the east-Asian monsoon in particular, is limited. The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 354 drilled 7 sites in the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean, which contain hemipelagic calcareous clay, sand, and turbidite deposits. All sites have a ~1 Ma hemipelagic Mid-Pleistocene layer, providing a unique opportunity to gain insight into how the strength of the east-Asian monsoon was affected by the MPT.The 1 Ma layer contains the Cobb Mountain (1.173-1.185 Ma) and Jaramillo (0.988-1.072 Ma) subchrons of the Matuyama Chron (2.58-0.78 Ma). This, along with biostratigraphic datums, indicates that the layer is Mid-Pleistocene in age and likely contains the MPT. We will present δ18O and Mg/Ca analyses on surface planktonic foraminifera from this Mid-Pleistocene layer at IODP site U1452B (8.0°N, 87.2°E, 3670 mbsl). We will present data from ~185 -186 mbsf at 2 cm resolution (~1kyr age resolution). The δ18O in foraminifera shells reflects the temperature and δ18O of the seawater from which the foraminifera formed their shells, while Mg/Ca is a proxy for sea surface temperature (SST). Therefore paired foraminifera δ18O and Mg/Ca measurements will allow us to reconstruct SST and δ18O of seawater. This preliminary work aims to assess the feasibility of these paleoceanographic proxies in this hemipelagic layer found in the complex depositional environment of the Bay of Bengal. Future work aims to reconstruct the full MPT, and along with other proxies generated by collaborators, will improve our understanding of response of the monsoon of the MPT.

  12. Mitochondrial and lysosomal biogenesis are activated following PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Ivankovic, Davor; Chau, Kai-Yin; Schapira, Anthony H V; Gegg, Matthew E

    2016-01-01

    Impairment of the autophagy-lysosome pathway is implicated with the changes in α-synuclein and mitochondrial dysfunction observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Damaged mitochondria accumulate PINK1, which then recruits parkin, resulting in ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins. These can then be bound by the autophagic proteins p62/SQSTM1 and LC3, resulting in degradation of mitochondria by mitophagy. Mutations in PINK1 and parkin genes are a cause of familial PD. We found a significant increase in the expression of p62/SQSTM1 mRNA and protein following mitophagy induction in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. p62 protein not only accumulated on mitochondria, but was also greatly increased in the cytosol. Increased p62/SQSMT1 expression was prevented in PINK1 knock-down cells, suggesting increased p62 expression was a consequence of mitophagy induction. The transcription factors Nrf2 and TFEB, which play roles in mitochondrial and lysosomal biogenesis, respectively, can regulate p62/SQSMT1. We report that both Nrf2 and TFEB translocate to the nucleus following mitophagy induction and that the increase in p62 mRNA levels was significantly impaired in cells with Nrf2 or TFEB knockdown. TFEB translocation also increased expression of itself and lysosomal proteins such as glucocerebrosidase and cathepsin D following mitophagy induction. We also report that cells with increased TFEB protein have significantly higher PGC-1α mRNA levels, a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in increased mitochondrial content. Our data suggests that TFEB is activated following mitophagy to maintain autophagy-lysosome pathway and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, strategies to increase TFEB may improve both the clearance of α-synuclein and mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. Damaged mitochondria are degraded by the autophagy-lysosome pathway and is termed mitophagy. Following mitophagy induction, the transcription factors Nrf2 and TFEB translocate to the nucleus, inducing

  13. Comparative phylogeography of the two pink salmon broodlines: an analysis based on a mitochondrial DNA genealogy.

    PubMed

    Churikov, D; Gharrett, A J

    2002-06-01

    Over most of their natural northern Pacific Ocean range, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) spawn in a habitat that was repeatedly and profoundly affected by Pleistocene glacial advances. A strictly two-year life cycle of pink salmon has resulted in two reproductively isolated broodlines, which spawn in alternating years and evolved as temporal replicates of the same species. To study the influence of historical events on phylogeographical and population genetic structure of the two broodlines, we first reconstructed a fine-scale mtDNA haplotype genealogy from a sample of 80 individuals and then determined the geographical distribution of the major genealogical assemblages for 718 individuals sampled from nine Alaskan and eastern Asian even- and nine odd-year pink salmon populations. Analysis of restriction site states in seven polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified mtDNA regions (comprising 97% of the mitochondrial genome) using 13 endonucleases resolved 38 haplotypes, which clustered into five genealogical lineages that differed from 0.065 to 0.225% in net sequence divergence. The lineage sorting between broodlines was incomplete, which suggests a recent common ancestry. Within each lineage, haplotypes exhibited star-like genealogies indicating recent population growth. The depth of the haplotype genealogy is shallow ( approximately 0.5% of nucleotide sequence divergence) and probably reflects repeated decreases in population size due to Pleistocene glacial advances. Nested clade analysis (NCA) of geographical distances showed that the geographical distribution observed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes resulted from alternating influences of historical range expansions and episodes of restricted dispersal. Analyses of molecular variance showed weak geographical structuring of mtDNA variation, except for the strong subdivision between Asian and Alaskan populations within the even-year broodline. The genetic similarities observed among and within

  14. Comparative phylogeography of the two pink salmon broodlines: an analysis based on a mitochondrial DNA genealogy.

    PubMed

    Churikov, D; Gharrett, A J

    2002-06-01

    Over most of their natural northern Pacific Ocean range, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) spawn in a habitat that was repeatedly and profoundly affected by Pleistocene glacial advances. A strictly two-year life cycle of pink salmon has resulted in two reproductively isolated broodlines, which spawn in alternating years and evolved as temporal replicates of the same species. To study the influence of historical events on phylogeographical and population genetic structure of the two broodlines, we first reconstructed a fine-scale mtDNA haplotype genealogy from a sample of 80 individuals and then determined the geographical distribution of the major genealogical assemblages for 718 individuals sampled from nine Alaskan and eastern Asian even- and nine odd-year pink salmon populations. Analysis of restriction site states in seven polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified mtDNA regions (comprising 97% of the mitochondrial genome) using 13 endonucleases resolved 38 haplotypes, which clustered into five genealogical lineages that differed from 0.065 to 0.225% in net sequence divergence. The lineage sorting between broodlines was incomplete, which suggests a recent common ancestry. Within each lineage, haplotypes exhibited star-like genealogies indicating recent population growth. The depth of the haplotype genealogy is shallow ( approximately 0.5% of nucleotide sequence divergence) and probably reflects repeated decreases in population size due to Pleistocene glacial advances. Nested clade analysis (NCA) of geographical distances showed that the geographical distribution observed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes resulted from alternating influences of historical range expansions and episodes of restricted dispersal. Analyses of molecular variance showed weak geographical structuring of mtDNA variation, except for the strong subdivision between Asian and Alaskan populations within the even-year broodline. The genetic similarities observed among and within

  15. Field evaluation of two systemic neonicotinoid insecticides against pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green))on mulberry trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in ornamental trees were already in an advanced state at the time of its discovery in the Imperial Valley of California (USA) in August 1999. Concern about the spread of M. hirsutus beyond the Imperial Valley led to the p...

  16. Analysis of resistance to Cry1Ac in field-collected pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae), populations

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Abhishek; Sree, K Sowjanya; Sachdev, Bindiya; Rashmi, MA; Ravi, KC; Suresh, PJ; Mohan, Komarlingam S; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2014-01-01

    High survivorship of pink bollworrm, Pectinophora gossypiella in bolls of Bollgard® cotton hybrids and resistance to Cry1Ac protein, expressed in Bollgard cotton were reported in field-populations collected from the state of Gujarat (western India) in 2010. We have found Cry1Ac-resistance in pink bollworm populations sourced from Bollgard and non-Bt cotton fields in the adjoining states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh in Central India. Further, we observed reduced binding of labeled Cry1Ac protein to receptors localized on the brush-border membrane of pink bollworm larval strains with high tolerance to Cry1Ac. These strains were sourced from Bollgard and conventional cotton fields. A pooled Cry1Ac-resistant strain, further selected on Cry1Ac diet also showed significantly reduced binding to Cry1Ac protein. The reduced binding of Cry1Ac to receptors could be an underlying mechanism for the observed resistance in pink bollworm populations feeding on Bollgard hybrids. PMID:25523173

  17. The Effects of Baker-Miller Pink on Physiological and Cognitive Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed and Regular Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Fourteen emotionally disturbed junior high students and 16 regular education students were exposed to 2 experimental conditions with white and Baker-Miller pink visual stimuli. Analysis revealed significant differences on systolic and diastolic blood pressure but not on pulse, grip strength, nor the Digit-Symbol test of the Wechsler Adult…

  18. Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world's oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since a number of studies have recently examined pink salmon interactions with other salmon, we reviewed them in an effort to describe patterns of interaction over broad regions of the ocean. Research consistently indicated that pink salmon significantly altered prey abundance of other salmon species (e.g., zooplankton, squid), leading to altered diet, reduced total prey consumption and growth, delayed maturation, and reduced survival, depending on species and locale. Reduced survival was observed in chum salmon (O. keta) and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) originating from Puget Sound and in Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Growth of pink salmon was not measurably affected by other salmon species, but their growth was sometimes inversely related to their own abundance. In all marine studies, pink salmon affected other species through exploitation of prey resources rather than interference. Interspecific competition was observed in nearshore and offshore waters of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, and one study documented competition between species originating from different continents. Climate change had variable effects on competition. In the North Pacific Ocean, competition was observed before and after the ocean regime shift in 1977 that significantly altered abundances of many marine species, whereas a study in the Pacific Northwest reported a shift from predation- to competition-based mortality in response to the 1982/1983 El Nino. Key traits of pink salmon that influenced competition with other salmonids included great abundance, high

  19. Combination therapy for footpad lesions in a captive Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Baker, David G

    2002-12-01

    A captive adult male Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was treated for chronic footpad ulcers associated with pacing on concrete cage surfaces. Combination therapy of oral fluoxetine and acepromazine administration to diminate pacing behavior, daily application of moisturizing ointment, and oral vitamin E supplementation resulted in complete resolution of all footpad lesions. Subsequent clinical episodes completely resolved with similar treatments.

  20. A fatal infection in a Bengal tiger resembling cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Jakob, W; Wesemeier, H H

    1996-05-01

    A young Bengal tiger born and kept in a German zoo had died of an unknown protozoal infection in 1984. Retrospective histological and electron microscopical examination of the organs showed the changes to be identical with those of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats. This is the first report of fatal cytauxzoonosis in a tiger.

  1. The Political Economy of English Education in Muslim Bengal: 1871-1912.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahim, Aminur

    1992-01-01

    Examines explanations for lack of progress by Muslims in English education in East Bengal, colonial British India (now Bangladesh). Argues that urban-based, elitist English education failed to provide opportunities to rural Muslim farmers, and that, after the British formulated educational policies meeting Muslim needs, that community responded…

  2. Distribution and retention of rose bengal and disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine: a comparative study in unicellular eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Croce, A C; Wyroba, E; Bottiroli, G

    1992-12-01

    Enhanced video-fluorescence microscopy and microspectrofluorometry were used to characterize the internalization, distribution and retention of two photosensitizers, rose bengal--a xanthene dye--and disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine in eukaryote Paramecium aurelia. Rose bengal, because of its anionic nature, cannot diffuse across the cell membrane and accumulates there preferentially. In a drug-free medium the membrane fluorescence disappears after a few minutes. Complexation of rose bengal with low density lipoproteins gives rise to a different fluorescence pattern, where, in addition to membrane localization and diffuse cytoplasmic fluorescence, highly fluorescent endosomes are observed, which persisted for at least 1 h after drug treatment. Disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine, on the contrary, seems to be directly internalized through an endocytotic process leading to the appearance of fluorescent endosomes, exhibiting a long persistence, together with cytoplasmic diffuse fluorescence. The presence of low density lipoproteins does not modify the internalization of the drug significantly, because of the very low yield of the complexation reaction. The potential of rose bengal as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy is discussed.

  3. Push-Pull Factors of Undocumented Migration from Bangladesh to West Bengal: A Perception Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Pranati

    2004-01-01

    Movement is an integral part of human existence. While talking about transborder migration from Bangladesh to India, we are, however, aware that this is a controversial subject. The partition of Bengal in 1947 was the cruelest partition in the history of the world and caused forced illegal migration from erstwhile East Pakistan. It is estimated…

  4. A meridional dipole in premonsoon Bay of Bengal tropical cyclone activity induced by ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Leung, L. Ruby; Lu, Jian; Foltz, Gregory R.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of Bay of Bengal tropical cyclone (TC) track data for the months of May-June during 1979-2014 reveals a meridional dipole in TC intensification: TC intensification rates increased significantly in the northern region and decreased in the southern region. The dipole is consistent with changes in the large-scale TC environment estimated using the Genesis Potential Index (GPI) for the same period. While an increase in lower troposphere cyclonic vorticity and midtroposphere humidity in the northern Bay of Bengal made the environment more favorable for TC intensification, enhanced vertical wind shear in the southern Bay of Bengal tended to reduce TC development. These environmental changes were associated with a strengthening of the monsoon circulation for the months of May-June, driven by a La Niña-like shift in tropical Pacific SSTs and associated tropical wave dynamics. Finally, analysis of a suite of climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archive shows that most models correctly reproduce the link between ENSO and premonsoon Bay of Bengal TC activity at interannual timescales, demonstrating the robustness of our main conclusions.

  5. A fatal infection in a Bengal tiger resembling cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Jakob, W; Wesemeier, H H

    1996-05-01

    A young Bengal tiger born and kept in a German zoo had died of an unknown protozoal infection in 1984. Retrospective histological and electron microscopical examination of the organs showed the changes to be identical with those of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats. This is the first report of fatal cytauxzoonosis in a tiger. PMID:8814537

  6. Combination therapy for footpad lesions in a captive Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Baker, David G

    2002-12-01

    A captive adult male Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was treated for chronic footpad ulcers associated with pacing on concrete cage surfaces. Combination therapy of oral fluoxetine and acepromazine administration to diminate pacing behavior, daily application of moisturizing ointment, and oral vitamin E supplementation resulted in complete resolution of all footpad lesions. Subsequent clinical episodes completely resolved with similar treatments. PMID:12564540

  7. The Sex Education Debates: Teaching "Life Style" in West Bengal, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakravarti, Paromita

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the recent controversies surrounding the decision to introduce sex education in secondary schools in India to combat the rapid spread of HIV and AIDS in the country. While 11 Indian states have banned it, the Left-ruled state of West Bengal has designed a teachers' manual to impart sex education. However, a close analysis of…

  8. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  9. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  10. Allium Discoloration: Color Compounds Formed during Pinking of Onion and Leek.

    PubMed

    Kubec, Roman; Urajová, Petra; Lacina, Ondřej; Hajšlová, Jana; Kuzma, Marek; Zápal, Jakub

    2015-11-25

    Structures and formation pathways of compounds responsible for pink discoloration of onion and leek were studied. A procedure was developed for the isolation and purification of the color compounds from various model systems and their identification by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. In total, structures of 15 major color compounds were tentatively determined. It was found that the pigment is a complex mixture of highly conjugated species composed of two N-substituted 3,4-dimethylpyrrole-derived rings linked by either a methine or a propenylidine bridge. These two-ring units are further modified by various C1- and C3-side chains. Experiments with isotope-labeled thiosulfinates revealed that the methine bridge and C1-side chains originate from the methyl group of methiin, whereas the C3 units are derived from the propenyl group of isoalliin.

  11. Search for extinct 36Cl: Vigarano CAIs, the Pink Angel from Allende, and a Ningqiang chondrule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Daisuke; Ott, Ulrich; Hoppe, Peter; El Goresy, Ahmed

    2008-12-01

    We have searched for excesses of 36S derived from the decay of extinct 36Cl in sodalite, a secondary Cl-rich mineral, in Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Vigarano and Allende CV3 chondrites and in a chondrule from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. The presence of sodalite in two CAIs from Vigarano and its absence from surrounding CAI fragments suggests sodalite formation after CAI fragmentation. As for sodalite in the Allende Pink Angel CAI, oxygen isotopic compositions have been interpreted as indicative of high temperature interactions, thus suggesting formation prior to accretion to the parent body, probably in a nebular setting. Sodalite in the Ningqiang chondrule is considered to have formed via alkali-Ca exchange, which is believed to have occurred before accretion to the parent body. Sodalites in the Vigarano CAIs and in the Ningqiang chondrule show no clear evidence for the presence of radiogenic 36S. The inferred 2 σ upper limits for 36Cl/ 35Cl at the time of sodalite formation are 1.6 × 10 -6 (Vigarano CAIs) and 3.3 × 10 -6 (Ningqiang chondrule), respectively. In the Pink Angel CAI sodalite exhibits small 36S excesses which weakly correlate with 35Cl/ 34S ratios. The inferred 36Cl/ 35Cl ratio of (1.8 ± 2.2) × 10 -6 (2 σ error) is lower than that found by Hsu et al. [Hsu, W., Guan, Y., Leshin, L. A., Ushikubo, T. and Wasserburg, G. J. (2006) A late episode of irradiation in the early solar system: Evidence from extinct 36Cl and 26Al in meteorites. Astrophys. J. 640, 525-529], thus indicative of heterogeneous distribution of 36Cl in this CAI. Spallation reactions induced by energetic particles from the young Sun are suggested for the origin of 36Cl, similar to the case of 10Be. While 10Be appears to be present in roughly equal abundance in all studied CAIs, our study indicates the level of 36Cl abundances to be variable so that there seems to be no simple relationship between 10Be and 36Cl. This would be expected if trapped cosmic rays rather

  12. Sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, contains an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aijun; Amalin, Divina; Shirali, Shyam; Serrano, Miguel S.; Franqui, Rosa A.; Oliver, James E.; Klun, Jerome A.; Aldrich, Jeffrey R.; Meyerdirk, Dale E.; Lapointe, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    Two compounds that together constitute the female sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus, were isolated, identified, and synthesized. They are (R)-2-isopropenyl-5-methyl-4-hexenyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [common name is (R)-lavandulyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate] and [(R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1-methylethylidene)cyclobutyl]methyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [which we refer to as (R)-maconelliyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate]. Maconelliol is an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene, and its structure has been established by enantioselective synthesis from precursors of known structure and configuration. A 1:5 synthetic mixture of the two RS esters (1 μg per rubber septum) proved to be a potent attractant of males in field bioassays. The pheromone component, maconelliyl 2-methylbutanoate, represents a heretofore undescribed natural product. PMID:15197282

  13. In vivo pink-beam imaging and fast alignment procedure for rat brain tumor radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Nemoz, Christian; Kibleur, Astrid; Hyacinthe, Jean Noël; Berruyer, Gilles; Brochard, Thierry; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Le Duc, Géraldine; Brun, Emmanuel; Elleaume, Hélène; Serduc, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    A fast positioning method for brain tumor microbeam irradiations for preclinical studies at third-generation X-ray sources is described. The three-dimensional alignment of the animals relative to the X-ray beam was based on the X-ray tomography multi-slices after iodine infusion. This method used pink-beam imaging produced by the ID17 wiggler. A graphical user interface has been developed in order to define the irradiation parameters: field width, height, number of angles and X-ray dose. This study is the first reporting an image guided method for soft tissue synchrotron radiotherapy. It allowed microbeam radiation therapy irradiation fields to be reduced by a factor of ∼20 compared with previous studies. It permitted more targeted, more efficient brain tumor microbeam treatments and reduces normal brain toxicity of the radiation treatment.

  14. Iodine-xenon studies of Allende inclusions - Eggs and the Pink Angel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Caffee, M. W.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    1988-01-01

    The I-Xe systems of six Allende inclusions (five Eggs and the Pink Angel) appear to have been altered by nonnebular secondary processes. Evidence for this includes temperature-ordered variations in the initial I isotopic composition within several objects (with older apparent I-Xe ages associated with higher extraction temperatures) and the absence of primitive I-Xe ages. The span of apparent ages seen in Allende objects (10 Myr or more) is probably too long to reflect any nebular process, so at least some alteration probably occurred ont the parent body. The range in initial (Pu-244)/(U-238) ratios for the Eggs (0.003-0.014) includes the current best estimates of the bulk solar system value (0.004-0.007). For Egg 3, the Pu/U ratio varies by a factor of two between extractions, probably the result of fractionation of Pu from U among different phases.

  15. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton. [Southern California deserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The main objective is to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used for crop identification. The status of each field (i.e., crop, bare, harvested, wet, plowed) is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground survey information taken at the time of ERTS-1 overflights. A computer analysis has been performed to compare field and satellite data to a crop calendar. Correlation to data has been 97% for field condition. Actual crop identification varies; cotton identification is only 63% due to lack of full season coverage.

  16. Selection for increased pheromone response in the male pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Collins, R D; Cardé, R T

    1990-03-01

    The genetic basis of the duration and incidence of male wing fanning to pheromone in the pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), was examined by artificial selection. Using a still-air bioassay, males from a laboratory colony were selected for increased duration of wing fanning when exposed to a 65:35 blend of (Z,E)- and (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienyl acetates. The mean (+/- SE) duration of wing fanning in the selected line increased from 5.4 +/- 1.4 to 17.4 +/- 2.7 s after six generations. The increase in wing fanning duration was the result of an increase in response duration among responders and not the percentage of males that responded. Realized heritability of wing-fanning duration was 0.16 +/- 0.02. The amount and ratio of pheromone produced by females in the male-selected line did not change. PMID:2353914

  17. Phosphorylation by PINK1 Releases the UBL Domain and Initializes the Conformational Opening of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L.; Dourado, Daniel F. A. R.; Flores, Samuel C.; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1 or PARKIN are the most common causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Both gene products, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Parkin, functionally cooperate in a mitochondrial quality control pathway. Upon stress, PINK1 activates Parkin and enables its translocation to and ubiquitination of damaged mitochondria to facilitate their clearance from the cell. Though PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Ser65 is an important initial step, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of Parkin's enzymatic functions remain unclear. Using molecular modeling, we generated a complete structural model of human Parkin at all atom resolution. At steady state, the Ub ligase is maintained inactive in a closed, auto-inhibited conformation that results from intra-molecular interactions. Evidently, Parkin has to undergo major structural rearrangements in order to unleash its catalytic activity. As a spark, we have modeled PINK1-dependent Ser65 phosphorylation in silico and provide the first molecular dynamics simulation of Parkin conformations along a sequential unfolding pathway that could release its intertwined domains and enable its catalytic activity. We combined free (unbiased) molecular dynamics simulation, Monte Carlo algorithms, and minimal-biasing methods with cell-based high content imaging and biochemical assays. Phosphorylation of Ser65 results in widening of a newly defined cleft and dissociation of the regulatory N-terminal UBL domain. This motion propagates through further opening conformations that allow binding of an Ub-loaded E2 co-enzyme. Subsequent spatial reorientation of the catalytic centers of both enzymes might facilitate the transfer of the Ub moiety to charge Parkin. Our structure-function study provides the basis to elucidate regulatory mechanisms and activity of the neuroprotective Parkin. This may open up new avenues for the development of small molecule Parkin activators through

  18. Marking Errors: A Simple Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Theresa Cullen

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that using highlighters to mark errors produced a 76% class improvement in removing comma errors and a 95.5% improvement in removing apostrophe errors. Outlines two teaching procedures, to be followed before introducing this tool to the class, that enable students to remove errors at this effective rate. (JD)

  19. Early-Modern "Speech" Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Nick

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

  20. EP Profiles Inventor Mark Sherron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Mark Jerome Sherron, inventor of the ALLIES Line of electronic sensors for blind and visually-impaired people. Featuring the American Liquid Level Indicator electronic sensor (ALLI), Sherron's ALLIES product line also includes the Light Intensity Level Indicator (LILI), a multi-function electronic light sensor for electronic…

  1. Byssogenesis in the juvenile pink heelsplitter mussel, Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wen, Hai B; Hua, Dan; Ma, Xue Y; Jin, Wu; Zhuang, Yan B; Gu, Ruo B; Yuan, Xin H; Du, Xin W; Xu, Pao

    2015-11-01

    The North American pink heelsplitter (Potamilus alatus) differs from most freshwater mussels in China by the ability to secrete an ephemeral byssus during its juvenile stage. In the present study, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate this ephemeral byssal structure, and amino acid composition was analyzed and compared with that of other species. The results revealed that the byssus consists of a long byssal thread and a few adhesive plaques which are randomly set up along the thread and assembled by petioles. There is a thin but distinctive cuticle with a continuous homogeneous matrix surrounding the byssal thread. Structural variation occurred when the byssal thread was differentially stretched. Four-stranded helical primary fasciculi, which form a stable rope-like structure, become evident after removal of the cuticle. The primary fasciculi consist of bundles of hundreds of parallel secondary fasciculi, each measuring about 5 μm in diameter. All evidence indicates that the byssus of the pink heelsplitter has a significantly different macrostructure and microstructure than the permanent byssus of the marine mussel Mytilus. Byssogenesis ceases when juveniles exceed 30 mm in length, although it varies greatly even among juveniles of similar size. Byssus formation is influenced by substrate type. The unique characteristics of the byssus have important advantages for survival, transition, and aggregation during the early life history. This study not only provides first insight into the structure of the ephemeral byssus and its relationship to freshwater mussel development and growth, but also suggests possibilities for the synthesis of novel biopolymer materials particularly useful in freshwater ecosystems.

  2. Effects of Resistance to Bt Cotton on Diapause in the Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, Yves; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Biggs, Robert W.; Sims, Maria A.; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops are expected to delay the evolution of resistance. In a previous study where pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), larvae overwintered in outdoor insectaries, individuals from Bt-resistant strains had lower survival than individuals from Bt-susceptible strains or F1 progeny from crosses between resistant and susceptible adults. To investigate the physiological basis of such recessive cost, diapause duration was experimentally manipulated in the laboratory. Compared to a Bt-susceptible strain and F1 progeny, we hypothesized that Bt-resistant strains could exhibit a lower propensity or intensity of diapause, faster weight loss during overwintering, lower initial weight of diapausing larvae, and reduced longevity of moths emerging from diapause. Results were as expected for initial weight of diapausing larvae and longevity of overwintered male moths or female moths remaining in diapause for a short period. However, a higher diapause induction and intensity and slower weight loss occurred in F1 progeny and Bt-resistant strains than in a Bt-susceptible strain. Moreover, F1 progeny had greater overwintering survival than the Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible strains, and F1 female moths had the greatest longevity after sustaining long diapausing periods. All of these unexpected results may be explained by pleiotropic effects of resistance to Bt cotton that increased the strength of diapause in the F1 progeny and Bt-resistant strains. Incomplete resistance was reflected in disadvantages suffered by Bt-resistant individuals feeding on a Bt diet instead of a non-Bt diet, including lower diapause propensity, lower diapause intensity and reduced longevity of overwintered male moths. While this study suggests that the evolution of resistance to Bt cotton and feeding on a Bt diet in Bt-resistant individuals have pervasive effects on several traits associated with diapause

  3. Predictions of Taylor's power law, density dependence and pink noise from a neutrally modeled time series.

    PubMed

    Keil, Petr; Herben, Tomás; Rosindell, James; Storch, David

    2010-07-01

    There has recently been increasing interest in neutral models of biodiversity and their ability to reproduce the patterns observed in nature, such as species abundance distributions. Here we investigate the ability of a neutral model to predict phenomena observed in single-population time series, a study complementary to most existing work that concentrates on snapshots in time of the whole community. We consider tests for density dependence, the dominant frequencies of population fluctuation (spectral density) and a relationship between the mean and variance of a fluctuating population (Taylor's power law). We simulated an archipelago model of a set of interconnected local communities with variable mortality rate, migration rate, speciation rate, size of local community and number of local communities. Our spectral analysis showed 'pink noise': a departure from a standard random walk dynamics in favor of the higher frequency fluctuations which is partly consistent with empirical data. We detected density dependence in local community time series but not in metacommunity time series. The slope of the Taylor's power law in the model was similar to the slopes observed in natural populations, but the fit to the power law was worse. Our observations of pink noise and density dependence can be attributed to the presence of an upper limit to community sizes and to the effect of migration which distorts temporal autocorrelation in local time series. We conclude that some of the phenomena observed in natural time series can emerge from neutral processes, as a result of random zero-sum birth, death and migration. This suggests the neutral model would be a parsimonious null model for future studies of time series data.

  4. Byssogenesis in the juvenile pink heelsplitter mussel, Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wen, Hai B; Hua, Dan; Ma, Xue Y; Jin, Wu; Zhuang, Yan B; Gu, Ruo B; Yuan, Xin H; Du, Xin W; Xu, Pao

    2015-11-01

    The North American pink heelsplitter (Potamilus alatus) differs from most freshwater mussels in China by the ability to secrete an ephemeral byssus during its juvenile stage. In the present study, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate this ephemeral byssal structure, and amino acid composition was analyzed and compared with that of other species. The results revealed that the byssus consists of a long byssal thread and a few adhesive plaques which are randomly set up along the thread and assembled by petioles. There is a thin but distinctive cuticle with a continuous homogeneous matrix surrounding the byssal thread. Structural variation occurred when the byssal thread was differentially stretched. Four-stranded helical primary fasciculi, which form a stable rope-like structure, become evident after removal of the cuticle. The primary fasciculi consist of bundles of hundreds of parallel secondary fasciculi, each measuring about 5 μm in diameter. All evidence indicates that the byssus of the pink heelsplitter has a significantly different macrostructure and microstructure than the permanent byssus of the marine mussel Mytilus. Byssogenesis ceases when juveniles exceed 30 mm in length, although it varies greatly even among juveniles of similar size. Byssus formation is influenced by substrate type. The unique characteristics of the byssus have important advantages for survival, transition, and aggregation during the early life history. This study not only provides first insight into the structure of the ephemeral byssus and its relationship to freshwater mussel development and growth, but also suggests possibilities for the synthesis of novel biopolymer materials particularly useful in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:26312454

  5. Maternal mortality in a district hospital in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Gun, K M

    1970-06-01

    To ascertain the causes of high maternal mortality in West Bengal, the author examined maternal mortality between 1964-68. It was intended that measures to improve the situation in rural areas could be suggested. Women in labor often arrive at the hospital very late and few antenatal care facilities are available in rural areas. High risk cases often are delivered at home, a situation which often results in fetal complications. Maternal deaths have declined, but not dramatically. Of the 24,265 deliveries at the Burdwan district hospital, there were 333 maternal deaths for an incidence of 13.7/1000, along with another 42 cases where death was due to pregnancy-associated causes. In contrast, the maternal mortality rate in a district hospital in Calcutta was 4/1000 in 1968. Eclampsia accounted for 42.34% (141) of maternal deaths making it the major cause of death. In Calcutta this cause of death is receding gradually but in the districts it still accounts for a heavy loss of life (an incidence of 1 in 38). Adequate antenatal care would reduce this high mortality. 2 factors which have contributed to the high mortality are the hours lost in transporting a patient from a rural area and inadequate hospital staff. Postpartum hemorrhage and/or retained placenta was responsible for 39 deaths and none of the cases admitted from outside had received antenatal care. A shortage of blood was also a contributory factor. Severe anemia was responsible for 34 deaths and abortions resulted in another 29 deaths (16 because of severe sepsis; 13 due to hemorrhage or shock). An emergency service would help reduce the number of deaths but at present such a service does not even exist in the urban areas. Ruptured uterus resulted in 29 deaths and obstructed labor in 27 deaths. Placenta previa brought about 14 deaths and the remaining 20 deaths were due to such causes as accidental hemorrhage (10), hydatidiform mole (4), puerperal sepsis (3), ectopic pregnancy (2), and uterine inversion (1

  6. Sea salt production over Bay of Bengal : Effect of salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, K. N.; S K, S.; S S, B.; K, K.

    2015-12-01

    Marine aerosols constitute one of the most important natural aerosol systems globally and play an important role in global climate regulation and the marine biogenic system. One of the major constituents of the marine aerosol system is sea salt. Sea salt aerosols are produced via the bubble-bursting process resulting from whitecap generation (due to high wind speed). The resulting sea salt particles are of sub micrometre sizes and go up to a few micrometres. An increase in sea salt mass is primarily associated with increasing wind speeds. The increase in wind speed not only increases the mass concentration of the small-sized sea salt particles but also that of higher-sized particles. This behaviour is constrained by other factors like temperature and salinity. In the present work, this variability in the change in mass concentration of sea salt aerosol is studied with respect to the wind speed variation over Bay of Bengal (BoB). This work includes measurements from two field experiments held on 2006 ((ICARB) March-April) and 2012 ((CTCZ) July-August) over BoB. An analysis of the mass concentration with the wind history showed the mass concentration increasing with the increase in wind speed. Here wind history is used instead of instantaneous wind speed, because it is a good indicator of dependence of mass concentrations on wind speed. However, the cruise held in 2012 showed the size of particles constraining to 2.5 μm unlike the cruise in 2006. This difference in the size of the particles formed is majorly due to change in salinity. In 2012, the cruise was during summer monsoon season wherein the high runoff associated with high precipitation lead to reduced salinity. Whereas in 2006, the cruise was in summer season during which high evaporation lead to increase in salinity. This shows that with lower salinity the sea salt particles formed will be of smaller size. This also shows that apart from wind speed, salinity also affects the sea salt production.

  7. Assessing the suitability of benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups to reconstruct paleomonsoon from Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasa, M.; Saraswat, Rajeev; Nigam, Rajiv

    2016-04-01

    Temporal changes in benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups were suggested as an effective proxy to reconstruct past monsoon intensity from the Arabian Sea. Here, in order to test the applicability of temporal variation in morpho-groups to reconstruct past monsoon intensity from the Bay of Bengal, we have documented recent benthic foraminiferal distribution from the continental shelf region of the northwestern Bay of Bengal. Based on the external morphology, benthic foraminifera were categorized into rounded symmetrical (RSBF) and angular asymmetrical benthic foraminifera (AABF). Additionally, a few other dominant groups were also identified based on test composition (agglutinated, calcareous) and abundance (Asterorotalids and Nonions). The relative abundance of each group was compared with the ambient physico-chemical conditions, including dissolved oxygen, organic matter, salinity and temperature. We report that the RSBF are abundant in comparatively warm and well oxygenated waters of low salinity, suggesting a preference for high energy environment, whereas AABF dominate relatively cold, hypersaline deeper waters with low dissolved oxygen, indicating a low energy environment. The agglutinated foraminifera, Asterorotalids and Nonions dominate shallow water, low salinity regions, whereas the calcareous benthic foraminiferal abundance increases away from the riverine influx regions. Food availability, as estimated from organic carbon abundance in sediments, has comparatively less influence on faunal distribution in the northwestern Bay of Bengal, as compared to dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity. We conclude that the factors associated with freshwater influx affect the distribution of benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups in the northwestern Bay of Bengal and thus it can be used to reconstruct past monsoon intensity from the Bay of Bengal.

  8. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥500 ppm must be marked individually with the ML mark as... of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥500 ppm shall be marked as follows: The vault...

  9. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm must be marked individually with the ML mark as... of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm shall be marked as follows: The vault...

  10. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm must be marked individually with the ML mark as... of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm shall be marked as follows: The vault...

  11. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm must be marked individually with the ML mark as... of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm shall be marked as follows: The vault...

  12. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm must be marked individually with the ML mark as... of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥ 500 ppm shall be marked as follows: The vault...

  13. 46 CFR 164.023-15 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... permanently and clearly marked in a color which contrasts with the color of the surface on which the marking is applied. Each label must be marked with— (1) The manufacturer's or supplier's name, trade name,...

  14. Instantaneous radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. [DOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, H. Jr.; Hupf, H.B.; Wanek, P.M.

    The disclosure relates to the radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. A purified rose bengal tablet is stirred into acidified ethanol at or near room temperature, until a suspension forms. Reductant-free /sup 125/I/sup -/ is added and the resulting mixture stands until the exchange label reaction occurs at room temperature. A solution of sterile isotonic phosphate buffer and sodium hydroxide is added and the final resulting mixture is sterilized by filtration.

  15. Biological response to local and remote forcing in the bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Helga; Goes, Joaquim; deRada, Sergio; Thoppil, Prasad; Matondkar, Prabhu

    2014-05-01

    The permanently stratified water column in the Bay of Bengal and a strong halocline, resulting from a heavy influx of freshwater from river runoff and precipitation is an impediment to mixing processes that can inject new nutrients into the bay. Consequently, unlike the monsoonal blooms of the Arabian Sea with rates of primary productivity exceptional in magnitude among offshore ocean regions, phytoplankton productivity in the Bay of Bengal is modest and largely dependent on processes that can erode the halocline and entrain nutrients into the euphotic zone. Although considerable advances have been made in understanding the physical mechanisms that are particularly unique to the Bay of Bengal such as the Sri Lanka and Bay of Bengal Domes during the Southwest monsoon, mixing induced by tropical cyclones and cyclonic eddies, all of which can bring new nutrients into the euphotic zone, there seems to be little understanding of the biological response. This is a consequence of sparse shipboard biological measurements of phytoplankton biomass and productivity and inadequate coverage of ocean color satellite measurements because of persistent cloud cover. In view of these limitations, ecosystem models are more advantageous as they offer large scale coverage even under cloudy conditions as well as over the euphotic depth an important aspect for studying the deep chlorophyll maxima. In this study we use outputs from a Naval Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) coupled to a 13-component ecosystem model to describe some of the unique physical forcing features of the Bay of Bengal which enhance phytoplankton productivity in an otherwise low productivity environment. Model results are compared and evaluated against in-situ and remotely sensed observations. We focus on three physically and biologically active regions viz. the Sri Lanka Dome during the Southwest monsoon followed by the Bay of Bengal Dome to its north and the winter bloom in the southwest of the bay. Using the model

  16. Marked Initial Pitch in Questions Signals Marked Communicative Function.

    PubMed

    Sicoli, Mark A; Stivers, Tanya; Enfield, N J; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    In conversation, the initial pitch of an utterance can provide an early phonetic cue of the communicative function, the speech act, or the social action being implemented. We conducted quantitative acoustic measurements and statistical analyses of pitch in over 10,000 utterances, including 2512 questions, their responses, and about 5000 other utterances by 180 total speakers from a corpus of 70 natural conversations in 10 languages. We measured pitch at first prominence in a speaker's utterance and discriminated utterances by language, speaker, gender, question form, and what social action is achieved by the speaker's turn. Through applying multivariate logistic regression we found that initial pitch that significantly deviated from the speaker's median pitch level was predictive of the social action of the question. In questions designed to solicit agreement with an evaluation rather than information, pitch was divergent from a speaker's median predictably in the top 10% of a speakers range. This latter finding reveals a kind of iconicity in the relationship between prosody and social action in which a marked pitch correlates with a marked social action. Thus, we argue that speakers rely on pitch to provide an early signal for recipients that the question is not to be interpreted through its literal semantics but rather through an inference. PMID:26677643

  17. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking devices. 221.14 Section 221.14..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall...

  18. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  19. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  20. 46 CFR 160.171-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Immersion Suits § 160.171-23 Marking. (a) Each immersion suit must be marked with the words “IMMERSION SUIT—COMPLIES WITH SOLAS 74/83,” the name of the manufacturer... case must be marked with the words “immersion suit” and the size. (c) The markings for the child...

  1. Reading Skill, Textbook Marking, and Course Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Kenneth E.; Limber, John E.

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed students enrolled in Introductory Psychology courses about their text marking preferences and analyzed the marking in their textbooks. Low-skill readers report more reliance on highlighting strategies and actually mark their texts more than better readers. In addition, low-skilled readers prefer to buy used, previously marked texts…

  2. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  3. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  4. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  5. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate...

  6. 14 CFR 45.10 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking. 45.10 Section 45.10 Aeronautics..., § 45.10 was added, effective Apr. 14, 2010. The effective date of this addition was subsequently... REGISTRATION MARKING Identification of Aircraft and Related Products § 45.10 Marking. No person may mark...

  7. Black anneal marking with pulsed fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, T.; Harrison, P.; Norman, S.

    2015-07-01

    High contrast marking of metals is used in a wide range of industries. Fiber laser marking of these metals provides non-contact marking with no consumables, offering many advantages over traditional methods of metal marking. The laser creates a permanent mark on the material surface combining heat and oxygen with no noticeable ablation. The focussed beam of the fiber laser in combination with precision control of the heat input is able to treat small areas of the material surface evenly and consistently, which is critical for producing black anneal marks. The marks are highly legible which is ideal for marking serial numbers or small data matrices where traceability is required. This paper reports the experimental study for producing black anneal marks on various grades of stainless steel using fiber lasers. The influence of metal surface finish, beam quality, spot size diameter and pulse duration are investigated for producing both smooth and decorative anneal marks.

  8. The Mark III vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cassell, R.; Cheu, E.; Freese, T.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Mir, R.; Odian, A.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 ..mu..m at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 ..mu..m using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin.

  9. A Plume Head and Tail in the Bengal Basin and Bay of Bengal: Rajmahal and Sylhet Traps with Surrounding Alkalic Volcanism and the Ninetyeast Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, A. R.; Weaver, K. L.; Sengupta, S.

    2001-12-01

    Although the 116-113 Ma-old Rajmahal-Sylhet Traps of the Bengal basin, potentially covering an area > 2x105 km2, can be directly linked via Ninetyeast Ridge to the Kerguelen Plume, more than 5,000 kms away, it is generally believed that this flood basalt volcanism originated from a normal MORB-type mantle at the boundary of a mantle plume. This model, primarily based on geochemical analysis of a limited number of Rajmahal basalts, requires initiation of rifting of the eastern Indian margin by a smaller thermal flux than necessary for creating a large igneous province. Here we show that the extent of volcanism associated with the Rajmahal-Sylhet Traps is far greater than usually assumed, thus requiring a direct involvement of the Kerguelen Plume. In addition to the surface exposures of the flood basalts in Rajmahal-Sylhet, the basaltic rocks have been encountered in many parts of the Bengal Basin in bore holes reaching a maximum thickness of 600 m in the western margin of the Basin (Sengupta, Bull. AAPG, 1966) Most importantly, several suites of ultrapotassic and alkalic intrusive complexes, similar to those associated with the Deccan and Siberia Traps, occur over wide areas within and outside the Basin: i) southwest of the surface exposures of Rajmahal basalts, distance 200km, intrusive in Lower Gondwana coalbeds, Ar-Ar age 114 Ma (P.R. Renne, personal communication), ii) 400 km north of Rajmahal, exposed in Sikkim, intrusive into metamorphic crystalline nappes of the Himalayas; distance here is not real and must be a minimum as the nappes have been transported from the north, iii) northeast of Rajmahal in Meghalaya State, distance 550 km, intrusive into metamorphic Precambrian basement rocks. Nd-Sr isotopic ratios and trace element characteristics of these above ultrapotassic and alkaline rocks are consistent with their origin associated with the Kerguelen Plume. The wide range in Nd-Sr array for these rocks, including the Sylhet and Rajmahal basalts, shows

  10. Evidence of damage to pink salmon inhabiting Prince William Sound, Alaska, three generations after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Bue, B.G.; Miller, G.D.; Seeb, J.E.; Sharr, S.

    1995-12-31

    Investigations into the environmental effects of the 1 989 Exxon Valdez oil spill lead us to conclude that chronic damage occurred in some pink salmon populations. Differences in survival between streams contaminated by oil and uncontaminated streams have been observed annually since the spill for pink salmon embryos incubating in the intertidal portions of Prince William Sound. The authors assessed the environmental influence on these findings by collecting gametes from both contaminated and uncontaminated streams, transporting them to a hatchery where intra-stream crosses were made, and incubating the resulting embryos under identical conditions. Lower survival was detected in the embryos originating from the oil-contaminated streams indicating that the agent responsible for the differences detected in the field was genetic rather than environmental.

  11. Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) rescues motor, olfactory, mitochondrial and synaptic impairment in PINK1B9 Drosophila melanogaster genetic model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Poddighe, Simone; De Rose, Francescaelena; Marotta, Roberto; Ruffilli, Roberta; Fanti, Maura; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta; Collu, Ignazio; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) mutant for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9) gene is a powerful tool to investigate physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using PINK1B9 mutant Dm we sought to explore the effects of Mucuna pruriens methanolic extract (Mpe), a L-Dopa-containing herbal remedy of PD. The effects of Mpe on PINK1B9 mutants, supplied with standard diet to larvae and adults, were assayed on 3-6 (I), 10-15 (II) and 20-25 (III) days old flies. Mpe 0.1% significantly extended lifespan of PINK1B9 and fully rescued olfactory response to 1-hexanol and improved climbing behavior of PINK1B9 of all ages; in contrast, L-Dopa (0.01%, percentage at which it is present in Mpe 0.1%) ameliorated climbing of only PINK1B9 flies of age step II. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of antennal lobes and thoracic ganglia of PINK1B9 revealed that Mpe restored to wild type (WT) levels both T-bars and damaged mitochondria. Western blot analysis of whole brain showed that Mpe, but not L-Dopa on its own, restored bruchpilot (BRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression to age-matched WT control levels. These results highlight multiple sites of action of Mpe, suggesting that its effects cannot only depend upon its L-Dopa content and support the clinical observation of Mpe as an effective medication with intrinsic ability of delaying the onset of chronic L-Dopa-induced long-term motor complications. Overall, this study strengthens the relevance of using PINK1B9 Dm as a translational model to study the properties of Mucuna pruriens for PD treatment.

  12. Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) rescues motor, olfactory, mitochondrial and synaptic impairment in PINK1B9 Drosophila melanogaster genetic model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Poddighe, Simone; De Rose, Francescaelena; Marotta, Roberto; Ruffilli, Roberta; Fanti, Maura; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta; Collu, Ignazio; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) mutant for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9) gene is a powerful tool to investigate physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using PINK1B9 mutant Dm we sought to explore the effects of Mucuna pruriens methanolic extract (Mpe), a L-Dopa-containing herbal remedy of PD. The effects of Mpe on PINK1B9 mutants, supplied with standard diet to larvae and adults, were assayed on 3-6 (I), 10-15 (II) and 20-25 (III) days old flies. Mpe 0.1% significantly extended lifespan of PINK1B9 and fully rescued olfactory response to 1-hexanol and improved climbing behavior of PINK1B9 of all ages; in contrast, L-Dopa (0.01%, percentage at which it is present in Mpe 0.1%) ameliorated climbing of only PINK1B9 flies of age step II. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of antennal lobes and thoracic ganglia of PINK1B9 revealed that Mpe restored to wild type (WT) levels both T-bars and damaged mitochondria. Western blot analysis of whole brain showed that Mpe, but not L-Dopa on its own, restored bruchpilot (BRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression to age-matched WT control levels. These results highlight multiple sites of action of Mpe, suggesting that its effects cannot only depend upon its L-Dopa content and support the clinical observation of Mpe as an effective medication with intrinsic ability of delaying the onset of chronic L-Dopa-induced long-term motor complications. Overall, this study strengthens the relevance of using PINK1B9 Dm as a translational model to study the properties of Mucuna pruriens for PD treatment. PMID:25340511

  13. Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) Rescues Motor, Olfactory, Mitochondrial and Synaptic Impairment in PINK1B9 Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ruffilli, Roberta; Fanti, Maura; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta; Collu, Ignazio; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) mutant for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9) gene is a powerful tool to investigate physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using PINK1B9 mutant Dm we sought to explore the effects of Mucuna pruriens methanolic extract (Mpe), a L-Dopa-containing herbal remedy of PD. The effects of Mpe on PINK1B9 mutants, supplied with standard diet to larvae and adults, were assayed on 3–6 (I), 10–15 (II) and 20–25 (III) days old flies. Mpe 0.1% significantly extended lifespan of PINK1B9 and fully rescued olfactory response to 1-hexanol and improved climbing behavior of PINK1B9 of all ages; in contrast, L-Dopa (0.01%, percentage at which it is present in Mpe 0.1%) ameliorated climbing of only PINK1B9 flies of age step II. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of antennal lobes and thoracic ganglia of PINK1B9 revealed that Mpe restored to wild type (WT) levels both T-bars and damaged mitochondria. Western blot analysis of whole brain showed that Mpe, but not L-Dopa on its own, restored bruchpilot (BRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression to age-matched WT control levels. These results highlight multiple sites of action of Mpe, suggesting that its effects cannot only depend upon its L-Dopa content and support the clinical observation of Mpe as an effective medication with intrinsic ability of delaying the onset of chronic L-Dopa-induced long-term motor complications. Overall, this study strengthens the relevance of using PINK1B9 Dm as a translational model to study the properties of Mucuna pruriens for PD treatment. PMID:25340511

  14. Latitudinal and longitudinal variation in aerosol characteristics from Sun photometer and MODIS over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during ICARB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sumita; Ramachandran, S.

    2008-07-01

    Spatial variations in aerosol optical properties as function of latitude and longitude are analysed over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during ICARB cruise period of March-May 2006 from in situ sun photometer and MODIS (Terra, Aqua) satellite measurements. Monthly mean 550 nm aerosol optical depths (AODs) over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea show an increase from March to May both in spatial extent and magnitude. AODs are found to increase with latitude from 4°N to 20°N over the Bay of Bengal while over Arabian Sea, variations are not significant. Sun photometer and MODIS AODs agree well within ±1σ variation. Bay of Bengal AOD (0.28) is higher than the Arabian Sea (0.24) latitudinally. Aerosol fine mode fraction (FMF) is higher than 0.6 over Bay of Bengal, while FMF in the Arabian Sea is about 0.5. Bay of Bengal α(˜1) is higher than the Arabian Sea value of 0.7, suggesting the dominance of fine mode aerosols over Bay of Bengal which is corroborated by higher FMF values over Bay of Bengal. Air back trajectory analyses suggest that aerosols from different source regions contribute differently to the optical characteristics over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.

  15. Exceptional aerobic scope and cardiovascular performance of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) may underlie resilience in a warming climate.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy D; Jeffries, Kenneth M; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2011-09-15

    Little is known of the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of climate change on animals, yet it is clear that some species appear more resilient than others. As pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in British Columbia, Canada, have flourished in the current era of climate warming in contrast to other Pacific salmonids in the same watershed, this study investigated whether the continuing success of pink salmon may be linked with exceptional cardiorespiratory adaptations and thermal tolerance of adult fish during their spawning migration. Sex-specific differences existed in minimum and maximum oxygen consumption rates (M(O2,min) and M(O2,max), respectively) across the temperature range of 8 to 28°C, reflected in a higher aerobic scope (M(O2,max)-M(O2,min)) for males. Nevertheless, the aerobic scope of both sexes was optimal at 21°C (T(opt)) and was elevated across the entire temperature range in comparison with other Pacific salmonids. As T(opt) for aerobic scope of this pink salmon population is higher than in other Pacific salmonids, and historic river temperature data reveal that this population rarely encounters temperatures exceeding T(opt), these findings offer a physiological explanation for the continuing success of this species throughout the current climate-warming period. Despite this, declining cardiac output was evident above 17°C, and maximum attainable swimming speed was impaired above ∼23°C, suggesting negative implications under prolonged thermal exposure. While forecasted summer river temperatures over the next century are likely to negatively impact all Pacific salmonids, we suggest that the cardiorespiratory capacity of pink salmon may confer a selective advantage over other species.

  16. A bacterial metabolite induces glutathione-tractable proteostatic damage, proteasomal disturbances, and PINK1-dependent autophagy in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Martinez, B A; Kim, H; Ray, A; Caldwell, G A; Caldwell, K A

    2015-10-15

    Gene-by-environment interactions are thought to underlie the majority of idiopathic cases of neurodegenerative disease. Recently, we reported that an environmental metabolite extracted from Streptomyces venezuelae increases ROS and damages mitochondria, leading to eventual neurodegeneration of C. elegans dopaminergic neurons. Here we link those data to idiopathic disease models that predict loss of protein handling as a component of disorder progression. We demonstrate that the bacterial metabolite leads to proteostatic disruption in multiple protein-misfolding models and has the potential to synergistically enhance the toxicity of aggregate-prone proteins. Genetically, this metabolite is epistatically regulated by loss-of-function to pink-1, the C. elegans PARK6 homolog responsible for mitochondrial maintenance and autophagy in other animal systems. In addition, the metabolite works through a genetic pathway analogous to loss-of-function in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), which we find is also epistatically regulated by loss of PINK-1 homeostasis. To determine remitting counter agents, we investigated several established antioxidants and found that glutathione (GSH) can significantly protect against metabolite-induced proteostasis disruption. In addition, GSH protects against the toxicity of MG132 and can compensate for the combined loss of both pink-1 and the E3 ligase pdr-1, a Parkin homolog. In assessing the impact of this metabolite on mitochondrial maintenance, we observe that it causes fragmentation of mitochondria that is attenuated by GSH and an initial surge in PINK-1-dependent autophagy. These studies mechanistically advance our understanding of a putative environmental contributor to neurodegeneration and factors influencing in vivo neurotoxicity.

  17. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0–21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L∗, a∗, b∗) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L∗ and a∗, did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001) with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity. PMID:27019785

  18. A bacterial metabolite induces glutathione-tractable proteostatic damage, proteasomal disturbances, and PINK1-dependent autophagy in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, B A; Kim, H; Ray, A; Caldwell, G A; Caldwell, K A

    2015-01-01

    Gene-by-environment interactions are thought to underlie the majority of idiopathic cases of neurodegenerative disease. Recently, we reported that an environmental metabolite extracted from Streptomyces venezuelae increases ROS and damages mitochondria, leading to eventual neurodegeneration of C. elegans dopaminergic neurons. Here we link those data to idiopathic disease models that predict loss of protein handling as a component of disorder progression. We demonstrate that the bacterial metabolite leads to proteostatic disruption in multiple protein-misfolding models and has the potential to synergistically enhance the toxicity of aggregate-prone proteins. Genetically, this metabolite is epistatically regulated by loss-of-function to pink-1, the C. elegans PARK6 homolog responsible for mitochondrial maintenance and autophagy in other animal systems. In addition, the metabolite works through a genetic pathway analogous to loss-of-function in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), which we find is also epistatically regulated by loss of PINK-1 homeostasis. To determine remitting counter agents, we investigated several established antioxidants and found that glutathione (GSH) can significantly protect against metabolite-induced proteostasis disruption. In addition, GSH protects against the toxicity of MG132 and can compensate for the combined loss of both pink-1 and the E3 ligase pdr-1, a Parkin homolog. In assessing the impact of this metabolite on mitochondrial maintenance, we observe that it causes fragmentation of mitochondria that is attenuated by GSH and an initial surge in PINK-1-dependent autophagy. These studies mechanistically advance our understanding of a putative environmental contributor to neurodegeneration and factors influencing in vivo neurotoxicity. PMID:26469957

  19. Targeted deletion of PTEN in cardiomyocytes renders cardiac contractile dysfunction through interruption of Pink1-AMPK signaling and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Roe, Nathan D; Xu, Xihui; Kandadi, Machender R; Hu, Nan; Pang, Jiaojiao; Weiser-Evans, Mary C M; Ren, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deleted from chromosome 10 has been implicated in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis although the underlying mechanism(s) remains elusive. We generated a murine model of cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of PTEN to evaluate cardiac geometry and contractile function, as well as the effect of metformin on PTEN deficiency-induced cardiac anomalies, if any. Cardiac histology, autophagy and related signaling molecules were evaluated. Cardiomyocyte-specific PTEN deletion elicited cardiac hypertrophy and contractile anomalies (echocardiographic and cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction) associated with compromised intracellular Ca(2+) handling. PTEN deletion-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile anomalies were associated with dampened phosphorylation of PTEN-inducible kinase 1 (Pink1) and AMPK. Interestingly, administration of AMPK activator metformin (200mg/kg/d, in drinking H2O for 4weeks) rescued against PTEN deletion-induced geometric and functional defects as well as interrupted autophagy and autophagic flux in the heart. Moreover, metformin administration partially although significantly attenuated PTEN deletion-induced accumulation of superoxide. RNA interference against Pink1 in H9C2 myoblasts overtly increased intracellular ATP levels and suppressed AMPK phosphorylation, confirming the role of AMPK as a downstream target for PTEN-Pink1. Further scrutiny revealed that activation of AMPK and autophagy using metformin and rapamycin, respectively, rescued against PTEN deletion-induced mechanical anomalies with little additive effect. These data demonstrated that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of PTEN leads to the loss of Pink1-AMPK signaling, development of cardiac hypertrophy and contractile defect. Activation of AMPK rescued against PTEN deletion-induced cardiac anomalies associated with restoration of autophagy and autophagic flux. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control

  20. Melatonin rescues zebrafish embryos from the parkinsonian phenotype restoring the parkin/PINK1/DJ-1/MUL1 network.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Casado, María E; Lima, Elena; García, José A; Doerrier, Carolina; Aranda, Paula; Sayed, Ramy Ka; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Escames, Germaine; López, Luis C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2016-08-01

    Multiple studies reporting mitochondrial impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) involve knockout or knockdown models to inhibit the expression of mitochondrial-related genes, including parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 ones. Melatonin has significant neuroprotective properties, which have been related to its ability to boost mitochondrial bioenergetics. The meaning and molecular targets of melatonin in PD are yet unclear. Zebrafish are an outstanding model of PD because they are vertebrates, their dopaminergic system is comparable to the nigrostriatal system of humans, and their brains express the same genes as mammals. The exposure of 24 hpf zebrafish embryos to MPTP leads to a significant inhibition of the mitochondrial complex I and the induction of sncga gene, responsible for enhancing γ-synuclein accumulation, which is related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, MPTP inhibited the parkin/PINK1/DJ-1 expression, impeding the normal function of the parkin/PINK1/DJ-1/MUL1 network to remove the damaged mitochondria. This situation remains over time, and removing MPTP from the treatment did not stop the neurodegenerative process. On the contrary, mitochondria become worse during the next 2 days without MPTP, and the embryos developed a severe motor impairment that cannot be rescued because the mitochondrial-related gene expression remained inhibited. Melatonin, added together with MPTP or added once MPTP was removed, prevented and recovered, respectively, the parkinsonian phenotype once it was established, restoring gene expression and normal function of the parkin/PINK1/DJ-1/MUL1 loop and also the normal motor activity of the embryos. The results show, for the first time, that melatonin restores brain function in zebrafish suffering with Parkinson-like disease.

  1. A novel PGC-1α isoform in brain localizes to mitochondria and associates with PINK1 and VDAC

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Joungil; Batchu, Vera Venkatanaresh Kumar; Schubert, Manfred; Castellani, Rudolph J.; Russell, James W.

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •Novel 35 kDa PGC-1α localizes to mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix in brain. •Mitochondrial localization of 35 kDa PGC-1α depends on VDAC protein. •Mitochondrial localization of 35 kDa PGC-1α depends on membrane potential. •The 35 kDa PGC-1α associates and colocalizes with PINK in brain mitochondria. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are powerful regulators of mitochondrial function. Here, we report that a previously unrecognized, novel 35 kDa PGC-1α isoform localizes to the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix in brain as determined by protease protection and carbonate extraction assays, as well as by immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoelectron microscopy and import experiments in vitro revealed that 35 kDa PGC-1α colocalizes and interacts with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and that its import depends on VDAC. Valinomycin treatment which depolarizes the membrane potential, abolished mitochondrial localization of the 35 kDa PGC-1α. Using blue native-PAGE, co-immunoprecipitation, and immunoelectron microscopy analyses, we found that the 35 kDa PGC-1α binds and colocalizes with PINK1 in brain mitochondria. This is the first report regarding mitochondrial localization of a novel 35 kDa PGC-1α isoform and its association with PINK1, suggesting possible regulatory roles for mitochondrial function in the brain.

  2. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming; Pan, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0-21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L (∗), a (∗), b (∗)) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380-780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L (∗) and a (∗), did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001) with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity.

  3. Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To minimise the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic in the environment, it is important to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health. We investigated the effects of arsenic on cattle by estimating arsenic concentration in biological samples of cattle that consumed contaminated drinking water and feedstuffs directly or indirectly. We have selected arsenic prone village that is Ghentugachi, Nadia district, West Bengal, India, along with arsenic safe control village, Akna in Hoogli district, West Bengal, India. It is found that arsenic is deposited highly in blood, urine and faeces. Agricultural field is contaminated through cattle urine, hair, faeces, cow dung cakes and farmyard manure. Bioconcentration factor and biotransfer factor are two important biomarkers to assess the subclinical toxicity in cattle, as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings.

  4. Tetralogy of Fallot and atrial septal defect in a white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pazzi, Paolo; Lim, Chee K; Steyl, Johan

    2014-01-01

    A 3-week-old female white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with acute onset tachypnoea, cyanosis and hypothermia. The cub was severely hypoxaemic with a mixed acid-base disturbance. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. Additionally, an atrial septal defect was found on necropsy, resulting in the final diagnosis of Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect (a subclass of Pentalogy of Fallot). This report is the first to encompass arterial blood gas analysis, thoracic radiographs, echocardiography and necropsy findings in a white Bengal Tiger cub diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect. PMID:24594084

  5. Tetralogy of Fallot and atrial septal defect in a white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 3-week-old female white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with acute onset tachypnoea, cyanosis and hypothermia. The cub was severely hypoxaemic with a mixed acid–base disturbance. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. Additionally, an atrial septal defect was found on necropsy, resulting in the final diagnosis of Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect (a subclass of Pentalogy of Fallot). This report is the first to encompass arterial blood gas analysis, thoracic radiographs, echocardiography and necropsy findings in a white Bengal Tiger cub diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect. PMID:24594084

  6. Isolation of Escherichia coli to detect faecal contamination of infants and their mothers in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S; Mondal, S K; Saha, M R; Sengupta, P G; Gupta, D N; Ghosh, S; Sircar, B K

    1997-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to gain insight into the sources of faecal contamination of infants in rural Bengal. It was carried out in three villages near Calcutta, India, from June 1993 to August 1995 among 148 infants and their mothers. Escherichia coli was used as an indicator of faecal pollution. A total of 725 samples, including hand rinsings of children and mothers, feeding utensils and leftover food were examined. The total isolation rate of faecal E. coli was 30%. The isolation rates from hands of children and mothers were 17% and 40% respectively. The germs from 30% of utensils and 59% of leftover food and drinks were recovered further. The study highlights the precarious hygiene in rural Bengal. PMID:9473882

  7. The Potential of Intralesional Rose Bengal to Stimulate T-Cell Mediated Anti-Tumor Responses

    PubMed Central

    Maker, Ajay V; Prabhakar, Bellur; Pardiwala, Krunal

    2015-01-01

    Rose Bengal (RB) is a red synthetic dye that was initially used in the garment industry and has been used safely for decades as a corneal stain by ophthalmologists. Antineoplastic properties of RB have also been observed, though the mechanism of action remained to be elucidated. Recently, interest in RB as a therapeutic cancer treatment has increased due to significant anti-tumor responses with direct tumor injection in human clinical trials for metastatic melanoma. In these patients, there has been the implication that RB may mount a T-cell mediated anti-tumor response and impart antigen-specific responses in distant bystander lesions. This article serves to evaluate the potential of intralesional rose bengal to stimulate T-cell mediated anti-tumor responses in in-vitro, pre-clinical, and clinical studies. PMID:26618054

  8. Chronic arsenic toxicity in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India--a review and commentary.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Chowdhury, U K; Mukherjee, S C; Mondal, B K; Paul, K; Lodh, D; Biswas, B K; Chanda, C R; Basu, G K; Saha, K C; Roy, S; Das, R; Palit, S K; Quamruzzaman, Q; Chakraborti, D

    2001-01-01

    Fifty districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal, India have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization's maximum permissible limit of 50 microg/L. The area and population of 50 districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal are 118,849 km2 and 104.9 million and 38,865 km2 and 42.7 million, respectively. Our current data show arsenic levels above 50 microg/ L in 2000 villages, 178 police stations of 50 affected districts in Bangladesh and 2600 villages, 74 police stations/blocks of 9 affected districts in West Bengal. We have so far analyzed 34,000 and 101,934 hand tube-well water samples from Bangladesh and West Bengal respectively by FI-HG-AAS of which 56% and 52%, respectively, contained arsenic above 10 microg/L and 37% and 25% arsenic above 50 microg/L. In our preliminary study 18,000 persons in Bangladesh and 86,000 persons in West Bengal were clinically examined in arsenic-affected districts. Of them, 3695 (20.6% including 6.11% children) in Bangladesh and 8500 (9.8% including 1.7% children) in West Bengal had arsenical dermatological features. Symptoms of chronic arsenic toxicity developed insidiously after 6 months to 2 years or more of exposure. The time of onset depends on the concentration of arsenic in the drinking water, volume of intake, and the health and nutritional status of individuals. Major dermatological signs are diffuse or spotted melanosis, leucomelanosis, and keratosis. Chronic arsenicosis is a multisystem disorder. Apart from generalized weakness, appetite and weight loss, and anemia, our patients had symptoms relating to involvement of the lungs, gastrointestinal system, liver, spleen, genitourinary system, hemopoietic system, eyes, nervous system, and cardiovascular system. We found evidence of arsenic neuropathy in 37.3% (154 of 413 cases) in one group and 86.8% (33 of 38 cases) in another. Most of these cases had mild and predominantly sensory neuropathy. Central nervous system involvement

  9. Laboratory and field assessment of arsenic testing field kits in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Pande, S P; Deshpande, L S; Kaul, S N

    2001-04-01

    High concentrations of arsenic in ground waters in West Bengal and Bangladesh have become a major cause for concern in recent years. Given the enormity and the severity of the problem of arsenic poisoning, a task of evaluating the commercially available arsenic detection field kits for their capabilities was undertaken. In the light of the findings, generic specifications were recommended which could form the basis for indigenous manufacture of these kits in the arsenic affected countries. This article presents the results of the laboratory and field evaluation conducted in Bangladesh and West Bengal of five arsenic testing field kits. The salient features of the kits, their merits and limitations have been brought out. Based on the criteria of kit design, quality of chemicals used, colour comparator charts, detection range, time required for analysis, cost etc., a comparative ranking of the kits has been made to facilitate the choice of the kit to meet specific requirements.

  10. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and physiological stress among adult, male potato cultivators of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2015-03-01

    A total of 70 male potato cultivators were selected randomly from the villages of West Bengal, India, to evaluate musculoskeletal disorder (MSD), thermal stress, and physiological stress and were compared with 70 controls from the urban sector of West Bengal. Modified Nordic questionnaire studies and a posture analysis were performed in for the male potato cultivators by the Rapid Entire Body Assessment method. Most of the participants suffered discomfort at different parts of the body, especially in the lower back, knee, ankle, and feet regions. Potato cultivators suffered maximum discomfort during spading, planting seeds, weeding, picking crops, and sprinkling water. Therefore, it can be concluded that prolonged work activity, high repetitiveness, and remaining constantly in an awkward posture for a prolonged period of time may lead to MSDs. This study also revealed that a significant physiological load is exerted on the potato cultivators, as shown by increased heart rates.

  11. Dichloran-rose bengal medium for enumeration and isolation of molds from foods.

    PubMed Central

    King, A D; Hocking, A D; Pitt, J I

    1979-01-01

    Overgrowth by spreading molds such as Rhizopus and Mucor species is a problem with fungal enumeration media used for foods. Thirty-one antifungal compounds were surveyed for their ability to selectively inhibit such fungi while allowing growth of mycotoxigenic molds and other species of significance in food spoilage. Dichloran (2,6 dichloro-4-nitroaniline) restricted growth of Rhizopus stolonifer while allowing satisfactory growth of the other test molds. Three Rhizopus and Mucor species were encountered that were not inhibited by dichloran; these were controlled by the addition of rose bengal. The optimal medium, designated DRBC, contained 2 micrograms of dichloran and 25 micrograms of rose bengal per ml. DRBC, in pure culture tests and with food samples, restricted the colony size of spreading molds and recovered a wider range of species in higher numbers than other enumeration media. Images PMID:485140

  12. Modeling highly pathogenic avian influenza transmission in wild birds and poultry in West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Pranav S.; Bunn, David A.; Pande, Satish A.; Aly, Sharif S.

    2013-01-01

    Wild birds are suspected to have played a role in highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in West Bengal. Cluster analysis showed that H5N1 was introduced in West Bengal at least 3 times between 2008 and 2010. We simulated the introduction of H5N1 by wild birds and their contact with poultry through a stochastic continuous-time mathematical model. Results showed that reducing contact between wild birds and domestic poultry, and increasing the culling rate of infected domestic poultry communities will reduce the probability of outbreaks. Poultry communities that shared habitat with wild birds or those indistricts with previous outbreaks were more likely to suffer an outbreak. These results indicate that wild birds can introduce HPAI to domestic poultry and that limiting their contact at shared habitats together with swift culling of infected domestic poultry can greatly reduce the likelihood of HPAI outbreaks. PMID:23846233

  13. The dynamics of arsenic in four paddy fields in the Bengal delta.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Jacqueline L; Norton, Gareth J; Islam, M Rafiqul; Dasgupta, Tapash; White, Rodger P; Price, Adam H; Meharg, Andrew A; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2011-04-01

    Irrigation with arsenic contaminated groundwater in the Bengal Delta may lead to As accumulation in the soil and rice grain. The dynamics of As concentration and speciation in paddy fields during dry season (boro) rice cultivation were investigated at 4 sites in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Three sites which were irrigated with high As groundwater had elevated As concentrations in the soils, showing a significant gradient from the irrigation inlet across the field. Arsenic concentration and speciation in soil pore water varied temporally and spatially; higher As concentrations were associated with an increasing percentage of arsenite, indicating a reductive mobilization. Concentrations of As in rice grain varied by 2-7 fold within individual fields and were poorly related with the soil As concentration. A field site employing alternating flooded-dry irrigation produced the lowest range of grain As concentration, suggesting a lower soil As availability caused by periodic aerobic conditions. PMID:21236535

  14. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007). PMID:27494150

  15. Evaluation of intraspecies interactions in biofilm formation by Methylobacterium species isolated from pink-pigmented household biofilms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-Fang; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Wang, Wen-Zhao; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Liang, Yan; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Concern regarding household biofilms has grown due to their widespread existence and potential to threaten human health by serving as pathogen reservoirs. Previous studies identified Methylobacterium as one of the dominant genera found in household biofilms. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation by using the bacterial consortium found in household pink slime. A clone library analysis revealed that Methylobacterium was the predominant genus in household pink slime. In addition, 16 out of 21 pink-pigmented bacterial isolates were assigned to the genus Methylobacterium. Although all of the Methylobacterium isolates formed low-level biofilms, the amount of the biofilms formed by Methylobacterium sp. P-1M and P-18S was significantly increased by co-culturing with other Methylobacterium strains that belonged to a specific phylogenetic group. The single-species biofilm was easily washed from the glass surface, whereas the dual-species biofilm strongly adhered after washing. A confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that the dual-species biofilms were significantly thicker and tighter than the single-species biofilms.

  16. Differentiating size-dependent responses of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) to sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infections.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Jantzen, Stuart G; Sanderson, Dan S; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2011-06-01

    Salmon infected with an ectoparasitic marine copepod, the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, incur a wide variety of consequences depending upon host sensitivity. Juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) migrate from natal freshwater systems to the ocean at a young age relative to other Pacific salmon, and require rapid development of appropriate defenses against marine pathogens. We analyzed the early transcriptomic responses of naïve juvenile pink salmon of sizes 0.3 g (no scales), 0.7 g (mid-scale development) and 2.4 g (scales fully developed) six days after a low-level laboratory exposure to L. salmonis copepodids. All infected size groups exhibited unique transcriptional profiles. Inflammation and inhibition of cell proliferation was identified in the smallest size class (0.3 g), while increased glucose absorption and retention was identified in the middle size class (0.7 g). Tissue-remodeling genes were also up-regulated in both the 0.3 g and 0.7 g size groups. Profiles of the 2.4 g size class indicated cell-mediated immunity and possibly parasite-induced growth augmentation. Understanding a size-based threshold of resistance to L. salmonis is important for fisheries management. This work characterizes molecular responses reflecting the gradual development of innate immunity to L. salmonis between the susceptible (0.3 g) and refractory (2.4 g) pink salmon size classes. PMID:21543273

  17. Genetic Analysis of PARK2 and PINK1 Genes in Brazilian Patients with Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Karla Cristina Vasconcelos; Campos Junior, Mário; de Rosso, Ana Lúcia Zuma; Nicaretta, Denise Hack; Pereira, João Santos; Silva, Delson José; dos Santos, Flávia Lima; Rodrigues, Fabíola da Costa; Santos-Rebouças, Cíntia Barros; Pimentel, Márcia Mattos Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder in the world, affecting 1-2% of individuals over the age of 65. The etiology of Parkinson's disease is complex, with the involvement of gene-environment interactions. Although it is considered a disease of late manifestation, early-onset forms of parkinsonism contribute to 5–10% of all cases. In the present study, we screened mutations in coding regions of PARK2 and PINK1 genes in 136 unrelated Brazilian patients with early-onset Parkinson's disease through automatic sequencing. We identified six missense variants in PARK2 gene: one known pathogenic mutation, two variants of uncertain role, and three nonpathogenic changes. No pathogenic mutation was identified in PINK1 gene, only benign polymorphisms. All putative pathogenic variants found in this study were in heterozygous state. Our data show that PARK2 point mutations are more common in Brazilian early-onset Parkinson's disease patients (2.9%) than PINK1 missense variants (0%), corroborating other studies worldwide. PMID:24167364

  18. Drosophila ref(2)P is required for the parkin-mediated suppression of mitochondrial dysfunction in pink1 mutants.

    PubMed

    de Castro, I P; Costa, A C; Celardo, I; Tufi, R; Dinsdale, D; Loh, S H Y; Martins, L M

    2013-10-24

    Autophagy is a critical regulator of organellar homeostasis, particularly of mitochondria. Upon the loss of membrane potential, dysfunctional mitochondria are selectively removed by autophagy through recruitment of the E3 ligase Parkin by the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and subsequent ubiquitination of mitochondrial membrane proteins. Mammalian sequestrome-1 (p62/SQSTM1) is an autophagy adaptor, which has been proposed to shuttle ubiquitinated cargo for autophagic degradation downstream of Parkin. Here, we show that loss of ref(2)P, the Drosophila orthologue of mammalian P62, results in abnormalities, including mitochondrial defects and an accumulation of mitochondrial DNA with heteroplasmic mutations, correlated with locomotor defects. Furthermore, we show that expression of Ref(2)P is able to ameliorate the defects caused by loss of Pink1 and that this depends on the presence of functional Parkin. Finally, we show that both the PB1 and UBA domains of Ref(2)P are crucial for mitochondrial clustering. We conclude that Ref(2)P is a crucial downstream effector of a pathway involving Pink1 and Parkin and is responsible for the maintenance of a viable pool of cellular mitochondria by promoting their aggregation and autophagic clearance.

  19. Effects of oil-contaminated prey on the feeding, growth, and related energetics on pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry were exposed to oil contaminated prey (OCP) in a series of experiments to determine the effect of oil exposure via the diet on the ability of pink fry to survive. Brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii were contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil and fed to the fish. Feeding rates were measured for 10 days using OCP and for 5 days using uncontaminated prey (post-exposure period). In a separate experiment, fry growth was measured over a 50 day period. In another experiment, fry oxygen consumption, food absorption and utilization, and ammonia excretion was measured to determine the effects of OCP on fry metabolic activity. Results indicate that exposure to OCP can reduce fry growth primarily by reducing food intake, but additional nutrition is lost from the non-absorption of ingested food. Reductions in growth could decrease fry survival, and thereby reduce the number of returning adult pink salmon.

  20. A Novel Homozygous p.L539F Mutation Identified in PINK1 Gene in a Moroccan Patient with Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Ben El Haj, Rafiqua; Regragui, Wafaa; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid; Skalli, Asmae; Bouslam, Naima; Benomar, Ali; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Bouhouche, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. Ten of fifteen causative genes linked to familial forms of PD have been reported to cause autosomal recessive forms. Among them, mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene were shown to be responsible for a phenotype characterized by early onset, good response to levodopa, and a benign course. Using chromosomal microarray analysis and Sanger sequencing, we identified a homozygous G/C substitution in a 58-year-old Moroccan man diagnosed with recessive inherited Parkinson's disease. This G-to-C transition occurred at position 1617 leading to an amino acid change L/F at position 539 located in highly conserved motif in the C terminal sequence of PINK1. Interestingly, the c.1617G>C substitution is absent in 192 ethnically matched control chromosomes. Our findings have shown that the p.L539F is a novel mutation located in the C terminal sequence of the PINK1 protein that could be pathogenic and responsible for a clinical phenotype resembling idiopathic Parkinson's disease with rapid progression and early cognitive impairment. PMID:27413743

  1. Lycopene fortification on the quality characteristics of beverage formulations developed from pink flesh guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Vijayanand; Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao

    2014-12-01

    Pink flesh guava (Psidium guajava L) is an important tropical fruit widely cultivated in different parts of India. The fruit apart from its characteristic pink flesh color is a good source of ascorbic acid, reducing sugars and pectin. Pink color of guava pulp is attributed to the presence of carotenoid pigment lycopene. Incorporation of lycopene in the form of tomato puree to the guava pulp resulted in changes in the quality characteristics of the guava beverage formulations. Lycopene in guava beverage improved the color and appearance and also the nutritional quality of the beverage. Guava beverage having 6 % tomato puree had acceptable color, flavor and overall quality. Increasing levels of tomato puree in the beverage affected the flavor and decreased the sensory acceptability. Beverage formulations showed increase in lycopene concentration from 760 μg/100 g to 2010 μg/100 g with increase in concentration of tomato puree. Ascorbic acid and lycopene decreased by 25.7 % and 12.23 % respectively in beverage stored at room temperature. Guava beverage fortified with lycopene was stable with acceptable sensory quality during the storage of 6 months at room temperature.

  2. A Novel Homozygous p.L539F Mutation Identified in PINK1 Gene in a Moroccan Patient with Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Ben El Haj, Rafiqua; Regragui, Wafaa; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid; Skalli, Asmae; Bouslam, Naima; Benomar, Ali; Yahyaoui, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. Ten of fifteen causative genes linked to familial forms of PD have been reported to cause autosomal recessive forms. Among them, mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene were shown to be responsible for a phenotype characterized by early onset, good response to levodopa, and a benign course. Using chromosomal microarray analysis and Sanger sequencing, we identified a homozygous G/C substitution in a 58-year-old Moroccan man diagnosed with recessive inherited Parkinson's disease. This G-to-C transition occurred at position 1617 leading to an amino acid change L/F at position 539 located in highly conserved motif in the C terminal sequence of PINK1. Interestingly, the c.1617G>C substitution is absent in 192 ethnically matched control chromosomes. Our findings have shown that the p.L539F is a novel mutation located in the C terminal sequence of the PINK1 protein that could be pathogenic and responsible for a clinical phenotype resembling idiopathic Parkinson's disease with rapid progression and early cognitive impairment. PMID:27413743

  3. PINK1 and Parkin cooperatively protect neurons against constitutively active TRP channel-induced retinal degeneration in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Z; Ren, S; Jiang, Y; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has an important role in regulating numerous cellular activities. However, extremely high levels of intracellular calcium can lead to neurotoxicity, a process commonly associated with degenerative diseases. Despite the clear role of calcium cytotoxicity in mediating neuronal cell death in this context, the pathological mechanisms remain controversial. We used a well-established Drosophila model of retinal degeneration, which involves the constitutively active TRPP365 channels, to study calcium-induced neurotoxicity. We found that the disruption of mitochondrial function was associated with the degenerative process. Further, increasing autophagy flux prevented cell death in TrpP365 mutant flies, and this depended on the PINK1/Parkin pathway. In addition, the retinal degeneration process was also suppressed by the coexpression of PINK1 and Parkin. Our results provide genetic evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction has a key role in the pathology of cellular calcium neurotoxicity. In addition, the results demonstrated that maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis via PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control can potentially alleviate cell death in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27054334

  4. Citric acid and sodium citrate effects on pink color development of cooked ground turkey irradiated pre- and post-cooking.

    PubMed

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R

    2006-03-01

    The effects of citric acid (0.15%, 0.3%) and sodium citrate (0.5%, 1.0%) on pink color development in ground turkey following irradiation (0, 2.5, 5.0kGy) were examined. Citric acid and sodium citrate had little effect on pink color when samples were irradiated prior to cooking. In contrast, when samples were cooked prior to irradiation, citric acid (0.3%) and sodium citrate (1.0%) reduced redness as indicated by eliminating a reflectance minimum at approximately 571nm, lessening greater reflectance in the red wavelength region, and preventing greater reducing conditions caused by irradiation. Citric acid significantly reduced pH and yields whereas sodium citrate reduced pH and yields to a lesser extent. Both citric acid and sodium citrate are potential ingredients that can be added during processing to prevent undesirable pink color in precooked irradiated ground turkey and therefore can result in greater acceptance of irradiated products by consumers.

  5. Evaluation of Intraspecies Interactions in Biofilm Formation by Methylobacterium Species Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fang-Fang; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Wang, Wen-Zhao; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Liang, Yan; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Concern regarding household biofilms has grown due to their widespread existence and potential to threaten human health by serving as pathogen reservoirs. Previous studies identified Methylobacterium as one of the dominant genera found in household biofilms. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation by using the bacterial consortium found in household pink slime. A clone library analysis revealed that Methylobacterium was the predominant genus in household pink slime. In addition, 16 out of 21 pink-pigmented bacterial isolates were assigned to the genus Methylobacterium. Although all of the Methylobacterium isolates formed low-level biofilms, the amount of the biofilms formed by Methylobacterium sp. P-1M and P-18S was significantly increased by co-culturing with other Methylobacterium strains that belonged to a specific phylogenetic group. The single-species biofilm was easily washed from the glass surface, whereas the dual-species biofilm strongly adhered after washing. A confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that the dual-species biofilms were significantly thicker and tighter than the single-species biofilms. PMID:25381715

  6. Mesozooplankton production, grazing and respiration in the Bay of Bengal: Implications for net heterotrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Veronica; Ramaiah, N.

    2016-03-01

    Mesozooplankton samples were collected from the mixed layer along a central (along 88°E) and a western transect in the Bay of Bengal during four seasons covered between 2001 and 2006 in order to investigate spatio-temporal variability in their biomass. At these stations, grazing and respiration rates were measured from live zooplankton hauled in from the surface during December 2005. Akin to the mesozooplankton "paradox" in the central and eastern Arabian Sea, biomass in the mixed layer was more or less invariant in the central and western Bay of Bengal, even as the chl a showed marginal temporal variation. By empirical equation, the mesozooplankton production rate calculated to be 70-246 mg C m- 2 d- 1 is on par with the Arabian Sea. Contrary to the conventional belief, mesozooplankton grazing impact was up to 83% on primary production (PP). Low PP coupled with very high zooplankton production (70% of PP) along with abundant bacterial production (50% of the PP; Ramaiah et al., 2009) is likely to render the Bay of Bengal net heterotrophic, especially during the spring intermonsoon. Greater estimates of fecal pellet-carbon egestion by mesozooplankton compared to the average particulate organic carbon flux in sediment traps, implies that much of the matter is recycled by heterotrophic communities in the mixed layer facilitating nutrient regeneration for phytoplankton growth. We also calculated that over a third of the primary production is channelized for basin-wide zooplankton respiration that accounts for ~ 52 Mt C annually. In the current scenario of global warming, if low (primary) productive warm pools like the Bay of Bengal continue to be net heterotrophic, negative implications like enhanced emission of CO2 to the atmosphere, increased particulate flux to the deeper waters and greater utilization of dissolved oxygen resulting in expansion of the existing oxygen minimum zone are imminent.

  7. Complementation analyses for 45 mutations encompassing the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus of the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.B.; Montgomery, C.S.; Cacheiro, N.L.A.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    The homozygous and heterozygous phenotypes are described and characterized for 45 new pink-eyed dilution (p) locus mutations, most of them radiation-induced, that affect survival at various stages of mouse development. Cytogenetically detectable aberrations were found in three of the new p mutations (large deletion, inversion, translocation), with band 7C involved in each case. The complementation map developed from the study of 810 types of compound heterozygotes identifies five functional units: jls and jlm (two distinct juvenile-fitness functions, the latter associated with neuromuscular defects), pl-1 and pl-2 (associated with early-postimplantation and preimplantation death, respectively), and nl [neonatal lethality associated with cleft palate (the frequency of rare {open_quotes}escapers{close_quotes} from this defect varied with the genotype)]. Orientation of these units relative to genetic markers is as follows: centromere, Gas-2, pl-1, jls, jlm p, nl (equatable to cp1= Gabrb3); pl-2 probably resides in the c-deletion complex. pl-1 does not mask preimplantation lethals between Gas2 and p; and no genes affecting survival are located between p and cp1. The alleles specifying mottling or darker pigment (generically, p{sup m} and p{sup x}, respectively) probably do not represent deletions of p-coding sequences but could be small rearrangements involving proximal regulatory elements. 43 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Biotechnological and agronomic potential of endophytic pink-pigmented methylotrophic Methylobacterium spp.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Camargo Neves, Aline Aparecida; Santos, Daiene Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2015-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium is composed of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria, which are able to synthesize carotenoids and grow on reduced organic compounds containing one carbon (C1), such as methanol and methylamine. Due to their high phenotypic plasticity, these bacteria are able to colonize different habitats, such as soil, water, and sediment, and different host plants as both endophytes and epiphytes. In plant colonization, the frequency and distribution may be influenced by plant genotype or by interactions with other associated microorganisms, which may result in increasing plant fitness. In this review, different aspects of interactions with the host plant are discussed, including their capacity to fix nitrogen, nodule the host plant, produce cytokinins, auxin and enzymes involved in the induction of systemic resistance, such as pectinase and cellulase, and therefore plant growth promotion. In addition, bacteria belonging to this group can be used to reduce environmental contamination because they are able to degrade toxic compounds, tolerate high heavy metal concentrations, and increase plant tolerance to these compounds. Moreover, genome sequencing and omics approaches have revealed genes related to plant-bacteria interactions that may be important for developing strains able to promote plant growth and protection against phytopathogens. PMID:25861650

  9. Three cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in pink bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Shai; Biggs, Robert W.; Sisterson, Mark S.; Shriver, Laura; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Higginson, Dawn; Holley, Daniel; Gahan, Linda J.; Heckel, David G.; Carrière, Yves; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Brown, Judith K.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2003-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by pests is the main threat to long-term insect control by transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Because inheritance of resistance to the Bt toxins in transgenic crops is typically recessive, DNA-based screening for resistance alleles in heterozygotes is potentially much more efficient than detection of resistant homozygotes with bioassays. Such screening, however, requires knowledge of the resistance alleles in field populations of pests that are associated with survival on Bt crops. Here we report that field populations of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), a major cotton pest, harbored three mutant alleles of a cadherin-encoding gene linked with resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac and survival on transgenic Bt cotton. Each of the three resistance alleles has a deletion expected to eliminate at least eight amino acids upstream of the putative toxin-binding region of the cadherin protein. Larvae with two resistance alleles in any combination were resistant, whereas those with one or none were susceptible to Cry1Ac. Together with previous evidence, the results reported here identify the cadherin gene as a leading target for DNA-based screening of resistance to Bt crops in lepidopteran pests. PMID:12695565

  10. Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese.

    PubMed

    Williams, Byron K; Johnson, Fred A

    2015-01-01

    The "value of information" (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004; 24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration. PMID:25691972

  11. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This project is to identify and map cotton fields in the southern deserts of California. Cotton in the Imperial, Coachella, and Palo Verde Valleys is heavily infested by the pink bollworm which affects both the quantity and quality of cotton produced. In California the growing season of cotton is regulated by establishing planting and plowdown dates. These procedures ensure that the larvae, whose diapause or resting period occurs during the winter months, will have no plant material on which to feed, thus inhibiting spring moth emergence. the underflight data from the U-2 aircraft has shound that it is possible to detect the differences between a growing, a defoliated, and plowed down field providing the locations of the fields are known. The ERTS-1 MSS data are being analyzed using an I2S optical color combiner to determine which combinations of dates and colors will identify cotton fields and thus provide the data needed to produce maps of the fields for the forthcoming season.

  12. [Reproduction of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the Colombian Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Paramo, Jorge; Pérez, Daniel; Wolff, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The shallow water pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus notialis) is among the socioeconomically most important resources of the Caribbean. The lack of biological and fishery information is of great concern for the fisheries management authorities. The presented study therefore aimed at the investigation of the reproductive cycle, the size composition and the size at first maturity of this species as a basis for the ordination and management of this resource. The study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 off the coast of the Caribbean Sea of Colombia. A total of 5 356 individuals were collected, identified, classified and preserved for their subsequent analysis in the laboratory. Size, weight, sex and gonad stage were recorded for each specimen. Significant differences were found in sex ratio in all months sampled with a clear predominance of females. Mature females were found year-around, but two reproductive peaks were identified during the periods October-December and April-June. The mean catch total length size (MCS) for females and males was 148.00mm and 122.54mm, respectively. The mean size at maturity (LT50%) was 129.34mm for females and 97.77mm for males. MCS was always above LT50% for both sexes. Considering the large reduction in fishing effort in the Colombian Caribbean Sea over the last years, we could expect that the shrimp population is in a rebuilding process or perhaps it may be already restored. PMID:25102635

  13. Purification and partial characterization of the plasma clotting protein from the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis.

    PubMed

    Perazzolo, Luciane M; Lorenzini, Daniel M; Daffre, Sirlei; Barracco, Margherita A

    2005-11-01

    A clotting protein (CP) was purified from the plasma of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis by sequential anion-exchange chromatography. The shrimp CP was able to form stable clots in vitro in the presence of hemocyte lysate and Ca2+, suggesting that the clotting reaction is catalyzed by a Ca2+-dependent transglutaminase present in shrimp hemocytes. Dansylcadaverine was incorporated into the shrimp CP in the presence of endogenous transglutaminase (hemocyte lysate), confirming that the shrimp purified CP is the substrate for the transglutaminase enzyme. The molecular mass of the CP was determined by gel filtration to be 341 kDa and 170 kDa by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. These results suggest that the shrimp CP consists of two identical subunits, covalently linked by disulphide bonds. The amino acid sequence at the N-terminus was 100% identical to that of the penaeids Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon and 66% to 80% identical to the CPs of other decapods. This is the first report of a CP characterization in an Atlantic penaeid species. Further studies, including a molecular cloning approach would enable to detect which tissues express the gene of the clotting protein. It would be also useful to understand the mechanism by which the coagulation time is delayed in shrimps under stress conditions.

  14. Genetic homogeneity in the commercial pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis revealed by COI barcoding gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, S. S. A.; Terossi, M.; Costa, R. C.; Mantelatto, F. L.

    2015-12-01

    The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis is one of the most commercially exploited species in Brazil's South and Southeastern regions. Specific information about the status of its genetic variation is necessary to promote more effective management procedures. The genetic variation of the population of F. paulensis was investigated in five localities along southern and southeastern coast of Brazil. Sampling was performed with a commercial fishing boat. Total genomic DNA was extracted from abdominal muscle tissues and was used to DNA amplification by PCR. The COI gene was used as a DNA barcoding marker. The 570 bp COI gene sequences were obtained from all 45 individuals. The haplotype network showed no genetic variability among the population stocks, which was confirmed by Molecular Variance Analysis. The final alignment showed that inside species there is haplotype sharing among the sampled localities, since one haplotype is shared by 38 individuals belonging to all the five sampled regions, with no biogeographic pattern. This result is reasonable since there are no geographical barriers or habitat disjunction that might serve as a barrier to gene flow among the sampled localities. Possible reasons and consequences of the genetic homogeneity found are discussed. The results complement ecological studies concerning the offseason: since it is a single stock, the same protection strategy can be applied. However, the genetic homogeneity found in this study combined with the intensive fishery effort and the species biology can result in severe consequences for the F. paulensis.

  15. Binding and Oligomerization of Modified and Native Bt Toxins in Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm.

    PubMed

    Ocelotl, Josue; Sánchez, Jorge; Arroyo, Raquel; García-Gómez, Blanca I; Gómez, Isabel; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Better understanding of the mode of action of Bt toxins and the mechanisms of insect resistance is needed to enhance the durability of these important alternatives to conventional insecticides. Mode of action models agree that binding of Bt toxins to midgut proteins such as cadherin is essential for toxicity, but some details remain unresolved, such as the role of toxin oligomers. In this study, we evaluated how Bt toxin Cry1Ac and its genetically engineered counterpart Cry1AcMod interact with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from resistant and susceptible larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm), a global pest of cotton. Compared with Cry1Ac, Cry1AcMod lacks 56 amino acids at the amino-terminus including helix α-1; previous work showed that Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in vitro without cadherin and killed P. gossypiella larvae harboring cadherin mutations linked with >1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac. Here we found that resistance to Cry1Ac was associated with reduced oligomer formation and insertion. In contrast, Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in BBMV from resistant larvae. These results confirm the role of cadherin in oligomerization of Cry1Ac in susceptible larvae and imply that forming oligomers without cadherin promotes toxicity of Cry1AcMod against resistant P. gossypiella larvae that have cadherin mutations.

  16. [Reproduction of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the Colombian Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Paramo, Jorge; Pérez, Daniel; Wolff, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The shallow water pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus notialis) is among the socioeconomically most important resources of the Caribbean. The lack of biological and fishery information is of great concern for the fisheries management authorities. The presented study therefore aimed at the investigation of the reproductive cycle, the size composition and the size at first maturity of this species as a basis for the ordination and management of this resource. The study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 off the coast of the Caribbean Sea of Colombia. A total of 5 356 individuals were collected, identified, classified and preserved for their subsequent analysis in the laboratory. Size, weight, sex and gonad stage were recorded for each specimen. Significant differences were found in sex ratio in all months sampled with a clear predominance of females. Mature females were found year-around, but two reproductive peaks were identified during the periods October-December and April-June. The mean catch total length size (MCS) for females and males was 148.00mm and 122.54mm, respectively. The mean size at maturity (LT50%) was 129.34mm for females and 97.77mm for males. MCS was always above LT50% for both sexes. Considering the large reduction in fishing effort in the Colombian Caribbean Sea over the last years, we could expect that the shrimp population is in a rebuilding process or perhaps it may be already restored.

  17. Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese.

    PubMed

    Williams, Byron K; Johnson, Fred A

    2015-01-01

    The "value of information" (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004; 24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration.

  18. Biotechnological and Agronomic Potential of Endophytic Pink-Pigmented Methylotrophic Methylobacterium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Aparecida Camargo Neves, Aline; Santos, Daiene Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2015-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium is composed of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria, which are able to synthesize carotenoids and grow on reduced organic compounds containing one carbon (C1), such as methanol and methylamine. Due to their high phenotypic plasticity, these bacteria are able to colonize different habitats, such as soil, water, and sediment, and different host plants as both endophytes and epiphytes. In plant colonization, the frequency and distribution may be influenced by plant genotype or by interactions with other associated microorganisms, which may result in increasing plant fitness. In this review, different aspects of interactions with the host plant are discussed, including their capacity to fix nitrogen, nodule the host plant, produce cytokinins, auxin and enzymes involved in the induction of systemic resistance, such as pectinase and cellulase, and therefore plant growth promotion. In addition, bacteria belonging to this group can be used to reduce environmental contamination because they are able to degrade toxic compounds, tolerate high heavy metal concentrations, and increase plant tolerance to these compounds. Moreover, genome sequencing and omics approaches have revealed genes related to plant-bacteria interactions that may be important for developing strains able to promote plant growth and protection against phytopathogens. PMID:25861650

  19. The Tarawera eruption, Lake Rotomahana, and the origin of the Pink and White Terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keam, Ronald F.

    2016-03-01

    This chapter introduces the historical and geographical background for the scientific studies at Tarawera and Lake Rotomahana in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand as detailed in this Special Issue of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. It also presents the results of some original investigations. These are based partly on the large body of historical information that exists about the 1886 Tarawera eruption and the geothermal system at Rotomahana, and partly on the results of dedicated geological studies by other researchers within the Okataina Volcanic Centre where the historical events took place. Specifically, the new material here presented includes a detailed analysis of a previously almost neglected narrative by the only observer to witness the 1886 eruption from the southeast of the erupting craters and leave an account of his observations. The importance of a co-operative interplay between pre-existing tectonic deformation and its responses to strong seismic activity induced by magmatic intrusion is emphasised as being a major determinant in the course of the eruption, and as the main trigger of the eruption explosions that were audible throughout half of the land area of New Zealand. The chapter then concentrates on showing how the recent geological studies, in conjunction with ideas on the architecture of geysers, permit an explanation to be given as to how the unique Pink and White Terraces came to be formed.

  20. Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    The “value of information” (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004;24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration.

  1. Effect of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) response to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Carrière, Yves; Nyboer, Megan E; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Sollome, James; Colletto, Nick; Antilla, Larry; Dennehy, Timothy J; Staten, Robert T; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2006-06-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to transgenic crops producing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) could reduce male response to pheromone traps. Such costs would cause underestimation of resistance frequency if monitoring was based on analysis of males caught in pheromone traps. To develop a DNA-based resistance monitoring program for pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), we compared the response to pheromone traps of males with and without cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). When irradiated males from two hybrid laboratory strains with an intermediate frequency of resistance alleles were released in large field cages, the probability of capture in pheromone traps was not lower for males with resistance alleles than for males without resistance alleles. These results suggest that analysis of trapped males would not underestimate the frequency of resistance. As the time males spent in traps in the field increased from 3 to 15 d, the success of DNA amplification declined from 100 to 30%. Thus, the efficiency of a DNA-based resistance monitoring program would be improved by analyzing males remaining in traps for 3 d or less. PMID:16813335

  2. Ethnobotanical survey of folklore plants used in treatment of snakebite in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Sarkhel, Sumana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate and collect information from traditional health healers/tribal communities on the use of medicinal plants for treatment of snakebite. Methods The ethno-medicinal study was conducted in 8 villages of the Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal in 2012-2013 through questionnaire and personal interviews. Following the method of Martin, information about medicinal plants used in snake bite, precise plant parts used, methods of treatment and administration was enquired from the tribal communities (Santhals, Mundas, Lodhas, Bhumijs, Oraon Kherias) of the region. Results The present study enumerates 20 ethnomedicinal plant species belonging to 16 families used by the tribal communities and medicinal healers of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal in treatment of snakebite. Each plant species has been listed alphabetically according to its botanical name, family, vernacular name, part(s) used, mode of preparation/administration. Conclusions The importance of traditional medicinal system among the tribal communities of Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal has been highlighted in the present study. PMID:25182729

  3. Variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Ranjan, Sanjeev; Vishnu, P Guru; Negi, Mamta; Senapati, P K; Charita, V Gnani

    2015-03-01

    A total 290 Black Bengal goats (6 buck, 109 doe and 175 kids born from 11 sires) were studied to evaluate the variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. The variability of resistance in Black Bengal goat was studied for both genetic and non-genetic factors like village, sex, age dam, sire, dam resistance group and offspring resistance group. Male kids have slightly higher resistance than female kids although it was not significant. Resistance of kids was increased as age increases and kid population showed significantly different resistance status among the offspring resistant groups. The doe population showed significantly different LEPG as per the resistance group in all the collections. The present study found that the resistance of kids under sire were varied significantly and observed that the kids under sire 1, 6-8 were significantly more resistant than the kids of the sire 2, 5 and 11 in 3rd collection and it is also noticed that maternal genetic effect has a very little impact on resistance of kids. Males (buck) were most resistant and the kids were least resistant and the resistance of dam was in between the male and kids population.

  4. Evaluation of Black Bengal goats and their cross with the Jamunapari breed for carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Amin; Husain; Islam

    2000-11-01

    Carcass quality of JamunaparixBlack Bengal (JBB), Black Bengal selected for growth (SBB) and random-bred (RBB) wethers of 1 year of age was studied. There was no significant difference between JBB and SBB in pre-slaughter traits and carcass characteristics, except height at wither and dressing percentage which were significantly higher in JBB than in SBB, and muscle fiber diameter which was significantly smaller in JBB than in SBB. Performance of RBB was significantly lower than JBB and SBB. When hot carcass, non-carcass, variety meat, prime cuts, fat deposition and total saleable portion were expressed as % of empty live weight and compared among genetic groups, JBB ranked first. Selection for rapid growth rate within Black Bengal goat increased its live weight and improved meat production. Increased live weight showed a positive relationship with increased fat deposition. Relationships between 'eye muscle' area and hot carcass yield, empty live weight and gut fat and perinephric fat and gut fat were positive and significant.

  5. Access and Barriers to Immunization in West Bengal, India: Quality Matters

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arijita

    2013-01-01

    While many studies attempted to evaluate performance of immunization programmes in developing countries by full coverage, there is a growing awareness about the limitations of such evaluation, irrespective of the overall quality of performance. Availability of human resources, equipment, supporting drugs, and training of personnel are considered to be crucial indicators of the quality of immunization programme. Also, maintenance of time schedule has been considered crucial in the context of the quality of immunization. In addition to overall coverage of vaccination, the coverage of immunization given at right time (month-specific) is to be considered with utmost importance. In this paper, District Level Household and Facility Survey-3 (DLHS-3) 2007-2008 data have been used in exploring the quality of immunization in terms of month-specific vaccine coverage and barriers to access inWest Bengal, India. In West Bengal, the month-specific coverage stands badly below 20% but the simple non-month-specific coverage is as high as 75%. Among the demand-side factors, birthplace of the child and religion of the household heads came out as significant predictors while, from the supply-side, availability of male health workers and equipment at the subcentres, were the important determinants for month-specific vaccine coverage. Hence, there should be a vigorous attempt to make more focused planning, keeping in mind the nature of the barriers, for improvement of the month-specific coverage in West Bengal. PMID:24592593

  6. Evaluation of Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Due to Consumption of Contaminated Ground Water in West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Asutosh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ≥50 μg/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 μg/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%), followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%)] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%)]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%)]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%)], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%)], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%)], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%)], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%)], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%)], alopecia [8 (10.95%)], neuropathy [5 (6.84%)], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%)] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant. PMID:24049627

  7. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, I.; Joardar, S. N.; Ganguli, D.; Das, P. K.; Sarkar, U.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coliweek post-hatch period chicks were contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05). As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock) in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock) which also differs significantly (p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production. PMID:27047068

  8. Efficient organic carbon burial in the Bengal fan sustained by the Himalayan erosional system.

    PubMed

    Galy, Valier; France-Lanord, Christian; Beyssac, Olivier; Faure, Pierre; Kudrass, Hermann; Palhol, Fabien

    2007-11-15

    Continental erosion controls atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on geological timescales through silicate weathering, riverine transport and subsequent burial of organic carbon in oceanic sediments. The efficiency of organic carbon deposition in sedimentary basins is however limited by the organic carbon load capacity of the sediments and organic carbon oxidation in continental margins. At the global scale, previous studies have suggested that about 70 per cent of riverine organic carbon is returned to the atmosphere, such as in the Amazon basin. Here we present a comprehensive organic carbon budget for the Himalayan erosional system, including source rocks, river sediments and marine sediments buried in the Bengal fan. We show that organic carbon export is controlled by sediment properties, and that oxidative loss is negligible during transport and deposition to the ocean. Our results indicate that 70 to 85 per cent of the organic carbon is recent organic matter captured during transport, which serves as a net sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The amount of organic carbon deposited in the Bengal basin represents about 10 to 20 per cent of the total terrestrial organic carbon buried in oceanic sediments. High erosion rates in the Himalayas generate high sedimentation rates and low oxygen availability in the Bay of Bengal that sustain the observed extreme organic carbon burial efficiency. Active orogenic systems generate enhanced physical erosion and the resulting organic carbon burial buffers atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, thereby exerting a negative feedback on climate over geological timescales.

  9. Benzyladenine and gibberellin treatment of developing "Pink Lady" apples results in mature fruits with a thicker cuticle comprising clusters of epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, Edna; Stern, Raphael A; Ginzberg, Idit

    2015-07-01

    A mixture of 6-benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellins GA4 plus GA7 applied to "Pink Lady" apple at early phenological stages was previously shown to result in an immediate increase in epidermal cell density and associated reduction in calyx-end cracking disorder in the mature fruit, implying a long-term effect of the BA + GA4+7 mixture. Here, we analyzed the anatomical changes in the mature peel at the calyx end 210 days after full bloom (DAFB), following application of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) at the cell-division phase of fruit development, 21-50 DAFB. Experiments were conducted in northern Israel, and the PGRs were applied as the commercial formulation Superlon™ (Fine Agrochemicals Ltd.), composed of 19 g l(-1) BA and 19 g l(-1) GA4+7. Trees were sprayed with 0.025, 0.1, or 0.2 % (v/v) Superlon™. The most obvious phenomenon was the presence of epidermal cell clusters within the cuticular matrix that were detached from the native epidermal layer located at the bottom of the cuticle and which could not be detected in the untreated control fruits. Treatment with 20 mg l(-1) BA + GA4+7 (0.1 % Superlon™) resulted in a markedly thicker cuticle, a higher percentage of detached epidermal cells within the cuticular membrane and a significant reduction in calyx-end cracking at harvest. The presence of cuticle-embedded epidermal cell clusters may have contributed to strengthening the peel by adding more cell-wall components, thickening the cuticle layer and possibly enhancing crack repair.

  10. The research of laser marking control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong

    2009-08-01

    In the area of Laser marking, the general control method is insert control card to computer's mother board, it can not support hot swap, it is difficult to assemble or it. Moreover, the one marking system must to equip one computer. In the system marking, the computer can not to do the other things except to transmit marking digital information. Otherwise it can affect marking precision. Based on traditional control methods existed some problems, introduced marking graphic editing and digital processing by the computer finish, high-speed digital signal processor (DSP) control marking the whole process. The laser marking controller is mainly contain DSP2812, digital memorizer, DAC (digital analog converting) transform unit circuit, USB interface control circuit, man-machine interface circuit, and other logic control circuit. Download the marking information which is processed by computer to U disk, DSP read the information by USB interface on time, then processing it, adopt the DSP inter timer control the marking time sequence, output the scanner control signal by D/A parts. Apply the technology can realize marking offline, thereby reduce the product cost, increase the product efficiency. The system have good effect in actual unit markings, the marking speed is more quickly than PCI control card to 20 percent. It has application value in practicality.

  11. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of...

  12. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of...

  13. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of...

  14. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of...

  15. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of...

  16. 10 CFR 1045.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... markings in paragraphs (b)(3) and (4) of this section. (b) Front Marking. In addition to the overall classification level of the document, the following notices shall appear on the front of the document,...

  17. 49 CFR 179.500-17 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-17 Marking. (a) Each... of this specification. These marks shall be stamped into the metal of necked-down section of tank...

  18. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  19. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  20. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  1. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  2. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  3. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking containers. 160.32 Section 160.32 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control markings. 25.1555 Section 25.1555....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§ 25.677 and 25.699. (c) For powerplant...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control markings. 27.1555 Section 27.1555... Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose function... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector control must be marked to indicate the...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 25.1555 Section 25.1555....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§ 25.677 and 25.699. (c) For powerplant...

  7. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  8. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  9. 46 CFR 162.018-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Safety Relief Valves, Liquefied Compressed Gas § 162.018-6 Marking. (a) Each safety relief valve shall be plainly marked by the manufacturer with the required data... valve or stamped or cast on a plate securely fastened to the valve. The marking shall include...

  10. 46 CFR 162.018-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Safety Relief Valves, Liquefied Compressed Gas § 162.018-6 Marking. (a) Each safety relief valve shall be plainly marked by the manufacturer with the required data... valve or stamped or cast on a plate securely fastened to the valve. The marking shall include...

  11. 46 CFR 162.018-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Safety Relief Valves, Liquefied Compressed Gas § 162.018-6 Marking. (a) Each safety relief valve shall be plainly marked by the manufacturer with the required data... valve or stamped or cast on a plate securely fastened to the valve. The marking shall include...

  12. 46 CFR 162.018-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Safety Relief Valves, Liquefied Compressed Gas § 162.018-6 Marking. (a) Each safety relief valve shall be plainly marked by the manufacturer with the required data... valve or stamped or cast on a plate securely fastened to the valve. The marking shall include...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 29.1555 Section 29.1555 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 29.1555 Control markings. (a)...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 27.1555 Section 27.1555 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 27.1555 Control markings. (a) Each...

  15. 46 CFR 160.174-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-23 Marking. (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words “Thermal Protective Aid,” the name of the manufacturer, the... the Coast Guard approval number. (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words...

  16. 46 CFR 160.174-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-23 Marking. (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words “Thermal Protective Aid,” the name of the manufacturer, the... the Coast Guard approval number. (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words...

  17. 46 CFR 160.031-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-6 Marking. (a) Gun. The gun shall be permanently and legibly marked on the barrel with the... prevent corrosion. After the proof test, the gun barrel shall be marked with the letters “P.T.” and...

  18. Classroom Mark-Recapture with Crickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Andrew R.; Woolfe, Jennifer; Kennedy, Kathleen; Oberbillig, David; Brewer, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques are commonly used by ecologists to estimate abundance of naturally occurring animals and are an important component of ecology curricula. This investigation teaches a mark-recapture technique using store-bought crickets in 10-gallon aquaria and provides an inexpensive way to teach students about mark-recapture in a real…

  19. Marking Student Programs Using Graph Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Kevin A.; Greyling, Jean H.; Vogts, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the automated marking of student programming assignments. Our technique quantifies the structural similarity between unmarked student submissions and marked solutions, and is the basis by which we assign marks. This is accomplished through an efficient novel graph similarity measure ("AssignSim"). Our experiments…

  20. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 feet: Type II Personal Flotation....). (Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it...

  1. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 feet: Type II Personal Flotation....). (Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it...

  2. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 feet: Type II Personal Flotation....). (Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it...

  3. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or...

  4. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk... “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head of each container before removal...

  5. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export”...

  6. Comparison of sex pheromone traps for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Vitullo, Justin; Wang, Shifa; Zhang, Aijun; Mannion, Catharine; Bergh, J Christopher

    2007-04-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a highly polyphagous pest that invaded Florida in 2002 and has recently been reported from several locations in Louisiana. Although identification of its sex pheromone in 2004 improved monitoring capabilities tremendously, the effectiveness and efficiency of different pheromone trap designs for capturing males has not been evaluated. We deployed green Delta, Pherocon IlB, Pherocon V, Jackson, and Storgard Thinline traps in Homestead, FL, and compared the number of male M. hirsutus captured per trap, the number captured per unit of trapping surface area, the amount of extraneous material captured, and the time taken to count trapped mealybugs. Pheromone-baited traps with larger trapping surfaces (green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V) captured more males per trap than those with smaller surfaces (Jackson and Storgard Thinline), and fewest males were captured by Storgard Thinline traps. However, Jackson traps captured as many or more males per square centimeter of trapping surface as those with larger surfaces, and the time required to count males in Jackson traps was significantly less than in green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V traps. Although all trap designs accumulated some debris and nontarget insects, it was rated as light to moderate for all designs. Based on our measures of effectiveness and efficiency, the Jackson trap is most suitable for monitoring M. hirsutus populations. Additionally, unlike the other traps evaluated, which must be replaced entirely or inspected in the field and then redeployed, only the sticky liners of Jackson traps require replacement, enhancing the efficiency of trap servicing.

  7. Environmental influences on potential recruitment of pink shrimp, Fatlantopenaeus duorarum, from Florida Bay nursery grounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browder, Joan A.; Restrepo, V.R.; Rice, J.K.; Robblee, M.B.; Zein-Eldin, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Two modeling approaches were used to explore the basis for variation in recruitment of pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, to the Tortugas fishing grounds. Emphasis was on development and juvenile densities on the nursery grounds. An exploratory simulation modeling exercise demonstrated large year-to-year variations in recruitment contributions to the Tortugas rink shrimp fishery may occur on some nursery grounds, and production may differ considerably among nursery grounds within the same year, simply on the basis of differences in temperature and salinity. We used a growth and survival model to simulate cumulative harvests from a July-centered cohort of early-settlement-stage postlarvae from two parts of Florida Bay (western Florida Bay and northcentral Florida Bay), using historic temperature and salinity data from these areas. Very large year-to-year differences in simulated cumulative harvests were found for recruits from Whipray Basin. Year-to-year differences in simulated harvests of recruits from Johnson Key Basin were much smaller. In a complementary activity, generalized linear and additive models and intermittent, historic density records were used to develop an uninterrupted multi-year time series of monthly density estimates for juvenile rink shrimp in the Johnson Key Basin. The developed data series was based on relationships of density with environmental variables. The strongest relationship was with sea-surface temperature. Three other environmental variables (rainfall, water level at Everglades National Park Well P35, and mean wind speed) also contributed significantly to explaining variation in juvenile densities. Results of the simulation model and two of the three statistical models yielded similar interannual patterns for Johnson Key Basin. While it is not possible to say that one result validates the other, the concordance of the annual patterns from the two models is supportive of both approaches.

  8. Binding and Oligomerization of Modified and Native Bt Toxins in Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Ocelotl, Josue; Sánchez, Jorge; Arroyo, Raquel; García-Gómez, Blanca I.; Gómez, Isabel; Unnithan, Gopalan C.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Better understanding of the mode of action of Bt toxins and the mechanisms of insect resistance is needed to enhance the durability of these important alternatives to conventional insecticides. Mode of action models agree that binding of Bt toxins to midgut proteins such as cadherin is essential for toxicity, but some details remain unresolved, such as the role of toxin oligomers. In this study, we evaluated how Bt toxin Cry1Ac and its genetically engineered counterpart Cry1AcMod interact with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from resistant and susceptible larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm), a global pest of cotton. Compared with Cry1Ac, Cry1AcMod lacks 56 amino acids at the amino-terminus including helix α-1; previous work showed that Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in vitro without cadherin and killed P. gossypiella larvae harboring cadherin mutations linked with >1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac. Here we found that resistance to Cry1Ac was associated with reduced oligomer formation and insertion. In contrast, Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in BBMV from resistant larvae. These results confirm the role of cadherin in oligomerization of Cry1Ac in susceptible larvae and imply that forming oligomers without cadherin promotes toxicity of Cry1AcMod against resistant P. gossypiella larvae that have cadherin mutations. PMID:26633693

  9. The Mark 5 VLBI Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, A. R.

    2007-07-01

    The Mark 5 VLBI data system is a disk-based data-recording and playback system for high-data-rate VLBI observations, and has been adopted worldwide for VLBI observations. Approximately 150 Mark 5A systems, capable of recording/playback at 1024 Mbps, are now deployed around the world, directly replacing the Mark 4/VLBA tape-based systems which were prevalent for over 25 years. The Mark 5A system records to an 8-disk removable module which is normally transported to a central correlator facility for processing. The Mark 5B VLBI data system is designed to support the VSI-H international specification and is now being deployed. It is based on the same physical platform and uses the same disk-modules as the Mark 5A; it also supports the same maximum data rate of 1024 Mbps. Data formatting and timetagging is done internally within the Mark 5B, eliminating the need for external formatters. Backwards playback compatibility with Mark 5A is accomplished by an upgrade to the Mark 5A. An upgrade of the Mark 5B system, dubbed Mark 5B+, is now also available and capable of sustained recording at 2 Gbps. The Mark 5C system, currently in development, accepts sampled data through a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet OSI Layer 2 interface and will support sustained recording up to 4 Gbps. The Mark 5C will support a recording mode which is backwards compatible with the Mark 5B system for playback; Mark 5C is expected to be available in early 2008.

  10. Standards and practices for bite mark photography.

    PubMed

    Golden, G S

    2011-12-01

    In most crimes where bite marks are discovered, photographic accuracy is crucial to the investigative process since in many instances the bite mark(s) may be the only evidence linking a particular suspect to the crime. Therefore, the rationale for employing superior photographic principles is mandatory for the investigation team. This paper will discuss current standards, best practice, and armamentaria for digital photography of bite mark injuries on skin. Full spectrum protocols will be described including Alternate Light Imaging, Reflective Ultra-violet, and Infrared techniques for photo-documentation of images of bite marks and other bruise patterns that have been inflicted on human skin. PMID:22717911

  11. The Mark 5C VLBI Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Alan; Ruszczyk, Chet; Romney, Jon; Owens, Kenneth

    2010-12-01

    The Mark 5C disk-based VLBI data system is being developed as the third-generation Mark 5 disk-based system, increasing the sustained data-recording rate capability to 4 Gbps. It is built on the same basic platform as the Mark 5A, Mark 5B and Mark 5B+ systems and will use the same 8-disk modules as earlier Mark 5 systems, although two 8-disk modules will be necessary to support the 4 Gbps rate. Unlike its earlier brethren, which use proprietary data interfaces, the Mark 5C will accept data from a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection and be compatible with the emerging VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) standard. Data sources for the Mark 5C system will be based on new digital backends now being developed, specifically the RDBE in the U.S. and the dBBC in Europe, as well as others. The Mark 5C system is being planned for use with the VLBI2010 system and will also be used by NRAO as part of the VLBA sensitivity upgrade program; it will also be available to the global VLBI community from Conduant. Mark 5C system specification and development is supported by Haystack Observatory, NRAO, and Conduant Corporation. Prototype Mark 5C systems are expected in early 2010.

  12. PINK1 Deficiency Decreases Expression Levels of mir-326, mir-330, and mir-3099 during Brain Development and Neural Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Insup; Woo, Joo Hong; Jou, Ilo

    2016-01-01

    PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) is a Parkinson's disease (PD) gene. We examined miRNAs regulated by PINK1 during brain development and neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation, and found that lvels of miRNAs related to tumors and inflammation were different between 1-day-old-wild type (WT) and PINK1-knockout (KO) mouse brains. Notably, levels of miR-326, miR-330 and miR-3099, which are related to astroglioma, increased during brain development and NSC differentiation, and were significantly reduced in the absence of PINK1. Interestingly, in the presence of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which pushes differentiation of NSCs into astrocytes, miR-326, miR-330, and miR-3099 levels in KO NSCs were also lower than those in WT NSCs. Furthermore, mimics of all three miRNAs increased expression of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) during differentiation of KO NSCs, but inhibitors of these miRNAs decreased GFAP expression in WT NSCs. Moreover, these miRNAs increased the translational efficacy of GFAP through the 3'-UTR of GFAP mRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that PINK1 deficiency reduce expression levels of miR-326, miR-330 and miR-3099, which may regulate GFAP expression during NSC differentiation and brain development. PMID:26924929

  13. Differential modulation of resistance biomarkers in skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha by the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    PubMed

    Braden, Laura M; Barker, Duane E; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile pink salmon larger than 0.7 g reject the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and are considered resistant to the infection. Robust innate defense responses in the skin contribute to the observed resistance. In contrast adult pink salmon captured at sea or shortly before spawning carry large numbers of the parasite, suggesting inability to control the infection. The purpose of this research is to better understand these apparently contradictory conclusions by comparing a suite of genetic and cellular markers of resistance to L. salmonis in the skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon. The expression of major histocompatibility factor II, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1β, interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 was down-regulated in mature but not juvenile pink salmon. Similarly, skin at the site of parasite attachment in juvenile salmon was highly populated with MHIIβ(+) and IL-1β(+) cells that were either absent, or at reduced levels at similar sites in mature salmon. In addition, mucocyte density was relatively low in the skin of mature salmon, irrespective of louse infection. In juveniles, the higher mucocyte density decreased following louse attachment. We show that in mature pink salmon, genetic and histological responses in skin are depressed and speculate that salmonid defense against L. salmonis is modulated by maturation.

  14. Abnormal Development of Glutamatergic Synapses Afferent to Dopaminergic Neurons of the Pink1−/− Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pearlstein, Edouard; Michel, François J.; Save, Laurène; Ferrari, Diana C.; Hammond, Constance

    2016-01-01

    In a preceding study, we showed that in adult pink1−/− mice, a monogenic animal model of Parkinson’s disease (PD), striatal neurons display aberrant electrical activities that precede the onset of overt clinical manifestations. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the maturation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the pink1−/− substantia nigra compacta (SNc) follows, from early stages on, a different developmental trajectory from age-matched wild type (wt) SNc DA neurons. We used immature (postnatal days P2–P10) and young adult (P30–P90) midbrain slices of pink1−/− mice expressing the green fluorescent protein in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons. We report that the developmental sequence of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) is altered in pink1−/− SNc DA neurons, starting from shortly after birth. They lack the transient episode of high NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal activity characteristic of the immature stage of wt SNc DA neurons. The maturation of the membrane resistance of pink1−/− SNc DA neurons is also altered. Collectively, these observations suggest that electrical manifestations occurring shortly after birth in SNc DA neurons might lead to dysfunction in dopamine release and constitute an early pathogenic mechanism of PD. PMID:27445695

  15. PINK1 Deficiency Decreases Expression Levels of mir-326, mir-330, and mir-3099 during Brain Development and Neural Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Insup; Woo, Joo Hong; Jou, Ilo; Joe, Eun-Hye

    2016-02-01

    PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) is a Parkinson's disease (PD) gene. We examined miRNAs regulated by PINK1 during brain development and neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation, and found that lvels of miRNAs related to tumors and inflammation were different between 1-day-old-wild type (WT) and PINK1-knockout (KO) mouse brains. Notably, levels of miR-326, miR-330 and miR-3099, which are related to astroglioma, increased during brain development and NSC differentiation, and were significantly reduced in the absence of PINK1. Interestingly, in the presence of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which pushes differentiation of NSCs into astrocytes, miR-326, miR-330, and miR-3099 levels in KO NSCs were also lower than those in WT NSCs. Furthermore, mimics of all three miRNAs increased expression of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) during differentiation of KO NSCs, but inhibitors of these miRNAs decreased GFAP expression in WT NSCs. Moreover, these miRNAs increased the translational efficacy of GFAP through the 3'-UTR of GFAP mRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that PINK1 deficiency reduce expression levels of miR-326, miR-330 and miR-3099, which may regulate GFAP expression during NSC differentiation and brain development.

  16. Early marine growth of pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal gulf of Alaska during years of low and high survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, A.D.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Myers, K.W.; Moss, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Although early marine growth has repeatedly been correlated with overall survival in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of smolt-to-adult survival. Smolt-to-adult survival of pink salmon O. gorbuscha returning to Prince William Sound was lower than average for juveniles that entered marine waters in 2001 and 2003 (3% in both years), and high for those that entered the ocean in 2002 (9%) and 2004 (8%). We used circulus patterns from scales to determine how the early marine growth of juvenile pink salmon differed (1) seasonally during May-October, the period hypothesized to be critical for survival; (2) between years of low and high survival; and (3) between hatchery and wild fish. Juvenile pink salmon exhibited larger average size, migrated onto the continental shelf and out of the sampling area more quickly, and survived better during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003. Pink salmon were consistently larger throughout the summer and early fall during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003, indicating that larger, faster-growing juveniles experienced higher survival. Wild juvenile pink salmon were larger than hatchery fish during low-survival years, but no difference was observed during high-survival years. Differences in size among years were determined by some combination of growing conditions and early mortality, the strength of which could vary significantly among years. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  17. Asymmetrical cross-resistance between Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in pink bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Unnithan, Gopalan C.; Masson, Luke; Crowder, David W.; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests and can reduce reliance on insecticide sprays. Sustainable use of such crops requires methods for delaying evolution of resistance by pests. To thwart pest resistance, some transgenic crops produce 2 different Bt toxins targeting the same pest. This “pyramid” strategy is expected to work best when selection for resistance to 1 toxin does not cause cross-resistance to the other toxin. The most widely used pyramid is transgenic cotton producing Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Cross-resistance between these toxins was presumed unlikely because they bind to different larval midgut target sites. Previous results showed that laboratory selection with Cry1Ac caused little or no cross-resistance to Cry2A toxins in pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), a major cotton pest. We show here, however, that laboratory selection of pink bollworm with Cry2Ab caused up to 420-fold cross-resistance to Cry1Ac as well as 240-fold resistance to Cry2Ab. Inheritance of resistance to high concentrations of Cry2Ab was recessive. Larvae from a laboratory strain resistant to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in diet bioassays survived on cotton bolls producing only Cry1Ac, but not on cotton bolls producing both toxins. Thus, the asymmetrical cross-resistance seen here does not threaten the efficacy of pyramided Bt cotton against pink bollworm. Nonetheless, the results here and previous evidence indicate that cross-resistance occurs between Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in some key cotton pests. Incorporating the potential effects of such cross-resistance in resistance management plans may help to sustain the efficacy of pyramided Bt crops. PMID:19581574

  18. Isolation of an arsenate-respiring bacterium from a redox front in an arsenic-polluted aquifer in West Bengal, Bengal Basin.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Thomas H; McArthur, John M; Sikdar, Pradip K; Santini, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Natural pollution of groundwater by arsenic adversely affects the health of tens of millions of people worldwide, with the deltaic aquifers of SE Asia being particularly polluted. The pollution is caused primarily by, or as a side reaction of, the microbial reduction of sedimentary Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides, but the organism(s) responsible for As release have not been isolated. Here we report the first isolation of a dissimilatory arsenate reducer from sediments of the Bengal Basin in West Bengal. The bacterium, here designated WB3, respires soluble arsenate and couples its reduction to the oxidation of acetate; WB3 is therefore implicated in the process of arsenic pollution of groundwater, which is largely by arsenite. The bacterium WB3 is also capable of reducing dissolved Fe(III) citrate, solid Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, and elemental sulfur, using acetate as the electron donor. It is a member of the Desulfuromonas genus and possesses a dissimilatory arsenate reductase that was identified using degenerate polymerase chain reaction primers. The sediment from which WB3 was isolated was brown, Pleistocene sand at a depth of 35.2 m below ground level (mbgl). This level was some 3 cm below the boundary between the brown sands and overlying reduced, gray, Holocene aquifer sands. The color boundary is interpreted to be a reduction front that releases As for resorption downflow, yielding a high load of labile As sorbed to the sediment at a depth of 35.8 mbgl and concentrations of As in groundwater that reach >1000 μg/L.

  19. The Pink and White Terraces of Lake Rotomahana: what was their fate after the 1886 Tarawera Rift eruption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ronde, C. E. J.; Fornari, D. J.; Ferrini, V. L.; Walker, S. L.; Davy, B. W.; LeBlanc, C.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Kukulya, A. L.; Littlefield, R. H.

    2016-03-01

    The Pink and White Terraces that once stood regally on the shores of old Lake Rotomahana, and which were unique in their beauty as a natural wonder of the world, were regarded by the local Māori as a taonga, or treasure, because of the therapeutic qualities of the waters and their majestic appearance. The eruption of Mt. Tarawera on June 10, 1886 is commonly cited as the cause of their demise, with the lake rapidly rising soon thereafter to drown the large, newly formed Rotomahana crater and other volcanic edifices shaped during the excavation of the old lake. Thus, the effects of the eruption have been masked from onlookers for more than 125 years. However, application of state-of-the-art survey techniques usually applied in the marine realm to modern Lake Rotomahana, including AUV surveys with numerous sensors, seismic profiling, water column surveys and deployment of deep sea cameras, has provided a wealth of new information about the state of hydrothermal systems in the lake and the probable fortunes of the Pink and White Terraces. We believe that the majority of both sets of terraces were destroyed during the eruption. However, some tantalizing evidence remains for remnants from both sites to exist to this day. High-resolution bathymetric mapping of the lake floor clearly recognizes some features of the post-1886 landscape, including a prominent landmark known as The Pinnacle. If we accept the postulated location of The Pinnacle on a pre-1886 map of Lake Rotomahana, then we appear to have captured a photograph of one of the buttresses to a tier of the nearby White Terraces. More revealing, are side-scan sonar images of structures located in the correct position of the Pink Terraces with respect to The Pinnacle, albeit ~ 20 m deeper than expected if the pre-1886 lake level of 292 m above sea level is to be believed. This work clearly shows that the greater Pink Terraces hydrothermal system survived the eruption and is very active today, whereas that part of

  20. Exudativory in the Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Tripura, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Swapna, N; Radhakrishna, Sindhu; Gupta, Atul K; Kumar, Ajith

    2010-02-01

    In this study we estimated the extent of exudativory in Nycticebus bengalensis and examined whether exudates can be considered as fallback foods. This study was carried out in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, northeastern India, in winter (December-February) and summer (March and April). We estimated time-activity budget using instantaneous sampling and used continuous focal animal sampling to record all instances and durations of feeding, over a total of 177 hr. Feeding accounted for 22.3+/-2.2% of the activity budget, with no seasonal difference. Bengal slow lorises fed on exudates, nectar, fruit, bark, invertebrates and avian eggs. In addition to scraping they also obtained exudates by gouging holes into the bark of trees. In winter, lorises almost exclusively fed on exudates (94.3% of winter feeding time). In summer, exudates (67.3%) and nectar from one species (22.3%) dominated the diet. This study identifies the Bengal slow loris as the most exudativorous loris. Exudates rather than being a staple fallback food, seem to be a preferred, patchily distributed and common food in the diet of the Bengal slow loris. Exudativory in this species is characterized by high selectivity among species and seasonal variation, which may be related to variations in productivity of exudates and their chemical composition. An understanding of these factors is necessary for predicting the response of this species to human disturbance such as logging. This study also underscores the importance of protecting some of the common species such as Terminalia belerica on which the loris feeds during periods of scarcity.

  1. Prevalence of dry eye diseases in hospital-based population in West Bengal, Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Basak, Samar K; Pal, Partha Pratim; Basak, Soham; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Choudhury, Sumit; Sar, Suchanda

    2012-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of dry eye diseases in general clinical ophthalmic practice in a hospital-based population in West Bengal, Eastern India, a cross-sectional study was undertaken among 3023 subjects with the age of > or = 30 years, attending general ophthalmic clinic in a tertiary eye hospital. Demographics, detailed history and 6-items McMonnies' dry eye questionnaire were asked. Tear film break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer-I test, Rose Bengal (RB) staining, slit lamp examination and Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) were studied. Dry eye diseases were significantly higher in women than in men ie, 51.9% versus 48.1% (p < 0.01). Symptom-based dry eye (one or more symptoms present often or most of the time) was diagnosed in 1234 subjects (40.8%). With symptoms and at least one sign [TBUT < 10 seconds, RB staining (van Bjisterveld score: 4 or more) and Schirmer-I test = 5 mm in 5 minutes], the prevalence of dry eye was 786 (26%). Different grades of MeibOmian gland dysfunction (MGD) were detected in 957 cases (31.7%). Primary Sjogren syndrome was found in 21.5%; and 10.9% patients of dry eye had some form of systemic collagen vascular disorders. Using computers was not a risk factor in this geographical area. No significant correlation was seen between significant symptoms and positive signs in the study population. The prevalence of dry eye disease is high in West Bengal, Eastern India in hospital-based population. The risk is higher with age, female gender, systemic collagen diseases and with oral antidepressant/anxiolytic medication. Meibomian gland dysfunction is found to be common among dry eye subjects.

  2. Hypertension in chronic arsenic exposure: A case control study in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Guha Mazumder, Debendra; Purkayastha, Ishanikar; Ghose, Aloke; Mistry, Goutom; Saha, Chandan; Nandy, Ashoke K; Das, Arabinda; Majumdar, Kunal K

    2012-01-01

    Various systemic manifestations are reported to be caused by chronic arsenic exposure in the population living in the Indo-Bangladesh subcontinent. This study from West Bengal assesses the likelihood of occurrence of hypertension (HTN) in individuals resident in an area of high groundwater contamination with arsenic (Nadia district) compared to those from a non-contaminated area (Hoogly district) in West Bengal, India. Two hundred and eight study participants (Group 1) were recruited from a cross-sectional study in six villages in the Nadia district and 100 controls (Group 2) from a village in the Hoogly district. The two groups were evenly matched in regard to age and sex. History taking and clinical examination including blood pressure measurement were undertaken in each participant. Water samples from current and previous drinking water sources and hair and urine samples from each participant were collected for estimation of arsenic. The present study shows evidence of increased association of HTN in individuals resident in arsenic endemic region compared to those from a non-endemic region in West Bengal. There were increased odds ratios for HTN [Adjusted Odds Ratio, OR, 2.87 (95 %CI = 1.26-4.83)] in Group- 1 participants compared to Group- 2 people. Within Group 1, there was no difference in prevalence of HTN between those with and without skin lesion. There was a dose-effect relationship seen with increasing cumulative arsenic exposure and arsenic level in hair and HTN in participants living in arsenic endemic region.The findings reported here support an association between arsenic exposure and HTN. More work is needed to characterize the link further.

  3. The background state leading to arsenic contamination of Bengal basin groundwater.

    PubMed

    Adel, Miah M

    2005-12-01

    The Bengal basin has the world's densest water diversion constructions on the natural courses of rivers. The most damaging water diversion construction is the Farakka Barrage upon the international River Ganges. The diversion of water through this barrage and other constructions upstream of it has reduced the Ganges flow rate by 2.5 times. The resulting downstream effects are the depletion of surface water resources, more withdrawal than recharge of groundwater, sinking groundwater table, spread in depth and extension of the vadose zone, changes in surface features, climatic changes, etc. An investigation was carried out to find the contributions of water diversion to the arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Bengal basin. The reasonable scenario for arsenic contamination is the oxygen deficiency in groundwater and aeration of arsenopyrites buried in the sediment that would remain under water prior to 1975. The mineral forms water-soluble compounds of arsenic when react with atmospheric oxygen. These soluble arsenic compounds infiltrates to the groundwater. This article summarizes the short-time and incomplete study-based quick conclusions reached by investigators that have totally avoided the vital issue of water diversion. It then shows the depleting condition of the water resources under continuing diversions, the generation of favorable condition for arsenic release, the reasons for low sulfur concentration, the reason for first contamination in the Hugly basin, and the hindrance to water's self-purification. The articles advocates that the restoration of the virgin wetland ecosystems in the Bengal basin following the stoppage of the inordinate amount of unilateral upstream water withdrawals can remove the catastrophe.

  4. Sea level budget in the Bay of Bengal (2002-2014) from GRACE and altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusche, J.; Uebbing, B.; Rietbroek, R.; Shum, C. K.; Khan, Z. H.

    2016-02-01

    Sea level rise is perceived as a major threat to the densely populated coast of the Bay of Bengal. Addressing future rise requires understanding the present-day sea level budget. Using a novel method and data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite, we partition altimetric sea level rise (6.1 mm/a over 2002-2014) into mass and steric components. We find that current mass trends in the Bay of Bengal are slightly above global mean, while steric trends appear much larger: 2.2-3.1 mm/a if we disregard a residual required to close the budget, and 4.3-4.6 mm/a if, as an upper bound, we attribute this residual entirely to steric expansion. Our method differs from published approaches in that it explains altimetry and GRACE data in a least squares inversion, while mass anomalies are parameterized through gravitationally self-consistent fingerprints, and steric expansion through EOFs. We validate our estimates by comparing to Argo and modeling for the Indian Ocean, and by comparing total water storage change (TWSC) for the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins to the conventional GRACE approach. We find good agreement for TWSC, and reasonable agreement for steric heights, depending on the ocean region and Argo product. We ascribe differences to weaknesses of the Argo data, but we also find the inversion to be to some extent sensitive with respect to the EOFs. Finally, combining our estimates with CMIP5-simulations, we estimate that Bay of Bengal absolute sea level may rise for additional 37 cm under the RCP4.5 scenario and 40 cm under RCP8.5 until 2050, with respect to 2005.

  5. Role of cyclonic eddy in enhancing primary and new production in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvind; Gandhi, Naveen; Ramesh, R.; Prakash, S.

    2015-03-01

    Eddies can be important in sustaining primary production in the tropical oceans, but their role for nutrient cycling is poorly understood in the under-sampled northern Indian Ocean. To assess the role of cyclonic eddies in enhancing primary production, measurements of primary production were carried out at four stations in the northern Bay of Bengal during the early winter 2007, around a cyclonic eddy close to 17.8°N, 87.5°E. Shallowing of the thermocline and halocline by 10 m was observed within the eddy compared to the surroundings; mixed layer depth was also reduced within the eddy. The highest surface productivity (2.71 μM C d- 1) and chlorophyll a (0.18 μg L- 1) were found within the eddy, and the lowest, at its outer edge. Further, the eddy supplied nutrients to the surface layers, shallowing the subsurface chlorophyll maximum as well. Integrated production in the euphotic top layers was more than twice within the eddy compared to its outer edge, confirming the role of cyclonic eddies in enhancing the primary production in the otherwise less productive Bay of Bengal. Given new nitrogen input via vertical mixing, river discharge or aerosol deposition, the additional primary production due to this new nutrient input and its contribution to the total production (f-ratio, fraction of exportable organic matter) increased significantly from 0.4 to 0.7, and thus the Bay of Bengal can potentially transfer a high fraction of its total production to the deep, assisted by eddies. We suggest possible improvements in experiments for future studies, and the potential for assessing the role of eddies in biogeochemistry.

  6. A Study of Correlation Between Clinical and Histopathological Findings of Erythroderma in North Bengal Population

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Swarup; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Erythroderma is a reaction pattern characterized by erythema and desquamation of 90% or more body surface area along with some metabolic alterations. Materials and Methods: Here we studied 32 patients of erythroderma at of North Bengal Medical College for a period of 1 year to find the etiology, clinical features and histological changes. Detailed history was taken from all the patients followed by relevant biochemical investigations and histological examination. To correlate the clinical and histopathological findings chi square test was used. Results: Male preponderance was present and most of them were in the 4th or 5th decade. Etiologically the patients were divided into secondary erythroderma developing over pre-existing dermatoses, and idiopathic erythroderma. Secondary erythroderma (n = 24) cases outnumbered the idiopathic cases (n = 8). Among the pre-existing dermatoses, psoriasis was found to be the most common etiologic agent. Apart from erythema the other common presenting features were scaling and itching. Histopathological categorization was possible in 59.3% cases, rest of the cases showed non-specific dermatitis. The most common histopathologic diagnosis was psoriasis (21.8% of cases). Conclusions: Our study of clinicopathological correlation of erythroderma patients among north bengal population corroborates with most of the previous studies done in other areas. As ours is a cross-sectional study in a undefined population so we could not determine the true incidence of erythroderma in north bengal population. We might have missed lymphoma as a cause of erythroderma in idiopathic cases due to lack of long follow-up, so we understand that further studies over a defined population with long follow-up is needed to determine the true incidence and causes of idiopathic erythroderma. PMID:26677266

  7. Visceral smooth muscle α-actin deficiency associated with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a Bengal cat (Felis catus x Prionailurus bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Imai, D M; Miller, J L; Leonard, B C; Bach, J; Drees, R; Steinberg, H; Teixeira, L B C

    2014-05-01

    An adult Bengal cat (Felis catus × Prionailurus bengalensis) with a prolonged history of partial anorexia, regurgitation, and weight loss and a clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic diagnosis of persistent megaesophagus and gastrointestinal ileus was submitted for necropsy. The intestinal tract was diffusely distended by gas and fluid with appreciable loss of muscle tone and an absence of luminal obstruction, consistent with the clinical history of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Histologically, the autonomic nervous system was intact, but the smooth muscle within the gastrointestinal wall exhibited a marked basophilia that was most pronounced in the jejunum. Immunohistochemistry for neurofilament, synaptophysin, CD117, and desmin demonstrated that the number of myenteric ganglia, number of interstitial cells, and leiomyocyte desmin content were similar when compared with the unaffected age- and species-matched control. Immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle α-actin demonstrated a striking loss of immunoreactivity, predominantly in the circular layer of the jejunum, that corresponded with the tinctorial change in leiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of myofibrils, loss of organelle polarity, and significantly larger central mitochondria (megamitochondria) in affected leiomyocytes, as well as nonspecific degenerative changes. Although the presence of a primary leiomyopathy and a causal relationship could not be confirmed in this case, leiomyopathies are considered a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in human medicine, and loss of smooth muscle α-actin immunoreactivity is one recognized marker for intestinal dysmotility. PMID:23774747

  8. Visceral smooth muscle α-actin deficiency associated with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a Bengal cat (Felis catus x Prionailurus bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Imai, D M; Miller, J L; Leonard, B C; Bach, J; Drees, R; Steinberg, H; Teixeira, L B C

    2014-05-01

    An adult Bengal cat (Felis catus × Prionailurus bengalensis) with a prolonged history of partial anorexia, regurgitation, and weight loss and a clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic diagnosis of persistent megaesophagus and gastrointestinal ileus was submitted for necropsy. The intestinal tract was diffusely distended by gas and fluid with appreciable loss of muscle tone and an absence of luminal obstruction, consistent with the clinical history of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Histologically, the autonomic nervous system was intact, but the smooth muscle within the gastrointestinal wall exhibited a marked basophilia that was most pronounced in the jejunum. Immunohistochemistry for neurofilament, synaptophysin, CD117, and desmin demonstrated that the number of myenteric ganglia, number of interstitial cells, and leiomyocyte desmin content were similar when compared with the unaffected age- and species-matched control. Immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle α-actin demonstrated a striking loss of immunoreactivity, predominantly in the circular layer of the jejunum, that corresponded with the tinctorial change in leiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of myofibrils, loss of organelle polarity, and significantly larger central mitochondria (megamitochondria) in affected leiomyocytes, as well as nonspecific degenerative changes. Although the presence of a primary leiomyopathy and a causal relationship could not be confirmed in this case, leiomyopathies are considered a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in human medicine, and loss of smooth muscle α-actin immunoreactivity is one recognized marker for intestinal dysmotility.

  9. Distribution of trace metals in surface seawater and zooplankton of the Bay of Bengal, off Rushikulya estuary, East Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Srichandan, Suchismita; Panigrahy, R C; Baliarsingh, S K; Rao B, Srinivasa; Pati, Premalata; Sahu, Biraja K; Sahu, K C

    2016-10-15

    Concentrations of trace metals such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), vanadium (V), and selenium (Se) were determined in seawater and zooplankton from the surface waters off Rushikulya estuary, north-western Bay of Bengal. During the study period, the concentration of trace metals in seawater and zooplankton showed significant spatio-temporal variation. Cu and Co levels in seawater mostly remained non-detectable. Other elements were found at higher concentrations and exhibited marked variations. The rank order distribution of trace metals in terms of their average concentration in seawater was observed as Fe>Ni>Mn>Pb>As>Zn>Cr>V>Se>Cd while in zooplankton it was Fe>Mn>Cd>As>Pb>Ni>Cr>Zn>V>Se. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Fe was highest followed by Zn and the lowest value was observed with Ni. Results of correlation analysis discerned positive affinity and good relationship among the majority of the trace metals, both in seawater and zooplankton suggesting their strong affinity and coexistence. PMID:27394636

  10. Caudal cervical disc protrusion in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, N E; Berry, W L

    2000-09-01

    A young adult male white Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with hindlimb ataxia. Cervical and lumbar myelography revealed a compressive lesion of the cord at C(6-7). Corticosteroid therapy and confinement failed to provide lasting remission of signs. A modified, inverted cone ventral slot decompression was used to remove the fibrous material causing cord compression at C(6-7). Temporary Horner's syndrome and laryngeal paresis developed postsurgically because of excessive tissue retraction. The animal recovered normal ambulatory function 6 wk after surgery.

  11. Estrus synchronization and fertility behavior in Black Bengal goats following either progesterone or prostaglandin treatment.

    PubMed

    Ishwar, A K; Pandey, J N

    1990-11-01

    Thirty-six Black Bengal female goats were in the study. They were divided into three groups of 12 goats each. Group I served as the control, Group II was treated with progesterone, Group III was administered prostaglandin F2alpha. There was 100% estrus synchronization in the PGF2alpha treated group and 90% in the progesterone treated group. The total number of kids produced in the PGF2 alpha treated group was 15 followed by 12 in the progesterone - treated group and 6 in the control group. The gestation length was found to be similar in all three groups. PMID:16726900

  12. Inbreeding effects on palmar dermatoglyphic characters in three endogamous social groups of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Banik, S Datta

    2014-02-01

    The present study reports inbreeding effects on mean palmar dermatoglyphic characteristics: triradial count on palm, maximal atd angle, adt angle, td ridge count, ab ridge count, main line index (MLI) and ab ridge breadth. Samples were drawn from adult males belonging to three endogamous sections representing Hindu caste Telaga of Kharagpur (West Midnapore), Ansari Muslims of Nandigram (East Midnapore) and Sheik-Sunni Muslims of Braddhaman in West Bengal, India. Consistent trend of higher mean triradial number, adt angle, and lower mean td ridge count, ab ridge count, and ab ridge breadth was observed in inbred sections compared to their non-inbred relatives in three social groups. PMID:24182450

  13. Panel of polymorphic heterologous microsatellite loci to genotype critically endangered Bengal tiger: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sudhanshu; Singh, Sujeet Kumar; Munjal, Ashok Kumar; Aspi, Jouni; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2014-01-01

    In India, six landscapes and source populations that are important for long-term conservation of Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) have been identified. Except for a few studies, nothing is known regarding the genetic structure and extent of gene flow among most of the tiger populations across India as the majority of them are small, fragmented and isolated. Thus, individual-based relationships are required to understand the species ecology and biology for planning effective conservation and genetics-based individual identification has been widely used. But this needs screening and describing characteristics of microsatellite loci from DNA from good-quality sources so that the required number of loci can be selected and the genotyping error rate minimized. In the studies so far conducted on the Bengal tiger, a very small number of loci (n = 35) have been tested with high-quality source of DNA, and information on locus-specific characteristics is lacking. The use of such characteristics has been strongly recommended in the literature to minimize the error rate and by the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) for forensic purposes. Therefore, we describe for the first time locus-specific genetic and genotyping profile characteristics, crucial for population genetic studies, using high-quality source of DNA of the Bengal tiger. We screened 39 heterologous microsatellite loci (Sumatran tiger, domestic cat, Asiatic lion and snow leopard) in captive individuals (n = 8), of which 21 loci are being reported for the first time in the Bengal tiger, providing an additional choice for selection. The mean relatedness coefficient (R = -0.143) indicates that the selected tigers were unrelated. Thirty-four loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from 2 to 7 per locus, and the remaining five loci were monomorphic. Based on the PIC values (> 0.500), and other characteristics, we suggest that 16 loci (3 to 7 alleles) be used for genetic

  14. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Taraphdar, D; Roy, B K; Chatterjee, S

    2015-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS) due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  15. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of thoracic chordoma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Iseri, Toshie; Shimizu, Junichiro; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Kusuda, Kayo; Hayashi, Akiyoshi; Mie, Keiichiro; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji; Fujimoto, Yuka; Ohashi, Fumihito

    2015-07-01

    A Bengal tiger was presented for evaluation of weakness, ataxia and inappetance. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass extending from the T7-8 vertebral body to the left rib and compressing the spinal cord. On CT, the bone destruction and sequestrum were shown. On MRI, the multilobulated mass appeared hypo- to isointense in T1-weighted and hyperintense in T2-weighted images. The tiger died after imaging, most likely from renal failure. Chordoma without metastasis was diagnosed on necropsy. The imaging characteristics were similar to those found in chordoma in humans. This report describes the use of CT and MRI in an exotic species.

  16. Channa andrao, a new species of dwarf snakehead from West Bengal, India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    PubMed

    Britz, Ralf

    2013-10-30

    Channa andrao, new species, from Lefraguri swamp, West Bengal, India, differs from all its congeners except, C. asiatica, C. bleheri and C. burmanica and the recently described C. hoaluensis and C. ninhbinhensis by the absence of pelvic fins. It can be distinguished from all other pelvic fin-less species of snakeheads by its colour pattern, and differs further in its number of vertebrae, dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and lateral-line scales from individual snakehead species in this complex. Channa andrao raises the number of snakehead species endemic to the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot to ten, representing almost one third of the known species in the genus.

  17. Panel of polymorphic heterologous microsatellite loci to genotype critically endangered Bengal tiger: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sudhanshu; Singh, Sujeet Kumar; Munjal, Ashok Kumar; Aspi, Jouni; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2014-01-01

    In India, six landscapes and source populations that are important for long-term conservation of Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) have been identified. Except for a few studies, nothing is known regarding the genetic structure and extent of gene flow among most of the tiger populations across India as the majority of them are small, fragmented and isolated. Thus, individual-based relationships are required to understand the species ecology and biology for planning effective conservation and genetics-based individual identification has been widely used. But this needs screening and describing characteristics of microsatellite loci from DNA from good-quality sources so that the required number of loci can be selected and the genotyping error rate minimized. In the studies so far conducted on the Bengal tiger, a very small number of loci (n = 35) have been tested with high-quality source of DNA, and information on locus-specific characteristics is lacking. The use of such characteristics has been strongly recommended in the literature to minimize the error rate and by the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) for forensic purposes. Therefore, we describe for the first time locus-specific genetic and genotyping profile characteristics, crucial for population genetic studies, using high-quality source of DNA of the Bengal tiger. We screened 39 heterologous microsatellite loci (Sumatran tiger, domestic cat, Asiatic lion and snow leopard) in captive individuals (n = 8), of which 21 loci are being reported for the first time in the Bengal tiger, providing an additional choice for selection. The mean relatedness coefficient (R = -0.143) indicates that the selected tigers were unrelated. Thirty-four loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from 2 to 7 per locus, and the remaining five loci were monomorphic. Based on the PIC values (> 0.500), and other characteristics, we suggest that 16 loci (3 to 7 alleles) be used for genetic

  18. Caudal cervical disc protrusion in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, N E; Berry, W L

    2000-09-01

    A young adult male white Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with hindlimb ataxia. Cervical and lumbar myelography revealed a compressive lesion of the cord at C(6-7). Corticosteroid therapy and confinement failed to provide lasting remission of signs. A modified, inverted cone ventral slot decompression was used to remove the fibrous material causing cord compression at C(6-7). Temporary Horner's syndrome and laryngeal paresis developed postsurgically because of excessive tissue retraction. The animal recovered normal ambulatory function 6 wk after surgery. PMID:11237151

  19. RGB marking facilitates multicolor clonal cell tracking.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristoffer; Thomaschewski, Michael; Warlich, Michael; Volz, Tassilo; Cornils, Kerstin; Niebuhr, Birte; Täger, Maike; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Pollok, Jörg-Matthias; Stocking, Carol; Dandri, Maura; Benten, Daniel; Fehse, Boris

    2011-04-01

    We simultaneously transduced cells with three lentiviral gene ontology (LeGO) vectors encoding red, green or blue fluorescent proteins. Individual cells were thereby marked by different combinations of inserted vectors, resulting in the generation of numerous mixed colors, a principle we named red-green-blue (RGB) marking. We show that lentiviral vector-mediated RGB marking remained stable after cell division, thus facilitating the analysis of clonal cell fates in vitro and in vivo. Particularly, we provide evidence that RGB marking allows assessment of clonality after regeneration of injured livers by transplanted primary hepatocytes. We also used RGB vectors to mark hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that generated colored spleen colonies. Finally, based on limiting-dilution and serial transplantation assays with tumor cells, we found that clonal tumor cells retained their specific color-code over extensive periods of time. We conclude that RGB marking represents a useful tool for cell clonality studies in tissue regeneration and pathology. PMID:21441917

  20. Early detection of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton in China: cotton bollworm and pink bollworm.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming; Wu, Yidong

    2012-07-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some major insect pests, but pests can evolve resistance and thereby reduce the effectiveness of such Bt crops. The main approach for slowing pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, several countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. This strategy is designed for cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), which attacks many crops and is the primary target of Bt cotton in China, but it does not apply to pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we review evidence of field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by cotton bollworm in northern China and by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. For both pests, results of laboratory diet bioassays reveal significantly decreased susceptibility of field populations to Cry1Ac, yet field control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported. The early detection of resistance summarized here may spur countermeasures such as planting Bt cotton that produces two or more distinct toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton.

  1. Hyperexcitable substantia nigra dopamine neurons in PINK1- and HtrA2/Omi-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Matthew W; Chakraborty, Subhojit; Matthews, Gillian A C; Dougalis, Antonios; Wood, Nicholas W; Festenstein, Richard; Ungless, Mark A

    2010-12-01

    The electrophysiological properties of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) dopamine neurons can influence their susceptibility to degeneration in toxin-based models of Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that excitotoxic and/or hypoactive mechanisms may be engaged during the early stages of the disease. It is unclear, however, whether the electrophysiological properties of SNC dopamine neurons are affected by genetic susceptibility to PD. Here we show that deletion of PD-associated genes, PINK1 or HtrA2/Omi, leads to a functional reduction in the activity of small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels. This reduction causes SNC dopamine neurons to fire action potentials in an irregular pattern and enhances burst firing in brain slices and in vivo. In contrast, PINK1 deletion does not affect firing regularity in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons or substantia nigra pars reticulata GABAergic neurons. These findings suggest that changes in SNC dopamine neuron excitability may play a role in their selective vulnerability in PD. PMID:20926611

  2. Cold-induced responses in annual bluegrass genotypes with differential resistance to pink snow mold (Microdochium nivale).

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Annick; Castonguay, Yves; Azaiez, Aïda; Hsiang, Tom; Dionne, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Greens-type annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is susceptible to winter stresses including subfreezing temperatures and pink snow mold (SM). To better understand the mechanisms of SM resistance in annual bluegrass, four SM-resistant and four SM-sensitive genotypes were incubated at low temperature with Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett, the causal agent of pink snow mold. We assessed the impact of a 6-week incubation period with SM at 2 °C under high humidity (≥ 98%) on the accumulation of cold-induced metabolites and on freezing tolerance. Incubation of annual bluegrass inoculated with SM lead to a major decrease in concentration of cryoprotective sugars such as sucrose and HDP (high degree of polymerization) fructans. Conversely, major amino acids linked to stress resistance such as glutamine and arginine increased in crowns of annual bluegrass in response to SM inoculation. One of the major differences between resistant and sensitive genotypes was found in the concentration of HDP fructans, which remained higher in SM-resistant genotypes throughout the incubation period. HDP fructans were also more abundant in freeze-tolerant genotypes, reinforcing their positive impact on winter survival of annual bluegrass. The identification of genotypes that are resistant to both SM and freezing shows the possibility of being able to improve both traits concomitantly.

  3. The Impact of Weather on Women’s Tendency to Wear Red or Pink when at High Risk for Conception

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Jessica L.; Beall, Alec T.

    2014-01-01

    Women are particularly motivated to enhance their sexual attractiveness during their most fertile period, and men perceive shades of red, when associated with women, as sexually attractive. Building on this research, we recently found that women are more likely to wear reddish clothing when at peak fertility (Beall & Tracy, 2013), presumably as a way of increasing their attractiveness. Here, we first report results from a methodological replication, conducted during warmer weather, which produced a null effect. Investigating this discrepancy, we considered the impact of a potentially relevant contextual difference between previous research and the replication: current weather. If the red-dress effect is driven by a desire to increase one’s sexual appeal, then it should emerge most reliably when peak-fertility women have few alternative options for accomplishing this goal (e.g., wearing minimal clothing). Results from re-analyses of our previously collected data and a new experiment support this account, by demonstrating that the link between fertility and red/pink dress emerges robustly in cold, but not warm, weather. Together, these findings suggest that the previously documented red-dress effect is moderated by current climate concerns, and provide further evidence that under certain circumstances red/pink dress is reliably associated with female fertility. PMID:24586414

  4. AF-6 is a positive modulator of the PINK1/parkin pathway and is deficient in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Haskin, Joseph; Szargel, Raymonde; Shani, Vered; Mekies, Lucy N.; Rott, Ruth; Lim, Grace G. Y.; Lim, Kah-Leong; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Wolosker, Herman; Engelender, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Parkin E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity and its role in mitochondria homeostasis are thought to play a role in Parkinson's disease (PD). We now report that AF-6 is a novel parkin interacting protein that modulates parkin ubiquitin-ligase activity and mitochondrial roles. Parkin interacts with the AF-6 PDZ region through its C-terminus. This leads to ubiquitination of cytosolic AF-6 and its degradation by the proteasome. On the other hand, endogenous AF-6 robustly increases parkin translocation and ubiquitin-ligase activity at the mitochondria. Mitochondrial AF-6 is not a parkin substrate, but rather co-localizes with parkin and enhances mitochondria degradation through PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy. On the other hand, several parkin and PINK1 juvenile disease-mutants are insensitive to AF-6 effects. AF-6 is present in Lewy bodies and its soluble levels are strikingly decreased in the caudate/putamen and substantia nigra of sporadic PD patients, suggesting that decreased AF-6 levels may contribute to the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria in the disease. The identification of AF-6 as a positive modulator of parkin translocation to the mitochondria sheds light on the mechanisms involved in PD and underscores AF-6 as a novel target for future therapeutics. PMID:23393160

  5. Cold-induced responses in annual bluegrass genotypes with differential resistance to pink snow mold (Microdochium nivale).

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Annick; Castonguay, Yves; Azaiez, Aïda; Hsiang, Tom; Dionne, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Greens-type annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is susceptible to winter stresses including subfreezing temperatures and pink snow mold (SM). To better understand the mechanisms of SM resistance in annual bluegrass, four SM-resistant and four SM-sensitive genotypes were incubated at low temperature with Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett, the causal agent of pink snow mold. We assessed the impact of a 6-week incubation period with SM at 2 °C under high humidity (≥ 98%) on the accumulation of cold-induced metabolites and on freezing tolerance. Incubation of annual bluegrass inoculated with SM lead to a major decrease in concentration of cryoprotective sugars such as sucrose and HDP (high degree of polymerization) fructans. Conversely, major amino acids linked to stress resistance such as glutamine and arginine increased in crowns of annual bluegrass in response to SM inoculation. One of the major differences between resistant and sensitive genotypes was found in the concentration of HDP fructans, which remained higher in SM-resistant genotypes throughout the incubation period. HDP fructans were also more abundant in freeze-tolerant genotypes, reinforcing their positive impact on winter survival of annual bluegrass. The identification of genotypes that are resistant to both SM and freezing shows the possibility of being able to improve both traits concomitantly. PMID:21421353

  6. The pink gene encodes the Drosophila orthologue of the human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5 (HPS5) gene.

    PubMed

    Syrzycka, Monika; McEachern, Lori A; Kinneard, Jennifer; Prabhu, Kristel; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen; Schulze, Sandra; Rawls, John M; Lloyd, Vett K; Sinclair, Donald A R; Honda, Barry M

    2007-06-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) consists of a set of human autosomal recessive disorders, with symptoms resulting from defects in genes required for protein trafficking in lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes and platelet dense granules. A number of human HPS genes and rodent orthologues have been identified whose protein products are key components of 1 of 4 different protein complexes (AP-3 or BLOC-1, -2, and -3) that are key participants in the process. Drosophila melanogaster has been a key model organism in demonstrating the in vivo significance of many genes involved in protein trafficking pathways; for example, mutations in the "granule group" genes lead to changes in eye colour arising from improper protein trafficking to pigment granules in the developing eye. An examination of the chromosomal positioning of Drosophila HPS gene orthologues suggested that CG9770, the Drosophila HPS5 orthologue, might correspond to the pink locus. Here we confirm this gene assignment, making pink the first eye colour gene in flies to be identified as a BLOC complex gene. PMID:17632576

  7. Coded wire tag recoveries from pink salmon in Prince William sound salmon fisheries, 1993. Restoration project 93067. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharr, S.; Peckham, C.J.; Sharp, D.G.; Evans, D.G.; Bue, B.G.

    1995-11-01

    Coded wire tags applied to pink salmon fry in 1992 at four hatcheries in Prince William Sound were recovered in the commercial catch of 1993 and used to provide inseason estimates of hatchery contributions. These estimates were used by fishery managers to target the numerically superior hatchery returns, and reduce the pressure on oil-damaged wild stocks. Inseason estimates were made in two stages. The postseason analysis revealed that of a catch of 3.51 million pink salmon, 1.12 million were estimated to be of wild origin.

  8. Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Nath, Bibhash; Alexanderson, Helena; Kundu, Amit K; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

    2014-07-01

    To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (~70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <9.51 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 μg/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84×10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65×10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 μg/L and 1mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8×10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines. PMID:24704952

  9. Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Nath, Bibhash; Alexanderson, Helena; Kundu, Amit K; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

    2014-07-01

    To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (~70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <9.51 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 μg/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84×10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65×10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 μg/L and 1mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8×10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines.

  10. The potential for giant tsunamigenic earthquakes in the northern Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Phil R

    2007-09-01

    The great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 came as a surprise to most of the earth science community. Although it is now widely recognized that the risk of another giant earthquake is high off central Sumatra, just east of the 2004 earthquake, there seems to be relatively little concern about the subduction zone to the north, in the northern Bay of Bengal along the coast of Myanmar. Here I show that similar indicators suggest a high potential for giant earthquakes along the coast of Myanmar. These indicators include the tectonic environment, which is similar to other subduction zones that experience giant megathrust earthquakes, stress and crustal strain observations, which indicate that the seismogenic zone is locked, and historical earthquake activity, which indicates that giant tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred there in the past. These are all consistent with active subduction in the Myanmar subduction zone and I suggest that the seismogenic zone extends beneath the Bengal Fan. I conclude therefore that giant earthquakes probably occur off the coast of Myanmar, and that a large and vulnerable population is thereby exposed to a significant earthquake and tsunami hazard.

  11. The Potential for Giant Tsunamigenic Earthquakes in the Northern Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, P. R.

    2007-12-01

    The Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 came as a surprise to most of the earth science community. While it is now widely recognised that the risk of another giant earthquake is high off central Sumatra, just east of the 2004 earthquake, there seems to be relatively little concern about the subduction zone to the north, in the northern Bay of Bengal along the coast of Myanmar. It is shown here that similar indicators suggest the potential for giant earthquake activity is high: (1) the tectonic environment is similar to other subduction zones that experience giant megathrust earthquakes; (2) stress and crustal strain observations indicate the seismogenic zone is locked; and, (3) historical earthquake activity indicates that giant tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred in the past. These are all consistent with active subduction in the Myanmar subduction zone, and it is hypothesized here that the seismogenic zone there extends beneath the Bengal Fan. The results suggest that giant earthquakes do occur off the coast of Myanmar, and that a very large and vulnerable population is thereby exposed to a significant earthquake and tsunami hazard.

  12. Current status of seawater quality in Digha (India), northwestern coast of the Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Pitchaikani, J Selvin; Kadharsha, K; Mukherjee, Subrat

    2016-07-01

    The present investigation was intended to assess the seawater quality of Digha (India) in the northwestern coast of the Bay of Bengal. Digha is a meso-tidal coastal plain located between two major estuarine systems, i.e. Subarnarekha and Hooghly located respectively on the western and eastern sides of the West Bengal along the northeast coast of India. The sampling was made at nine stations at various distances. Significant seasonal variations in environmental parameters and nutrients were observed during the study period. Analyses of physicochemical characteristics of the study area indicated that the level of dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total dissolved solid (TDS) and nutrients is within the permissible limit. The results clearly revealed that, though sewage discharge takes place in the coastal waters, the quality of the water was not affected. It may be due to the large quantity of estuarine water input from the Hooghly estuarine system that have enhanced dilution of discharged sewage in Digha coastal waters. Strong tidal activities, wave dynamics and coastal current further dilute the effluent water in the study area, resulting to the minimised sewage effect on coastal ecosystem. Further studies on the heavy metal concentration and benthic diversity can be assessed to understand the health of the ecosystem. PMID:27251220

  13. Curcumin protects DNA damage in a chronically arsenic-exposed population of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Jaydip; Sinha, Dona; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Roy, Soumi; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Roy, Madhumita

    2010-06-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination has been a health hazard for West Bengal, India. Oxidative stress to DNA is recognized as an underlying mechanism of arsenic carcinogenicity. A phytochemical, curcumin, from turmeric appears to be potent antioxidant and antimutagenic agent. DNA damage prevention with curcumin could be an effective strategy to combat arsenic toxicity. This field trial in Chakdah block of West Bengal evaluated the role of curcumin against the genotoxic effects of arsenic. DNA damage in human lymphocytes was assessed by comet assay and fluorescence-activated DNA unwinding assay. Curcumin was analyzed in blood by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Arsenic induced oxidative stress and elucidation of the antagonistic role of curcumin was done by observation on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl. Antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathioneS-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and non-enzymatic glutathione were also analyzed. The blood samples of the endemic regions showed severe DNA damage with increased levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation. The antioxidants were found with depleted activity. Three months curcumin intervention reduced the DNA damage, retarded ROS generation and lipid peroxidation and raised the level of antioxidant activity. Thus curcumin may have some protective role against the DNA damage caused by arsenic.

  14. Establishment and cryopreservation of a fibroblast cell line derived from Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Guan, W J; Liu, C Q; Li, C Y; Liu, D; Zhang, W X; Ma, Y H

    2010-01-01

    The Bengal tiger ear marginal tissue fibroblasts cell line (BTF22), containing 157 tubes of frozen cells, was successfully established by using primary explants technique and cell cryoconservation technology. Biological analysis showed that the population doubling time (PDT) for revival cells was approximately 28 h. Measurement of LDH and MDH isoenzymes showed no cross-contamination among the cells. Karyotyping showed that the frequency of cells with chromosome number 2n = 38 was 90.6-92.2%. Tests for bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycoplasma were negative. Plasmids encoding the fluorescent proteins pEGFP-N3, pEGFP-C1, pECFP-N1, pECFP-mito, pDsRed1-N1, and pEYFP-N1 were transfected into cells to study exogenous gene expression in the cells. The plasmid transfection efficiency was between 4.4% and 31.9%. Every index of the BTF22 cell line meets all the standard quality controls of American type Culture Collection (ATCC). Not only has the germline of this important Bengal tiger species been preserved at the cell level, but also valuable material had been provided for genome, postgenome and somacloning research. Moreover, the establishment of this technical platform would provide both technical and theoretical support for storing the genetic resources of other animals and poultry at the cell level.

  15. Characterization of an Early-Onset, Autosomal Recessive, Progressive Retinal Degeneration in Bengal Cats

    PubMed Central

    Ofri, Ron; Reilly, Christopher M.; Maggs, David J.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Good, Kathryn L.; Grahn, Robert A.; Splawski, Danielle D.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A form of retinal degeneration suspected to be hereditary was discovered in a family of Bengal cats. A breeding colony was established to characterize disease progression clinically, electrophysiologically, and morphologically, and to investigate the mode of inheritance. Methods Affected and related cats were donated by owners for breeding trials and pedigree analysis. Kittens from test and complementation breedings underwent ophthalmic and neuro-ophthalmic examinations and ERG, and globes were evaluated using light microscopy. Results Pedigree analysis, along with test and complementation breedings, indicated autosomal recessive inheritance and suggested that this disease is nonallelic to a retinal degeneration found in Persian cats. Mutation analysis confirmed the disease is not caused by CEP290 or CRX variants found predominantly in Abyssinian and Siamese cats. Ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal degeneration were noted at 9 weeks of age and became more noticeable over the next 4 months. Visual deficits were behaviorally evident by 1 year of age. Electroretinogram demonstrated reduced rod and cone function at 7 and 9 weeks of age, respectively. Rod responses were mostly extinguished at 14 weeks of age; cone responses were minimal by 26 weeks. Histologic degeneration was first observed at 8 weeks, evidenced by reduced photoreceptor numbers, then rapid deterioration of the photoreceptor layer and, subsequently, severe outer retinal degeneration. Conclusions A recessively inherited primary photoreceptor degeneration was characterized in the Bengal cat. The disease is characterized by early onset, with histologic, ophthalmoscopic, and electrophysiological signs evident by 2 months of age, and rapid progression to blindness. PMID:26258614

  16. Rose Bengal Photothrombosis by Confocal Optical Imaging In Vivo: A Model of Single Vessel Stroke.

    PubMed

    Talley Watts, Lora; Zheng, Wei; Garling, R Justin; Frohlich, Victoria C; Lechleiter, James Donald

    2015-01-01

    In vivo imaging techniques have increased in utilization due to recent advances in imaging dyes and optical technologies, allowing for the ability to image cellular events in an intact animal. Additionally, the ability to induce physiological disease states such as stroke in vivo increases its utility. The technique described herein allows for physiological assessment of cellular responses within the CNS following a stroke and can be adapted for other pathological conditions being studied. The technique presented uses laser excitation of the photosensitive dye Rose Bengal in vivo to induce a focal ischemic event in a single blood vessel. The video protocol demonstrates the preparation of a thin-skulled cranial window over the somatosensory cortex in a mouse for the induction of a Rose Bengal photothrombotic event keeping injury to the underlying dura matter and brain at a minimum. Surgical preparation is initially performed under a dissecting microscope with a custom-made surgical/imaging platform, which is then transferred to a confocal microscope equipped with an inverted objective adaptor. Representative images acquired utilizing this protocol are presented as well as time-lapse sequences of stroke induction. This technique is powerful in that the same area can be imaged repeatedly on subsequent days facilitating longitudinal in vivo studies of pathological processes following stroke. PMID:26131664

  17. Biogeochemical processes in the continental slope of Bay of Bengal: I. Bacterial solubilization of inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Das, Surajit; Lyla, P S; Khan, S Ajmal

    2007-03-01

    Microorganisms play a vital role in the biogeochemical cycles of various marine environments, but studies on occurrence and distribution of such bacteria in the marine environment from India are meager. We studied the phosphate solubilizing property of bacteria from the deep sea sediment of Bay of Bengal, India, to understand their role in phosphorous cycle (and thereby the benthic productivity of the deep sea environment). Sediment samples were obtained from 33 stations between 10 degrees 36'N-20 degrees 01' N and 79 degrees 59' E-87 degrees 30' E along 11 transects at 3 different depths i.e. ca. 200 m, 500 m, 1000 m in each transect. Total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) counts ranged from 0.42 to 37.38 x 10(4) CFU g(-1) dry sediment weight. Of the isolates tested, 7.57% showed the phosphate solubilizing property. The phosphate solubilizing bacterial genera were Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Vibrio, Alcaligenes, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium and Flavobacterium. These strains are good solubilizers of phosphates which ultimately may play a major role in the biogeochemical cycle and the benthic productivity of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Bay of Bengal, because this enzyme is important for the slow, but steady regeneration of phosphate and organic carbon in the deep sea. PMID:18457109

  18. Contrasting phytoplankton community structure and associated light absorption characteristics of the western Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandi, Sudarsana Rao; Kiran, Rayaprolu; Sarma, Nittala S.; Srikanth, A. S.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Krishna, M. S.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Prasad, V. R.; Acharyya, T.; Reddy, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption spectra, particulate pigments, and hydrochemical constituents were measured in the western Bay of Bengal (BoB) during July-August 2010 when influence of river discharge is at peak. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient (aCDOM(440)) displayed a significant inverse linear relationship with salinity in the surface waters implying conservative mixing of marine and terrestrial end members. The northern part of the study area is influenced by discharge from the river Ganga and a dominant terrestrial CDOM signal is seen. The southern part receives discharge from peninsular rivers with corresponding signals of higher CDOM than the linear model would indicate and higher UV-specific absorption coefficient (SUVA) indicating more aged and humified DOM. Lower contribution of CDOM to total non-water absorption and higher phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a absorption coefficient, aph(440)) but lower chlorophyll a specific phytoplankton absorption coefficient (a{ph/*}(440)) characterize the northern part, compared to the southern part. Chlorophyll b had a distinct linear relationship with chlorophyll a in the latter. The size index (SI) indicated dominance of microphytoplankton in the northern and nano and picophytoplankton in the southern parts. Chlorophyll a is significantly related to a{ph/*}(440) by an inverse power model in the northern part but by an inverse linear model in the southern part. Our study suggests that knowledge of the phytoplankton community structure is essential to improve chlorophyll a algorithm in the coastal Bay of Bengal.

  19. Role of metal-reducing bacteria in arsenic release from Bengal delta sediments.

    PubMed

    Islam, Farhana S; Gault, Andrew G; Boothman, Christopher; Polya, David A; Charnock, John M; Chatterjee, Debashis; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2004-07-01

    The contamination of ground waters, abstracted for drinking and irrigation, by sediment-derived arsenic threatens the health of tens of millions of people worldwide, most notably in Bangladesh and West Bengal. Despite the calamitous effects on human health arising from the extensive use of arsenic-enriched ground waters in these regions, the mechanisms of arsenic release from sediments remain poorly characterized and are topics of intense international debate. We use a microscosm-based approach to investigate these mechanisms: techniques of microbiology and molecular ecology are used in combination with aqueous and solid phase speciation analysis of arsenic. Here we show that anaerobic metal-reducing bacteria can play a key role in the mobilization of arsenic in sediments collected from a contaminated aquifer in West Bengal. We also show that, for the sediments in this study, arsenic release took place after Fe(III) reduction, rather than occurring simultaneously. Identification of the critical factors controlling the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic is one important contribution to fully informing the development of effective strategies to manage these and other similar arsenic-rich ground waters worldwide. PMID:15229598

  20. Controls on groundwater flow in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh: Regional modeling analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is produced primarily from shallow parts of the Bengal Basin aquifer system (India and Bangladesh), which contains high concentrations of dissolved arsenic (exceeding worldwide drinking water standards), though deeper groundwater is generally low in arsenic. An essential first step for determining sustainable management of the deep groundwater resource is identification of hydrogeologic controls on flow and quantification of basin-scale groundwater flow patterns. Results from groundwater modeling, in which the Bengal Basin aquifer system is represented as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity, indicate that this anisotropy is the primary hydrogeologic control on the natural flowpath lengths. Despite extremely low hydraulic gradients due to minimal topographic relief, anisotropy implies large-scale (tens to hundreds of kilometers) flow at depth. Other hydrogeologic factors, including lateral and vertical changes in hydraulic conductivity, have minor effects on overall flow patterns. However, because natural hydraulic gradients are low, the impact of pumping on groundwater flow is overwhelming; modeling indicates that pumping has substantially changed the shallow groundwater budget and flowpaths from predevelopment conditions. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.